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Sample records for infauna monitoring horns

  1. Georges Bank benthic infauna monitoring program. Final report for third year of sampling. Volume 2

    SciTech Connect

    Maciolek-Blake, N.; Grassle, J.F.; Neff, J.M.

    1985-04-15

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil- and gas-exploration activities on Georges Bank led to the initiation of a monitoring program in July 1981. The program included sampling of the benthic communities near, upcurrent, and downcurrent of the drilling rigs, analysis of bottom photographs for epifauna and microtopography, trawl collections, total organic carbon and sediment grain size analysis. Additional aspects of the program included a detailed life history analysis of 23 dominant species, and a study which linked fish feeding with benthic production. No biological impacts that could be attributed to drilling activities were detected at any station.

  2. Georges Bank benthic infauna monitoring program. Final report for third year of sampling. Volume 3. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Maciolek-Blake, N.; Grassle, J.F.; Neff, J.M.

    1985-04-15

    Concerns about the potential effects of oil- and gas-exploration activities on Georges Bank led to the initiation of a monitoring program in July 1981. The program included sampling of the benthic communities near, upcurrent, and downcurrent of the drilling rigs, analysis of bottom photographs for epifauna and microtopography, trawl collections, total organic carbon and sediment grain size analysis. Additional aspects of the program included a detailed life history analysis of 23 dominant species, and a study which linked fish feeding with benthic production. No biological impacts that could be attributed to drilling activities were detected at any station.

  3. Rehabilitation and water quality monitoring in the Golden Horn.

    PubMed

    Sur, H I; Okuş, E; Sarikay, H Z; Altiok, H; Eroğlu, V; Oztürk, I

    2002-01-01

    In this work, the oceanographic aspects of the Golden Horn and some results of the Golden Horn Rehabilitation Project are presented. The hydrographic structure of the Golden Horn responds rapidly to the conditions in the southern Bosphorus, which is especially true for the outer parts of the estuary up to the Valide Sultan Bridge (VS). West of this bridge which was blocked by the pontoons of the bridge, carries the major pollution load and is dependent on the underlying water and surface mixing, for its renewal. The dissolved oxygen concentrations were measured below the detection limit in the region between the VS and Eyüp-Sütlüce (ES) section during the majority of the measurement periods where H2S has been determined simultaneously until February 2000. Although the microbial contamination of the estuary stations is very high, decreases in the contamination at stations are observed. The highest concentrations are recorded at the ES-VS section and supported by Fecal Coliform data during the rainy months in general despite the operational collector system surrounding the estuary. An obvious decrease of pollution in comparison with the data of the previous years is clearly observed as an encouraging result of the rehabilitation efforts achieved so far.

  4. Drought monitoring over the Horn of Africa using remotely sensed evapotranspiration, soil moisture and vegetation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timmermans, J.; Gokmen, M.; Eden, U.; Abou Ali, M.; Vekerdy, Z.; Su, Z.

    2012-04-01

    The need to good drought monitoring and management for the Horn of Africa has never been greater. This ongoing drought is the largest in the past sixty years and is effecting the life of around 10 million people, according to the United Nations. The impact of drought is most apparent in food security and health. In addition secondary problems arise related to the drought such as large migration; more than 15000 Somalia have fled to neighboring countries to escape the problems caused by the drought. These problems will only grow in the future to larger areas due to increase in extreme weather patterns due to global climate change. Monitoring drought impact and managing the drought effects are therefore of critical importance. The impact of a drought is hard to characterize as drought depends on several parameters, like precipitation, land use, irrigation. Consequently the effects of the drought vary spatially and range from short-term to long-term. For this reason a drought event can be characterized into four categories: meteorological, agricultural, hydrological and socio-economical. In terms of food production the agricultural drought, or short term dryness near the surface layer, is most important. This drought is usually characterized by low soil moisture content in the root zone, decreased evapotranspiration, and changes in vegetation vigor. All of these parameters can be detected with good accuracy from space. The advantage of remote sensing in Drought monitoring is evident. Drought monitoring is usually performed using drought indices, like the Palmer Index (PDSI), Crop Moisture Index (CMI), Standard Precipitation Index (SPI). With the introduction of remote sensing several indices of these have shown great potential for large scale application. These indices however all incorporate precipitation as the main surface parameter neglecting the response of the surface to the dryness. More recently two agricultural drought indices, the EvapoTranspiration Deficit

  5. Monitoring the arsenic and iodine exposure of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep from the gestational and suckling periods to adulthood by using horns as a dietary archive.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Guilhem; Ouypornkochagorn, Sairoong; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2007-04-15

    Trace elements often accumulate in keratin-rich tissues. Hair, nails, and horns grow steadily but once formed are metabolically inactive and provide an archive of trace element exposure when analyzed in segments. Here we demonstrate the use of laser ablation ICP-MS for the high-resolution monitoring of trace elements in the horns of seaweed-eating sheep from North Ronaldsay, which live on grass only during lambing time. Due to this peculiar husbandry/dietary pattern and the fact that seaweed is rich in arsenic and iodine, we hoped to use iodine and arsenic as markers for seaweed ingestion. Cross sections and scans along the growing axis (representing the first 8-10 months of the sheep's life) revealed that these elements were not homogeneously distributed in the horn, with arsenic representing the amount of seaweed intake. The scans show the periods in which the lambs were fed on milk and grass and the change to seaweed ingestion with the successive replacement of milk with seaweed; this was supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures (delta13C and delta15N) of the horn and the arsenic speciation in the horn. The period of low arsenic accumulation in the horn had terrestrial isotope signatures and accumulated arsenic of mainly inorganic origin. The period of high arsenic accumulation was characterized by isotope signatures of marine origin, and the majority of accumulated arsenic in the horn was the main arsenosugar metabolite dimethylarsinic acid. Although we have investigated only four different horns of individual sheep, this study shows that arsenic is not significantly transported with milk. However, the high concentration of arsenic in the oldest part of the horn, which was formed in utero, points to a relatively high placental transport of arsenic while the ewe was eating seaweed. In contrast to arsenic, iodine is transported not only through milk ingestion but also through the placenta in large quantities.

  6. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  7. Monitoring Idaho fescue grasslands in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming, with a modified robel pole

    Treesearch

    Daniel W. Uresk; Thomas M. Juntti

    2008-01-01

    The reliability of monitoring visual obstruction and estimating standing herbage with a modified Robel pole was examined for high-elevation meadows in sedimentary soils on the Bighorn National Forest, Wyoming. Our objectives were to (1) test a modified pole graduated with 1.27-cm (0.5-inch) bands for estimating standing herbage based on linear regression of visual...

  8. Towards ecohydrological drought monitoring and prediction using a land data assimilation system: A case study on the Horn of Africa drought (2010-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sawada, Yohei; Koike, Toshio

    2016-07-01

    Despite the importance of the ecological and agricultural aspects of severe droughts, no drought monitoring and prediction framework based on a land data assimilation system (LDAS) has been developed to monitor and predict vegetation dynamics in the middle of droughts. In this study, we applied a LDAS that can simulate surface soil moisture, root-zone soil moisture, and vegetation dynamics to the Horn of Africa drought in 2010-2011 caused by the precipitation deficit in two consecutive rainy seasons. We successfully simulated the ecohydrological drought quantified by the model-estimated soil moistures and leaf area index (LAI). The root-zone soil moisture and LAI are good indicators of prolonged droughts because they reflect the long-term effects of past precipitation deficit. The precipitation deficit in 2010 significantly affected the land surface condition of the next rainy season in 2011, which indicated the importance of obtaining accurate initial soil moisture and LAI values for prediction of multiseasonal droughts. In addition, the general circulation model-based seasonal meteorological prediction showed good performance in predicting land surface conditions of the Horn of Africa drought.

  9. The mobilisation of sediment and benthic infauna by scallop dredges.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, F G; Robertson, M; Summerbell, K; Breen, M; Robinson, L A

    2013-09-01

    We present the results of experiments to assess the immediate impact of scallop dredging on the seabed sediment and on the inhabiting infauna. The passage of the scallop dredge is shown to homogenise the seabed, flattening sand ripples. The turbulent wake entrains up to the equivalent of a 1 mm layer of sediment per unit of swept width, although an analysis of the finer particles material implies that the suspended silt material must originate from depths of at least 10 mm. The species most abundant in the sediment plume either swim actively in the water column or are found in, or on, the upper layers of the substrate, whereas those most abundant in core samples taken from the sediment, but not present in the net samples, are almost all tube-building or deep burrowing. The vertical stratification of sediment concentration and of animal numbers in the water column suggests that even if some of these species respond actively to the presence of the dredge, once entrained, they are transported more or less passively in the same way as the larger sediment particles. There was no difference between the core samples taken before or after towing suggesting that animals mobilised by the dredge resettle in the tow path. Our analysis does not provide any information regarding the fate of these animals. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Site-specific growth of Au-Pd alloy horns on Au nanorods: a platform for highly sensitive monitoring of catalytic reactions by surface enhancement Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jianfeng; Zhu, Yihan; Lin, Ming; Wang, Qingxiao; Zhao, Lan; Yang, Yang; Yao, Ke Xin; Han, Yu

    2013-06-12

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a highly sensitive probe for molecular detection. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient platform for investigating the kinetics of catalytic reactions with SERS. To achieve this, we synthesized a novel Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructure (HIF-AuNR@AuPd) through site-specific epitaxial growth of Au-Pd alloy horns as catalytic sites at the ends of Au nanorods. Using high-resolution electron microscopy and tomography, we successfully reconstructed the complex three-dimensional morphology of HIF-AuNR@AuPd and identified that the horns are bound with high-index {11l} (0.25 < l < 0.43) facets. With an electron beam probe, we visualized the distribution of surface plasmon over the HIF-AuNR@AuPd nanorods, finding that strong longitudinal surface plasmon resonance concentrated at the rod ends. This unique crystal morphology led to the coupling of high catalytic activity with a strong SERS effect at the rod ends, making HIF-AuNR@AuPd an excellent bifunctional platform for in situ monitoring of surface catalytic reactions. Using the hydrogenation of 4-nitrothiophenol as a model reaction, we demonstrated that its first-order reaction kinetics could be accurately determined from this platform. Moreover, we clearly identified the superior catalytic activity of the rod ends relative to that of the rod bodies, owing to the different SERS activities at the two positions. In comparison with other reported Au-Pd bimetallic nanostructures, HIF-AuNR@AuPd offered both higher catalytic activity and greater detection sensitivity.

  11. Vertical distribution of benthic infauna in continental slope sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.

    The vertical distribution of 30 species of benthic infauna from continental slope (583-3000 m) sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina was closely correlated with feeding types. Carnivores, omnivores, filter feeders, and surface deposit feeders were mostly concentrated in the upper 0-2 cm of the cores. The depth distribution of subsurface deposit feeders was more variable, even among related taxa.

  12. Size Matters: The Contribution of Mega-Infauna to the Food ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Large-bodied, invertebrates are common to infaunal communities of NE Pacific estuaries (e.g., bivalves, polychaetes, burrowing shrimps), but their contribution to the ecological structure, function and ecosystem services of most estuaries has been poorly characterized because they are difficult to sample and quantify. In a study of Yaquina estuary (Oregon) food webs, particular effort was made to quantify intertidal and subtidal mega-infauna using suction-excavated 40-cm diameter corers in addition to conventional sampling of macro-infauna. Additionally, the abundance and biomass of all floral and other faunal guilds (except microbial and mammalian guilds) were directly quantified or estimated from published studies, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopes were measured for abundant species, and inverse analysis was used to generate models of carbon flow within food webs of the lower and upper reaches of Yaquina estuary. Benthic invertebrates dominated the biomass and respiration among faunal guilds in both estuarine reaches, whereas biomass and respiration of birds and fish were two orders-of-magnitude smaller. Mega-infauna, particularly intertidal burrowing shrimps and bivalves, constituted most of the benthic invertebrate biomass, respiration and secondary production in both reaches, although only a small fraction of the total infaunal abundance. Mega-infauna were dominant consumers of phytoplankton, major contributors of carbon to sediment organic matter, a

  13. Monitoring the effects of natural and anthropogenic habitat disturbance on the ecology and behavior of the San Diego coast horned lizard (Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillei)

    Treesearch

    Tandora D. Grant; Allison C. Alberts

    2005-01-01

    The sage scrub communities in which San Diego coast horned lizards (Phrynosoma coronatum blainvillei) typically occur are now restricted to only 10 to 15 percent of their former range and are currently subject to rapidly accelerating rates of loss. As a result of urban and agricultural development, pesticide use, collecting for the pet trade, off-...

  14. The Ram's Horn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers";…

  15. Horns as particle velocity amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri M; Cray, Benjamin A

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary measurements and numerical predictions reveal that simple, and relatively small, horns generate remarkable amplification of acoustic particle velocity. For example, below 2 kHz, a 2.5 cm conical horn has a uniform velocity amplification ratio (throat-to-mouth) factor of approximately 3, or, in terms of a decibel level, 9.5 dB. It is shown that the velocity amplification factor depends on the horn's mouth-to-throat ratio as well as, though to a lesser degree, the horn's flare rate. A double horn configuration provides limited additional gain, approximately an increase of up to 25%.

  16. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  17. Finline Horn Antennas.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-09-01

    is also given to my second reader, Professor H.M. Lee, for his suggestions on the microstrip to coaxial cable transition for the monopulse comparator...consideranly larger radiating aperture, a highly directive radiation pattern can be achieved. This type of antenna is called an electromagnetic horn. 12...receiver modules are required, as in a pnased array or multichannel direction finding system. B. HELAIED WORK 1. likjA-Fiel Aten Tstn Near-iield antenna

  18. Van Horn folio, Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Richardson, G.B.

    1914-01-01

    The Van Horn quadrangle is situated in EL Paso and Culberson counties, Tex., about 100 miles southeast of El Paso.  It is bounded by parallels 31° and 31° 30' and meridians 104° 30' and 105° and incluedes 1019 square miles.  This area lies within the Cordilleran region, about midway between Peco River and teh Rio Grande, and forms a part of what is known as trans-Pecos Texas.  

  19. Benthic infauna variability in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants in tropical coastal lagoons from the northern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kuk-Dzul, J Gabriel; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ardisson, P-L

    2012-12-01

    We examine the abundance and species composition variability of benthic infauna from tropical coastal lagoons in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants. Sediment samples were collected at 40 sites in four lagoons in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. A total of 7985 individuals belonging to 173 species were sampled. While the eastern lagoons were dominated by polychaetes, the western ones were dominated by crustaceans. Overall, polychaetes had the highest abundance (48%), followed by crustaceans (42%). According to canonical correspondence analysis, species attributes were correlated with water salinity, pH and temperature, but also with sediment pentachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some pollutants exceeded sediment quality guidelines, representing a potential environmental risk to benthic infauna. Together, environmental factors and pollutants explained 52% of the variance in abundance and species composition among sites. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Multi-mode horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A horn has an input aperture and an output aperture, and comprises a conductive inner surface formed by rotating a curve about a central axis. The curve comprises a first arc having an input aperture end and a transition end, and a second arc having a transition end and an output aperture end. When rotated about the central axis, the first arc input aperture end forms an input aperture, and the second arc output aperture end forms an output aperture. The curve is then optimized to provide a mode conversion which maximizes the power transfer of input energy to the Gaussian mode at the output aperture.

  1. Stacked Corrugated Horn Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief describes a method of machining and assembly when the depth of corrugations far exceeds the width and conventional machining is not practical. The horn is divided into easily machined, individual rings with shoulders to control the depth. In this specific instance, each of the corrugations is identical in profile, and only differs in diameter and outer profile. The horn is segmented into rings that are cut with an interference fit (zero clearance with all machining errors biased toward contact). The interference faces can be cut with a reverse taper to increase the holding strength of the joint. The taper is a compromise between the interference fit and the clearance of the two faces during assembly. Each internal ring is dipped in liquid nitrogen, then nested in the previous, larger ring. The ring is rotated in the nest until the temperature of the two parts equalizes and the pieces lock together. The resulting assay is stable, strong, and has an internal finish that cannot be achieved through other methods.

  2. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  3. Ancient celtic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Murray

    2002-11-01

    There is considerable evidence from iconographic and documentary sources that musical lip-reed instruments were important in the early celtic communities of Scotland and Ireland. In recent years several studies have been undertaken with the aim of gaining a better understanding of the musical nature of these ancient horns, and of their place in the life and culture of the time. A valuable source of tangible evidence is to be found in the archaeological remains deposited across Scotland and the whole of Ireland. A project is now under way, under the auspices of the Kilmartin House Trust and the general direction of John Purser, which has brought together an international team of musicians, craftsmen, archaeologists, musicologists and physicists with the aim of analyzing ancient musical artifacts, reconstructing some of the original instruments, and analyzing the sounds they produce. This paper describes acoustical studies carried out on a number of recent reconstructions of wooden and bronze instruments, and discusses the role of acoustics in this type of investigation. [Work supported by Sciart and EPSRC.

  4. Predation of intertidal infauna on juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiddink, J. G.; ter Hofstede, R.; Wolff, W. J.

    2002-03-01

    Juveniles of the bivalve Macoma balthica live on tidal flats in the Wadden Sea. This study examined the interaction of Macoma with the infaunal polychaetes Arenicola marina and Nereis diversicolor and the gastropod Retusa obtusa. The distribution of M. balthica spat on the flats, shortly after settlement in April, showed a positive correlation with the Arenicola distribution and a negative correlation with Nereis distribution. There were no locations where Macoma spat and Retusa occurred together. In August, Macoma spat had grown too large for predation by intertidal infauna. Small individuals of Macoma spat were found in stomachs of Arenicola (0.14 worm -1) and Nereis (0.05 worm -1). Laboratory experiments showed that Nereis and Retusa could reduce Macoma spat abundance, both in the absence and presence of sediment and alternative prey. Arenicola reduced the abundance of small Macoma (<1 mm) in sediment without, but not with, alternative prey. In field experiments, we manipulated the density of Arenicola in 0.25-1 m 2 plots and of Nereis in 0.03 m 2 cages and examined the effect on Macoma density several weeks later. We found a significant negative relation between densities of polychaetes and Macoma spat for both polychaete species in these experimental plots. Peculiarly, we found a significant positive relation between manipulated Nereis density and adult Macoma density in the cages; we cannot explain this. Consumption rates, calculated both from stomach contents and from field experiments, were 45 to 102 Macoma m -2 d -1 for Arenicola and 5 to 116 Macoma m -2 d -1 for Nereis. These values are higher than recorded consumption rates by epibenthic predators in the same area. Nevertheless, between-year differences in year-class strength could not be explained by differential abundance of these polychaetes. In conclusion, Arenicola and Nereis had a negative effect on the abundance of Macoma <1.5 mm, which was at least partly caused by direct consumption. Retusa

  5. Successful outcome in preeclamptic rudimentary horn pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Ruchi; Sachan, Shikha; Khanna, Anuradha

    2011-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with rudimentary horn is an uncommon type of mullerian duct malformation associated with various gynecological and obstetrical complications. Rudimentary horn pregnancy is a rare entity and the majority have rupture of gravid horn leading to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. A case of rudimentary horn pregnancy at 32 weeks and 6 days with pregnancy induced hypertension is reported where proper management results in successful pregnancy outcome.

  6. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  7. Effects of infauna harvesting on tidal flats of a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, Portugal): implications on phosphorus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Falcão, M; Caetano, M; Serpa, D; Gaspar, M; Vale, C

    2006-03-01

    The systematic collection of benthic organisms in tidal flats of coastal lagoons should be taken into account for the management of these systems, once sediment disturbance affects biogeochemical processes by favouring pore water renewal during tidal inundation. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of infauna harvesting on the phosphorus dynamics of muddy and sandy intertidal areas in the Ria Formosa. Sediment cores and overlying water were collected during August 2000 and February 2001 from reworked and undisturbed sediment before and after flooding. Results obtained showed that during the first minutes of flooding there was a marked decrease of phosphate in pore water of disturbed sediments. However, phosphate tidal fluxes from sandy sediment were clearly higher (17 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in summer and 3 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in winter) than in muddy sediment (0.4 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in summer and -0.01 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in winter). After muddy sediment disturbance concentrations of iron oxides increased quickly (from 5 to 16 micromol g(-1)) and phosphate was sorbed onto these iron oxides, resulting in a buffering of phosphate pore water concentrations at low values in the oxidized sediment zone. The estimated P-output from muddy sediment decreased one to two orders of magnitude after sediment disturbance in contrast to sandy sediments in which the impact of infauna harvesting was minimal. Consequently, the P-cycle is influenced by the disruption of muddy habitats in tide-driven systems. Such information could be useful for the management of the lagoon.

  8. Folded Resonant Horns for Power Ultrasonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Askins, Stephen; Gradziel, Michael; Bao, Xiaoqi; Chang, Zensheu; Dolgin, Benjamin; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Peterson, Tom

    2003-01-01

    Folded horns have been conceived as alternatives to straight horns used as resonators and strain amplifiers in power ultrasonic systems. Such systems are used for cleaning, welding, soldering, cutting, and drilling in a variety of industries. In addition, several previous NASA Tech Briefs articles have described instrumented drilling, coring, and burrowing machines that utilize combinations of sonic and ultrasonic vibrational actuation. The main advantage of a folded horn, relative to a straight horn of the same resonance frequency, is that the folded horn can be made shorter (that is, its greatest linear dimension measured from the outside can be made smaller). Alternatively, for a given length, the resonance frequency can be reduced. Hence, the folded-horn concept affords an additional degree of design freedom for reducing the length of an ultrasonic power system that includes a horn.

  9. Novel Horn Designs for Power Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, M.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic horns are used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. At JPL a rock-sampling tool based on an ultrasonic horn was developed to drill, abrade and core rock samples including hard basalts. This device is an impact device, which uses ultrasonic vibratlons that occur at the horn tip to produce a sonic resonance with the aid of a loosely connected mass. Although standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from a few key limitations when used for USDC applications. Manufacturing a horn requires turning down stock material (e.g. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, and this process is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper, we present novel horn designs that are specifically designed for impact applications as the USDC. One such design addressed the excasive length that is involved with the use of the horn limiting its applications when system dimensions are constrained. For this purpose, a folded horn design was conceived that reduces the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintains or increases the acoustic length. Initial experiments with horns having such P design indicate that the tip displacement can be further adjusted by phasing the bending displacements and the extensional displacements. Another conceived horn design is the 'dog bone' horn that uses an end mass on the horn tip io increase the impact efficiency of the horn. In this paper, the experimental results for these novel born designs are presented and compared to the results predicted by theory.

  10. Novel Horn Designs for Power Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, M.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic horns are used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. At JPL a rock-sampling tool based on an ultrasonic horn was developed to drill, abrade and core rock samples including hard basalts. This device is an impact device, which uses ultrasonic vibratlons that occur at the horn tip to produce a sonic resonance with the aid of a loosely connected mass. Although standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from a few key limitations when used for USDC applications. Manufacturing a horn requires turning down stock material (e.g. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, and this process is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper, we present novel horn designs that are specifically designed for impact applications as the USDC. One such design addressed the excasive length that is involved with the use of the horn limiting its applications when system dimensions are constrained. For this purpose, a folded horn design was conceived that reduces the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintains or increases the acoustic length. Initial experiments with horns having such P design indicate that the tip displacement can be further adjusted by phasing the bending displacements and the extensional displacements. Another conceived horn design is the 'dog bone' horn that uses an end mass on the horn tip io increase the impact efficiency of the horn. In this paper, the experimental results for these novel born designs are presented and compared to the results predicted by theory.

  11. Multifrequency broadband polarized horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, K. A. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    A corrugated conical horn antenna is simultaneously fed a multiplicity of signals, two for each of five frequencies, with each of a pair of signals fed in each of two orthogonal planes for excitation of a desired spherical hybrid mode. The lowest frequency is fed into the horn through orthogonal pairs of colinear slots, each pair being fed by coaxial tee power dividers. Other signals are fed through a circular waveguide connected to the vertex. The highest frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports near the far end of the circular waveguide. The intermediate frequency signals are fed through orthogonal ports spaced along the waveguide. Filtering is incorporated for each to maintain isolation and low insertion loss.

  12. SIW Based Wideband Horn Antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Amit, Dr.; Vala, Alpesh; Goswami, Riddhi; Mahant, Keyur

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, we have proposed CSRR (complementary split ring resonator) loaded Substrate Integrated Waveguide (SIW) horn antenna. The whole system is designed on a single substrate, having advantages of small size, low profile, and low cost, etc. The design process and simulation results of a CSRR-loaded SIW horn antenna at K-band and Ka-band are presented. The proposed antenna is an outstanding choice for K, Ka bands and even higher frequency synthesis. It has well-behaved gain and suitable reflection coefficient value less than 1.5 (-10dB S11 and VSWR<1.5). The simulated gain of antenna attains 7.48±1dB over majority of the bandwidth and with radiation efficiency of 85%. The simulation has been done using full-wave package, High Frequency Structure Simulator Software (HFSS) based on Finite element method (FEM).

  13. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  14. Multi-mode horn antenna simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.; Wolf, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation patterns were computed for a circular multimode horn antenna using waveguide electric field radiation expressions. The circular multimode horn was considered as a possible reflector feed antenna for the Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR). This horn antenna uses a summation of the TE sub 11 deg and TM sub 11 deg modes to generate far field primary radiation patterns with equal E and H plane beamwidths and low sidelobes. A computer program for the radiation field expressions using the summation of waveguide radiation modes is described. The sensitivity of the multimode horn antenna radiation patterns to phase variations between the two modes is given. Sample radiation pattern calculations for a reflector feed horn for LAMMR are shown. The multimode horn antenna provides a low noise feed suitable for radiometric applications.

  15. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  16. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  17. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  18. Temporal patterns of Deepwater Horizon impacts on the benthic infauna of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope.

    PubMed

    Reuscher, Michael G; Baguley, Jeffrey G; Conrad-Forrest, Nathan; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L; Lewis, Christopher; Montagna, Paul A; Ricker, Robert W; Rohal, Melissa; Washburn, Travis

    2017-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in spring and summer 2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Research cruises in 2010 (approximately 2-3 months after the well had been capped), 2011, and 2014 were conducted to determine the initial and subsequent effects of the oil spill on deep-sea soft-bottom infauna. A total of 34 stations were sampled from two zones: 20 stations in the "impact" zone versus 14 stations in the "non-impact" zone. Chemical contaminants were significantly different between the two zones. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons averaged 218 ppb in the impact zone compared to 14 ppb in the non-impact zone. Total petroleum hydrocarbons averaged 1166 ppm in the impact zone compared to 102 ppm in the non-impact zone. While there was no difference between zones for meiofauna and macrofauna abundance, community diversity was significantly lower in the impact zone. Meiofauna taxa richness over the three sampling periods averaged 8 taxa/sample in the impact zone, compared to 10 taxa/sample in the non-impact zone; and macrofauna richness averaged 25 taxa/sample in the impact zone compared to 30 taxa/sample in the non-impact zone. Oil originating from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill reached the seafloor and had a persistent negative impact on diversity of soft-bottom, deep-sea benthic communities. While there are signs of recovery for some benthic community variables, full recovery has not yet occurred four years after the spill.

  19. Horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans L., overwintering

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Putative diapause in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), has frequently been assumed as the pest's mode for overwinter survival from the tropics to temperate regions of northern and southern hemispheres. Examination of the scientific literature indicates that putative horn fly diapause ...

  20. Rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 31 week.

    PubMed

    Al Qarni, Abdullah A; Al-Braikan, Nawal; Al-Hanbali, Moh'd M; Alharmaly, Abdullah H

    2017-02-01

    Rudimentary horn could be a rare congenital uterine anomalies result from incomplete fusion of the two Müllerian ducts throughout embryo-genesis. Pregnancy in an exceedingly rudimentary horn is rare and typically terminates in rupture throughout the late of first or second trimester of pregnancy. We tend to present a rare case of a gravida within the trimester (31 weeks) presented with complain of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomit for 3 days. On presentation, the patient was pale and irritable. Ultrasound scan showed fetus at (30 weeks) with cardiac activity. Cardiotocography reactive. Incision showed horned uterus with pregnancy in rudimentary left horn that was ruptured. Alive fetus was delivered. The rudimentary left horn was excised. The patient was advised to not get pregnant for 3 years. Within one year, the patient came to hospital in active labor at (37 weeks). This case emphasizes the importance of fine antepartum care to avoid morbidity and mortality.

  1. Rupture rudimentary horn pregnancy at 31 week

    PubMed Central

    Al Qarni, Abdullah A.; Al-Braikan, Nawal; Al-Hanbali, Moh’d M.; Alharmaly, Abdullah H.

    2017-01-01

    Rudimentary horn could be a rare congenital uterine anomalies result from incomplete fusion of the 2 Müllerian ducts throughout embryo-genesis. Pregnancy in an exceedingly rudimentary horn is rare and typically terminates in rupture throughout the late of first or second trimester of pregnancy. We tend to present a rare case of a gravida within the trimester (31 weeks) presented with complain of abdominal pain, nausea, and vomit for 3 days. On presentation, the patient was pale and irritable. Ultrasound scan showed fetus at (30 weeks) with cardiac activity. Cardiotocography reactive. Incision showed horned uterus with pregnancy in rudimentary left horn that was ruptured. Alive fetus was delivered. The rudimentary left horn was excised. The patient was advised to not get pregnant for 3 years. Within one year, the patient came to hospital in active labor at (37 weeks). This case emphasizes the importance of fine antepartum care to avoid morbidity and mortality. PMID:28133695

  2. Horn growth patterns in Alpine chamois.

    PubMed

    Corlatti, Luca; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Imperio, Simona

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of horn growth may provide important information about the allocation of metabolic resources to secondary sexual traits. Depending on the selective advantages offered by horn size during intra- and inter-specific interactions, ungulates may show different investment in horn development, and growth variations within species may be influenced by several parameters, such as sex, age, or resource availability. We investigated the horn growth patterns in two hunted populations of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) in the Central Italian Alps. We tested the role of individual heterogeneity on the growth pattern and explored the variation in annulus length as a function of different factors (sex, age, hunting location, cohort). We then investigated the mechanisms underlying horn growth trajectories to test for the occurrence of compensatory or recovery growth and their potential differences between sexes and populations. Annulus length varied as a function of sex, age of individuals and, marginally, hunting location; no effect of cohort or individual heterogeneity was detected. Male and female chamois showed compensatory horn growth within the first 5½ years of life, though the partial convergence of horn trajectories in chamois suggests that this mechanisms would best be described as 'recovery growth'. Compensation rates were greater in males than in females, while only compensatory growth rates up to 2½ years of age were different in the two populations. Besides confirming the sex- and age-dependent pattern of horn development, our study suggests that the mechanism of recovery growth supports the hypothesis of horn size as a weakly selected sexual trait in male and female chamois. Furthermore, the greater compensation rates in horn growth shown by male chamois possibly suggest selective effects of hunting on age at first reproduction, while different compensation rates between populations may suggest the occurrence of some plasticity in resource

  3. Cutaneous horns: clues to invasive squamous cell carcinoma being present in the horn base.

    PubMed

    Pyne, John; Sapkota, Devendra; Wong, Jian Cheng

    2013-04-01

    Cutaneous horns usually develop on a keratinocytic base with the histopathology on a spectrum ranging from benign keratosis through to invasive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Some features of horns are easily identified using dermatoscopy. To investigate if specific clinical or dermatoscopy features of horns correlate with the histopathology in the base of the horn. Consecutive horn cases (n=163) were assessed prospectively in vivo for horn height, terrace morphology and base erythema using a Heine Delta 20 dermatoscope. Cases with potentially confounding influences were excluded. A history of horn pain or pain on palpation was also recorded. Benign keratosis (n = 49), actinic keratosis (n = 21), SCC in situ (n = 37) and invasive SCC (n = 56) were recorded. An invasive SCC presenting as a horn as most likely to have a height less than the base diameter, 66% (37/56). Compared to the other study entities, invasive SCC tends to have less terrace morphology (P<0.05), a higher incidence of base erythema (P<0.05) and more pain (P<0.01). Data categories did not include anatomic site or horn growth rates. Excision selection bias favored the incidence of invasive SCC. Horns presenting on an invasive SCC base are more likely to have a height less than the diameter of the base, not to have terrace morphology, to have an erythematous base and to be painful.

  4. Olfactory coding in the honeybee lateral horn.

    PubMed

    Roussel, Edith; Carcaud, Julie; Combe, Maud; Giurfa, Martin; Sandoz, Jean-Christophe

    2014-03-03

    Olfactory systems dynamically encode odor information in the nervous system. Insects constitute a well-established model for the study of the neural processes underlying olfactory perception. In insects, odors are detected by sensory neurons located in the antennae, whose axons project to a primary processing center, the antennal lobe. There, the olfactory message is reshaped and further conveyed to higher-order centers, the mushroom bodies and the lateral horn. Previous work has intensively analyzed the principles of olfactory processing in the antennal lobe and in the mushroom bodies. However, how the lateral horn participates in olfactory coding remains comparatively more enigmatic. We studied odor representation at the input to the lateral horn of the honeybee, a social insect that relies on both floral odors for foraging and pheromones for social communication. Using in vivo calcium imaging, we show consistent neural activity in the honeybee lateral horn upon stimulation with both floral volatiles and social pheromones. Recordings reveal odor-specific maps in this brain region as stimulations with the same odorant elicit more similar spatial activity patterns than stimulations with different odorants. Odor-similarity relationships are mostly conserved between antennal lobe and lateral horn, so that odor maps recorded in the lateral horn allow predicting bees' behavioral responses to floral odorants. In addition, a clear segregation of odorants based on pheromone type is found in both structures. The lateral horn thus contains an odor-specific map with distinct representations for the different bee pheromones, a prerequisite for eliciting specific behaviors.

  5. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  6. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Audibility of train horns in passenger vehicles.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Thomas G; Rainey, Jess E

    2005-01-01

    Studies of accident rates associated with train horn bans indicate that motorists rely on horns to warn them of approaching trains. However, researchers have not yet established the levels of horn sounds necessary for detection at railroad crossings. The purpose of this study was to obtain baseline measures of the auditory component of the motorist's detection task. Horn sounds recorded in three test vehicles were presented to 20 normal-hearing listeners in quiet and in four types of vehicle interior noise: engine idling, ventilation fan off; engine idling, fan on; vehicle moving at 30 miles/hr (mph), fan off; and vehicle moving at 30 mph, fan on. Thresholds of the horn sounds were determined by an adaptive procedure. Mean thresholds were lowest in quiet (1.8-4.4 dBA) and highest for the 30-mph, fan-on condition (49.7-58.4 dBA). Mean horn thresholds for all 12 noise conditions were more than 10 dB below the overall level of the vehicle interior noise. Our data are compared with those of previous studies and their implications are discussed. Actual or potential applications of this research include the establishment of a lower limit of signal-to-noise ratios required for the detection of horn sounds at highway-rail crossings.

  8. Temporal patterns of Deepwater Horizon impacts on the benthic infauna of the northern Gulf of Mexico continental slope

    PubMed Central

    Baguley, Jeffrey G.; Conrad-Forrest, Nathan; Cooksey, Cynthia; Hyland, Jeffrey L.; Lewis, Christopher; Montagna, Paul A.; Ricker, Robert W.; Rohal, Melissa; Washburn, Travis

    2017-01-01

    The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in spring and summer 2010 in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Research cruises in 2010 (approximately 2–3 months after the well had been capped), 2011, and 2014 were conducted to determine the initial and subsequent effects of the oil spill on deep-sea soft-bottom infauna. A total of 34 stations were sampled from two zones: 20 stations in the “impact” zone versus 14 stations in the “non-impact” zone. Chemical contaminants were significantly different between the two zones. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons averaged 218 ppb in the impact zone compared to 14 ppb in the non-impact zone. Total petroleum hydrocarbons averaged 1166 ppm in the impact zone compared to 102 ppm in the non-impact zone. While there was no difference between zones for meiofauna and macrofauna abundance, community diversity was significantly lower in the impact zone. Meiofauna taxa richness over the three sampling periods averaged 8 taxa/sample in the impact zone, compared to 10 taxa/sample in the non-impact zone; and macrofauna richness averaged 25 taxa/sample in the impact zone compared to 30 taxa/sample in the non-impact zone. Oil originating from the Deepwater Horizon oil spill reached the seafloor and had a persistent negative impact on diversity of soft-bottom, deep-sea benthic communities. While there are signs of recovery for some benthic community variables, full recovery has not yet occurred four years after the spill. PMID:28640913

  9. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  10. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  11. Radiation from Axisymmetric Waveguide Fed Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, G. C.; Hoppe, D. J.; Epp, L. W.

    1995-01-01

    Return losses and radiation patterns for axisymmetric waveguide fed horns are calculated with the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) and the mode matching technique (MM).

  12. 802GHz integrated horn antennas imaging array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Dave, Hemant; Chin, Gordon

    1991-01-01

    Pattern measurements at 802GHz of a single element in 256-element integrated horn imaging array are presented. The integrated-horn antenna consists of a dipole-antenna suspended on a 1-micron dielectric membrane inside a pyramidal cavity etched in silicon. The theoretical far-field patterns, calculated using reciprocity and Floquet-modes representation of the free-space field, agree well with the measured far-field patterns at 802GHz. The associated directivity for a 1.40 lambda horn aperture, calculated from the measured E and H-plane patterns is 12.3dB + or - 0.2dB. This work demonstrates that high-efficiency integrated-horn antennas are easily scalable to terahertz frequencies and could be used for radio-astronomical and plasma-diagnostic applications.

  13. Radiation from Axisymmetric Waveguide Fed Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chinn, G. C.; Hoppe, D. J.; Epp, L. W.

    1995-01-01

    Return losses and radiation patterns for axisymmetric waveguide fed horns are calculated with the finite element method (FEM) in conjunction with the method of moments (MoM) and the mode matching technique (MM).

  14. Morphological correlates of necromass accumulation in the traps of an Eastern tropical pitcher plant, Nepenthes ampullaria Jack, and observations on the pitcher infauna and its reconstitution following experimental removal.

    PubMed

    Cresswell, James E

    1998-01-01

    I studied the trap morphology, necromass accumulation rates and pitcher infauna of an eastern tropical pitcher plant, Nepenthes ampullaria, that grew in `kerangas' heath forest in the Sungei Ingei Conservation Area, Brunei. I surveyed 164 pitchers distributed among 35 plants and extracted the necromass and larval infauna from the pitchers and then resampled the pitcher contents after 14 days. Plants varied significantly in the morphology of their pitchers, in their rate of necromass accumulation per pitcher and in the abundance and composition of the pitcher infaunas. On average, pitchers accumulated 11.5 mg dry weight over 14 days, but larger pitchers accumulated more necromass than smaller ones. Pitcher morphology explained 45% of the variation in necromass accumulation among plants. On average, pitchers initially contained 26.3 individual larval inquilines. Collectively, the larval infauna was composed of nine taxa of dipteran larvae and infrequent anuran tadpoles. These ten taxa were never found together in a single pitcher and the mean species richness per pitcher was 4.0. Of the six taxa that could be assessed, all except Toxorhynchites spp. had a contagious distribution among the pitchers. Pitcher morphology and necromass accumulation explained only 15% of the variation in inquiline abundance among plants. I found little evidence for the existence of density-dependent interactions between inquiline species: a partial correlation analysis detected only one statistically significant pairwise relationship between the abundances of inquiline taxa, which was a positive association. Fourteen days after being emptied, pitchers contained an average of 9.6 inquilines. There was no evidence that the species composition of the infauna recolonising each pitcher was related to that of its pre-removal infauna.

  15. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  16. Evolutionary design of corrugated horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, F.; Manshadi, V.; Jamnejad, A.

    2002-01-01

    An evolutionary progranirnitzg (EP) algorithm is used to optimize pattern of a corrugated circularhorn subject to various constraints on return loss and antenna beamwidth and pattern circularity and low crosspolarization. The EP algorithm uses a Gaussian mutation operator. Examples on design synthesis of a 45 section corrugated horn, with a total of 90 optimization parameters, are presented. The results show excellent and efficient optimization of the desired horn parameters.

  17. Evolutionary design of corrugated horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, F.; Manshadi, V.; Jamnejad, A.

    2002-01-01

    An evolutionary progranirnitzg (EP) algorithm is used to optimize pattern of a corrugated circularhorn subject to various constraints on return loss and antenna beamwidth and pattern circularity and low crosspolarization. The EP algorithm uses a Gaussian mutation operator. Examples on design synthesis of a 45 section corrugated horn, with a total of 90 optimization parameters, are presented. The results show excellent and efficient optimization of the desired horn parameters.

  18. Emerging landscape degradation trends in the East African Horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Michaelsen, J.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing climate variability along with declining trends in rainfall represent major risk factors affecting food security in many regions of the world. We identify Africa-wide regions where significant rainfall decreases from 1979-2011 are coupled with significant human population density increases. The rangelands of the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions with significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Widespread vegetation degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using MODIS land cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data collected since 2000, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade across the East African Horn and demonstrate that these two products can be used concurrently at large spatial scales to monitor vegetation dynamics at decadal time scales. Results demonstrate that a near doubling of the population in pastoral regions is linked with hotspots of degradation in vegetation condition. The most significant land cover change and browning trends are observed in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting and for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected to continue increasing against a backdrop of drying climate trends.Fig.1(a)Change in standardized precipitation index in Africa between 1979-2010 (b)Change in population density at continental scale using the GRUMPv1 1990 and 2000 and AfriPop 2010 population density datasets Fig.2 Land cover change trajectories based on 2001-2009 MOD12Q1 Land Cover product for the East African Horn overlaid over aggregated FEWS Net Livelihoods Zones.

  19. Evidence for density-dependent effects of infauna on sediment biogeochemistry and benthic-pelagic coupling in nearshore systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Roberta L.; Williams, Tracy J.

    2003-05-01

    We report results of a laboratory experiment that examines the effect of density-dependent interactions among infauna on organism-sediment-seawater relationships. The experiment includes a time series documentation of feeding behavior of the deposit- and suspension-feeding bivalve Macoma balthica, concurrent with measures of sediment biogeochemical processes that are affected by different feeding modes. We hypothesized that feeding behavior and emigration rates might shift with increasing density, and that these shifts would have cascading effects on benthic primary productivity, sediment-seawater exchanges, and porewater concentrations of ammonium and silicate. Macoma individuals were maintained in aquaria at three different densities (46, 230, and 460 individuals m -2) that fall within their natural abundances in the Chesapeake Bay. Individuals fed mostly on suspended material throughout the experiment, resorting to deposit feeding behavior only at the highest densities. Disturbances on the sediment surface during deposit feeding periods were not sufficient to impact benthic primary productivity and the associated interception effect of microalgae on sediment-seawater exchanges, as seen in previous studies. However, the bivalves impacted sediment fluxes directly through bioturbational activity, and these effects showed significant density interactions. For ammonium, fluxes ranged from 1.3 to 3.7 mmol m -2 d -1 and generally did not increase as a function of increasing Macoma density. Rather, highest fluxes generally were observed in intermediate density treatments. For silicate, a different trend was observed. Fluxes tended to parallel density, and ranged from 6.4 to 13.5 mmol m -2 d -1, however, the relationship was not linear. These observations suggest that as infaunal density shifts, so does the balance of ammonium to silicate efflux. Thus, benthic population structure may impact water column processes not only through enhancing the flux, but also through

  20. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  1. Primary productivity in the Golden Horn.

    PubMed

    Gönüllü, M Talha; Avşar, Yaşar; Bayhan, Hürrem; Sakar, Süeyman; Arslankaya, Ertan; Apaydin, Omer; Kurt, Uĝur

    2005-10-01

    The shores of the Golden Horn--once most important seaport of the region--represented throughout history a romantic and recreational venue. This tributary to the Bosphorus, however, became seriously polluted with the extensive industrialization and rapid population growth in Istanbul over the past century. Two main tributaries, the Alibeykoy and the Kagithane, dumped both liquid and solid waste from residential areas and industry (small and large-scale) into the Golden Horn. As a result of this pollution, the landward three to four kilometers of the estuary became swamped with sediment. The dominance of anaerobic activity resulted in a highly unpleasant smell, and the shallow depth as one progressed up the bay restricted navigation. In early 1997 The Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality began a dredging operation and gradually diverted all domestic and industrial wastewater discharge from the Golden Horn. Since then there have been remarkable improvements in water quality. This paper presents the state of eutrophication through the water body of the Golden Horn; parameters such as DO, TKN, NH(3)-N, NO(3)-N, the total phosphorus (TP) and dissolved phosphorus (PO(4)-P), phytoplankton and chlorophyll-a have been were analyzed in samples of water taken from various points in the Golden Horn. The presence of DO and the phytoplankton, both indicators of primary productivity in an aquatic body, has been evaluated in relation to former conditions.

  2. Swelling of cattle heel horn by urine.

    PubMed

    Gregory, N G

    2004-03-01

    To understand the likely mechanisms responsible for heel horn softening when cattle stand in their own effluent. To examine the effectiveness of some footbath chemicals in preventing heel horn softening. Shavings from the heels of cattle were used in a laboratory test to examine the swelling effects of cow urine, urea, sulphide and ammonia. Formalin, glutaraldehyde, glyoxal, zinc sulphate, copper sulphate, alum, tannic acid and a compound containing nitrocellulose plus nylon, were compared for their ability to prevent swelling in heel shavings induced by urea plus 2-mercaptoethanol. Cow urine caused heel horn to swell. Urea caused swelling at concentrations normally found in cow urine. Sulphide caused swelling at concentrations normally found in cow slurry. Low concentrations of ammonia solution also resulted in swelling. Formalin and glutaraldehyde prevented swelling induced by high concentrations of urea plus 2-mercaptoethanol. Copper sulphate had a moderate anti-swelling effect. Zinc sulphate, alum, tannic acid, and nitrocellulose plus nylon were relatively ineffective in preventing swelling. Cow urine can cause degradation of heel horn in cattle feet. The chemical agents that cause this could be urea, sulphide anions and ammonia. Degradation by urine can be prevented by pretreating heel horn with formalin. Glutaraldehyde may be an effective noncarcinogenic alternative to formalin.

  3. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  4. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  5. Dorsal Horn Circuits for Persistent Mechanical Pain.

    PubMed

    Peirs, Cedric; Williams, Sean-Paul G; Zhao, Xinyi; Walsh, Claire E; Gedeon, Jeremy Y; Cagle, Natalie E; Goldring, Adam C; Hioki, Hiroyuki; Liu, Zheng; Marell, Paulina S; Seal, Rebecca P

    2015-08-19

    Persistent mechanical hypersensitivity that occurs in the setting of injury or disease remains a major clinical problem largely because the underlying neural circuitry is still not known. Here we report the functional identification of key components of the elusive dorsal horn circuit for mechanical allodynia. We show that the transient expression of VGLUT3 by a discrete population of neurons in the deep dorsal horn is required for mechanical pain and that activation of the cells in the adult conveys mechanical hypersensitivity. The cells, which receive direct low threshold input, point to a novel location for circuit initiation. Subsequent analysis of c-Fos reveals the circuit extends dorsally to nociceptive lamina I projection neurons, and includes lamina II calretinin neurons, which we show also convey mechanical allodynia. Lastly, using inflammatory and neuropathic pain models, we show that multiple microcircuits in the dorsal horn encode this form of pain.

  6. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  7. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... December 1, 2010, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  8. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Lovell, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn Federal Savings...

  9. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed and...

  10. The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary addresses the Arizona Supreme Court's legal reasoning in "Cain v. Horne," which struck down two voucher programs for special needs children pursuant to one of Arizona's Blaine Amendments and explains that the court both failed to apply a straightforward textual analysis and ignored the analytical framework its prior…

  11. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... produces a minimum sound level of 96 dB(A) and a maximum sound level of 110 dB(A) at 100 feet forward of...), or (b)(3) of this section, shall not be required to undergo sound level testing when equipped with a... locomotive horn sound level shall be in accordance with the following requirements: (1) A properly...

  12. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... produces a minimum sound level of 96 dB(A) and a maximum sound level of 110 dB(A) at 100 feet forward of...), or (b)(3) of this section, shall not be required to undergo sound level testing when equipped with a... locomotive horn sound level shall be in accordance with the following requirements: (1) A properly...

  13. 49 CFR 229.129 - Locomotive horn.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... produces a minimum sound level of 96 dB(A) and a maximum sound level of 110 dB(A) at 100 feet forward of...), or (b)(3) of this section, shall not be required to undergo sound level testing when equipped with a... locomotive horn sound level shall be in accordance with the following requirements: (1) A properly...

  14. Reflectance measurement validation using acoustic horns.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Variability in wideband acoustic reflectance (and absorbance) measurements adversely affects the clinical utility of reflectance for diagnosis of middle-ear disorders. A reflectance standard would encourage consistency across different measurement systems and help identify calibration related issues. Theoretical equations exist for the reflectance of finite-length exponential, conical, and parabolic acoustic horns. Reflectance measurements were repeatedly made in each of these three horn shapes and the results were compared to the corresponding theoretical reflectance. A method is described of adjusting acoustic impedance measurements to compensate for spreading of the wave front that propagates from the small diameter sound port of the probe to the larger diameter of the acoustic cavity. Agreement between measured and theoretical reflectance was less than 1 dB at most frequencies in the range from 0.2 to 10 kHz. Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.95 between measured and theoretical time-domain reflectance within the flare region of the horns. The agreement suggests that the distributed reflectance of acoustic horns may be useful for validating reflectance measurements made in human ear canals; however, refinements to reflectance measurement methods may still be needed.

  15. The BigHorn Home Improvement Center

    SciTech Connect

    2000-12-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center is one of the nation's first commercial buildings to integrate daylighting and natural ventilation cooling systems into a retail space. It is expected to reduce energy costs by 62% compared to conventionally designed retail buildings.

  16. Reflectance measurement validation using acoustic horns

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.

    2015-01-01

    Variability in wideband acoustic reflectance (and absorbance) measurements adversely affects the clinical utility of reflectance for diagnosis of middle-ear disorders. A reflectance standard would encourage consistency across different measurement systems and help identify calibration related issues. Theoretical equations exist for the reflectance of finite-length exponential, conical, and parabolic acoustic horns. Reflectance measurements were repeatedly made in each of these three horn shapes and the results were compared to the corresponding theoretical reflectance. A method is described of adjusting acoustic impedance measurements to compensate for spreading of the wave front that propagates from the small diameter sound port of the probe to the larger diameter of the acoustic cavity. Agreement between measured and theoretical reflectance was less than 1 dB at most frequencies in the range from 0.2 to 10 kHz. Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.95 between measured and theoretical time-domain reflectance within the flare region of the horns. The agreement suggests that the distributed reflectance of acoustic horns may be useful for validating reflectance measurements made in human ear canals; however, refinements to reflectance measurement methods may still be needed. PMID:26520306

  17. The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary addresses the Arizona Supreme Court's legal reasoning in "Cain v. Horne," which struck down two voucher programs for special needs children pursuant to one of Arizona's Blaine Amendments and explains that the court both failed to apply a straightforward textual analysis and ignored the analytical framework its prior…

  18. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  19. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    PubMed Central

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  20. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    PubMed

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  1. Visualizing sensory transmission between dorsal root ganglion and dorsal horn neurons in co-culture with calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Ohshiro, Hiroyuki; Ogawa, Shinji; Shinjo, Katsuhiro

    2007-09-15

    Sensory information is conveyed to the central nervous system by primary afferent neurons within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), which synapse onto neurons of the dorsal horn of the spinal cord. This synaptic connection is central to the processing of both sensory and pain stimuli. Here, we describe a model system to monitor synaptic transmission between DRG neurons and dorsal horn neurons that is compatible with high-throughput screening. This co-culture preparation comprises DRG and dorsal horn neurons and utilizes Ca(2+) imaging with the indicator dye Fura-2 to visualize synaptic transmission. Addition of capsaicin to co-cultures stimulated DRG neurons and led to activation of dorsal horn neurons as well as increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. This effect was dose-dependent and absent when DRG neurons were omitted from the culture. NMDA receptors are a critical component of synapses between DRG and dorsal horn neurons as MK-801, a use-dependent non-competitive antagonist, prevented activation of dorsal horn neurons following capsaicin treatment. This model system allows for rapid and efficient analysis of noxious stimulus-evoked Ca(2+) signal transmission and provides a new approach both for investigating synaptic transmission in the spinal cord and for screening potential analgesic compounds.

  2. Mechanical and biological properties of oxidized horn keratin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanbin; Shan, Guanghua; Cao, Ping; He, Jia; Lin, Zhongshi; Huang, Yaoxiong; Ao, Ningjian

    2015-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate the mechanical and biological properties of oxidized keratin materials, which were obtained by using buffalo horns to oxidize. It could provide a way to evaluate their potential for clinical translatability. The characterization on their composition, mechanical properties, and biological responses was performed. It is found that the oxidation process could lead the disulfide bond to break down and then to form sulfonic acid, or even make partial peptide chain to be fragment for the new modification of amino acid. Hence the oxidized horn keratins have lower thermal stability and hydrolytic stability in comparison with horn keratin, but the degradation products of oxidized horn keratins have no significant difference. In addition, the mechanical properties of oxidized horn keratins are poorer than that of horn keratin, but the oxidized horn keratins still have disulfide bonds to form a three-dimensional structure, which benefits for their mechanical properties. The fracture toughness of oxidized horn keratins increases with the increase in the degree of oxidation. After oxidation, the oxidized horn keratins have lower cytotoxicity and lower hemolysis ratio. Moreover, when the oxidized horn keratins, as well as different concentration of degradation products of oxidized horn keratins, are directly in contact with platelet-rich plasma, platelets are not activated. It suggests that the oxidized horn keratins have good hemocompatibility, without triggering blood thrombosis. The implantation experiment in vivo also demonstrates that the oxidized horn keratins are compatible with the tissue, because there are minimal fibrous capsule and less of infiltration of host cells, without causing serious inflammation. In summary, the oxidized horn keratins can act as implanted biomaterial devices that are directly in contact with blood and tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dogwood borer (Lepidoptera: Sesiidae) infestation of horned oak galls.

    PubMed

    Eliason, E A; Potter, D A

    2000-06-01

    Pin oak, Quercus palustris Muenchhausen, is the primary host for the gall wasp Callirhytis cornigera (Osten Sacken). Woody stem galls formed by C. cornigera may be infested by the dogwood borer, Synanthedon scitula (Harris), an important pest of flowering dogwood, Cornus florida L. Previous research has shown that S. scitula has a bimodal seasonal flight pattern, with peaks in late spring and midsummer. We tested the hypothesis that moths emerging from dogwoods largely account for the first flight pulse, whereas emergence from stem galls contributes disproportionately to the second pulse. Seasonal flight activity of S. scitula was monitored with pheromone traps baited with Z,Z-3,13-octadecadien-1-ol acetate. Traps were hung near plantings of dogwoods in suburban landscapes or near heavily galled pin oaks. Borer emergence from dogwood was monitored by sampling infested trees for pupal exuviae, and from galls that were collected and held in outdoor rearing cages. The impact of S. scitula on C. cornigera larvae was assessed by weighing, measuring, and dissecting galls. Flight activity of S. scitula began on 5 May and ended on 13 October 1999, with peaks in late May and in late July to early August. The flight pattern was similar for the two types of trapping sites, and moths emerged from both hosts during both flight periods. Proportionately more moths emerged from dogwoods during the first flight pulse than during the second, but emergence from galls was nearly evenly divided between the two flight peaks. We therefore reject the hypothesis that emergence of borers from galls contributes disproportionately to the second flight period. Approximately 12-15% of stem galls (2-3 yr old) contained S. scitula larvae. Feeding and tunneling by borers contributed to gall desiccation and reduced horn development, but rarely killed C. cornigera larvae. This study has implications for management of S. scitula because borers emerging from horned oak galls may represent a threat to

  4. Dual band combiner for horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, W. F.; Cohn, S. B. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A corrugated horn antenna, adapted to be coupled to a waveguide at its apex for X-band excitation is further adapted to be connected to waveguides through a circumferential slot for S-band excitation at four distinct phases selected for the desired S-band polarization. The circumferential slot is positioned along the axial length of the horn for good impedance matching and is provided with an X-band choke in the form of two concentric choke slots. For further improvement in impedance matching, the second (outer) choke slot is divided by plugs into four segments that coincide with waveguide ports for the four distinct phases of the S-band.

  5. Lethal arthrogryposis with anterior horn cell disease.

    PubMed

    Vuopala, K; Ignatius, J; Herva, R

    1995-01-01

    Fifteen infants (11 families) with lethal arthrogryposis and anterior horn motor neuron loss are described. The clinical presentation was the fetal akinesia deformation sequence (FADS) with multiple contractures and facial anomalies. At autopsy neurogenic muscular atrophy was present in all infants. The spinal cord showed a paucity of anterior horn motor neurons in the 12 infants studied. Both male and female infants were affected. Nine cases were sporadic, whereas in two families there were three affected cases. Consanguinity between the parents was reported in one family with one affected child. This and the recurrence of the condition speak for autosomal recessive inheritance. Detailed neuropathological examination and documentation of the clinical features are needed for a better delineation of and genetic counseling for perinatally lethal arthrogryposis.

  6. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  7. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  8. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  9. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  10. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  11. Terahertz Horn Antennas on Thin Membranes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-05-01

    Stimson. David B. Rutledge, "Monolithic Millimeter -Wave Two-Dimensional Horn Imaging Arrays.-’ IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, T-AP-38...Density Meter for Millimeter Vavelengths." IEEE Transactions on Antennas and Propagation, T-AP-39, pp. 425-428, March 1991. [3]Yong Guo, Karen Lee...calculated patterns. Microbolometers have been used as detectors, as they can be calibrated to yield abso- lute power measurements. This is important

  12. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  13. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  14. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  15. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  16. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  17. Acoustical Analysis of a Test Horn.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-01-20

    computer program COMIC (COMplex AcoustIC Pressure Analysis). The mode shapes are presented graphically and nodal -panes are identified. Placing a wall of...shapes of a small test horn using a computer program COMIC (fO.plex AcoustIC Pressure Analysis), which was developed by Battelle Columbus...written to convert the COMIC output data into the one which operates on CADS (Computer Aided Design System) using DI-3000 graphics package. Reference

  18. Countering Piracy off the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-26

    6 Source: Conciliation Resources.14 Piracy operations at the Horn of Africa are carried out using a method unique compared to piracy...option would continue to treat the system with the same medicine , but increase the dose. This may include strengthening the task forces to allow...visualization.googlemap&I temid=219 (accessed January 18, 2011). 14 Conciliation Resources Home Page, Map of Somalia, http://www.c-r.org/our- work

  19. Molecular identification of antelope horn by melting curve analysis.

    PubMed

    Tong, Yuru; Jiang, Chao; Yuan, Yuan; Jin, Yan; Cui, Zhan-Hu; Huang, Luqi

    2016-11-01

    Antelope horn is a valuable Chinese traditional medicine and widely used in clinic. However, with the deterioration of antelope's living environment and a lot of killing, the saiga population begins falling and in some places plummet. Since the increasing demand of this expensive and good bioactive medicine, the horn of artiodactyla animals is often used as the antelope horn. The adulterated or impostor not only cause damage to clinical medicine but also affect the antelope resources protection and sustainable development. Here, in order to establish a melting curve analysis (MCA) method to distinguish the antelope horn from other animal horns and identify the decoction pieces and Chinese patent medicine in a fast and easy way, animal horns and its decoction pieces, Chinese patent medicines were collected from the market and the DNA of all the collected samples were extracted. The melting curve of two universal fragments (COI and Cyt b) was scanned and Cyt b was selected as feasibility fragment for identifying authentic antelope horn from eight adulterant animal horns. After optimizing the condition for MCA, inspecting the precision and the replication of the method, a reference melting curve modern was established and we performed MCA on the antelope horns, fakes, and adulterants on a 1:1 mix, decoction pieces, and Chinese patent medicine. Thus, this study provides fast and easy methods so that MCA can detect the truth, fakes, and adulterations of antelope horns.

  20. Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P.

    2013-01-01

    Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies. PMID:23799584

  1. Aperture efficiency of integrated-circuit horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yong; Lee, Karen; Stimson, Philip; Potter, Kent; Rutledge, David

    1991-01-01

    The aperture efficiency of silicon integrated-circuit horn antennas has been improved by optimizing the length of the dipole probes and by coating the entire horn walls with gold. To make these measurements, a new thin-film power-density meter was developed for measuring power density with accuracies better than 5 percent. The measured aperture efficiency improved from 44 percent to 72 percent at 93 GHz. This is sufficient for use in many applications which now use machined waveguide horns.

  2. Three-Dimensional Distribution of Sensory Stimulation-Evoked Neuronal Activity of Spinal Dorsal Horn Neurons Analyzed by In Vivo Calcium Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn. PMID:25100083

  3. Three-dimensional distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of spinal dorsal horn neurons analyzed by in vivo calcium imaging.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Kazuhiko; Matsumura, Shinji; Taniguchi, Wataru; Uta, Daisuke; Furue, Hidemasa; Ito, Seiji

    2014-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn comprises heterogeneous populations of interneurons and projection neurons, which form neuronal circuits crucial for processing of primary sensory information. Although electrophysiological analyses have uncovered sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity of various spinal dorsal horn neurons, monitoring these activities from large ensembles of neurons is needed to obtain a comprehensive view of the spinal dorsal horn circuitry. In the present study, we established in vivo calcium imaging of multiple spinal dorsal horn neurons by using a two-photon microscope and extracted three-dimensional neuronal activity maps of these neurons in response to cutaneous sensory stimulation. For calcium imaging, a fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based calcium indicator protein, Yellow Cameleon, which is insensitive to motion artifacts of living animals was introduced into spinal dorsal horn neurons by in utero electroporation. In vivo calcium imaging following pinch, brush, and heat stimulation suggests that laminar distribution of sensory stimulation-evoked neuronal activity in the spinal dorsal horn largely corresponds to that of primary afferent inputs. In addition, cutaneous pinch stimulation elicited activities of neurons in the spinal cord at least until 2 spinal segments away from the central projection field of primary sensory neurons responsible for the stimulated skin point. These results provide a clue to understand neuronal processing of sensory information in the spinal dorsal horn.

  4. Influence of age on the relationship between annual changes in horn growth rate and prolactin secretion in the European mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon).

    PubMed

    Santiago-Moreno, J; Gómez-Brunet, A; Toledano-Díaz, A; González-Bulnes, A; Picazo, R A; López-Sebastián, A

    2005-02-01

    Annual variations in the growth of horns, and their correlation with seasonal changes of testicular size, and prolactin (PRL) and melatonin secretion were monitored in six pubertal mouflon rams living in their original latitude (40 degrees N). Mouflons born and maintained under captive conditions were classified in two age classes: sub-adult (2 years; n=3) and adult (> or =3 years; n=3). The rate of horn growth was greater (P <0.001) in sub-adult than in adult mouflon rams. Horn growth was influenced by season in both adult and sub-adult mouflons (P <0.05) with largest monthly growth occurring in spring and summer. Seasonal variations of plasma PRL concentrations were correlated with horn growth in adult, but not in sub-adult mouflon rams. The rate of horn growth was inversely correlated with testicular size (r=-0.5, P=0.07). Seasonal changes in the amplitude of the daily melatonin rhythm in solstices and equinoxes were observed, which were not correlated with variations in the rate of horn growth. These results provide support for a possible role of PRL in the control of growth of horns in the adult mouflon.

  5. Intense selective hunting leads to artificial evolution in horn size.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Gabriel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-04-01

    The potential for selective harvests to induce rapid evolutionary change is an important question for conservation and evolutionary biology, with numerous biological, social and economic implications. We analyze 39 years of phenotypic data on horn size in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) subject to intense trophy hunting for 23 years, after which harvests nearly ceased. Our analyses revealed a significant decline in genetic value for horn length of rams, consistent with an evolutionary response to artificial selection on this trait. The probability that the observed change in male horn length was due solely to drift is 9.9%. Female horn length and male horn base, traits genetically correlated to the trait under selection, showed weak declining trends. There was no temporal trend in genetic value for female horn base circumference, a trait not directly targeted by selective hunting and not genetically correlated with male horn length. The decline in genetic value for male horn length stopped, but was not reversed, when hunting pressure was drastically reduced. Our analysis provides support for the contention that selective hunting led to a reduction in horn length through evolutionary change. It also confirms that after artificial selection stops, recovery through natural selection is slow.

  6. BigHorn Home Improvement Center: Proof that a Retail Building Can Be a Low Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, Colorado was one of the first commercial buildings in the United States to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. After monitoring and evaluation by NREL, the BigHorn Center was found to consume 54% less source energy and have 53% lower energy costs than typical retail buildings of similar size. The extensive use of daylighting to replace electric lighting reduced lighting energy requirements by 80% and significantly contributed to the reduced energy loads in the building.

  7. Beyond "Cain v. Horne": Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    This commentary is in response to Tim Keller's article "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne.'" In his analysis, Keller asserts that the Arizona Supreme Court wrongfully struck down a voucher program for students with special needs by characterizing the voucher as aid to schools rather than aid to students. In this response to…

  8. Beyond "Cain v. Horne": Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    This commentary is in response to Tim Keller's article "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne.'" In his analysis, Keller asserts that the Arizona Supreme Court wrongfully struck down a voucher program for students with special needs by characterizing the voucher as aid to schools rather than aid to students. In this response to…

  9. Experimental rabies in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, R D; Gough, P M; Graham, D L

    1976-07-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed.

  10. Planar Rotary Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  11. Planar rotary motor using ultrasonic horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-04-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  12. Planar Rotary Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  13. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  14. Bioprospecting for podophyllotoxin in the Big Horn Mountains, Wyoming

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to evaluate variations in podophyllotoxin concentrations in Juniperus species found in the Big Horn Mountains in Wyoming. It was found that Juniperus species in the Big Horn Mountains included three species; J. communis L. (common juniper), J. horizontalis Moench. (c...

  15. The corrugated horn as an antenna range standard.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldecott, R.; Mentzer, C. A.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1973-01-01

    The corrugated horn is discussed as is a valuable tool for use in microwave pattern ranges. It has the properties of concentrated energy in the main beam, low backlobes, high efficiency, almost monotonic amplitude, and phase radiation patterns which make the corrugated horn useful for a source antenna in a pattern range and also as a possible standard antenna for calibration purposes.

  16. Idiopathic prolapse of 1 uterine horn in a yearling filly

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract A yearling filly was presented for protrusion of a mass at the vulvar margins. A diagnosis of prolapse of the right uterine horn was made after vaginoscopy, transrectal palpation, and ultrasonography. It was confirmed later by biopsy of the tissue. Recovery was uneventful after easy replacement of the uterine horn. PMID:15317392

  17. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety... the rear, self-propelled mobile equipment shall have— (i) An automatic reverse-activated signal alarm...

  18. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety... the rear, self-propelled mobile equipment shall have— (i) An automatic reverse-activated signal alarm...

  19. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  20. Probe impedance measurements for millimeter-wave integrated horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yong; Chiao, Jung-Chih; Potter, Kent A.; Rutledge, David B.

    1993-01-01

    In order to achieve an impedance-matched millimeter-wave integrated horn antenna mixer array, the characteristics of the antenna probes inside the horn must be known. This paper describes impedance measurements for various probes in low-frequency model horns of two different types: (1) a 3 x 3 array made of aluminum by electric discharge machining and (2) a half horn made of copper sheet placed on a big copper-clad circuit board that was used as an image plane. The results of measurements indicate that the presence of the horn increases the effective length of the probe element, in agreement with reports of Guo et al. (1991) and theoretical analysis of Eleftheriades et al. (1991). It was also found that the resonant frequencies can be controlled by changing the length of the probes or by loading the probes.

  1. Reflectance of acoustic horns and solution of the inverse problem

    PubMed Central

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M.; Neely, Stephen T.; Allen, Jont B.; Shera, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    A method is described for solving the inverse problem of determining the profile of an acoustic horn when time-domain reflectance (TDR) is known only at the entrance. The method involves recasting Webster’s horn equation in terms of forward and backward propagating wave variables. An essential feature of this method is a requirement that the backward propagating wave be continuous at the wave-front at all locations beyond the entrance. Derivation of the inverse solution raises questions about the meaning of causality in the context of wave propagation in non-uniform tubes. Exact reflectance expressions are presented for infinite exponential, conical and parabolic horns based on exact solutions of the horn equation. Diameter functions obtained with the inverse solution are a good match to all three horn profiles. PMID:22423684

  2. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  3. Monitors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, David

    1984-01-01

    Provides guidelines for selecting a monitor to suit specific applications, explains the process by which graphics images are produced on a CRT monitor, and describes four types of flat-panel displays being used in the newest lap-sized portable computers. A comparison chart provides prices and specifications for over 80 monitors. (MBR)

  4. A nonrational B-spline profiled horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Tu; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Uan, Jun-Yen; Wang, Dung-An

    2014-12-01

    A new horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding is developed. The profile of the horn is a nonrational B-spline curve with an open uniform knot vector. The ultrasonic actuation of the horn exploits the first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn. The horn is designed by an optimization scheme and finite element analyses. Performances of the proposed horn have been evaluated by experiments. The displacement amplification of the proposed horn is 41.4% and 8.6% higher than that of the traditional catenoidal horn and a Bézier-profile horn, respectively, with the same length and end surface diameters. The developed horn has a lower displacement amplification than the nonuniform rational B-spline profiled horn but a much smoother stress distribution. The developed horn, the catenoidal horn, and the Bézier horn are fabricated and used for ultrasonic welding of lap-shear specimens. The bonding strength of the joints welded by the open uniform nonrational B-spline (OUNBS) horn is the highest among the three horns for the various welding parameters considered. The locations of the failure mode and the distribution of the voids of the specimens are investigated to explain the reason of the high bonding strength achieved by the OUNBS horn.

  5. Multisetting Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger paradoxes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Weidong; Yu, Sixia; Oh, C. H.

    2017-01-01

    The Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) paradox provides an all-versus-nothing test for the quantum nonlocality. In most of the GHZ paradoxes known so far each observer is allowed to measure only two alternative observables. Here we present a general construction for GHZ paradoxes in which each observer measures more than two observables given that the system is prepared in the n -qudit GHZ state. By doing so we are able to construct a multisetting GHZ paradox for the n -qubit GHZ state, with n being arbitrary, which is genuine n -partite; i.e., no GHZ paradox exists when restricted to a subset of a number of observers for a given set of Mermin observables. Our result fills up the gap of the absence of a genuine GHZ paradox for the GHZ state of an even number of qubits, especially the four-qubit GHZ state as used in GHZ's original proposal.

  6. Long-term ecological changes in the north Adriatic Sea: Epi-to Infauna turnover at the Brijuni islands national park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifeas, Iason; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea with its densely populated coastline experienced strong anthropogenic impacts during the last centuries. The Brijuni islands at the southern tip of Istria, Croatia, are a national park since 1983 and represent a study area of special interest when comparing impacted marine areas with regions under relatively long-term protection that were able to recover from the pressure of fishing and bottom trawling. The present study is part of a project on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic sea and focusses on long-term ecological changes and benthic community shifts as a result of anthropogenic impacts since the Holocene transgression. Several cores of 1.5 m length and a diameter of 90 mm were taken close to the main island of Brijuni and sliced into smaller subunits for sediment analyses and the investigation of death assemblages. Hard part remains of molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans, echinoderms and sedentary polychaetes were analysed for species composition, abundance and indicators for high biomass epifauna. Death assemblages were compared with surface samples of the recent fauna taken at the same area by grab-sampling and by divers using a 100 x 100 cm frame. Data analyses revealed a steep increase of species abundance and diversity in the early stages of the Holocene transgression, at the very bottom of the core, followed by a steady decline, representing a major shift from a previously epibenthic to an infauna dominated community. Towards the top of the core, this trend weakens, and in the uppermost 6 cm it even reverses indicating a possible recovery of the benthic communities since the protection of the area. By correlating down-core changes in benthic community structure with sediment parameters (grain size distribution, TOC, heavy metal content, concentrations of organic pollutants) and data from radiometric sediment dating, we can further improve our understanding of the timing and the magnitude of past ecological changes and

  7. On the origin of Ammon's horn.

    PubMed

    Iniesta, I

    2014-10-01

    Greek and Roman worship of their gods and myths go back to Ancient Egyptian times. Images engraved in Greco-Roman coinage range from references to the assassination of Caesar and legendary stories like the arrival of a snake shaped demi-god Aesculapius to save the Romans from the plague, to invocations of major deities including Apollo the physician or Ammon the protector. Depicted with the horns of a ram, Ammon was adopted by the Greeks as an epithet of Zeus and later incorporated by the Romans as Jupiter. References to the cult of Ammon appear on tetradrachms minted for Alexander The Great and on provincial Roman coins struck under Claudius. It is thrilling to hold a coin depicting Marcus Aurelius with Salus on the reverse and think that it could have been handed to Galen in payment for his services. However, it is rare to find figures other than rulers on coins and the physician of Pergamum is no exception. Inspired by the Renaissance school of Padua, French anatomists in the Enlightenment (Garengeot in 1742 and Flurant in 1752) continued reviving ancient myths and named the curve-shaped-inner portion of the temporal lobe Ammon's horn. Outstanding scholars who studied this primitive structure of the brain included Lorente de Nó and his mentor Cajal, whose portrait appeared on fifty-pesetas notes issued in 1935. As primary sources of great archaeological and artistic value, Greco-Roman coins provide information about the origins of the myths and gods of classical antiquity and continue to inspire the arts and sciences to this day. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  8. 49 CFR 238.445 - Automated monitoring.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... end power status; (7) Alerter or deadman control; (8) Horn and bell; (9) Wheel slide; (10) Tilt system... limiting the speed of the train. (c) The monitoring system shall be designed with an automatic...

  9. Object-horning in goitered gazelle: agonistic or marking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-03-01

    We studied object-horning behaviour in goitered gazelles in the natural, arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. We found that object-horning was used by adult males mostly as a threat display during territorial conflicts. Therefore object-horning was observed most frequently in territorial single males during the rut in November-December. Object-horning, though, also had a marking effect, with the males' use of this behaviour leaving visible traces that advertized the location of preorbital and urination-defecation scent marks. Therefore, this pattern also was observed linked with preorbital marking and urination-defecation marking behaviours, especially during the rut. Goitered gazelle males chose the most abundant and eatable shrubs for object horning. In contrast to other gazelle species, object-horning in goitered gazelle was observed much more frequently and at the same rate as preorbital and urination-defecation scent markings. This, then, proved a more vigorous and aggressive level of rutting behaviour of the goitered gazelle compared to tropical gazelles, and most likely connected to the short rutting period in the studied species. We concluded, therefore, that object-horning was a manifold phenomenon that played a very important role in goitered gazelle agonistic displays, but without loosing the marking intention of this behaviour.

  10. A 20-dB quasi-integrated horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    A multimode quasi-integrated dipole-fed horn antenna is presented with a performance comparable to that of waveguide-fed corrugated horn antennas. The antenna has been designed using fullwave analysis and has been fabricated and tested at 91 GHz. The horn has a gain of 20 dB with very symmetric patterns, a Gaussian coupling efficiency of 97 percent, and a cross-polarization level of -22.7 dB. The antenna provides a significant improvement in integrated antenna designs and is suitable for millimeter-wave communication and radar systems and as a Gaussian-beam launcher in quasi-optical receiver systems.

  11. Understanding recent eastern Horn of Africa rainfall variability and change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebmann, Brant; Hoerling, Martin P.; Funk, Christopher C.; Blade, Ileana; Dole, Randall M.; Allured, Dave; Quan, Xiaowei; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2014-01-01

    The recent upward trend in the October–December wet season is rather weak, however, and its statistical significance is compromised by strong year-to-year fluctuations. October–December eastern Horn rain variability is strongly associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole phenomena on interannual scales, in both model and observations. The interannual October–December correlation between the ensemble-average and observed Horn rainfall 0.87. By comparison, interannual March–May Horn precipitation is only weakly constrained by SST anomalies.

  12. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  13. Bilateral segmental aplasia with unilateral uterine horn torsion in a Pomeranian bitch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Noboru; Aoshima, Keisuke; Kimura, Takashi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with unilateral pyometra and uterine horn torsion were diagnosed in a Pomeranian bitch that presented with chronic abdominal distension and an acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Because radiographic and ultrasonographic findings revealed the presence of markedly enlarged bilateral uterine horns filled with fluid in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of either pyometra or hydrometra with uterine horn torsion was made. Exploratory laparotomy showed bilateral, segmentally distended uterine horns with unilateral uterine horn torsion. Ovariohysterectomy was performed, and bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with the development of unilateral uterine horn torsion was diagnosed histopathologically. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of uterine horn torsion in conjunction with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn in a bitch.

  14. The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.

  15. Integrated horn antennas for millimeter-wave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebeiz, Gabriel M.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Eleftheriades, George V.; Ling, Curtis C.

    1992-02-01

    The development of integrated horn antennas since their introduction in 1987 is reviewed. The integrated horn is fabricated by suspending a dipole antenna, on a thin dielectric membrane, in a pyramidal cavity etched in silicon. Recent progress has resulted in optimized low- and high-gain designs, with single and double polarization for remote-sensing and communication applications. A full-wave analysis technique has resulted in an integrated antenna with performance comparable to that of waveguide-fed corrugated-horn antennas. The integrated horn design can be extended to large arrays, for imaging and phased-array applications, while leaving plenty of room for the RF and IF processing circuitry. Theoretical and experimental results at microwave frequencies and at 90 GHz, 240 GHz, and 802 GHz are presented.

  16. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    SciTech Connect

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  17. 28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building with two lighthouse keepers by steam engine wheel, ca. 1920. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  18. Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are stored in a side room on the third floor. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  19. Image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong-bin; Wu, Zhi-qun; Zhu, Jian-ping; He, Jian-guo; Liu, Guang-min

    2013-10-01

    The paper proposes a method to measure vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn which is a very important component in the spindle for micro-electrical-chemical discharging machining. The method of image measuring amplitude on high frequency vibration is introduced. Non-contact measurement system based on vision technology is constructed. High precision location algorithm on image centroid, quadratic location algorithm, is presented to find the center of little light spot. Measurement experiments have been done to show the effect of image measurement technique on vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn. In the experiments, precise calibration of the vision system is implemented using a normal graticule to obtain the scale factor between image pixel and real distance. The vibration amplitude of ultrasonic horn is changed by modifying the voltage amplitude of pulse power supply. The image of feature on ultrasonic horn is captured and image processing is carried out. The vibration amplitudes are got at different voltages.

  20. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  1. A comparative study of corrugated horn design by evolutionary techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Here an evolutionary programming algorithm is used to optimize the pattern of a corrugated circular horn subject to various constraints on return loss, antenna beamwidth, pattern circularity, and low cross polarization.

  2. Water resources of Big Horn County, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Plafcan, Maria; Cassidy, E.W.; Smalley, M.L.

    1993-01-01

    Groundwater in unconsolidated aquifers is the most reliable and accessible source of potable water in Big Horn County, Wyoming. Well yields generally ranged from 25 to 200 gal/min; however, yields of 1600 gal/min are reported from wells in the gravel, pediment, and fan deposits. Bedrock aquifers that yield the most abundant water supplies are the Tensleep Sandstone, Madison Limestone, Bighorn Dolomite, and Flathead Sandstone. The Madison Limestone, the Darby Formation, and the Bighorn Dolomite form the Madison/Bighorn aquifer. Shut-in pressure from flowing wells in bedrock indicate declines, from the time the wells were completed to 1988, by as much as 390 ft. Water samples from wells completed,in unconsolidated aquifers had concentration of dissolved solids less than 2000 mg/L. Water samples from wells in aquifers in Paleozoic and Precambrian rocks had median concentrations of dissolved solids ranging from 111 to 275 mg/L. Perennial streams originate in the mountains and ephemeral streams originate in the Bighorn Basin. The predominant dissolved constituents are calcium or sodium and bicarbonate or sulfate. Concentrations of pesticides detected in surface-water samples were less than the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) maximum contaminant levels. Pesticides detected in groundwater samples included dicamba and picloram at a concentration of 0.40 microg/L, atrazines (0.40 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (1.44 microg/L), aldicarb sulfoxide (0.52 microg/L), and malathion (0.02 microg/L). Analyses of groundwater samples for radionuclides indicated that concentrations from four municipal wells exceeded the maximum contaminant levels established by the USEPA. Surface water accounts for 96 percent and groundwater accounts for 4 percent of total off-stream water use in Big Horn County. Irrigation is the largest off-stream use of both surface and groundwater. Groundwater supplies 89 percent of water used for domestic purposes and about 16 percent of water used

  3. Design and layout of rectangular waveguide horns antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fasold, D.; Pecher, H.

    Theoretical basis of waveguide horn antennas (WHA) is outlined. Applicable design curves, such as nomograms for determining gain and a diagram for laying out necessary waveguide dimensions, are given. Use of WHA designs in satellite radio and television systems is discussed. Antenna radiation pattern calculations are treated and optimization problems are dealt with. Based on design feasibility results, a laboratory model of a transmitter antenna for TV-SAT was built. The equipment, an elliptical waveguide horn design, demonstrates satisfactory performance.

  4. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  5. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Timothy C.; Ferreira, Sam M.

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World’s wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking—coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking. PMID:27870917

  6. Combating Rhino Horn Trafficking: The Need to Disrupt Criminal Networks.

    PubMed

    Haas, Timothy C; Ferreira, Sam M

    2016-01-01

    The onslaught on the World's wildlife continues despite numerous initiatives aimed at curbing it. We build a model that integrates rhino horn trade with rhino population dynamics in order to evaluate the impact of various management policies on rhino sustainability. In our model, an agent-based sub-model of horn trade from the poaching event up through a purchase of rhino horn in Asia impacts rhino abundance. A data-validated, individual-based sub-model of the rhino population of South Africa provides these abundance values. We evaluate policies that consist of different combinations of legal trade initiatives, demand reduction marketing campaigns, increased anti-poaching measures within protected areas, and transnational policing initiatives aimed at disrupting those criminal syndicates engaged in horn trafficking. Simulation runs of our model over the next 35 years produces a sustainable rhino population under only one management policy. This policy includes both a transnational policing effort aimed at dismantling those criminal networks engaged in rhino horn trafficking-coupled with increases in legal economic opportunities for people living next to protected areas where rhinos live. This multi-faceted approach should be the focus of the international debate on strategies to combat the current slaughter of rhino rather than the binary debate about whether rhino horn trade should be legalized. This approach to the evaluation of wildlife management policies may be useful to apply to other species threatened by wildlife trafficking.

  7. Thirty years of collaboration with Gabriel Horn.

    PubMed

    Bateson, Patrick

    2015-03-01

    All the collaborative work described in this review was on the process of behavioural imprinting occurring early in the life of domestic chicks. Finding a link between learning and a change in the brain was only a first step in establishing a representation of the imprinting object. A series of overlapping experiments were necessary to eliminate alternative explanations. Once completed, a structure, the intermediate and medial mesopallium (IMM), was found to be strongly linked to the formation of a neural representation of the object used for imprinting the birds. With the site identified, lesion experiments showed that it was necessary for imprinting but not associative learning. Also the two sides of the brain responded differently with the left IMM acting as a permanent store and the right side acting as a way station to other parts of the brain. The collaborative work led to many studies by Gabriel Horn with others on the molecular and cellular bases of imprinting, and also to neural net modelling and behavioural studies with me on the nature of category formation in intact animals.

  8. Restoration of the Golden Horn Estuary (Halic).

    PubMed

    Coleman, Heather M; Kanat, Gurdal; Aydinol Turkdogan, F Ilter

    2009-12-01

    Restoration of the iconic Golden Horn Estuary in Istanbul, Turkey was a substantial political, logistical, ecological, and social challenge. Forty years of uncontrolled industrial and urban growth resulted in thick layers of anoxic sediment, toxic bacteria, strong hydrogen sulfide odor, and ecologically unlivable conditions. The major components of restoration, spanning two decades, have included (1) demolition and relocation of industries and homes along the shore, (2) creation of wastewater infrastructure, (3) removal of anoxic sludge from the estuary, (4) removal of a floating bridge that impeded circulation, and (5) creation of cultural and social facilities. Although Turkey is not known as an environmental leader in pollution control, the sum of these efforts was largely successful in revitalizing the area through dramatic water quality improvement. Consequently, the estuary is once again inhabitable for aquatic life as well as amenable to local resource users and foreign visitors, and Istanbul has regained a lost sense of cultural identity. This paper focuses on literature review and personal interviews to discuss the causes of degradation, solutions employed to rehabilitate the estuary, and subsequent physicochemical, ecological, and social changes.

  9. Monitoring

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  10. Family Bovidae (Hollow-horned Ruminants)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Groves, Colin P.; Leslie, David M.; Huffman, Brent A.; Valdez, Raul; Habibi, Khushal; Weinberg, Paul; Burton, James; Jarman, Peter; Robichaud, William

    2015-01-01

    Probably the single most eye-catching aspect of the current volume is the explosion of species recognized in the family Bovidae (Hollow-horned Ruminants). In 2005, the third edition of Mammal Species of the World listed 143 species in 50 genera of Bovidae. That list, prepared by the late Peter Grubb, was somewhat traditional and provisional, as he was engaged with his long-time colleague, Colin Groves, in a substantial revision of ungulate taxonomy. Their work, which will be published later this year, is the culmination of years of study of this important and wide-ranging family by these two venerable authorities. Colin Groves is the lead author for Bovidae in this volume of HMW, and in it we recognize all 279 species in 54 genera that are documented in his and Peter Grubb’s ground-breaking work.At the root of this expanded number of recognized species is our changing view of the modern species concept. Like a growing number of taxonomists, Groves favors a phylogenetic species concept, which he defines as the smallest population or aggregation of populations that has fixed heritable differences from other such populations or aggregations. This is in contrast to the traditional biological species concept, which requires reproductive isolation between such populations. The difficulty in determining that reproductive isolation led to an underrepresentation of the number of species in many groups. Clearly there remain problems in determining which differences between populations are heritable, and the system used here undoubtedly will continue to be tweaked as our understanding grows. For now, this greatly expanded version of Bovidae species limits seems the best answer. One of the goals of HMW is to provide an up-to-date summary of the conservation status for every species of mammal, and this expanded species concept better enables us to explore the true conservation situation of each.

  11. Detection of Gelatin Adulteration in Traditional Chinese Medicine: Analysis of Deer-Horn Glue by Rapid-Resolution Liquid Chromatography-Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jia; Cheng, Xian-Long; Wei, Feng; Zhang, Qian-Qian; Li, Ming-Hua; Ma, Shuang-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Simultaneous identification of donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue was established by rapid-resolution liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. Water containing 1% NH4HCO3 was used for sample dissolution and trypsin was used for hydrolysis of the gelatins. After separation by a SB-C18 reversed-phase analytical column, collagen marker peptides were detected by mass spectrometry in positive electrospray ionization mode with multiple reaction monitoring. The method was specific, precise and reliable, and suitable for detection of adulterants derived from donkey-hide gelatin and bovine-hide gelatin in deer-horn glue. PMID:26504613

  12. Millimeter and Submillimeter-Wave Integrated Horn Antenna Schottky Receivers.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Youssef

    1993-01-01

    Fundamental Schottky-diode mixers are currently used in most millimeter-wave receivers above 100GHz. The mixers use either a whisker-contacted diode or a planar Schottky diode suspended in a machined waveguide with an appropriate RF matching network. However, waveguide mounts are very expensive to machine for frequencies above 200GHz. Also, the whisker-contacted structure is not compatible with integrated mixers which represent the leading technology used for millimeter- and submillimeter-wave applications such as plasma diagnostics imaging arrays, radiometers, and anti-collision radars. In this work, a novel quasi-integrated horn antenna has been used for the receiver antenna. This antenna has a high gain and a high Gaussian coupling efficiency (97%), similar to machined scalar feed horns, but with the advantage of being easily fabricated up to at least 1.5THz. The quasi-integrated horn antenna is based on the integrated horn antenna structure. The integrated horn antenna consists of a pyramidal cavity with a 70^circ flare angle etched anisotropically in silicon. The cavity focuses the incoming energy on dipole-probe suspended on a membrane inside the horn. The integrated horn antenna does not suffer from dielectric losses or substrate mode losses since the feeding dipole antenna is integrated on a very thin dielectric layer. The mixer circuit, along with the feed dipole, are both integrated on the membrane wafer. The mixer diode is the University of Virginia surface channel planar diode which has a low parasitic capacitance. The diode is epoxied directly at the dipole apex without the need for an RF matching network, and with no mixer tuning required. At 92GHz,the DSB antenna-mixer conversion loss and noise temperature are 5.5dB and 770K, respectively. This represents the best reported results to this date for a quasi-optical mixer with a planar diode, at room temperature. At 335GHz, the DSB antenna-mixer noise temperature is 1750K and it is within 1dB of the

  13. Frontal horn thin walled cysts in preterm neonates are benign

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B; Preston, P; Morgan, M; Rushton, D; Durbin, G

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Screening cranial ultrasound led to the discovery of isolated frontal horn cysts quite distinct from periventricular leucomalacia cysts.
AIM—To clarify their significance, incidence, characteristics, causal factors or aetiology, and effect on long term outcome.
DESIGN—A retrospective observational study of all first cranial ultrasound scans (total of 2914) performed during the period 1984-1994 inclusive found 21 neonates with smooth thin walled frontal horn cysts: 18 of 2629 scanned were of birth weight < 1500 g or gestation < 33 weeks, and three of 285 were > 33 weeks gestation. Sequential ultrasound, maternal records, and neonatal events were retrospectively assessed. In survivors, routine neurodevelopmental evaluations were obtained. Postmortem studies of one cyst were performed to determine the nature and origin of these lesions.
RESULTS—Of the 21 subjects, 15 had isolated frontal horn cysts and six had additional ultrasound scan abnormalities, including four with subependymal haemorrhage. The sonographic features of frontal horn cysts were of distinctive morphology (elliptical, smooth, thin walled, ranging in size from 3 to 20 mm) and position (adjacent to the tip of the anterior horns). The cysts enlarged and then regressed by a median corrected age of 2 months. Subjects of < 33 weeks gestation (n = 18) had a median birth weight of 1465g (range 720-1990) and median gestation of 30 weeks (range 24-32). There was no consistent perinatal course. The neurodevelopmental outcome in 10 of the 11 survivors with isolated frontal horn cysts was normal. Five subjects died from causes unrelated to brain pathology in the neonatal period, and one subject died after infancy. Histological examination of a cyst at autopsy in one additional subject subsequent to the period of study confirmed the cyst to be lined by neuroblasts and ependymal cells.
CONCLUSIONS—The incidence of frontal horn cysts in this low birthweight population was 7 per 1000 (0

  14. Ovarian activity in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) determined by faecal steroid analysis.

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Monfort, S L

    1998-10-01

    Ultrasonography and radioimmunoassay (RIA) of serum oestradiol-17beta, luteinizing hormone (LH) and progesterone, and faecal oestrogen and progestin was used to assess ovarian activity in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah). Ovarian examination using ultrasonography revealed maximal follicle and corpus luteum (CL) diameters of 15 and 32 mm, respectively. Steroid hormone metabolite distribution among individual faecal pellets within the same defaecation was relatively homogeneous with coefficients of variation averaging 10.2+/-1.8% and 16.2+/-4.6% for oestrogens and progestins, respectively. Elevated faecal oestrogen concentrations were associated with large (> 10 mm) antral follicles detected by ultrasonography. Periovulatory peaks in faecal oestrogen excretion, coincident with nadirs in progestin excretion, were detected in three females. Faecal progestin excretion exhibited a similar temporal pattern to serum progesterone concentrations, with a time lag of approximately 16 h. Faecal progestin concentrations corresponded with the presence of functional CL and proved useful for monitoring luteal function, spontaneous and prostaglandin-F2alpha analogue-induced luteolysis and anovulation. In summary, faecal steroid monitoring is a practical, noninvasive method for characterising ovarian steroid excretion and has potential for facilitating the application of assisted reproductive technologies in scimitar-horned oryx.

  15. Modeling of Horns for Sonic/Ultrasonic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Dolgin, Ben P.; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2000-01-01

    JPL has a requirement for telerobotic tools for planetary sample acquisition, which require low power and have the ability to work in harsh environments. We are currently investigating the possibility of using ultrasonic horns to develop a family of ultrasonic tools for these environments. In an effort to determine control parameters a one-dimensional Mason's model for a stepped ultrasonic horn assembly was developed which includes the effects of mechanical and electrical losses in the piezoelectric material and acoustic elements. The model is separated into three regions; the piezoelectric stack including stress bolt the backing layer and the horn. The model is found to predict the impedance data of the horn assembly very accurately up to the first coupled (radial) resonance. The model also allows for the calculation of the velocity and force and power delivered to each acoustic element. FEM modeling and accelerometer data from the horn tip were used to corroborate the model. The difficulties associated with modeling the load impedance of various devices will be discussed and current directions noted.

  16. Tensile forces at the porcine anterior meniscal horn attachment.

    PubMed

    Stärke, Christian; Kopf, Sebastian; Gröbel, Karl-Heinz; Becker, Roland

    2009-12-01

    Tibiofemoral compression causes circumferential tension in the knee meniscus, which is transferred to the tibial bone at the anterior and posterior attachments. The objective of the study was to measure the resulting tensile forces at the horn attachment in a porcine model. The anterior horn attachment of the porcine medial meniscus (n = 10) was separated from the surrounding bone with a core reamer. A force transducer was installed such that tensile forces acting upon the now mobile horn attachment could be measured. The tibiofemoral joint was loaded in compression, starting at a preload of 30 N, with three 150-N increments, giving 180, 330, and 480 N load. Flexion angles of 0, 30, and 60 degrees were investigated. The average resultant tension at the horn attachment was 26.3, 40.6, and 55.4 N with full extension, 29.2, 47.8, and 62.2 N at 30 degrees flexion and 30.1, 49.6, and 68.1 N at 60 degrees flexion. The tibiofemoral compression had a significant effect on the tension (p < 0.001), whereas no influence of the flexion angle was found (p = 0.291). The study demonstrates that tibiofemoral compressive loads cause considerable tensile forces at the anterior meniscal horn attachment. The data are of interest for models of the repair or replacement of the knee menisci.

  17. Design and Characterization of a Lens TEM Horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigelow, W. S.; Farr, E. G.; Bowen, L. H.; Ellibee, D. E.; Lawry, D. I.

    We investigate an approach for obtaining smaller UWB antennas with lower sidelobes than those offered by current designs. In support of this, we built and tested a lens TEM horn employing a collimating polyethylene aperture lens. It was thought that the lens TEM horn, with a more uniformly illuminated aperture field, might lead to higher gain with lower sidelobes than a comparably sized reflector IRA. That hypothesis is tested here. The lens horn, with a 30-cm aperture, has a maximum realized gain on boresight of 23 dB at 10 GHz. The normalized antenna impulse response is a clean peak with a full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of 35 ps. For comparison, a highly optimized reflector IRA with 46-cm diameter achieves a maximum realized gain of 28 dB at 19 GHz and an impulse response with a FWHM of 30 ps. From theory, we expected the lens horn to exhibit lower sidelobes than the IRA. However, we did not observe that behavior in our experimental model. We suggest refinements which might lead to reduced sidelobes and increased gain in lens TEM horns.

  18. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Aurand, John F.

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  19. Pattern measurements of a low-sidelobe horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Bednarczyk, S. M.; Gulkis, S.; Marlin, H. W.; Smoot, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques and results of measuring the power pattern of a corrugated horn antenna designed for low sidelobes to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum on both the E- and H- planes are presented. The study was motivated by a requirement for an antenna with very low side lobes to measure properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation from a satellite. The particular application calls for horn antennas of approximately 7 deg beamwidth, operating at discrete frequencies in the range of 20-90 GHz. It is demonstrated that the side lobes of horn antennas can be measured to significantly lower levels than has been achieved previously. Finally, it is noted that an improvement could be achieved by allowing for longer signal integrations and incorporating a switched reference measurement scheme to enable the accurate determination of very low signal levels.

  20. Assembly techniques used in construction of neutrino horns at BNL

    SciTech Connect

    Sims, W.P.; Carroll, A.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.

    1987-01-01

    This paper will describe the techniques used in the assembly of the neutrino focusing horns which were installed in the fast extracted beam at the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron. The horns are coaxial magnetic lenses that are pulsed to a maximum of 14 kV and 300 kA. The materials and techniques used are further complicated by the fact that the horn must survive in a high radiation environment. We will describe both the techniques and materials that were used in making the high current electrical connections. This will include the silver plating of aluminum, methods for handling thermal expansion and large magnetic forces, and the fabrication of rigid coaxial conductors. The techniques described in this paper can be used in the assembly of any pulsed high current device.

  1. Detecting flaws in Portland cement concrete using TEM horn antennae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Qadi, Imad L.; Riad, Sedki M.; Su, Wansheng; Haddad, Rami H.

    1996-11-01

    To understand the dielectric properties of PCC and better correlate them with type and severity of PCC internal defects, a study was conducted to evaluate PCC complex permittivity and magnetic permeability over a wideband of frequencies using both time domain and frequency domain techniques. Three measuring devices were designed and fabricated: a parallel plate capacitor, a coaxial transmission line, and transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antennae. The TEM horn antenna covers the microwave frequencies. The measurement technique involves a time domain setup that was verified by a frequency domain measurement. Portland cement concrete slabs, 60 by 75 by 14 cm, were cast; defects include delamination, delamination filled with water, segregation, and chloride contamination. In this paper, measurements using the TEM horn antennae and the feasibility of detecting flaws at microwave frequency are presented.

  2. TSAR modeling of a TEM horn and surrounding structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.C.; Pennock, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of a TEM horn was performed with the TSAR FDTD electromagnetics code. The modeling was done in stages, beginning with the simplest case, the bare antenna itself. Complexity was added in the form of a dielectric lens, an enclosing cylinder, a layer of absorber inside the cylinder, resistive terminations between the horn and cylinder, and a flat plate over all, electrically separate from the cylinder. The final configuration included all of the above, plus a ring of ferrite inside the cylinder, just ahead of the horn. Predictions of the far-field were made at roughly ten degree increments, more closely spaced near boresight, in both vertical and horizontal planes, through the antenna`s centerline. Time histories at those points were evaluated, and from the time histories power densities were calculated. Both time histories and power densities will be presented for the configurations modeled.

  3. Pattern measurements of a low-sidelobe horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Bednarczyk, S. M.; Gulkis, S.; Marlin, H. W.; Smoot, G. F.

    1979-01-01

    The techniques and results of measuring the power pattern of a corrugated horn antenna designed for low sidelobes to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum on both the E- and H- planes are presented. The study was motivated by a requirement for an antenna with very low side lobes to measure properties of the cosmic microwave background radiation from a satellite. The particular application calls for horn antennas of approximately 7 deg beamwidth, operating at discrete frequencies in the range of 20-90 GHz. It is demonstrated that the side lobes of horn antennas can be measured to significantly lower levels than has been achieved previously. Finally, it is noted that an improvement could be achieved by allowing for longer signal integrations and incorporating a switched reference measurement scheme to enable the accurate determination of very low signal levels.

  4. A new proof of tractability for ORD-horn relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ligozat, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an elementary proof of the tractability of a sub-class of temporal relations in Allen`s algebra and related temporal calculi, the class of pre-convex relations. In Allen`s case, this subclass coincides with the class of ORD-Horn relations. Nebel and Burckert defined ORD-Horn relations and proved that path-consistency is a sufficient condition for consistency of a network for this sub-class. We prove a stronger result: for each path-consistent network in the sub-class, we give an effective method for constructing a feasible scenario without backtrack.

  5. Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Inclusion body disease in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Carlson, H C; Crumley, S C

    1975-01-01

    The carcass of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), which had been found moribund in southern Ontario, was presented for necropsy. Throughout the liver and spleen were numerous white foci 1-2 mm in diameter; also noted were white plaques in the mucosae of the pharyngeal papillae and intestine. Results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to two captive great horned owls suggested that this was a herpvirus disease similar and possibly indentical to the owl disease reported by other workers in Wiconsin and Australia.

  7. Designs and Development of Multimode Horns for ASTRO-G/VSOP-2 Satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ujihara, H.

    2009-08-01

    The antenna optics of VSOP-2 satellite require low cross polarization, and the volume of the receiver box is limited. Thus, instead of conventional corrugated horns, multimode horns were proposed and designed in order to reduce the axial length and weight of the horns but still compatible with a low cross polarization. These multimode horns were designed for three observational bands of VSOP-2 at 8GHz, 22GHz, 43GHz, all with about the same antenna illumination size. However, the ratio of waveguide and wavelength are slightly different. The 22GHz-horn was designed at first, and the other horns were arranged around it. The properties of the horns were improved by controlling the complex amplitude of higher modes and by fitting the beam width to the antenna optics. The BBM models of horns were tested, and their measured beam patterns agree well with numerical simulations.

  8. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... section or shall sound the locomotive horn in the manner required by State law, or in the absence of State... locomotives traveling at speeds in excess of 60 mph shall not begin sounding the horn more than one-quarter... where railroads did not sound the horn, as of December 18, 2003. (d) Trains, locomotive consists and...

  9. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... section or shall sound the locomotive horn in the manner required by State law, or in the absence of State... locomotives traveling at speeds in excess of 60 mph shall not begin sounding the horn more than one-quarter... where railroads did not sound the horn, as of December 18, 2003. (d) Trains, locomotive consists and...

  10. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  11. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  12. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  13. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  14. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  15. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  16. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  17. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or requirements...

  18. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  19. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide, flesh...

  20. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When may a wayside horn be used? 222.59 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  1. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When may a wayside horn be used? 222.59 Section... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with an...

  2. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When may a wayside horn be used? 222.59 Section 222.59 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59...

  3. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false When must a locomotive horn be used? 222.21 Section 222.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... of Locomotive Horns § 222.21 When must a locomotive horn be used? (a) Except as provided in this...

  4. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When must a locomotive horn be used? 222.21 Section 222.21 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD... of Locomotive Horns § 222.21 When must a locomotive horn be used? (a) Except as provided in this...

  5. An Engaged Pragmatist: Uncovering and Assessing Ernest Horn's View of Moral Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schul, James E.; Hamot, Gregory E.

    2011-01-01

    Ernest Horn was a curriculum professor at The University of Iowa in the early to mid-twentieth century. Predominantly known at the time for his spelling research, Horn also made important contributions to the field of social studies education. This historical inquiry illuminates one of Horn's contributions to social studies education by examining…

  6. Non-territorial floaters in Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus)

    Treesearch

    Christoph Rohner

    1997-01-01

    The ecology and behavior of non-territorial owls are basically unknown. I studied the integration of young Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) into the territorial breeding population from 1988-1993 in the southwestern Yukon, Canada, during a peak and decline of the population cycle of snowshoe hares (Lepus americanus). Fifty-five...

  7. Morphological character of crystalline components present in saiga horn.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, K; Hashimoto, K; Akao, M

    2001-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the ultrastructure of saiga-antelope (Saiga tatarica) horn for proposing the mechanism of the initial mineralization. Horn is derived from horny tooth of Cyclostomata. The minerals in saiga horn were identified crystallographically using electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. Soft X-ray photographs revealed the degree of the mineralization pattern. However, the number of rings did not indicate the age of saiga. Mineral deposites were observed among well banded keratin fibers and composed of powder like crystals. This deposited crystals were found by the X-ray diffraction method to be octacalcium phospate (OCP) by comparing these periodic lattice fringes to JCPDS card data. The chemical formula of OCP is Ca8H2(PO4)6.5H2O. Evidences for the presence of OCP in mature hard tissues have never been obtained. This phenomenon described here may be characteristic of saiga horn because we have found no reports on this type of OCP mineralization in any other animal species. It is possible that OCP is the precursor in the initial mineralization step, indicating in a nucleation of mineral on the keratin fibers.

  8. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  9. Vegetative endocarditis in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Chai, N

    1999-12-01

    Streptococcus uberis was cultured from vegetative endocarditis lesions in a scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah) from the Parc de la Haute Touche, France. This is the first reported single isolation of S. uberis from an oryx with vegetative endocarditis leading to fatal congestive heart failure.

  10. Bioassay improvements for assessing pyrethroid resistance in horn flies

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) is a major cattle pest in the American continent, causing yearly economic losses of over US $860 million in Brazil. Frequent use of chemical insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance, leading to significant economic losses and environmental ...

  11. Project Echo: Horn-Reflector Antenna for Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, A. B.; Hogg, D. C.; Hunt, L. E.

    1961-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical features of the horn- reflector antenna used for receiving signals reflected from the Project Echo balloon satellite, and presents in some detail the electrical characteristics (radiation patterns and gain) measured at a frequency of 2390 Mc. Theoretically derived characteristics which agree very well with the measurements are also presented; details of the calculations are given in the appendices.

  12. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March–May “long rains” season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September–November “short rains” season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa. PMID:26601306

  13. Synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Howard, M O; Nieves, M A; Miles, K G

    1996-04-01

    A case of synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was found in June 1993. In radiographs of bilateral swelling of the scapulohumeral joint we observed numerous mineralized foci in the soft tissue. The foci were identified by light microscopy as cartilaginous metaplasia. This is the first report of synovial chondromatosis in an owl.

  14. Ventral horn cell responses to spaceflight and hindlimb suspension

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jiang, Bian; Roy, Roland R.; Poliakov, I. V.; Krasnov, I. B.; Edgerton, V. R.

    1992-01-01

    Ventral horn cells of the lumbosacral enlargement of the spinal cord were studied focusing on the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and cross-sectional area of the soma of ventral horn cells which were measured using a computer-aided image-processing system. The relationships between the soma size and SDH activities of lumber ventral horn cells after 14 days of spaceflight (Cosmos 2044) or of hindlimb suspension are considered. Three groups of rats under consideration include control, 14-day spaceflight, and 14-day hindlimb suspension. Data obtained indicate that, compared to the control group, the population distribution of SDH activities in the flight rats shifted toward higher activities, whereas in the suspended rats the distribution shifted toward lower activities. The interactive effects within individual cells showed that there was a higher percentage of small cells with high SDH activities in the flight than in the control or suspended rats. It is suggested that changes in ventral horn cells were due to factors other than simply the absence of weight support.

  15. Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, foreground left, looking north/northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  16. Crosscurrents of Criticism: Horn Book Essays 1968-1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heins, Paul, Ed.

    More than forty articles originally published in "The Horn Book Magazine" between 1968 and 1977 are grouped into eleven topical sections in this volume. The sections deal with the status, classification, and evaluation of children's literature; conflicting standards on which children's books are judged; fantasy, humor, and current trends in…

  17. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  18. Piracy off the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-19

    between Malaysia , Singapore and Indonesia, which are credited with having drastically reduced the instance of piracy in Southeast Asia since 2005 (see...of New York, April 21, 2009; and Alexandra Marks, “ Teen Somali to be Tried as Adult,” Christian Science Monitor, April 21, 2009. Muse was charged...course of 2009 Administration officials outlined new implementation plans. In addition to providing expanded material assistance to the Somali

  19. Piracy Off the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-09-28

    regional reactions to the threat of piracy in the Strait of Malacca between Malaysia , Singapore and Indonesia, which are credited...District of New York, April 21, 2009; and Alexandra Marks, “ Teen Somali to be Tried as Adult,” Christian Science Monitor, April 21, 2009. 49...course of 2009 Administration officials have outlined new implementation plans. In addition to providing expanded material assistance to the Somali

  20. The role of doublesex in the evolution of exaggerated horns in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yuta; Harigai, Ayane; Nakata, Moe; Hosoya, Tadatsugu; Araya, Kunio; Oba, Yuichi; Ito, Akinori; Ohde, Takahiro; Yaginuma, Toshinobu; Niimi, Teruyuki

    2013-01-01

    Male-specific exaggerated horns are an evolutionary novelty and have diverged rapidly via intrasexual selection. Here, we investigated the function of the conserved sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) in the Japanese rhinoceros beetle (Trypoxylus dichotomus) using RNA interference (RNAi). Our results show that the sex-specific T. dichotomus dsx isoforms have an antagonistic function for head horn formation and only the male isoform has a role for thoracic horn formation. These results indicate that the novel sex-specific regulation of dsx during horn morphogenesis might have been the key evolutionary developmental event at the transition from sexually monomorphic to sexually dimorphic horns. PMID:23609854

  1. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    DOEpatents

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  2. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.

  3. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake.

  4. A planar Bézier profiled horn for reducing penetration force in ultrasonic cutting.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dung-An; Nguyen, Hai-Dang

    2014-01-01

    An ultrasonic planar horn with a Bézier profile is developed. The first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn is exploited for high displacement amplification in order to reduce the penetration force required to enter and cut materials. The displacement amplification and stress distribution characteristics of the Bézier horn and the commonly used catenary horn are examined. The penetration force by the Bézier horn is nearly 75% of that by the catenary horn with a penetration speed of 0.25 mm/s during cutting a tissue stimulant. At a penetration speed of 0.5 mm/s, the penetration force by the Bézier horn is nearly 85% of that by the catenary horn for cutting a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) material. The decrease in the penetration force by the Bézier horn is attributed to the fact that the displacement amplification of the Bézier horn is 30% higher than that of the traditional catenary horn with the same length and end surface widths. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Micro-Horn Arrays for Ultrasonic Impedance Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Thin-layered structures containing arrays of micromachined horns, denoted solid micro-horn arrays (SMIHAs), have been conceived as improved means of matching acoustic impedances between ultrasonic transducers and the media with which the transducers are required to exchange acoustic energy. Typically, ultrasonic transducers (e.g., those used in medical imaging) are piezoelectric or similar devices, which produce small displacements at large stresses. However, larger displacements at smaller stresses are required in the target media (e.g., human tissues) with which acoustic energy is to be exchanged. Heretofore, efficiencies in transmission of acoustic energy between ultrasonic transducers and target media have been severely limited because substantial mismatches of acoustic impedances have remained, even when coupling material layers have been interposed between the transducers and the target media. In contrast, SMIHAs can, in principle, be designed to effect more nearly complete acoustic impedance matching, leading to power transmission efficiencies of 90 percent or even greater. The SMIHA concept is based on extension, into the higher-frequency/ lower-wavelength ultrasonic range, of the use of horns to match acoustic impedances in the audible and lower-frequency ultrasonic ranges. In matching acoustic impedance in transmission from a higher-impedance acoustic source (e.g., a piezoelectric transducer) and a lowerimpedance target medium (e.g., air or human tissue), a horn acts as a mechanical amplifier. The shape and size of the horn can be optimized for matching acoustic impedance in a specified frequency range. A typical SMIHA would consist of a base plate, a face plate, and an array of horns that would constitute pillars that connect the two plates (see figure). In use, the base plate would be connected to an ultrasonic transducer and the face plate would be placed in contact with the target medium. As at lower frequencies, the sizes and shapes of the pillars

  6. Age-dependent relationship between horn growth and survival in wild sheep.

    PubMed

    Bonenfant, Christophe; Pelletier, Fanie; Garel, Mathieu; Bergeron, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    1. Trade-offs in resource allocation underline the evolution of life-history traits but their expression is frequently challenged by empirical findings. In large herbivores, males with large antlers or horns typically have high mating success. The fitness costs of large horns or antlers have rarely been quantified although they are controversial. 2. Here, using detailed longitudinal data on n = 172 bighorn (Ovis canadensis, Shaw) and the capture-mark-recapture methodology, we tested whether early horn growth leads to a survival cost in rams ('trade-off' hypothesis) or if males that can afford rapid horn growth survive better than males of lower phenotypic quality ('phenotypic quality' hypothesis). We also quantified how hunting increased survival costs of bearing large horns. 3. We found an age-specific relationship between horn growth and survival. In all age classes, natural survival was either weakly related to (lambs, adult rams) or positively associated (yearling rams) with early horn growth. Hunting mortality was markedly different from natural mortality of bighorn rams, leading to an artificial negative association between early horn growth and survival. Beginning at age 4, the yearly harvest rate ranged from 12% for males with the smallest horns up to more than 40% for males with the largest horns. 4. Growing large horns early in life is not related to any consistent survival costs, hence supporting the phenotypic quality hypothesis in males of a dimorphic and polygynous large herbivores. Rapid horn growth early in life is, however, strongly counter selected by trophy hunting. We suggest that horn size is a very poor index of reproductive effort and that males modulate their mating activities and energy allocation to horn growth to limit its impact on survival.

  7. Biology and control of tabanids, stable flies and horn flies.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Hogsette, J A

    1994-12-01

    Tabanids are among the most free-living adult flies which play a role as livestock pests. A single blood meal is used as a source of energy for egg production (100-1,000 eggs per meal), and females of certain species can oviposit before a blood meal is obtained (autogeny). Therefore, the maintenance of annual populations requires successful oviposition by only 2% of females. Wild animal blood sources are usually available to maintain annual tabanid populations. Larval habitats are also independent of domestic livestock. Thus, the use of repellents or partial repellents is the only effective chemical strategy to reduce the incidence of tabanids on livestock. Permanent traps (and possibly treated silhouette traps) can be employed to intercept flies. Selective grazing or confinement can also reduce the impact of tabanids. Stable fly adults are dependent on vertebrate blood for survival and reproduction, but the amount of time spent in contact with the host is relatively small. Stable fly larvae develop in manure, spilled feed and decaying vegetation. Management of larval habitats by sanitation is the key to stable fly control. Treatment of animals with residual insecticides can aid in control; thorough application to the lower body parts of livestock is important. Proper use of modified traps, using either treated targets or solar-powered electrocution grids, can be effective in reducing stable fly populations. Adult horn flies spend the major part of their time on the host, and the larvae are confined to bovid manure. Therefore, almost any form of topical insecticide application for livestock is effective against horn flies, in the absence of insecticide resistance. Treatments should be applied when economic benefit is possible; economic gains are associated with increased weaning weights and weight gains of yearling and growing cattle. Oral chemical treatments (insect growth regulators or insecticides) administered at appropriate rates via bolus, water, food or

  8. Attached cavitation at a small diameter ultrasonic horn tip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Cairós, Carlos; Dular, Matevž

    2014-02-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids, for instance, for cell disruption or sonochemical reactions. They are operated typically in the frequency range up to about 50 kHz and have tip diameters from some mm to several cm. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e., below the acoustic driving frequency. Here, we present a systematic study of the cavitation dynamics in water at a 20 kHz horn tip of 3 mm diameter. The system was investigated by high-speed imaging with simultaneous recording of the acoustic emissions. Measurements were performed under variation of acoustic power, air saturation, viscosity, surface tension, and temperature of the liquid. Our findings show that the liquid properties play no significant role in the dynamics of the attached cavitation at the small ultrasonic horn. Also the variation of the experimental geometry, within a certain range, did not change the dynamics. We believe that the main two reasons for the peculiar dynamics of cavitation on a small ultrasonic horn are the higher energy density on a small tip and the inability of the big tip to "wash" away the gaseous bubbles. Calculation of the somewhat adapted Strouhal number revealed that, similar to the hydrodynamic cavitation, values which are relatively low characterize slow cavitation structure dynamics. In cases where the cavitation follows the driving frequency this value lies much higher - probably at Str > 20. In the spirit to distinguish the observed phenomenon with other cavitation dynamics at ultrasonic transducer surfaces, we suggest to term the observed phenomenon of attached cavities partly covering the full horn

  9. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade.

  10. Comparing ovulation synchronization protocols for artificial insemination in the scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Morrow, C J; Wolfe, B A; Roth, T L; Wildt, D E; Bush, M; Blumer, E S; Atkinson, M W; Monfort, S L

    2000-04-28

    Ovarian response and pregnancy success in scimitar-horned oryx (n=28) were compared, following treatment with two synchronization protocols and fixed-time artificial insemination (AI) with frozen-thawed semen. Each oryx received two injections of 500 microg of prostaglandin-F(2alpha) analogue (PGF(2alpha)-only) 11 days apart, and half received PGF(2alpha) in combination with an intravaginal progesterone-releasing device (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)). Semen was collected by electroejaculation from anaesthetised adult oryx and cryopreserved. Anaesthetised females were transcervically inseminated 56.0+/-1.1 h (+/-S.E.M.) after PGF(2alpha) injection and/or device withdrawal using 28.0+/-1.5x10(6) motile thawed sperm. Ovarian endocrine response was monitored in 20 females by analysing faecal oestrogen and progesterone metabolites. Periovulatory oestrogen peaks were detected in 19/20 (95%) females after synchronization. There were no between-treatment differences in oestrogen concentrations or peak characteristics (P0.05). Luteal development after synchronization was delayed in half the progesterone treated (CIDR11+PGF(2alpha)) females, and faecal progestin excretion profiles indicated that the ovulatory follicle associated with synchronization either failed to ovulate or to fully lutenise. Pregnancy was diagnosed by ultrasonography and/or rectal palpation and was monitored by faecal progestin excretion. More (P=0. 013) pregnancies resulted from the PGF(2alpha)-only treatment (37.5%, 5/14) than from the CIDR11+PGF(2alpha) treatment (0/14), and four healthy scimitar-horned oryx calves were born, three after gestation intervals of 247 days and one after 249 days.

  11. Simplified horn antenna parameter estimation using selective criteria

    SciTech Connect

    Ewing, P.D.

    1991-01-01

    An approximation can be used to avoid the complex mathematics and computation methods typically required for calculating the gain and radiation pattern of electromagnetic horn antenna. Because of the curvature of the antenna wave front, calculations using conventional techniques involve solving the Fresnel integrals and using computer-aided numerical integration. With this model, linear approximations give a reasonable estimate of the gain and radiation pattern using simple trigonometric functions, thereby allowing a hand calculator to replace the computer. Applying selected criteria, the case of the E-plane horn antenna was used to evaluate this technique. Results showed that the gain approximation holds for an antenna flare angle of less than 10{degree} for typical antenna dimensions, and the E field radiation pattern approximation holds until the antenna's phase error approaches 60{degree}, both within typical design parameters. This technique is a useful engineering tool. 4 refs., 11 figs.

  12. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afridi, Adeel; Kocabaş, Şükrü Ekin

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  13. Beam steering and impedance matching of plasmonic horn nanoantennas.

    PubMed

    Afridi, Adeel; Kocabaş, Şükrü Ekin

    2016-10-31

    In this paper, we study a plasmonic horn nanoantenna on a metal-backed substrate. The horn nanoantenna structure consists of a two-wire transmission line (TWTL) flared at the end. We analyze the effect of the substrate thickness on the nanoantenna's radiation pattern, and demonstrate beam steering in a broad range of elevation angles. Furthermore, we analyze the effect of the ground plane on the impedance matching between the antenna and the TWTL, and observe that the ground plane increases the back reflection into the waveguide. To reduce the reflection, we develop a transmission line model to design an impedance matching section which leads to 99.75% power transmission to the nanoantenna.

  14. General proof of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian

    2004-09-01

    It is proved that all states of three spin-(1/2) particles exhibiting an 'all versus nothing' contradiction between quantum mechanics and the local realism of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen are exactly the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the states obtained from them by local unitary transformations. The proof is obtained by showing that there are at most four elements (except for a different sign) in a set of mutually commuting nonlocal spin observables in the three-qubit system and using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. We show that only does such a set of four nonlocal spin observables present a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Mermin-like argument. This also reveals the equivalence between the GHZ theorem and maximal violation of the Bell inequality.

  15. Simplified horn antenna parameter estimation using selective criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, P. D.

    1991-03-01

    An approximation can be used to avoid the complex mathematics and computation methods typically required for calculating the gain and radiation pattern of electromagnetic horn antenna. Because of the curvature of the antenna wave front, calculations using conventional techniques involve solving the Fresnel integrals and using computer-aided numerical integration. With this model, linear approximations give a reasonable estimate of the gain and radiation pattern using simple trigonometric functions, thereby allowing a hand calculator to replace the computer. Applying selected criteria, the case of the E-plane horn antenna was used to evaluate this technique. Results showed that the gain approximation holds for an antenna flare angle of less than 10 degrees for typical antenna dimensions, and the E field radiation pattern approximation holds until the antenna's phase error approaches 60 degrees, both within typical design parameters. This technique is a useful engineering tool.

  16. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Case, Ted J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (   Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2–3 years. At each array we measured 26 “local” site descriptors and averaged these values with other “regional” measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (  Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales ( hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  17. Pattern measurements of a low-sidelobe horn antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janssen, M. A.; Gulkis, S.; Bednarczyk, S. M.; Marlin, H. W.; Smoot, G. F.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques and results of power pattern measurements of a corrugated horn antenna designed for low sidelobes are reported. The power pattern was measured to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum in both the E- and H-planes. The measured patterns were found to be in good agreement with predictions from existing theory for the performance of corrugated scalar feeds.

  18. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. Results We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. Conclusions This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and

  19. Gene discovery in the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus.

    PubMed

    Choi, Jeong-Hyeon; Kijimoto, Teiya; Snell-Rood, Emilie; Tae, Hongseok; Yang, Youngik; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2010-12-14

    Horned beetles, in particular in the genus Onthophagus, are important models for studies on sexual selection, biological radiations, the origin of novel traits, developmental plasticity, biocontrol, conservation, and forensic biology. Despite their growing prominence as models for studying both basic and applied questions in biology, little genomic or transcriptomic data are available for this genus. We used massively parallel pyrosequencing (Roche 454-FLX platform) to produce a comprehensive EST dataset for the horned beetle Onthophagus taurus. To maximize sequence diversity, we pooled RNA extracted from a normalized library encompassing diverse developmental stages and both sexes. We used 454 pyrosequencing to sequence ESTs from all post-embryonic stages of O. taurus. Approximately 1.36 million reads assembled into 50,080 non-redundant sequences encompassing a total of 26.5 Mbp. The non-redundant sequences match over half of the genes in Tribolium castaneum, the most closely related species with a sequenced genome. Analyses of Gene Ontology annotations and biochemical pathways indicate that the O. taurus sequences reflect a wide and representative sampling of biological functions and biochemical processes. An analysis of sequence polymorphisms revealed that SNP frequency was negatively related to overall expression level and the number of tissue types in which a given gene is expressed. The most variable genes were enriched for a limited number of GO annotations whereas the least variable genes were enriched for a wide range of GO terms directly related to fitness. This study provides the first large-scale EST database for horned beetles, a much-needed resource for advancing the study of these organisms. Furthermore, we identified instances of gene duplications and alternative splicing, useful for future study of gene regulation, and a large number of SNP markers that could be used in population-genetic studies of O. taurus and possibly other horned beetles.

  20. Endomorphins: localization, release and action on rat dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Dun, N J; Dun, S L; Wu, S Y; Williams, C A; Kwok, E H

    2000-01-01

    Endomorphin (Endo) 1 and 2, two tetrapeptides isolated from the bovine and human brain, have been proposed to be the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor. A multi-disciplinary study was undertaken to address the issues of localization, release and biological action of Endo with respect to the rat dorsal horn. First, immunohistochemical studies showed that Endo-1- or Endo-2-like immunoreactivity (Endo-1- or Endo-2-LI) is selectively expressed in fiber-like elements occupying the superficial layers of the rat dorsal horn, which also exhibit a high level of mu-opiate receptor immunoreactivity. Second, release of immunoreactive Endo-2-like substances (irEndo) from the in vitro rat spinal cords upon electrical stimulation of dorsal root afferent fibers was detected by the immobilized antibody microprobe technique. The site of release corresponded to laminae I and II where the highest density of Endo-2-LI fibers was localized. Lastly, whole-cell patch clamp recordings from substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons of rat lumbar spinal cord slices revealed two distinct actions of exogenous Endo-1 and Endo-2: (1) depression of excitatory and/or inhibitory postsynaptic potentials evoked by stimulation of dorsal root entry zone, and (2) hyperpolarization of SG neurons. These two effects were prevented by the selective mu-opiate receptor antagonist beta-funaltrexamine. The localization of endomorphin-positive fibers in superficial layers of the dorsal horn and the release of irEndo upon stimulation of dorsal root afferents together with the observation that Endo inhibits the activity of SG neurons by interacting with mu-opiate receptors provide additional support of a role of Endo as the endogenous ligand for the mu-opiate receptor in the rat dorsal horn.

  1. Occupational cow horn eye injuries in ibadan, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Oa; Olusanya, Ba

    2014-11-01

    This case series aims to describe the clinical features, management, and outcome of occupational eye injuries caused by cow horns and to recommend possible preventive measures. A review of patients with cow horn inflicted eye injuries seen at the University College Hospital, Ibadan between January 2006, and December 2011 was conducted. Three patients were identified, and their charts were reviewed for demographic information, mechanism of injury, initial and final visual acuity, surgeries performed, as well as anatomic and visual outcome. The three patients were males and were aged 45, 22, and 49 years, respectively. They were all involved in cattle-related jobs, and they all had unilateral open-globe injuries with corneoscleral lacerations. Presenting visual acuity was nil light perception in the injured eyes. The contralateral eyes were all normal. Two of the patients required evisceration of the eye, while the third patient underwent repair of lacerations. Visual improvement was not achieved in any of the patients. Cow horn eye injuries may be quite severe and could result in loss of the eye with monocular blindness. Careful attention must be paid to prevent such injuries. Cattle rearers and dealers should wear safety goggles, and proper restraint of the animals is advocated.

  2. Ultrasonic Heat Transfer Enhancement Using a Horn-Type Transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Shinfuku; Yamamoto, Akira; Murakami, Koichi

    2002-05-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify experimentally the influence of streaming induced by ultrasonic vibration on heat transfer using a horn-type ultrasonic vibrator. A horn tip of 6 mm diameter and 60.7 kHz resonant frequency was used as the ultrasonic transducer. Heat transfer experiments for a downward-facing horizontal heating surface with ultrasonic vibration from below were carried out in a natural convection region. The acoustic jet in the water from the horn tip of the transducer regarded as a nozzle exit was induced by this transducer, and as a result, up to a ten-fold increase in heat transfer coefficient was obtained by application of 20 W in both tap water and degassed water. It was found that the mechanism of heat transfer enhancement by ultrasonic vibration in tap water can be classified into four categories. In degassed water, heat transfer enhancement is influenced not by the acoustic jet, but by small-scale perturbations by cavitation microjets.

  3. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus).

    PubMed

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings.

  4. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  5. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  6. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn.

  7. Improving road safety and residential quality of life : evaluating the automated wayside horn system.

    PubMed

    Lucke, Roy E; Raub, Richard A; Thunder, Thomas E

    2004-01-01

    The automated wayside horn system is designed to replace the train horn as a means of alerting motorists to danger and thus enhancing safety at highway-rail grade crossings. Furthermore, the wayside horn directionality is such that the warning sound is broadcast over a smaller sector than the train horn, thereby reducing residential noise. This article examines the results of an evaluation comparing train horns with wayside horns in the village of Mundelein, Illinois, USA. The study derived from previous work in Gering, Nebraska, and Ames, Iowa.During the 3 months covering the 'before' (train horn) period and through to 'after' (wayside horn), more than 19 500 crossing gate closures were recorded on videotape at three crossings. Analysis showed motorist violation of level-crossing laws decreased 68%, from an average rate of 3.53 per 100 gate closings when train horns were in use to 1.12 per 100 with the wayside horn. The decrease was statistically significant. Of equal importance was the decrease in residential noise. Sound measurements taken in a sample of residential yards showed a decrease in sound levels by more than 10 decibels (dB) at most locations. When plotted as sound contours, decreases in the area of coverage ranged from 85% at the 90dB level to 65% at the 70dB level.However, there are two issues with the use of wayside horns that need to be resolved. First, and most important, is that the wayside horn starts sounding when the warning lights begin to flash. This startles motorists, and some stop on the rail tracks. A second issue is the frequent unwarranted activation of the system, which encourages people to ignore the gate.

  8. Acute abdomen in a case with noncommunicating rudimentary horn and unicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Atmaca, Rusen; Germen, Aysegul Tezcan; Burak, Feza; Kafkasli, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is the rarest congenital anatomic anomaly of the female genital system, causing many obstetrical and gynecologic complications. The frequency of this pathology is approximately 1/100 000. A rudimentary horn usually develops following insufficient development of mullerian ducts. These patients present with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain because of endometriosis and rarely with acute abdominal symptoms following distention and torsion of the noncommunicating rudimentary horn. The case of a patient referred for acute abdomen after distention of a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is presented herein.

  9. Acute Abdomen in a Case With Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn and Unicornuate Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Germen, Aysegul Tezcan; Burak, Feza; Kafkasli, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is the rarest congenital anatomic anomaly of the female genital system, causing many obstetrical and gynecologic complications. The frequency of this pathology is approximately 1/100 000. A rudimentary horn usually develops following insufficient development of mullerian ducts. These patients present with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain because of endometriosis and rarely with acute abdominal symptoms following distention and torsion of the noncommunicating rudimentary horn. The case of a patient referred for acute abdomen after distention of a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is presented herein. PMID:15984720

  10. Computation of reflected and transmitted horn radiation patterns for a dichroic plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1994-01-01

    A previous dichroic plate analysis has assumed that an ideal uniform plane wave illuminates the dichroic plate at a single angle of incidence. In fact, a horn radiates energy at the dichroic plate and illuminates it at many different angles. To model the horn and dichroic plate system, the horn pattern is represented as a group of plane waves traveling in different directions. The details of this analysis are presented this article. The calculated and measured reflected radiation patterns show good agreement. The noise temperature predicted from the horn pattern model is shown to be more accurate than that from a simple plane-wave model.

  11. An ultrasonic horn atomizer with closed loop driving circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yuan-Fang; Chen, Kai-Jhong; Hsu, Jui-Mei; Chou, Pei-En

    2016-04-01

    A novel ultrasonic horn atomizer is developed for the purpose of obtaining small size droplets at a large flow rate. The ultrasonic horn has a non-monotonically decreasing cross sectional area to provide a large atomizing surface. Consisting of two horns and one actuator section, the 301 kHz atomizer nozzle is made of {100} silicon wafer with its axis aligned in the <100> direction to minimize the length. Two PZT plates are adhered to each side of the actuator section to provide driving power. This device atomizes the liquid film on its nozzle tip to generate droplets. It is capable of atomizing more than 350 μl/min water into droplet. The mean diameter of droplet is 9.61 μm and the size distribution is quite narrow. The atomizing mechanism is based on the capillary wave on liquid surface. Once the wave amplitude exceeds the critical value, the motion of surface liquid becomes unstable and releases droplets. Therefore, driving at resonant frequency is the most effective way for atomizing. Dimension deviation combined with different kind of liquid to be atomized causes resonant frequencies of nozzles changed from time to time. Due to the high Q nature of nozzles, atomizing performance will drop drastically once the driving frequency is different from its resonant frequency by very little amount. Therefore, a feedback circuit is designed to tracking resonant frequency automatically instead of adjusting driving frequency manually. Comparing the atomizing performance between the open loop system and the closed loop system, significant improvement is obtained.

  12. Surveying woodland hawks with broadcasts of great horned owl vocalization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, James A.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-recorded vocalizations of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) broadcast into predominantly wooded habitat along roadside survey routes resulted in as many detections of resident red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) as broadcasts of each conspecific calls. Survey results for 3 species, expressed as average number of contacts/route, were directly related to the number of resident pairs located during systematic searches conducted on foot across the study area. Regression models based on road-transect counts were significant for predicting abundance of red-shouldered hawks, broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), and Cooper's hawks from our study areas.

  13. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.

  14. Entanglement Distillation from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Shares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrana, Péter; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-03-01

    We study the problem of converting a product of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states shared by subsets of several parties in an arbitrary way into GHZ states shared by every party. Such a state can be described by a hypergraph on the parties as vertices and with each hyperedge corresponding to a GHZ state shared among the parties incident with it. Our result is that if SLOCC transformations are allowed, then the best asymptotic rate is the minimum of bipartite log-ranks of the initial state, which in turn equals the minimum cut of the hypergraph. This generalizes a result by Strassen on the asymptotic subrank of the matrix multiplication tensor.

  15. Entanglement Distillation from Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Shares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrana, Péter; Christandl, Matthias

    2017-06-01

    We study the problem of converting a product of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states shared by subsets of several parties in an arbitrary way into GHZ states shared by every party. Such a state can be described by a hypergraph on the parties as vertices and with each hyperedge corresponding to a GHZ state shared among the parties incident with it. Our result is that if SLOCC transformations are allowed, then the best asymptotic rate is the minimum of bipartite log-ranks of the initial state, which in turn equals the minimum cut of the hypergraph. This generalizes a result by Strassen on the asymptotic subrank of the matrix multiplication tensor.

  16. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-10-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions.

  17. Mifepristone-induced abortion in one horn and a growing fetus in another horn in a patient with a twin pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus.

    PubMed

    Chao, Angel; Chao, An-Shine; Wang, Shih-Tíen; Wang, Tzu-Hao

    2006-12-01

    To report a case of mifepristone-induced abortion in only one horn but a growing fetus in another horn for a twin pregnancy in a bicornuate uterus. Case report. Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Chang Gung Memorial Hospital, Taiwan. A 31-year-old woman who conceived spontaneously presented with 37 days' gestation. Mifepristone 600 mg orally followed by misoprostol 400 mug orally 2 days later. Termination of pregnancy. Induced abortion in only one horn but a growing fetus in another horn for a twin pregnancy in the bicornuate uterus detected by ultrasound. Surgical abortion with vacuum curettage was performed, and menstruation resumed 1 month later. As medical abortion with mifepristone and misoprostol becomes more prevalent, more studies are necessary to establish the dosage and regimens for multiple pregnancies associated with uterine anomalies.

  18. [Renal function after surgical treatment of stag-horned nephrolithiasis].

    PubMed

    Akulin, S M; Ianenko, E K; Demin, A I; Nikitinskaia, L P

    2010-01-01

    Renal function in patients with stag-horn nephrolithiasis was assessed after two surgical treatments--percutaneous nephrolitholapaxy (PCN L) and pyelonephrolithotomy. The function of the operated and contralateral kidneys was studied early and late after operation by parameters of blood biochemistry, Doppler investigation of renal parenchyma, dynamic nephroscintigraphy. Stabilization or improvement of blood biochemical indices was observed in 58 (70%) patients. A secretory renal function late after surgery (from 6 months to 2 years) evidenced for improvement or stabilization of renal function (according to radionuclide test) in 71 (85.5%) patients. Integral parameters of renal blood flow were physiological or improved versus preoperative ones. PCNL was made in patients with deficient secretion less than 70%, 35 (87.5%) patients were diagnosed to have stabilization or functional improvement. After open intervention functional improvement took place in 11 (25.6%) patients, stabilization of renal function occurred in 25 (58.1%) patients. Tubular secretion deterioration was seen much more frequently in patients after open intervention. PCNL is less invasive surgical intervention than pyelonephrolithotomy as this technique produces milder surgical trauma and does not result in intraoperative renal ischemia. PCNL is the most effective surgical modality in stag-horn concrements of the kidneys and significantly expands potential of low-invasive treatment of such patients.

  19. Hox cluster genomics in the horn shark, Heterodontus francisci.

    PubMed

    Kim, C B; Amemiya, C; Bailey, W; Kawasaki, K; Mezey, J; Miller, W; Minoshima, S; Shimizu, N; Wagner, G; Ruddle, F

    2000-02-15

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of Hox cluster origins will lead to insights into the developmental and evolutionary significance of Hox gene clusters in vertebrate phylogeny and to their role in the origins of various vertebrate body plans. We have isolated two Hox clusters from the horn shark, Heterodontus francisci. These have been sequenced and compared with one another and with other chordate Hox clusters. The results show that one of the horn shark clusters (HoxM) is orthologous to the mammalian HoxA cluster and shows a structural similarity to the amphioxus cluster, whereas the other shark cluster (HoxN) is orthologous to the mammalian HoxD cluster based on cluster organization and a comparison with noncoding and Hox gene-coding sequences. The persistence of an identifiable HoxA cluster over an 800-million-year divergence time demonstrates that the Hox gene clusters are highly integrated and structured genetic entities. The data presented herein identify many noncoding sequence motifs conserved over 800 million years that may function as genetic control motifs essential to the developmental process.

  20. Hox cluster genomics in the horn shark, Heterodontus francisci

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chang-Bae; Amemiya, Chris; Bailey, Wendy; Kawasaki, Kazuhiko; Mezey, Jason; Miller, Webb; Minoshima, Shinsei; Shimizu, Nobuyoshi; Wagner, Günter; Ruddle, Frank

    2000-01-01

    Reconstructing the evolutionary history of Hox cluster origins will lead to insights into the developmental and evolutionary significance of Hox gene clusters in vertebrate phylogeny and to their role in the origins of various vertebrate body plans. We have isolated two Hox clusters from the horn shark, Heterodontus francisci. These have been sequenced and compared with one another and with other chordate Hox clusters. The results show that one of the horn shark clusters (HoxM) is orthologous to the mammalian HoxA cluster and shows a structural similarity to the amphioxus cluster, whereas the other shark cluster (HoxN) is orthologous to the mammalian HoxD cluster based on cluster organization and a comparison with noncoding and Hox gene-coding sequences. The persistence of an identifiable HoxA cluster over an 800-million-year divergence time demonstrates that the Hox gene clusters are highly integrated and structured genetic entities. The data presented herein identify many noncoding sequence motifs conserved over 800 million years that may function as genetic control motifs essential to the developmental process. PMID:10677514

  1. Rumen perforation caused by horn injury in two cows.

    PubMed

    Braun, Ueli; Gerspach, Christian; Stettler, Manuela; Grob, Daniela; Sydler, Titus

    2016-01-20

    Post-operative complications of trocarisation and rumenotomy are the most common causes of peritonitis associated with a rumen disorder. Since horn injury leading to rumen perforation has not previously been reported in the literature, two cows with this condition are reported. Small superficial skin lesions were observed in one of the cows and the other had a perforating skin lesion in the left abdomen. Both cows had signs of hypovolaemic shock. Ultrasonography revealed hypoechoic fluid, echoic lesions and occasional fibrinous septa caudoventral to the reticulum. Caudally the fluid extended to the left flank fold and occupied about one third of the peritoneal cavity. The area of the skin perforation in the left abdomen was swollen and the muscle layers could not be differentiated using ultrasonography. Diffuse fibrino-purulent peritonitis was diagnosed in both cows, and because of a poor prognosis, they were euthanased and necropsied. Perforation of the abdominal wall and rumen with diffuse fibrino-purulent peritonitis was present. Ultrasonography is a suitable tool to characterise the inflammatory lesions between the rumen and left abdominal wall and objectify the interpretation of clinical findings. Horn injury should be included in the rule outs for cattle with left abdominal skin wounds and diffuse peritonitis.

  2. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  3. 454 pyrosequencing project identifying expressed genes from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...

  4. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  7. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  8. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  9. Rdl-containing Fragment of GABA(A) from the Horn Fly, Haematobia Irritans, Susceptible Genotype

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a significant economic pest of cattle found throughout Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. The major means of controlling the horn fly is through applications of chemicals with insecticidal activity. A cyclodiene-containing ear tag product h...

  10. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticid...

  11. Pyrosequencing-based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia Irritans

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the economically important pests of cattle. Use of insecticide has been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns of insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and nonavailability of new generation insecticides ...

  12. Determination of the Phase Centers of Millimeter-Wave Horn Antennas Using a Holographic Interference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, Ian; Murphy, J. Anthony; McCarthy, Darragh; Gradziel, Marcin; Mahon, Ronan; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss how a holographic interference technique can be applied in the experimental determination of the phase centers of non-standard horn antennas in the millimeter-waveband. The phase center is the point inside the horn from which the radiation appears to emanate when viewed from the far-field, and knowing its location is necessary for optimizing coupling efficiencies to quasi-optical systems. For non-standard horn designs, and other feed structures, the phase center may be difficult to reliably predict by simulation, in which case, before committing to antenna manufacture, there is a requirement for it to be determined experimentally. Although the phase center can be recovered by direct phase measurement of the far-field beam pattern, this usually involves expensive instrumentation such as a vector network analyzer for millimeter wave horn antennas. In this paper, we describe one inexpensive alternative, which is based on measuring the interference pattern in intensity between the radiation from the horn of interest and a reference beam derived from the same coherent source in an off-axis holography setup. The accuracy of the approach is improved by comparison with the interference pattern of a well-understood standard horn (such as a corrugated conical horn) in the same experimental setup. We present an example of the technique applied to a profiled smooth-walled horn antenna, which has been especially designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments.

  13. Nutritional Limitation on Growth and Development of Horn Fly (Diptera:Muscidae) Larvae

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Aging of bovine dung for 3-5 yr under refrigeration depleted nutrients required for growth and development of horn fly larvae. Growth of horn fly larvae in mixtures of nutrient-depleted dung and fresh dung resulted in production of larvae and pupae stunted in proportion to the relative amount of ag...

  14. USAFRICOM’s Role in Counter-Piracy Operations Within the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-04

    2008), 3. 45 “A Cooperative Strategy for 21 st Century Seapower”, October 2007. 46 Jacquelyn S. Porth , “Piracy Off the Horn of Africa Threatens...owens.piracy.html, (accessed 19 April 2009). Porth , Jacquelyn S. “Piracy Off the Horn of Africa Threatens Relief Efforts, Trade.” America.gov. http

  15. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Determination No. 2011-13... Africa Memorandum for the Secretary of State By the authority vested in me as President by the... humanitarian crisis in the Horn of Africa. You are authorized and directed to publish this memorandum in...

  16. Knemidokoptes mutans (Acari: Knemidocoptidae) in a great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Schulz, T A; Stewart, J S; Fowler, M E

    1989-07-01

    A routine examination of a captive juvenile great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus) revealed bilateral proliferative papillary hyperkeratosis on the feet. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings produced numerous mites identified as Knemidokoptes mutans. This is the first record of this parasite in a great-horned owl. A single dose of ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg) was effective in treatment of this infection.

  17. Identification of oxytocin receptor in the dorsal horn and nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Moreno-López, Y; Martínez-Lorenzana, G; Condés-Lara, M; Rojas-Piloni, G

    2013-04-01

    Oxytocin (OT) secreted by the hypothalamo-spinal projection exerts antinociceptive effects in the dorsal horn. Electrophysiological evidence indicates that OT could exert these effects by activating OT receptors (OTR) directly on dorsal horn neurons and/or primary nociceptive afferents in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG). However, little is known about the identity of the dorsal horn and DRG neurons that express the OTR. In the dorsal horn, we found that the OTR is expressed principally in neurons cell bodies. However, neither spino-thalamic dorsal horn neurons projecting to the contralateral thalamic ventral posterolateral nucleus (VPL) and posterior nuclear group (Po) nor GABaergic dorsal horn neurons express the OTR. The OTR is not expressed in skin nociceptive terminals or in dorsal horn nociceptive fibers. In the DRG, however, the OTR is expressed predominantly in non-peptidergic C-fiber cell bodies, but not in peptidergic or mechanoreceptor afferents or in skin nociceptive terminals. Our results suggest that the antinociceptive effects of OT are mediated by direct activation of dorsal horn neurons and peripheral actions on nociceptive, non-peptidergic C-afferents in the DRG.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Wayside Horns E Appendix E to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... 222, App. E Appendix E to Part 222—Requirements for Wayside Horns This appendix sets forth...

  19. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  20. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  1. An Interview with Michael Horn: Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning holds the potential of improving the way we educate students and of making them more motivated. Blended education--the melding of information technology based distance learning with school attendance--is perhaps the best way to educate students for 21st century skills, says Michael Horn in a "Kappan" interview. Horn points out…

  2. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety device shall be maintained in a functional...

  3. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety device shall be maintained in a functional...

  4. Meniscectomy of horizontal tears of the lateral meniscus anterior horn using the joystick technique.

    PubMed

    Park, Ill Ho; Kim, Sung Jae; Choi, Duck Hyun; Lee, Su Chan; Park, Ha Young; Jung, Kwang Am

    2014-01-01

    Unstable inferior leaves of the anterior horn in horizontal tears of the lateral meniscus are challenging lesions for most orthopedic surgeons due to the poor viewing angle and the instability of these lesions. Resection of an exact volume is required for the successful treatment of horizontal tears in the lateral meniscus anterior horn. We report a method based on the joystick technique.

  5. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... NONMETAL MINES Machinery and Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 57.14132 Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices provided on self-propelled mobile equipment as a safety device shall be maintained in a functional...

  6. Evaluation of alternative tactics for management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Simpson, R B; Rorie, R W; Phillips, J M; Rosenkrans, C F

    2003-06-01

    A 3-yr study was conducted to determine the efficacy of tactics that could be used to manage populations of insecticide-resistant horn flies, Hematobia irritans irritans (L.). Insecticide spray, spot-on or pour-on formulations and two IGRs in bolus formulation, 1.3- and 3.2-ha pasture rotations on different rotation schedules, 0-50% Brahman breeding, selected fly-resistant cows, and a mechanical trap were evaluated singly and in combination. Concentration-mortality tests indicated that horn flies collected from cows used in the current study were significantly less susceptible to diazinon, coumaphos, and methoxychlor than horn flies from cows at the same locations previously used to determine baseline susceptibility. During the 3-yr study at the Southeast Research and Extension Center (SEREC), the IGR-bolus significantly reduced (P < 0.05) horn fly numbers on both the continuous and rotational graze regimens, resulting in significantly (P < 0.05) greater calf weaning weights (average of 24 kg). Horn fly numbers were significantly greater on untreated cows during the 3-yr study at the Southwest Research and Extension Center (SWREC) compared with the mean fly numbers on cows that received fly-management treatments. All tactics and tactic-combinations used at SWREC on cattle having no Brahman breeding failed to significantly reduce insecticide-resistant horn fly numbers. However, the combination of Brahman breeding with the IGR-Bolus and mechanical trap significantly reduced horn fly numbers and resulted in significant increases in calf weaning weight. In addition, mean horn fly numbers decreased significantly as the percentage Brahman breeding increased with 50% Brahman breeding reducing horn fly numbers by 140 flies per cow. No significant difference was found between the mean fly numbers on the fly-resistant purebred group and the cows that had no Brahman breeding but received the IGR-Bolus or used the mechanical trap. The use of synergized zeta-cypermethrin pour

  7. High-gain step-profiled integrated diagonal horn-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-05-01

    A new step-profiled integrated-horn antenna is proposed. The antenna allows gains in the range of 17-20 dB to be achieved using standard (100) silicon wafers. The antenna is diagonally fed and exhibits very good circular symmetry within the 10-dB beamwidth. It has a fundamental Gaussian coupling efficiency of 83 percent. It is demonstrated that the profiled antenna has a radiation pattern similar to that of its smooth envelope horn, provided that the discontinuity between successive wafers does not exceed 0.15 lambda. The integrated stepped-profile horn performs much better than a corresponding smooth 70 deg flare-angle integrated horn of the same aperture size. The integrated step-profile horn is very well-suited for radio-astonomical and remote-sensing millimeter-wave imaging arrays requiring a large number of focal-plane elements.

  8. Pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Bethany R; Moczek, Armin P

    2012-05-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape, and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species.

  9. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-04-03

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  10. pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Bethany R.; Moczek, Armin P.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species. PMID:21998033

  11. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  12. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp. PMID:24700037

  13. Design of highly uniform spool and bar horns for ultrasonic bonding.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun-Rak; Lee, Jae Hak; Yoo, Choong D; Song, Jun-Yeob; Lee, Seung S

    2011-10-01

    Although the groove and slot have been widely utilized for horn design to achieve high uniformity, their effects on uniformity have not been analyzed thoroughly. In this work, spool and bar horns for ultrasonic bonding are designed in a systematic way using the design of experiments (DOE) to achieve high amplitude uniformity of the horn. Three-dimensional modal analysis is conducted to predict the natural frequency, amplitude, and stress of the horns, and the DOE is employed to analyze the effects of the groove and slot on the amplitude uniformity. The design equations are formulated to determine the optimum dimensions of the groove and slot, and the uniformity is found to be influenced most significantly by the groove depth and slot width. Displacements of the spool and bar horns were measured using a laser Doppler vibrometer (LDV), and the predicted results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  14. The development of an L-band radiometer dual-mode horn. [for ocean surface temperature measurement

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, M. C.

    1975-01-01

    An antenna was developed for the remote microwave measurement of ocean surface temperature during a flight test in a C54 aircraft. The basic antenna is a conical dual-mode horn similar to the dual-mode horn described by Potter (1963). The pertinent internal dimensions of the horn are given. The measured E and H plane patterns for the linearly polarized horn for a range of frequencies are shown in a graph.

  15. Diversification of doublesex function underlies morph-, sex-, and species-specific development of beetle horns

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Moczek, Armin P.; Andrews, Justen

    2012-01-01

    Sex-specific trait expression is frequently associated with highly variable, condition-dependent expression within sexes and rapid divergence among closely related species. Horned beetles are an excellent example for studying the molecular basis of these phenomena because horn morphology varies markedly among species, between sexes, and among alternative, nutritionally-cued morphs within sexes. In addition, horns lack obvious homology to other insect traits and provide a good opportunity to explore the molecular basis of the rapid diversification of a novel trait within and between species. Here we show that the sex-determination gene doublesex (dsx) underlies important aspects of horn development, including differences between sexes, morphs, and species. In male Onthophagus taurus, dsx transcripts were preferentially expressed in the horns of the large, horned morph, and RNAi-mediated knockdown of dsx dramatically altered male horn allometry by massively reducing horn development in large males, but not in smaller males. Conversely, dsx RNAi induced ectopic, nutrition-sensitive horn development in otherwise hornless females. Finally, in a closely related species (Onthophagus sagittarius) that has recently evolved a rare reversed sexual dimorphism, dsx RNAi revealed reversed as well as novel dsx functions despite an overall conservation of dsx expression. This suggests that rapid evolution of dsx functions has facilitated the transition from a regular sexual dimorphism to a reversed sexual dimorphism in this species. Our findings add beetle horns to existing examples of a close relationship between dsx and sexual trait development, and suggest that dsx function has been coopted to facilitate both the evolution of environmentally-cued intrasexual dimorphisms and rapid species divergences in a novel trait. PMID:23184999

  16. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... Flat- Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION..., proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard (Phrynosoma mcallii) as threatened under the Endangered..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens the...

  17. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water..., hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, blood, and fat of any livestock found to be affected...

  18. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Horn Fly: Detection of Pyrethroid, Organophosphate and Cyclodiene Target Site Resistance

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an important pest to the livestock industry that causes economic losses of approximately US$1 billion in the U.S. and a similar value in Latin America. Horn fly control efforts still relies mainly on direct application of insecticides although horn fly ...

  19. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... other provision of this part, a locomotive engineer may sound the locomotive horn to provide a warning... imminent injury, death, or property damage. (2) Notwithstanding any other provision of this part, including... locomotive horns in emergency situations, nor does it impose a legal duty to sound the locomotive horn...

  20. Sky input horn for a far-infrared interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Eichhorn, W. L.; Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A unique design has been developed whereby a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a compound elliptical concentrator (CEC) are joined at their throats. The CPC serves as the field-defining optics, in that it accepts up to a certain maximum acceptance angle and then concentrates this accepted energy at its throat. Energy incident from angles greater than the acceptance angle is rejected. The CEC takes the energy concentrated at the CPC throat and then redirects this energy into a finite-sized pupil a given distance away. The considered design will be used as the sky input horn for a cryogenic far-infrared polarizing interferometer to be flown on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite. The interferometer will operate at 2 K and measure the 3-K cosmic background radiation of the universe in the 100-micrometer-1-cm spectral range.

  1. A curious pellet from a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the traditional methods of determining the dietary preferences of owls relies upon the identification of bony remains of prey contained in regurgitated pellets. Discovery of a pellet containing a large, complete primary feather from an adult, male Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) prompted us to examine in detail a small sample of pellets from a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). Our analyses of feather and hair remains in these pellets documented the presence of three species of birds and two species of mammals, whereas bones in the pellets represented only mammals. This finding indicates an important bias that challenges the reliability of owl pellet studies making use of only osteological remains.

  2. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  3. Micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator based on a liquid horn structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, J. M.; Ejimofor, C.; Kumar, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    A micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator is developed and demonstrated for drop-on-demand fluid atomization. The droplet generator comprises a bulk ceramic piezoelectric transducer for ultrasound generation, a reservoir for the ejection fluid, and a silicon micromachined liquid horn structure as the nozzle. The nozzles are formed using a simple batch microfabrication process that involves wet etching of (100) silicon in potassium hydroxide solution. Device operation is demonstrated by droplet ejection of water through 30 μm orifices at 1.49 and 2.30 MHz. The finite-element simulations of the acoustic fields in the cavity and electrical impedance of the device are in agreement with the measurements and indicate that the device utilizes cavity resonances in the 1-5 MHz range in conjunction with acoustic wave focusing by the pyramidally shaped nozzles to achieve low power operation.

  4. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    PubMed

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N

    2014-06-12

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  5. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    PubMed Central

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-01-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels. PMID:24921415

  6. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  7. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. © 2012 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  8. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus.

  9. Measurements of very low-sidelobe conical horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco A.; Ratliff, Roger B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Maruschak, John G.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of conical corrugated-horn antennas that were designed for millimeter-wave radiometers with a 7 degree field of view, namely the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) that will measure the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation that is generally thought to be the remnant of the primeval explosion, the Big Bang. The DMRs will be part of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Measured test results for three radiometers at 31.4, 53, and 90 GHz are reported along with those of a circular polarization orthomode transducer designed and characterized at 31.4 GHz. The measurement techniques and facilities are described, including an outdoor far-field facility where measurements down to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum were achieved. The goal of achieving very low-sidelobe antennas with good symmetry has been demonstrated.

  10. Conventional reanastomosis versus laser welding of rat uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, A G; Carter, M; Ahmed, A; Sielszak, M W

    1987-04-01

    In this study we compared conventional surgical techniques with those of low-power CO2 lasers (output 140 mW; spot size 0.4 mm) used to weld transected rat uterine horns. On one side a microanastomosis was made by standard surgical technique of 8-0 nylon; the other side was "welded" either after doing the anastomosis with 8-0 sutures or without any anastomotic sutures. Histologic sections obtained from rats' uteri treated with conventional and laser surgery showed that on the laser-treated sutured side there was less necrosis and inflammatory and giant cells. The animals that underwent laser welding without suturing had no necrosis, suppuration, or granulation; giant cells were not present. We conclude that in the tissue from the laser-treated animals, when compared with conventional and laser-with-suture surgery, histologic features indicate healing process by primary intention via an aseptic noninflammatory reaction.

  11. Redefining ecological ethics: science, policy, and philosophy at Cape Horn.

    PubMed

    Frodeman, Robert

    2008-12-01

    In the twentieth century, philosophy (especially within the United States) embraced the notion of disciplinary expertise: philosophical research consists of working with and writing for other philosophers. Projects that involve non-philosophers earn the deprecating title of "applied" philosophy. The University of North Texas (UNT) doctoral program in philosophy exemplifies the possibility of a new model for philosophy, where graduate students are trained in academic philosophy and in how to work with scientists, engineers, and policy makers. This "field" (rather than "applied") approach emphasizes the inter- and transdisciplinary nature of the philosophical enterprise where theory and practice dialectically inform one another. UNT's field station in philosophy at Cape Horn, Patagonia, Chile is one site for developing this ongoing experiment in the theory and practice of interdisciplinary philosophic research and education.

  12. Purifying Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states using degenerate quantum codes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, K. H.; Chau, H. F.

    2008-10-01

    Degenerate quantum codes are codes that do not reveal the complete error syndrome. Their ability to conceal the complete error syndrome makes them powerful resources in certain quantum-information processing tasks. In particular, the most error-tolerant way to purify depolarized Bell states using one-way communication known to date involves degenerate quantum codes. Here we study three closely related purification schemes for depolarized Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states shared among m⩾3 players by means of degenerate quantum codes and one-way classical communications. We find that our schemes tolerate more noise than all other one-way schemes known to date, further demonstrating the effectiveness of degenerate quantum codes in quantum-information processing.

  13. Erosional history of Big Horn basin: Mackin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Palmquist, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The classic study of the erosional history of Big Horn basin is by Mackin in 1937. In it he studied the terrace levels which ranged in age from Late Tertiary to late Pleistocene. He postulated that the terraces were the product of stream captures or intervals of interglacial stability alternating with glacial incision. More recent studies have revised Mackin's classically simple model. Detailed studies have increased the number of terrace levels, changed the timing of their stability episode, and estimated their ages. The number of terrace levels has been increased to nine along the Greybull and Bighorn Rivers and to six along the Shoshoni River. Because some of the different levels occur along each river, the number of unique levels within the basin is 12. The occurrence of a 600,000 and a 100,000 year old ash on two terrace levels allows the ages of the terraces to be estimated. The estimated ages range from 3 m.y. for the Tatman to 49,000 years for the Himes, which is the lowest level along the Bighorn River. Both ashes were deposited during river stability intervals and indicate that the Bighorn River and its eastern tributaries were stable late in the interglacial episodes. In contrast, the glaciofluvial gravels along the Shoshoni River at Cody indicate a late glacial stability episode for the western tributaries. The terrace cycles along the Bighorn River and its western tributaries are therefore out-of-phase. Comparison of the estimated terrace ages to termination in the marine isotopic record indicates that not all of the Pleistocene climatic cycles are preserved in the Big Horn basin terrace chronology.

  14. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs.

    PubMed

    McCullough, Erin L; Tobalske, Bret W

    2013-05-07

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male-male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns.

  15. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male–male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns. PMID:23486444

  16. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  17. Analysis of soft and hard strip-loaded horns using a circular cylindrical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik

    1990-06-01

    Strip-loaded horns with transverse (soft) and longitudinal (hard) strips are analyzed theoretically. The method is based on a circular cylindrical and uniform waveguide model with a periodic strip structure. The field is represented by an infinite series of space harmonics (Floquet modes) in the air-filled central region and in the dielectrically filled wall region. The tangential field is forced to be continuous across the air-dielectric boundary. The propagation constant and the total field (including the hybrid factor) can be determined by solving the resulting matrix equations. The convergence of the solution has been accelerated by calculating the higher-order terms analytically. It is shown that the soft-strip-loaded horn in principle exhibits the same electrical behavior as a corrugated horn. The horn represents an interesting alternative to the corrugated horn in wide-band or dual-band applications, in particular for millimeter waves and for lightweight applications onboard satellites. The hard-strip-loaded horn has potentially high gain and low cross polarization over a certain frequency range, dependent on the horn dimensions, thickness of the dielectric wall and on how strongly the stripline modes are being excited.

  18. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant.

  19. Responses of spinal dorsal horn neurons to foot movements in rats with a sprained ankle

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acute ankle injuries are common problems and often lead to persistent pain. To investigate the underlying mechanism of ankle sprain pain, the response properties of spinal dorsal horn neurons were examined after ankle sprain. Acute ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending the ankle of a rat hindlimb in a direction of plantarflexion and inversion. The weight-bearing ratio (WBR) of the affected foot was used as an indicator of pain. Single unit activities of dorsal horn neurons in response to plantarflexion and inversion of the foot or ankle compression were recorded from the medial part of the deep dorsal horn, laminae IV-VI, in normal and ankle-sprained rats. One day after ankle sprain, rats showed significantly reduced WBRs on the affected foot, and this reduction was partially restored by systemic morphine. The majority of deep dorsal horn neurons responded to a single ankle stimulus modality. After ankle sprain, the mean evoked response rates were significantly increased, and afterdischarges were developed in recorded dorsal horn neurons. The ankle sprain-induced enhanced evoked responses were significantly reduced by morphine, which was reversed by naltrexone. The data indicate that movement-specific dorsal horn neuron responses were enhanced after ankle sprain in a morphine-dependent manner, thus suggesting that hyperactivity of dorsal horn neurons is an underlying mechanism of pain after ankle sprain. PMID:21389306

  20. Differential recruitment of limb patterning genes during development and diversification of beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Moczek, Armin P; Rose, Debra J

    2009-06-02

    The origins of novel complex phenotypes represent one of the most fundamental, yet largely unresolved, issues in evolutionary biology. Here we explore the developmental genetic regulation of beetle horns, a class of traits that lacks obvious homology to traits in other insects. Furthermore, beetle horns are remarkably diverse in their expression, including sexual dimorphisms, male dimorphisms, and interspecific differences in location of horn expression. At the same time, beetle horns share aspects of their development with that of more traditional appendages. We used larval RNA interference-mediated gene function analysis of 3 cardinal insect appendage patterning genes, dachshund, homothorax, and Distal-less, to investigate their role in development and diversification of beetle horns within and between species. Transcript depletion of all 3 patterning genes generated phenotypic effects very similar to those documented in previous studies that focused on general insect development. In addition, we found that Distal-less and homothorax, but not dachshund, regulate horn expression in a species-, sex-, body region-, and body size-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate differential co-option of appendage patterning genes during the evolution and radiation of beetle horns. Furthermore, our results illustrate that regulatory genes whose functions are otherwise highly conserved nevertheless retain the capacity to acquire additional functions, and that little phylogenetic distance appears necessary for the evolution of sex- and species-specific differences in these functions.

  1. The evolution of fossoriality and the adaptive role of horns in the Mylagaulidae (Mammalia: Rodentia)

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Samantha S.B

    2005-01-01

    Ceratogaulus, a member of the extinct fossorial rodent clade Mylagaulidae, is the only known rodent with horns and the smallest known horned mammal. The function of the large, dorsally projecting nasal horns on this burrowing animal has been the subject of wide speculation among palaeontologists; suggested uses range from sexual combat to burrowing. Mammals have evolved adaptations for digging repeatedly; horns and other cranial appendages have also evolved numerous times. These two adaptations co-occur in mammals extremely rarely: only two fossil genera (Ceratogaulus and the xenarthran Peltephilus) and no extant mammals are both horned and fossorial. Tracing the evolution of fossoriality in aplodontoid rodents (the larger clade to which Ceratogaulus belongs) reveals that Ceratogaulus descended from ancestors who dug by head-lifting. Whereas this suggests an obvious explanation for the horns of this rodent, evidence from functional morphology, anatomy, phylogeny and geologic context indicates that the horns in Ceratogaulus were used for defence, rather than digging, and evolved to offset increased predation costs associated with spending more time foraging above ground as body size increased. PMID:16087426

  2. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect. PMID:23028533

  3. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  4. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Opiates and Pain Pathways: Demonstration of Enkephalin Synapses on Dorsal Horn Projection Neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruda, M. A.

    1982-03-01

    The participation of the opiate peptide enkephalin in the neural circuitry of the dorsal horn was examined at the light and ultrastructural level through the use of the combined techniques of immunocytochemistry and retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase. Enkephalin immunoreactive axonal endings made direct synaptic contact with the soma and proximal dendrites of dorsal horn thalamic projection neurons. This observation demonstrates that one major synaptic site of enkephalin modulation of the transfer of nociceptive information in the dorsal horn is on the projection neurons themselves.

  6. Size-specific defensive structures in a horned weevil confirm a classic battle plan: avoid fights with larger opponents.

    PubMed Central

    Eberhard, W G; Garcia, J M; Lobo, J

    2000-01-01

    A rigid sheath that extends deep into the prothorax of male Parisoschoenus expositus serves to receive the horns of opponents in battles over females. The male cannot use his own horn unless he receives his opponent's horn in his sheath. The length of a male's sheath is always approximately equal to the length of his own horns, so his body design is appropriate only for horn-locking battles with males whose horns are equal to or shorter than his own. Horn length and sheath length are dimorphic with respect to each other and to an indicator of body size. The switch points between morphs are very nearly the same for several relationships, so the different aspects of fighting morphology are tightly coordinated. PMID:10885518

  7. Transient structures of keratins from hoof and horn influence their self association and supramolecular assemblies.

    PubMed

    Kakkar, Prachi; Balaraman, Madhan; Shanmugam, Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    Keratins as fibrous proteins, offer structural integrity to various tissues in providing the functional role of protection or load bearing. This work is a prelude to understand the structure - property correlation for a wide variety of keratins. The kinetics of aggregation of bovine hoof keratin (KF) and horn keratin (KR) were monitored by different biophysical methods. pH dependent studies indicated that initially both keratins existed in pre-aggregated form and the efficiency of aggregation decreased with increasing pH. The size of the aggregates was found to be larger in KF compared to KR. UV-vis and particle size analysis clearly revealed that the pre-aggregated forms of KF and KR dissociated to intermediate transient structures with smaller aggregate size, which acted as stronger nucleating agents for further self association of the keratins to form higher order supramolecular assemblies. Conformational analysis indicated that there was no significant conformational change during the aggregation of KF and KR. Morphology of the KF aggregates showed fractal arrangement while KR aggregates formed an ordered structure with no particular arrangement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report which shows an interesting and unique observation on changes in the structure during self-association of keratins. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33 Transportation... Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Individual Crossings § 222.33 Can locomotive horns be silenced at...

  9. Correlations of atrial diameter and frontooccipital horn ratio with ventricle size in fetal ventriculomegaly.

    PubMed

    Pisapia, Jared M; Rozycki, Martin; Akbari, Hamed; Bakas, Spyridon; Thawani, Jayesh P; Moldenhauer, Julie S; Storm, Phillip B; Zarnow, Deborah M; Davatzikos, Christos; Heuer, Gregory G

    2017-03-01

    different between AD and 3D VS (r = 0.830, p < 0.0001) or FOHR and 3D VS (r = 0.842, p < 0.0001; p = 0.8, Steiger's z-test). For GAs of 24 weeks or earlier, AD correlated more strongly with normalized 3D VS (r = 0.902, p < 0.0001) than with FOHR (r = 0.674, p < 0.0001; p < 0.0001, Steiger's z-test). After 24 weeks, there was no difference in correlations between linear measures (AD or FOHR) and 3D VS (r > 0.9). Correlations of linear measures with VS in 2 and 3 dimensions were similar, and inclusion of the subarachnoid space did not significantly alter results. CONCLUSIONS Findings in the study support the use of AD as a measure of VS in fetal studies as it correlates highly with both absolute and relative VS, especially at early GAs, and captures the preferential dilation of the occipital horns in patients with FV. Compared with AD, FOHR similarly correlates with normalized VS and, after a GA of 24 weeks, can be reported in fetal studies to provide continuity with postnatal monitoring.

  10. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  11. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of keratotic materials: horn, hoof and tortoiseshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Hunt, D. E.; Sibley, M. G.

    1998-05-01

    The Fourier-Transform Raman spectra of some mammalian and reptilian keratins, horn, hoof and tortoiseshell, have been analysed and used for the construction of a database for the identification of highly keratotic samples. The samples investigated were; bovine keratin and hoof, Texas Longhorn cattle horn, kudu horn, tortoiseshell and human finger nail. Significant spectral differences were observed in the 1000-400 cm -1 wavenumber range, which included the conformationally important ν(SS) and ν(CS) features around 500 and 640 cm -1, respectively. The amide I (1650 cm -1) and amide III (1260 cm -1) bands confirmed that the reptilian keratin studied exists in the β-sheet conformation, whilst mammalian keratins are predominantly laid down in an α-helical conformation. The FT-Raman spectral differences particularly between the horn and hoof specimens are very useful for the non-destructive characterisation of artefacts and provides a novel application of the technique.

  12. A high gain patch fed horn antenna for millimeter wave imaging receiver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shireen, Rownak; Hwang, Timothy; Shi, Shouyuan; Prather, D. W.

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, antennas that combine transitions from microstrip line / coplanar waveguide (CPW) to horn antenna in a single unit are presented. Conventional single layer microstrip patch antennas inherently suffer narrow operation bandwidth; to widen the frequency bandwidth, stacked patch antennas are used and high gain is achieved from the horn antenna. Here, microstrip line / CPW directly feeds the bottom patch while the top patch couples parasitically to the bottom patch. For -10 dB return loss, 25% bandwidth is achieved for both microstrip line to horn antenna (MSLTHA) at center frequency f0=17.5 GHz and for CPW to horn antenna (CPWTHA) at f0=97 GHz. The designs were optimized using 3D Finite Element Method (FEM) software HFSS by Ansoft Corporation. The optimal design of MSLTHA has been fabricated and characterized. The return loss and far field radiation pattern are measured and has been found in very good agreement with the simulation results.

  13. Suppressing side-lobe radiations of horn antenna by loading metamaterial lens.

    PubMed

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-03-13

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band.

  14. Metabolic rate and evaporative water loss of Mexican Spotted and Great Horned Owls

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; Russell P. Balda; Rudy M. King

    1993-01-01

    We measured rates of oxygen consumption and evaporative water loss (EWL) of Mexican Spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida) and Great Horned (Bubo virginianus) owls in Arizona. Basal metabolic rate averaged 0.84 ccO2. g-1. h-1...

  15. 12. NEAR FIELD HORN (TESTING DEVICE FOR EMIITER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. NEAR FIELD HORN (TESTING DEVICE FOR EMIITER/ANTENNA ARRAY SYSTEM) AT FACE "A" - VIEW IS LOOKING SOUTH 20° EAST. - Cape Cod Air Station, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  16. Giant Cutaneous Horn Overlying A Verruca at an Uncommon Site: Medical Marvel vs Superstitious Dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Sanjeeva, Karthik Kathladka; Ali, Puttur Sainuddin Mohammed Ameer; Rao, Srikar; Rai, Arvind Shivram

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous horn has been a matter of discussion to mankind since time immemorial and a subject of fascination for the layman. There have been instances where certain groups saw it with angst and disgust, with a person having a large cutaneous horn on an exposed area getting a dismal look. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a giant cutaneous horn over his left gluteal region. Cutaneous horns more commonly present in the sun-exposed areas. In our case it has presented in an uncommon site. The patient had delayed and denied medical treatment due to his superstitious beliefs, after having sought advice from faith healers leading to progression of the disease. This case has been presented for its giant size (rare variety), its location being over the gluteal region (photo-protected site) and its benign histopathology suggestive of wart in spite of the giant size. PMID:26023596

  17. Giant Cutaneous Horn Overlying A Verruca at an Uncommon Site: Medical Marvel vs Superstitious Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Sanjeeva, Karthik Kathladka; Ali, Puttur Sainuddin Mohammed Ameer; Pinto, Malcolm; Rao, Srikar; Rai, Arvind Shivram

    2015-04-01

    Cutaneous horn has been a matter of discussion to mankind since time immemorial and a subject of fascination for the layman. There have been instances where certain groups saw it with angst and disgust, with a person having a large cutaneous horn on an exposed area getting a dismal look. We present a case of a 64-year-old man with a giant cutaneous horn over his left gluteal region. Cutaneous horns more commonly present in the sun-exposed areas. In our case it has presented in an uncommon site. The patient had delayed and denied medical treatment due to his superstitious beliefs, after having sought advice from faith healers leading to progression of the disease. This case has been presented for its giant size (rare variety), its location being over the gluteal region (photo-protected site) and its benign histopathology suggestive of wart in spite of the giant size.

  18. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  19. Development and operational experience of magnetic horn system for T2K experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekiguchi, T.; Bessho, K.; Fujii, Y.; Hagiwara, M.; Hasegawa, T.; Hayashi, K.; Ishida, T.; Ishii, T.; Kobayashi, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Koike, S.; Koseki, K.; Maruyama, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Nakadaira, T.; Nakamura, K.; Nakayoshi, K.; Nishikawa, K.; Oyama, Y.; Sakashita, K.; Shibata, M.; Suzuki, Y.; Tada, M.; Takahashi, K.; Tsukamoto, T.; Yamada, Y.; Yamanoi, Y.; Yamaoka, H.; Ichikawa, A. K.; Kubo, H.; Butcher, Z.; Coleman, S.; Missert, A.; Spitz, J.; Zimmerman, E. D.; Tzanov, M.; Bartoszek, L.

    2015-07-01

    A magnetic horn system to be operated at a pulsed current of 320 kA and to survive high-power proton beam operation at 750 kW was developed for the T2K experiment. The first set of T2K magnetic horns was operated for over 12 million pulses during the four years of operation from 2010 to 2013, under a maximum beam power of 230 kW, and 6.63×1020 protons were exposed to the production target. No significant damage was observed throughout this period. This successful operation of the T2K magnetic horns led to the discovery of the νμ →νe oscillation phenomenon in 2013 by the T2K experiment. In this paper, details of the design, construction, and operation experience of the T2K magnetic horns are described.

  20. Entrapment of the Temporal Horn as a Cause of Pure Wernicke Aphasia: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Spallone, Aldo; Belvisi, Daniele; Marsili, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Entrapment of the temporal horn is an extremely rare pathologic condition occurring as a result of surgery for tumors, intraventricular infections, hemorrhage, or traumatic events involving the peritrigonal area. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who presented with pure Wernicke aphasia (never described before in the albeit rare cases of isolated temporal horn dilatation) that regressed completely following successful ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The relevant literature is also briefly reviewed. PMID:26251784

  1. Properties of cutoff corrugated surfaces for corrugated horn design. [corrugation shape and density effects on scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mentzer, C. A.; Peters, L., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    Corrugated horns involve a junction between the corrugated surface and a conducting ground plane. Proper horn design requires an understanding of the electromagnetic properties of the corrugated surface and this junction. An integral equation solution has been used to study the influence of corrugation density and tooth thickness on the power loss, surface current, and the scattering from a ground plane/corrugated surface junction.

  2. Single-unit analysis of the spinal dorsal horn in patients with neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Guenot, Marc; Bullier, Jean; Rospars, Jean-Pierre; Lansky, Petr; Mertens, Patrick; Sindou, Marc

    2003-04-01

    Despite the key role played by the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in pain modulation, single-unit recordings have only been performed very rarely in this structure in humans. The authors report the results of a statistical analysis of 64 unit recordings from the human dorsal horn. The recordings were done in three groups of patients: patients with deafferentation pain resulting from brachial plexus avulsion, patients with neuropathic pain resulting from peripheral nerve injury, and patients with pain resulting from disabling spasticity. The patterns of neuronal activities were compared among these three groups. Nineteen neurons were recorded in the dorsal horns of five patients undergoing DREZotomy for a persistent pain syndrome resulting from peripheral nerve injury (i.e., nondeafferented dorsal horns), 31 dorsal horn neurons were recorded in nine patients undergoing DREZotomy for a persistent pain syndrome resulting from brachial plexus avulsion (i.e., deafferented dorsal horns), and 14 neurons were recorded in eight patients undergoing DREZotomy for disabling spasticity. These groups were compared in terms of mean frequency, coefficient of variation of the discharge, other properties of the neuronal discharge studied by the nonparametric test of Wald-Wolfowitz, and the possible presence of bursts. The coefficient of variation tended to be higher in the deafferented dorsal horn group than in the other two groups. Two neurons displaying burst activity could be recorded, both of which belonged to the deafferented dorsal horn group. A significant difference was found in term of neuronal behavior between the peripheral nerve trauma group and the other groups: The brachial plexus avulsion and disabling spasticity groups were very similar, including various types of neuronal behavior, whereas the peripheral nerve lesion group included mostly neurons with "nonrandom" patterns of discharge (i.e., with serial dependency of interspike intervals).

  3. The complete mitochondrial genome of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghai; Ren, Ying; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a blood sample was obtained from a scimitar-horned oryx in Jinan Paomaling World of Wildlife and the complete nucleotide sequence of scimitar-horned oryx mitochondrial genome was determined. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in accordance with other bovid species that it contained 22 tRNA genes, 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region.

  4. Neurodegeneration in the Spinal Ventral Horn Prior to Motor Impairment in Cervical Spondylotic Myelopathy.

    PubMed

    Grabher, Patrick; Mohammadi, Siawoosh; David, Gergely; Freund, Patrick

    2017-08-01

    Remote gray matter pathology has been suggested rostral to the compression site in cervical spondylotic myelopathy (CSM). We therefore assessed neurodegeneration in the gray matter ventral and dorsal horns. Twenty patients with CSM and 18 healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution structural and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging protocol at vertebra C2/C3. Patients received comprehensive clinical assessments. T2*-weighted data provided cross-sectional area measurements of gray matter ventral and dorsal horns to identify atrophy. At the identical location, mean diffusivity (MD) and fractional anisotropy (FA) determined the microstructural integrity. Finally, the relationships between neurodegeneration occurring in the gray and white matter and clinical impairment were investigated. Patients suffered from mild-to-moderate CSM with mainly sensory impairment. In the ventral horns, cross-sectional area was not reduced (p = 0.863) but MD was increased (p = 0.045). The magnitude of MD changes within the ventral horn was associated with white matter diffusivity changes (MD: p = 0.013; FA: p = 0.028) within the lateral corticospinal tract. In contrast, dorsal horn cross-sectional area was reduced by 16.0% (p < 0.001) without alterations in diffusivity indices, compared with controls. No associations between the magnitude of ventral and dorsal horn neurodegeneration and clinical impairment were evident. Focal cord gray matter pathology is evident remote to the compression site in vivo in CSM patients. Microstructural changes in the ventral horns (i.e., motoneurons) related to corticospinal tract integrity in the absence of atrophy and marked motor impairment. Dorsal horn atrophy corresponded to main clinical representation of sensory impairment. Thus, neuroimaging biomarkers of cord gray matter integrity reveal focal neurodegeneration prior to marked clinical impairment and thus could serve as predictors of ensuing impairment in CSM patients.

  5. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

    1976-11-01

    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals.

  6. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties

    DOE PAGES

    Johnson, K. L.; Trim, M. W.; Francis, D. K.; ...

    2016-10-01

    Our paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. We tested samples in the rehydrated (35 wt.% water) and ambient dry (10 wt.% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. Furthermore, the horn keratinmore » demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. Finally, the structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram’s impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals.« less

  7. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K. L.; Trim, M. W.; Francis, D. K.; Whittington, W. R.; Miller, J. A.; Bennett, C. E.; Horstemeyer, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    Our paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. We tested samples in the rehydrated (35 wt.% water) and ambient dry (10 wt.% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. Furthermore, the horn keratin demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. Finally, the structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram’s impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals.

  8. a Design of the Driver Airbag Module with Floating Horn Assembly

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, Chang-Min; Lee, Young-Hoon; Suh, Duck-Young

    The driver airbag system is designed as a supplemental restraint system in addition to the seatbelt, and is designed to protect the driver's head and chest against severe injury by a device that is actuated in case of vehicle's fronted impact. Deployment of an airbag module with floating horn assembly is a highly dynamic process. The concept of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly and aluminum emblem is presented as a useful parameter when the airbag deploys and the energy is evaluated as performance factor in airbag module. Floating horn assembly is also one of the major factors for driver airbag module design to perform its horn function and check the package between driver airbag module and steering wheel. This study on the design of driver airbag module with floating horn assembly proved the feasibility as a new safety device. However, the system level study is needed for decrease of passenger injury. This study can be used for the implementation of a prototype of DABM with floating horn device.

  9. Hyaluronic acid membrane for reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat uterine horn.

    PubMed

    Yarali, H; Zahradka, B F; Gomel, V

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy of hyaluronic acid (HA) membrane in preventing or reducing intraperitoneal adhesion formation and reformation was evaluated in the rat uterine horn. Forty-seven Wistar rats were employed. Following a measured laser injury on the right uterine horn of each rat, HA membrane was applied to cover the site of injury in 20 (HA membrane group). No membrane was applied in another 20 (control group). The type and extent of adhesions were assessed at relaparotomy. Following microsurgical adhesiolysis at second-look laparotomy, the same animals were randomized to the HA membrane and control groups. The type and extent of adhesion reformation were evaluated at third-look laparotomy. Following a similar injury on the right uterine horn in another seven rats, HA membrane was applied on both uterine horns. A repeat laparotomy was performed three hours later to assess the status of the membrane. The type and extent of adhesion formation and reformation were comparable between the HA membrane and control groups. The HA membrane did not remain on the uterine horn and gelled rapidly. Hyaluronic acid membrane was ineffective in reducing adhesion formation and reformation in the rat uterine horn.

  10. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage

    PubMed Central

    Pillai, Silja A.; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  11. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, K. L.; Trim, M. W.; Francis, D. K.; Whittington, W. R.; Miller, J. A.; Bennett, C. E.; Horstemeyer, M. F.

    2016-10-01

    Our paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. We tested samples in the rehydrated (35 wt.% water) and ambient dry (10 wt.% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. Furthermore, the horn keratin demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. Finally, the structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram’s impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals.

  12. Transient amnesia after perimesencephalic haemorrhage: the role of enlarged temporal horns

    PubMed Central

    Hop, J.; Brilstra, E.; Rinkel, G.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Although long term outcome of patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage, a benign subset of subarachnoid haemorrhage, is excellent, some patients report an episode of amnesia for the first hours to days after the ictus. The relation between the occurrence of amnesia and the size of the ventricles on CT, including the temporal horns, were studied in patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage.
METHODS—Twenty seven consecutive patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage were asked about the occurrence of amnesia. Age adjusted bicaudate indices and third ventricle sizes were calculated. Linear measurements of the temporal horn were taken in three directions: anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, and oblique. Additionally, enlargement of the temporal horns was assessed with the "naked eye".
RESULTS—Ten of the 27 patients reported an episode of transient amnesia; in these patients the mean sizes of the temporal horns were larger than in patients without amnesia, ranging from a factor of 1.7 for the medial-lateral measurement to a factor of 2.3 for the anterior-posterior measurement. Most of the patients with amnesia had relative bicaudate indices and relative third ventricle sizes> 1, and all had enlarged temporal horns at "naked eye" assessment.
CONCLUSION—About one third of patients with perimesencephalic haemorrhage have an episode of amnesia shortly after the bleed. The occurrence of amnesia is associated with enlargement of the temporal horns, and might be explained by temporary hippocampal dysfunction.

 PMID:9771795

  13. A progesterone antagonist cannot prevent fetal survival if the uterine horn is incised.

    PubMed

    Tamada, H; Inaba, T; Sawada, T

    1998-12-01

    The fetuses released into the abdominal cavity by uterine incision escape from most physical influences of the uterus. This study examined whether these fetuses require progesterone actions for survival during late pregnancy in rats. A longitudinal incision in one uterine horn (with the other horn intact) together with bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), removal of the main progesterone-production sites, or sham OVX, were performed on day 18 of pregnancy. Thereafter the rats were given daily subcutaneous injections of anti-progesterone RU 486 (10 mg/kg), or vehicle alone, and the fetal survival rate in each uterine horn was examined on day 21. In those controls which received sham OVX plus injections of vehicle, fetal survival rates were more than 80% in both uterine horns. In the other groups, which received sham OVX plus injections of RU 486, or OVX plus injections of vehicle, or OVX plus injections of RU 486, the fetal survival rates in the intact uterine horns were 4%, 0% and 0%, respectively. In the incised uterine horns of these groups, however, the fetal survival rates were 59%, 67% and 56%, respectively. The results suggest that progesterone, which is required for maintaining pregnancy, may not be essential for survival of fetuses released into the abdominal cavity. Progesterone actions unrelated to uterine physical environment are likely to be dispensable for fetal survival during late pregnancy in rats.

  14. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  15. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  16. Solid Micro Horn Array (SMIHA) for Acoustic Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of electrical signals to mechanical signals and vice-versa in piezoelectric materials is controlled by the material coupling coefficient. In general in a loss-less material the ratio of energy conversion per cycle is proportional to the square of the coupling coefficient. In practical transduction however the impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the electrical drive circuitry or the mechanical structure can have a significant impact on the power transfer. This paper looks at novel methods of matching the acoustic impedance of structures to the piezoelectric material in an effort to increase power transmission and efficiency. In typical methods the density and acoustic velocity of the matching layer is adjusted to give good matching between the transducer and the load. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes solid micro horn arrays in the matching layer which channel the stress and increase the strain in the layer. This approach is found to have potential applications in energy harvesting, medical ultrasound and in liquid and gas coupled transducers.

  17. Polarization entanglement purification for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lan; Sheng, Yu-Bo

    2017-10-01

    Entanglement purification plays a fundamental role in long-distance quantum communication. In the paper, we put forward the first polarization entanglement purification protocol (EPP) for one type of nonlocal logic-qubit entanglement, i.e., concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, resorting to the photon-atom interaction in low-quality (Q) cavity. In contrast to existing EPPs, this protocol can purify the bit-flip error and phase-flip error in both physic and logic level. Instead of measuring the photons directly, this protocol only requires to measure the atom states to judge whether the protocol is successful. In this way, the purified logic entangled states can be preserved for further application. Moreover, it makes this EPP repeatable so as to obtain a higher fidelity of logic entangled states. As the logic-qubit entanglement utilizes the quantum error correction (QEC) codes, which has an inherent stability against noise and decoherence, this EPP combined with the QEC codes may provide a double protection for the entanglement from the channel noise and may have potential applications in long-distance quantum communication.

  18. Presumptive keratoglobus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Lau, Rachael K; Moresco, Anneke; Woods, Sarah J; Reilly, Christopher M; Hawkins, Michelle G; Murphy, Christopher J; Hollingsworth, Steven R; Hacker, Dennis; Freeman, Kate S

    2016-07-31

    A juvenile to young adult, male, great horned owl (Bubo virginianus,GHOW) was presented to the wildlife rehabilitation hospital at Lindsay Wildlife Museum (WRHLWM) due to trauma to the right patagium from barbed wire entanglement. On presentation, both corneas were irregular, dry, and no movement of the third eyelid was noted. A severe corneal enlargement/globoid appearance was the predominant ophthalmic feature. The fundus was normal in both eyes (OU). Over the course of several days, both corneas developed edema combined with further dessication at the ocular surface associated with diffuse dorsal fluorescein stain uptake. Repeated ophthalmic examinations found normal intraocular pressures and an inability to move the third eyelid over the enlarged corneas. The bird was deemed nonreleasable due to severe wing damage and poor prognosis associated with eye abnormalities and was humanely euthanized. Postmortem CT, enucleation, and histopathology were performed to evaluate the ocular anatomical abnormality and confirm the suspected diagnosis of keratoglobus. This GHOW represents the first reported case of presumptive keratoglobus in a raptor. © 2016 American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists.

  19. Solid micro horn array (SMIHA) for acoustic matching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2008-03-01

    Transduction of electrical signals to mechanical signals and vice-versa in piezoelectric materials is controlled by the material coupling coefficient. In general in a loss-less material the ratio of energy conversion per cycle is proportional to the square of the coupling coefficient. In practical transduction however the impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the electrical drive circuitry or the mechanical structure can have a significant impact on the power transfer. In this paper a novel method of matching the acoustic impedance of structures to the piezoelectric material are described and discussed in relation to the objective of increasing power transmission and efficiency. In typical methods the density and acoustic velocity of the matching layer is adjusted to give "ideal" matching between the transducer and the load. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes solid micro horn arrays in the matching layer which channel the stress and increase the strain in the layer. This approach is found to have potential applications in energy harvesting, medical ultrasound and in liquid and gas coupled transducers.

  20. Solid Micro Horn Array (SMIHA) for Acoustic Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of electrical signals to mechanical signals and vice-versa in piezoelectric materials is controlled by the material coupling coefficient. In general in a loss-less material the ratio of energy conversion per cycle is proportional to the square of the coupling coefficient. In practical transduction however the impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the electrical drive circuitry or the mechanical structure can have a significant impact on the power transfer. This paper looks at novel methods of matching the acoustic impedance of structures to the piezoelectric material in an effort to increase power transmission and efficiency. In typical methods the density and acoustic velocity of the matching layer is adjusted to give good matching between the transducer and the load. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes solid micro horn arrays in the matching layer which channel the stress and increase the strain in the layer. This approach is found to have potential applications in energy harvesting, medical ultrasound and in liquid and gas coupled transducers.

  1. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation.

  2. New acoustical technology of sound absorption based on reverse horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong Yan; Wu, Jiu Hui; Cao, Song Hua; Cao, Pei; Zhao, Zi Ting

    2016-12-01

    In this paper, a novel reverse horn’s sound-absorption mechanism and acoustic energy focusing mechanism for low-frequency broadband are presented. Due to the alternation of the reverse horn’s thickness, the amplitude of the acoustic pressure propagated in the structure changes, which results in growing energy focused in the edge and in the reverse horn’s tip when the characteristic length is equal to or less than a wavelength and the incident wave is compressed. There are two kinds of methods adopted to realize energy dissipation. On the one hand, sound-absorbing materials are added in incident direction in order to overcome the badness of the reverse horn’s absorption in high frequency and improve the overall high-frequency and low-frequency sound-absorption coefficients; on the other hand, adding mass and film in its tip could result in mechanical energy converting into heat energy due to the coupled vibration of mass and the film. Thus, the reverse horn with film in the tip could realize better sound absorption for low-frequency broadband. These excellent properties could have potential applications in the one-dimensional absorption wedge and for the control of acoustic wave.

  3. CORRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT/CLOSURE REPORT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 527: HORN SILVER MINE, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    2004-08-01

    not show the migration of COCs beyond the floor of the 500-foot drift or from the air within the drift. On a conservative basis, the subsurface volume of the zone of contamination is limited to a depth from 150 ft to a maximum of 670 feet below ground surface extending to a radius of 300 feet from the mineshaft. Based on these data, a use restriction will be established for this volume of soil. In addition, the security of the mineshaft is maintained and does not allow unauthorized personnel to enter the vicinity of the mineshaft. Since the removal of the contaminants is not feasible, the close in place with administrative controls corrective action alternative is appropriate because it will prevent inadvertent contact with the subsurface COCs and meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site. Post-closure monitoring will be conducted for one year. This monitoring will include using the lysimeter at HSM-3 and the data logger to measure precipitation-induced vadose zone moisture flow through the rock beneath the waste shaft at the Horn Silver Mine. Results of the monitoring will be documented in a letter report at the end of one year, anticipated in June 2005. A copy of this report will be submitted to the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection. After one year of monitoring, a determination will be made by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection and U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office if future monitoring is needed or if use restriction boundaries need to be adjusted. If a large enough pulse of water moves into the lysimeter, a sample will he collected for laboratory analysis. If there is not sufficient volume of liquid collected for a sample or if no COCs are detected in collected samples at the end of this time period, it is recommended that the monitoring wells at the HSM be sealed in accordance with the State of Nevada regulations.

  4. Analysis of a disk-on-rod surface wave element inside a corrugated horn using the mode-matching technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is one of the horn configurations for dual-frequency or wide-band operation. A mode-matching analysis method is described. A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is represented as a series of coaxial waveguide sections and circular waveguide sections connected to each other. Three kinds of junctions need to be considered: coaxial-to-coaxial, coaxial-to-circular, and circular-to-circular. A computer program was developed to calculate the scattering matrix and the radiation pattern of a disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn. The software as verified by experiment, and good agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. The disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn design gives an option to the Deep Space Network dual-frequency operation system, which currently is a two-horn/one-dichroic plate system.

  5. Dorsal horn cells connected to the lissauer tract and their relation to the dorsal root potential in the rat.

    PubMed

    Lidierth, M; Wall, P D

    1998-08-01

    We have examined the role of dorsal horn cells that respond to Lissauer tract stimulation in regulating primary afferent depolarization (PAD). PAD was monitored by recording the dorsal root potential (DRP) in the roots of the lumbar cord. Recordings were made of the discharges of Lissauer tract-responsive cells, and their discharges were correlated with the DRPs occurring spontaneously and those evoked by stimulation. Electrical microstimulation of the Lissauer tract (<10 microA; 200 micros) was used to activate the tract selectively and evoke a characteristic long-latency DRP. Cells that were excited by Lissauer tract stimulation were found in the superficial laminae of the dorsal horn. They exhibited low rates of ongoing discharge and responded to Lissauer tract stimulation typically with a burst of impulses with a latency to onset of 5.6 +/- 2.7 ms (mean +/- SD) and to termination of 13.6 +/- 4.1 ms (n = 105). Lissauer tract-responsive cells in L5 were shown to receive convergent inputs from cutaneous and muscle afferents as they responded to stimulation of the sural nerve (100%, n = 19) and the nerve to gastrocnemius (95%, n = 19). The latency of the response to sural nerve stimulation was 3.7 +/- 1.5 ms and to gastrocnemius nerve stimulation, 8.3 +/- 3.6 ms. Stimulation through a microelectrode at a depth of 1.5 mm in the sensorimotor cortex (100 microA, 200 micros) evoked a response in 17 of 31 Lissauer tract-responsive cells (55%) with a latency to onset of 21.9 +/- 2.8 ms (n = 17). Stimulation of the sural nerve, nerve to gastrocnemius or sensorimotor cortex was shown to depress the response of Lissauer tract-responsive cells to a subsequent Lissauer tract stimulus. The ongoing discharges of Lissauer tract-responsive cells were correlated to the spontaneous DRP using spike-triggered averaging. Of 123 cells analyzed in this way, 117 (95%) were shown to be correlated to the DRP. In addition, the peaks of spontaneous negative DRPs in spinally transected

  6. Substitutes for endangered medicinal animal horns and shells exposed by antithrombotic and anticoagulation effects.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jiaoyang; Yan, Dan; Zhang, Da; Feng, Xue; Yan, Yan; Dong, Xiaoping; Xiao, Xiaohe

    2011-06-14

    Cornu Saigae Tataricae (antelope horn), Manis Squama (pangolin scale), Cornu Cervi Pantotrichum (velvet antler) and Cornu Bovis grunniens (yak horn) are valuable medicinal animal horns and shells (MAHS). As the major source of biological agents and ethnodrugs, MAHS show pretty good bioactivities. However, with the increased demand for MAHS, some of the medicinal resources are endangered, and there has been a concomitant increase in the prevalence of adulterated or impostor MAHS. It is of great significance to exploit the substitutes for endangered medicinal animal resources. This study is going to provide a new mode for the exploitation of the substitutes of MAHS. Plasma recalcification time, thrombin time and thrombin consumption were recorded to evaluate the anticoagulation effect of MAHS. Dissolution rate of thrombus in vitro and whole blood-gore were observed to appraise the antithrombotic effect of MAHS. All the MAHS involved in this study except Cornu Procaprae Gutturosae (argali horn), Cornu Saigae Tataricae and Cornu Bovis (cattle horn) could not only prolong recalcification time (P<0.01) and thrombin time (P<0.01), but also dissolve the thrombus in vitro (P<0.01) and whole blood-gore (P<0.01). The bioactivities among MAHS differed greatly from each other. The results indicate that Cornu Caprae Hircus (goat horn), Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn) and Trionycis Carapax (turtle shell) are rational to be explored as the substitutes of Cornu Saigae Tataricae, Cornu Bovis grunniens and Manis Squama, respectively. On the contrary, velvet antler is not suitable to be substituted by Cornu Cervi (deerhorn). We presume that the bioactive evaluation methods are effective means of seeking substitutive resources of endangered medicinal animals with the advantages of close correlation to drug action, low dosage, and high sensitiveness. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Vegetation change, malnutrition and violence in the Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Degomme, O.; Linderman, M.; Guha-Sapir, D.; Lambin, E.

    2008-12-01

    In certain circumstances, climate change in association with a broad range of social factors may increase the risk of famines and subsequently, violent conflict. The impacts of climate change on society will be experienced both through changes in mean conditions over long time periods and through increases in extreme events. Recent studies have shown the historical effects of long term climate change on societies and the importance of short term climatic triggers on armed conflict. However, most of these studies are at the state level ignoring local conditions. Here we use detailed information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to analyze the impact of climate variability change on malnutrition and violent conflict. More specifically, we perform multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to explain the geographical distribution of malnutrition and conflict in the Horn of Africa on a sub-national level. This region, constituted by several unstable and poor states, has been affected by droughts, floods, famines, and violence in the past few years. Three commonly used nutrition and mortality indicators are used to characterize the health situation (CE-DAT database). To map violence we use the georeferenced Armed Conflicts dataset developed by the Center for the Study of Civil War. Explanatory variables include several socio-economic variables and environmental variables characterizing land degradation, vegetation activity, and interannual variability in land-surface conditions. First results show that interannual variability in land-surface conditions is associated with malnutrition but not with armed conflict. Furthermore, land degradation seems not to be associated with either malnutrition or armed conflict.

  8. Nicotine facilitates glycine release in the rat spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Kiyosawa, Atsuko; Katsurabayashi, Shutaro; Akaike, Norihiko; Pang, Zhi Ping; Akaike, Norio

    2001-01-01

    Nicotinic effects on glycine release were investigated in slices of lumbar spinal cord using conventional whole-cell recordings. In most of the substantia gelatinosa (SG) neurons tested, nicotine increased the frequency of the glycinergic spontaneous miniature inhibitory postsynaptic currents (mIPSCs). In a smaller proportion, nicotine evoked not only this same presynaptic response but also a postsynaptic response.Nicotinic facilitation of glycinergic mIPSCs was investigated in mechanically dissociated SG neurons using nystatin-perforated patch recordings. Nicotine (3 × 10−6 to 10−5m) reversibly enhanced the frequency of glycinergic mIPSCs without altering their amplitudes, thus indicating that nicotine facilitates glycine release through a presynaptic mechanism.Choline, a selective α7 subunit of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonist, had no effect on the mIPSC frequency while anatoxin A, a broad-spectrum agonist of nAChR, facilitated the mIPSC frequency.α-Bungarotoxin, a selective α7 subunit antagonist, failed to block the nicotinic facilitatory action. Mecamylamine, a broad-spectrum nicotinic antagonist, reversibly inhibited nicotinic action. Dihydro-β-erythroidine, a selective antagonist of nAChRs containing α4-β2 subunits, completely blocked nicotinic action.Ca2+-free but not Cd2+-containing bath solutions blocked nicotinic actions.We therefore conclude that nicotine facilitates glycine release in the substantia gelatinosa of the spinal dorsal horn via specific nAChRs containing α4-β2 subunits. This action on a subset of presynaptic nAChRs may underlie nicotine's modulation of noxious signal transmission and provide a cellular mechanism for the analgesic function of nicotine. PMID:11579160

  9. Temperature-dependent dielectric properties of slightly hydrated horn keratin.

    PubMed

    Rizvi, Tasneem Zahra; Khan, Muhammad Abdullah

    2008-04-01

    With an aim to reveal the mechanism of protein-water interaction in a predominantly two phase model protein system this study investigates the frequency and temperature dependence of dielectric constant epsilon' and loss factor epsilon'' in cow horn keratin in the frequency range 30 Hz to 3 MHz and temperature range 30-200 degrees C at two levels of hydration. These two levels of hydration were achieved by exposing the sample to air at 50% relative humidity (RH) at ambient temperature and by evacuating the sample for 72 h at 105 degrees C. A low frequency dispersion (LFD) and an intermediate frequency alpha-dispersion were the two main dielectric responses observed in the air-dried sample. The LFD and the high frequency arm of the alpha-dispersion followed the same fractional power law of frequency. Within the framework of percolation cluster model these dispersions, respectively have been attributed to percolation of protons between and within the clusters of hydrogen-bonded water molecules bound to polar or ionizable protein components. The alpha-dispersion peak, which results from intra-cluster charge percolation conformed to Cole-Cole modified Debye equation. Temperature dependence of the dielectric constant in the air-dried sample exhibited peaks at 120 and 155 degrees C which have been identified as temperatures of onset of release of water bound to polar protein components in the amorphous and crystalline regions, respectively. An overall rise in the permittivity was observed above 175 degrees C, which has been identified as the onset of chain melting in the crystalline region of the protein.

  10. Are Horn Morphological Patterns Able to Differentiate the Two Closely Related Species Copris klugi Harold and Copris sierrensis Matthews?

    PubMed

    Pizzo, A; Citeroni, V; Mazzone, F; Dellacasa, M; Palestrini, C

    2015-04-01

    Several thousand species of beetles evolved impressive, exaggerated horns or horn-like structures. The horn phenotypic patterns and the developmental mechanisms are well documented especially in the Scarabaeidae, the family most predominated by species with horns. The regulation of horn expression appears to be extremely evolutionary labile to the extent that horn allometric patterns have been seen to rapidly diverge between closely related species. For this reason, it has been suggested that horn morphological pattern may be able to differentiate closely related and sibling species even when other traits fail. In this study, we used horn morphological pattern (shape and allometric variation) as a "tool" to evaluate the differentiation of two closely related scarab species, Copris klugi Harold and Copris sierrensis Matthews whose full species status has long been debated due to their high similarity. Combining traditional and geometric morphometric methods, we evidenced that male head horn phenotypic pattern is able to clearly differentiate C. klugi from C. sierrensis, supporting the hypothesis that they are two true species.

  11. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  12. Sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River Shale in British Columbia, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seok-Hoon; Koh, Chang-Seong; Joe, Young-Jin; Woo, Ju-Hwan; Lee, Hyun-Suk

    2017-04-01

    The Horn River Basin in the northeastern British Columbia, Canada, is one of the largest unconventional gas accumulations in North America. It consists mainly of Devonian shales (Horn River Formation) and is stratigraphically divided into three members, the Muskwa, Otterpark and Evie in descending order. This study focuses on sedimentary processes and depositional environments of the Horn River shale based on sedimentary facies analysis aided by well-log mineralogy (ECS) and total organic carbon (TOC) data. The shale formation consists dominantly of siliceous minerals (quartz, feldspar and mica) and subordinate clay mineral and carbonate materials, and TOC ranging from 1.0 to 7.6%. Based on sedimentary structures and micro texture, three sedimentary facies were classified: homogeneous mudstone (HM), indistinctly laminated mudstone (ILM), and planar laminated mudstone (PLM). Integrated interpretation of the sedimentary facies, lithology and TOC suggests that depositional environment of the Horn River shale was an anoxic quiescent basin plain and base-of-slope off carbonate platform or reef. In this deeper marine setting, organic-rich facies HM and ILM, dominant in the Muskwa (the upper part of the Horn River Formation) and Evie (the lower part of the Horn River Formation) members, may have been emplaced by pelagic to hemipelagic sedimentation on the anoxic sea floor with infrequent effects of low-density gravity flows (turbidity currents or nepheloid flows). In the other hand, facies PLM typifying the Otterpark Member (the middle part of the Horn River Formation) suggests more frequent inflow of bottom-hugging turbidity currents punctuating the hemipelagic settling of the background sedimentation process. The stratigraphic change of sedimentary facies and TOC content in the Horn River Formation is most appropriately interpreted to have been caused by the relative sea-level change, that is, lower TOC and frequent signal of turbidity current during the sea

  13. Finite element simulation of non-linear acoustic generation in a horn loudspeaker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, T.; Kagawa, Y.; Doi, M.; Tsuji, T.

    2003-10-01

    The loudspeaker is an electro-acoustic device for sound reproduction which requires the distortion as small as possible. The distortion may arise from the magnetic non-linearity of the york, the uneven magnetic field distribution, the mechanical non-linearity at the diaphragm suspension and the acoustic non-linearity due to the high sound pressure and velocity in the duct-radiation system. A horn is sometimes provided in front of the vibrating diaphragm radiator, which plays an important role to increase the efficiency by matching the acoustic impedance between the radiator and the ambient medium. The horn is in many cases folded twice or three times to shorten the length, which further degrades the reproduction quality. The sound intensity and velocity are apt to attain very high in the small cross-sectional area in the throat and in the folded regions, which may cause the distortion due to the non-linear effect of the medium. The present paper is to investigate the frequency characteristics of the loudspeaker numerically evaluating the generation of the harmonics and sub-harmonics. An axisymmetric folded horn is considered for which the wave equation with the non-linear term retained is solved by the finite element method. The solution is made in time domain in which the sound pressure calculated at the opening end of the horn is Fourier-transformed to the frequency domain to evaluate the distortion, while the wave marching in the horn is visualized.

  14. TARGET AND HORN COOLING FOR THE VERY LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    BELLAVIA, S.; KAHN, S.; KIRK, H.; LUDEWIG, H.; RAPARIA, D.; SIMOS, N.

    2005-05-16

    Thermodynamic studies have been performed for the beam target and focusing horn system to be used in a very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment [1]. A 2mm rms beam spot with power deposition of over 18 KW presents challenging material and engineering solutions to this project. Given that the amount of heat transferred by radiation alone from the target to the horn is quite small, the primary mechanism is heat removal by forced convection in the annular space between the target and the horn. The key elements are the operating temperature of the target, the temperature of the cooling fluid and the heat generation rate in the volume of the target that needs to be removed. These working parameters establish the mass flow rate and velocity of the coolant necessary to remove the generated heat. Several cooling options were explored using a carbon-carbon target and aluminum horn. Detailed analysis, trade studies and simulations were performed for cooling the horn and target with gaseous helium as well as water.

  15. Optical modelling of far-infrared astronomical instrumentation exploiting multimode horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Murphy, J. Anthony; Mc Auley, Ian; Wilson, Daniel; Gradziel, Marcin L.; Trappe, Neil; Cahill, Fiachra; Peacocke, T.; Savini, G.; Ganga, K.

    2014-07-01

    In this paper we describe the optical modelling of astronomical telescopes that exploit bolometric detectors fed by multimoded horn antennas. In cases where the horn shape is profiled rather than being a simple cone, we determine the beam at the horn aperture using an electromagnetic mode-matching technique. Bolometers, usually placed in an integrating cavity, can excite many hybrid modes in a corrugated horn; we usually assume they excite all modes equally. If the waveguide section feeding the horn is oversized these modes can propagate independently, thereby increasing the throughput of the system. We use an SVD analysis on the matrix that describes the scattering between waveguide (TE/TM) modes to recover the independent orthogonal fields (hybrid modes) and then propagate these to the sky independently where they are added in quadrature. Beam patterns at many frequencies across the band are then added with a weighting appropriate to the source spectrum. Here we describe simulations carried out on the highest-frequency (857-GHz) channel of the Planck HFI instrument. We concentrate in particular on the use of multimode feedhorns and consider the effects of possible manufacturing tolerances on the beam on the sky. We also investigate the feasibility of modelling far-out sidelobes across a wide band for electrically large structures and bolometers fed by multi-mode feedhorns. Our optical simulations are carried out using the industry-standard GRASP software package.

  16. A Low-cost 21 cm Horn-antenna Radio Telescope for Education and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Nimesh A.; Patel, Rishi N; Kimberk, Robert S; Test, John H; Krolewski, Alex; Ryan, James; Karkare, Kirit S; Kovac, John M; Dame, Thomas M.

    2014-06-01

    Small radio telescopes (1-3m) for observations of the 21 cm hydrogen line are widely used for education and outreach. A pyramidal horn was used by Ewen & Purcell (1951) to first detect the 21cm line at Harvard. Such a horn is simple to design and build, compared to a parabolic antenna which is usually purchased ready-made. Here we present a design of a horn antenna radio telescope that can be built entirely by students, using simple components costing less than $300. The horn has an aperture of 75 cm along the H-plane, 59 cm along the E-plane, and gain of about 20 dB. The receiver system consists of low noise amplifiers, band-pass filters and a software-defined-radio USB receiver that provides digitized samples for spectral processing in a computer. Starting from construction of the horn antenna, and ending with the measurement of the Galactic rotation curve, took about 6 weeks, as part of an undergraduate course at Harvard University. The project can also grow towards building a two-element interferometer for follow-up studies.

  17. The 24 GHz measurements of 2.2 lambda conical horn antennas illuminating a conducting sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Marshall, R. E.; Hearn, C. P.; Neece, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Monostatic reflection-coefficient magnitude, absolute value of Gamma, measurements occurring between a radiating horn and a metal reflecting plate are presented for a family of three 2.2 lambda diameter conical horn antennas. The three horns have different aperture phase deviations: 6 deg, 22.5 deg, and 125 deg. Measurements of the magnitude of absolute value of Gamma as a function of horn-plate separation (d) extend from an effective antenna aperture short (d = O) to beyond the far-field boundary (d = 2D(sup 2)/lambda, where D is the antenna diameter). Measurement data are presented with various physical environments for each of the horns. Measured scalar data are compared with theoretical data from two models, a numerical model for a circular waveguide aperture in a ground plane and a scalar diffraction theory model. This work was conducted in support of the development effort for a spaceborne multifrequency microwave reflectometer designed to accurately determine the distance from a space vehicle's surface to a reflecting plasma boundary. The metal reflecting plate was used to simulate the RF reflectivity of a critically dense plasma. The resulting configuration, a ground plane mounted aperture facing a reflecting plane in close proximity, produces a strong interaction between the ground plane and the reflecting plate, especially at integral half-wavelength separations. The transition coefficient is characterized by large amplitude variations.

  18. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon; Chung, Jin Mo

    2011-05-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level.

  19. Electroacupuncture reduces the evoked responses of the spinal dorsal horn neurons in ankle-sprained rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jae Hyo; Kim, Hee Young; Chung, Kyungsoon

    2011-01-01

    Acupuncture is shown to be effective in producing analgesia in ankle sprain pain in humans and animals. To examine the underlying mechanisms of the acupuncture-induced analgesia, the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on weight-bearing forces (WBR) of the affected foot and dorsal horn neuron activities were examined in a rat model of ankle sprain. Ankle sprain was induced manually by overextending ligaments of the left ankle in the rat. Dorsal horn neuron responses to ankle movements or compression were recorded from the lumbar spinal cord using an in vivo extracellular single unit recording setup 1 day after ankle sprain. EA was applied to the SI-6 acupoint on the right forelimb (contralateral to the sprained ankle) by trains of electrical pulses (10 Hz, 1-ms pulse width, 2-mA intensity) for 30 min. After EA, WBR of the sprained foot significantly recovered and dorsal horn neuron activities were significantly suppressed in ankle-sprained rats. However, EA produced no effect in normal rats. The inhibitory effect of EA on hyperactivities of dorsal horn neurons of ankle-sprained rats was blocked by the α-adrenoceptor antagonist phentolamine (5 mg/kg ip) but not by the opioid receptor antagonist naltrexone (10 mg/kg ip). These data suggest that EA-induced analgesia in ankle sprain pain is mediated mainly by suppressing dorsal horn neuron activities through α-adrenergic descending inhibitory systems at the spinal level. PMID:21389301

  20. [Surface-enhanced Raman spectra analysis of trace degradation products from goat horn].

    PubMed

    Pan, Yan-Ting; Ao, Ning-Jian; Shan, Guang-Hua; Zhang, Gang-Ping; Zhang, Quan-Bin; Yang, Ji-Wang; He, Chun-Lan; Huang, Yao-Xiong

    2014-04-01

    Nano-silver colloid was synthesized by using microwave method on the mixtures of sodium citrate solution and silver nitrate solution. The method has advantages of fast heating speed, uniform temperature distribution and easily controlled reaction conditions. The sizes and size distributions of the silver particles were characterized by means of quasi-elastic laser scattering (QLS). The average particles size was (53.27 +/- 2.65) nm and the size of the particles was mainly distributed around 56 nm. Surface-enhanced Raman spectra of the degradation products from goat horn were obtained with silver colloid as active substrate. It was observed that the Raman signal of SERS was enhanced significantly compared with that of regular Raman spectrum, especially at the Raman bands of 659, 830, 850, 929, 999, 1 028, 1 280, 1 439 and 1 599 cm(-1) which reflect the biochemical components in degradation products. The characteristic Raman bands of degradation products from goat horn were preliminary assigned. The assignments showed that the main constituents of the degradation products from goat horn were amino acids and polypeptides. It was for the first time that Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy was used to detect trace degradation products from the horns. Raman signal enhancement can be obtained with high sensitivity for the trace concentrations as low as ppm level. It is concluded that surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy can provide a fast, direct and precise detecting method for the detection of trace degradation solution from horns.

  1. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications. PMID:25400853

  2. Spontaneous second-trimester ruptured pregnancy of rudimentary horn: a case report in Yaounde, Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Fouelifack, Florent Ymele; Fouogue, Jovanny Tsuala; Messi, John Owoudou; Kamga, Danielle Tiako; Fouedjio, Jeanne Hortence; Sando, Zacharie

    2014-01-01

    Rudimentary uterine horn pregnancy is rare and, to our knowledge, has not been previously reported in Cameroon. We herein report the case of a 22 year old second gravida referred for acute abdominal pain at 17 weeks of gestation. Physical examination revealed hemoperitoneum with hypovolemic shock. After resuscitation, an emergency exploratory laparotomy was done and we found hemoperitoneum of 3,500 milliliters, a bicornuate uterus with a ruptured right rudimentary communicating horn containing a non viable foetus. There were no other abnormalities. We performed an excision of the rudimentary horn with ipsilateral salpingectomy. Post-operative course was uneventful and the woman was discharged seven days later. This case emphasizes the importance of good antenatal care to avoid complications.

  3. Oxytocin, but not vassopressin, modulates nociceptive responses in dorsal horn neurons.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Gerardo, Rojas-Piloni; Mejía-Rodríguez, Rosalinda; Rosalinda, Mejía-Rodríguez; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Guadalupe, Martínez-Lorenzana; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Miguel, Condés-Lara

    2010-05-26

    Oxytocin (OT) and vasopressin (VP) are synthesized and secreted by the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), and both peptides have been implicated in the pain modulatory system. In the spinal cord, activation of OT-containing axons modulates nociceptive neuronal responses in dorsal horn neurons; however, it is not known whether the direct VPergic descending projection participates. Here, we show that both PVN electrical stimulation and topical application of OT in the vicinity of identified and recorded dorsal horn WDR selectively inhibit Adelta and C-fiber responses. In contrast, the topical administration of VP on the same neurons did not affect the nociceptive responses. In addition, the reduction in nociceptive responses caused by PVN stimulation or OT administration was blocked with a selective OT antagonist. The results suggest that the VP descending projection does not modulate the antinociceptive effects mediated by the PVN on dorsal horn neurons; instead, it is the hypothalamic-spinal OT projection that regulates nociceptive information.

  4. Horned gena, an atavistic sex-linked dominant mutation in Tribolium confusum.

    PubMed

    Sokoloff, A; Papini, F; Faustini, D

    1981-01-01

    Horned gena (Hg), a sex-linked dominant mutation with semilethal effects in the imago stage, was found in Tribolium confusion. The Hg mutant is characterized by a pair of horns of variable size and shape that arises from the genoclypeal suture in mildly expressed beetles or a more pronounced horn-like structure resulting from a folding of the genal shelf near the compound eyes. In these beetles there is considerable stress on the exoskeleton of the head so that the cranium is fragmented between the eyes, leaving large, irregularly shaped areas of the head unprotected by cranial exoskeleton. These beetles die presumably because of bacterial infection or because they cannot retain moisture within their bodies. This mutation differs from the mutation V-Grube found in another tenebrionid, Tenebrio molitor. Taxonomic, genetic, and cytological evidence is presented suggesting that Hg is a gene of ancient origin, having existed at least since the genera of Tenebrionidae were being evolved.

  5. Metal-Promoted Assembly of Two Collagen Mimetic Peptides into a Biofunctional "Spiraled Horn" Scaffold.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Kevin; Chmielewski, Jean

    2016-10-17

    Biofunctional scaffolds for the delivery of living cells are of the utmost importance for regenerative medicine. Herein, a novel, robust "spiraled horn" scaffold was elucidated through the Co(2+)-promoted hierarchical assembly of two collagen mimetic peptides, NCoH and HisCol. Each "horn" displayed a periodic banding pattern with band lengths corresponding to the length of the collagen peptide triple helix. Strand exchange between the two peptide trimers resulted in failure to form this intricate morphology, lending support to a precise metal-ligand-based mechanism of assembly. Little change occurred to the observed morphology when the Co(2+) concentration was varied from 0.5 to 4.0 mM, and the scaffold was found to be fully formed within two minutes of exposure to the metal ion. The horned network also displayed biological functionality by binding to a His-tagged fluorophore and associating with cells.

  6. The chemical oceanographic consequences of environmental restoration projects in the Golden Horn estuary (Marmara Sea, Turkey).

    PubMed

    Balkis, N; Müftüoğlu, E; Aksu, A; Sur, H I; Apak, R

    2010-05-01

    The input of industrial and domestic waste to the horizontal circulation in the Golden Horn Estuary of Marmara Sea has resulted in one of the most polluted estuaries in the past. Consequently, the dissolved oxygen concentrations in both the surface and bottom waters decreased toward to the estuary head during 1998-2005. In contrast, the total suspended solids content of the surface water decreased toward to the estuary mouth. However, construction of the operational collector system surrounding the estuary during the process of rehabilitation projects, combined with the opening of the middle pontoons of the Valide Sultan Bridge, resulted in gradually improved water quality of the estuary with a concomitant decrease in pollution. However, phytoplankton blooms and eutrophication persist especially in the innermost part of the Golden Horn in 2005. The region from the estuary mouth up to Camialti has a dynamic structure, and sufficient circulation seemingly occurs in this part of the Golden Horn.

  7. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, H. Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Araujo, D.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Miller, A.; Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Tucker, C.; Bradford, K.; Che, G.; Cantor, R.; Day, P.; Leduc, H.; Mauskopf, P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√(s)

  8. Reducing physical size limits for low-frequency horn loudspeaker systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honeycutt, Richard Allison

    From 1881 until the present day, many excellent scholars have studied acoustic horns. This dissertation begins by discussing over eighty results of such study. Next, the methods of modeling horn behavior are examined with an emphasis on the prediction of throat impedance. Because of the time constraints in a product-design environment, in which the results of this study may be used, boundary-element and cascaded-section types of analysis were not considered due to their time intensiveness. Of the methods studied, an analytical process based upon Olson's adaptation of Webster's analysis is selected as the most accurate of the rapid methods, although other good methods exist. Reasons and extent of inaccuracy are discussed. The concept of interleaved horn loading is introduced: it involves using two horns of different parameters, fed by a single driver, with a view toward interleaving and thus smoothing the impedance peaks of the separate horns to produce a smoother response. The validity of the technique is demonstrated both theoretically and practically. Then the reactance annulling technique is explained and tested experimentally. It is found to work well, but the exact parameter values involved are not found to be critical. Finally, the considerations involved in building a practical working system are discussed, and a preliminary working model reviewed. Future work could be directed toward finding the optimum parameter values for the two "parallel horns" whose impedances are to be interleaved, as well as the system parameters that determine these optimum values. Also, further experimental investigation or ported loading of the back air chamber would be useful.

  9. Changes in biodiversity of the extremely polluted Golden Horn Estuary following the improvements in water quality.

    PubMed

    Yüksek, Ahsen; Okuş, Erdoğan; Yilmaz, I Noyan; Aslan-Yilmaz, Asli; Taş, Seyfettin

    2006-10-01

    Long-term biological data supported by physicochemical parameters were evaluated to investigate the biodiversity of the Golden Horn Estuary from the past to the present. Limited observations dating back to 60 years ago indicated the existence of a diverse community in this small estuary. Unfortunately, in parallel with the increase in unplanned settlements and industry around the Golden Horn, pollution stress increased since the 1960s. Preliminary studies in the 1990s indicated survival of only a couple of pollution-resistant species, in the relatively cleaner lower estuary. Following the intensification of rehabilitation studies in 1998 and particularly after the opening of the floating bridge at the mid estuary; a remarkable day-by-day recovery in marine life has begun with the improving water quality. Nutrient concentrations decreased markedly; while water clarity significantly increased. Fecal coliform values decreased 10(3) fold. Phytoplankton composition changed and dense blooms of eukaryotic phytoplankters frequently occurred. Hydrogen sulfide almost completely disappeared even during the warmest periods of the year and dissolved oxygen concentrations increased. All results clearly depicted that the Golden Horn ecosystem shifted to eutrophic conditions from an anoxic environment. SCUBA dives in 2002, documented the level of diversification of life in the Golden Horn. All appropriate substratums were intensely covered by macrobenthic forms until the Halic Bridge and filter feeders dominated the plankton-rich ecosystem. Achieving the diversity of 1940s is not possible since the Black and Marmara seas, influencing water quality of the Golden Horn, are also suffering from anthropogenic impacts and are far less diverse than their rich diversity in 1940s. However, the Golden Horn is a good example that even the most polluted ecosystems can recover when appropriate measures are taken.

  10. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  11. Van Horn Sandstone, Trans-Pecos Texas: Evidence for Late Cambrian rifting along southern North America

    SciTech Connect

    Hongshuan, Ye; Soegaard, K. . Programs in Geosciences)

    1993-02-01

    The Van Horn Sandstone in the Trans-Pecos region of west Texas is interpreted as a rift sequence which developed in response to Cambrian breakup along the southern margin of the North American continent. The Van Horn Sandstone consists exclusively of braided alluvial sediments and occupies relatively small isolated basins in the vicinity of the town of Van Horn. The sandstone is in structural unconformable contact above intensely deformed Precambrian sediments which are < 1,123 Ma old. The Van Horn Sandstone is overlain by more than 650 meters of earliest Ordovician to Mississippian shallow-marine shelf sediments. Geohistory analysis of the overlying Paleozoic shelf sediments indicates that subsidence was driven by thermal contraction of the crust and that the shallow-marine sediments represent a drift sequence. Subsidence history curves correspond with theoretical thermal decay curves where [beta] = 1.2 and suggest that thermal subsidence commenced in Late Cambrian time about 510 Ma ago. Increased crustal attenuation, resulting in development of an ocean basin, occurred between Van Horn and the original location of deep water sediments presently exposed in the Marathon uplift to the south. Proposed Late Cambrian breakup south of Van Horn is coeval with rifting in the southern Oklahoma aulachogen and Rome trough in the Appalachian Mountains, but post-dates the main Late Proterozoic rifting event between 625 and 555 Ma along the eastern and western freeboard of North American. The significance of diachronous rifting in Eocambrian-Cambrian time is unclear at present but has consequences for fragmentation of the late Precambrian supercontinent Rodinia'.

  12. Evaluation of six satellite rainfall products over the Great Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Merino Suances, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation products are used in various application fields, as extreme event monitoring (flood and drought), generation of time series for regional or global climatological studies, and assimilation in hydro-meteorological models. They are particularly necessary in regions with very sparse rain-gauge networks to augment the observational capabilities, such as in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). GHA is characterized by a complex topography and highly varying climatic conditions ranging from the wetter mountainous and coastal regions to the arid lowlands, which can greatly affect the quality of satellite rainfall estimations. Moreover GHA is characterized by very frequent drought events, whose monitoring and forecast can benefit from satellite rainfall estimations. All that justifies the importance of satellite product validation and inter-comparisons in order to assess their reliability and application domain. The monthly accumulated precipitation from six satellite products, TAMSAT, GSMaP, CMORPH, PERSIANN, RFE, and TRMM-3B42, are analysed for the time period 2003 - 2009, by dividing the studied region (5°S - 20°N, 28°E - 52°E) in six sub-areas (clusters) characterized by a different annual cycle. The measurement uncertainties in satellite products are evaluated by computing the variance from the ensemble of the six satellite products at the resolution of 0.25°. The annual cycle characteristics of each cluster are correctly identified by each satellite product, whereas marked differences can be seen in the precipitations amount. GSMaP, PERSIANN and CMORPH provide larger amount of precipitation on South Sudan and West Ethiopia and North Uganda and the coastal region of North Somalia with respect to the other products. The regions with higher variability among satellite products are mountainous West Ethiopia, during summer (wet season) and for heavy precipitation (> 200 mm), South Sudan during summer and fall, and the Lake Victoria region

  13. FOCUSING HORN SYSTEM FOR THE BNL VERY LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO OSCILLATION EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    KAHN,S.A.CARROLL,A.DIWAN,M.V.GALLARDO,J.C.KIRK,H.SCARLETT,C.SIMOS,N.VIREN,B.ZHANG,W.

    2003-05-12

    This paper describes the focusing horn system for the proposed very long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment using a neutrino beam from BNL to an underground facility such as the Homestake Mine in South Dakota. The proposed experiment uses a 1 MW upgraded AGS. In order to achieve this performance the AGS will operate with a cycle time of 2.5 Hz and 8.9 x 10{sup 13} protons on target at 28 GeV. This paper discusses the design criteria of a horn system necessary to handle this intense beam and the optical geometry to achieve the desired flux distribution at the detector.

  14. [Subpopulation of calbindin-immunoreactive interneurons in the dorsal horn of the mice spinal cord].

    PubMed

    Porseva, V V; Shilkin, V V; Strelkov, A A; Masliukov, P M

    2014-01-01

    In the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in the plates I-IV on the thoracic and lumbar levels different subpopulations of interneurons immunoreactive for calbindin 28 kDa (CAB IR), which are specific to each plate. In the area of the medial edge of the dorsal horn, we have found a special subpopulation of CAB IR interneurons whose morphometric characteristics differ from CAB IR interneurons subpopulations of said plates. The number of CAB IR interneurons was maximal in the plate II at all levels of the spinal cord. Leveled differences are more CAB IR interneurons and larger area of the cross sections at the lumbar level.

  15. Noncanalized horns of uterus didelphys with prolapse: a unique case in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Christopoulos, P; Deligeoroglou, E; Liapis, A; Agapitos, E; Papadias, K; Creatsas, G

    2009-01-01

    The authors report the unique case of a 20-year-old patient with prolapsed uterus didelphys with noncanalized horns, who complained of primary amenorrhea. Clinical examination revealed a rudimentary noncanalized cervix with a third degree prolapse and no palpable uterus. A small prolapsing remnant of a uterus didelphys with 2 noncanalized uterine horns was excised by laparotomy. Ultrastructural examination of subepithelial cervical connective tissue revealed collagen of normal structure, but of low concentration. The etiologies of both the Mullerian ducts anomalies and the genital prolapse are probably multifactorial. Low collagen concentration indicates a constitutional tissue weakness contributing to the development of genital prolapse. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2003-08-01

    The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)

  17. Moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate effects on bighorn sheep horn keratin mechanical properties.

    PubMed

    Johnson, K L; Trim, M W; Francis, D K; Whittington, W R; Miller, J A; Bennett, C E; Horstemeyer, M F

    2017-01-15

    This paper investigates the effects of moisture, anisotropy, stress state, and strain rate on the mechanical properties of the bighorn sheep (Ovis Canadensis) horn keratin. The horns consist of fibrous keratin tubules extending along the length of the horn and are contained within an amorphous keratin matrix. Samples were tested in the rehydrated (35wt% water) and ambient dry (10wt% water) conditions along the longitudinal and radial directions under tension and compression. Increased moisture content was found to increase ductility and decrease strength, as well as alter the stress state dependent nature of the material. The horn keratin demonstrates a significant strain rate dependence in both tension and compression, and also showed increased energy absorption in the hydrated condition at high strain rates when compared to quasi-static data, with increases of 114% in tension and 192% in compression. Compressive failure occurred by lamellar buckling in the longitudinal orientation followed by shear delamination. Tensile failure in the longitudinal orientation occurred by lamellar delamination combined with tubule pullout and fracture. The structure-property relationships quantified here for bighorn sheep horn keratin can be used to help validate finite element simulations of ram's impacting each other as well as being useful for other analysis regarding horn keratin on other animals. The horn of the bighorn sheep is an anisotropic composite composed of keratin that is highly sensitive to moisture content. Keratin is also found in many other animals in the form of hooves, claws, beaks, and feathers. Only one previous study contains high rate experimental data, which was performed in the dry condition and only in compression. Considering the bighorn sheep horns' protective role in high speed impacts along with the moisture and strain rate sensitivity, more high strain rate data is needed to fully characterize and model the material. This study provides high strain

  18. Study of Saiga Horn Using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mikulíková, Kateřina; Romanov, Oleg; Miksik, Ivan; Eckhardt, Adam; Pataridis, Statis; Sedláková, Pavla

    2012-01-01

    The saiga horns have been investigated the using of modern analytic methods. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with mass-spectrometric (MS and MS/MS) detection and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) were used. It could be concluded that basic proteins of the saiga horns are keratins and collagen. The basic representation protein in all samples is keratin type I microfibrillar (from sheep), keratin type II microfibrillar (from sheep), collagen type I (α1) (from bovine) and collagen type I (α2) (from bovine). Free amino acids we determined in all samples are nontreated by enzyme. PMID:22629195

  19. Morphological, biophysical and synaptic properties of glutamatergic neurons of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Punnakkal, Pradeep; Schoultz, Carolin; Haenraets, Karen; Wildner, Hendrik; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn are central to somatosensory and nociceptive processing. A mechanistic understanding of their function depends on profound knowledge of their intrinsic properties and their integration into dorsal horn circuits. Here, we have used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2) gene (vGluT2::eGFP mice) to perform a detailed electrophysiological and morphological characterisation of excitatory dorsal horn neurons, and to compare their properties to those of GABAergic (Gad67::eGFP tagged) and glycinergic (GlyT2::eGFP tagged) neurons. vGluT2::eGFP was detected in about one-third of all excitatory dorsal horn neurons and, as demonstrated by the co-expression of vGluT2::eGFP with different markers of subtypes of glutamatergic neurons, probably labelled a representative fraction of these neurons. Three types of dendritic tree morphologies (vertical, central, and radial), but no islet cell-type morphology, were identified in vGluT2::eGFP neurons. vGluT2::eGFP neurons had more depolarised action potential thresholds and longer action potential durations than inhibitory neurons, while no significant differences were found for the resting membrane potential, input resistance, cell capacitance and after-hyperpolarisation. Delayed firing and single action potential firing were the single most prevalent firing patterns in vGluT2::eGFP neurons of the superficial and deep dorsal horn, respectively. By contrast, tonic firing prevailed in inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal horn. Capsaicin-induced synaptic inputs were detected in about half of the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and occurred more frequently in superficial than in deep dorsal horn neurons. Primary afferent-evoked (polysynaptic) inhibitory inputs were found in the majority of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons, but only in less than half of the GABAergic population. Excitatory

  20. Neogene and Quaternary geology of a stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gohn, Gregory S.; Brewster-Wingard, G. Lynn; Cronin, Thomas M.; Edwards, Lucy E.; Gibson, Thomas G.; Rubin, Meyer; Willard, Debra A.

    1996-01-01

    During April and May, 1991, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) drilled a 510-ft-deep, continuously cored, stratigraphic test hole on Horn Island, Mississippi Sound, as part of a field study of the Neogene and Quaternary geology of the Mississippi coastal area. The USGS drilled two new holes at the Horn Island site. The first hole was continuously cored to a depth of 510 ft; coring stopped at this depth due to mechanical problems. To facilitate geophysical logging, an unsampled second hole was drilled to a depth of 519 ft at the same location.

  1. Mutual mortality of great horned owl and southern black racer: a potential risk of raptors preying on snakes

    Treesearch

    Roger W. Perry; Raymond E. Brown; D. Craig Rudolph

    2001-01-01

    We encountered a dead southern black racer snake (Coluber constrictor priapus) coiled around a dead Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). We suggest the owl was strangled by the snake before the snake did of wounds inflicted by the owl. There are previous reports of intense physical struggle between Great Horned Owls (and...

  2. Cloning and characterization of an MRNA encoding an insulin receptor from the horned scarab beetle Onthophagus nigriventris (Coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in the control of insect polyphenisms for some caste-forming insects and potentially has a role in horn dimorphisms in beetles. Males of the sexually dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus nigriventris develop a magnificent thoracic horn up to twice the l...

  3. Genome-based approach to discover new livestock pest control technologies: The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) genome sequencing project

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Invasion of the Americas by the horn fly, H. irritans, has resulted in control issues throughout the continent. Insecticide resistance is a major complicating factor with efforts to manage this pest. Stakeholder focus groups identified the horn fly as the top priority arthropod pest affecting cattle...

  4. Importance of prairie wetlands and avian prey to breeding Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Northwestern North Dakota

    Treesearch

    Richard K. Murphy

    1997-01-01

    Prey use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) is documented widely in North America, but not in the vast northern Great Plains. During spring through early summer 1986-1987, I recorded 2,900 prey items at 22 Great Horned Owl nesting areas in the prairie pothole farm- and rangelands of northwestern North Dakota. The owls relied heavily on wetland-...

  5. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false When is a railroad required to cease routine... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  6. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false When is a railroad required to cease routine... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  7. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false When is a railroad required to cease routine... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  8. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false When is a railroad required to cease routine... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding..., a railroad shall refrain from, or cease, routine sounding of the locomotive horn at all public...

  9. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  10. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on Control- and Thrombostasin-Vaccinated Cattle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies ...

  11. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  12. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  13. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for horned larks, house finches, and white-crowned sparrows in California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for horned... horticultural crops. Take of birds under this order must be done under the supervision of the county agriculture... bird species, or for take of horned larks or white-crowned sparrows from May 1 through October 31. (a...

  14. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA

    PubMed Central

    Holderman, Christopher J.; Wood, Lois A.; Geden, Christopher J.

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies. After seven passages through horn fly hosts, fly mortality was not significantly accelerated as evaluated through LT50 values, but conidia were readily produced from these killed flies. Although further development is needed to improve fungal efficacy, this fungal strain holds promise as a biological control agent for inclusion in horn fly integrated pest management programs. PMID:28423414

  15. Discovery, Development, and Evaluation of a Horn Fly-Isolated (Diptera: Muscidae) Beauveria bassiana (Hypocreales: Cordyciptaceae) Strain From Florida, USA.

    PubMed

    Holderman, Christopher J; Wood, Lois A; Geden, Christopher J; Kaufman, Phillip E

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) is an important cattle pest and traditionally has been managed using insecticides; however, many horn fly populations are insecticide-resistant in United States. Use of alternative control techniques has been limited because of the challenges of managing a fly pest on pastured cattle. After the discovery of a wild horn fly infected with Beauveria bassiana in Florida, the fungus was cultured and evaluated for efficacy against laboratory-reared horn flies. This fungal strain was selected for increased virulence by passage through laboratory-reared horn fly hosts to shorten interval from infection to fly death and subsequent conidia formation, properties important to future use of the fungus as a biological control agent against horn flies. After seven passages through horn fly hosts, fly mortality was not significantly accelerated as evaluated through LT50 values, but conidia were readily produced from these killed flies. Although further development is needed to improve fungal efficacy, this fungal strain holds promise as a biological control agent for inclusion in horn fly integrated pest management programs. © The Authors 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Entomological Society of America.

  16. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding... Notice of Quiet Zone Establishment that complies with the requirements set forth in § 222.43 of this...

  17. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... during an emergency or other situations? 222.23 Section 222.23 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... within the Associate Administrator's decision to approve the quiet zone in accordance with section...

  18. Use of the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and catworm (Nephtys incisa) in a sentinel species approach for monitoring the health of Bay of Fundy estuaries.

    PubMed

    Pippy, B A; Kidd, K A; Munkittrick, K R; Mercer, A; Hunt, H

    2016-05-15

    Designing an effective environmental monitoring system for population responses requires knowledge of the biology of appropriate sentinel species and baseline information on the area's physical and chemical characteristics. This study collected information in Saint John Harbor, NB, Canada, for two abundant marine benthic invertebrates, the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and the catworm (Nephtys incisa) to characterize their seasonal and spatial variability, determine the ideal sampling time and methods, and develop baseline data for future studies. We also evaluated whether contamination is impacting invertebrates by comparing sediment metal concentrations to responses of benthic infauna. Metals were generally below sediment quality guidelines except for nickel and arsenic. Clam densities were variable between sites but not seasons, whereas catworm densities were not significantly different between sites or seasons. Overall, these species show potential for environmental monitoring, although investigation at more contaminated sites is warranted to assess their sensitivity.

  19. Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Shielded Horn Balances and Tabs on a 0.7-Scale Model of XF6F Vertical Tail Surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lowry, John G.; Maloney, James A.; Garner, I Elizabeth

    1944-01-01

    Results of subject tests indicate the difficulty of obtaining closely balanced rudder surfaces for most tail assemblies with shielded horns and maintaining a near zero rate-of-change of hinge-moment coefficient without an additional balancing device. A comparison is made between shielded and unshielded horn test results. Pressure distribution and tuft tests of flow over different shaped horns showed higher critical speed for medium-taper nosed horn. The trim tab nose shape had little effect on tab test results.

  20. 78 FR 33326 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... purpose of the committee is to improve collaborative relationships and to provide advice and recommendations to the Forest Service concerning projects and funding consistent with the Ttitle II of the Act. The meeting is open to the public. The purpose of the meeting is to report on monitoring of projects...

  1. Building a Beetle: How Larval Environment Leads to Adult Performance in a Horned Beetle

    PubMed Central

    Reaney, Leeann T.; Knell, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    The link between the expression of the signals used by male animals in contests with the traits which determine success in those contests is poorly understood. This is particularly true in holometabolous insects such as horned beetles where signal expression is determined during metamorphosis and is fixed during adulthood, whereas performance is influenced by post-eclosion feeding. We used path analysis to investigate the relationships between larval and adult nutrition, horn and body size and fitness-related traits such as strength and testes mass in the horned beetle Euoniticellus intermedius. In males weight gain post-eclosion had a central role in determining both testes mass and strength. Weight gain was unaffected by adult nutrition but was strongly correlated with by horn length, itself determined by larval resource availability, indicating strong indirect effects of larval nutrition on the adult beetle’s ability to assimilate food and grow tissues. Female strength was predicted by a simple path diagram where strength was determined by eclosion weight, itself determined by larval nutrition: weight gain post-eclosion was not a predictor of strength in this sex. Based on earlier findings we discuss the insulin-like signalling pathway as a possible mechanism by which larval nutrition could affect adult weight gain and thence traits such as strength. PMID:26244874

  2. Special Needs Vouchers Aid Children and Promote Excellence: A Response to "Beyond 'Cain V. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This reply addresses concerns raised by Dr. Harmon in "Beyond 'Cain v. Horne.'" In response to the issues she raises, I explain that the appropriate constitutional inquiry is not whether there is some incidental financial benefit to private schools but whether a challenged voucher program was enacted to assist students in obtaining the…

  3. A Ghoulish Inconsistency: A Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenig, John

    2010-01-01

    Tim Keller's article insightfully explores the flawed legal reasoning behind and potentially pernicious consequences of the Arizona Supreme Court's 2009 "Cain vs. Horne" ruling. He carefully examines the two fundamental flaws in the court's interpretative methodology: a failure to engage in a straightforward textual analysis of Arizona's…

  4. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  5. The neutrino horn 300 kiloampere pulsed power supply at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Sandberg, J.; Smith, G.A.; Carroll, A.S.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Pearson, C.; Pendzick, A.; Ryan, G.; Sims, W.P.; Stillman, P.

    1987-01-01

    A 300 Kiloampere pulsed power system used to energize the Brookhaven focusing neutrino horn is described. The constant current switching section, coaxial power feed and low level control system are presented. Calculations determining system performance are compared with measured values. Plans for future systems are discussed.

  6. Commentary on "Exploring the Sensitivity of Horn's Parallel Analysis to the Distributional Form of Random Data"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayton, James C.

    2009-01-01

    In the article "Exploring the Sensitivity of Horn's Parallel Analysis to the Distributional Form of Random Data," Dinno (this issue) provides strong evidence that the distribution of random data does not have a significant influence on the outcome of the analysis. Hayton appreciates the thorough approach to evaluating this assumption, and agrees…

  7. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  8. Piracy in the Horn of Africa: The Role of Somalia’s Fishermen

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA THESIS Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited PIRACY IN THE HORN... overpopulated . Separate reports by the FAO, UN Development Program (UNDP), and the World Bank found that the total population engaged in artisanal...Defense Technical Information Center Ft. Belvoir, Virginia 2. Dudley Knox Library Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, California 3

  9. Segmental somatotopic organization of cutaneous afferent fibers in the lumbar spinal cord dorsal horn in rats.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yuzuru; Aoki, Yasuchika; Doya, Hideo

    2007-03-01

    In the present study, we investigated the central representation of segmental cutaneous afferent fiber projection fields in the horizontal plane of the spinal cord dorsal horn in adult rats. The neurotracer 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate (Dil) was applied to spinal nerves T12-S2 and cutaneous ventrodorsal axial lines T13-S1. The Dil fluorescent zones in transverse sections of the dorsal horn were observed microscopically. Mediolateral locations of Dil fluorescent zones were measured, followed by reorganization on the horizontal plane through lamina I-I111. Rostral and caudal boundary lines of the central projection fields of spinal nerves T12-S2 formed 'waves' in the horizontal plane of the dorsal horn, pitching rostrocaudally about one spinal cord segment. The rostral and caudal apexes of the waves could be linked with those of adjacent segments, suggesting that the wave pattern is continuous rostrocaudally in the dorsal horn. The waves were markedly transformed in the central projection fields of the hindlimb and genital regions, in the L5 and L6 spinal cord segments.

  10. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  11. Horn antenna design studies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstract data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the antenna radiation patterns, polarization characteristics, wave propagation, noise temperature, wave diffraction, and wideband communication of various horn antennas. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  12. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. A Reduction Method for All-Inside Posterior Horn Meniscal Repair

    PubMed Central

    M. Thompson, Simon; A. Pinczewski, Leo

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining, and maintaining, optimal reduction of a displaced posterior horn can be a difficult and time-consuming procedure. There are many different ways to repair a tear of the meniscus; we describe a quick and simple technique using a readily available meniscal suturing device. PMID:26697298

  14. An indirect dispersal pathway for spotted knapweed seeds via deer mice and great-horned owls

    Treesearch

    Dean E. Pearson; Yvette K. Ortega

    2001-01-01

    Spotted Knapweed (Centaurea maculosa) seeds were found in the pellets of Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus). That apparently resulted from owls preying upon Deer Mice (Peromyscus maniculatus) which had incidentally consumed knapweed seeds while foraging for the larvae of biological control agents within...

  15. Design of corrugated-horn-coupled MKID focal plane for CMB B-mode polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekimoto, Yutaro; Sekiguchi, Shigeyuki; Shu, Shibo; Sekine, Masakazu; Nitta, Tom; Naruse, Masato; Dominjon, Agnes; Hasebe, Takashi; Shan, Wenlei; Noguchi, Takashi; Miyachi, Akihira; Mita, Makoto; Kawasaki, Shigeo

    2016-07-01

    A focal plane based on MKID has been designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-mode polarization experiments. We are designing and developing a focal plane with broadband corrugated horn array, planar OMT, 180 degree hybrid, bandpass filters, and MKIDs. The focal plane consists of 3 octave bands (55 - 108 GHz, 80 - 160 GHz, 160 - 320 GHz), 10 hexagonal modules. Broadband corrugated horn-array has been directly machined from an Al block and measured to have a good beam shape which is consistent with electromagnetic field simulations in octave bands. The horn array is designed to be low standing-wave, light weight, and electromagnetic shield. The broadband 4 probes ortho-mode transducer (OMT) is fabricated on Si membrane of an SOI wafer. A broadband 180 degree hybrid made with coplanar waveguide (CPW) is used to reduce higher modes of the circular waveguide. Two bandpass filters of each polarization are patterned with Nb microstrip. A prototype of the broadband corrugated horn coupled MKIDs has been fabricated and tested.

  16. Comment on 'Quantum secret sharing based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states as secure carriers'

    SciTech Connect

    Gao Fei; Guo Fenzhuo; Wen Qiaoyan; Zhu Fuchen

    2005-09-15

    In a recent paper [S. Bagherinezhad and V. Karimipour, Phys. Rev. A 67, 044302 (2003)], a quantum secret sharing protocol based on reusable Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states was proposed. However, in this Comment, it is shown that this protocol is insecure if Eve employs a special strategy to attack.

  17. Complexity in the spatial utilization of rangelands: Pastoral mobility in the horn of Africa

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rangelands in the Horn of Africa have been undergoing a rapid shift from herbaceous to woody plant dominance in the past decades, threatening subsistence livestock herding and pastoral food security. Despite of significant rangeland management implications, quantification of the spatial extent of en...

  18. 23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from Bluff', (view looking NE) ca. 1880. (H. Q. Morton, Photographer, 75 Westminster Street, Providence, RI. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  19. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  20. True hermaphroditism in a horned goat with 60XX/60XY chimerism.

    PubMed Central

    Batista, M; González, F; Cabrera, F; Palomino, E; Castellano, E; Calero, P; Gracia, A

    2000-01-01

    Anatomical, behavioral, histological, endocrinological, and cytogenetic characteristics were determined in a horned intersex goat. Histology of the gonads confirmed that the goat was a true hermaphrodite. Cytogenetic analysis showed that it was a chimera (60XX/60XY). Use of laparoscopy allowed determination of characteristics of the internal gonads. Images Figure 1. Figure 2. PMID:10907580

  1. Comparative habitat use of sympatric Mexican spotted and great horned owls

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M. Block; Jeffrey S. Jenness; Randolph A. Wilson

    1997-01-01

    To provide information on comparative habitat use, we studied radiotagged Mexican spotted owls (Strix occidentalis lucida: n = 13) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus: n = 4) in northern Arizona. Home-range size (95% adaptive kernel estimate) did not differ significantly between species during either the breeding or nonbreeding...

  2. Intradermal capsaicin inhibits lumbar dorsal horn neuronal responses to colorectal distention.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Motohiro; Al-Chaer, Elie D

    2003-05-23

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of cutaneous inflammation on the responses of viscerosomatic convergent dorsal horn neurons to graded colorectal distension (CRD) and cutaneous mechanical stimulation. Responses of single viscerosomatic neurons in the lumbar dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord to CRD and to cutaneous stimuli were recorded before and 50 min after cutaneous inflammation induced by intradermal injection of capsaicin in the receptive field (RF) or in the ipsilateral and contralateral forepaw. Capsaicin injection in the RF induced an increase in the spontaneous activity of dorsal horn neurons, an expansion in the size of their RF and facilitated their responses to cutaneous stimuli. An injection placed in the center of the RF attenuated the responses to noxious CRD. Capsaicin injection in the forepaw caused a significant decrease in the responses to CRD but not to cutaneous stimuli. These results indicate that the inhibitory effects, evoked by cutaneous inflammation, can modulate the responses of dorsal horn neurons to CRD, independent of its effect on the responses to cutaneous mechanical stimuli.

  3. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... active warning system consisting of, at a minimum, flashing lights and gates. (2) A wayside horn... traffic control authority or law enforcement authority having control over vehicular traffic at the... railroads operating over the public highway-rail grade crossing, the highway or traffic control authority or...

  4. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  5. WAIS-III IQs, Horn's Theory, and Generational Changes from Young Adulthood to Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.

    2001-01-01

    Examined age changes in intellectual ability in the range from 16 to 89 years through 2 studies that involved IQs on the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale III (WAIS-III). Results are interpreted in the context of the fluid-crystallized intelligence theory of J. Horn. Studies used WAIS-III standardization data for 2,450 adults and longitudinal data…

  6. The Cattell-Horn-Carroll Model of Cognition for Clinical Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jewsbury, Paul A.; Bowden, Stephen C.; Duff, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    The Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) model is a comprehensive model of the major dimensions of individual differences that underlie performance on cognitive tests. Studies evaluating the generality of the CHC model across test batteries, age, gender, and culture were reviewed and found to be overwhelmingly supportive. However, less research is available…

  7. Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) productivity and home range characteristics in a shortgrass prairie

    Treesearch

    Rosemary A. Frank; R. Scott Lutz

    1997-01-01

    We studied movements and breeding success of resident Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal National Wildlife Refuge from 1994-1996. We captured adult owls prior to nest initiation and outfitted them with radio transmitters. Twelve, 5, and 11 pairs nested each year, respectively. Eleven nests successfully hatched and...

  8. Limit quantum efficiency for violation of Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Genovese, M.

    2005-05-15

    In this paper we present the results of numerical calculations about the minimal value of detection efficiency for violating the Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits. Our results show how the use of nonmaximally entangled states greatly improves this limit with respect to maximally entangled ones. A stronger resistance to noise is also found.

  9. A Ghoulish Inconsistency: A Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenig, John

    2010-01-01

    Tim Keller's article insightfully explores the flawed legal reasoning behind and potentially pernicious consequences of the Arizona Supreme Court's 2009 "Cain vs. Horne" ruling. He carefully examines the two fundamental flaws in the court's interpretative methodology: a failure to engage in a straightforward textual analysis of Arizona's…

  10. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  11. The optimisation, design and verification of feed horn structures for future Cosmic Microwave Background missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Gradziel, Marcin; Doherty, Stephen; Huggard, Peter G.; Polegro, Arturo; van der Vorst, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the origins of the Universe, it is necessary to carry out full sky surveys of the temperature and polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the remnant of the Big Bang. Missions such as COBE and Planck have previously mapped the CMB temperature, however in order to further constrain evolutionary and inflationary models, it is necessary to measure the polarisation of the CMB with greater accuracy and sensitivity than before. Missions undertaking such observations require large arrays of feed horn antennas to feed the detector arrays. Corrugated horns provide the best performance, however owing to the large number required (circa 5000 in the case of the proposed COrE+ mission), such horns are prohibitive in terms of thermal, mechanical and cost limitations. In this paper we consider the optimisation of an alternative smooth-walled piecewise conical profiled horn, using the mode-matching technique alongside a genetic algorithm. The technique is optimised to return a suitable design using efficient modelling software and standard desktop computing power. A design is presented showing a directional beam pattern and low levels of return loss, cross-polar power and sidelobes, as required by future CMB missions. This design is manufactured and the measured results compared with simulation, showing excellent agreement and meeting the required performance criteria. The optimisation process described here is robust and can be applied to many other applications where specific performance characteristics are required, with the user simply defining the beam requirements.

  12. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  13. Laboratory evaluation of novaluron for controlling larval horn flies, house flies, and stable flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A granular formulation of novaluron (Novaluron 0.2G, 0.2% AI), a newer benzoylphenyl urea insecticide, was evaluated for its efficacy in controlling the larval stage of horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus), house flies, Musca domestica Linnaeus, and stable flies, Stomoxys calcitrans (Linnaeus)...

  14. A Key to Phoretic Mites Commonly Found on Long-Horned Beetles Emerging from Southern Pines

    Treesearch

    D.N. Kinn; M.J. Linit

    1989-01-01

    Long-horned beetles that attack conifers are usually considered secondary pests because they generally develop in dead and dying trees and are not the cause of tree mortality (Drooz 1985). Recently that status has changed with the realization that a number of species, especially those belonging to the genus Monochamus, are vectors of the pinewood...

  15. Proposed 230-kV Crossover Substation, Big Horn County, Montana: Environmental assessment

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    Western proposes to construct, operate, and maintain a 230-kV substation northwest of Hardin, Big Horn County, Montana. The proposed Crossover Substation would form an interconnection between Western's Yellowtail-Custer and MPC's Colstrip-Billings 230-kV transmission lines. Impacts and mitigation strategies are discussed.

  16. Culturally Appropriate Mentoring for Horn of African Young People in Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Megan; Sawrikar, Pooja; Muir, Kristy

    2009-01-01

    Little is known about how to appropriately adapt mentoring programs for young people from the Horn of Africa, even though they have been arriving in Australia in significantly increasing numbers. These young people face unique challenges as a result of their age, ethnicity, migration and direct/indirect trauma experiences. The results of this…

  17. Dietary overlap between sympatric Mexican spotted and great horned owls in Arizona

    Treesearch

    Joseph L. Ganey; William M Block

    2005-01-01

    We estimated diet composition of sympatric Mexican spotted (Strix occidentalis lucida, n = 7 pairs of owls) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus, n = 4 pairs) in ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) - Gambel oak (Quercus gambelii) forest, northern Arizona. Both species preyed on mammals...

  18. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated…

  19. A history of the oil business in the Big Horn Basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Hares, C.J.

    1988-01-01

    This paper provides a historical account of the discovery and development of the Big Horn Basin. It discusses the exploration and drilling history; government purchases and leasing programs; development of geophysical survey techniques; oil and gas market history; impacts of World War II; and production history.

  20. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  1. A new horned dinosaur reveals convergent evolution in cranial ornamentation in Ceratopsidae.

    PubMed

    Brown, Caleb M; Henderson, Donald M

    2015-06-15

    Ceratopsid (horned) dinosaurs are an iconic group of large-bodied, quadrupedal, herbivorous dinosaurs that evolved in the Late Cretaceous and were largely restricted to western North America [1-5]. Ceratopsids are easily recognized by their cranial ornamentation in the form of nasal and postorbital horns and frill (capped by epiossifications); these structures show high morphological disparity and also represent the largest cranial display structures known to have evolved [2, 4]. Despite their restricted occurrence in time and space, this group has one of the best fossil records within Dinosauria, showing a rapid diversification in horn and frill morphology [1]. Here a new genus and species of chasmosaurine ceratopsid is described based on a nearly complete and three-dimensionally preserved cranium recovered from the uppermost St. Mary River Formation (Maastrichtian) of southwestern Alberta. Regaliceratops peterhewsi gen. et sp. nov. exhibits many unique characters of the frill and is characterized by a large nasal horncore, small postorbital horncores, and massive parietal epiossifications. Cranial morphology, particularly the epiossifications, suggests close affinity with the late Campanian/early Maastrichian taxon Anchiceratops, as well as with the late Maastrichtian taxon Triceratops. A median epiparietal necessitates a reassessment of epiossification homology and results in a more resolved phylogeny. Most surprisingly, Regaliceratops exhibits a suite of cranial ornamentations that are superficially similar to Campanian centrosaurines, indicating both exploration of novel display morphospace in Chasmosaurinae, especially Maastrichtian forms, and convergent evolution in horn morphology with the recently extinct Centrosaurinae. This marks the first time that evolutionary convergence in horn-like display structures has been demonstrated between dinosaur clades, similar to those seen in fossil and extant mammals [6].

  2. Selected Insecticide Delivery Devices for Management of Horn Flies (Haematobia irritans) (Diptera: Muscidae) on Beef Cattle.

    PubMed

    Swiger, Sonja Lise; Payne, Richard D

    2017-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae), is one of the most important pests of the beef cattle industry. Horn fly adults are blood feeders that remain in constant contact with cattle, providing management opportunities via insecticide-impregnated ear tags. Controlling horn flies in the United States is time consuming and costly, but failure to implement management can lead to weight loss and decreased weight gain of calves and yearlings. In the past decade, new chemical combinations have been impregnated into ear tags for pest management. The objectives of this project were to 1) evaluate the efficacy of ear tags against horn fly populations and 2) determine if reduced fly density results in economic return. During 2013, data were compiled by insecticide class; treated cows averaged fly reductions of 198 (s = 38.91; n = 3) for macrocyclic lactone treatments, 175 (s = 62.74; n = 4) for pyrethroid treatments, and 174 (s = 35.28; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments compared with untreated animals (214; s = 50.38; n = 9). During 2014, mean fly reductions were 187 (s = 14.15; n = 4) for macrocyclic lactone, 147 (s = 61.41; n = 13) for pyrethroid, and 143 (s = 77.16; n = 8) for organophosphate treatments relative to the untreated (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). A novel technology, the VetGun application system, tested in 2014, resulted in fly reductions (121 ±, n = 4), but means were not statistically significant from the control (200; s = 99.83; n = 14). Treatment of cattle with ear tags significantly reduced horn fly numbers compared with untreated cattle.

  3. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins.

    PubMed

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-12-08

    Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polledtrade mark, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins.

  4. Nutrient Stress During Ontogeny Alters Patterns of Resource Allocation in two Species of Horned Beetles.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Daniel B; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-10-01

    The elaboration of exaggerated, sexually selected weapons and ornaments often comes at a cost to other traits. For instance, by sustaining the growth of an exaggerated weapon during development, shared and limited resources such as morphogens, growth factors, and nutrients may become depleted and limit the size to which other structures can grow. Such interactions are characteristic of resource allocation trade-offs, which can constrain the production of phenotypic variation and bias evolutionary trajectories. Across many species of Onthophagus beetles, males produce extravagant horns that are used as weapons in male-male competition over mates. Previous studies have reported resource allocation trade-offs between horns and both proximally and distally developing structures. However, more recent studies have largely failed to recover these patterns, leading to the hypothesis that trade-offs may manifest only in certain species, populations, or environmental conditions. Here, we investigate (i) patterns of resource allocation into horns, eyes, and genitalia in Onthophagus gazella and O. taurus, and assess (ii) how these patterns of resource allocation are influenced by nutrient stress during larval development. We find that nutrient stress alters patterns of resource allocation within and among traits, but recover a trade-off only in the species that invests most heavily into horn production (O. taurus), and in individuals of that species that invested a disproportionately large or small amount of resources into horn growth. These results suggest that resource allocation trade-offs may not be as prevalent as previously described, and that their presence and magnitude may instead be highly context dependent.

  5. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the horn fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qiang; Guerrero, Felix D; Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is a serious pest of cattle in North America. The control of horn flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of insecticide resistance in horn flies. Novel methods to control horn flies are greatly needed. Transgenic technology is an effective tool to genetically modify insects and may lead to novel methods of pest control based on genomic approaches. Here we report a piggyBac-mediated transformation of the horn fly via electroporation. Transformation with a DsRed fluorescent marker protein coding region was verified by PCR analysis of individual fly bodies and pupal cases and sequencing of PCR products. However, Southern blot analysis failed to indicate the DsRed gene was integrated into the horn fly genome. Thus, the electroporation protocol may have caused the DsRed gene to be integrated into bacterial symbionts of the horn fly. © 2015 Institute of Zoology, Chinese Academy of Sciences.

  6. Effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kurumado, Hisatoshi; Mori, Maya; Degawa, Aiko; Fujisawa, Hideyo; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on the physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows were evaluated. Significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) decreases in hardness and elasticity were found in claw horns soaked in ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) solutions compared with those that were soaked in water for 12, 24, and 48 h. Water absorption rate, as a indicator of permeability barrier function, increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time during the soaking period and was found to be dependent on the concentrations of NH3 and H2S in the solutions. The contents of ceramide, the main lipid component for the permeability barrier system of the stratum corneum, were significantly decreased in claw horns soaked in NH3 and H2S solutions compared with the values before soaking. Quantities of eluted protein released from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were approximately 20 times and 30 to 40 times greater than those released from claw horns treated with water alone. Interestingly, the quantities of cytokeratin 10, the main cytoskeletal protein of the stratum corneum, eluted from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were markedly greater than the quantity released from horns soaked in water. Our results suggest that abnormal changes in the physical property of claw horn caused by NH3 and H2S treatment are due to disruption of the biochemical property of the claw horn induced by these chemical agents derived from slurry. PMID:19337390

  7. Large acceptance magnetic focussing horns for production of a high intensity narrow band neutrino beam at the AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, A.; Chimienti, L.; Leonhardt, W.; Monaghan, R.; Ryan, G.; Sandberg, J.; Sims, W.; Smith, G.; Stillman, P.; Thorwarth, H.

    1985-01-01

    A set of two large acceptance (20 to 140 mrad) horns have been designed and built to form a parallel beam of 3 GeV/c pions and kaons for the production of an intense, dichromatic neutrino beam. A set of beam plugs and collimators determined the momentum of the particles which pass through the horns. The cooling and maintenance of the horns and target was a particular concern since they were operated with an incident intensity of over 10/sup 13/ proton/sec. These systems were designed for simplicity, reliability, and easy replacement.

  8. Superficial dorsal horn neurons identified by intracutaneous histamine: chemonociceptive responses and modulation by morphine.

    PubMed

    Jinks, S L; Carstens, E

    2000-08-01

    We have investigated whether neurons in superficial laminae of the spinal dorsal horn respond to intracutaneous (ic) delivery of histamine and other irritant chemicals, and thus might be involved in signaling sensations of itch or chemogenic pain. Single-unit recordings were made from superficial lumbar dorsal horn neurons in pentobarbital sodium-anesthetized rats. Chemoresponsive units were identified using ic microinjection of histamine (3%, 1 microl) into the hindpaw as a search stimulus. All superficial units so identified [9 nociceptive-specific (NS), 26 wide-dynamic-range (WDR)] responded to subsequent ic histamine. A comparison group of histamine-responsive deep dorsal horn neurons (n = 16) was similarly identified. The mean histamine-evoked discharge decayed to 50% of the maximal rate significantly more slowly for the superficial (92.2 s +/- 65.5, mean +/- SD) compared with deep dorsal horn neurons (28. 2 s +/- 11.6). In addition to responding to histamine, most superficial dorsal horn neurons were also excited by ic nicotine (22/25 units), capsaicin (21/22), topical mustard oil (5/6), noxious heat (26/30), and noxious and/or innocuous mechanical stimuli (except for 1 unit that did not have a mechanosensitive receptive field). Application of a brief noxious heat stimulus during the response to ic histamine evoked an additive response in all but two cases, followed by transient depression of firing in 11/20 units. Intrathecal (IT) administration of morphine had mixed effects on superficial dorsal horn neuronal responses to ic histamine and noxious heat. Low morphine concentrations (100 nM to 1 microM) facilitated histamine-evoked responses (to >130% of control) in 9/24 units, depressed the responses (by >70%) in 11/24, and had no effect in 4. Naloxone reversed morphine-induced effects in some but not all cases. A higher morphine concentration (10 microM) had a largely depressant, naloxone-reversible effect on histamine responses. Responses of the same

  9. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  10. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 2: A 90 GHz quasi-integrated horn antenna receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Eleftheriades, George V.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    A receiver belonging to the family of integrated planar receivers has been developed at 90 GHz. It consists of a planar Schottky-diode placed at the feed of a dipole-probe suspended inside an integrated horn antenna. The measured planar mixer single-sideband conversion loss at 91.2 GHz (LO) with a 200 MHz IF frequency is 8.3dB plus or minus 0.3dB. The low cost of fabrication and simplicity of this design makes it ideal for millimeter and submillimeter-wave receivers.

  11. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resource area, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, John E.; Price, Don

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1,000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Perron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. Probable peak discharges (100-year flood) for the ephemeral streams draining North Horn Mountain are estimated to range from 200 to 380 cubic feet per second.The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Annual sediment yield in most of the area ranges from 0.1 to 0.2 acre-foot per square mile but locally is as high as 1.0 acre-foot per square mile. Most of the sediment is eroded during cloudbursts.Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. The principal source of recharge is precipitation that probably moves to aquifers along faults, joints, or fractures. This movement is apparently quite rapid. The dissolved-solids concentrations of ground water in the North Horn Mountain area range from less than 500 to about 1,000 milligrams per liter.Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor "effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than U percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to

  12. Minoan "Horns Of Concecration" Revisited: A Symbol Of Sun Worship In Palatial And Post-Palatial Crete?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banou, Emilia

    In this article a previously proposed interpretation of Minoan 'horns of consecration' as a symbol of sun is reexamined. A clay model of 'horns of consecration' from the peak sanctuary of Petsophas, the results of astronomical research on Minoan peak sanctuaries, the idols of the so-called 'Goddess with Upraised Arms" and a clay model of 'horns of consecration' from the Mycenaean cemetery of Tanagra are put forward as evidence for a possible adoption - or a parallel development under the influence of adjacent cultures - by the Minoans (and by the Mycenaeans, at least after 1400 B.C.) of religious notions related to the Egyptian symbols of the 'mountain' and the 'horizon', both connected with the Sun in Egyptian cosmology and religion. It is concluded that the 'horns of consecration' may represent a practical device as well as an abstract symbol of the Sun, a symbol of catholic importance, which embraced many aspects of Minoan religious activities as represented on Minoan iconography.

  13. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or apotential terrorist weapon

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror. PMID:21502787

  14. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  15. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J.E.; Chavan, A.H.; Weber, J.K.R.; Tamalonis, A. J.; Suthar, K J; DiChiara, A. D.

    2017-01-01

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analysis. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a total divergence angle of 10 degrees, a nearfield point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments.

  16. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 1: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a systematic method for the design of multimode quasi-integrated horn antennas. The design methodology is based on the Gaussian beam approach and the structures are optimized for achieving maximum fundamental Gaussian coupling efficiency. For this purpose, a hybrid technique is employed in which the integrated part of the antennas is treated using full-wave analysis, whereas the machined part is treated using an approximate method. This results in a simple and efficient design process. The developed design procedure has been applied for the design of a 20, a 23, and a 25 dB quasi-integrated horn antennas, all with a Gaussian coupling efficiency exceeding 97 percent. The designed antennas have been tested and characterized using both full-wave analysis and 90 GHz/370 GHz measurements.

  17. W-band prototype of platelet feed-horn array for CMB polarisation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Torto, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Cavaliere, F.; De Rosa, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Franceschet, C.; Gervasi, M.; Mennella, A.; Pagana, E.; Simonetto, A.; Tartari, A.; Villa, F.; Zannoni, M.

    2011-06-01

    We present the design and performance of a 2x2 prototype array of corrugated feed-horns in W-band. The module is fabricated using a so-called ``platelet'' technique by milling Aluminum plates. This technique is suitable for low-cost and scalable high performance applications. Room temperature Return Loss measurements show a low ( < -30 dB) reflection over a 30% bandwidth with a maximum matching of -42 dB at 100 GHz for all four antennas. Beam pattern measurements indicate good repeatability and a low (-25 dB) sidelobe and crosspolarisation levels. This work is particularly relevant for future Cosmic Microwave Background polarisation measurements, which require large microwave cryogenic detector arrays coupled to high performance corrugated feed horns.

  18. Identifying functional populations among the interneurons in laminae I-III of the spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The spinal dorsal horn receives input from primary afferent axons, which terminate in a modality-specific fashion in different laminae. The incoming somatosensory information is processed through complex synaptic circuits involving excitatory and inhibitory interneurons, before being transmitted to the brain via projection neurons for conscious perception. The dorsal horn is important, firstly because changes in this region contribute to chronic pain states, and secondly because it contains potential targets for the development of new treatments for pain. However, at present, we have only a limited understanding of the neuronal circuitry within this region, and this is largely because of the difficulty in defining functional populations among the excitatory and inhibitory interneurons. The recent discovery of specific neurochemically defined interneuron populations, together with the development of molecular genetic techniques for altering neuronal function in vivo, are resulting in a dramatic improvement in our understanding of somatosensory processing at the spinal level. PMID:28326935

  19. Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn diagnosed at scheduled third Cesarean Section.

    PubMed

    Bodur, Serkan; Fidan, Ulas; Kinci, Mehmet Ferdi; Karasahin, Kazim Emre

    2017-01-01

    A unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is an anomaly caused by defective fusion of the Müllerian duct, estimated to occur in one in 76,000 pregnancies. Life threateningly heavy bleeding is a highly expected clinical consequence of such pregnancies. According to the known literature, only two living twins and few living singleton pregnancies have been reported up to now. Here we report on an incidentally diagnosed unicornuate uterus with a communicating rudimentary horn, found during a cesarean section of a gravida 3, parity 2 (G3 P2) patient. This case is rather unique since the patient has had three full term pregnancies and three cesarean sections without significant fetal compromise. This delivery and the existing literature showed us that extensive uterine correction surgeries need not be automatically proposed when a unicornuate uterus is diagnosed in the preconception period. Such deliveries indicate that women with this uterine anomaly may have the potential to carry pregnancies to full term.

  20. Slender-horned gazelle (Gazella leptoceros), a new host for Tricholipeurus balanicus (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera: Trichodectidae).

    PubMed

    Dik, Bilal; Marniche, Faiza; Milla, Amel; Benbelcacem, Houria

    2016-12-01

    This study was performed to provide information on Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck 1938) detected on slender-horned gazelles (Gazella leptoceros) (Cuvier 1842). Four slender-horned gazelles kept in the El Hamma Zoological Garden in Algeria were examined for lice in April 2015. Three of the four gazelles were infested with lice; of 37 lice collected from the infested animals, 14 were females, 16 were males, and 7 were nymphs. Lice were mainly found on the back and hind legs of the gazelles. The lice were collected by a forceps, preserved in 70% alcohol, and cleared in 10% KOH for 24 h. Thereafter, they were rinsed in distilled water, transferred to 70% and 99% alcohol, mounted on slides in Canada balsam, examined under a binocular microscope, and identified as Tricholipeurus balanicus (Werneck, 1938). To the best of our knowledge, T. balanicus on G. leptoceros has been reported for the first time.

  1. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J. E.; Chavan, A. H.; Weber, J. K. R.; Tamalonis, A.; Suthar, K. J.; DiChiara, A. D.

    2017-09-01

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analyses. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a total divergence angle of 10°, a near-field point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments.

  2. Evaluation of 3D printed materials used to print WR10 horn antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Köhler, Elof; Rahiminejad, Sofia; Enoksson, Peter

    2016-10-01

    A WR10 waveguide horn antenna is 3D printed with three different materials. The antennas are printed on a fusion deposition modeling delta 3D printer built in house at Chalmers University of Technology. The different plastic materials used are an electrically conductive Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), a thermally conductive polylactic acid containing 35% copper, and a tough Amphora polymer containing at least 20% carbon fiber. The antennas are all printed with a 0.25 mm nozzle and 100 μm layer thickness and the software settings are tuned to give maximum quality for each material. The three 3D printed horn antennas are compared when it comes to cost, time and material properties.

  3. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7 cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  4. Sarcocystis falcatula-associated encephalitis in a free-ranging great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Barr, Bradd C

    2009-03-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was admitted to a rehabilitation clinic with severe neurologic signs that were unresponsive to supportive care. The animal was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Marked granulomatous encephalitis with focal brainstem malacia was detected microscopically. The brainstem was the most severely affected brain location and the only place in which schizonts and merozoites, morphologically compatible with Sarcocystis spp., were detected. Immunohistochemistry with the use of polyclonal antisera indicated the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. The species identification of the protozoa as S. falcatula was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous S. falcatula-associated encephalitis in a great horned owl.

  5. On convergence of the Horn and Schunck optical-flow estimation method.

    PubMed

    Mitiche, Amar; Mansouri, Abdol-Reza

    2004-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to prove convergence results for the Horn and Schunck optical-flow estimation method. Horn and Schunck stated optical-flow estimation as the minimization of a functional. When discretized, the corresponding Euler-Lagrange equations form a linear system of equations We write explicitly this system and order the equations in such a way that its matrix is symmetric positive definite. This property implies the convergence Gauss-Seidel iterative resolution method, but does not afford a conclusion on the convergence of the Jacobi method. However, we prove directly that this method also converges. We also show that the matrix of the linear system is block tridiagonal. The blockwise iterations corresponding to this block tridiagonal structure converge for both the Jacobi and the Gauss-Seidel methods, and the Gauss-Seidel method is faster than the (sequential) Jacobi method.

  6. Characterization of the acoustic field generated by a horn shaped ultrasonic transducer

    DOE PAGES

    Hu, B.; Lerch, J. E.; Chavan, A. H.; ...

    2017-09-04

    A horn shaped Langevin ultrasonic transducer used in a single axis levitator was characterized to better understand the role of the acoustic profile in establishing stable traps. The method of characterization included acoustic beam profiling performed by raster scanning an ultrasonic microphone as well as finite element analysis of the horn and its interface with the surrounding air volume. The results of the model are in good agreement with measurements and demonstrate the validity of the approach for both near and far field analysis. Our results show that this style of transducer produces a strong acoustic beam with a totalmore » divergence angle of 10 degrees, a nearfield point close to the transducer surface and a virtual sound source. These are desirable characteristics for a sound source used for acoustic trapping experiments.« less

  7. Approximation technique for determining gain and radiation pattern of the horn antenna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ewing, Paul D.

    1989-02-01

    An approximation can be used to avoid the complex mathematics and computation methods for calculating the gain and radiation pattern of the electromagnetic horn antenna. Because of the curvature of the antenna wave front, calculations using conventional techniques typically involve solving the Fresnel integrals and using computer-aided numerical integration. With this model, linear approximations give a reasonable estimate of the gain and radiation pattern using simple trigonometric functions, allowing a hand calculator to replace the computer. The case of the E-plane horn antenna was used to evaluate this technique, applying selected criteria. Results showed that the gain approximation holds for an antenna flare angle of less than 10 degrees for typical antenna dimensions, and the E field radiation pattern approximation holds until the antenna's phase error approaches 60 degrees, both within typical design parameters. This technique is a useful engineering tool.

  8. Megafaunal meiolaniid horned turtles survived until early human settlement in Vanuatu, Southwest Pacific.

    PubMed

    White, Arthur W; Worthy, Trevor H; Hawkins, Stuart; Bedford, Stuart; Spriggs, Matthew

    2010-08-31

    Meiolaniid or horned turtles are members of the extinct Pleistocene megafauna of Australia and the southwest Pacific. The timing and causes of their extinction have remained elusive. Here we report the remains of meiolaniid turtles from cemetery and midden layers dating 3,100/3,000 calibrated years before present to approximately 2,900/2,800 calibrated years before present in the Teouma Lapita archaeological site on Efate in Vanuatu. The remains are mainly leg bones; shell fragments are scant and there are no cranial or caudal elements, attesting to off-site butchering of the turtles. The new taxon differs markedly from other named insular terrestrial horned turtles. It is the only member of the family demonstrated to have survived into the Holocene and the first known to have become extinct after encountering humans.

  9. Maritime Security: Updating U.S. Counterpiracy Action Plan Gains Urgency as Piracy Escalates off the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-15

    Urgency as Piracy Escalates off the Horn of Africa Statement of Stephen L. Caldwell, Director Homeland Security and Justice Issues and John H...average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching existing data sources, gathering and maintaining the data needed, and...Counterpiracy Action Plan Gains Urgency as Piracy Escalates off the Horn of Africa 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6

  10. Development of the multi-mode horn-lens configuration for the LSPE-SWIPE B-mode experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legg, Stephen; Lamagna, Luca; Coppi, Gabriele; de Bernardis, Paolo; Giuliani, Grazia; Gualtieri, Riccardo; Marchetti, Tommaso; Masi, Silvia; Pisano, Giampaolo; Maffei, Bruno

    2016-07-01

    The Large Scale Polarisation Explorer (LSPE) is a balloon-borne experiment aiming to measure the B-mode component of the CMB polarisation at large angular scales. Onboard LSPE, the Short Wavelength Instrument for the Polarisation Explorer (SWIPE) is a bolometric polarimeter observing in three bands centred at 140, 220 and 240 GHz. The telescope is a single large-diameter plano-convex lens with a cold aperture stop. A small number of multi-mode feed horns feeding bolometric detectors are used within the focal plane, achieving a sensitivity equivalent to that of 100's of single-mode horns. Simulations have been performed to predict the multi-mode optical response of the horn-lens configuration for centre and off-axis pixels pertaining to each frequency band. The horn has been simulated to a high accuracy using the Method of Moments. Using the horn simulation result as a source, the optical response of the lens has been examined using the more approximate simulation technique; Ray-Launching Geometrical Optics (RL-GO). Solution accuracy and simulation time depend heavily on the choice of RL-GO simulation parameters including: mesh size; the number of launched rays; and how densely the horn source beam is sampled. Individual convergence studies have been performed for each of these parameters and a final model has been obtained as a compromise between simulation time and accuracy. The instrumental polarisation of the lens is predicted to be at the -50 dB level. Finally, the optimal location of where to place the telescope focus in relation to the horn to maximise on-axis gain has been investigated. Several techniques agreed that the `phase centre' is around 20 mm behind the horn aperture at 140 GHz, increasing to 30 mm at 220 and 240 GHz. Taking into account beam truncation effects caused by the finite size of the telescope was found to reduce the overall variation in on-axis gain.

  11. Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa: Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices, and Infrastructure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-04-21

    ER D C/ CR RE L TR -1 4- 5 Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices , and...ERDC/CRREL TR-14-5 April 2014 Socio-economic Effects of Drought in the Horn of Africa Population Movements, Livelihoods, Market Prices , and...Additional analyses investigated market price re- sponse to drought and market connectivity and explored the use of census data on household water

  12. Antenna noise temperatures of the 34-meter beam-waveguide antenna with horns of different gains installed at F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Lee, P. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a set of theoretical and measured zenith-antenna noise temperatures at 8.45 GHz for the DSS-13 34-m beam-waveguide antenna when horns of different gains are installed at F1. The methodology for calculations is shown in detail. The major differences between calculated and measured values are attributed to changes in subreflector support leg scattering when illuminated by the various horns.

  13. Solving the inverse problem of electrocardiography using a Duncan and Horn formulation of the Kalman filter.

    PubMed

    Berrier, Keith L; Sorensen, Danny C; Khoury, Dirar S

    2004-03-01

    Numeric regularization methods most often used to solve the ill-posed inverse problem of electrocardiography are spatial and ignore the temporal nature of the problem. In this paper, a Kalman filter reformulation incorporated temporal information to regularize the inverse problem, and was applied to reconstruct left ventricular endocardial electrograms based on cavitary electrograms measured by a noncontact, multielectrode probe. These results were validated against in situ electrograms measured with an integrated, multielectrode basket-catheter. A three-dimensional, probe-endocardium model was determined from multiplane fluoroscopic images. The boundary element method was applied to solve the boundary value problem and determine a linear relationship between endocardial and probe potentials. The Duncan and Horn formulation of the Kalman filter was employed and was compared to the commonly used zero- and first-order Tikhonov spatial regularization as well as the Twomey temporal regularization method. Endocardial electrograms were reconstructed during both sinus and paced rhythms. The Paige and Saunders solution of the Duncan and Horn formulation reconstructed endocardial electrograms at an amplitude relative error of 13% (potential amplitude) which was superior to solutions obtained with zero-order Tikhonov (relative error, 31%), first-order Tikhonov (relative error, 19%), and Twomey regularization (relative error, 44%). Likewise, activation time error in the inverse solution using the Duncan and Horn formulation (2.9 ms) was smaller than that of zero-order Tikhonov (4.8 ms), first-order Tikhonov (5.4 ms), and Twomey regularization (5.8 ms). Therefore, temporal regularization based on the Duncan and Horn formulation of the Kalman filter improves the solution of the inverse problem of electrocardiography.

  14. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  15. Production of an X-band horn after a design of Dick Turrin, W2IMU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monstein, Christian

    2015-08-01

    While looking for a nice, easy to perform and cheap students' project in 2009, we investigated X-band (8 to 12 GHz) microwave devices. A 5 m parabolic dish antenna and an X-band down-converter were already available, but we had no antenna feed in our tool box. A web search yielded a simple feed horn design and found sketches and descriptions by Dick Turrin (W2IMU) from 1991.

  16. Noncommuting local common causes for correlations violating the Clauser-Horne inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabo, Gabor; Vecsernyes, Peter

    2012-12-15

    In the paper, the EPR-Bohm scenario will be reproduced in an algebraic quantum field theoretical setting with locally finite degrees of freedom. It will be shown that for a set of spatially separated correlating events (projections) maximally violating the Clauser-Horne inequality there can be given a common causal explanation if commutativity is abandoned between the common cause and the correlating events. Moreover, the noncommuting common cause will be local and supported in the common past of the correlating events.

  17. Disruption and restoration of dorsal horn sensory map after peripheral nerve crush and regeneration.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, T; Yoshida, A; Nishijima, K; Ichikawa, H

    1995-10-01

    Formalin injection into the hindpaw of rats produces many neurons with c-fos protein-like immunoreactivity (fos-neurons) in the medial 3/4 of the ipsilateral dorsal horn laminae I and II at the junction of 4th and 5th lumbar segments (the sciatic territory). The tibial nerve transection 2 or 3 days earlier resulted in almost complete elimination of stimulation-induced fos-neurons in the tibial territory (medial 1/2 of the sciatic territory). When the animals had been conditioned by crushing the tibial nerve 2 weeks before stimulation (11 or 12 days before transection), the number of fos-neurons significantly increased compared to simple transection alone. The increase (2.5-fold) was greatest in the tibial territory. Therefore, the dorsal horn neurons in the deafferented tibial territory exhibited hypersensitivity to intact peroneal primary input, and the somatotopy map was disrupted. When the nerve had been crushed 3 weeks (18 or 19 days earlier than transection) rather than 2 weeks before stimulation, however, the number and distribution of fos-neurons were not different from those without conditioning (transection alone). Regenerated tibial nerve fibers were capable of transganglionic transport of WGA-HRP from the hindpaw receptive field to the tibial territory of the dorsal horn by 3 weeks but not by 2 weeks following the nerve crush. When transection was omitted, noxious signal transmitted through the tibial nerve fibers regenerated by 3 weeks after crush was capable of inducing c-fos in the tibial territory. The injury-induced hypersensitivity of dorsal horn neurons and resulting disruption of somatotopy map were reversed by re-establishment of peripheral tissue-nerve interaction.

  18. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  19. Maximal violation of Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for four-level systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fu Libin; Chen Jingling; Chen Shigang

    2004-03-01

    Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for bipartite systems of four dimensions is studied in detail by employing the unbiased eight-port beam splitters measurements. The uniform formulas for the maximum and minimum values of this inequality for such measurements are obtained. Based on these formulas, we show that an optimal nonmaximally entangled state is about 6% more resistant to noise than the maximally entangled one. We also give the optimal state and the optimal angles which are important for experimental realization.

  20. Glaucoma in a captive-bred great horned owl (Bubo virginianus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rayment, L J; Williams, D

    1997-05-03

    A captive-bred adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus virginianus) behaved as though it was bilaterally blind. An ophthalmological examination showed that it had an increased intraocular pressure in both eyes and gonioscopy showed an abnormality of the iridocorneal angles. Retinal changes were also observed. Treatment was not attempted and the owl was euthanased. Histopathology confirmed the abnormal iridocorneal angles, but the exact aetiology of the primary glaucoma was not identified.

  1. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H.; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  2. Climate and Weather of the Horn of Africa--Executive Summary

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ) or Monsoon Trough. Figures 2-13 show the mean monthly positions of the NET and associated thunderstorm activity...Force Base, Illinois, 62225-5116 REVIEW AND APPROVAL STATEMENT USAFETAC/TN--92/006, Horn of Africa Climate and Weather--Executive Summary, December...1992, has been reviewed and is approved for public release. There is no objection to unlimited distribution of this document to the public at large, or

  3. Preliminary hydrologic evaluation of the North Horn Mountain coal-resources area, Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, M.J.; Tooley, J.E.; Price, D.

    1981-01-01

    North Horn Mountain is part of a deeply dissected plateau in central Utah which is characterized by deep, narrow, steep-walled canyons with local relief of more than 1000 feet. Geologic units exposed in the North Horn Mountain area range in age from Late Cretaceous to Holocene and contain two mineable seams of Cretaceous coal. The area is in the drainage basin of the San Rafael River, in the Colorado River Basin. Runoff from the mountain is ephemeral. This runoff to the San Rafael River is by way of Cottonwood and Ferron Creeks and represents less than 10 percent of their average annual runoff. The chemical quality of surface water in the area is good. The water is generally of a calcium magnesium bicarbonate type with average dissolved solids less than 500 milligrams per liter. Most of the ground water above the coal on North Horn Mountain probably is in perched aquifers. These aquifers support the flow of small seeps and springs. In some areas, the regional water table appears to extend upward into the coal. Coal mining on North Horn Mountain should have minor effects on the quantity and quality of surface water. The maximum predicted decrease in the annual flow of Ferron and Cottonwood Creeks is less than 4 percent. The sediment loads of affected streams could be significantly increased if construction were to take place during the summer cloudburst season. Subsidence, which usually follows underground coal mining, could create rock fractures through which a perched aquifer might be drained, thus depleting the flow of seeps or springs fed by that aquifer. It is considered unlikely that the mining will adversely affect the chemical quality of the ground water.

  4. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1.

  5. Modeling multimode feed-horn coupled bolometers for millimeter-wave and terahertz astronomical instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalinauskaite, Eimante; Murphy, Anthony; McAuley, Ian; Trappe, Neil A.; Bracken, Colm P.; McCarthy, Darragh N.; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin L.; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Maffei, Bruno; Lamarre, Jean-Michel A.; Ade, Peter A. R.; Savini, Giorgio

    2016-07-01

    Multimode horn antennas can be utilized as high efficiency feeds for bolometric detectors, providing increased throughput and sensitivity over single mode feeds, while also ensuring good control of beam pattern characteristics. Multimode horns were employed in the highest frequency channels of the European Space Agency Planck Telescope, and have been proposed for future terahertz instrumentation, such as SAFARI for SPICA. The radiation pattern of a multimode horn is affected by the details of the coupling of the higher order waveguide modes to the bolometer making the modeling more complicated than in the case of a single mode system. A typical cavity coupled bolometer system can be most efficiently simulated using mode matching, typically with smooth walled waveguide modes as the basis and computing an overall scattering matrix for the horn-waveguide-cavity system that includes the power absorption by the absorber. In this paper we present how to include a cavity coupled bolometer, modelled as a thin absorbing film with particular interest in investigating the cavity configuration for optimizing power absorption. As an example, the possible improvements from offsetting the axis of a cylindrically symmetric absorbing cavity from that of a circular waveguide feeding it (thus trapping more power in the cavity) are discussed. Another issue is the effect on the optical efficiency of the detectors of the presence of any gaps, through which power can escape. To model these effects required that existing in-house mode matching software, which calculates the scattering matrices for axially symmetric waveguide structures, be extended to be able to handle offset junctions and free space gaps. As part of this process the complete software code 'PySCATTER' was developed in Python. The approach can be applied to proposed terahertz systems, such as SPICASAFARI.

  6. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  7. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  8. Capacity Building as an Answer to Piracy in the Horn of Africa

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    against low fast moving aircraft.69 On the other hand, a maritime application of a tethered aerostat constellation system could be embedded with a...technological assets, i.e tethered aerostat radar sensors, UAVs and picosatellites. The economic and technical feasibility of the proposed conceptual model is...number of deployed naval assets. 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 89 14. SUBJECT TERMS Piracy, Capacity Building, Horn of Africa, Tethered Aerostats, Radar

  9. Rapid decrease in horn size of bighorn sheep: environmental decline, inbreeding depression, or evolutionary response to trophy hunting?

    PubMed

    Hedrick, Philip W

    2011-01-01

    There are numerous examples demonstrating that selection has greatly influenced phenotypes in wild-harvested species. Here, a significant reduction in horn size in trophy desert bighorn sheep rams over 30 years in a reintroduced population in Aravaipa Canyon, Arizona is documented. After examining the potential effects of a detrimental change in the environment, inbreeding depression, and hunter-caused evolutionary change, it appears that environmental deterioration, apparently from the effects of drought, may be a major cause of the decline in horn size. In particular, the reduction in ram horn size is positively associated with reduced winter lifetime rainfall over the 3 decades. Over the same period, the demographic indicator lamb-to-ewe ratio has also declined in the Aravaipa population. On the other hand, lamb-to-ewe ratio has not declined statewide in Arizona, and the population size in Aravaipa appears to be increasing, suggesting local- and trait-specific effects. Using a theoretical context, neither inbreeding depression nor hunter selection by themselves appear to the sole causes of the lower horn size. However, some combination of environmental factors, inbreeding depression, and hunter selection may have caused the decrease in observed horn size. It is not clear what management actions might be successful in countering the environmental effects on horn size, but supplemental feeding and cattle removal are suggested while translocation is suggested to counter the effects of inbreeding depression and reduced hunting and translocation are suggested to counter the effects of hunter selection.

  10. Optimization of the magnetic horn for the nuSTORM non-conventional neutrino beam using the genetic algorithm

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes the strategy for optimizing the magnetic horn for the neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility. The nuSTORM magnetic horn is the primary collection device for the secondary particles generated by bombarding a solid target with 120 GeV protons. As a consequence of the non-conventional beamline designed for nuSTORM, the requirements on the horn are different from those for a conventional neutrino beamline. At nuSTORM, muons decay while circulating in the storage ring, and the detectors are placed downstream of the production straight so as to be exposed to the neutrinos from muon decay. nuSTORM aims at preciselymore » measuring the neutrino cross sections, and providing a definitive statement about the existence of sterile neutrinos. The nuSTORM horn aims at focusing the pions into a certain phase space so that more muons from pion decay can be accepted by the decay ring. The paper demonstrates a numerical method that was developed to optimize the horn design to gain higher neutrino flux from the circulating muons. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to the simultaneous optimization of the two objectives in this study. In conclusion, the application of the technique discussed in this paper is not limited to either the nuSTORM facility or muon based facilities, but can be used for other neutrino facilities that use magnetic horns as collection devices.« less

  11. Optimization of the magnetic horn for the nuSTORM non-conventional neutrino beam using the genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes the strategy for optimizing the magnetic horn for the neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility. The nuSTORM magnetic horn is the primary collection device for the secondary particles generated by bombarding a solid target with 120 GeV protons. As a consequence of the non-conventional beamline designed for nuSTORM, the requirements on the horn are different from those for a conventional neutrino beamline. At nuSTORM, muons decay while circulating in the storage ring, and the detectors are placed downstream of the production straight so as to be exposed to the neutrinos from muon decay. nuSTORM aims at precisely measuring the neutrino cross sections, and providing a definitive statement about the existence of sterile neutrinos. The nuSTORM horn aims at focusing the pions into a certain phase space so that more muons from pion decay can be accepted by the decay ring. The paper demonstrates a numerical method that was developed to optimize the horn design to gain higher neutrino flux from the circulating muons. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to the simultaneous optimization of the two objectives in this study. In conclusion, the application of the technique discussed in this paper is not limited to either the nuSTORM facility or muon based facilities, but can be used for other neutrino facilities that use magnetic horns as collection devices.

  12. Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of sole horn of 40 Holstein cows were evaluated. The mean serum biotin level in biotin-supplemented cows after 10 mo of biotin supplementation (1163.2 ± 76.2 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than that in control cows (382.0 ± 76.2 pg/mL). The sole horn of biotin-supplemented cows was significantly harder (P = 0.026) and had a significantly lower moisture content (P = 0.021) than that of control cows. No morphologic differences in horn tubules or intertubular horn were found between the biotin-supplemented and control cows. The total lipid content of sole horn was significantly higher (P = 0.030) in the biotin-supplemented cows than in the control cows. These results suggest that dietary biotin supplementation causes increases in serum biotin levels and changes in physical properties and fat content of sole horn. PMID:15188952

  13. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Zhu, Junwei J; Brewer, Gary J; Boxler, David J; Friesen, Kristina; Taylor, David B

    2015-11-01

    Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown promising results in reducing fly biting. In the present study, we examined the efficacy and longevity of recently identified natural product repellents against horn flies. Catnip oil, geraniol and C8910 acids reduced horn fly feeding in a laboratory bioassay and also exhibited spatial repellency in the olfactometer. Residual activity was observed for up to 3 days in laboratory assays; however, 24 h of residual effectiveness was observed from the two repellents when applied on cattle in the field. The limited residual effectiveness was correlated with the high volatility of the major active repellent compounds. All three natural product repellents effectively repel biting horn flies, exhibiting both feeding deterrence and spatial repellency. They may be used for developing an effective push-pull strategy with a slow release matrix that can prolong their effectiveness for horn fly management. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Fabrication method of 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna array using MRPBI system and application for microbolometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jong-Yeon; Kim, Kuntae; Moon, Sung; Park, Jong-Oh; Oh, Myung-Hwan; Pak, James Jungho

    2001-11-01

    A 3D Feed horn shape MEMS antenna has some attractive features for array application, which can be used to improve microbolometer performance. Since MEMS technology have been faced many difficulties to fabrication of 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna array itself. The purpose of this paper is to propose a new fabrication method to realize a 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna array using a MRPBI(Mirror Reflected Parallel Beam Illuminator) system with an ultra-slow-rotated and inclined x-y-z stage. A high-aspect-ratio 300 micrometers sidewalls had been fabricated using SU-8 negative photo resist. It can be demonstrated to feasibility of realize 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna array fabrication. In order to study the effect of this novel technique, the 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna array had been simulated with HFSS(High Frequency Structure Simulator) tools and then compared with traditional 3D theoretical antenna models. As a result, it seems possible to use a 3D feed horn shape MEMS antenna at the tera hertz band to improve microbolometer performance and optical MEMS device fabrication.

  15. Direct sensorimotor corticospinal modulation of dorsal horn neuronal C-fiber responses in the rat.

    PubMed

    Rojas-Piloni, Gerardo; Martínez-Lorenzana, Guadalupe; Condés-Lara, Miguel; Rodríguez-Jiménez, Javier

    2010-09-10

    Clinically, the stimulation of motor cortical areas has been used to alleviate certain pain conditions. However, the attempts to understand the mechanisms of cortical nociceptive modulation at the spinal cord level have yielded controversial results. The objectives of the present work were to: 1) determine the effects of activating and suppressing the activity of sensorimotor cortical neurons on the nociceptive electrophysiological responses of the segmental C-fibers, and 2) evaluate the contribution of direct and indirect corticospinal projections in segmental nociceptive modulation. By means of a bipolar matrix of stimulation electrodes we mapped the stimulation of cortical areas that modulate C-fiber evoked field potentials in the dorsal horn. In addition, suppressing the cortical activity by means of cortical spreading depression, we observed that the C-fiber evoked field potentials in the dorsal horn are facilitated when cortical activity is suppressed specifically in sensorimotor cortex. Moreover, the C-fiber evoked field potentials were inhibited during spontaneous activation of cortical projecting neurons. Furthermore, after a lesion of the pyramidal tract contralateral to the spinal cord recording sites, the cortical action was suppressed. Our results show that corticospinal tract fibers arising from the sensorimotor cortex modulate directly the nociceptive C-fiber evoked responses of the dorsal horn.

  16. Metformin and atorvastatin reduce adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Bulent; Aksakal, Orhan; Gungor, Tayfun; Sirvan, Levent; Sut, Necdet; Kelekci, Sefa; Soysal, Sunullah; Mollamahmutoglu, Leyla

    2009-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether atorvastatin and metformin are effective in preventing adhesions in a rat uterine horn model. A total of 40 non-pregnant, female Wistar albino rats, weighing 180-210 g, were used as a model for post-operative adhesion formation. The rats were randomized into four groups after seven standard lesions were inflicted in each uterine horn and lower abdominal sidewall using bipolar cauterization. The rats were given atorvastatin 2.5 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats), atorvastatin 30 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats), metformin 50 mg/kg/day, p.o. (10 rats) and no treatment was applied in the control group (10 rats). The animals were killed 2 weeks later and adhesions were scored both clinically and pathologically by authors blinded to groups. One rat in the control group died before the end of the 2 week period. Total clinical adhesion scores regarding extent, severity and degree of adhesions and histopathological findings including inflammation and fibrosis were significantly lower in the metformin (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) and atorvastatin 30 mg/kg/day (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01, respectively) groups when compared with control group. Metformin and atorvastatin are both effective for prevention of adhesion formation in a rat uterine horn model.

  17. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields.

  18. Nonlinear effects contributing to hand-stopping tones in a horn.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Hand stopping is a technique for playing the French horn while closing the bell relatively tightly using the right hand. The resulting timbre is called "penetrating" and "metallic." The effect of hand stopping on the horn input impedance has been studied, but the tone quality has hardly ever been considered. In the present paper, the dominant physical cause of the stopped-tone quality is discussed in detail. Numerical calculations of the transmission function of the stopped-horn model and the measurements of both sound pressure and wall vibration in hand stopping are carried out. They strongly suggest that the metallicness of the stopped tone is characterized by the generation of higher harmonics extending over 10 kHz due to the rapidly corrugating waveform and that the associated wall vibration on the bell may be responsible for this higher harmonic generation. However, excitation experiments and immobilization experiments performed to elucidate the relationship between sound radiation and wall vibration deny their correlation. Instead, the measurement result of the mouthpiece pressure in hand stopping suggests that minute wave corrugations peculiar to the metallic stopped tones are probably formed by nonlinear sound propagation along the bore.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA geneflow indicates preferred usage of the Levant Corridor over the Horn of Africa passageway.

    PubMed

    Rowold, D J; Luis, J R; Terreros, M C; Herrera, Rene J

    2007-01-01

    Both the Levantine Corridor and the Horn of Africa route have figured prominently in early hominid migrations from Africa to Eurasia. To gauge the importance of these two African-Asian thoroughfares in the demic movements of modern man, we surveyed the mtDNA control region variation and coding polymorphisms of 739 individuals representing ten African and Middle Eastern populations. Two of these collections, Egypt and Yemen, are geographically close to the Levant and Horn of Africa, respectively. In this analysis, we uncover genetic evidence for the preferential use of the Levantine Corridor in the Upper Paleolithic to Neolithic dispersals of haplogroups H, J*, N1b, and T1, in contrast to an overwhelming preference in favor of the Horn of Africa for the intercontinental expansion of M1 during the Middle to Upper Paleolithic. Furthermore, we also observed a higher frequency of sub-Saharan mtDNA compared to NRY lineages in the Middle Eastern collections, a pattern also seen in previous studies. In short, the results of this study suggest that several migratory episodes of maternal lineages occurred across the African-Asian corridors since the first African exodus of modern Homo sapiens sapiens.

  20. Developmental decoupling of alternative phenotypes: insights from the transcriptomes of horn-polyphenic beetles

    PubMed Central

    Snell-Rood, Emilie C.; Cash, Amy; Han, Mira V.; Kijimoto, Teiya; Andrews, Justen; Moczek, Armin P.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental mechanisms play an important role in determining the costs, limits, and evolutionary consequences of phenotypic plasticity. One issue central to these claims is the hypothesis of developmental decoupling, where alternate morphs result from evolutionarily independent developmental pathways. We address this assumption through a microarray study that tests whether differences in gene expression between alternate morphs are as divergent as those between sexes, a classic example of developmental decoupling. We then examine whether genes with morph-biased expression are less conserved than genes with shared expression between morphs, as predicted if developmental decoupling relaxes pleiotropic constraints on divergence. We focus on the developing horns and brains of two species of horned beetles with spectacular sexual- and morph-dimorphism in the expression of horns and fighting behavior. We find that patterns of gene expression were as divergent between morphs as they were between sexes. However, overall patterns of gene expression were also highly correlated across morphs and sexes. Morph-biased genes were more evolutionarily divergent, suggesting a role of relaxed pleiotropic constraints or relaxed selection. Together these results suggest that alternate morphs are to some extent developmentally decoupled, and that this decoupling has significant evolutionary consequences. However, alternative morphs may not be as developmentally decoupled as sometimes assumed and such hypotheses of development should be revisited and refined. PMID:20731717