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Sample records for infauna monitoring horns

  1. Activity patterns and monitoring numbers of Horned Puffins and Parakeet Auklets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hatch, Shyla A.

    2002-01-01

    Nearshore counts of birds on the water and time-lapse photography were used to monitor seasonal activity patterns and interannual variation in numbers of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) and Parakeet Auklets (Aethia psittacula) at the Semidi Islands, Alaska. The best period for over-water counts was mid egg-laying through hatching in auklets and late prelaying through early hatching in puffins. Daily counts (07.00 h-09.30 h) varied widely, with peak numbers and days with few or no birds present occurring throughout the census period. Variation among annual means in four years amounted to 26% and 72% of total count variation in puffins and auklets, respectively. Time-lapse photography of nesting habitat in early incubation revealed a morning (08.00 h-12.00 h) peak in the number of puffins loitering on study plots. Birds recorded in time-lapse images never comprised more than a third of the estimated breeding population on a plot. Components of variance in the time-lapse study were 29% within hours, 9% among hours (08.00 h-12.00 h), and 62% among days (8-29 June). Variability of overwater and land-based counts is reduced by standardizing the time of day when counts are made, but weather conditions had little influence on either type of count. High international variation of population indices implies low power to detect numerical trends in crevice-nesting auklets and puffins.

  2. Monitoring the arsenic and iodine exposure of seaweed-eating North Ronaldsay sheep from the gestational and suckling periods to adulthood by using horns as a dietary archive.

    PubMed

    Caumette, Guilhem; Ouypornkochagorn, Sairoong; Scrimgeour, Charlie M; Raab, Andrea; Feldmann, Jörg

    2007-04-15

    Trace elements often accumulate in keratin-rich tissues. Hair, nails, and horns grow steadily but once formed are metabolically inactive and provide an archive of trace element exposure when analyzed in segments. Here we demonstrate the use of laser ablation ICP-MS for the high-resolution monitoring of trace elements in the horns of seaweed-eating sheep from North Ronaldsay, which live on grass only during lambing time. Due to this peculiar husbandry/dietary pattern and the fact that seaweed is rich in arsenic and iodine, we hoped to use iodine and arsenic as markers for seaweed ingestion. Cross sections and scans along the growing axis (representing the first 8-10 months of the sheep's life) revealed that these elements were not homogeneously distributed in the horn, with arsenic representing the amount of seaweed intake. The scans show the periods in which the lambs were fed on milk and grass and the change to seaweed ingestion with the successive replacement of milk with seaweed; this was supported by the carbon and nitrogen isotope signatures (delta13C and delta15N) of the horn and the arsenic speciation in the horn. The period of low arsenic accumulation in the horn had terrestrial isotope signatures and accumulated arsenic of mainly inorganic origin. The period of high arsenic accumulation was characterized by isotope signatures of marine origin, and the majority of accumulated arsenic in the horn was the main arsenosugar metabolite dimethylarsinic acid. Although we have investigated only four different horns of individual sheep, this study shows that arsenic is not significantly transported with milk. However, the high concentration of arsenic in the oldest part of the horn, which was formed in utero, points to a relatively high placental transport of arsenic while the ewe was eating seaweed. In contrast to arsenic, iodine is transported not only through milk ingestion but also through the placenta in large quantities.

  3. Variability in colony attendance of crevice-nesting horned puffins: Implications for population monitoring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Byrd, G.V.; Hatch, Shyla A.; Konyukhov, N.B.; Golubova, E.U.; Williams, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is difficult to survey crevice-nesting seabirds because nest-sites are hard to identify and count, and the number of adult birds attending a colony can be extremely variable within and between days. There is no standardized method for surveying crevice-nesting horned puffins (Fratercula corniculata), and consequently little is known about abundance or changes in their numbers. We examined the variability in colony attendance of horned puffins at 5 breeding colonies in the North Pacific to assess whether variation in count data can be reduced to a level that would allow us to detect changes in the number of birds attending a colony. We used within-year measures of variation in attendance to examine the power to detect a change in numbers between 2 years, and we used measures of among-year variation to examine the power to detect trends over multiple years. Diurnal patterns of attendance differed among colonies, and among-day variation in attendance was generally lowest from mid- to late-incubation to early chick rearing. Within-year variation in water counts was lower than in land counts, and variation was lower using a daily index based on 5 counts per day than it was using 1 count per day. Measures of among-year variation in attendance also were higher for land-based than water-based counts, and they were higher when we used a 10-day survey period than when we used a 30-day period. The use of either 1 or 5 counts a day during the colony-specific diurnal peak of attendance had little influence on levels of among-year variation. Overall, our study suggests that variation in count data may be reduced to a level that allows detection of trends in numbers. However, more studies of interannual variability in horned puffin attendance are needed. Further, the relationship between count data and breeding population size needs more study before the number of birds present at the colony can be used with confidence as an index of population trend.

  4. Use of Earth Observation Data for Environmental Monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the Framework of MESA IGAD THEMA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atheru, Zachary; Fortunate, Muyambi

    2015-12-01

    The achievements and challenges on the implementation of activities of IGAD Climate Prediction and Applications Centre (ICPAC) regarding the use of Earth Observation data for environmental monitoring in the Horn of Africa within the framework of MESA IGAD THEMA. Examples of the outputs from the Land Degradation Assessment, Natural Habitat Conservation and Forest Monitoring are provided and explained. The difficulties faced in communicating and disseminating information particularly to decision makers are highlighted. Also outlined is the scope and expected results from the Monitoring for Environment and Security in Africa (MESA) IGAD Thematic action and emphasis placed on lessons learnt on (i) developing services from products (ii) strengthening national networks (III) disseminating and communicating information to decision and policy makers, and (iv) capacity building. The overall objective of the MESA programme in the IGAD region is to enhance land degradation mitigation, natural habitats assessment and Forest Monitoring for sustainable management of environmental resources through the use of Earth Observation data. This is done by strengthening the Earth Observation information management capacity of regional and national institutions in order to support decision and policy making processes. The services produce and distribute regularly land degradation index maps, land cover change indicators on IGAD selected Natural Habitats areas, Forest degradation, deforestation extent, vulnerability index map. It also develops the political and policy frameworks that are strengthened to ensure an active and sustainable participation of IGAD member states in global environmental surveillance initiatives and finally give adequate technical capacity of MESA IGAD stakeholders.

  5. Cutaneous Horn

    MedlinePlus

    ... fair-skinned individuals with a history of significant sun exposure. Signs and Symptoms A cutaneous horn most often ... radiation therapy. Trusted Links MedlinePlus: Skin Conditions MedlinePlus: Sun Exposure References Bolognia, Jean L., ed. Dermatology , pp.1715. ...

  6. Vertical distribution of benthic infauna in continental slope sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blake, James A.

    The vertical distribution of 30 species of benthic infauna from continental slope (583-3000 m) sediments off Cape Lookout, North Carolina was closely correlated with feeding types. Carnivores, omnivores, filter feeders, and surface deposit feeders were mostly concentrated in the upper 0-2 cm of the cores. The depth distribution of subsurface deposit feeders was more variable, even among related taxa.

  7. Capillary electrophoresis combined with microdialysis in the human spinal cord: a new tool for monitoring rapid peroperative changes in amino acid neurotransmitters within the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Parrot, Sandrine; Sauvinet, Valérie; Xavier, Jean-Michel; Chavagnac, Delphine; Mouly-Badina, Laurence; Garcia-Larrea, Luis; Mertens, Patrick; Renaud, Bernard

    2004-06-01

    A method originally developed for the separation of the three neurotransmitters gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate (Glu) and L-aspartate (L-Asp) in microdialysis samples from rat brain (Sauvinet et al., Electrophoresis 2003, 24, 3187-3196) was applied to human spinal dialysates obtained during peroperative microdialysis from patients undergoing surgery against chronic pain. Molecules were tagged on their primary amine function with the fluorogene agent, naphthalene-2,3-dicarboxaldehyde (NDA), and, after separation by capillary electrophoresis (CE, 75 mmol/L borate buffer, pH 9.2, containing 70 mmol/L sodium dodecyl sulfate and 10 mmol/L hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin, + 25 kV voltage), were detected by laser-induced fluorescence detection (LIFD) using a 442 nm helium-cadmium laser. The complete method, including microdialysis sampling and analysis by CE-LIFD, has been validated for the analysis of human spinal microdialysates. The analytical detection limits were 1, 3.7 and 17 nmol/L for GABA, Glu and L-Asp respectively. This method allows an accurate measurement of the three amino acid neurotransmitters during an in vivo monitoring performed as rapidly as every minute in the human spinal dorsal horn. In addition, the effect of a brief peroperative electrical stimulation of the dorsal rootlets was investigated. The results obtained illustrate the advantages of combining microdialysis with CE-LIFD for studying neurotransmitters with such a high sampling rate.

  8. The Ram's Horn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rassias, John A., Ed.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    The summer-fall and winter-spring numbers of the journal, "The Ram's Horn," contain these articles: "The Text as Dramatic Departure"; "The Dartmouth Language Outreach Approach to Spanish for Police Action"; "The Dartmouth Intensive Language Model (DILM) in Florida: John Rassias with High School Teachers"; "The Flexibility of Using Drama Techniques…

  9. Horns as particle velocity amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Donskoy, Dimitri M; Cray, Benjamin A

    2011-11-01

    Preliminary measurements and numerical predictions reveal that simple, and relatively small, horns generate remarkable amplification of acoustic particle velocity. For example, below 2 kHz, a 2.5 cm conical horn has a uniform velocity amplification ratio (throat-to-mouth) factor of approximately 3, or, in terms of a decibel level, 9.5 dB. It is shown that the velocity amplification factor depends on the horn's mouth-to-throat ratio as well as, though to a lesser degree, the horn's flare rate. A double horn configuration provides limited additional gain, approximately an increase of up to 25%.

  10. Ethnopharmacology of rhinoceros horn. II: Antipyretic effects of prescriptions containing rhinoceros horn or water buffalo horn.

    PubMed

    But, P P; Tam, Y K; Lung, L C

    1991-01-01

    Aqueous extracts of rhinoceros horn or water buffalo horn demonstrated significant antipyretic action at 2.5 g/ml i.p. (1 ml/animal) in rats with hyperthermia induced by subcutaneous injection of turpentine oil. Qingying Decoction, a classic compound prescription composed of rhinoceros horn and eight herbs, showed significant antipyretic action at dosages equivalent to 0.5 g/ml of rhinoceros horn extract. Comparable action was obtained by Qingying Decoction prepared with water buffalo horn. It is suggested that water buffalo horn can be used as a substitute for rhinoceros horn in treating hyperthermia, especially when prepared with other herbal materials according to the principles of compound prescriptions of Chinese medicine.

  11. High rates of long-term survival of deep-sea infauna in the laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinberg, James R.

    1990-08-01

    Living bivalves ( Nucula, Thyasira), a gastropod ( Frigidoalvania brychia) and a calcareous foraminiferan ( Laticarinina pauperata), from 775 m depth in the northwest Atlantic, were maintained in the laboratory for 772 days to measure their survival. The organisms, <4 mm in size, were maintained at 1 atm and at 5°C in cups containing sediment and seawater. Over the 772 day period, 46% of all bivalves and one of two gastropods survived. Minimum estimates for survival of L. pauperata in six containers ranged from 0 to 67% for a 1-2 year period. This study demonstrates that it is feasible to maintain continental slope infauna in the laboratory for long periods of time. Such organisms could be used in experiments that examine their mobility, responses to different sediments and foods, and sizes and shapes of biogenic structures produced in sediments.

  12. Ethnopharmacology of rhinoceros horn. I: Antipyretic effects of rhinoceros horn and other animal horns.

    PubMed

    But, P P; Lung, L C; Tam, Y K

    1990-09-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of an aqueous extract of rhinoceros horn at 5, 2.5 and 1 g/ml, showed a significant antipyretic effect in rats with hyperthermia induced by subcutaneous injection of terpentine oil. Similar assays with extracts of the horns of saiga antelope, water buffalo and cattle at 5 g/ml also caused a significant drop in fever; however, at 1 g/ml, only saiga antelope horn produced an antipyretic action.

  13. Multi-mode horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilson, Jeffrey M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    A horn has an input aperture and an output aperture, and comprises a conductive inner surface formed by rotating a curve about a central axis. The curve comprises a first arc having an input aperture end and a transition end, and a second arc having a transition end and an output aperture end. When rotated about the central axis, the first arc input aperture end forms an input aperture, and the second arc output aperture end forms an output aperture. The curve is then optimized to provide a mode conversion which maximizes the power transfer of input energy to the Gaussian mode at the output aperture.

  14. Stacked Corrugated Horn Rings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sosnowski, John B.

    2010-01-01

    This Brief describes a method of machining and assembly when the depth of corrugations far exceeds the width and conventional machining is not practical. The horn is divided into easily machined, individual rings with shoulders to control the depth. In this specific instance, each of the corrugations is identical in profile, and only differs in diameter and outer profile. The horn is segmented into rings that are cut with an interference fit (zero clearance with all machining errors biased toward contact). The interference faces can be cut with a reverse taper to increase the holding strength of the joint. The taper is a compromise between the interference fit and the clearance of the two faces during assembly. Each internal ring is dipped in liquid nitrogen, then nested in the previous, larger ring. The ring is rotated in the nest until the temperature of the two parts equalizes and the pieces lock together. The resulting assay is stable, strong, and has an internal finish that cannot be achieved through other methods.

  15. Benthic infauna variability in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants in tropical coastal lagoons from the northern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    Kuk-Dzul, J Gabriel; Gold-Bouchot, G; Ardisson, P-L

    2012-12-01

    We examine the abundance and species composition variability of benthic infauna from tropical coastal lagoons in relation to environmental factors and organic pollutants. Sediment samples were collected at 40 sites in four lagoons in the northern Yucatan Peninsula. A total of 7985 individuals belonging to 173 species were sampled. While the eastern lagoons were dominated by polychaetes, the western ones were dominated by crustaceans. Overall, polychaetes had the highest abundance (48%), followed by crustaceans (42%). According to canonical correspondence analysis, species attributes were correlated with water salinity, pH and temperature, but also with sediment pentachlorobenzene, trichlorobenzene, and low molecular weight polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Some pollutants exceeded sediment quality guidelines, representing a potential environmental risk to benthic infauna. Together, environmental factors and pollutants explained 52% of the variance in abundance and species composition among sites.

  16. Horn fly population dynamics as prediction tool for the fixation of pesticide resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research project was conducted to establish the population dynamics of the horn fly. Two cattle herds were monitored to establish if contrasting climatic regional conditions, in addition to temperature and precipitation, related to the number of rainy days as a factor influencing horn fly infes...

  17. Trichomoniasis in great horned owls.

    PubMed

    Jessup, D A

    1980-07-01

    Three cases of Trichomonas gallinae infection of deep tissues of the skull or of unusual tissues in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), refractory to recommended doses but responsive to higher doses of dimetridazole, are discussed. Trichomonads were isolated from the lesions. PMID:7432340

  18. ELECTROMIGRATION ISSUES IN HIGH CURRENT HORN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; BELLAVIA, S.; SANDBERG, J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    The secondary particle focusing horn for the AGS neutrino experiment proposal is a high current and high current density device. The peak current of horn is 300 kA. At the smallest area of horn, the current density is near 8 kA/mm{sup 2}. At very high current density, a few kA/mm{sup 2}, the electromigration phenomena will occur. Momentum transfer between electrons and metal atoms at high current density causes electromigration. The reliability and lifetime of focusing horn can be severely reduced by electromigration. In this paper, we discuss issues such as device reliability model, incubation time of electromigration, and lifetime of horn.

  19. Novel Horn Designs for Power Ultrasonics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, M.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.; Chang, Z.

    2004-01-01

    Ultrasonic horns are used in a variety of industrial and medical applications. At JPL a rock-sampling tool based on an ultrasonic horn was developed to drill, abrade and core rock samples including hard basalts. This device is an impact device, which uses ultrasonic vibratlons that occur at the horn tip to produce a sonic resonance with the aid of a loosely connected mass. Although standard horns are found in many current industrial designs they suffer from a few key limitations when used for USDC applications. Manufacturing a horn requires turning down stock material (e.g. Titanium) from the larger outer diameter to the horn tip diameter, and this process is both time consuming and wasteful. In this paper, we present novel horn designs that are specifically designed for impact applications as the USDC. One such design addressed the excasive length that is involved with the use of the horn limiting its applications when system dimensions are constrained. For this purpose, a folded horn design was conceived that reduces the overall length of the resonator (physical length) but maintains or increases the acoustic length. Initial experiments with horns having such P design indicate that the tip displacement can be further adjusted by phasing the bending displacements and the extensional displacements. Another conceived horn design is the 'dog bone' horn that uses an end mass on the horn tip io increase the impact efficiency of the horn. In this paper, the experimental results for these novel born designs are presented and compared to the results predicted by theory.

  20. The infauna of three widely distributed sponge species (Hexactinellida and Demospongiae) from the deep Ekström Shelf in the Weddell Sea, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kersken, Daniel; Göcke, Christian; Brandt, Angelika; Lejzerowicz, Franck; Schwabe, Enrico; Anna Seefeldt, Meike; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Janussen, Dorte

    2014-10-01

    Due to their high abundance and large body size sponges have a central position in Antarctic zoobenthos, where they form the most extensive sponge grounds of the world. Though research on Antarctic benthos communities is quite established, research on sponge-associated infauna communities is scarce. We analyzed associated infauna of fifteen individuals of the sponge species Mycale (Oxymycale) acerata Kirkpatrick, 1907 (Demospongiae: Mycalina), Rossella antarctica Carter, 1872 and R. racovitzae Topsent, 1901 (both Hexactinellida: Lyssacinosida). Samples were collected from the deep Ekström Shelf at 602 m in the South-Eastern Weddell Sea, Antarctica, during the ANT XXIV-2 (SYSTCO I) expedition of RV Polarstern. The number of species, α- and β-diversity and the significantly different species composition of infauna communities related to sponge species were calculated, the latter via cluster analysis. The sponge-associated infauna consisted of five phyla: Foraminifera, Nematoda, Polychaeta, Mollusca and Arthropoda. In total 11,463 infaunal specimens were extracted and we found at least 76 associated species. Highest values of α-diversity were calculated for a sample of R. antarctica with a Shannon-Index of 1.84 and Simpson-Index of 0.72 respectively. Our results of the cluster-analysis show significant differences between infauna communities and a unique species composition for single sponge species. Polychaetes of the genus Syllis Lamarck, 1818 were numerous in M. acerata and genera like Pionosyllis Malmgren, 1867 and Cirratulus Lamarck, 1801 were numerous in R. antarctica. Individuals of the amphipod species Seba cf. dubia Schellenberg, 1926 were often found in R. antarctica and R. racovitzae while Colomastix fissilingua Schellenberg, 1926 was frequent in samples of M. acerata. Molluscs were present in M. acerata and R. antarctica but absent in R. racovitzae.

  1. Printed sectoral horn power combiner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boccia, Luigi; Emanuele, Antonio; Shamsafar, Alireza; Arnieri, Emilio; Amendola, Giandomenico

    2015-02-01

    In this work, it is presented a new configuration of planar power combiner/divider based on an H-plane sectoral horn antenna. This component is proposed to realise the basic building blocks of printed power-combining amplifiers. It will be shown how the sectoral horn elements can be implemented on substrate integrated waveguide and multilayer printed circuit board technologies, thus obtaining a high integration level. In the following, the design procedure will be described reporting an example of an 11-stage power divider/combiner in C-band. A prototype has been fabricated, and the measured results compared with the numerical model. Experimental results are in good agreement with theoretical expectations showing a single-stage efficiency of about 90% and a bandwidth of 40%.

  2. Managerial decisions as experiments: an opportunity to determine the ecological impact of boat-generated waves on macrobenthic infauna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishop, M. J.; Chapman, M. G.

    2004-12-01

    A previous correlative study showed that assemblages of macrobenthic infauna and abundances of common taxa on intertidal mudflats differed between a no-wash zone, where ferries had to minimize production of wash, and places where the production of wash was unrestricted (wash zone). This suggested that boat-generated waves (wash) are important in determining the structure of these assemblages. Causality between wash and the observed patterns could not, however, be unambiguously established, due to the absence of 'before' data. Here, a managerial decision to stop ferry services on the upper Parramatta River, Sydney, Australia during the 2000 Olympics was used as the basis for a manipulative experiment to examine the effects of changes in the amount of wash on these fauna. It was hypothesized that if wash is important in structuring infaunal assemblages, assemblages in the wash zone would become more similar to those of the no-wash zone following removal of the disturbing force, i.e. the ferry service. Similarly, if the smaller abundances of capitellids, nereids and spionids in the wash zone are caused by this disturbance, abundances should increase in the wash zone during the stoppage and decrease following the return of services. As hypothesized, assemblages within the wash zone became more similar to those of the no-wash zone following the temporary removal of the ferry services. Following the return of ferries, assemblages changed back towards (although not reaching) their previous state. Abundances of the polychaete families Nereididae, Capitellidae and Spionidae also increased at some sites during the cessation, although this pattern was not found in all sites and there was no general response to the cessation of wash as had been predicted. These results indicate that wash is important in structuring assemblages of macrobenthic infauna, although responses of individual taxa are more idiosyncratic. More importantly, they show that manipulations, resulting from

  3. Effects of infauna harvesting on tidal flats of a coastal lagoon (Ria Formosa, Portugal): implications on phosphorus dynamics.

    PubMed

    Falcão, M; Caetano, M; Serpa, D; Gaspar, M; Vale, C

    2006-03-01

    The systematic collection of benthic organisms in tidal flats of coastal lagoons should be taken into account for the management of these systems, once sediment disturbance affects biogeochemical processes by favouring pore water renewal during tidal inundation. The objective of the present work was to evaluate the effects of infauna harvesting on the phosphorus dynamics of muddy and sandy intertidal areas in the Ria Formosa. Sediment cores and overlying water were collected during August 2000 and February 2001 from reworked and undisturbed sediment before and after flooding. Results obtained showed that during the first minutes of flooding there was a marked decrease of phosphate in pore water of disturbed sediments. However, phosphate tidal fluxes from sandy sediment were clearly higher (17 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in summer and 3 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in winter) than in muddy sediment (0.4 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in summer and -0.01 nmol cm(-2) d(-1) in winter). After muddy sediment disturbance concentrations of iron oxides increased quickly (from 5 to 16 micromol g(-1)) and phosphate was sorbed onto these iron oxides, resulting in a buffering of phosphate pore water concentrations at low values in the oxidized sediment zone. The estimated P-output from muddy sediment decreased one to two orders of magnitude after sediment disturbance in contrast to sandy sediments in which the impact of infauna harvesting was minimal. Consequently, the P-cycle is influenced by the disruption of muddy habitats in tide-driven systems. Such information could be useful for the management of the lagoon.

  4. Multi-mode horn antenna simulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dod, L. R.; Wolf, J. D.

    1980-01-01

    Radiation patterns were computed for a circular multimode horn antenna using waveguide electric field radiation expressions. The circular multimode horn was considered as a possible reflector feed antenna for the Large Antenna Multifrequency Microwave Radiometer (LAMMR). This horn antenna uses a summation of the TE sub 11 deg and TM sub 11 deg modes to generate far field primary radiation patterns with equal E and H plane beamwidths and low sidelobes. A computer program for the radiation field expressions using the summation of waveguide radiation modes is described. The sensitivity of the multimode horn antenna radiation patterns to phase variations between the two modes is given. Sample radiation pattern calculations for a reflector feed horn for LAMMR are shown. The multimode horn antenna provides a low noise feed suitable for radiometric applications.

  5. Miniaturization of Planar Horn Motors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-01-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2x2x2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of3 x 3x 0.2 cm.

  6. Miniaturization of planar horn motors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Widholm, Scott E.; Badescu, Mircea

    2012-04-01

    There is a great need for compact, efficient motors for driving various mechanisms including robots or mobility platforms. A study is currently underway to develop a new type of piezoelectric actuators with significantly more strength, low mass, small footprint, and efficiency. The actuators/motors utilize piezoelectric actuated horns which have a very high power density and high electromechanical conversion efficiency. The horns are fabricated using our recently developed novel pre-stress flexures that make them thermally stable and increases their coupling efficiency. The monolithic design and integrated flexures that pre-stresses the piezoelectric stack eliminates the use of a stress bolt. This design allows embedding solid-state motors and actuators in any structure so that the only macroscopically moving parts are the rotor or the linear translator. The developed actuator uses a stack/horn actuation and has a Barth motor configuration, which potentially generates very large torque and speeds that do not require gearing. Finite element modeling and design tools were investigated to determine the requirements and operation parameters and the results were used to design and fabricate a motor. This new design offers a highly promising actuation mechanism that can potentially be miniaturized and integrated into systems and structures. It can be configured in many shapes to operate as multi-degrees of freedom and multi-dimensional motors/actuators including unidirectional, bidirectional, 2D and 3D. In this manuscript, we are reporting the experimental measurements from a bench top design and the results from the efforts to miniaturize the design using 2×2×2 mm piezoelectric stacks integrated into thin plates that are of the order of 3 × 3 × 0.2 cm.

  7. Horn growth patterns in Alpine chamois.

    PubMed

    Corlatti, Luca; Gugiatti, Alessandro; Imperio, Simona

    2015-06-01

    The analysis of horn growth may provide important information about the allocation of metabolic resources to secondary sexual traits. Depending on the selective advantages offered by horn size during intra- and inter-specific interactions, ungulates may show different investment in horn development, and growth variations within species may be influenced by several parameters, such as sex, age, or resource availability. We investigated the horn growth patterns in two hunted populations of Alpine chamois (Rupicapra r. rupicapra) in the Central Italian Alps. We tested the role of individual heterogeneity on the growth pattern and explored the variation in annulus length as a function of different factors (sex, age, hunting location, cohort). We then investigated the mechanisms underlying horn growth trajectories to test for the occurrence of compensatory or recovery growth and their potential differences between sexes and populations. Annulus length varied as a function of sex, age of individuals and, marginally, hunting location; no effect of cohort or individual heterogeneity was detected. Male and female chamois showed compensatory horn growth within the first 5½ years of life, though the partial convergence of horn trajectories in chamois suggests that this mechanisms would best be described as 'recovery growth'. Compensation rates were greater in males than in females, while only compensatory growth rates up to 2½ years of age were different in the two populations. Besides confirming the sex- and age-dependent pattern of horn development, our study suggests that the mechanism of recovery growth supports the hypothesis of horn size as a weakly selected sexual trait in male and female chamois. Furthermore, the greater compensation rates in horn growth shown by male chamois possibly suggest selective effects of hunting on age at first reproduction, while different compensation rates between populations may suggest the occurrence of some plasticity in resource

  8. High-Aperture-Efficiency Horn Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pickens, Wesley; Hoppe, Daniel; Epp, Larry; Kahn, Abdur

    2005-01-01

    A horn antenna (see Figure 1) has been developed to satisfy requirements specific to its use as an essential component of a high-efficiency Ka-band amplifier: The combination of the horn antenna and an associated microstrip-patch antenna array is required to function as a spatial power divider that feeds 25 monolithic microwave integrated-circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers. The foregoing requirement translates to, among other things, a further requirement that the horn produce a uniform, vertically polarized electromagnetic field in its patches identically so that the MMICs can operate at maximum efficiency. The horn is fed from a square waveguide of 5.9436-mm-square cross section via a transition piece. The horn features cosine-tapered, dielectric-filled longitudinal corrugations in its vertical walls to create a hard boundary condition: This aspect of the horn design causes the field in the horn aperture to be substantially vertically polarized and to be nearly uniform in amplitude and phase. As used here, cosine-tapered signifies that the depth of the corrugations is a cosine function of distance along the horn. Preliminary results of finite-element simulations of performance have shown that by virtue of the cosine taper the impedance response of this horn can be expected to be better than has been achieved previously in a similar horn having linearly tapered dielectric- filled longitudinal corrugations. It is possible to create a hard boundary condition by use of a single dielectric-filled corrugation in each affected wall, but better results can be obtained with more corrugations. Simulations were performed for a one- and a three-corrugation cosine-taper design. For comparison, a simulation was also performed for a linear- taper design (see Figure 2). The three-corrugation design was chosen to minimize the cost of fabrication while still affording acceptably high performance. Future designs using more corrugations per wavelength are expected to provide better

  9. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The SeaHorn Verification Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gurfinkel, Arie; Kahsai, Temesghen; Komuravelli, Anvesh; Navas, Jorge A.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we present SeaHorn, a software verification framework. The key distinguishing feature of SeaHorn is its modular design that separates the concerns of the syntax of the programming language, its operational semantics, and the verification semantics. SeaHorn encompasses several novelties: it (a) encodes verification conditions using an efficient yet precise inter-procedural technique, (b) provides flexibility in the verification semantics to allow different levels of precision, (c) leverages the state-of-the-art in software model checking and abstract interpretation for verification, and (d) uses Horn-clauses as an intermediate language to represent verification conditions which simplifies interfacing with multiple verification tools based on Horn-clauses. SeaHorn provides users with a powerful verification tool and researchers with an extensible and customizable framework for experimenting with new software verification techniques. The effectiveness and scalability of SeaHorn are demonstrated by an extensive experimental evaluation using benchmarks from SV-COMP 2015 and real avionics code.

  11. Microstructure and mechanical properties of sheep horn.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Bing; Zhang, Ming; Zhao, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The sheep horn presents outstanding mechanical properties of impact resistance and energy absorption, which suits the need of the vehicle bumper design, but the mechanism behind this phenomenon is less investigated. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the sheep horn of Small Tailed Han Sheep (Ovis aries) living in northeast China were investigated in this article. The effect of sampling position and orientation of the sheep horn sheath on mechanical properties were researched by tensile and compression tests. Meanwhile, the surface morphology and microstructure of the sheep horn were observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The formation mechanism of the mechanical properties of the sheep horn was investigated by biological coupling analysis. The analytical results indicated that the outstanding mechanical properties of the sheep horn are determined by configuration, structure, surface morphology and material coupling elements. These biological coupling elements make the sheep horn possess super characteristics of crashworthiness and energy absorption through the internal coupling mechanism. We suppose that these findings would make a difference in vehicle bumper design. Microsc. Res. Tech. 79:664-674, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27184115

  12. An Annotated Guide and Interactive Database for Solo Horn Repertoire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schouten, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Given the horn's lengthy history, it is not surprising that many scholars have examined the evolution of the instrument from the natural horn to the modern horn and its expansive repertoire. Numerous dissertations, theses, and treatises illuminate specific elements of the horn's solo repertoire; however, no scholar has produced a…

  13. A Horn-to-Horn Power Transmission System at Terahertz Frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Uzawa, Y.; Fujii, Y.; Kaneko, K.; Kuroiwa, K.

    2011-11-01

    A horn-to-horn power transmission system at Terahertz frequencies has been designed and tested. Power is generated at microwave frequencies and then frequency multiplied to the band 799-938 GHz. The resultant signal is radiated by a diagonal horn and redirected by two identical elliptical mirrors to another diagonal horn located far away. Useful design equations have been derived for the proposed system. The concept has been proven by careful measurements and utilized for the local oscillator injection in the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) Band-10 receiver.

  14. Planar Rotary Piezoelectric Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Geiyer, Daniel; Ostlund, Patrick N.; Allen, Phillip

    2011-01-01

    A motor involves a simple design that can be embedded into a plate structure by incorporating ultrasonic horn actuators into the plate. The piezoelectric material that is integrated into the horns is pre-stressed with flexures. Piezoelectric actuators are attractive for their ability to generate precision high strokes, torques, and forces while operating under relatively harsh conditions (temperatures at single-digit K to as high as 1,273 K). Electromagnetic motors (EM) typically have high rotational speed and low torque. In order to produce a useful torque, these motors are geared down to reduce the speed and increase the torque. This gearing adds mass and reduces the efficiency of the EM. Piezoelectric motors can be designed with high torques and lower speeds directly without the need for gears. Designs were developed for producing rotary motion based on the Barth concept of an ultrasonic horn driving a rotor. This idea was extended to a linear motor design by having the horns drive a slider. The unique feature of these motors is that they can be designed in a monolithic planar structure. The design is a unidirectional motor, which is driven by eight horn actuators, that rotates in the clockwise direction. There are two sets of flexures. The flexures around the piezoelectric material are pre-stress flexures and they pre-load the piezoelectric disks to maintain their being operated under compression when electric field is applied. The other set of flexures is a mounting flexure that attaches to the horn at the nodal point and can be designed to generate a normal force between the horn tip and the rotor so that to first order it operates independently and compensates for the wear between the horn and the rotor.

  15. Evolutionary design of corrugated horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, F.; Manshadi, V.; Jamnejad, A.

    2002-01-01

    An evolutionary progranirnitzg (EP) algorithm is used to optimize pattern of a corrugated circularhorn subject to various constraints on return loss and antenna beamwidth and pattern circularity and low crosspolarization. The EP algorithm uses a Gaussian mutation operator. Examples on design synthesis of a 45 section corrugated horn, with a total of 90 optimization parameters, are presented. The results show excellent and efficient optimization of the desired horn parameters.

  16. Emerging landscape degradation trends in the East African Horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Michaelsen, J.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2012-12-01

    Increasing climate variability along with declining trends in rainfall represent major risk factors affecting food security in many regions of the world. We identify Africa-wide regions where significant rainfall decreases from 1979-2011 are coupled with significant human population density increases. The rangelands of the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions with significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Widespread vegetation degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using MODIS land cover and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data collected since 2000, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade across the East African Horn and demonstrate that these two products can be used concurrently at large spatial scales to monitor vegetation dynamics at decadal time scales. Results demonstrate that a near doubling of the population in pastoral regions is linked with hotspots of degradation in vegetation condition. The most significant land cover change and browning trends are observed in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting and for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected to continue increasing against a backdrop of drying climate trends.Fig.1(a)Change in standardized precipitation index in Africa between 1979-2010 (b)Change in population density at continental scale using the GRUMPv1 1990 and 2000 and AfriPop 2010 population density datasets Fig.2 Land cover change trajectories based on 2001-2009 MOD12Q1 Land Cover product for the East African Horn overlaid over aggregated FEWS Net Livelihoods Zones.

  17. Ruptured ectopic pregnancy in rudimentary horn of the uterus.

    PubMed

    Tufail, Amber; Hashmi, Haleema A

    2007-02-01

    Rudimentary horn is one of the rarest congenital uterine anomalies and consists of a relatively normal appearing uterus on one side with a rudimentary horn on the other side. It is difficult to diagnose before surgery and hazardous to maternal life as rupture of pregnant horn result in severe hemoperitoneum. Case of rudimentary horn pregnancy is reported in a lady with history of habitual abortion and signs and symptoms of acute adnexal pathology. Exploratory laparotomy revealed ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. Excision of accessory horn was done.

  18. The rams horn in western history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lubman, David

    2003-10-01

    The shofar or rams horn-one of the most ancient of surviving aerophones-may have originated with early Neolithic herders. The shofar is mentioned frequently and importantly in the Hebrew bible and in later biblical and post-biblical literature. Despite its long history, contemporary ritual uses, and profound symbolic significance to western religion, no documentation of shofar acoustical properties was found. Since ancient times, shepherds of many cultures have fashioned sound instruments from the horns of herd animals for practical and musical uses. Shepherd horns of other cultures exhibit an evolution of form and technology (e.g., the inclusion of finger holes). The shofar is unique in having retained its primitive form. It is suggested that after centuries of practical use, the shofar became emblematic of the shepherd culture. Ritual use then developed, which froze its form. A modern ritual rams horn played by an experienced blower was examined. This rather short horn was determined to have a source strength of 92 dB (A) at 1 m, a fundamental frequency near 420 Hz, and maximum power output between 1.2 and 1.8 kHz. Sample sounds and detection range estimates are provided.

  19. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  20. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart (Inventor); Bao, Xiaoqi (Inventor); Badescu, Mircea (Inventor); Bar-Cohen, Yoseph (Inventor); Allen, Phillip Grant (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A monolithic ultrasonic horn where the horn, backing, and pre-stress structures are combined in a single monolithic piece is disclosed. Pre-stress is applied by external flexure structures. The provision of the external flexures has numerous advantages including the elimination of the need for a pre-stress bolt. The removal of the pre-stress bolt eliminates potential internal electric discharge points in the actuator. In addition, it reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the actuator stacks that result from the free surface in the hole of conventional ring stacks. In addition, the removal of the stress bolt and the corresponding reduction in the overall number of parts reduces the overall complexity of the resulting ultrasonic horn actuator and simplifies the ease of the design, fabrication and integration of the actuator of the present invention into other structures.

  1. Strongly interacting bubbles under an ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Yasui, Kyuichi; Iida, Yasuo; Tuziuti, Toru; Kozuka, Teruyuki; Towata, Atsuya

    2008-01-01

    Numerical simulations of bubble pulsations have been performed for a system of two bubble clouds in order to study the experimentally observed bubble motion under an ultrasonic horn by high-speed video camera. The comparison between the calculated results and the experimental observation of the bubble pulsation has indicated that the bubble pulsation is strongly influenced by the interaction with surrounding bubbles. The expansion of a bubble during the rarefaction phase of ultrasound is strongly reduced by the bubble-bubble interaction. Some bubbles move toward the horn tip due to the secondary Bjerknes force acting from the bubbles near the horn tip. It has also been shown that the acoustic amplitude in the liquid is strongly reduced by cavitation due to the decrease in acoustic radiation resistance.

  2. Photonic crystal horn and array antennas.

    PubMed

    Weily, Andrew R; Esselle, Karu P; Sanders, Barry C

    2003-07-01

    We introduce a defect-based horn antenna in a two-dimensional photonic crystal. Our numerical simulations demonstrate the efficient, highly directional nature of the antenna. It has a large operating bandwidth, low loss, and an operating frequency that is scalable to various regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. We also show that the photonic crystal horn antenna can be successfully used in an array configuration that uses a feed network made from photonic crystal waveguide circuits. The feed network and antennas have been integrated into a single photonic crystal device. This photonic crystal array antenna is shown to have high directivity and compact size while retaining the advantages of the photonic crystal horn antenna.

  3. Little Big Horn River Water Quality Project

    SciTech Connect

    Bad Bear, D.J.; Hooker, D.

    1995-10-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishments of the Water Quality Project on the Little Big horn River during the summer of 1995. The majority of the summer was spent collecting data on the Little Big Horn River, then testing the water samples for a number of different tests which was done at the Little Big Horn College in Crow Agency, Montana. The intention of this study is to preform stream quality analysis to gain an understanding of the quality of selected portion of the river, to assess any impact that the existing developments may be causing to the environment and to gather base-line data which will serve to provide information concerning the proposed development. Citizens of the reservation have expressed a concern of the quality of the water on the reservation; surface waters, ground water, and well waters.

  4. Evidence for density-dependent effects of infauna on sediment biogeochemistry and benthic-pelagic coupling in nearshore systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Roberta L.; Williams, Tracy J.

    2003-05-01

    We report results of a laboratory experiment that examines the effect of density-dependent interactions among infauna on organism-sediment-seawater relationships. The experiment includes a time series documentation of feeding behavior of the deposit- and suspension-feeding bivalve Macoma balthica, concurrent with measures of sediment biogeochemical processes that are affected by different feeding modes. We hypothesized that feeding behavior and emigration rates might shift with increasing density, and that these shifts would have cascading effects on benthic primary productivity, sediment-seawater exchanges, and porewater concentrations of ammonium and silicate. Macoma individuals were maintained in aquaria at three different densities (46, 230, and 460 individuals m -2) that fall within their natural abundances in the Chesapeake Bay. Individuals fed mostly on suspended material throughout the experiment, resorting to deposit feeding behavior only at the highest densities. Disturbances on the sediment surface during deposit feeding periods were not sufficient to impact benthic primary productivity and the associated interception effect of microalgae on sediment-seawater exchanges, as seen in previous studies. However, the bivalves impacted sediment fluxes directly through bioturbational activity, and these effects showed significant density interactions. For ammonium, fluxes ranged from 1.3 to 3.7 mmol m -2 d -1 and generally did not increase as a function of increasing Macoma density. Rather, highest fluxes generally were observed in intermediate density treatments. For silicate, a different trend was observed. Fluxes tended to parallel density, and ranged from 6.4 to 13.5 mmol m -2 d -1, however, the relationship was not linear. These observations suggest that as infaunal density shifts, so does the balance of ammonium to silicate efflux. Thus, benthic population structure may impact water column processes not only through enhancing the flux, but also through

  5. 76 FR 26240 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  6. 78 FR 33326 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... at 3:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at Big Horn County Weed and Pest Building,...

  7. 76 FR 47141 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-04

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ] ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming..., 2011 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed and...

  8. 76 FR 7810 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Lovell, Wyoming..., 2011, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn Federal...

  9. 77 FR 49779 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... 11, 2012 and will begin at 3 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County Weed...

  10. 75 FR 71069 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-22

    ... Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee will meet in Greybull, Wyoming... December 1, 2010, and will begin at 10 a.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will be held at the Big Horn County...

  11. A Case of Recurrent Rudimentary Horn Ectopic Pregnancies Managed by Methotrexate Therapy and Laparoscopic Excision of the Rudimentary Horn

    PubMed Central

    Moawad, Gaby N.; Abi Khalil, Elias D.

    2016-01-01

    This report presents a case of a 31-year-old woman successfully treated medically for a noncommunicating rudimentary horn ectopic pregnancy who presented with a second, successive rudimentary horn pregnancy. Patient underwent laparoscopic excision of right rudimentary horn and right salpingectomy after failed methotrexate therapy. Given the potential for rupture and recurrence, serious efforts should be made to excise a uterine rudimentary horn. PMID:26966602

  12. The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Tim

    2009-01-01

    This commentary addresses the Arizona Supreme Court's legal reasoning in "Cain v. Horne," which struck down two voucher programs for special needs children pursuant to one of Arizona's Blaine Amendments and explains that the court both failed to apply a straightforward textual analysis and ignored the analytical framework its prior precedents had…

  13. Reflectance measurement validation using acoustic horns.

    PubMed

    Rasetshwane, Daniel M; Neely, Stephen T

    2015-10-01

    Variability in wideband acoustic reflectance (and absorbance) measurements adversely affects the clinical utility of reflectance for diagnosis of middle-ear disorders. A reflectance standard would encourage consistency across different measurement systems and help identify calibration related issues. Theoretical equations exist for the reflectance of finite-length exponential, conical, and parabolic acoustic horns. Reflectance measurements were repeatedly made in each of these three horn shapes and the results were compared to the corresponding theoretical reflectance. A method is described of adjusting acoustic impedance measurements to compensate for spreading of the wave front that propagates from the small diameter sound port of the probe to the larger diameter of the acoustic cavity. Agreement between measured and theoretical reflectance was less than 1 dB at most frequencies in the range from 0.2 to 10 kHz. Pearson correlation coefficients were greater than 0.95 between measured and theoretical time-domain reflectance within the flare region of the horns. The agreement suggests that the distributed reflectance of acoustic horns may be useful for validating reflectance measurements made in human ear canals; however, refinements to reflectance measurement methods may still be needed.

  14. Assembly of the dorsal horn somatotopic map.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Koerber, H R; Millecchia, R

    1997-01-01

    We hypothesize: (a) peripheral innervation densities determine map scales in dorsal horn, (b) dorsal horn cell (DHC) receptive field (RF) geometries are determined by map scales, and (c) morphologies of primary afferents (PAs) and DHCs reflect their developmental history. We suggest the following sequence: (A) PAs project in a somatotopic mediolateral sequence. (B) DHCs assemble prototype RFs by sampling presynaptic neuropil with their dendrites. (C) PAs then project to all levels where their RFs are contained within prototype RFs of DHCs. (D) A competitive mechanism produces the adult form of DHC RFs. (E) Adult distributions of PA terminals and DHC dendrites reflect this developmental history. (F) Mediolateral somatotopic gradients are determined by RF densities of axons entering at the same levels. (G) Map scales at different rostrocaudal levels are determined by somatotopic gradients. (H) Geometries of DHC RFs are determined by constant convergence and divergence of monosynaptic connections. (I) Secondary processes further modify geometries of DHC RFs. (J) Residual self-organizing capacity supports maintenance and plastic mechanisms. We adduce the following evidence: (1) agreement between monosynaptically coupled inputs and cells' excitatory low threshold mechanoreceptive fields; (2) the temporal sequence of events during penetration of the gray matter by PAs; (3)variation of PA terminal and DHC dendritic domains as a function of map scale; (4) somatotopic gradients and geometries of DHC RFs in adult dorsal horn; (5) calculations of peripheral innervation densities and dorsal horn map scales; and (6) constant divergence and convergence between PAs and DHCs. PMID:9399410

  15. Monolithic Flexure Pre-Stressed Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Allen, Phillip Grant

    2011-01-01

    High-power ultrasonic actuators are generally assembled with a horn, backing, stress bolt, piezoelectric rings, and electrodes. The manufacturing process is complex, expensive, difficult, and time-consuming. The internal stress bolt needs to be insulated and presents a potential internal discharge point, which can decrease actuator life. Also, the introduction of a center hole for the bolt causes many failures, reducing the throughput of the manufactured actuators. A new design has been developed for producing ultrasonic horn actuators. This design consists of using flexures rather than stress bolts, allowing one to apply pre-load to the piezoelectric material. It also allows one to manufacture them from a single material/plate, rapid prototype them, or make an array in a plate or 3D structure. The actuator is easily assembled, and application of pre-stress greater than 25 MPa was demonstrated. The horn consists of external flexures that eliminate the need for the conventional stress bolt internal to the piezoelectric, and reduces the related complexity. The stress bolts are required in existing horns to provide prestress on piezoelectric stacks when driven at high power levels. In addition, the manufacturing process benefits from the amenability to produce horn structures with internal cavities. The removal of the pre-stress bolt removes a potential internal electric discharge point in the actuator. In addition, it significantly reduces the chances of mechanical failure in the piezoelectric stacks that result from the hole surface in conventional piezoelectric actuators. The novel features of this disclosure are: 1. A design that can be manufactured from a single piece of metal using EDM, precision machining, or rapid prototyping. 2. Increased electromechanical coupling of the horn actuator. 3. Higher energy density. 4. A monolithic structure of a horn that consists of an external flexure or flexures that can be used to pre-stress a solid piezoelectric structure

  16. Penile cutaneous horn: An enigma-newer insights and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Kaliaperumal

    2015-01-01

    Cutaneous horn refers to unusually cohesive keratinized material and not a true pathologic diagnosis. Though cutaneous horn has been described at various sites, horn over the penis is very rare and represents the most unusual site. The role of chronic irritation, phimosis, surgical trauma and radiotherapy have been implicated in penile horn formation. Penile horns present as elongated, keratinous, white or yellowish projections that range from a few millimeters to centimeters in size arising from the glans penis. Histopathology of the keratotic mass reveals nothing but keratin. The underlying mass may vary from verruca vulgaris to squamous cell carcinoma. The treatment is based on the pathology. PMID:26392650

  17. [Mechanical properties and biological evaluation of buffalo horn material].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quanbin; Zhou, Qunfei; Shan, Guanghua; Cao, Ping; Huang, Yaoxiong; Ao, Ningjian

    2014-12-01

    Mechanical properties and biological evaluation of buffalo horn material were examined in this study. The effects of sampling position of buffalo horn on mechanical properties were investigated with uniaxial tension and micron indentation tests. Meanwhile, the variation of element contents in different parts of buffalo horn was determined with elemental analysis, and the microstructure of the horn was measured with scanning electron microscopy. In addition, biological evaluation of buffalo horn was studied with hemolytic test, erythrocyte morphology, platelet and erythrocyte count, and implantation into mouse. Results showed that the buffalo horn had good mechanical properties and mechanical characteristic values of it gradually increased along with the growth direction of the horn, which may be closely related to its microstructure and element content of C, N, and S in different parts of the buffalo horn. On the other hand, because the buffalo horn does not have toxicity, it therefore does not cause hemolysis of erythrocyte and has a good affinity with it. Buffalo horn has good histocompatibility but meanwhile it may induce the platelet adhesion and aggregation. Even so, it does not continue to rise to induce a large number of platelet to aggregate with resulting blood clotting. Therefore, the buffalo horn material has been proved to possess good blood compatibility according to the preliminary evaluation. PMID:25868248

  18. Feed for a four-horn monopulse tracking radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, Marc; Louza, Samya; Audeh, N. F.

    A pyramidal horn for a 4-horn feed and a perfectly conducting parabolic reflector of circular aperture so that the angular tracking error is minimized has been considered. A nominal frequency of 10 GHz and a focal length to distance ratio of unity were chosen for purposes of numerical evaluation. The analysis of the pyramidal horn is approached from the sectoral horn approximation which is usually employed in practice. Following the analysis of the horn, the aperture distribution is decomposed into the horn eigenfunctions and the waveguide aperture excitations are found. The monopulse sum and difference signals are then defined, and the variance of their ratio is calculated. From this variance, the rms angular tracking error is calculated which provides the criterion for the design of the pyramidal horn aperture dimensions.

  19. A novel type of nutritional ant-plant interaction: ant partners of carnivorous pitcher plants prevent nutrient export by dipteran pitcher infauna.

    PubMed

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G; Grafe, T Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect-plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant-plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated (15)N/(14)N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ(15)N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants' nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a (15)N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ(15)N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers' trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants' prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant.

  20. A Novel Type of Nutritional Ant–Plant Interaction: Ant Partners of Carnivorous Pitcher Plants Prevent Nutrient Export by Dipteran Pitcher Infauna

    PubMed Central

    Scharmann, Mathias; Thornham, Daniel G.; Grafe, T. Ulmar; Federle, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Many plants combat herbivore and pathogen attack indirectly by attracting predators of their herbivores. Here we describe a novel type of insect–plant interaction where a carnivorous plant uses such an indirect defence to prevent nutrient loss to kleptoparasites. The ant Camponotus schmitzi is an obligate inhabitant of the carnivorous pitcher plant Nepenthes bicalcarata in Borneo. It has recently been suggested that this ant–plant interaction is a nutritional mutualism, but the detailed mechanisms and the origin of the ant-derived nutrient supply have remained unexplained. We confirm that N. bicalcarata host plant leaves naturally have an elevated 15N/14N stable isotope abundance ratio (δ15N) when colonised by C. schmitzi. This indicates that a higher proportion of the plants’ nitrogen is insect-derived when C. schmitzi ants are present (ca. 100%, vs. 77% in uncolonised plants) and that more nitrogen is available to them. We demonstrated direct flux of nutrients from the ants to the host plant in a 15N pulse-chase experiment. As C. schmitzi ants only feed on nectar and pitcher contents of their host, the elevated foliar δ15N cannot be explained by classic ant-feeding (myrmecotrophy) but must originate from a higher efficiency of the pitcher traps. We discovered that C. schmitzi ants not only increase the pitchers' capture efficiency by keeping the pitchers’ trapping surfaces clean, but they also reduce nutrient loss from the pitchers by predating dipteran pitcher inhabitants (infauna). Consequently, nutrients the pitchers would have otherwise lost via emerging flies become available as ant colony waste. The plants’ prey is therefore conserved by the ants. The interaction between C. schmitzi, N. bicalcarata and dipteran pitcher infauna represents a new type of mutualism where animals mitigate the damage by nutrient thieves to a plant. PMID:23717446

  1. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  2. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, remove two great horned owls from the vehicle before releasing them at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release..

  3. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Eileen Olejarski (left), manager of Florida Wildlife Hospital, and Susan Small, director of the hospital, get ready to release two great horned owls at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owls were found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  4. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    Susan Small, director of the Florida Wildlife Hospital, holds a great horned owl before releasing it at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  5. Great horned owls are released at CCAFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    A great horned owl flies to freedom after its release at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Complex 25/29. The owl is one of two found in June on the floor of CCAFS Hangar G, where their nest was located. They were treated at a local veterinary hospital and then taken to the Florida Wildlife Hospital in Melbourne for care and rehabilitation before release.

  6. The effect of nearby timpani strokes on horn playing.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jer-Ming; Smith, John; Wolfe, Joe

    2014-01-01

    Horn players have observed that timpani strokes can interfere disruptively with their playing, especially when they are seated close to the timpani. Measuring the horn's transfer function in the bell-to-mouthpiece direction reveals that the horn behaves as an acoustic impedance matching device, capable of transmitting waves with pressure gains of at least 20 dB near horn playing resonances. During moderate to loud timpani strokes, the horn transmits an overall impulse gain response of at least 16 dB from the bell to the mouthpiece, while evidence of non-linear bore propagation can be observed for louder strokes. If the timpani is tuned near a horn resonance, as is usually the case, further bore resonance interactions may be observed leading to gains of ∼26 dB from bell to mouthpiece. Finally, measurements of horn playing made under conditions approximating playing reveal that timpani strokes sounding near the horn bell are capable of disrupting horn playing by affecting the amplitude, periodicity, and frequency of the pressure signal generated at the horn player's lips. PMID:24437787

  7. Fos, nociception and the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Coggeshall, Richard E

    2005-12-01

    The protooncogene c-fos is rapidly activated after noxious stimuli to express the protein Fos in spinal dorsal horn neurons that are in the 'correct' locations for nociceptive information transfer. As such, therefore, mapping Fos expression in these neurons is at present the best global marker for efficiently locating populations of neurons in the awake animal that respond to nociceptive input. This allows, among other things, precise behavioral measurements to be correlated with Fos expression. Two arenas where mapping dorsal horn Fos expression has made a major impact are in the anatomy of nociceptive systems and as a useful assay for the analgesic properties of various therapeutic regimens. Also Fos expression is the only way to map populations of neurons that are responding to non-localized input such as withdrawal after addiction and vascular occlusion. Another insight is that it shows a clear activation of neurons in superficial 'pain-processing' laminae by innocuous stimuli after nerve lesions, a finding that presumably bears on the allodynia that often accompanies these lesions. It is to be understood, however, that the Fos localizations are not sufficient unto themselves, but the major function of these studies is to efficiently locate populations of cells in nociceptive pathways so that powerful anatomic and physiologic techniques can be brought to bear efficiently. Thus, the purpose of this review is to summarize the studies whose numbers are geometrically expanding that deal with Fos in the dorsal horn and the conclusions therefrom.

  8. Beetle horns and horned beetles: emerging models in developmental evolution and ecology.

    PubMed

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Pespeni, Melissa; Beckers, Oliver; Moczek, Armin P

    2013-01-01

    Many important questions in developmental biology increasingly interface with related questions in other biological disciplines such as evolutionary biology and ecology. In this article, we review and summarize recent progress in the development of horned beetles and beetle horns as study systems amenable to the integration of a wide range of approaches, from gene function analysis in the laboratory to population ecological and behavioral studies in the field. Specifically, we focus on three key questions at the current interface of developmental biology, evolutionary biology and ecology: (1) the developmental mechanisms underlying the origin and diversification of novel, complex traits, (2) the relationship between phenotypic diversification and the diversification of genes and transcriptomes, and (3) the role of behavior as a leader or follower in developmental evolution. For each question we discuss how work on horned beetles is contributing to our current understanding of key issues, as well as highlight challenges and opportunities for future studies.

  9. Aperture efficiency of integrated-circuit horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guo, Yong; Lee, Karen; Stimson, Philip; Potter, Kent; Rutledge, David

    1991-01-01

    The aperture efficiency of silicon integrated-circuit horn antennas has been improved by optimizing the length of the dipole probes and by coating the entire horn walls with gold. To make these measurements, a new thin-film power-density meter was developed for measuring power density with accuracies better than 5 percent. The measured aperture efficiency improved from 44 percent to 72 percent at 93 GHz. This is sufficient for use in many applications which now use machined waveguide horns.

  10. When ontogeny reveals what phylogeny hides: gain and loss of horns during development and evolution of horned beetles.

    PubMed

    Moczek, Armin P; Cruickshank, Tami E; Shelby, Andrew

    2006-11-01

    How ecological, developmental and genetic mechanisms interact in the genesis and subsequent diversification of morphological novelties is unknown for the vast majority of traits and organisms. Here we explore the ecological, developmental, and genetic underpinnings of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse: beetle horns. Specifically, we focus on the origin and diversification of a particular horn type, those protruding from the pronotum, in the genus Onthophagus, a particularly speciose and morphologically diverse genus of horned beetles. We begin by documenting immature development of nine Onthophagus species and show that all of these species express pronotal horns in a developmentally transient fashion in at least one or both sexes. Similar to species that retain their horns to adulthood, transient horns grow during late larval development and are clearly visible in pupae. However, unlike species that express horns as adults, transient horns are resorbed during pupal development. In a large number of species this mechanisms allows fully horned pupae to molt into entirely hornless adults. Consequently, far more Onthophagus species appear to possess the ability to develop pronotal horns than is indicated by their adult phenotypes. We use our data to expand a recent phylogeny of the genus Onthophagus to explore how the widespread existence of developmentally transient horns alters our understanding of the origin and dynamics of morphological innovation and diversification in this genus. We find that including transient horn development into the phylogeny dramatically reduces the number of independent origins required to explain extant diversity patters and suggest that pronotal horns may have originated only a few times, or possibly only once, during early Onthophagus evolution. We then propose a new and previously undescribed function for pronotal horns during immature development. We provide histological as well as experimental data that

  11. Intense selective hunting leads to artificial evolution in horn size.

    PubMed

    Pigeon, Gabriel; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Coltman, David W; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-04-01

    The potential for selective harvests to induce rapid evolutionary change is an important question for conservation and evolutionary biology, with numerous biological, social and economic implications. We analyze 39 years of phenotypic data on horn size in bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis) subject to intense trophy hunting for 23 years, after which harvests nearly ceased. Our analyses revealed a significant decline in genetic value for horn length of rams, consistent with an evolutionary response to artificial selection on this trait. The probability that the observed change in male horn length was due solely to drift is 9.9%. Female horn length and male horn base, traits genetically correlated to the trait under selection, showed weak declining trends. There was no temporal trend in genetic value for female horn base circumference, a trait not directly targeted by selective hunting and not genetically correlated with male horn length. The decline in genetic value for male horn length stopped, but was not reversed, when hunting pressure was drastically reduced. Our analysis provides support for the contention that selective hunting led to a reduction in horn length through evolutionary change. It also confirms that after artificial selection stops, recovery through natural selection is slow. PMID:27099619

  12. BigHorn Home Improvement Center Energy Performance

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Pless, S. D.; Torcellini, P. A.

    2006-01-01

    The BigHorn Development Project, located in Silverthorne, Colorado, is one of the nation's first commercial building projects to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. The BigHorn Home Improvement Center, completed in the spring of 2000, is a 42,366-ft2 (3,936 m2) hardware store, warehouse, and lumberyard. The authors were brought in at the design stage of the project to provide research-level guidance to apply an integrated design process and perform a postoccupancy evaluation. An aggressive energy design goal of 60% energy cost saving was set early in the process, which focused the efforts of the design team and provided a goal for measuring the success of the project. The extensive use of natural light, combined with energy-efficient electrical lighting design, provides good illumination and excellent energy savings. The reduced lighting loads, management of solar gains, and cool climate allow natural ventilation to meet the cooling loads. A hydronic radiant floor system, gas-fired radiant heaters, and a transpired solar collector deliver heat. An 8.9-kW roof-integrated photovoltaic (PV) system offsets a portion of the electricity. After construction, the authors installed monitoring equipment to collect energy performance data and analyzed the building's energy performance for two and one-half years. The authors also helped program the building controls and provided recommendations for improving operating efficiency. The building shows an estimated 53% energy cost saving and a 54% source energy saving. These savings were determined with whole-building energy simulations that were calibrated with measured data. This paper discusses lessons learned related to the design process, the daylighting performance, the PV system, and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning system.

  13. BigHorn Home Improvement Center: Proof that a Retail Building Can Be a Low Energy Building: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Deru, M.; Torcellini, P.; Judkoff, R.

    2004-07-01

    The BigHorn Home Improvement Center in Silverthorne, Colorado was one of the first commercial buildings in the United States to integrate extensive high-performance design into a retail space. After monitoring and evaluation by NREL, the BigHorn Center was found to consume 54% less source energy and have 53% lower energy costs than typical retail buildings of similar size. The extensive use of daylighting to replace electric lighting reduced lighting energy requirements by 80% and significantly contributed to the reduced energy loads in the building.

  14. Beyond "Cain v. Horne": Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne'"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Corinne

    2010-01-01

    This commentary is in response to Tim Keller's article "The National Implications of 'Cain v. Horne.'" In his analysis, Keller asserts that the Arizona Supreme Court wrongfully struck down a voucher program for students with special needs by characterizing the voucher as aid to schools rather than aid to students. In this response to Keller, I…

  15. Experimental rabies in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Jorgenson, R D; Gough, P M; Graham, D L

    1976-07-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was fed the carcass of an experimentally infected rabid skunk. The bird developed antibody titer to rabies, detected by passive haemagglutination, 27 days after oral inoculation by ingestion. The owl suppressed the infection until corticosteroid administration, after which a maximum antibody titer was attained. Evidence of active rabies viral infection was seen by fluorescent antibody staining of oral swabs, corneal impression smears and histologic tissue smears, by suckling mouse inoculation of oral swab washings, and by transmission electron microcopy. No clinical signs of rabies virus infection were observed. PMID:16498892

  16. CONCEPTUAL DESIGN STUDY OF HORN POWER SUPPLY.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG,W.; SANDBERG,J.; WENG,W.T.

    2003-06-16

    A 250 kA pulsed power supply is required for the focusing horn of the proposed Brookhaven AGS Super Neutrino Beam Facility for long baseline neutrino oscillation experiment. It is expected to pulse at 2.5 Hz repetition rate. A preliminary study is being conducted to explore the key issues associated with the power supply system design. Advanced technologies used in similar systems as well as new ideas are being examined, simulated and evaluated. This power supply will be a very high stored energy, high average power, and high peak power system.

  17. Dynamics and impact of footrot and climate on hoof horn length in 50 ewes from one farm over a period of 10 months.

    PubMed

    Smith, Edward M; Green, Olivia D J; Calvo-Bado, Leonides A; Witcomb, Luci A; Grogono-Thomas, Rosemary; Russell, Claire L; Brown, Judith C; Medley, Graham F; KilBride, Amy L; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Green, Laura E

    2014-09-01

    Footrot, including interdigital dermatitis, is caused by Dichelobacter nodosus cause the majority of lameness in sheep in the UK. Lame sheep often have overgrown hoof horn but recent evidence has indicated that trimming overgrown hoof horn increases recovery time, and that routine foot trimming of the flock does not reduce the prevalence or incidence of lameness. The objectives of this study were to investigate the temporal associations between hoof horn length, footrot and climate. Fifty multiparous ewes were monitored for 10 months. On eight occasions hoof horn length, foot lesions and body condition were recorded. At the first examination, ewes were assigned to one of two treatment groups. All ewes that became lame with footrot were treated at one time point per week, either by trimming hoof horn and applying a topical antibiotic spray or with parenteral antibiotic and topical antibiotic spray. Hoof horn length in ewes at pasture varied over the year and was associated with temperature and rainfall. New cases of footrot occurred all year round and were associated with prior prevalence of footrot in the flock and prior temperature and rainfall. Overgrown hoof horn did not precede lameness but occurred once the sheep were lame. One year of prompt treatment of footrot reduced the range in hoof horn length in the sheep in both treatment groups. At the end of the study the hoof lengths of ewes in both groups were not significantly different. On this farm, hoof horn length was self-regulating in both non-lame and treated lame sheep whether trimming was part of the treatment or not and there would have been no benefit from routine foot trimming of this flock.

  18. Planar Rotary Motor Using Ultrasonic Horns

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Badescu, Mircea; Chang, Zensheu; Geiyer, Daniel; Allen, Phillip; Ostlund, Patrick; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph

    2011-01-01

    One of the first piezoelectric motor designs with significant rotational speeds was outlined by Barth. This device used extensional piezoelectric elements to produce a time varying force at a distance r from the center of a centrally supported disk. These extensional actuators produced micro-steps at a high frequency with the end result being macroscopic rotation of the disk and high torque. The rotation direction is controlled by the choice of the actuators and the direction of the extension about the rotor center. A recent advancement in producing pre-stressed power ultrasonic horns using flexures allows for the development of high torque ultrasonic motors based on the Barth's idea that can be fabricated in a 2D plate or in more complicated 3D structures. In addition to the pre-stress flexures the design also allows for the use of flexures to produce the rotor/horn normal force. The torque can be controlled by the number of actuators in the plane and the amplitude of the normal force. This paper will present analytical and experimental results obtained from testing prototype planar motors.

  19. Diagnostic findings in 132 great horned owls

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Franson, J.C.; Little, S.E.

    1996-01-01

    We reviewed diagnostic findings for 132 great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) carcasses that were submitted to the National Wildlife Health Center from 1975-93. The carcasses were collected in 24 states but most came from Colorado (N = 21), Missouri (N = 12), Oregon (N = 12), Wyoming (N = 11), Illinois (N = 10), and Wisconsin (N = 9). Forty-two birds were emaciated but presumptive causes of emaciation, including old injuries, chronic lesions in various organs, and exposure to dieldrin, were found in only 16. A greater proportion of juveniles (56%) than adults (29%) were emaciated. Twelve owls were shot and 35 died from other traumatic injuries. Poisonings were diagnosed in 11 birds, including five associated with hydrogen sulfide exposure in oil fields and six cases of agricultural pesticide poisonings. Electrocution killed nine birds and infectious diseases were found in six. Miscellaneous conditions, including egg impaction, drowning, and visceral gout were diagnosed in three of the birds and the cause of death was undetermined in 14 owls. While this review identifies major diagnostic findings in great horned owls, sample bias prevents definitive conclusions regarding actual proportional causes of mortality.

  20. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  1. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  2. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  3. 30 CFR 56.14132 - Horns and backup alarms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms. 56.14132 Section 56... Equipment Safety Devices and Maintenance Requirements § 56.14132 Horns and backup alarms. (a) Manually...; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm that covers the area of obstructed view; or (iv) An observer...

  4. Rain-Blowing Plenum For Antenna Feed Horn

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hames, Peter S.; Stewart, Scott R.

    1990-01-01

    Double-diaphragm radome drives raindrops away from antenna feed horn. Includes solid diaphragm at mouth of feed horn surmounted by perforated diaphragm. Pressurized air in plenum between diaphragms flows out through perforations. Eliminates increase in noise temperature occuring when water covers radome. Useful for X-band and higher frequencies, susceptible to effects of water.

  5. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy: first trimester ultrasound diagnosis and laparoscopic confirmation].

    PubMed

    Salazar-López, R; Antillón-Valenzuela, J

    2013-08-01

    Case report of rudimentary uterine horn on first trimester pregnancy that was diagnosed by sonographic images and laparoscopically confirmed. We suggest a set of criteria for early diagnosis of this rare condition using sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound. We present a first trimester extrauterine pregnancy that was diagnosed in rutinary sonographic analisys. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was detected by sonographic with 3D endovaginal ultrasound, that was confirmed laparoscopically. Rudimentary horn pregnancy was right sided without endometrial communication with the uterine body. The rudimentary horn pregnancy was laparoscopically resected, a fibrous bridge between horn and uterus is confirmed, also a normal aspect tube was observed, wich was underwent to fimbriectomy. We suggest to consider this rare posibility on extrauterine pregnancy diagnosis, and also apply 3D technology under endovaginal route to achieve an early diagnosis and avoid rupture.

  6. Progress Toward Corrugated Feed Horn Arrays in Silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, J.; Yoon, K. W.; Beall, J. A.; Becker, D.; Cho, H. M.; Hilton, G. C.; Niemack, M. D.; Irwin, K. D.

    2009-12-16

    We are developing monolithic arrays of corrugated feed horns fabricated in silicon for dual-polarization single-mode operation at 90, 145 and 220 GHz. The arrays consist of hundreds of platelet feed horns assembled from gold-coated stacks of micro-machined silicon wafers. As a first step, Au-coated Si waveguides with a circular, corrugated cross section were fabricated; their attenuation was measured to be less than 0.15 dB/cm from 80 to 110 GHz at room temperature. To ease the manufacture of horn arrays, electrolytic deposition of Au on degenerate Si without a metal seed layer was demonstrated. An apparatus for measuring the radiation pattern, optical efficiency, and spectral band-pass of prototype horns is described. Feed horn arrays made of silicon may find use in measurements of the polarization anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation.

  7. A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing.

    PubMed

    Schlaff, W D; Cooley, B C; Shen, W; Gittlesohn, A M; Rock, J A

    1987-11-01

    A rat uterine horn model of genital tract wound healing is described. Healing was reflected by acquisition of strength and elasticity, measured by burst strength (BS) and extensibility (EX), respectively. A tensiometer (Instron Corp., Canton, MA) was used to assess these characteristics in castrated and estrogen-supplemented or nonsupplemented animals. While the horn weights (HW), BS, and EX of contralateral horns were not significantly different, the intra-animal variation of HW was 7.2%, BS was 17.7% and EX was 38.2%. In a second experiment, one uterine horn was divided and anastomosed, and the animal given estrogen supplementation or a placebo pellet. Estrogen administration was found to increase BS and EX of anastomosed horns prior to 14 days, but had no beneficial effect at 21 or 42 days. The data suggest that estrogen may be required for optimal early healing of genital tract wounds.

  8. Insecticide resistance in the horn fly: alternative control strategies.

    PubMed

    Oyarzún, M P; Quiroz, A; Birkett, M A

    2008-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most widespread and economically important pests of cattle. Although insecticides have been used for fly control, success has been limited because of the development of insecticide resistance in all countries where the horn fly is found. This problem, along with public pressure for insecticide-free food and the prohibitive cost of developing new classes of compounds, has driven the investigation of alternative control methods that minimize or avoid the use of insecticides. This review provides details of the economic impact of horn flies, existing insecticides used for horn fly control and resistance mechanisms. Current research on new methods of horn fly control based on resistant cattle selection, semiochemicals, biological control and vaccines is also discussed.

  9. Functional genomics of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of pastured cattle. Horn flies infestations reduce cattle weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of different pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aim of this study was to conduct a functional genomics study in female horn flies using Expressed Sequence Tags (EST) analysis and RNA interference (RNAi). Results A cDNA library was made from whole abdominal tissues collected from partially fed adult female horn flies. High quality horn fly ESTs (2,160) were sequenced and assembled into 992 unigenes (178 contigs and 814 singlets) representing molecular functions such as serine proteases, cell metabolism, mitochondrial function, transcription and translation, transport, chromatin structure, vitellogenesis, cytoskeleton, DNA replication, cell response to stress and infection, cell proliferation and cell-cell interactions, intracellular trafficking and secretion, and development. Functional analyses were conducted using RNAi for the first time in horn flies. Gene knockdown by RNAi resulted in higher horn fly mortality (protease inhibitor functional group), reduced oviposition (vitellogenin, ferritin and vATPase groups) or both (immune response and 5'-NUC groups) when compared to controls. Silencing of ubiquitination ESTs did not affect horn fly mortality and ovisposition while gene knockdown in the ferritin and vATPse functional groups reduced mortality when compared to controls. Conclusions These results advanced the molecular characterization of this important ectoparasite and suggested candidate protective antigens for the development of vaccines for the control of horn fly infestations. PMID:21310032

  10. A nonrational B-spline profiled horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huu-Tu; Nguyen, Hai-Dang; Uan, Jun-Yen; Wang, Dung-An

    2014-12-01

    A new horn with high displacement amplification for ultrasonic welding is developed. The profile of the horn is a nonrational B-spline curve with an open uniform knot vector. The ultrasonic actuation of the horn exploits the first longitudinal displacement mode of the horn. The horn is designed by an optimization scheme and finite element analyses. Performances of the proposed horn have been evaluated by experiments. The displacement amplification of the proposed horn is 41.4% and 8.6% higher than that of the traditional catenoidal horn and a Bézier-profile horn, respectively, with the same length and end surface diameters. The developed horn has a lower displacement amplification than the nonuniform rational B-spline profiled horn but a much smoother stress distribution. The developed horn, the catenoidal horn, and the Bézier horn are fabricated and used for ultrasonic welding of lap-shear specimens. The bonding strength of the joints welded by the open uniform nonrational B-spline (OUNBS) horn is the highest among the three horns for the various welding parameters considered. The locations of the failure mode and the distribution of the voids of the specimens are investigated to explain the reason of the high bonding strength achieved by the OUNBS horn.

  11. Object-horning in goitered gazelle: agonistic or marking behaviour?

    PubMed

    Blank, David; Yang, Weikang

    2014-03-01

    We studied object-horning behaviour in goitered gazelles in the natural, arid environment of Kazakhstan over a 6-year period. We found that object-horning was used by adult males mostly as a threat display during territorial conflicts. Therefore object-horning was observed most frequently in territorial single males during the rut in November-December. Object-horning, though, also had a marking effect, with the males' use of this behaviour leaving visible traces that advertized the location of preorbital and urination-defecation scent marks. Therefore, this pattern also was observed linked with preorbital marking and urination-defecation marking behaviours, especially during the rut. Goitered gazelle males chose the most abundant and eatable shrubs for object horning. In contrast to other gazelle species, object-horning in goitered gazelle was observed much more frequently and at the same rate as preorbital and urination-defecation scent markings. This, then, proved a more vigorous and aggressive level of rutting behaviour of the goitered gazelle compared to tropical gazelles, and most likely connected to the short rutting period in the studied species. We concluded, therefore, that object-horning was a manifold phenomenon that played a very important role in goitered gazelle agonistic displays, but without loosing the marking intention of this behaviour. PMID:24365541

  12. EST and microarray analysis of horn development in Onthophagus beetles

    PubMed Central

    Kijimoto, Teiya; Costello, James; Tang, Zuojian; Moczek, Armin P; Andrews, Justen

    2009-01-01

    Background The origin of novel traits and their subsequent diversification represent central themes in evo-devo and evolutionary ecology. Here we explore the genetic and genomic basis of a class of traits that is both novel and highly diverse, in a group of organisms that is ecologically complex and experimentally tractable: horned beetles. Results We developed two high quality, normalized cDNA libraries for larval and pupal Onthophagus taurus and sequenced 3,488 ESTs that assembled into 451 contigs and 2,330 singletons. We present the annotation and a comparative analysis of the conservation of the sequences. Microarrays developed from the combined libraries were then used to contrast the transcriptome of developing primordia of head horns, prothoracic horns, and legs. Our experiments identify a first comprehensive list of candidate genes for the evolution and diversification of beetle horns. We find that developing horns and legs show many similarities as well as important differences in their transcription profiles, suggesting that the origin of horns was mediated partly, but not entirely, by the recruitment of genes involved in the formation of more traditional appendages such as legs. Furthermore, we find that horns developing from the head and prothorax differ in their transcription profiles to a degree that suggests that head and prothoracic horns are not serial homologs, but instead may have evolved independently from each other. Conclusion We have laid the foundation for a systematic analysis of the genetic basis of horned beetle development and diversification with the potential to contribute significantly to several major frontiers in evolutionary developmental biology. PMID:19878565

  13. Understanding recent eastern Horn of Africa rainfall variability and change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Liebmann, Brant; Hoerling, Martin P.; Funk, Christopher C.; Blade, Ileana; Dole, Randall M.; Allured, Dave; Quan, Xiaowei; Eischeid, Jon K.

    2014-01-01

    The recent upward trend in the October–December wet season is rather weak, however, and its statistical significance is compromised by strong year-to-year fluctuations. October–December eastern Horn rain variability is strongly associated with El Niño–Southern Oscillation and Indian Ocean dipole phenomena on interannual scales, in both model and observations. The interannual October–December correlation between the ensemble-average and observed Horn rainfall 0.87. By comparison, interannual March–May Horn precipitation is only weakly constrained by SST anomalies.

  14. Formal verification of communication protocols using quantized Horn clauses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balu, Radhakrishnan

    2016-05-01

    The stochastic nature of quantum communication protocols naturally lends itself for expression via probabilistic logic languages. In this work we describe quantized computation using Horn clauses and base the semantics on quantum probability. Turing computable Horn clauses are very convenient to work with and the formalism can be extended to general form of first order languages. Towards this end we build a Hilbert space of H-interpretations and a corresponding non commutative von Neumann algebra of bounded linear operators. We demonstrate the expressive power of the language by casting quantum communication protocols as Horn clauses.

  15. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59 When... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  16. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59 When... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  17. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59 When... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  18. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59 When... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  19. 49 CFR 222.59 - When may a wayside horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.59 When... part may be used in lieu of a locomotive horn at any highway-rail grade crossing equipped with...

  20. Bilateral segmental aplasia with unilateral uterine horn torsion in a Pomeranian bitch.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kensuke; Yamasaki, Masahiro; Osaki, Tomohiro; Ohta, Hiroshi; Sasaki, Noboru; Aoshima, Keisuke; Kimura, Takashi; Takiguchi, Mitsuyoshi

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with unilateral pyometra and uterine horn torsion were diagnosed in a Pomeranian bitch that presented with chronic abdominal distension and an acute onset of anorexia and lethargy. Because radiographic and ultrasonographic findings revealed the presence of markedly enlarged bilateral uterine horns filled with fluid in the caudal abdomen, a tentative diagnosis of either pyometra or hydrometra with uterine horn torsion was made. Exploratory laparotomy showed bilateral, segmentally distended uterine horns with unilateral uterine horn torsion. Ovariohysterectomy was performed, and bilateral segmental aplasia of the uterine horns with the development of unilateral uterine horn torsion was diagnosed histopathologically. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of uterine horn torsion in conjunction with segmental aplasia of the uterine horn in a bitch. PMID:22843825

  1. Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Large loudspeaker horns and crated Edison radios from 1929 are stored in a side room on the third floor. - Thomas A. Edison Laboratories, Building No. 5, Main Street & Lakeside Avenue, West Orange, Essex County, NJ

  2. A comparative study of corrugated horn design by evolutionary techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoorfar, A.

    2003-01-01

    Here an evolutionary programming algorithm is used to optimize the pattern of a corrugated circular horn subject to various constraints on return loss, antenna beamwidth, pattern circularity, and low cross polarization.

  3. The limits on combining recursive horn rules with description logics

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, A.Y.; Rousset, M.C.

    1996-12-31

    Horn rule languages have formed the basis for many Artificial Intelligence application languages, but are not expressive enough to model domains with a rich hierarchical structure. Description logics have been designed especially to model rich hierarchies. Several applications would significantly benefit from combining the expressive power of both formalisms. This paper focuses on combining recursive function-free Horn rules with the expressive description logic ALCNR, and shows exactly when a hybrid language with decidable inference can be obtained. First, we show that several of the core constructors of description logics lead by themselves to undecidability of inference when combined with recursive function-free Horn rules. We then show that without these constructors we obtain a maximal subset of ALCNRR that yields a decidable hybrid language. Finally, we describe a restriction on the Horn rules that guarantees decidable inference when combined with all of ALCNR, and covers many of the common usages of recursive rules.

  4. Variant attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus.

    PubMed

    Jakubowicz, Marian; Ratajczak, Wojciech; Pytel, Andrzej

    2003-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the occurrence of variants of anomalous insertions of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus in human knee joints. The study was carried out on 78 human lower limbs of both sexes (42 males and 36 females). Out of 78 knee joints, 10 knee joints (12.82%) presented atypical attachments of the anterior horn of the medial meniscus. In 9 cases we found that the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the transverse ligament of the knee and in 1 case it was attached to the coronary ligament. In the remaining cases the anterior horn of the medial meniscus was attached to the anterior intercondylar area of the tibia.

  5. 28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photograph of interior view of fog horn signal building with two lighthouse keepers by steam engine wheel, ca. 1920. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  6. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, Thomas E.

    1998-01-01

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna.

  7. Ultra-wideband horn antenna with abrupt radiator

    DOEpatents

    McEwan, T.E.

    1998-05-19

    An ultra-wideband horn antenna transmits and receives impulse waveforms for short-range radars and impulse time-of flight systems. The antenna reduces or eliminates various sources of close-in radar clutter, including pulse dispersion and ringing, sidelobe clutter, and feedline coupling into the antenna. Dispersion is minimized with an abrupt launch point radiator element; sidelobe and feedline coupling are minimized by recessing the radiator into a metallic horn. Low frequency cut-off associated with a horn is extended by configuring the radiator drive impedance to approach a short circuit at low frequencies. A tapered feed plate connects at one end to a feedline, and at the other end to a launcher plate which is mounted to an inside wall of the horn. The launcher plate and feed plate join at an abrupt edge which forms the single launch point of the antenna. 8 figs.

  8. Long-term ecological changes in the north Adriatic Sea: Epi-to Infauna turnover at the Brijuni islands national park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pifeas, Iason; Gallmetzer, Ivo; Haselmair, Alexandra; Stachowitsch, Michael; Zuschin, Martin

    2015-04-01

    The northern Adriatic Sea with its densely populated coastline experienced strong anthropogenic impacts during the last centuries. The Brijuni islands at the southern tip of Istria, Croatia, are a national park since 1983 and represent a study area of special interest when comparing impacted marine areas with regions under relatively long-term protection that were able to recover from the pressure of fishing and bottom trawling. The present study is part of a project on the historical ecology of the northern Adriatic sea and focusses on long-term ecological changes and benthic community shifts as a result of anthropogenic impacts since the Holocene transgression. Several cores of 1.5 m length and a diameter of 90 mm were taken close to the main island of Brijuni and sliced into smaller subunits for sediment analyses and the investigation of death assemblages. Hard part remains of molluscs, crustaceans, bryozoans, echinoderms and sedentary polychaetes were analysed for species composition, abundance and indicators for high biomass epifauna. Death assemblages were compared with surface samples of the recent fauna taken at the same area by grab-sampling and by divers using a 100 x 100 cm frame. Data analyses revealed a steep increase of species abundance and diversity in the early stages of the Holocene transgression, at the very bottom of the core, followed by a steady decline, representing a major shift from a previously epibenthic to an infauna dominated community. Towards the top of the core, this trend weakens, and in the uppermost 6 cm it even reverses indicating a possible recovery of the benthic communities since the protection of the area. By correlating down-core changes in benthic community structure with sediment parameters (grain size distribution, TOC, heavy metal content, concentrations of organic pollutants) and data from radiometric sediment dating, we can further improve our understanding of the timing and the magnitude of past ecological changes and

  9. [Rudimentary horn pregnancy diagnostic: difficulties and therapeutic management].

    PubMed

    Mamouni, Nisrine; Ghazal, Nabil; Erraghay, Sanaa; Bouchikhi, Chahrazed; Banani, Abdelaziz

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of rudimentary horn pregnancy is an extremely rare and potentially serious obstetric entity, threatening maternal and fetal outcome. The authors report five cases of rudimentary horn pregnancy, the difficulties in making a proper diagnosis and the therapeutic management of this pathological entity, stressing the importance of transvaginal ultrasound, of pelvic MRI and laparoscopy in the early diagnosis of this type of uterine malformation. PMID:27583078

  10. Pyogenic granuloma underlying cutaneous horn in a young boy

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.; Kota, Rahul Krishna S.; Pilani, Abhisheik P.

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous horn is an elongated, keratinous projection that usually occurs over the sun-exposed areas. It is a clinical diagnosis and may overlie any benign, premalignant, or malignant conditions. Treatment includes wide surgical excision with careful histological examination to exclude a focus of malignancy. An unusual case of a pyogenic granuloma presenting as cutaneous horn on the lower lip in an 11-year-old boy is presented here. PMID:27057494

  11. The mineralization of crystalline inorganic components in Japanese serow horn.

    PubMed

    Hashiguchi, K; Hashimoto, K

    1995-12-01

    The Japanese serow (Capricornis crispus) is protected as a special natural monument in Japan. The ring count of the soft X-ray photographs of Japanese serow horn was found to be a useful criteria to determine the ages exactly. The mineralization process in Japanese serow horn was examined microscopic, ICP and X-ray diffraction methods. The incremental lines appeared as light and dark layers in the section stained for fuchsin and methylen blue. Mineral depositions were observed among the keratin fibers, no matrix vesicle in the electron dense regions. X-ray diffraction pattern of crystalline inorganic components in Japanese serow horn was determined as beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP), hydroxyapatite (HA) and unknown phase. ICP measurement was also carried out. The horn contained trace elements of K besides Na, Ca, Fe and P. The Ca/P molar was found to be 2.9. The ratio was much higher than the theoretical value of HA. Presumably, keratin was the seed which might be related to mineralization and higher Ca activity was detected in the initial phase of epitaxial growth. Analytical results of the measurement of trace elements in Japanese serow horn by using ICP method seemed to be correlated with the evaluation of environmental conditions. The present study indicated that the mineralization of Japanese serow horn directly related with deposition Ca-deficient HA among the keratin fibers.

  12. Horned lizards (Phrynosoma) incapacitate dangerous ant prey with mucus.

    PubMed

    Sherbrooke, Wade C; Schwenk, Kurt

    2008-10-01

    Horned lizards (Iguanidae, Phrynosomatinae, Phrynosoma) are morphologically specialized reptiles characterized by squat, tank-like bodies, short limbs, blunt snouts, spines and cranial horns, among other traits. They are unusual among lizards in the degree to which they specialize on a diet of ants, but exceptional in the number of pugnacious, highly venomous, stinging ants they consume, especially harvester ants (genus Pogonomyrmex). Like other iguanian lizards, they capture insect prey on the tongue, but unlike other lizards, they neither bite nor chew dangerous prey before swallowing. Instead, they employ a unique kinematic pattern in which prey capture, transport and swallowing are combined. Nevertheless, horned lizards consume dozens of harvester ants without harm. We show that their derived feeding kinematics are associated with unique, mucus-secreting pharyngeal papillae that apparently serve to immobilize and incapacitate dangerous ants as they are swallowed by compacting them and binding them in mucus strands. Radially branched esophageal folds provide additional mucus-secreting surfaces the ants pass through as they are swallowed. Ants extracted from fresh-killed horned lizard stomachs are curled ventrally into balls and bound in mucus. We conclude that the pharyngeal papillae, in association with a unique form of hyolingual prey transport and swallowing, are horned lizard adaptations related to a diet of dangerous prey. Harvester ant defensive weapons, along with horned lizard adaptations against such weapons, suggest a long-term, predator-prey, co-evolutionary arms race between Phrynosoma and Pogonomyrmex.

  13. Variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic spread with map scale.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Culberson, J L; Gladfelter, W; Covalt-Dunning, D

    1996-10-21

    Cells in laminae III, IV, and V of cat dorsal horn were injected with horseradish peroxidase or neurobiotin. Dorsal views of the dendritic domains were constructed in order to measure their lengths, widths, areas, and length/width ratios in the horizontal plane (the plane of the somatotopic map). Dendritic domain width and area in the horizontal plane were negatively correlated with fractional distance between the medial and lateral edges of the dorsal horn. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that dendritic domain width varies with map scale, which is maximal in the medial dorsal horn. This is similar to the variation in widths of primary afferent bouton distributions. The parallel variation of dorsal horn cell dendritic domain width and primary afferent bouton distribution width with map scale suggests that there is a causal relation between morphology and map scale in the dorsal horn representation of the hindlimb. This variation of adult morphology with map scale must reflect mechanisms responsible for the assembly of receptive fields. PMID:8906504

  14. Microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Quan-bin; Li, Chun; Pan, Yan-ting; Shan, Guang-hua; Cao, Ping; He, Jia; Lin, Zhong-shi; Ao, Ning-jian; Huang, Yao-xiong

    2013-12-01

    The microstructure and mechanical properties of horns derived from three domestic bovines (buffalo, cattle and sheep) were examined. The effects of water content, sampling position and orientation of three bovid horns on mechanical properties were systematically investigated by uniaxial tension and micron indentation tests. Meanwhile, the material composition and metal element contents were determined by Raman spectroscopy and elemental analysis respectively, and the microstructures of the horns were measured by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Results show that the mechanical properties of horns have negative correlation with water contents and depend on sampling position and orientation. The spatial variations of the mechanical properties in horns are attributed to the different keratinization degrees in the proximal, middle and distal parts. And the mechanical properties of horns in the longitudinal direction are better than those in transverse. Among the three kinds of horns, the mechanical properties of buffalo horn are the best, followed by cattle horn, and those in sheep horn are the worst. This is due to the differences in material composition, metal element, and the microstructures of the horns. But the mechanical properties of buffalo horns are not dependent on the source of the buffalo. Therefore, regular engineered buffalo keratinous materials with standard mechanical properties can be obtained from different buffalo horns by using proper preparation methods.

  15. TSAR modeling of a TEM horn and surrounding structure

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, W.C.; Pennock, S.T.

    1993-11-01

    Modeling of a TEM horn was performed with the TSAR FDTD electromagnetics code. The modeling was done in stages, beginning with the simplest case, the bare antenna itself. Complexity was added in the form of a dielectric lens, an enclosing cylinder, a layer of absorber inside the cylinder, resistive terminations between the horn and cylinder, and a flat plate over all, electrically separate from the cylinder. The final configuration included all of the above, plus a ring of ferrite inside the cylinder, just ahead of the horn. Predictions of the far-field were made at roughly ten degree increments, more closely spaced near boresight, in both vertical and horizontal planes, through the antenna`s centerline. Time histories at those points were evaluated, and from the time histories power densities were calculated. Both time histories and power densities will be presented for the configurations modeled.

  16. Corrugated horn of HE/11/ and HE/21/ mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, S.-H.; Ke, S.-R.; Peng, G.-Z.

    A corrugated, monopulse feed conical horn is described which uses HE(11) as the sum mode and HE(21) as the difference mode. It is shown that when the horn aperture radius-to-free space wavelength ratio is large, the balanced hybrid condition can be met for both modes in order to yield rotational symmetry beams and low sidelobe levels. A discussion is given of the mode selection method which uses special points on trace charts, and that which uses a ringloaded, corrugated taper section as the transformation section from the smooth-wall waveguide to the corrugated horn. The input voltage standing wave ratio measured in the sum channel is less than 1.05 in 20% bandwidth.

  17. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.F.

    1999-09-28

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  18. Transverse electromagnetic horn antenna with resistively-loaded exterior surfaces

    DOEpatents

    Aurand, John F.

    1999-01-01

    An improved transverse electromagnetic (TEM) horn antenna comprises a resistive loading material on the exterior surfaces of the antenna plates. The resistive loading material attenuates or inhibits currents on the exterior surfaces of the TEM horn antenna. The exterior electromagnetic fields are of opposite polarity in comparison to the primary and desired interior electromagnetic field, thus inherently cause partial cancellation of the interior wave upon radiation or upon reception. Reducing the exterior fields increases the radiation efficiency of the antenna by reducing the cancellation of the primary interior field (supported by the interior surface currents). This increases the transmit gain and receive sensitivity of the TEM horn antenna, as well as improving the transient (time-domain) response.

  19. Breeding ecology of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) in Alaska: annual variation and effects of El Niño

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; Piatt, J.F.; Hamer, K.C.

    2003-01-01

    Both within and among seabird species, different aspects of breeding biology may respond to changes in prey availability in distinct ways, and the identification of species-specific breeding parameters that are sensitive to food availability is useful for monitoring purposes. We present data from a 5-year study (1995–1999) of the breeding ecology of Horned Puffins (Fratercula corniculata) in Alaska. The El Niño – Southern Oscillation event of 1997–1998 provided an opportunity to examine the sensitivity of various breeding parameters to a reduction in prey availability caused by the anomalous oceanographic conditions of 1998. Horned Puffins were able to maintain high fledging success (83–97%) over the 5 years of the study, despite the poor local feeding conditions in 1998. The rate of increase in chick mass was lowest in 1998, and evidence suggests that chicks also fledged at the youngest ages in that year. The impacts of reduced food availability on growth varied among body structures, suggesting differential allocation of energy and nutrients. There was no variation among years in either chick diet or the mass of food loads delivered by adults. We suggest that rates of chick growth, specifically mass increase, may be a good parameter to measure for use in monitoring Horned Puffins.

  20. [Gene expression profile of spinal ventral horn in ALS].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Masahiko; Tanaka, Fumiaki; Sobue, Gen

    2007-10-01

    The causative pathomechanism of sporadic amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is not clearly understood. Using microarray technology combined with laser-captured microdissection, gene expression profiles of degenerating spinal motor neurons as well as spinal ventral horn from autopsied patients with sporadic ALS were examined. Spinal motor neurons showed a distinct gene expression profile from the whole spinal ventral horn. Three percent of genes examined were significantly downregulated, and 1% were upregulated in motor neurons. In contrast with motor neurons, the total spinal ventral horn homogenates demonstrated 0.7% and 0.2% significant upregulation and downregulation of gene expression, respectively. Downregulated genes in motor neurons included those associated with cytoskeleton/axonal transport, transcription and cell surface antigens/receptors, such as dynactin 1 (DCTN1) and early growth response 3 (EGR3). In particular, DCTN1 was markedly downregulated in most residual motor neurons prior to the accumulation of pNF-H and ubiquitylated protein. Promoters for cell death pathway, death receptor 5 (DR5), cyclins C (CCNC) and A1 (CCNA), and caspases were upregulated, whereas cell death inhibitors, acetyl-CoA transporter (ACATN) and NF-kappaB (NFKB) were also upregulated. In terms of spinal ventral horn, the expression of genes related to cell surface antigens/receptors, transcription and cell adhesion/ECM were increased. The gene expression resulting in neurodegenerative and neuroprotective changes were both present in spinal motor neurons and ventral horn. Moreover, Inflammation-related genes, such as belonging to the cytokine family were not, however, significantly upregulated in either motor neurons or ventral horn. The sequence of motor neuron-specific gene expression changes from early DCTN1 downregulation to late CCNC upregulation in sporadic ALS can provide direct information on the genes leading to neurodegeneration and neuronal death, and are helpful

  1. Monitoring

    DOEpatents

    Orr, Christopher Henry; Luff, Craig Janson; Dockray, Thomas; Macarthur, Duncan Whittemore

    2004-11-23

    The invention provides apparatus and methods which facilitate movement of an instrument relative to an item or location being monitored and/or the item or location relative to the instrument, whilst successfully excluding extraneous ions from the detection location. Thus, ions generated by emissions from the item or location can successfully be monitored during movement. The technique employs sealing to exclude such ions, for instance, through an electro-field which attracts and discharges the ions prior to their entering the detecting location and/or using a magnetic field configured to repel the ions away from the detecting location.

  2. A new proof of tractability for ORD-horn relations

    SciTech Connect

    Ligozat, G.

    1996-12-31

    This paper gives an elementary proof of the tractability of a sub-class of temporal relations in Allen`s algebra and related temporal calculi, the class of pre-convex relations. In Allen`s case, this subclass coincides with the class of ORD-Horn relations. Nebel and Burckert defined ORD-Horn relations and proved that path-consistency is a sufficient condition for consistency of a network for this sub-class. We prove a stronger result: for each path-consistent network in the sub-class, we give an effective method for constructing a feasible scenario without backtrack.

  3. Coupling and degenerating modes in longitudinal-torsional step horns.

    PubMed

    Harkness, Patrick; Lucas, Margaret; Cardoni, Andrea

    2012-12-01

    Longitudinal-torsional vibration is used and proposed for a variety of ultrasonic applications including motors, welding, and rock-cutting. To obtain this behavior in an ultrasonic step horn one can either, (i) couple the longitudinal and torsional modes of the horn by incorporating a ring of diagonal slits in the thick base section or, (ii) place helical flutes in the thin stem section to degenerate the longitudinal mode into a modified behavior with a longitudinal-torsional motion. This paper compares the efficacy of these two design approaches using both numerical and experimental techniques.

  4. Gain calibration of a horn antenna using pattern integration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwig, A. C.; Hardy, J.; Norman, R.

    1972-01-01

    Gain measurement of a horn antenna using three different techniques is discussed. The methods include a two-antenna insertion loss measurement, a pattern integration method, and a near-field measurement method. The application of the pattern integration method is considered, as well as the evaluation of the near-field gain correction factors for the horn, which are determined by a method based directly on measured data. This method involves a spherical wave expansion of the experimental radiation pattern of the specific antenna being tested, rather than evaluation of an assumed analytical model. The spherical wave expansion is also compared to experimental near-field pattern data.

  5. a Modeling and Measurement Study of Acoustic Horns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Post, John Theodore

    Although acoustic horns have been in use for thousands of years, formal horn design only began approximately 80 years ago with the pioneering effort of A. G. Webster. In this dissertation, the improvements to Webster's original horn model are reviewed and the lack of analytical progress since Webster is noted. In an attempt to augment the traditional methods of analysis, a semi-analytical technique presented by Rayleigh is extended. Although Rayleigh's method is not based on one-dimensional wave propagation, it is found not to offer significant improvement over Webster's model. In order to be free of the limitations associated with analytical techniques, a numerical method based on boundary elements has been developed. It is suitable for solving radiation problems that can be modeled as a source in an infinite bafffe. The exterior boundary element formulation is exchanged for an interior formulation by placing a hemisphere over the baffled source and using an analytical expansion of the field in the exterior half space. The boundary element method is demonstrated by solving the baffled piston problem, and is then used to obtain the acoustic throat impedance and far-field directivity of axisymmetric horns having exponential and tractrix contours. Experiments are performed to measure the throat impedance and the far-field directivity of two axisymmetric horns mounted in a rigid baffle. An exponential horn and a tractrix horn with equal throat radius (2.54 cm), length (55.9 cm), and mouth radius (27.1 cm) are critically examined. A modern implementation of the "reaction on the source" method is compared with a new implementation of the two-microphone method for measuring acoustic impedance. The modified two-microphone method is found to be extremely simple and accurate, but the "reaction on the source" method has the advantage of in situ measurements. The far-field directivity is measured by a new technique that allows the far-field pressure to be calculated from the

  6. Inclusion body disease in a great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Sileo, L; Carlson, H C; Crumley, S C

    1975-01-01

    The carcass of a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), which had been found moribund in southern Ontario, was presented for necropsy. Throughout the liver and spleen were numerous white foci 1-2 mm in diameter; also noted were white plaques in the mucosae of the pharyngeal papillae and intestine. Results of light and electron microscopic studies and experimental transmission to two captive great horned owls suggested that this was a herpvirus disease similar and possibly indentical to the owl disease reported by other workers in Wiconsin and Australia. PMID:163384

  7. [Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn of the uterus].

    PubMed

    Pranchev, N; Dukovski, A; Despodova, Ts; Makaveeva, V

    1993-01-01

    The cases of pregnancy in the rudimentary horn are probably the rarest Mullerian anomalies. More often the pregnancy ends with an abortion in the first or the end of the second trimester. Extremely rarely (1% of the cases) end with a live birth. The authors examine and describe a case which successfully ended with a birth of a live fetus in 32 gestation week after a rupture of cornual pregnancy. Special attention is paid to the diagnostical difficulties, which are characteristic for these cases. It is reasonable in the cases of extrauterine pregnancy to think of a pregnancy in the rudimentary horn as well.

  8. SAR Characterization of Focused Planar Array of Water-Loaded Modified Box-Horns for Hyperthermia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Ramesh Chandra; Singh, S. P.

    2006-02-01

    A 4×4 planar array of modified box-horns as a microwave hyperthermia applicator is theoretically studied to characterize power deposition (SAR) in heating tissue (muscle) at 2450 MHz. A modified box-horn is a novel improved version of conventional box-horn in which horn exciting the box waveguide is flared in both E-and H-planes. Modified box-horn supports TE10 and TE30 modes. The amplitude distribution over the H-plane of the box-horn aperture is a closer approximation to the uniform distribution. It is proposed that the interior of the box-horn be filled with water to provide a better impedance match to biological tissue. By applying Fresnel-Kirchhoff scalar diffraction field theory, the expression for electric field in heating region is derived and distribution of specific absorption rate (SAR) in that region due to planar array of modified box-horns as direct contact applicator is evaluated at 2450 MHz. The results of modified box-horn array are compared with those of a single modified box-horn operating at the same frequency. Results demonstrate that planar array of modified box-horns offers improvement in SAR distribution and penetration depth. It is shown that by changing the phase and amplitude of excitation of the modified box-horns of the array, the relative amplitude and position of the hot spot can be changed. The present analysis is validated through the results obtained by plane wave spectral technique.

  9. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide,...

  10. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. (a) Clean, dry bones, horns, and hoofs, that are free from undried pieces of hide,...

  11. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or...

  12. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations... ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.12 Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. Bones, horns, and hoofs offered for importation which do not meet the conditions or...

  13. 75 FR 49886 - Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... agency #0;statements of organization and functions are examples of documents #0;appearing in this section...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Forest Service Big Horn County Resource Advisory Committee AGENCY: Forest Service...-Clark, Bighorn National Forest, 2013 Eastside 2nd Street, Sheridan, Wyoming 82801. Comments may also...

  14. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Jessica E; Ummenhofer, Caroline C; deMenocal, Peter B

    2015-10-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March-May "long rains" season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September-November "short rains" season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa. PMID:26601306

  15. Project Echo: Horn-Reflector Antenna for Space Communication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crawford, A. B.; Hogg, D. C.; Hunt, L. E.

    1961-01-01

    This paper describes the mechanical features of the horn- reflector antenna used for receiving signals reflected from the Project Echo balloon satellite, and presents in some detail the electrical characteristics (radiation patterns and gain) measured at a frequency of 2390 Mc. Theoretically derived characteristics which agree very well with the measurements are also presented; details of the calculations are given in the appendices.

  16. Past and future rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    PubMed Central

    Tierney, Jessica E.; Ummenhofer, Caroline C.; deMenocal, Peter B.

    2015-01-01

    The recent decline in Horn of Africa rainfall during the March–May “long rains” season has fomented drought and famine, threatening food security in an already vulnerable region. Some attribute this decline to anthropogenic forcing, whereas others maintain that it is a feature of internal climate variability. We show that the rate of drying in the Horn of Africa during the 20th century is unusual in the context of the last 2000 years, is synchronous with recent global and regional warming, and therefore may have an anthropogenic component. In contrast to 20th century drying, climate models predict that the Horn of Africa will become wetter as global temperatures rise. The projected increase in rainfall mainly occurs during the September–November “short rains” season, in response to large-scale weakening of the Walker circulation. Most of the models overestimate short rains precipitation while underestimating long rains precipitation, causing the Walker circulation response to unrealistically dominate the annual mean. Our results highlight the need for accurate simulation of the seasonal cycle and an improved understanding of the dynamics of the long rains season to predict future rainfall in the Horn of Africa. PMID:26601306

  17. Ectopic pregnancy with uterine horn encapsulation in a cat.

    PubMed

    Johnston, S D; Harish, G; Stevens, J B; Scheffler, H G

    1983-11-01

    A 4 x 7-cm free-floating cylindrical mass was found in the abdomen of a 2 1/2-year-old domestic short-hair cat at ovariohysterectomy. The left uterine horn was absent. The mass contained 2 necrotic fetuses surrounded by tissue with the histologic appearance of uterine wall. PMID:12002569

  18. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, R.N.; Suarez, A.V.; Case, T.J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing tender the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2-3 years. At each array we measured 26 "local" site descriptors and averaged these values with other "regional" measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales (hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  19. Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Lower corner of Face B Array with near field horn, foreground left, looking north/northwest - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  20. Relationship between horn fly infestation and polymorphisms in cytochrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Individual animal variation occurs regarding external parasite infestation in beef cattle. Our objective was to determine if horn flies infestations present on beef cattle are associated with the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; T-318C) in the cytochrome P450 gene (CYP3A28) and the prolactin (PR...

  1. Synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Howard, M O; Nieves, M A; Miles, K G

    1996-04-01

    A case of synovial chondromatosis in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was found in June 1993. In radiographs of bilateral swelling of the scapulohumeral joint we observed numerous mineralized foci in the soft tissue. The foci were identified by light microscopy as cartilaginous metaplasia. This is the first report of synovial chondromatosis in an owl. PMID:8722282

  2. Dog-Bone Horns for Piezoelectric Ultrasonic/Sonic Actuators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    A shape reminiscent of a dog bone has been found to be superior to other shapes for mechanical-amplification horns that are components of piezoelectrically driven actuators used in a series of related devices denoted generally as ultrasonic/sonic drill/corers (USDCs). The first of these devices was reported in Ultrasonic/Sonic Drill/Corers With Integrated Sensors (NPO-20856), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 25, No. 1 (January 2001), page 38. The dog-bone shape was conceived especially for use in a more recent device in the series, denoted an ultrasonic/ sonic gopher, that was described in Ultrasonic/Sonic Mechanisms for Drilling and Coring (NPO-30291), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 27, No. 9 (September 2003), page 65. The figure shows an example of a dog-bone-shaped horn and other components of an ultrasonic gopher. Prerequisite to a meaningful description of this development is an unavoidably lengthy recapitulation of the principle of operation of a USDC and, more specifically, of the ultrasonic/sonic gopher as described previously in NASA Tech Briefs. The ultrasonic actuator includes a stack of piezoelectric rings, the horn, a metal backing, and a bolt that connects the aforementioned parts and provides compressive pre-strain to the piezoelectric stack to prevent breakage of the rings during extension. The stack of piezoelectric rings is excited at the resonance frequency of the overall ultrasonic actuator. Through mechanical amplification by the horn, the displacement in the ultrasonic vibration reaches tens of microns at the tip of the horn. The horn hammers an object that is denoted the free mass because it is free to move longitudinally over a limited distance between hard stops: The free mass bounces back and forth between the ultrasonic horn and a tool bit (a drill bit or a corer). Because the longitudinal speed of the free mass is smaller than the longitudinal speed of vibration of the tip of the horn, contact between the free mass and the horn tip usually occurs at a

  3. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  4. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region

    PubMed Central

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids. PMID:25992247

  5. Study of disbudding goat kids following injection of clove oil essence in horn bud region.

    PubMed

    Molaei, Mohammad Mahdi; Mostafavi, Ali; Kheirandish, Reza; Azari, Omid; Shaddel, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of injection of essential oil of Eugenia caryophyllata in the kid horn buds, as a new chemical technique for disbudding. Five-day-old healthy goat kids from both sexes (n = 16) were divided randomly into 4 equal groups. In groups 1, 2 and 3, 0.2 mL of clove essence and in group 4 (control) 0.2 mL of normal saline was injected into the left horn bud of goat kids. Right horn bud in all kids was considered to ensure that they are horned. During the study, the rate of horn growth were evaluated in determined time intervals between groups 1 and 4. Tissue samples were taken from right and left horn bud in groups 2 and 3, at five and ten days after clove essence injection, for microscopic study. The results of the study showed that the clove essence stopped horn growth, whereas there was no significant difference in horn growth rate between left and right horns after injection of normal saline, in group 4. Histopathological study showed that injection of clove essence caused complete necrosis of epidermis and underlying dermis with collagenolysis in horn bud tissues, 5 days after injection and then progress in healing process was observed after 10 days. According to the results of this study, it can be concluded that the injection of clove essence is an effective method to stop horn growth without any undesirable effects on clinical parameters in goat kids.

  6. Changes in horn size of Stone's sheep over four decades correlate with trophy hunting pressure.

    PubMed

    Douhard, Mathieu; Festa-Bianchet, Marco; Pelletier, Fanie; Gaillard, Jean-michel; Bonenfanti, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Selective harvest may lead to rapid evolutionary change. For large herbivores, trophy hunting removes males with large horns. That artificial selection, operating in opposition to sexual selection, can lead to undesirable consequences for management and conservation. There have been no comparisons of long-term changes in trophy size under contrasting harvest pressures. We analyzed horn measurements of Stone's rams (Ovis dalli stonei) harvested over 37 years in two large regions of British Columbia, Canada, with marked differences in hunting pressure to identify when selective hunting may cause a long-term decrease in horn growth. Under strong selective harvest, horn growth early in life and the number of males harvested declined by 12% and 45%, respectively, over the study period. Horn shape also changed over time: horn length became shorter for a given base circumference, likely because horn base is not a direct target of hunter selection. In contrast, under relatively lower hunting pressure, there were no detectable temporal trends in early horn growth, number of males harvested, or horn length relative to base circumference. Trophy hunting is an important recreational activity and can generate substantial revenues for conservation. By providing a reproductive advantage to males with smaller horns and reducing the availability of desirable trophies, however, excessive harvest may have the undesirable long-term consequences of reducing both the harvest and the horn size of rams. These consequences can be avoided by limiting offtake. PMID:27039527

  7. Identification of microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies, Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lorena; Almazán, Consuelo; Ayllón, Nieves; Galindo, Ruth C; Rosario-Cruz, Rodrigo; Quiroz-Romero, Héctor; Gortazar, Christian; de la Fuente, José

    2012-09-01

    The horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus, 1758) (Diptera: Muscidae) is one of the most important ectoparasites of cattle. The parasitism of horn flies interferes with cattle feeding, thus reducing weight gain and milk production. Additionally, horn flies are mechanical vectors of pathogens that cause disease in cattle. The aims of this study were to identify microorganisms in partially fed female horn flies through mining of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and to characterize microorganism prevalence using real-time RT-PCR. Seven unigenes containing 24 ESTs were homologous to infectious agents. Microorganisms identified in partially fed female horn flies ESTs included Nora virus (3 unigenes; 8 ESTs), Wolbachia endosymbionts (3 unigenes; 3 ESTs), and Mycobacterium bovis (1 unigene; 13 ESTs). These results expanded the repertoire of microorganisms that could cause persistent infections or be mechanically transmitted by horn flies and support further studies on the role of horn flies in the epidemiology of these pathogens in Mexico.

  8. Micro-Horn Arrays for Ultrasonic Impedance Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rao, Shanti; Palmer, Dean

    2009-01-01

    Thin-layered structures containing arrays of micromachined horns, denoted solid micro-horn arrays (SMIHAs), have been conceived as improved means of matching acoustic impedances between ultrasonic transducers and the media with which the transducers are required to exchange acoustic energy. Typically, ultrasonic transducers (e.g., those used in medical imaging) are piezoelectric or similar devices, which produce small displacements at large stresses. However, larger displacements at smaller stresses are required in the target media (e.g., human tissues) with which acoustic energy is to be exchanged. Heretofore, efficiencies in transmission of acoustic energy between ultrasonic transducers and target media have been severely limited because substantial mismatches of acoustic impedances have remained, even when coupling material layers have been interposed between the transducers and the target media. In contrast, SMIHAs can, in principle, be designed to effect more nearly complete acoustic impedance matching, leading to power transmission efficiencies of 90 percent or even greater. The SMIHA concept is based on extension, into the higher-frequency/ lower-wavelength ultrasonic range, of the use of horns to match acoustic impedances in the audible and lower-frequency ultrasonic ranges. In matching acoustic impedance in transmission from a higher-impedance acoustic source (e.g., a piezoelectric transducer) and a lowerimpedance target medium (e.g., air or human tissue), a horn acts as a mechanical amplifier. The shape and size of the horn can be optimized for matching acoustic impedance in a specified frequency range. A typical SMIHA would consist of a base plate, a face plate, and an array of horns that would constitute pillars that connect the two plates (see figure). In use, the base plate would be connected to an ultrasonic transducer and the face plate would be placed in contact with the target medium. As at lower frequencies, the sizes and shapes of the pillars

  9. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine...

  10. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine...

  11. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine...

  12. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine...

  13. 49 CFR 222.45 - When is a railroad required to cease routine sounding of locomotive horns at crossings?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... sounding of locomotive horns at crossings? 222.45 Section 222.45 Transportation Other Regulations Relating... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Exceptions to the Use of the Locomotive Horn Silenced Horns at Groups of Crossings-Quiet Zones § 222.45 When is a railroad required to cease routine...

  14. Automatic monitoring of vibration welding equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Spicer, John Patrick; Chakraborty, Debejyo; Wincek, Michael Anthony; Wang, Hui; Abell, Jeffrey A; Bracey, Jennifer; Cai, Wayne W

    2014-10-14

    A vibration welding system includes vibration welding equipment having a welding horn and anvil, a host device, a check station, and a robot. The robot moves the horn and anvil via an arm to the check station. Sensors, e.g., temperature sensors, are positioned with respect to the welding equipment. Additional sensors are positioned with respect to the check station, including a pressure-sensitive array. The host device, which monitors a condition of the welding equipment, measures signals via the sensors positioned with respect to the welding equipment when the horn is actively forming a weld. The robot moves the horn and anvil to the check station, activates the check station sensors at the check station, and determines a condition of the welding equipment by processing the received signals. Acoustic, force, temperature, displacement, amplitude, and/or attitude/gyroscopic sensors may be used.

  15. Age-dependent relationship between horn growth and survival in wild sheep.

    PubMed

    Bonenfant, Christophe; Pelletier, Fanie; Garel, Mathieu; Bergeron, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    1. Trade-offs in resource allocation underline the evolution of life-history traits but their expression is frequently challenged by empirical findings. In large herbivores, males with large antlers or horns typically have high mating success. The fitness costs of large horns or antlers have rarely been quantified although they are controversial. 2. Here, using detailed longitudinal data on n = 172 bighorn (Ovis canadensis, Shaw) and the capture-mark-recapture methodology, we tested whether early horn growth leads to a survival cost in rams ('trade-off' hypothesis) or if males that can afford rapid horn growth survive better than males of lower phenotypic quality ('phenotypic quality' hypothesis). We also quantified how hunting increased survival costs of bearing large horns. 3. We found an age-specific relationship between horn growth and survival. In all age classes, natural survival was either weakly related to (lambs, adult rams) or positively associated (yearling rams) with early horn growth. Hunting mortality was markedly different from natural mortality of bighorn rams, leading to an artificial negative association between early horn growth and survival. Beginning at age 4, the yearly harvest rate ranged from 12% for males with the smallest horns up to more than 40% for males with the largest horns. 4. Growing large horns early in life is not related to any consistent survival costs, hence supporting the phenotypic quality hypothesis in males of a dimorphic and polygynous large herbivores. Rapid horn growth early in life is, however, strongly counter selected by trophy hunting. We suggest that horn size is a very poor index of reproductive effort and that males modulate their mating activities and energy allocation to horn growth to limit its impact on survival.

  16. Animal health constraints to livestock exports from the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Abbas, B; Yousif, M A; Nur, H M

    2014-12-01

    The Horn of Africa (Djibouti, Ethiopia, Somalia, Eritrea) is home to the largest population of livestock in Africa and is the historic centre of the livestock trade to the Middle East and northern Africa. The recent resumption of livestock exports from the region has resulted in the handling of over one million head of cattle, sheep, goats and camels at one quarantine facility during a single year. Several of the importing countries for which the facility operates have differing hygiene requirements for the same diseases. Most of the animals handled in the facility come from pastoralist areas, which lack state Veterinary Services. The pathological conditions encountered during one year of monitoring were recorded and the impacts of some of the endemic diseases are discussed, together with particular import-limiting hygiene requirements on this trade. PMID:25812200

  17. Radiation patterns of few-moded horns and condensing lightpipes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Anthony; Padman, Rachael

    We analyse condensing lightpipes of the form often used to couple an infrared detector to a relatively slow optical system. The response in a given direction is expressed in terms of the radiation patterns of the different waveguide modes propagating in the lightpipe and throat section. Such lightpipes are seen to be just a generalization of the electromagnetic horn antennas often used to illuminate radiotelescopes and other reflector antennas. The results of our analysis are compared with ray-tracing results for horns operating in the short wavelength geometrical optics limit: excellent agreement is obtained. This new analysis is equally valid in the long wavelength case pertaining for most FIR and submm detector systems, where only a few spatial modes propagate and the radiation pattern cannot be adequately determined by any other means.

  18. Investigation of noninertial cavitation produced by an ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Vian, Christopher J B; Leighton, Timothy G; Maksimov, Alexey O

    2011-11-01

    This paper reports on noninertial cavitation that occurs beyond the zone close to the horn tip to which the inertial cavitation is confined. The noninertial cavitation is characterized by collating the data from a range of measurements of bubbles trapped on a solid surface in this noninertial zone. Specifically, the electrochemical measurement of mass transfer to an electrode is compared with high-speed video of the bubble oscillation. This gas bubble is shown to be a "noninertial" event by electrochemical surface erosion measurements and "ring-down" experiments showing the activity and motion of the bubble as the sound excitation was terminated. These measurements enable characterization of the complex environment produced below an operating ultrasonic horn outside of the region where inertial collapse can be detected. The extent to which solid boundaries in the liquid cause the frequencies and shapes of oscillatory modes on the bubble wall to differ from their free field values is discussed. PMID:22088002

  19. General proof of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger theorem

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Zeqian

    2004-09-01

    It is proved that all states of three spin-(1/2) particles exhibiting an 'all versus nothing' contradiction between quantum mechanics and the local realism of Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen are exactly the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the states obtained from them by local unitary transformations. The proof is obtained by showing that there are at most four elements (except for a different sign) in a set of mutually commuting nonlocal spin observables in the three-qubit system and using the certain algebraic properties that Pauli's matrices satisfy. We show that only does such a set of four nonlocal spin observables present a Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Mermin-like argument. This also reveals the equivalence between the GHZ theorem and maximal violation of the Bell inequality.

  20. Optimal detection of entanglement in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Kay, Alastair

    2011-02-15

    We present a broad class of N-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ)-diagonal states such that nonpositivity under the partial transpose operation is necessary and sufficient for the presence of entanglement, including many naturally arising instances such as dephased GHZ states. Furthermore, our proof directly leads to an entanglement witness which saturates this bound. The witness is applied to thermal GHZ states to prove that the entanglement can be extremely robust to system imperfections.

  1. Spatial patterns in the abundance of the coastal horned lizard

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fisher, Robert N.; Suarez, Andrew V.; Case, Ted J.

    2002-01-01

    Coastal horned lizards (   Phrynosoma coronatum) have undergone severe declines in southern California and are a candidate species for state and federal listing under the Endangered Species Act. Quantitative data on their habitat use, abundance, and distribution are lacking, however. We investigated the determinants of abundance for coastal horned lizards at multiple spatial scales throughout southern California. Specifically, we estimated lizard distribution and abundance by establishing 256 pitfall trap arrays clustered within 21 sites across four counties. These arrays were sampled bimonthly for 2–3 years. At each array we measured 26 “local” site descriptors and averaged these values with other “regional” measures to determine site characteristics. Our analyses were successful at identifying factors within and among sites correlated with the presence and abundance of coastal horned lizards. These factors included the absence of the invasive Argentine ant (  Linepithema humile) (and presence of native ant species eaten by the lizards), the presence of chaparral community plants, and the presence of sandy substrates. At a regional scale the relative abundance of Argentine ants was correlated with the relative amount of developed edge around a site. There was no evidence for spatial autocorrelation, even at the scale of the arrays within sites, suggesting that the determinants of the presence or absence and abundance of horned lizard can vary over relatively small spatial scales ( hundreds of meters). Our results suggest that a gap-type approach may miss some of the fine-scale determinants of species abundance in fragmented habitats.

  2. Novel Features of the Prenatal Horn Bud Development in Cattle (Bos taurus)

    PubMed Central

    Wiener, Dominique Judith; Wiedemar, Natalie; Welle, Monika Maria; Drögemüller, Cord

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the genetic background of horn growth in cattle has been studied extensively, little is known about the morphological changes in the developing fetal horn bud. In this study we histologically analyzed the development of horn buds of bovine fetuses between ~70 and ~268 days of pregnancy and compared them with biopsies taken from the frontal skin of the same fetuses. In addition we compared the samples from the wild type (horned) fetuses with samples taken from the horn bud region of age-matched genetically hornless (polled) fetuses. In summary, the horn bud with multiple layers of vacuolated keratinocytes is histologically visible early in fetal life already at around day 70 of gestation and can be easily differentiated from the much thinner epidermis of the frontal skin. However, at the gestation day (gd) 212 the epidermis above the horn bud shows a similar morphology to the epidermis of the frontal skin and the outstanding layers of vacuolated keratinocytes have disappeared. Immature hair follicles are seen in the frontal skin at gd 115 whereas hair follicles below the horn bud are not present until gd 155. Interestingly, thick nerve bundles appear in the dermis below the horn bud at gd 115. These nerve fibers grow in size over time and are prominent shortly before birth. Prominent nerve bundles are not present in the frontal skin of wild type or in polled fetuses at any time, indicating that the horn bud is a very sensitive area. The samples from the horn bud region from polled fetuses are histologically equivalent to samples taken from the frontal skin in horned species. This is the first study that presents unique histological data on bovine prenatal horn bud differentiation at different developmental stages which creates knowledge for a better understanding of recent molecular findings. PMID:25993643

  3. Correlation of peripheral innervation density and dorsal horn map scale.

    PubMed

    Wang, L; Millecchia, R; Brown, P B

    1997-08-01

    Dorsal horn map scale and peripheral innervation density were compared to test a hypothesized linear relationship. In anesthetized cats, low-threshold mechanoreceptive peripheral nerve innervation fields (IFs) were measured by outlining areas of skin from which action potentials could be elicited in cutaneous nerves. The same nerves were processed histologically and used to count myelinated axons. Innervation density for each nerve was calculated as number of axons divided by IF area. Single units were recorded throughout the hindlimb representation, in laminae III and IV. These data, combined with single-unit data from other animals and with cell counts in laminae III and IV, permitted estimation of numbers of cells whose receptive field centers fell in contiguous 1-cm bands from tips of toes to proximal thigh. A similar estimate was performed with the use of the nerve innervation data, so that peripheral innervation densities and map scales for the different 1-cm bands of skin could be compared. Correlation between the two was quite high (r = 0.8), and highly significant (P = 2.5 x 10(-7)). These results are consistent with a proposed developmental model in which map scale, peripheral innervation density, and reciprocal of dorsal horn cell receptive field size are mutually proportional, as a result of developmental mechanisms that produce constant divergence and convergence between primary afferent axons and dorsal horn cells. PMID:9307105

  4. Millimeter-wave integrated-horn antennas. I - Theory. II - Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Katehi, Linda P. B.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1991-01-01

    Full-wave analysis is employed to determine the far-field pattern and input impedance of a dipole-fed horn antenna in a ground plane, and the theoretical results are compared with mm-wave and microwave data. The theoretical work exploits the Green's function corresponding to the horn structure and the method of moments. It is determined that the horn should have 70 sections/wavelength and 50 secondary modes for optimized accuracy, and certain dipole positions can reduce the resonance to zero. The experimentally derived impedance and radiation patterns agree with the constraints developed theoretically. The 70-degree flare-angle horn with selected dipole positions and horn apertures yields good radiation patterns, cross-polarization levels, and resonant dipole impedances. The conclusions are of interest to the development of the horn antennas etched in Si/GaAs for applications to zero-visibility tracking, radio astronomy, plasma diagnostics, and remote sensing.

  5. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn.

  6. Studies on thermo-elastic heating of horns used in ultrasonic plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Prakasan, K; Rudramoorthy, R

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic welding horn is half wavelength section or tool used to focus the ultrasonic vibrations to the components being welded. The horn is designed in such a way that it maximizes the amplitude of the sound wave passing through it. The ends of the horn represent the displacement anti-nodes and the center the 'node' of the wave. As the horns perform 20,000 cycles of expansion and contraction per second, they are highly stressed at the nodes and are heated owing to thermo-elastic effects. Considerable temperature rise may be observed in the horn, at the nodal region when working at high amplitudes indicating high stress levels leading to failure of horns due to cyclic loading. The limits for amplitude must therefore be evaluated for the safe working of the horn. Horns made of different materials have different thermo-elastic behaviors and hence different temperatures at the nodes and antinodes. This temperature field can be used as a control mechanism for setting the amplitude/weld parameters. Safe stress levels can be predicted using modal and harmonic analyses followed by a stress analysis to study the effect of cyclic loads. These are achieved using 'Ansys'. The maximum amplitude level obtained from the stress analysis is used as input for 'Comsol' to predict the temperature field. The actual temperature developed in the horn during operation is measured using infrared camera and compared with the simulated temperature. From experiments, it is observed that horn made of titanium had the lowest temperature rise at the critical region and can be expected to operate at amplitudes up to 77 μm without suffering failure due to cyclic loading. The method of predicting thermo-elastic stresses and temperature may be adopted by the industry for operating the horn within the safe stress limits thereby extending the life of the horn. PMID:25087474

  7. Acute Abdomen in a Case With Noncommunicating Rudimentary Horn and Unicornuate Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Germen, Aysegul Tezcan; Burak, Feza; Kafkasli, Ayse

    2005-01-01

    Unicornuate uterus with a rudimentary horn is the rarest congenital anatomic anomaly of the female genital system, causing many obstetrical and gynecologic complications. The frequency of this pathology is approximately 1/100 000. A rudimentary horn usually develops following insufficient development of mullerian ducts. These patients present with dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia, and chronic pelvic pain because of endometriosis and rarely with acute abdominal symptoms following distention and torsion of the noncommunicating rudimentary horn. The case of a patient referred for acute abdomen after distention of a noncommunicating rudimentary horn is presented herein. PMID:15984720

  8. Spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous afferent axons and dorsal horn cells are not constant.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Harton, P; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J; Kunjara-Na-Ayudhya, T; Stephens, S; Miller, M A; Hicks, L; Culberson, J

    2000-05-01

    We have proposed a quantitative model of the development of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) and somatotopic organization (Brown et al. [1997] Somatosens. Motor Res. 14:93-106). One component of that model is a hypothesis that convergence and divergence of connections between low-threshold primary afferent mechanoreceptive axons and dorsal horn cells are invariant over skin location and dorsal horn location. The more limited, and more easily tested, hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence between cutaneous mechanoreceptors and dorsal horn cell are constant was examined. Spatial divergence is the number of dorsal horn cells whose RFs overlap the RF center of a primary afferent, and spatial convergence is the number of afferent RF centers that lie within the RF of a dorsal horn cell. Innervation density was determined as a function of location on the hindlimb by using peripheral nerve recording and axon counting. A descriptive model of dorsal horn cell receptive fields (Brown et al. [1998] J. Neurophysiol. 31:833-848) was used to simulate RFs of the entire dorsal horn cell population in order to estimate RF area and map scale as a function of location on the hindlimb. Previously reported correlations among innervation density, map scale, and RF size were confirmed. However, these correlations were not linear. The hypothesis that spatial convergence and divergence are constant was rejected. The previously proposed model of development of dorsal horn cell somatotopy and RF geometries must be revised to take variable spatial convergence and divergence into account. PMID:10754502

  9. Transcription profiling provides insights into gene pathways involved in horn and scurs development in cattle

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Two types of horns are evident in cattle - fixed horns attached to the skull and a variation called scurs, which refers to small loosely attached horns. Cattle lacking horns are referred to as polled. Although both the Poll and Scurs loci have been mapped to BTA1 and 19 respectively, the underlying genetic basis of these phenotypes is unknown, and so far, no candidate genes regulating these developmental processes have been described. This study is the first reported attempt at transcript profiling to identify genes and pathways contributing to horn and scurs development in Brahman cattle, relative to polled counterparts. Results Expression patterns in polled, horned and scurs tissues were obtained using the Agilent 44 k bovine array. The most notable feature when comparing transcriptional profiles of developing horn tissues against polled was the down regulation of genes coding for elements of the cadherin junction as well as those involved in epidermal development. We hypothesize this as a key event involved in keratinocyte migration and subsequent horn development. In the polled-scurs comparison, the most prevalent differentially expressed transcripts code for genes involved in extracellular matrix remodelling, which were up regulated in scurs tissues relative to polled. Conclusion For this first time we describe networks of genes involved in horn and scurs development. Interestingly, we did not observe differential expression in any of the genes present on the fine mapped region of BTA1 known to contain the Poll locus. PMID:20537189

  10. An ultrasonic horn atomizer with closed loop driving circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chou, Yuan-Fang; Chen, Kai-Jhong; Hsu, Jui-Mei; Chou, Pei-En

    2016-04-01

    A novel ultrasonic horn atomizer is developed for the purpose of obtaining small size droplets at a large flow rate. The ultrasonic horn has a non-monotonically decreasing cross sectional area to provide a large atomizing surface. Consisting of two horns and one actuator section, the 301 kHz atomizer nozzle is made of {100} silicon wafer with its axis aligned in the <100> direction to minimize the length. Two PZT plates are adhered to each side of the actuator section to provide driving power. This device atomizes the liquid film on its nozzle tip to generate droplets. It is capable of atomizing more than 350 μl/min water into droplet. The mean diameter of droplet is 9.61 μm and the size distribution is quite narrow. The atomizing mechanism is based on the capillary wave on liquid surface. Once the wave amplitude exceeds the critical value, the motion of surface liquid becomes unstable and releases droplets. Therefore, driving at resonant frequency is the most effective way for atomizing. Dimension deviation combined with different kind of liquid to be atomized causes resonant frequencies of nozzles changed from time to time. Due to the high Q nature of nozzles, atomizing performance will drop drastically once the driving frequency is different from its resonant frequency by very little amount. Therefore, a feedback circuit is designed to tracking resonant frequency automatically instead of adjusting driving frequency manually. Comparing the atomizing performance between the open loop system and the closed loop system, significant improvement is obtained.

  11. Ammon's horn sclerosis: its pathogenesis and clinical significance.

    PubMed

    Sano, K; Kirino, T

    1990-08-01

    Sclerosis of the cornu Ammonis or Ammon's horn sclerosis (AHS) is an "often-described, yet hitherto enigmatic phenomena" as Spielmyer put it in 1927. It has been found in cases with ischemia, anoxia or hypoglycemia and in more than half of the epileptic brains examined at autopsy. Various theories about its pathogenesis have been propounded. Among them, the "Pathoklise" theory of the Vogts and the vascular theory of Spielmeyer and his associates were prevailing until recently. In 1953, two articles were published to contribute to the pathogenesis of ictal automatism (a type of complex partial or temporal lobe seizures). One is the incisural sclerosis theory by Penfield and his associates and the other is the Ammon's horn sclerosis theory by Sano and Malamud. The former authors described a diffuse sclerosis of the infero-mesial temporal structures without, however, specifically relating it to AHS. They considered it was the result of localized anoxia of that portion of the brain caused by incisural herniation occurring during parturition. Sano and Malamud maintained that AHS is a result of convulsions, a distinct scar adjacent to which epileptogenic foci may develop in the course of time to cause ictal automatism. The latter theory was corroborated by Sano, Falconer and others. Falconer expanded the theory to the assertion that not only ictal automatism but other types of intractable epilepsy may be due to "mesial temporal (Ammon's horn) sclerosis". The most recent development in the pathogenesis of AHS is the excitotoxicity theory. Namely, AHS is caused by excessive excitation of neurons, probably by putative excitatory neurotransmitters, especially, glutamate. For this theory, there is a significant body of evidence. The problem of AHS, an old research subject and a matter of long-lasting controversy, has now been updated and become one of the newest topics in the field of experimental neurobiology.

  12. Probabilistic quantum cloning via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuan-Wei; Li, Chuan-Feng; Wang, Zi-Yang; Guo, Guang-Can

    2000-10-01

    We propose a probabilistic quantum cloning scheme using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states, Bell-basis measurements, single-qubit unitary operations, and generalized measurements, all of which are within the reach of current technology. Compared to another possible scheme via Tele-controlled-NOT gate [D. Gottesman and I. L. Chuang, Nature (London) 402, 390 (1999)], the present scheme may be used in experiment to clone the states of one particle to those of two different particles with higher probability and less GHZ resources.

  13. Dorsal horn spatial representation of simple cutaneous stimuli.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Millecchia, R; Lawson, J J; Stephens, S; Harton, P; Culberson, J C

    1998-02-01

    A model of lamina III-IV dorsal horn cell receptive fields (RFs) has been developed to visualize the spatial patterns of cells activated by light touch stimuli. Low-threshold mechanoreceptive fields (RFs) of 551 dorsal horn neurons recorded in anesthetized cats were characterized by location of RF center in cylindrical coordinates, area, length/width ratio, and orientation of long axis. Best-fitting ellipses overlapped actual RFs by 90%. Exponentially smoothed mean and variance surfaces were estimated for these five variables, on a grid of 40 points mediolaterally by 20/segment rostrocaudally in dorsal horn segments L4-S1. The variations of model RF location, area, and length/width ratio with map location were all similar to previous observations. When elliptical RFs were simulated at the locations of the original cells, the RFs of real and simulated cells overlapped by 64%. The densities of cell representations of skin points on the hindlimb were represented as pseudocolor contour plots on dorsal view maps, and segmental representations were plotted on the standard views of the leg. Overlap of modeled and real segmental representations was at the 84% level. Simulated and observed RFs had similar relations between area and length/width ratio and location on the hindlimb: r(A) = 0.52; r(L/W) = 0.56. Although the representation of simple stimuli was orderly, and there was clearly only one somatotopic map of the skin, the representation of a single point often was not a single cluster of active neurons. When two-point stimuli were simulated, there usually was no fractionation of response zones or addition of new zones. Variation of stimulus size (area of skin contacted) produced less variation of representation size (number of cells responding) than movement of stimuli from one location to another. We conclude that stimulus features are preserved poorly in their dorsal horn spatial representation and that discrimination mechanisms that depend on detection of such

  14. Surveying woodland hawks with broadcasts of great horned owl vocalization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mosher, James A.; Fuller, Mark R.

    1996-01-01

    Pre-recorded vocalizations of great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) broadcast into predominantly wooded habitat along roadside survey routes resulted in as many detections of resident red-shouldered hawks (Buteo lineatus) and Cooper's hawks (Accipiter cooperii) as broadcasts of each conspecific calls. Survey results for 3 species, expressed as average number of contacts/route, were directly related to the number of resident pairs located during systematic searches conducted on foot across the study area. Regression models based on road-transect counts were significant for predicting abundance of red-shouldered hawks, broad-winged hawks (Buteo platypterus), and Cooper's hawks from our study areas.

  15. Asymmetric multipartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states and Bell inequalities

    SciTech Connect

    Gosal, Darwin; Oh, C.H.; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir; Kwek, L.C.; Zukowski, M.

    2004-10-01

    We study the multiparticle generalized GHZ states. It has been shown that for an odd number of qubits and for a specific range of parameters, they do not violate any Bell inequality for correlation functions. We show here both analytically and numerically that, nevertheless, such states violate local realism, once a more detailed analysis of the correlations is made than the one allowed by correlation functions. The results imply that multiparticle Clauser-Horne-type inequalities involving probabilities are stronger tools for analyzing violations of local realism in multiparticle systems than inequalities involving the correlation functions.

  16. A strange horn between Paolo Mantegazza and Charles Darwin.

    PubMed

    Garbarino, Carla; Mazzarello, Paolo

    2013-09-01

    During the preparation of an exhibition in Pavia dedicated to the centennial anniversary of the death of the Italian Pathologist Paolo Mantegazza, a strange cheratinic horn was found at the Museum for the History of the University of Pavia labelled as 'spur of a cock transplanted into an ear of a cow.' After some historical investigation, we found this strange object was at the centre of a scientific correspondence between Mantegazza and Charles Darwin, who made reference to it in his book The Variation of Animals and Plants under Domestication.

  17. Determination of the Phase Centers of Millimeter-Wave Horn Antennas Using a Holographic Interference Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McAuley, Ian; Murphy, J. Anthony; McCarthy, Darragh; Gradziel, Marcin; Mahon, Ronan; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Trappe, Neil

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we discuss how a holographic interference technique can be applied in the experimental determination of the phase centers of non-standard horn antennas in the millimeter-waveband. The phase center is the point inside the horn from which the radiation appears to emanate when viewed from the far-field, and knowing its location is necessary for optimizing coupling efficiencies to quasi-optical systems. For non-standard horn designs, and other feed structures, the phase center may be difficult to reliably predict by simulation, in which case, before committing to antenna manufacture, there is a requirement for it to be determined experimentally. Although the phase center can be recovered by direct phase measurement of the far-field beam pattern, this usually involves expensive instrumentation such as a vector network analyzer for millimeter wave horn antennas. In this paper, we describe one inexpensive alternative, which is based on measuring the interference pattern in intensity between the radiation from the horn of interest and a reference beam derived from the same coherent source in an off-axis holography setup. The accuracy of the approach is improved by comparison with the interference pattern of a well-understood standard horn (such as a corrugated conical horn) in the same experimental setup. We present an example of the technique applied to a profiled smooth-walled horn antenna, which has been especially designed for cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization experiments.

  18. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for Wayside Horns E Appendix E to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... 222, App. E Appendix E to Part 222—Requirements for Wayside Horns This appendix sets forth...

  19. An Interview with Michael Horn: Blending Education for High-Octane Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Gregory A.

    2012-01-01

    Blended learning holds the potential of improving the way we educate students and of making them more motivated. Blended education--the melding of information technology based distance learning with school attendance--is perhaps the best way to educate students for 21st century skills, says Michael Horn in a "Kappan" interview. Horn points out…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  1. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long... shall be repeated or prolonged until the locomotive occupies the crossing. This pattern may be varied...

  2. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  3. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Pt... following minimum requirements for wayside horn use at highway-rail grade crossings: 1. Highway-rail crossing must be equipped with constant warning time device, if reasonably practical, and...

  4. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long... shall be repeated or prolonged until the locomotive occupies the crossing. This pattern may be varied...

  5. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION USE OF LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long... shall be repeated or prolonged until the locomotive occupies the crossing. This pattern may be varied...

  6. 76 FR 53295 - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-25

    ... Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, August 8, 2011 [FR Doc. 2011-21958... Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa Presidential Determination No. 2011-13... Determination No. 2011-12 of August 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn...

  7. Rdl-containing Fragment of GABA(A) from the Horn Fly, Haematobia Irritans, Susceptible Genotype

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a significant economic pest of cattle found throughout Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor, and the Americas. The major means of controlling the horn fly is through applications of chemicals with insecticidal activity. A cyclodiene-containing ear tag product h...

  8. 77 FR 47011 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Reclassifying the Straight-Horned Markhor With...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... the import of sport-hunted straight-horned markhor trophies under certain conditions. This regulation...), and would allow the import of sport-hunted straight-horned markhor trophies under certain conditions... endangered under the Act (41 FR 24062). All species were found to have declining numbers due to the...

  9. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  10. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  11. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning devices... sounds at least once for each three feet of reverse movement; (iii) A discriminating backup alarm...

  12. 49 CFR Appendix E to Part 222 - Requirements for Wayside Horns

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Requirements for Wayside Horns E Appendix E to Part 222 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD.... 222, App. E Appendix E to Part 222—Requirements for Wayside Horns This appendix sets forth...

  13. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations on beef cattle results in decreased productivity and challenges enterprise sustainability. Objective of this experiment was to determine the relationships among, cattle breed, heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70) genotype, and horn fly density. Angus (n = 20), Brahman (n = 17), and ...

  14. Associations among heat shock protein 70 genotype, forage system, and horn fly infestation of beef cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. The impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality was evaluated in cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS; n = 7), Brangus (BRAN; n = 13), Charolais (CHAR; n = 8), Gelbvieh (GELV; n = 5), Hereford (HERF; n = 12), and Romosin...

  15. 454 pyrosequencing project identifying expressed genes from the horn fly, Haematobia irritans

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We used an EST approach to initiate a study of the genome of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans and have used 454 pyrosequencing techniques to sequence 73,512, 100,603, 71,550, and 85,769 expressed genes from the egg, first instar larvae, adult male, and adult female lifestages of the horn fly. cD...

  16. 30 CFR 57.14132 - Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Horns and backup alarms for surface equipment. 57.14132 Section 57.14132 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... backup alarms for surface equipment. (a) Manually-operated horns or other audible warning...

  17. The Many Faces of Compliance: The Supreme Court's Decision in "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thro, William E.

    2009-01-01

    At first blush, the Supreme Court's recent decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009) appears to be about the proper standard for determining when to modify a previous judgment, a topic that would interest only civil procedure geeks. Yet, on closer examination, "Horne" is about giving local and state officials discretion to solve education problems and,…

  18. Relationship of horn fly to face fly infestation in beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Brown, A H; Johnson, Z B; Simpson, R B; Brown, M A; Steelman, C D; Rosenkrans, C F

    1994-09-01

    Horn fly and face fly counts (n = 394) taken on 194 beef cows representing seven breed groups were used to determine the effects of horn fly and face fly counts. Breed groups included were Angus (ANI and ANII), Chianina (CA), Charolais (CH), Hereford (HH), Polled Hereford (PH), and Red Poll (RP). The breed group designated ANI consisted of small-framed cows. Total horn fly and total face fly counts were determined weekly on each cow beginning in May and ending in late October or early November in a 3-yr (1988-90) study. Face flies were not counted on the ANI and ANII breed groups in 1988. All fly counts were taken when cows were grazing Ozark upland native grass pastures with only containment fences separating breeding groups. No insecticides were used in the study. Data for analysis were the mean annual horn fly and face fly counts (averaged across weeks), spring weight and fall weights, gain/day between spring and fall weights, and skin surface area in the spring (SSAS) and fall (SSAF) for each cow. Relationships among measurements were examined by correlation and regression procedures. Horn fly count was correlated (P < .05) with face fly count, spring weight, gain/day, and SSAS (.23, .11, -.25, and .12, respectively). Correlations of horn fly count with fall weight and SSAF were non-significant. Horn fly count, breed, and the breed x horn fly count interaction were significant (P < .05) for the face fly regression.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Exploring the Sensitivity of Horn's Parallel Analysis to the Distributional Form of Random Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dinno, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Horn's parallel analysis (PA) is the method of consensus in the literature on empirical methods for deciding how many components/factors to retain. Different authors have proposed various implementations of PA. Horn's seminal 1965 article, a 1996 article by Thompson and Daniel, and a 2004 article by Hayton, Allen, and Scarpello all make assertions…

  20. Pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Bethany R; Moczek, Armin P

    2012-05-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape, and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species. PMID:21998033

  1. pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns

    PubMed Central

    Wasik, Bethany R.; Moczek, Armin P.

    2011-01-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species. PMID:21998033

  2. Pangolin expression influences the development of a morphological novelty: beetle horns.

    PubMed

    Wasik, Bethany R; Moczek, Armin P

    2012-05-01

    Morphological diversity arises during development through the actions and interactions of diverse developmental pathways. Among those, the Wnt pathway is known to contribute to diverse developmental processes such as segmentation and the morphogenesis of appendages. Here, we characterize a transcription factor in the Wnt pathway, pangolin (pan), to investigate the role of Wnt signaling in the development of evolutionarily novel body structures: the horns of beetles. Beetle horns are highly diverse in size, shape, and number and develop principally from two major body regions: the head and prothorax. We investigate horns in two species of the genus Onthophagus using comparative in situ hybridization, larval RNA interference, and allometric measurements to analyze whether horn formation is regulated by pan and by extension the Wnt pathway. Our results illustrate that pan expression affects beetle horn growth in a species-, sex-, and location-specific manner in two morphologically distinct, yet closely-related, Onthophagus species.

  3. Cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

    PubMed

    Fatani, Mohammad Ibrahim; Hussain, Waleed Mohd; Baltow, Badee; Alsharif, Sahar

    2014-04-03

    A cutaneous horn is a rare clinical condition characterised by a conical projection of hyperkeratotic epidermis. Cutaneous horns most commonly arise from sun-exposed skin in elderly men, but may arise from any part of the body at any age in men and women. When a cutaneous horn forms, it is important to determine the underlying cause. Various skin diseases may present with cutaneous horns including viral warts, actinic keratosis, keratoacanthoma, seborrhoeic keratosis, pyogenic granuloma, discoid lupus erythematosus, verruca vulgaris, Bowen's disease, basal cell carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The underlying pathology is benign in 61.1% of cases, premalignant in 23.2% of cases and malignant in 15.7% of cases. We report a patient with a cutaneous horn arising from an area of discoid lupus erythematosus on the scalp.

  4. Preference of redear sunfish on zebra mussels and rams-horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    French, John R. P.; Morgan, Michael N.

    1995-01-01

    We tested prey preferences of adult (200- to 222-mm long) redear sunfish (Lepomis microlophus) on two size classes of zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha) and two-ridge rams-horns (Helisoma anceps) in experimental aquaria. We also tested physical limitations on consuming these mollusks and determined prey bioenergetic profitability. Redear sunfish strongly preferred rams-horns over zebra mussels, but they displayed no size preference for either prey. Ingestion was not physically limited since both prey species up to 15-mm long fit within the pharyngeal gapes of redear sunfish. Rams-horns were more bioenergetically profitable than zebra mussels and ingestion of rams-horn shell fragments was about three times less than zebra mussels. Rams-horns were somewhat more resistant to shell-crushing, but all size ranges of both prey species tested were crushable by redear sunfish. These studies suggested that the redear sunfish should not be considered a panacea for biological control of zebra mussels.

  5. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... situations: (1) When a wayside horn is malfunctioning; (2) When active grade crossing warning devices have....106, or 234.107; (3) When grade crossing warning systems are temporarily out of service...

  6. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... situations: (1) When a wayside horn is malfunctioning; (2) When active grade crossing warning devices have....106, or 234.107; (3) When grade crossing warning systems are temporarily out of service...

  7. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... situations: (1) When a wayside horn is malfunctioning; (2) When active grade crossing warning devices have....106, or 234.107; (3) When grade crossing warning systems are temporarily out of service...

  8. 49 CFR 222.23 - How does this regulation affect sounding of a horn during an emergency or other situations?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... LOCOMOTIVE HORNS AT PUBLIC HIGHWAY-RAIL GRADE CROSSINGS Use of Locomotive Horns § 222.23 How does this... situations: (1) When a wayside horn is malfunctioning; (2) When active grade crossing warning devices have....106, or 234.107; (3) When grade crossing warning systems are temporarily out of service...

  9. Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction in the Horn Fly: Detection of Pyrethroid, Organophosphate and Cyclodiene Target Site Resistance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans, is an important pest to the livestock industry that causes economic losses of approximately US$1 billion in the U.S. and a similar value in Latin America. Horn fly control efforts still relies mainly on direct application of insecticides although horn fly ...

  10. Trigeminal and spinal dorsal horn (dis)continuity and avian evolution.

    PubMed

    Wild, J Martin; Krützfeldt, Nils O E; Altshuler, Douglas L

    2010-01-01

    The organization of the dorsal horn in the avian spinal cord differs in different species. For instance, in pigeons and doves, cranes, cuckoos, songbirds, ratites and tinamous, the dorsal horn is organized in laminar fashion, such that laminae II and III are sandwiched between lamina I dorsally and lamina IV ventrally, as they are in mammals and other nonavian amniotes. In most other avian species, including chickens, however, the organization of the dorsal horn is not strictly laminar, in that the structures homologous to laminae II and III lie side by side rather than in dorsoventral order. Because spinal and trigeminal dorsal horns are generally thought to be continuous, the question arises as to the organization of the trigeminal dorsal horn in these species. We examined this question in chickens, first by defining II and III of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns using calcium-binding protein immunohistochemistry, and second by determining the caudal extent of the projections of the three branches of the trigeminal nerve using injections of cholera toxin B chain. It was found (1) that the trigeminal dorsal horn and the spinal dorsal horn of the first 2 cervical segments are organized in laminar fashion, but further caudally, II and III in the spinal dorsal horn gradually come to be arranged side by side and (2) that the descending trigeminal tract terminates no further caudal than the 3rd spinal segment. Therefore, unlike spinal nerves, trigeminal nerve branches do not project to II and III, once these cease to be organized in laminar fashion. These findings imply some kind or organizational discontinuity of trigeminal and spinal dorsal horns in the chicken and perhaps in other species with a side-by-side arrangement of II and III. It has also been suggested that the condition in which the spinal dorsal horn structures homologous to laminae II and II lie side by side may define a novel clade of birds. This suggestion was reexamined within the context of a

  11. Micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator based on a liquid horn structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meacham, J. M.; Ejimofor, C.; Kumar, S.; Degertekin, F. L.; Fedorov, A. G.

    2004-05-01

    A micromachined ultrasonic droplet generator is developed and demonstrated for drop-on-demand fluid atomization. The droplet generator comprises a bulk ceramic piezoelectric transducer for ultrasound generation, a reservoir for the ejection fluid, and a silicon micromachined liquid horn structure as the nozzle. The nozzles are formed using a simple batch microfabrication process that involves wet etching of (100) silicon in potassium hydroxide solution. Device operation is demonstrated by droplet ejection of water through 30 μm orifices at 1.49 and 2.30 MHz. The finite-element simulations of the acoustic fields in the cavity and electrical impedance of the device are in agreement with the measurements and indicate that the device utilizes cavity resonances in the 1-5 MHz range in conjunction with acoustic wave focusing by the pyramidally shaped nozzles to achieve low power operation.

  12. Irreducible multiqutrit correlations in Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Fu-Lin; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2011-12-15

    Following the idea of the continuity approach by D. L. Zhou [Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 180505 (2008)], we obtain the degrees of irreducible multiparty correlations in two families of n-qutrit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-type states. For the pure states in one of the families, the irreducible 2-party, n-party, and (n-m)-party (0

  13. A curious pellet from a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Woodman, N.; Dove, C.J.; Peurach, S.C.

    2005-01-01

    One of the traditional methods of determining the dietary preferences of owls relies upon the identification of bony remains of prey contained in regurgitated pellets. Discovery of a pellet containing a large, complete primary feather from an adult, male Ring-necked Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus) prompted us to examine in detail a small sample of pellets from a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). Our analyses of feather and hair remains in these pellets documented the presence of three species of birds and two species of mammals, whereas bones in the pellets represented only mammals. This finding indicates an important bias that challenges the reliability of owl pellet studies making use of only osteological remains.

  14. Synaptic inhibition and disinhibition in the spinal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    Nociceptive signals originating in the periphery must be transmitted to the brain to evoke pain. Rather than being conveyed unchanged, those signals undergo extensive processing in the spinal dorsal horn. Synaptic inhibition plays a crucial role in that processing. On the one hand, neuropathy and inflammation are associated with reduced spinal inhibition; on the other hand, the hypersensitivity associated with inflammatory and neuropathic pain can be reproduced by blocking inhibition at the spinal level. To understand the consequences of disinhibition and how to therapeutically reverse it, one must understand how synaptic inhibition normally operates. To that end, this chapter will discuss the structure and function of GABAA and glycine receptors together with the role of associated molecules involved in transmitter handling and chloride regulation. Mechanisms by which inhibition modulates cellular excitability will be described. The chapter will end with discussion of how inhibition goes awry under pathological conditions and what the implications are for the treatment of resulting pain. PMID:25744679

  15. Tongue adhesion in the horned frog Ceratophrys sp.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinteich, Thomas; Gorb, Stanislav N.

    2014-06-01

    Frogs are well-known to capture elusive prey with their protrusible and adhesive tongues. However, the adhesive performance of frog tongues and the mechanism of the contact formation with the prey item remain unknown. Here we measured for the first time adhesive forces and tongue contact areas in living individuals of a horned frog (Ceratophrys sp.) against glass. We found that Ceratophrys sp. generates adhesive forces well beyond its own body weight. Surprisingly, we found that the tongues adhered stronger in feeding trials in which the coverage of the tongue contact area with mucus was relatively low. Thus, besides the presence of mucus, other features of the frog tongue (surface profile, material properties) are important to generate sufficient adhesive forces. Overall, the experimental data shows that frog tongues can be best compared to pressure sensitive adhesives (PSAs) that are of common technical use as adhesive tapes or labels.

  16. Efficient Multiparty Quantum Secret Sharing with Greenberger Horne Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Fu-Guo; Zhou, Ping; Li, Xi-Han; Li, Chun-Yan; Zhou, Hong-Yu

    2006-05-01

    An efficient multiparty quantum secret sharing scheme is proposed with Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states following some ideas in quantum dense coding. The agents take the single-photon measurements on the photons received for eavesdropping check and exploit the four local unitary operations I, σz, σx and iσy to code their message. This scheme has the advantage of high capacity as each GHZ state can carry two bits of information. The parties do not need to announce the measuring bases for almost all the photons, which will reduce the classical information exchanged largely. The intrinsic efficiency for qubits and the total efficiency both approach the maximal values.

  17. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-10-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  18. An Anonymous Surveying Protocol via Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naseri, Mosayeb; Gong, Li-Hua; Houshmand, Monireh; Matin, Laleh Farhang

    2016-06-01

    A new experimentally feasible anonymous survey protocol with authentication using Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entangled states is proposed. In this protocol, a chief executive officer (CEO) of a firm or company is trying to find out the effect of a possible action. In order to prepare a fair voting, the CEO would like to make an anonymous survey and is also interested in the total action for the whole company and he doesn't want to have a partial estimate for each department. In our proposal, there are two voters, Alice and Bob, voting on a question with a response of either "yes" or "no" and a tallyman, whose responsibility is to determine whether they have cast the same vote or not. In the proposed protocol the total response of the voters is calculated without revealing the actual votes of the voters.

  19. Measurements of very low-sidelobe conical horn antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Toral, Marco A.; Ratliff, Roger B.; Lecha, Maria C.; Maruschak, John G.; Bennett, Charles L.

    1989-01-01

    A description is given of conical corrugated-horn antennas that were designed for millimeter-wave radiometers with a 7 degree field of view, namely the Differential Microwave Radiometers (DMRs) that will measure the large-angular-scale anisotropy of the cosmic background radiation that is generally thought to be the remnant of the primeval explosion, the Big Bang. The DMRs will be part of the Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE) satellite. Measured test results for three radiometers at 31.4, 53, and 90 GHz are reported along with those of a circular polarization orthomode transducer designed and characterized at 31.4 GHz. The measurement techniques and facilities are described, including an outdoor far-field facility where measurements down to levels 90 dB below the main beam maximum were achieved. The goal of achieving very low-sidelobe antennas with good symmetry has been demonstrated.

  20. Pulmonary carcinoma in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rettenmund, Christy; Sladky, Kurt K; Rodriguez, Daniel; Petersen, Michael; Pinkerton, Marie E; Rao, Deepa

    2010-03-01

    Pulmonary carcinoma was diagnosed in an 18+-year-old captive female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). The owl presented with a history of progressive weakness and sudden onset of frank blood in the droppings. On physical examination, the owl had multiple white to yellow plaques in the oral cavity, decreased air sac sounds on the right side, dyspnea (during manual restraint), and reduced pectoral musculature. Whole-body radiographs revealed obliteration of the right-sided air sacs, a soft tissue plaque/density in the left caudal thoracic air sac, soft tissue opacity over the coelomic organs, and increased medullary opacity in the distal right humerus. The owl died during anesthetic recovery, and the body was submitted for necropsy. Although the clinical signs, physical examination results, radiographic signs, and gross pathology supported a diagnosis of mycotic infection, such as aspergillosis, histopathology confirmed pulmonary carcinoma with metastases to the air sacs and humerus. PMID:20722257

  1. Presumptive electric cataracts in a Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Dees, D Dustin; MacLaren, Nicole E

    2013-01-01

    This case report describes suspected electrocution in a juvenile female Great Horned owl (Bubo virginianus) with subsequent bilateral cataract formation. The bird flew into a high-voltage power line and was immediately rescued. Burn wounds of the head and ataxia with apparent blindness were noted. Initial ophthalmic examination 5 days after the incident revealed bilaterally symmetrical anterior subcapsular vacuolar cataracts with absence of intraocular inflammation and a predominantly clear view to the normal appearing fundus. The bird appeared to be nonvisual. No ophthalmic medications were prescribed at initial examination. Subsequent recheck examination at 8 weeks revealed moderate resolution of the cataracts and improved vision. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first published report of suspected electric cataracts in an avian species. PMID:22432797

  2. Erosional history of Big Horn basin: Mackin revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Palmquist, R.C.

    1983-08-01

    The classic study of the erosional history of Big Horn basin is by Mackin in 1937. In it he studied the terrace levels which ranged in age from Late Tertiary to late Pleistocene. He postulated that the terraces were the product of stream captures or intervals of interglacial stability alternating with glacial incision. More recent studies have revised Mackin's classically simple model. Detailed studies have increased the number of terrace levels, changed the timing of their stability episode, and estimated their ages. The number of terrace levels has been increased to nine along the Greybull and Bighorn Rivers and to six along the Shoshoni River. Because some of the different levels occur along each river, the number of unique levels within the basin is 12. The occurrence of a 600,000 and a 100,000 year old ash on two terrace levels allows the ages of the terraces to be estimated. The estimated ages range from 3 m.y. for the Tatman to 49,000 years for the Himes, which is the lowest level along the Bighorn River. Both ashes were deposited during river stability intervals and indicate that the Bighorn River and its eastern tributaries were stable late in the interglacial episodes. In contrast, the glaciofluvial gravels along the Shoshoni River at Cody indicate a late glacial stability episode for the western tributaries. The terrace cycles along the Bighorn River and its western tributaries are therefore out-of-phase. Comparison of the estimated terrace ages to termination in the marine isotopic record indicates that not all of the Pleistocene climatic cycles are preserved in the Big Horn basin terrace chronology.

  3. Past and Future Rainfall in the Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; Ummenhofer, C.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2014-12-01

    While the interannual response of rainfall in the Greater Horn of Africa (GHA) region to internal climatic forcings is generally well understood, it is unclear how external climate forcing from rising greenhouse gases will affect hydroclimate in the region. 20th century observations in the GHA are limited in number, giving us only a hint at recent trends. Here, we present the first high-resolution record of temperature and hydroclimate from the GHA spanning the last 2000 years. These data, consisting of biomarker proxies measured in a high-accumulation rate marine sediment core from the Gulf of Aden, provide a detailed view of both 20th century and last millennium GHA climate. Measurements of TEX86 show that the recent warming in upper ocean temperatures is unprecedented in the context of the last 2000 years. Paired measurements of the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes show that the 20th century warming in the region is associated with a drying trend that is also unprecedented in the last 2000 years. These data suggest that rising greenhouse gases drive drying in the Horn of Africa region, but the majority of climate model simulations from the CMIP5 archive (RCP 8.5 scenario) imply that the region will get wetter. We address this discrepancy by investigating both the ability of climate models to simulate the seasonal cycle in rainfall in the GHA region and the mechanisms driving model response. If the models are incorrect, and the GHA will indeed get drier as a consequence of global warming, this has major implications for projections of food security in the region.

  4. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10-15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  5. Special-purpose computer for holography HORN-4 with recurrence algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimobaba, Tomoyoshi; Hishinuma, Sinsuke; Ito, Tomoyoshi

    2002-10-01

    We designed and built a special-purpose computer for holography, HORN-4 (HOlographic ReconstructioN) using PLD (Programmable Logic Device) technology. HORN computers have a pipeline architecture. We use HORN-4 as an attached processor to enhance the performance of a general-purpose computer when it is used to generate holograms using a "recurrence formulas" algorithm developed by our previous paper. In the HORN-4 system, we designed the pipeline by adopting our "recurrence formulas" algorithm which can calculate the phase on a hologram. As the result, we could integrate the pipeline composed of 21 units into one PLD chip. The units in the pipeline consists of one BPU (Basic Phase Unit) unit and twenty CU (Cascade Unit) units. These CU units can compute twenty light intensities on a hologram plane at one time. By mounting two of the PLD chips on a PCI (Peripheral Component Interconnect) universal board, HORN-4 can calculate holograms at high speed of about 42 Gflops equivalent. The cost of HORN-4 board is about 1700 US dollar. We could obtain 800×600 grids hologram from a 3D-image composed of 415 points in about 0.45 sec with the HORN-4 system.

  6. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig, Thelma Maria; Gomes, Alberto; Koller, Wilson Werner; Furlong, John; Girão, Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro, Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco, Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper, Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga, Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira, Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the active ingredient present in most insecticide products for horn fly control in Brazil, was detected in 98.46% of the populations, with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 2.5 to 719.9. Resistance to permethrin (RRs < 6.3) was found in 96.67% of the populations, despite its lack of use. In general, pyrethroid resistance was detected in 97.18% of the horn fly populations, with frequencies greater than 87% in all regions of the country. The status of susceptibility of horn fly populations in Brazil to insecticides can be characterized by high susceptibility to OPs and widespread resistance to pyrethroids, potentially compromising the efficacy of pyrethroid products in most cases. Although some partial results have previously been presented, a general picture of horn fly susceptibility in Brazil is presented here for the first time.

  7. Efficient horn antennas for next-generation terahertz and millimeter-wave space telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, Anthony; Bracken, Colm; Doherty, Stephen; Gradziel, Marcin L.; O'Sullivan, Créidhe

    2013-03-01

    Astronomical observations in the far-infrared are critical for investigation of cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation and the formation and evolution of planets, stars and galaxies. In the case of space telescope receivers a strong heritage exists for corrugated horn antenna feeds to couple the far-infrared signals to the detectors mounted in a waveguide or cavity structure. Such antenna feeds have been utilized, for example, in the Planck satellite in both single-mode channels for the observation of the CMB and the multi-mode channels optimized for the detection of foreground sources. Looking to the demands of the future space missions, it is clear that the development of new technology solutions for the optimization and simplification of horn antenna structures will be required for large arrays. Horn antennas will continue to offer excellent control of beam and polarization properties for CMB polarisation experiments satisfying stringent requirements on low sidelobe levels, symmetry and low cross polarization in large arrays. Similarly for mid infrared systems multi-mode waveguide structures will give high throughput to reach the required sensitivities. In this paper we present a computationally efficient approach for modelling and optimising horn characteristics. We investigate smooth-walled profiled horns that have a performance equivalent to that of the corrugated horns traditionally used for CMB measurements. We discuss the horn optimisation process and the algorithms available to maximise performance of a merit parameter such as low cross polarisation or high Gaussicity.

  8. Novel Insights into the Bovine Polled Phenotype and Horn Ontogenesis in Bovidae

    PubMed Central

    Allais-Bonnet, Aurélie; Grohs, Cécile; Medugorac, Ivica; Krebs, Stefan; Djari, Anis; Graf, Alexander; Fritz, Sébastien; Seichter, Doris; Baur, Aurélia; Russ, Ingolf; Bouet, Stéphan; Rothammer, Sophie; Wahlberg, Per; Esquerré, Diane; Hoze, Chris; Boussaha, Mekki; Weiss, Bernard; Thépot, Dominique; Fouilloux, Marie-Noëlle; Rossignol, Marie-Noëlle; van Marle-Köster, Este; Hreiðarsdóttir, Gunnfríður Elín; Barbey, Sarah; Dozias, Dominique; Cobo, Emilie; Reversé, Patrick; Catros, Olivier; Marchand, Jean-Luc; Soulas, Pascal; Roy, Pierre; Marquant-Leguienne, Brigitte; Le Bourhis, Daniel; Clément, Laetitia; Salas-Cortes, Laura; Venot, Eric; Pannetier, Maëlle; Phocas, Florence; Klopp, Christophe; Rocha, Dominique; Fouchet, Michel; Journaux, Laurent; Bernard-Capel, Carine; Ponsart, Claire; Eggen, André; Blum, Helmut; Gallard, Yves; Boichard, Didier; Pailhoux, Eric; Capitan, Aurélien

    2013-01-01

    Despite massive research efforts, the molecular etiology of bovine polledness and the developmental pathways involved in horn ontogenesis are still poorly understood. In a recent article, we provided evidence for the existence of at least two different alleles at the Polled locus and identified candidate mutations for each of them. None of these mutations was located in known coding or regulatory regions, thus adding to the complexity of understanding the molecular basis of polledness. We confirm previous results here and exhaustively identify the causative mutation for the Celtic allele (PC) and four candidate mutations for the Friesian allele (PF). We describe a previously unreported eyelash-and-eyelid phenotype associated with regular polledness, and present unique histological and gene expression data on bovine horn bud differentiation in fetuses affected by three different horn defect syndromes, as well as in wild-type controls. We propose the ectopic expression of a lincRNA in PC/p horn buds as a probable cause of horn bud agenesis. In addition, we provide evidence for an involvement of OLIG2, FOXL2 and RXFP2 in horn bud differentiation, and draw a first link between bovine, ovine and caprine Polled loci. Our results represent a first and important step in understanding the genetic pathways and key process involved in horn bud differentiation in Bovidae. PMID:23717440

  9. Differential recruitment of limb patterning genes during development and diversification of beetle horns

    PubMed Central

    Moczek, Armin P.; Rose, Debra J.

    2009-01-01

    The origins of novel complex phenotypes represent one of the most fundamental, yet largely unresolved, issues in evolutionary biology. Here we explore the developmental genetic regulation of beetle horns, a class of traits that lacks obvious homology to traits in other insects. Furthermore, beetle horns are remarkably diverse in their expression, including sexual dimorphisms, male dimorphisms, and interspecific differences in location of horn expression. At the same time, beetle horns share aspects of their development with that of more traditional appendages. We used larval RNA interference-mediated gene function analysis of 3 cardinal insect appendage patterning genes,dachshund, homothorax, and Distal-less, to investigate their role in development and diversification of beetle horns within and between species. Transcript depletion of all 3 patterning genes generated phenotypic effects very similar to those documented in previous studies that focused on general insect development. In addition, we found that Distal-less and homothorax, but not dachshund, regulate horn expression in a species-, sex-, body region-, and body size-dependent manner. Our results demonstrate differential co-option of appendage patterning genes during the evolution and radiation of beetle horns. Furthermore, our results illustrate that regulatory genes whose functions are otherwise highly conserved nevertheless retain the capacity to acquire additional functions, and that little phylogenetic distance appears necessary for the evolution of sex- and species-specific differences in these functions. PMID:19451631

  10. Crossed receptive field components and crossed dendrites in cat sacrocaudal dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Gladfelter, W E; Millecchia, R J; Pubols, L M; Sonty, R V; Ritz, L A; Covalt-Dunning, D; Culberson, J; Brown, P B

    1993-10-01

    The hypothesis that sacrocaudal dorsal horn neurons with crossed receptive field components on the tail have dendrites which cross to the contralateral dorsal horn was tested in a combined electrophysiological and morphological study. Dorsal horn cells in the sacrocaudal spinal cord of anesthetized cats were penetrated with horseradish peroxidase-filled microelectrodes. After mapping their low threshold mechanoreceptive fields, cells were iontophoretically injected with horseradish peroxidase. A sample of 16 well-stained cells was obtained in laminae III and IV. Cells with receptive fields crossing the dorsal midline of the tail (n = 8) had somata in the lateral ipsilateral dorsal horn, and some of these cells (5/8) had dendrites which crossed to the lateral contralateral dorsal horn. Cells with receptive fields spanning the ventral midline (n = 2) were located near the center of the fused dorsal horn, and one of these had bilateral dendrites in this region. Cells with receptive fields on the lateral tail, crossing neither the dorsal nor the ventral midline (n = 6), had cell bodies in the middle of the ipsilateral dorsal horn; half had only ipsilateral dendrites, and half had crossed dendritic branches. Although the relationship between cell receptive field (RF) location (RF center, expressed as distance from tips of toes) and mediolateral location of the cell body was statistically significant, the correlation between crossed RF components and crossed dendritic branches was not significant. PMID:8254116

  11. Somatotopic organization of single primary afferent axon projections to cat spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, P B; Gladfelter, W E; Culberson, J C; Covalt-Dunning, D; Sonty, R V; Pubols, L M; Millecchia, R J

    1991-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase injection of identified low threshold cutaneous mechanoreceptor (LTCM) primary afferent axons was used to assess the somatotopic organization of hindlimb projections to laminae III and IV of cat dorsal horn. Multiple injections in the same animals were used to assess bilateral symmetry and precision. Thirty-one axons were injected, with more than 1 axon injected in each of 8 animals (25 axons). Somatotopic relations between their receptive field (RF) centers and the centers of their dorsal horn projections were similar to the somatotopic relations between dorsal horn cell RF centers and cell locations. Very few reversals of mediolateral somatotopic gradients (proximodistal RF location as a function of mediolateral projection center) were observed. Two afferents with nearly identical RFs in 1 animal had nearly identical projections. These observations held for many different combinations of receptor types. A simple mathematical model was used to demonstrate that assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs via passive sampling of the presynaptic neuropil by dorsal horn cell dendrites cannot account for the sizes of dorsal horn cell LTCM RFs. Hypothesized mechanisms for assembly of dorsal horn cell RFs must take into account the functional selectivity of connections required to produce RFs smaller than those predicted by the passive assembly model. PMID:1702466

  12. Elaborate horns in a giant rhinoceros beetle incur negligible aerodynamic costs

    PubMed Central

    McCullough, Erin L.; Tobalske, Bret W.

    2013-01-01

    Sexually selected ornaments and weapons are among nature's most extravagant morphologies. Both ornaments and weapons improve a male's reproductive success; yet, unlike ornaments that need only attract females, weapons must be robust and functional structures because they are frequently tested during male–male combat. Consequently, weapons are expected to be particularly costly to bear. Here, we tested the aerodynamic costs of horns in the giant rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus. We predicted that the long, forked head horn would have three main effects on flight performance: increased body mass, an anterior shift in the centre of mass and increased body drag. We found that the horns were surprisingly lightweight, and therefore had a trivial effect on the male beetles' total mass and mass distribution. Furthermore, because beetles typically fly at slow speeds and high body angles, horns had little effect on total body drag. Together, the weight and the drag of horns increased the overall force required to fly by less than 3 per cent, even in the largest males. Because low-cost structures are expected to be highly evolutionarily labile, the fact that horns incur very minor flight costs may have permitted both the elaboration and diversification of rhinoceros beetle horns. PMID:23486444

  13. Dynamics of a Prominence-horn Structure during Its Evaporation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Yao; Fu, Jie; Li, Bo; Li, Xing; Liu, Wei

    2016-08-01

    The physical connections among and formation mechanisms of various components of the prominence-horn cavity system remain elusive. Here we present observations of such a system, focusing on a section of the prominence that rises and separates gradually from the main body. This forms a configuration sufficiently simple to yield clues regarding the above issues. It is characterized by embedding horns, oscillations, and a gradual disappearance of the separated material. The prominence-horn structure exhibits a large-amplitude longitudinal oscillation with a period of ˜150 minutes and an amplitude of ˜30 Mm along the trajectory defined by the concave horn structure. The horns also experience a simultaneous transverse oscillation with a much smaller amplitude (˜3 Mm) and a shorter period (˜10–15 minutes), likely representative of a global mode of the large-scale magnetic structure. The gradual disappearance of the structure indicates that the horn, an observational manifestation of the field-aligned transition region separating the cool and dense prominence from the hot and tenuous corona, is formed due to the heating and diluting process of the central prominence mass; most previous studies suggested that it is the opposite process, i.e., the cooling and condensation of coronal plasmas, that formed the horn. This study also demonstrates how the prominence transports magnetic flux to the upper corona, a process essential for the gradual build-up of pre-eruption magnetic energy.

  14. Susceptibility of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans irritans (Diptera: Muscidae), to insecticides in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Barros, Antonio Thadeu Medeiros; Saueressig, Thelma Maria; Gomes, Alberto; Koller, Wilson Werner; Furlong, John; Girão, Eneide Santiago; Pinheiro, Alfredo da Cunha; Alves-Branco, Francisco de Paula Jardim; Sapper, Maria de Fátima Munhós; Braga, Ramayana Menezes; Oliveira, Amaury Apolonio de

    2012-01-01

    Since horn fly populations became established throughout Brazil, complaints regarding control failure have increased around the country. A broad survey to evaluate the susceptibility of horn flies to both organophosphate (OP) and pyrethroid insecticides was conducted from October 2000 to April 2003. Bioassays using filter papers impregnated with cypermethrin, permethrin or diazinon were conducted on 154 horn fly populations in 14 states and 78 municipalities. Resistance to cypermethrin, the active ingredient present in most insecticide products for horn fly control in Brazil, was detected in 98.46% of the populations, with resistance ratios (RR) ranging from 2.5 to 719.9. Resistance to permethrin (RRs < 6.3) was found in 96.67% of the populations, despite its lack of use. In general, pyrethroid resistance was detected in 97.18% of the horn fly populations, with frequencies greater than 87% in all regions of the country. The status of susceptibility of horn fly populations in Brazil to insecticides can be characterized by high susceptibility to OPs and widespread resistance to pyrethroids, potentially compromising the efficacy of pyrethroid products in most cases. Although some partial results have previously been presented, a general picture of horn fly susceptibility in Brazil is presented here for the first time. PMID:22832752

  15. Pyrosequencing-based analysis of the microbiome associated with the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D; Heekin, Andrew M; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D; Pérez de León, Adalberto A

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect.

  16. Pyrosequencing-Based Analysis of the Microbiome Associated with the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans

    PubMed Central

    Palavesam, Azhahianambi; Guerrero, Felix D.; Heekin, Andrew M.; Wang, Ju; Dowd, Scot E.; Sun, Yan; Foil, Lane D.; Pérez de León, Adalberto A.

    2012-01-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans, is one of the most economically important pests of cattle. Insecticides have been a major element of horn fly management programs. Growing concerns with insecticide resistance, insecticide residues on farm products, and non-availability of new generation insecticides, are serious issues for the livestock industry. Alternative horn fly control methods offer the promise to decrease the use of insecticides and reduce the amount of insecticide residues on livestock products and give an impetus to the organic livestock farming segment. The horn fly, an obligatory blood feeder, requires the help of microflora to supply additional nutrients and metabolize the blood meal. Recent advancements in DNA sequencing methodologies enable researchers to examine the microflora diversity independent of culture methods. We used the bacterial 16S tag-encoded FLX-titanium amplicon pyrosequencing (bTEFAP) method to carry out the classification analysis of bacterial flora in adult female and male horn flies and horn fly eggs. The bTEFAP method identified 16S rDNA sequences in our samples which allowed the identification of various prokaryotic taxa associated with the life stage examined. This is the first comprehensive report of bacterial flora associated with the horn fly using a culture-independent method. Several rumen, environmental, symbiotic and pathogenic bacteria associated with the horn fly were identified and quantified. This is the first report of the presence of Wolbachia in horn flies of USA origin and is the first report of the presence of Rikenella in an obligatory blood feeding insect. PMID:23028533

  17. Insights into the development and evolution of exaggerated traits using de novo transcriptomes of two species of horned scarab beetles.

    PubMed

    Warren, Ian A; Vera, J Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H; Emlen, Douglas J; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as "horns". These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits.

  18. Computational modeling and experimental studies of the dynamic performance of ultrasonic horn profiles used in plastic welding.

    PubMed

    Roopa Rani, M; Rudramoorthy, R

    2013-03-01

    Ultrasonic horns are tuned components designed to vibrate in a longitudinal mode at ultrasonic frequencies. Reliable performance of such horns is normally decided by the uniformity of vibration amplitude at the working surface and the stress developed during loading condition. The horn design engineer must pay particular attention to designing a tool that will produce the desired amplitude without fracturing. The present work discusses horn configurations which satisfy these criteria and investigates the design requirements of horns in ultrasonic system. Different horn profiles for ultrasonic welding of thermoplastics have been characterized in terms of displacement amplitude and von-Mises stresses using modal and harmonic analysis. To validate the simulated results, five different horns are fabricated from Aluminum, tested and tuned to the operating frequency. Standard ABS plastic parts are welded using these horns. Temperature developed during the welding of ABS test parts using different horns is recorded using sensors and National Instruments (NIs) data acquisition system. The recorded values are compared with the predicted values. Experimental results show that welding using a Bezier horn has a high interface temperature and the welded joints had higher strength as compared to the other horn profiles.

  19. Analysis of active components of rhinoceros, water buffalo and yak horns using two-dimensional electrophoresis and ethnopharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wang, Min; Shang, Erxin; Guo, Jianming; Tang, Yuping

    2011-02-01

    Cornu Rhinoceri Asiatici (rhinoceros horn, RH), Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH), and Cornu Bovis grunniens (yak horn, YH) are traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and have been used in China for thousands of years. In this study, ethnopharmacological experiments were used to evaluate and verify the traditional efficacies of horns. Area under curve (AUC) was used to quantify the pharmacological efficacy strength of three horns. Two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to analyze the protein components in horns, as a result, 14 common protein spots in rhinoceros horn, water buffalo horn, and yak horn electrophoresis gels were found by image analysis. Then linear regression analysis was used to establish the correlation between pharmacological efficacies and components in the horns, and five potential active components were selected from the 14 common protein spots. Finally, two protein spots from five were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). In this study, a simple method to construct correlation between components and efficacy strength was explored by linear regression analysis, which could be applied to screen potential active components of animal horns.

  20. Differentiation of the nuclear groups in the posterior horn of the human embryonic spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Pytel, A; Bruska, M; Woźniak, W

    2011-11-01

    The formation of nuclear groups in the posterior horns of the human embryonic spinal cord was traced in serial sections of embryos of developmental stages 13 to 23 (32 to 56 postovulatory days). The following observations, new for the human, are presented: 1. The differentiation of the neural tube into 3 zones (germinal, mantle and marginal) is detected in the middle of the 5(th) week. 2. The primordia of the posterior horns are marked at stage 14 (33 days). 3. In the middle of the 7(th) week the nucleus proprius and substantia gelatinosa are discerned. 4. Differentiation of the nuclei within the posterior horns proceeds in the ventrodorsal and rostrocaudal gradients.

  1. The severity of illness index: an interview with Susan D. Horn.

    PubMed

    Horn, S D

    1985-03-01

    HCSM's interview this month is with Susan D. Horn, PhD, Associate Director, Center for Hospital Finance and Management at Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland. Dr. Horn, heading a research team at Johns Hopkins, has developed a patient classification system based on patient severity and medical diagnosis. In early testing, this index has proven more accurate than DRGs in capturing the homogeneity of resource use in individual diagnostic categories. Severity data also has implications for health care strategic planning. In this interview, Dr. Horn discusses the index and its benefits and then contrasts it to the DRG system.

  2. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    PubMed

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  3. Analysis of behavioral changes in dairy cows associated with claw horn lesions.

    PubMed

    Nechanitzky, K; Starke, A; Vidondo, B; Müller, H; Reckardt, M; Friedli, K; Steiner, A

    2016-04-01

    Detecting lame cows is important in improving animal welfare. Automated tools are potentially useful to enable identification and monitoring of lame cows. The goals of this study were to evaluate the suitability of various physiological and behavioral parameters to automatically detect lameness in dairy cows housed in a cubicle barn. Lame cows suffering from a claw horn lesion (sole ulcer or white line disease) of one claw of the same hind limb (n=32; group L) and 10 nonlame healthy cows (group C) were included in this study. Lying and standing behavior at night by tridimensional accelerometers, weight distribution between hind limbs by the 4-scale weighing platform, feeding behavior at night by the nose band sensor, and heart activity by the Polar device (Polar Electro Oy, Kempele, Finland) were assessed. Either the entire data set or parts of the data collected over a 48-h period were used for statistical analysis, depending upon the parameter in question. The standing time at night over 12 h and the limb weight ratio (LWR) were significantly higher in group C as compared with group L, whereas the lying time at night over 12 h, the mean limb difference (△weight), and the standard deviation (SD) of the weight applied on the limb taking less weight were significantly lower in group C as compared with group L. No significant difference was noted between the groups for the parameters of heart activity and feeding behavior at night. The locomotion score of cows in group L was positively correlated with the lying time and △weight, whereas it was negatively correlated with LWR and SD. The highest sensitivity (0.97) for lameness detection was found for the parameter SD [specificity of 0.80 and an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.84]. The highest specificity (0.90) for lameness detection was present for Δweight (sensitivity=0.78; AUC=0.88) and LWR (sensitivity=0.81; AUC=0.87). The model considering the data of SD together with lying time at night was the best

  4. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long blast shall be initiated at a location so as to be in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section...

  5. 49 CFR 222.21 - When must a locomotive horn be used?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-rail grade crossing. Sounding of the locomotive horn with two long blasts, one short blast and one long blast shall be initiated at a location so as to be in accordance with paragraph (b) of this section...

  6. Multiple observations of cavitation cluster dynamics close to an ultrasonic horn tip.

    PubMed

    Birkin, Peter R; Offin, Douglas G; Vian, Christopher J B; Leighton, Timothy G

    2011-11-01

    Bubble dynamics in water close to the tip of an ultrasonic horn (∼23 kHz, 3 mm diameter) have been studied using electrochemistry, luminescence, acoustics, light scattering, and high-speed imaging. It is found that, under the conditions employed, a large bubble cluster (∼1.5 mm radius) exists at the tip of the horn. This cluster collapses periodically every three to four cycles of the fundamental frequency of the horn. Following the collapse of the cluster, a short-lived cloud of small bubbles (each tens of microns in diameter) was observed in the solution. Large amplitude pressure emissions are also recorded, which correlate temporally with the cluster collapse. Bursts of surface erosion (measured in real time using an electrochemical technique) and multibubble sonoluminescence emission both also occur at a subharmonic of the fundamental frequency of the horn and are temporally correlated with the bubble cluster collapse and the associated pressure wave emission.

  7. Hierarchical optical ring interconnection (HORN): scalable interconnection network for multiprocessors and multicomputers.

    PubMed

    Louri, A; Gupta, R

    1997-01-10

    A new interconnection network for massively parallel computing is introduced. This network is called a hierarchal optical ring interconnection (HORN). The HORN consists of a single-hop, scalable, constant-degree, strictly nonblocking, fault-tolerant interconnection topology that uses wavelength-division multiple access to provide better utilization of the terahertz bandwidth offered by optics. The proposed optical network integrates the attractive features of hierarchical ring interconnections, e.g., a simple node interface, a constant node degree, better support for the locality of reference, and fault tolerance, with the advantages of optics. The HORN topology is presented, its architectural properties are analyzed, and an optical design methodology for it is described. Furthermore, a brief feasibility study of the HORN is conducted. The study shows that the topology is highly amenable to optical implementation with commercially available optical elements.

  8. FT-Raman spectroscopic study of keratotic materials: horn, hoof and tortoiseshell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, H. G. M.; Hunt, D. E.; Sibley, M. G.

    1998-05-01

    The Fourier-Transform Raman spectra of some mammalian and reptilian keratins, horn, hoof and tortoiseshell, have been analysed and used for the construction of a database for the identification of highly keratotic samples. The samples investigated were; bovine keratin and hoof, Texas Longhorn cattle horn, kudu horn, tortoiseshell and human finger nail. Significant spectral differences were observed in the 1000-400 cm -1 wavenumber range, which included the conformationally important ν(SS) and ν(CS) features around 500 and 640 cm -1, respectively. The amide I (1650 cm -1) and amide III (1260 cm -1) bands confirmed that the reptilian keratin studied exists in the β-sheet conformation, whilst mammalian keratins are predominantly laid down in an α-helical conformation. The FT-Raman spectral differences particularly between the horn and hoof specimens are very useful for the non-destructive characterisation of artefacts and provides a novel application of the technique.

  9. Thrombostasin isoform frequency in a Central Texas field population of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Untalan, Pia M; Pruett, John H; Atteberry, Heather N; Steelman, C Dayton

    2006-12-20

    Thrombostasin is an anti-thrombin factor that plays a role in successful feeding of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. It has been isolated and characterized from saliva, and polymorphisms in the gene coding sequence have been previously reported. In the present study, the thrombostasin gene was analyzed from 60, field-collected flies from Camp Stanley, Texas and the allele and genotype frequencies were compared with previously published data for an Alabama field collection and a Texas in vitro colony-reared collection. Significant differences in genotype frequency and extent of genotypic diversity observed between the Alabama and Camp Stanley field collections may be attributable to host genetic differences. In addition, bull calves that were phenotyped as either high- or low-carriers were parasitized by horn flies that displayed a significantly different genotype distribution, supporting a possible explanation for horn fly host selection behavior, as evidenced by thrombostasin sequence analysis of 95 additional horn flies collected from respective hosts.

  10. Suppressing Side-Lobe Radiations of Horn Antenna by Loading Metamaterial Lens

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Mei Qing; Tang, Wen Xuan; Ma, Hui Feng; Pan, Bai Cao; Tao, Zui; Sun, Yong Zhi; Cui, Tie Jun

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new approach to control the amplitude and phase distributions of electromagnetic fields over the aperture of a horn antenna. By loading a metamaterial lens inside the horn antenna, a tapered amplitude distribution of the aperture field is achieved, which can suppress the side-lobe radiations of the antenna. The metamaterial is further manipulated to achieve a flat phase distribution on the horn aperture to avoid the gain reduction that usually suffers in the conventional low-sidelobe antenna designs. A prototype of the metamaterial-loaded horn antenna is designed and fabricated. Both numerical simulations and measured results demonstrate the tapered aperture-field distribution and significant reduction of side-lobe and back-lobe radiations in the operating frequency band. PMID:25766083

  11. Mortality in fledgling great horned owls from black fly hematophaga and leucocytozoonosis.

    PubMed

    Hunter, D B; Rohner, C; Currie, D C

    1997-07-01

    Black fly feeding alone and in concert with Leucocytozoon spp. infection caused mortality in fledgling great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) in the Yukon, Canada 1990 to 1991. These mortalities occurred during a year of food shortage corresponding with a decline in the population of snowshoe hare (Lepus americanus), the main prey for great horned owls. We hypothesize an interaction between food availability and the consequences of host-parasite interactions. PMID:9249694

  12. No fecundity cost of female secondary sexual trait expression in the horned beetle Onthophagus sagittarius.

    PubMed

    Simmons, L W; Emlen, D J

    2008-09-01

    Typically males bear the products of sexual selection in the form of ornaments and/or weapons used to compete for and attract females. Secondary sexual traits in females have been thought of as the product of correlated responses to sexual selection on males. However, there is increasing phylogenetic evidence that female secondary sexual traits can arise independently of selection on males, and may be subject to sexual selection. Theoretical models of the evolution of female ornamentation via male mate choice have assumed that females suffer a cost of ornament expression via reduced fecundity, and hence female ornaments are less likely to evolve than male ornaments. In the dung beetle Onthophagus sagittarius, there has been an independent evolutionary origin of horns in females that are qualitatively different from the horns produced by males. We use this system as a model to examine the costs of horn expression for females within a life-history context. We identified a longevity cost of reproduction for females that was independent of horn expression. Large females lived longer, and after controlling for lifespan, had a higher lifetime fecundity, and invested more heavily in maternal provisioning than did small females. We found no evidence of a cost to females of investment in horns. Rather, the rate of increase in fecundity and horn expression with body size were equal, so that absolute horn size provides an accurate indicator of body size and maternal quality. The effects we observe were independent of female contest competition and/or male mate choice, which were excluded in our experimental protocol. However, we speculate on the potential functional contributions female horns might make to female fitness.

  13. Quantifying the Nonlocality of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger Quantum Correlations by a Bounded Communication Simulation Protocol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    The simulation of quantum correlations with finite nonlocal resources, such as classical communication, gives a natural way to quantify their nonlocality. While multipartite nonlocal correlations appear to be useful resources, very little is known on how to simulate multipartite quantum correlations. We present a protocol that reproduces tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations with bounded communication: 3 bits in total turn out to be sufficient to simulate all equatorial Von Neumann measurements on the tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.

  14. Quantifying the nonlocality of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger quantum correlations by a bounded communication simulation protocol.

    PubMed

    Branciard, Cyril; Gisin, Nicolas

    2011-07-01

    The simulation of quantum correlations with finite nonlocal resources, such as classical communication, gives a natural way to quantify their nonlocality. While multipartite nonlocal correlations appear to be useful resources, very little is known on how to simulate multipartite quantum correlations. We present a protocol that reproduces tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger correlations with bounded communication: 3 bits in total turn out to be sufficient to simulate all equatorial Von Neumann measurements on the tripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state.

  15. Congenital deficiency of the fibula with ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the kidney.

    PubMed

    Haga, N; Lee, K; Nakamura, K; Okazaki, Y; Mamada, K; Kurokawa, T

    1997-04-01

    Congenital deficiency of the fibula is sometimes accompanied by femoral hypoplasia, genu valgum, patellar a/hypoplasia or dislocation, tibial bowing, foot deformity, and toe deficiency in the affected limb. 'Iliac horns' are bony projections extending posterolaterally from the ilium and considered to be pathognomonic of nail-patella syndrome. We report a 5-year-old Japanese girl with congenital complete deficiency of the left fibula, ipsilateral iliac horn and absence of the left kidney. PMID:9134300

  16. The complete mitochondrial genome of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Honghai; Ren, Ying; Chen, Lei; Sha, Weilai

    2012-10-01

    In this study, a blood sample was obtained from a scimitar-horned oryx in Jinan Paomaling World of Wildlife and the complete nucleotide sequence of scimitar-horned oryx mitochondrial genome was determined. Sequence analysis showed that the genome structure was in accordance with other bovid species that it contained 22 tRNA genes, 12S rRNA gene, 16S rRNA gene, 13 protein-coding genes and 1 control region. PMID:22775428

  17. Knemidokoptes mutans (Acari: Knemidocoptidae) in a great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Schulz, T A; Stewart, J S; Fowler, M E

    1989-07-01

    A routine examination of a captive juvenile great-horned owl (Bubo virginianus) revealed bilateral proliferative papillary hyperkeratosis on the feet. Microscopic examination of skin scrapings produced numerous mites identified as Knemidokoptes mutans. This is the first record of this parasite in a great-horned owl. A single dose of ivermectin (200 micrograms/kg) was effective in treatment of this infection. PMID:2761019

  18. HIGH ENERGY PULSED POWER SYSTEM FOR AGS SUPER NEUTRINO FOCUSING HORN.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHANG, S.Y.; SANDBERG, J.; WENG, W.-T.

    2005-05-16

    This paper present a preliminary design of a 300 kA, 2.5 Hz pulsed power system. This system will drive the focusing horn of proposed Brookhaven AGS Neutrino Super Beam Facility for Very Long Baseline Neutrino Oscillation Experiment. The peak output power of the horn pulsed power system will reach Giga-watts, and the upgraded AGS will be capable of delivering 1 MW in beam power.

  19. Insights into the Development and Evolution of Exaggerated Traits Using De Novo Transcriptomes of Two Species of Horned Scarab Beetles

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ian A.; Vera, J. Cristobal; Johns, Annika; Zinna, Robert; Marden, James H.; Emlen, Douglas J.; Dworkin, Ian; Lavine, Laura C.

    2014-01-01

    Scarab beetles exhibit an astonishing variety of rigid exo-skeletal outgrowths, known as “horns”. These traits are often sexually dimorphic and vary dramatically across species in size, shape, location, and allometry with body size. In many species, the horn exhibits disproportionate growth resulting in an exaggerated allometric relationship with body size, as compared to other traits, such as wings, that grow proportionately with body size. Depending on the species, the smallest males either do not produce a horn at all, or they produce a disproportionately small horn for their body size. While the diversity of horn shapes and their behavioural ecology have been reasonably well studied, we know far less about the proximate mechanisms that regulate horn growth. Thus, using 454 pyrosequencing, we generated transcriptome profiles, during horn growth and development, in two different scarab beetle species: the Asian rhinoceros beetle, Trypoxylus dichotomus, and the dung beetle, Onthophagus nigriventris. We obtained over half a million reads for each species that were assembled into over 6,000 and 16,000 contigs respectively. We combined these data with previously published studies to look for signatures of molecular evolution. We found a small subset of genes with horn-biased expression showing evidence for recent positive selection, as is expected with sexual selection on horn size. We also found evidence of relaxed selection present in genes that demonstrated biased expression between horned and horn-less morphs, consistent with the theory of developmental decoupling of phenotypically plastic traits. PMID:24586317

  20. A cephalic influence on gastric motility upon seeing food in domestic turkeys (Melagris gallopavo), great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus) and red-tailed hawks (Buteo jamaicensis).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T

    1976-11-01

    Strain gage transducers were permanently implanted on the muscular stomachs of 13 turkeys, 3 great-horned owls and 2 red-tailed hawks to monitor gastric motility before, during and after eating. Following fasting, the sight of food resulted in significant increases in gastric contractile activity in all three species. Gastric motility further increased when the birds were allowed to eat. In raptors, however, a brief interruption in gastric motility occurred immediately after eating. This is apparently analogous to receptive relaxation which occurs in the stomach of mammals. PMID:1019075

  1. Ruptured Rudimentary Horn Pregnancy Diagnosed by Preoperative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Resulting in Fetal Salvage.

    PubMed

    Pillai, Silja A; Mathew, Mariam; Ishrat, Noreen; Kakaria, Anupam; Qureshi, Asim; Vaidyanathan, Gowri

    2015-08-01

    Pregnancy in a rudimentary horn is very rare. The rupture of the horn during pregnancy is an obstetric emergency which can be life-threatening for both the mother and fetus. Preoperative diagnosis of such pregnancies can be challenging and they are usually diagnosed intraoperatively. We report a unique case of a 31-year-old multiparous woman who presented to the Sultan Qaboos University Hospital in Muscat, Oman, in January 2013 at 32 gestational weeks with abdominal pain. Ultrasonography was inconclusive. A rudimentary horn pregnancy was subsequently diagnosed via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). An emergency laparotomy revealed haemoperitoneum and a ruptured rudimentary horn pregnancy. A live baby with an Apgar score of 2 at one minute and 7 at five minutes was delivered. The rudimentary horn with the placenta in situ was excised and a left salpingo-oophorectomy was performed. The postoperative period was uneventful. The authors recommend MRI as an excellent diagnostic modality to confirm rudimentary horn pregnancies and to expedite appropriate management. PMID:26357563

  2. Beam Mode Expansion of Corrugated Conical Horns with Phase Correcting Lens: Application to Radioastronomy Receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, E.; de Haro, L.; O'Sullivan, C.; Cahill, G.; López Fernández, J. A.; Tercero, F.; Galocha, B.; Besada, J. L.

    2003-06-01

    A classical radioastronomy receiver is fed with a corrugated horn and an independent lens, both placed in a cryostat to lower the noise temperature. The beam is focused and directed using a combination of elliptical and plane mirrors. This paper proposes modifying the initial feeding system by placing the lens onto the horn aperture, thereby allowing a size reduction of the horn and lens, and a simplification of their mechanical design. The profiled lens is shaped to correct the phase error on the horn aperture. A quasi-optical model of the horn-plus-lens system has been developed using a Beam Mode Expansion (BME). Results using both a hyperbolic-planar lens and a spherical-elliptical lens, as well as results obtained by using Geometrical Optics (GO) with a Kirchoff Huygens integration to get the far-field pattern, have been compared with measurements. As a direct application, a full focusing system for the new 40-m radiotelescope at the “Centro Astronómico de Yebes” is presented for the 22, 30 and 45 GHz bands. This paper has developed a QO model for a corrugated conical horn with a phase-correcting lens.

  3. High performance S-band horn antennas for radiometer use

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldecott, R.; Mentzer, C. A.; Peters, L.; Toth, J.

    1973-01-01

    Horn antennas of four types: pyramidal corrugated, conical corrugated, pyramidal dual mode and conical dual mode, have been constructed and evaluated for use as S-band radiometer antennas. Each of the structures is described and radiation patterns and impedance and resistive loss measurements including a layer of foreign material on a thin radome, are presented. A precision method for determining reflection losses is described using a multiprobe reflectometer technique. The same technique is also applied to the measurement of resistive losses by closing the ends of the antennas with short circuit plates and determining the losses from an accurate measurement of the reflection coefficient. The radiation patterns were recorded with the aid of a real-time digital computer. The stored patterns were then processed to yield gain and beam efficiency. It was concluded that it is possible to design a highly efficient antenna for radiometer use and to measure its parameters precisely. However, it was found that it is necessary to modify the conventional definition of beamwidth somewhat if this term is to be meaningful for radiometer applications.

  4. Solid Micro Horn Array (SMIHA) for Acoustic Matching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, S.; Bao, X.; Bar-Cohen, Y.

    2008-01-01

    Transduction of electrical signals to mechanical signals and vice-versa in piezoelectric materials is controlled by the material coupling coefficient. In general in a loss-less material the ratio of energy conversion per cycle is proportional to the square of the coupling coefficient. In practical transduction however the impedance mismatch between the piezoelectric material and the electrical drive circuitry or the mechanical structure can have a significant impact on the power transfer. This paper looks at novel methods of matching the acoustic impedance of structures to the piezoelectric material in an effort to increase power transmission and efficiency. In typical methods the density and acoustic velocity of the matching layer is adjusted to give good matching between the transducer and the load. The approach discussed in this paper utilizes solid micro horn arrays in the matching layer which channel the stress and increase the strain in the layer. This approach is found to have potential applications in energy harvesting, medical ultrasound and in liquid and gas coupled transducers.

  5. Teleportation of continuous variable multimode Greeberger Horne Zeilinger entangled states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Guangqiang; Zhang, Jingtao; Zeng, Guihua

    2008-11-01

    Quantum teleportation protocols of continuous variable (CV) Greeberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) and Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) entangled states are proposed, and are generalized to teleportation of arbitrary multimode GHZ entangled states described by Van Loock and Braunstein (2000 Phys. Rev. Lett. 84 3482). Each mode of a multimode entangled state is teleported using a CV EPR entangled pair and classical communication. The analytical expression of fidelity for the multimode Gaussian states which evaluates the teleportation quality is presented. The analytical results show that the fidelity is a function of both the squeezing parameter r, which characterizes the multimode entangled state to be teleported, and the channel parameter p, which characterizes the EPR pairs shared by Alice and Bob. The fidelity increases with increasing p, but decreases with increasing r, i.e., it is more difficult to teleport the more perfect multimode entangled states. The entanglement degree of the teleported multimode entangled states increases with increasing both r and p. In addition, the fact is proved that our teleportation protocol of EPR entangled states using parallel EPR pairs as quantum channels is the best case of the protocol using four-mode entangled states (Adhikari et al 2008 Phys. Rev. A 77 012337).

  6. [Multiple bladder diverticula caused by occipital horn syndrome].

    PubMed

    Legros, L; Revencu, N; Nassogne, M-C; Wese, F-X; Feyaerts, A

    2015-11-01

    We report on the case of a child who presented with recurrent, multiple, and voluminous bladder diverticula. Bladder diverticula are defined as a herniation of the mucosa through the bladder muscle or the detrusor. Causes are numerous and diverticula can be classified into primary congenital diverticula (para-ureteral - or Hutch diverticula - and posterolateral diverticula); secondary diverticula (resulting from chronic mechanical obstruction or from neurological disease; and diverticula secondary to connective tissue or muscle fragility. The latter is seen in disease entities such as prune belly syndrome, Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, cutis laxa syndrome, OHS (occipital horn syndrome), Menkes disease, and Williams-Beuren syndrome. In this patient, the cause of these diverticula was OHS, a genetic, recessive X-chromosome-linked syndrome, responsible for abnormal tissue caused by a disorder in copper metabolism. This case reminds us of the importance of pushing the diagnostic workup when presented with multiple and/or large bladder diverticula, and in particular to search for rare malformation syndromes after exclusion of an obstacle. PMID:26386812

  7. Chronic myelogenous leukemia in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wiley, Jennifer L; Whittington, Julia K; Wilmes, Christine M; Messick, Joanne B

    2009-03-01

    A free-ranging adult female great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was presented to the Wildlife Medical Clinic at the University of Illinois after being observed with anorexia and decreased activity. A severe leukocytosis (212 400 cells/microl), primarily comprised of mature heterophils, was found at presentation. Results of various diagnostic tests including radiographs, Chlamydophila serologic testing, measurement of Aspergillus antibody and antigen titers, plasma protein electrophoresis, fecal culture and acid-fast staining, coelioscopy, endoscopy, tracheoscopy, exploratory coelomotomy, nuclear scintigraphy, tissue cultures, bone marrow biopsy, and histopathology revealed no underlying cause for the persistent leukocytosis. No response to treatment with antibiotics or antifungal agents was observed, although a transient, significant decrease in the leukocyte count (6200 cells/microl) was observed after treatment with fenbendazole. A presumptive diagnosis of chronic myelogenous leukemia was made based on 3 factors: disease duration of greater than 3 months, a lack of identifiable foci of inflammation, and a lack of response to conventional therapy. The diagnosis was confirmed based on postmortem examination and testing 177 days after initial presentation. PMID:19530405

  8. Distribution, abundance, biomass and diversity of benthic infauna in the Northeast Chukchi Sea, Alaska: Relation to environmental variables and marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schonberg, Susan V.; Clarke, Janet T.; Dunton, Kenneth H.

    2014-04-01

    In summer 2009 and 2010, as part of Chukchi Sea Offshore Monitoring in Drilling Area - Chemical and Benthos (COMIDA CAB) program, we performed a quantitative assessment of the biomass, abundance, and community structure of benthic infaunal populations of the Northeastern Chukchi Sea. This analysis documented a benthic species inventory of 361 taxa collected from 142 individual van Veen grab samples (0.1 m-2) at 52 stations. Infaunal abundance was dominated by Polychaeta, Mollusca, and Crustacea. Large concentrations of bivalves (up to 1235 m-2; 920.2 gww m-2) were collected south of Hanna Shoal where flow from two water masses converge and deposit labile carbon to the seafloor, as indicated by low surface sediment C:N ratios. Amphipods (up to 1640 m-2; 26.0 gww m-2), and polychaetes (up to 4665 m-2; 114.7 gww m-2) were documented from multiple stations west of and within Barrow Canyon. This high productivity was most likely due to the "canyon effect", where marine and coastal detrital carbon supplies are channeled by the canyon structure, enhancing carbon deposition and flux, which supports rich benthic communities within the canyon and surrounding areas. To examine the relationships between infaunal distributions of all collected taxa with the physical environment, we used a Biota and Environment matching (BIO-ENV) routine. A combination of water depth, bottom-water temperature and salinity, surface sediment total organic nitrogen (TON) and sediment C:N molar ratios correlated closest with infaunal abundance distribution (ρ=0.54), indicating that multiple factors influence the success of benthic communities. BIO-ENV routines produced similar correlation results when performed on targeted walrus prey items (bivalves (ρ=0.50), polychaetes (ρ=0.53), but gray whale prey items (amphipods) were not strongly correlated to any combination of physical environmental factors (ρ=0.24). Distributions of primary prey items for gray whales (amphipods) and walruses (bivalves

  9. Analysis of a disk-on-rod surface wave element inside a corrugated horn using the mode-matching technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, J. C.

    1995-01-01

    A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is one of the horn configurations for dual-frequency or wide-band operation. A mode-matching analysis method is described. A disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn is represented as a series of coaxial waveguide sections and circular waveguide sections connected to each other. Three kinds of junctions need to be considered: coaxial-to-coaxial, coaxial-to-circular, and circular-to-circular. A computer program was developed to calculate the scattering matrix and the radiation pattern of a disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn. The software as verified by experiment, and good agreement between calculation and measurement was obtained. The disk-on-rod inside a corrugated horn design gives an option to the Deep Space Network dual-frequency operation system, which currently is a two-horn/one-dichroic plate system.

  10. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P < 0.0001), with lowest population recorded in May (99 flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P < 0.05) milk yield compared to Hereford sired cows (8.75 and 8.62 vs. 6.02 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield from Charolais, Romosinuano, and Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P < 0.05) among sire breeds. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.99 and 0.64 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P < 0.01) in Gelbvieh sired cows when compared with Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison to Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was

  11. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly count and sire breed type.

    PubMed

    Mays, A R; Brown, M A; von Tunglen, D L; Rosenkrans, C F

    2014-03-01

    Horn fly infestations negatively impact economic traits of beef cattle. Our objective was to determine the impact of horn flies on beef cattle milk yield and quality. Cows (n = 53) were derived from Brangus dams and sired by Bonsmara (n = 7), Brangus (n = 13), Charolais (n = 8), Gelbvieh (n = 5), Hereford (n = 12), and Romosinuano (n = 8) bulls. Horn fly counts and estimates of milk yield and quality were recorded monthly from May through October on individual cows. Data for milk yield and quality and horn fly count were analyzed by mixed model least squares using a linear model including sire breed, cow in sire breed, month, and month × sire breed. Effects of horn fly count on milk yield and quality were estimated by analysis of covariance using log horn fly count and log horn fly count × sire breed. Horn fly counts varied by month (P < 0.0001), with lowest population recorded in May (99 flies) and peaked in August (520 flies). Bonsmara and Gelbvieh sired cows had greater (P < 0.05) milk yield compared to Hereford sired cows (8.75 and 8.62 vs. 6.02 kg/d, respectively). Milk yield from Charolais, Romosinuano, and Brangus sired cows was intermediate (7.28, 7.00, and 7.06 kg/d, respectively). Regression of milk yield on fly count differed (P < 0.05) among sire breeds. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by 0.99 and 0.64 kg/d per unit increase in log horn fly count in Gelbvieh and Bonsmara sired cows. Regression coefficient for milk yield on log horn fly count was reduced (P < 0.01) in Gelbvieh sired cows when compared with Brangus, Charolais, Hereford, and Romosinuano sired cows, and coefficients for Bonsmara sired cows were reduced (P < 0.05) in comparison to Brangus sired cows. Increases in log fly count were associated with decreases (P < 0.05) in milk fat, solids-not-fat, and milk urea nitrogen. Milk yield was reduced (P < 0.05) by increased fly numbers depending on month of lactation and interaction with log horn fly count. In May, June, and July milk yield was

  12. Enkephalins, dynorphins and β-endorphin in the rat dorsal horn: an immunofluorescence colocalization study

    PubMed Central

    Marvizón, Juan Carlos G.; Chen, Wenling; Murphy, Niall

    2010-01-01

    To characterize neuronal pathways that release opioid peptides in the rat dorsal horn, multiple-label immunohistochemistry, confocal microscopy and computerized colocalization measures were used to characterize opioid-containing terminals and cells. An antibody that selectively recognized β-endorphin labeled fibers and neurons in the ventral horn, fibers in the lateral funiculus and lamina X, but practically no fibers in the dorsal horn. An anti-enkephalin antibody, which recognized Leu-, Met-and Phe-Arg-Met-enkephalin, labeled the dorsolateral funiculus and numerous puncta in laminae I–III and V of the dorsal horn. An antibody against Phe-Arg-Met-enkephalin, which did not recognize Leu-and Met-enkephalin, labeled the same puncta. Antibodies against dynorphin and prodynorphin labeled puncta and fibers in laminae I, II and V, and some fibers in the rest of the dorsal horn. Dynorphin and prodynorphin immunoreactivities colocalized in some puncta and fibers, but the prodynorphin antibody additionally labeled cell bodies. There was no colocalization of dynorphin (or prodynorphin) with enkephalin (or Phe-Arg-Met-enkephalin). Enkephalin immunoreactivity did not colocalize with the C-fibers markers CGRP, substance P and isolectin B4. In contrast, there was some colocalization of dynorphin and prodynorphin with CGRP and substance P, but not with isolectin B4. Both enkephalin and dynorphin partly colocalized with vesicular glutamate transporter 2, a marker of glutamatergic terminals. The prodynorphin-positive neurons in the dorsal horn were distinct from neurons expressing μ-opioid receptors, neurokinin 1 receptors and protein kinase C-γ. These results show that enkephalins and dynorphins are present in different populations of dorsal horn neurons. In addition, dynorphin is present in some C-fibers. PMID:19711397

  13. Selective ablation of dorsal horn NK1 expressing cells reveals a modulation of spinal alpha2-adrenergic inhibition of dorsal horn neurones.

    PubMed

    Rahman, Wahida; Suzuki, Rie; Hunt, Stephen P; Dickenson, Anthony H

    2008-06-01

    Activity in descending systems from the brainstem modulates nociceptive transmission through the dorsal horn. Intrathecal injection of the neurotoxin saporin conjugated to SP (SP-SAP) into the lumbar spinal cord results in the selective ablation of NK(1) receptor expressing (NK(1)+ve) neurones in the superficial dorsal horn (lamina I/III). Loss of these NK(1)+ve neurones attenuates excitability of deep dorsal horn neurones due to a disruption of both intrinsic spinal circuits and a spino-bulbo-spinal loop, which activates a descending excitatory drive, mediated through spinal 5HT(3) receptors. Descending inhibitory pathways also modulate spinal activity and hence control the level of nociceptive transmission relayed to higher centres. To ascertain the spinal origins of the major descending noradrenergic inhibitory pathway we studied the effects of a selective alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, atipamezole, on neuronal activity in animals pre-treated with SP-SAP. Intrathecal application of atipamezole dose dependently facilitated the mechanically evoked neuronal responses of deep dorsal horn neurones to low intensity von Frey hairs (5-15 g) and noxious thermal (45-50 degrees C) evoked responses in SAP control animals indicating a physiological alpha2-adrenoceptor control. This facilitatory effect of atipamezole was lost in the SP-SAP treated group. These data suggest that activity within noradrenergic pathways have a dependence on dorsal horn NK(1)+ve cells. Further, noradrenergic descending inhibition may in part be driven by lamina I/III (NK(1)+ve) cells, and mediated via spinal alpha2-adrenoceptor activation. Since the same neuronal population drives descending facilitation and inhibition, the reduced excitability of lamina V/VI WDR neurones seen after loss of these NK(1)+ve neurones indicates a dominant role of descending facilitation. PMID:18462764

  14. Vegetation change, malnutrition and violence in the Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowhani, P.; Degomme, O.; Linderman, M.; Guha-Sapir, D.; Lambin, E.

    2008-12-01

    In certain circumstances, climate change in association with a broad range of social factors may increase the risk of famines and subsequently, violent conflict. The impacts of climate change on society will be experienced both through changes in mean conditions over long time periods and through increases in extreme events. Recent studies have shown the historical effects of long term climate change on societies and the importance of short term climatic triggers on armed conflict. However, most of these studies are at the state level ignoring local conditions. Here we use detailed information extracted from wide-swath satellite data (MODIS) to analyze the impact of climate variability change on malnutrition and violent conflict. More specifically, we perform multivariate logistic regression analysis in order to explain the geographical distribution of malnutrition and conflict in the Horn of Africa on a sub-national level. This region, constituted by several unstable and poor states, has been affected by droughts, floods, famines, and violence in the past few years. Three commonly used nutrition and mortality indicators are used to characterize the health situation (CE-DAT database). To map violence we use the georeferenced Armed Conflicts dataset developed by the Center for the Study of Civil War. Explanatory variables include several socio-economic variables and environmental variables characterizing land degradation, vegetation activity, and interannual variability in land-surface conditions. First results show that interannual variability in land-surface conditions is associated with malnutrition but not with armed conflict. Furthermore, land degradation seems not to be associated with either malnutrition or armed conflict.

  15. The Climate-Population Nexus in the East African Horn: Emerging Degradation Trends in Rangeland and Pastoral Livelihood Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pricope, N. G.; Husak, G. J.; Funk, C. C.; Lopez-Carr, D.

    2014-12-01

    Increasing climate variability and extreme weather conditions along with declining trends in both rainfall and temperature represent major risk factors affecting agricultural production and food security in many regions of the world. We identify regions where significant rainfall decrease from 1979-2011 over the entire continent of Africa couples with significant human population density increase. The rangelands of Ethiopia, Kenya, and Somalia in the East African Horn remain one of the world's most food insecure regions, yet have significantly increasing human populations predominantly dependent on pastoralist and agro-pastoralist livelihoods. Vegetation in this region is characterized by a variable mosaic of land covers, generally dominated by grasslands necessary for agro-pastoralism, interspersed by woody vegetation. Recent assessments indicate that widespread degradation is occurring, adversely impacting fragile ecosystems and human livelihoods. Using two underutilized MODIS products, we observe significant changes in vegetation patterns and productivity over the last decade all across the East African Horn. We observe significant vegetation browning trends in areas experiencing drying precipitation trends in addition to increasing population pressures. We also found that the drying precipitation trends only partially statistically explain the vegetation browning trends, further indicating that other factors such as population pressures and land use changes are responsible for the observed declining vegetation health. Furthermore, we show that the general vegetation browning trends persist even during years with normal rainfall conditions such as 2012, indicating potential long-term degradation of rangelands on which approximately 10 million people depend. These findings have serious implications for current and future regional food security monitoring and forecasting as well as for mitigation and adaptation strategies in a region where population is expected

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress impairment in the spinal dorsal horn of a neuropathic pain model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Enji; Yi, Min-Hee; Shin, Nara; Baek, Hyunjung; Kim, Sena; Kim, Eunjee; Kwon, Kisang; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Chul Bae, Yong; Kim, Yonghyun; Kwon, O-Yu; Lee, Won Hyung; Kim, Dong Woon

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in neurodegenerative diseases, but its role in neuropathic pain remains unclear. In this study, we examined the ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activation in a L5 spinal nerve ligation (SNL)-induced rat neuropathic pain model. SNL-induced neuropathic pain was assessed behaviorally using the CatWalk system, and histologically with microglial activation in the dorsal spinal horn. L5 SNL induced BIP upregulation in the neuron of superficial laminae of dorsal spinal horn. It also increased the level of ATF6 and intracellular localization into the nuclei in the neurons. Moreover, spliced XBP1 was also markedly elevated in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn. The PERK-elF2 pathway was activated in astrocytes of the spinal dorsal horn in the SNL model. In addition, electron microscopy revealed the presence of swollen cisternae in the dorsal spinal cord after SNL. Additionally, inhibition of the ATF6 pathway by intrathecal treatment with ATF6 siRNA reduced pain behaviors and BIP expression in the dorsal horn. The results suggest that ER stress might be involved in the induction and maintenance of neuropathic pain. Furthermore, a disturbance in UPR signaling may render the spinal neurons vulnerable to peripheral nerve injury or neuropathic pain stimuli. PMID:26109318

  17. The 24 GHz measurements of 2.2 lambda conical horn antennas illuminating a conducting sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cross, A. E.; Marshall, R. E.; Hearn, C. P.; Neece, R. T.

    1993-01-01

    Monostatic reflection-coefficient magnitude, absolute value of Gamma, measurements occurring between a radiating horn and a metal reflecting plate are presented for a family of three 2.2 lambda diameter conical horn antennas. The three horns have different aperture phase deviations: 6 deg, 22.5 deg, and 125 deg. Measurements of the magnitude of absolute value of Gamma as a function of horn-plate separation (d) extend from an effective antenna aperture short (d = O) to beyond the far-field boundary (d = 2D(sup 2)/lambda, where D is the antenna diameter). Measurement data are presented with various physical environments for each of the horns. Measured scalar data are compared with theoretical data from two models, a numerical model for a circular waveguide aperture in a ground plane and a scalar diffraction theory model. This work was conducted in support of the development effort for a spaceborne multifrequency microwave reflectometer designed to accurately determine the distance from a space vehicle's surface to a reflecting plasma boundary. The metal reflecting plate was used to simulate the RF reflectivity of a critically dense plasma. The resulting configuration, a ground plane mounted aperture facing a reflecting plane in close proximity, produces a strong interaction between the ground plane and the reflecting plate, especially at integral half-wavelength separations. The transition coefficient is characterized by large amplitude variations.

  18. Analysis and identification of different animal horns by a three-stage infrared spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yang; Xu, Chang-Hua; Wang, Ping; Sun, Su-Qin; Chen, Jian-Bo; Li, Jin; Chen, Tao; Wang, Jin-Bo

    2011-12-01

    In this study, a new method, a three-stage infrared spectroscopy (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) integrated with second derivative infrared spectroscopy and two-dimensional correlation infrared spectroscopy (2D-IR)) was developed to analyze the organic and inorganic compositions of three different horns ( Cornu Antelopis, Cornu Bubali and Pulvis Cornus Bubali Concentratus). In IR spectra, all the three horns had their own macroscopic fingerprints especially for those compositions containing amide groups, CH groups and Ca 3(PO 4) 2. Their second derivative spectra amplified the differences and revealed the potentially characteristic IR absorption bands 1350-400 cm -1 to be investigated in 2D-IR. Subsequently, many covered characteristic fingerprints were disclosed in 2D-IR spectra in the range of 1350-400 cm -1 and the three horns were therefore effectively discriminated. Meanwhile, the analysis results of inorganic constituents were verified by atomic spectroscopy. Furthermore, thirty different horn samples including ten of each horn were also successfully classified by soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA). It was demonstrated that the above three-stage infrared spectroscopy could be applicable for quick, non-destructive and effective analysis and identification of very complicated and similar mixture systems ( e.g. traditional Chinese medicines).

  19. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM. PMID:26234143

  20. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths.

    PubMed

    McCarrick, H; Flanigan, D; Jones, G; Johnson, B R; Ade, P; Araujo, D; Bradford, K; Cantor, R; Che, G; Day, P; Doyle, S; Leduc, H; Limon, M; Luu, V; Mauskopf, P; Miller, A; Mroczkowski, T; Tucker, C; Zmuidzinas, J

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√s.

  1. [Analysis and identification of water soluble components of water buffalo horn].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Duan, Jin-ao; Wu, Hao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Da-wei

    2015-05-01

    This study is to analyze and identify the water soluble components of water buffalo horn (Bubali Cornu, WBH), and also establish a method for investigating these components. Shotgun proteomic analysis identified proteins in WBH aqueous extraction: keratin, collagen, desmoglein, etc. Ultrafiltration and LC-MS/MS were used to separate and identify the peptides in WBH aqueous extract, as a result, identified peptides were mainly derived from nonspecific degradation products of keratin and collagen, which including C-terminal peptides and non C-terminal peptides. Hypoxanthine, uridine, guanosine, and adenosine were identified by comparing with the standards. The strategy in present study could be used in analyzing water soluble components of animal horn derived TCM. It provides a reference for investigation of the material basis of animal horn derived TCM.

  2. Primary lymphoma of the uterine horn in a Lhasa Apso dog

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Primary lymphomas of the canine female genital tract are uncommon tumours. A 9-year-old intact female Lhasa Apso dog presenting with a closed pyometra underwent an ovariohysterectomy (OHE), and the hyperplastic uterine horn along with multiple follicular cysts on the right ovary was examined by histological analysis. Severe infiltration of medium-sized lymphocytes with strong positive immunoreactivity for CD79a and numerous anaplastic features was detected in the unilateral uterine horn, and the dog was diagnosed as having extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBCL). The present case reports an extremely rare occurrence of primary lymphoma involving the uterine horn in a dog and describes histological characteristics of the tumour for definite diagnosis. PMID:24325894

  3. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    SciTech Connect

    McCarrick, H. Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Araujo, D.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Miller, A.; Ade, P.; Doyle, S.; Tucker, C.; Bradford, K.; Che, G.; Cantor, R.; Day, P.; Leduc, H.; Mauskopf, P.; Mroczkowski, T.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-12-15

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26±6 μK√(s)

  4. Horn-coupled, commercially-fabricated aluminum lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors for millimeter wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarrick, H.; Flanigan, D.; Jones, G.; Johnson, B. R.; Ade, P.; Araujo, D.; Bradford, K.; Cantor, R.; Che, G.; Day, P.; Doyle, S.; Leduc, H.; Limon, M.; Luu, V.; Mauskopf, P.; Miller, A.; Mroczkowski, T.; Tucker, C.; Zmuidzinas, J.

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the design, fabrication, and testing of prototype horn-coupled, lumped-element kinetic inductance detectors (LEKIDs) designed for cosmic microwave background studies. The LEKIDs are made from a thin aluminum film deposited on a silicon wafer and patterned using standard photolithographic techniques at STAR Cryoelectronics, a commercial device foundry. We fabricated 20-element arrays, optimized for a spectral band centered on 150 GHz, to test the sensitivity and yield of the devices as well as the multiplexing scheme. We characterized the detectors in two configurations. First, the detectors were tested in a dark environment with the horn apertures covered, and second, the horn apertures were pointed towards a beam-filling cryogenic blackbody load. These tests show that the multiplexing scheme is robust and scalable, the yield across multiple LEKID arrays is 91%, and the measured noise-equivalent temperatures for a 4 K optical load are in the range 26± 6 μ {K}√{{s}}.

  5. Predicted Loading on the Menisci during Gait: The Effect of Horn Laxity

    PubMed Central

    Guess, Trent M.; Razu, Swithin; Jahandar, Hamidreza; Stylianou, Antonis

    2015-01-01

    Radiographic measurements have established a link between meniscus extrusion and meniscus degeneration as well as with knee osteoarthritis. The presented work combines medical imaging with motion capture data from two healthy female subjects to create subject specific knee models that predict tibio-menisco-femoral contact forces and ligament forces during muscle driven simulations of barefoot gait. The developed computational models were used to explore the relationship between the extent of meniscal extrusion and biomechanical function by altering the laxity of the meniscal horn attachments during gait. The extrusion distance increased as laxity increased and the amount of contact force transferred through the menisci during gait decreased rapidly as the meniscal attachments became more lax. Horn attachment lengths that were 20% longer than MRI attachment lengths resulted in an almost complete loss of force transfer through the menisci during the gait cycle. Relatively small changes (2 to 3 mm) in the lengths at which horn bundles first become taut, manifested in large changes in the capacity of the tissue to transmit forces. As meniscal horn attachment laxity increased from 80% to 120% of the MRI measured horn distance, medial meniscus extrusion increased 3.9 mm for the first subject and 2.7 mm for the second subject. For the same horn laxity changes, the percent of medial tibiofemoral contact force transmitted through the medial meniscus during early stance decreased from 51% to 8% and from 36% to 14% for the two subjects. The results of our study show that increased meniscal extrusion occurs with increased laxity of the meniscal tibia attachments and this increased laxity results in loss of meniscal function. PMID:25814179

  6. The hydrodynamics of the Big Horn Basin: a study of the role of faults

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bredehoeft, J.D.; Belitz, K.; Sharp-Hansen, S.

    1992-01-01

    A three-dimensional mathematical model simulates groundwater flow in the Big Horn basin, Wyoming. The hydraulic head at depth over much of the Big Horn basin is near the land surface elevation, a condition usually defined as hydrostatic. This condition indicates a high, regional-scale, vertical conductivity for the sediments in the basin. Our hypothesis to explain the high conductivity is that the faults act as vertical conduits for fluid flow. These same faults can act as either horizontal barriers to flow or nonbarriers, depending upon whether the fault zones are more permeable or less permeable than the adjoining aquifers. -from Authors

  7. Morphological, biophysical and synaptic properties of glutamatergic neurons of the mouse spinal dorsal horn

    PubMed Central

    Punnakkal, Pradeep; Schoultz, Carolin; Haenraets, Karen; Wildner, Hendrik; Zeilhofer, Hanns Ulrich

    2014-01-01

    Interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn are central to somatosensory and nociceptive processing. A mechanistic understanding of their function depends on profound knowledge of their intrinsic properties and their integration into dorsal horn circuits. Here, we have used BAC transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (eGFP) under the control of the vesicular glutamate transporter (vGluT2) gene (vGluT2::eGFP mice) to perform a detailed electrophysiological and morphological characterisation of excitatory dorsal horn neurons, and to compare their properties to those of GABAergic (Gad67::eGFP tagged) and glycinergic (GlyT2::eGFP tagged) neurons. vGluT2::eGFP was detected in about one-third of all excitatory dorsal horn neurons and, as demonstrated by the co-expression of vGluT2::eGFP with different markers of subtypes of glutamatergic neurons, probably labelled a representative fraction of these neurons. Three types of dendritic tree morphologies (vertical, central, and radial), but no islet cell-type morphology, were identified in vGluT2::eGFP neurons. vGluT2::eGFP neurons had more depolarised action potential thresholds and longer action potential durations than inhibitory neurons, while no significant differences were found for the resting membrane potential, input resistance, cell capacitance and after-hyperpolarisation. Delayed firing and single action potential firing were the single most prevalent firing patterns in vGluT2::eGFP neurons of the superficial and deep dorsal horn, respectively. By contrast, tonic firing prevailed in inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal horn. Capsaicin-induced synaptic inputs were detected in about half of the excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and occurred more frequently in superficial than in deep dorsal horn neurons. Primary afferent-evoked (polysynaptic) inhibitory inputs were found in the majority of glutamatergic and glycinergic neurons, but only in less than half of the GABAergic population. Excitatory

  8. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate since the Last Glacial Maximum.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Jessica E; deMenocal, Peter B

    2013-11-15

    The timing and abruptness of the initiation and termination of the Early Holocene African Humid Period are subjects of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of abrupt climate change, paleoenvironments, and early human cultural development. Here, we provide proxy evidence from the Horn of Africa region that documents abrupt transitions into and out of the African Humid Period in northeast Africa. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are a regionally coherent feature. Our analysis suggests that the termination of the African Humid Period in the Horn of Africa occurred within centuries, underscoring the nonlinearity of the region's hydroclimate. PMID:24114782

  9. Near field of corrugated horns and its influence on dual reflector antenna radiation performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hombach, V.; Kuehn, E.

    1985-05-01

    The existing procedures for calculating the near field of the corrugated horns of dual reflector antennas are briefly reviewed, and their disadvantages are pointed out. A new approach to calculating the near field of circular corrugated feed horns is then discussed with specific reference to a Ku-band offset Gregorian antenna developed for the German Telecommunication Satellite DFS scheduled for launch in 1987. The approach, which is based on a physical-optics solution, is shown to provide an accurate description of the actual radiation characteristics. The effect of the near field on the gain, side-lobe level, and cross-polar performance of the antenna is discussed.

  10. Design and analysis of a multimode feed horn for a monopulse feed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kuan Min; Chu, Ruey-Shi

    1988-02-01

    The design of a multimode feed horn for use in a monopulse feed system is summarized. Both amplitude and phase patterns have been obtained and compared with measurements. The far-field amplitude and phase patterns are computed in consideration of achieving the desired aperture distributions for the sum and diffference beams. The phase center of the horn is discussed in relation to the multimode excitation and frequency dispersion. It is shown that the phase center location moves as the mode content changes, and proper adjustment of the mode content will result in design optimization. Some tradeoff curves are also presented for design optimization.

  11. Liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis in flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid: clinical, radiological, ultrasonographical and histopathological study.

    PubMed

    Rahmati-Holasoo, H; Shokrpoor, S; Tavakkoli, A; Vajhi, A; Ebrahimzadeh Mousavi, H

    2016-03-01

    Liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis affecting three indoor aquarium fish (flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid) is characterized, by the presence of mature adipocytes of variable sizes and by an invasive behaviour, which affected internal organs and eyes of all cases. Detailed macroscopic, radiological, ultrasonographical and histopathological features are presented. All fish had bilateral exophthalmia with some masses around the eyes. Ultrasonography confirmed the presence of hyperechoic masses in the eyes. Histopathology of all cases described the presence of variable-sized adipose cells in the eyes. The suggested diagnosis is well-differentiated liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis. This is the first report of liposarcoma or invasive lipomatosis in flower horn fish, hybrid cichlid.

  12. Maximal violation of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt inequality for two qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Fu, Li-Bin; Zhao, Xian-Geng; Chen, Jing-Ling

    2003-08-01

    The Bell-Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (BCHSH) inequality (in terms of correlation functions) of two qutrits is studied in detail by employing tritter measurements. A uniform formula for the maximum value of this inequality for tritter measurements is obtained. Based on this formula, we show that nonmaximally entangled states violate the BCHSH inequality more strongly than the maximally entangled one. This result is consistent with what was obtained by Acin et al. [Phys. Rev. A 65, 052325 (2002)] using the Bell-Clauser-Horne inequality (in terms of probabilities)

  13. 75 FR 18201 - Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Big Horn II Wind Project, LLC's application...

  14. Genome-based approach to discover new livestock pest control technologies: The horn fly (Haematobia irritans) genome sequencing project

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Invasion of the Americas by the horn fly, H. irritans, has resulted in control issues throughout the continent. Insecticide resistance is a major complicating factor with efforts to manage this pest. Stakeholder focus groups identified the horn fly as the top priority arthropod pest affecting cattle...

  15. Cloning and characterization of an MRNA encoding an insulin receptor from the horned scarab beetle Onthophagus nigriventris (Coleoptera: scarabaeidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The insulin signaling pathway has been implicated in the control of insect polyphenisms for some caste-forming insects and potentially has a role in horn dimorphisms in beetles. Males of the sexually dimorphic dung beetle Onthophagus nigriventris develop a magnificent thoracic horn up to twice the l...

  16. Comparisons of antifeedancy and spatial repellency of three natural product repellents against horn flies, Haematobia irritans (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    BACKGROUND: Horn flies are among the most important biting fly pests of cattle in the United States. Horn fly management is largely dependent upon pesticides, which ultimately leads to the rapid development of insecticide resistance. Alternative control strategies, including repellents, have shown p...

  17. Differences on Six Horn Abilities for 14 Age Groups between 15-16 and 75-94 Years.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaufman, Alan S.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Six abilities derived from the fluid and crystallized intelligence theory of J. L. Horn were studied with 1,193 individuals in age groups between 15 and 94 years. Results supported Horn's classification of crystallized and quantitative as maintained abilities and of fluid and broad visualization as vulnerable abilities. (SLD)

  18. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on Control- and Thrombostasin-Vaccinated Cattle

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is an anticlotting protein found in saliva of Haematobia irritans (horn flies). The polymorphic nature of the ts gene was first associated with success of horn flies blood feeding on a laboratory host, New Zealand White rabbits. In this study, we report results of similar studies ...

  19. Salivary Gland Thrombostasin Isoforms Differentially Regulate Blood Uptake of Horn Flies Fed on New Zealand White Rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  20. Salivary gland thrombostasin isoforms differentilally regulate blood uptake of horn flies fed on New Zealand white rabbits

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Thrombostasin (TS) is a previously characterized anticlotting protein with multiple isoforms found in the saliva of horn flies. In this report the effects of TS isoforms on blood feeding was assessed with individual flies that carried corresponding ts alleles. Laboratory studies of horn fly blood fe...

  1. Use of electroporation as an option to transform the Horn Fly, Haematobia irritans: a species recalcitrant to microinjection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Horn flies are serious pests of cattle in North America and control of these flies has primarily relied on insecticides. However, the heavy use of insecticides has led to the development of resistance in horn flies and novel methods of fly control are greatly needed. The use of transformation techno...

  2. 75 FR 9377 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Listing the Flat-Tailed Horned Lizard as Threatened

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-02

    ... distinct vertebrate population segments (61 FR 4722). (6) The potential effects global climate change may..., 1993 (58 FR 62624), to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species, and reopens the... proposed rule to list the flat-tailed horned lizard as a threatened species under the Act (58 FR 62624)....

  3. 50 CFR 21.44 - Depredation order for horned larks, house finches, and white-crowned sparrows in California.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... BIRD PERMITS Control of Depredating and Otherwise Injurious Birds § 21.44 Depredation order for horned... horticultural crops. Take of birds under this order must be done under the supervision of the county agriculture... bird species, or for take of horned larks or white-crowned sparrows from May 1 through October 31....

  4. Evaluation of six satellite rainfall products over the Great Horn of Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattani, Elsa; Merino Suances, Andrés; Levizzani, Vincenzo

    2014-05-01

    Satellite precipitation products are used in various application fields, as extreme event monitoring (flood and drought), generation of time series for regional or global climatological studies, and assimilation in hydro-meteorological models. They are particularly necessary in regions with very sparse rain-gauge networks to augment the observational capabilities, such as in the Great Horn of Africa (GHA). GHA is characterized by a complex topography and highly varying climatic conditions ranging from the wetter mountainous and coastal regions to the arid lowlands, which can greatly affect the quality of satellite rainfall estimations. Moreover GHA is characterized by very frequent drought events, whose monitoring and forecast can benefit from satellite rainfall estimations. All that justifies the importance of satellite product validation and inter-comparisons in order to assess their reliability and application domain. The monthly accumulated precipitation from six satellite products, TAMSAT, GSMaP, CMORPH, PERSIANN, RFE, and TRMM-3B42, are analysed for the time period 2003 - 2009, by dividing the studied region (5°S - 20°N, 28°E - 52°E) in six sub-areas (clusters) characterized by a different annual cycle. The measurement uncertainties in satellite products are evaluated by computing the variance from the ensemble of the six satellite products at the resolution of 0.25°. The annual cycle characteristics of each cluster are correctly identified by each satellite product, whereas marked differences can be seen in the precipitations amount. GSMaP, PERSIANN and CMORPH provide larger amount of precipitation on South Sudan and West Ethiopia and North Uganda and the coastal region of North Somalia with respect to the other products. The regions with higher variability among satellite products are mountainous West Ethiopia, during summer (wet season) and for heavy precipitation (> 200 mm), South Sudan during summer and fall, and the Lake Victoria region

  5. Mineral resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon County, Montana, and Big Horn County

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Kulik, D.M. ); Esparza, L.E.; Schmauch, S.W.; Benham, J.R. )

    1988-01-01

    This report presents investigations to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and to appraise the identified resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas. The mineral resource potential for uranium and vanadium is high or moderate in parts of the Pryor Mountain study area, high in part of the Burnt Timber Canyon study area, and moderate in the entire Big Horn Tack-On study area. The southern part of the Pryor Mountain study area has moderate mineral resource potential for bentonite. All three study areas have low mineral and energy resource potential for all metals (other than uranium and vanadium), oil and gas, geothermal sources, and limestone. There is no mineral resource potential for sand and gravel in the study areas. The study areas have no identified resources.

  6. Mineral resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas, Carbon County, Montana, and Big Horn County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Patterson, C.G.; Toth, M.I.; Kulik, D.M.; Esparza, L.E.; Schmauch, S.W.; Benham, J.R.

    1988-01-01

    The US Geological Survey and the US Bureau of Mines conducted investigations to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and to appraise the identified resources of the Pryor Mountain, Burnt Timber Canyon, and Big Horn Tack-On Wilderness Study Areas. The mineral resource potential for uranium and vanadium is high or moderate in parts of the Pryor Mountain study area, high in part of the Burnt Timber Canyon study area, and moderate in the entire Big Horn Tack-On study area. The southern part of the Pryor Mountain study area has moderate mineral resource potential for bentonite. All three study areas have low mineral and energy resource potential for all metals (other than uranium and vanadium), oil and gas, geothermal sources, and limestone. There is no mineral resource potential for sand and gravel in the study areas. The study areas have no identified resources.

  7. Taxonomic and nomenclatorial revision within the Neotropical genera of the subtribe Odontocheilina W. Horn in a new sense-15. The genus Opisthencentrus W. Horn (Coleoptera: Cicindelidae).

    PubMed

    Moravec, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    The Neotropical, monobasic tiger beetle genus Opisthencentrus W. Horn, 1893, based on Oxygonia dentipennis Germar, 1843, is presented along with a lectotype designation. Most of the diagnostic characters of Opisthencentrus dentipennis (Germar, 1843), including the aedeagus and structures of the internal sac, are illustrated for the first time. Redescription and illustrations in colour photographs of the habitus and diagnostic characters of the female lectotype (MFNB) and five other specimens of both sexes are provided. The validity of Opisthencentrus as a separate genus is confirmed and it is concluded that the genus is a natural member of the subtribe Odontocheilina W. Horn, 1899, markedly differing from the genus Oxygonia Mannerheim, 1837. The history of the taxonomy and relationship to other genera of the subtribe, as well as the biology and distribution of this very rare and hitherto little known tiger beetle in the Brazilian Atlantic rain-forest, are discussed. PMID:27394549

  8. The optimisation, design and verification of feed horn structures for future Cosmic Microwave Background missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCarthy, Darragh; Trappe, Neil; Murphy, J. Anthony; O'Sullivan, Créidhe; Gradziel, Marcin; Doherty, Stephen; Huggard, Peter G.; Polegro, Arturo; van der Vorst, Maarten

    2016-05-01

    In order to investigate the origins of the Universe, it is necessary to carry out full sky surveys of the temperature and polarisation of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation, the remnant of the Big Bang. Missions such as COBE and Planck have previously mapped the CMB temperature, however in order to further constrain evolutionary and inflationary models, it is necessary to measure the polarisation of the CMB with greater accuracy and sensitivity than before. Missions undertaking such observations require large arrays of feed horn antennas to feed the detector arrays. Corrugated horns provide the best performance, however owing to the large number required (circa 5000 in the case of the proposed COrE+ mission), such horns are prohibitive in terms of thermal, mechanical and cost limitations. In this paper we consider the optimisation of an alternative smooth-walled piecewise conical profiled horn, using the mode-matching technique alongside a genetic algorithm. The technique is optimised to return a suitable design using efficient modelling software and standard desktop computing power. A design is presented showing a directional beam pattern and low levels of return loss, cross-polar power and sidelobes, as required by future CMB missions. This design is manufactured and the measured results compared with simulation, showing excellent agreement and meeting the required performance criteria. The optimisation process described here is robust and can be applied to many other applications where specific performance characteristics are required, with the user simply defining the beam requirements.

  9. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. 95.12 Section 95.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... otherwise, as directed by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services or burned at the establishment....

  10. 9 CFR 95.12 - Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs; importations permitted subject to restrictions. 95.12 Section 95.12 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH... otherwise, as directed by the Deputy Administrator, Veterinary Services or burned at the establishment....

  11. The Van Horn Engineering & Technology Magnet High School: 1990-1991. Formative Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atwater, Jay, Ed.

    This report presents a formative evaluation of the Van Horn Engineering and Technology Magnet High School in the Kansas City School District, Missouri. It presents data collected throughout the program's first year, including student demographics, program implementation information, achievement data, and perceptions of the program held by staff…

  12. A Ghoulish Inconsistency: A Comment on Tim Keller's "The National Implications of "Cain v. Horne""

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenig, John

    2010-01-01

    Tim Keller's article insightfully explores the flawed legal reasoning behind and potentially pernicious consequences of the Arizona Supreme Court's 2009 "Cain vs. Horne" ruling. He carefully examines the two fundamental flaws in the court's interpretative methodology: a failure to engage in a straightforward textual analysis of Arizona's Blaine…

  13. Hard Horn Design for Quasi-Optical Power Combining Using Solid-State Power Amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickens, W. S.; Epp, L. W.; Hoppe, D. J.

    2004-02-01

    In recent years, there has been significant interest in the use of corrugated, periodic structures to control the wave impedance of a given surface. It has been shown [1] that a quasi-transverse-electromagnetic (TEM) wave can be excited in a waveguide by correctly choosing the impedance at the guide wall. This correctly chosen impedance is referred to as the hard boundary condition. We have taken advantage of this property of the so-called "hard" guide to attempt to create a spatial power combiner/splitter that couples to an array of microstrip patch antennas feeding a bank of monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) power amplifiers. The hard horn described here employs longitudinal corrugations filled with a low-loss dielectric material along the vertical walls to achieve the hard boundary condition. We believe the use of dielectric-filled corrugations will improve the insertion loss performance over that of a hard guide using dielectric slabs bonded to the guide wall. Additionally, the horn is tapered to its maximum aperture along a cosine curve in order to improve return loss performance. Included in this article is a discussion of the fabrication process of prototype hard horns, measurements of a hard horn prototype, and preliminary modal analysis results.

  14. Control of glutamatergic neurotransmission in the rat spinal dorsal horn by the nucleoside transporter ENT1.

    PubMed

    Ackley, Michael A; Governo, Ricardo J M; Cass, Carol E; Young, James D; Baldwin, Stephen A; King, Anne E

    2003-04-15

    Adenosine modulates nociceptive processing in the superficial dorsal horn of the spinal cord. In other tissues, membrane transporters influence profoundly the extracellular levels of adenosine. To investigate the putative role of nucleoside transporters in the regulation of excitatory synaptic transmission in the dorsal horn, we employed immunohistochemistry and whole-cell patch-clamp recording of substantia gelatinosa neurons in slices of rat spinal cord in vitro. The rat equilibrative nucleoside transporter (rENT1) was revealed by antibody staining to be abundant in neonatal and mature dorsal horn, especially within laminae I-III. This was confirmed by immunoblots of dorsal horn homogenate. Nitrobenzylthioinosine (NBMPR), a potent non-transportable inhibitor of rENT1, attenuated synaptically evoked EPSCs onto lamina II neurons in a concentration-dependent manner. Application of an adenosine A1 antagonist 1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine produced a parallel rightward shift in the NBMPR concentration-effect curve. The effects of NBMPR were partially reversed by adenosine deaminase, which facilitates the metabolic degradation of adenosine. The modulation by NBMPR of evoked EPSCs was mimicked by exogenous adenosine or the selective A1 receptor agonist, 2-chloro-N6-cyclopentyl adenosine. NBMPR reduced the frequency but not the amplitude of spontaneous miniature EPSCs and increased the paired-pulse ratio of evoked currents, an effect that is consistent with presynaptic modulation. These data provide the first direct evidence that nucleoside transporters are able to critically modulate glutamatergic synaptic transmission. PMID:12611914

  15. Overstated Optimism: Arizona's Structured English Immersion Program under "Horne v. Flores"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mora, Jill Kerper

    2010-01-01

    This article is an analysis of the educational implications of the Supreme Court (USSC) decision in "Horne v. Flores" (2009). The USSC remanded the Arizona case to the lower court, requiring a rehearing of petitioners' request for relief from the court's oversight of AZ's "structured English immersion" (SEI) program mandated under HB2064. The…

  16. Are Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composite Scores Exchangeable across Batteries?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; Bergeron, Renee; McCormack, Allison C.; Anderson, Janice L.; Hargrove-Owens, Gabrielle L.

    2005-01-01

    Many school psychologists use the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities to guide their interpretation of scores from intelligence test batteries. Some may frequently assume that composite scores purported to measure the same CHC broad abilities should be relatively similar for individuals no matter what subtests or batteries…

  17. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn.

  18. Foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 in long-horned Ankole calf, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben; Belsham, Graham J

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  19. Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus Serotype SAT 3 in Long-Horned Ankole Calf, Uganda

    PubMed Central

    Dhikusooka, Moses Tefula; Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Ayebazibwe, Chrisostom; Namatovu, Alice; Ruhweza, Simon; Siegismund, Hans Redlef; Wekesa, Sabenzia Nabalayo; Normann, Preben

    2015-01-01

    After a 16-year interval, foot-and-mouth disease virus serotype SAT 3 was isolated in 2013 from an apparently healthy long-horned Ankole calf that grazed close to buffalo in Uganda. The emergent virus strain is ≈20% different in nucleotide sequence (encoding VP1 [viral protein 1]) from its closest relatives isolated previously from buffalo in Uganda. PMID:25531186

  20. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult Horn Flies (Diptera: Muscidae)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.); Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing ca...

  1. The Court versus Consent Decrees? Schools, "Horne v. Flores" and Judicial Strategies of Institutional Reform Litigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilton, Bradley; Chwialkowski, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Is the U.S. Supreme Court inviting litigants to take aim at unraveling injunctions in institutional reform litigation--especially consent decrees in the schools? In "Horne v. Flores" (2009), the court remanded a 17-year-old school reform case to a federal judge with orders to look beyond consent decrees on financing, reducing class…

  2. Limit quantum efficiency for violation of Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits

    SciTech Connect

    Genovese, M.

    2005-05-15

    In this paper we present the results of numerical calculations about the minimal value of detection efficiency for violating the Clauser-Horne inequality for qutrits. Our results show how the use of nonmaximally entangled states greatly improves this limit with respect to maximally entangled ones. A stronger resistance to noise is also found.

  3. Solitary Angiokeratoma Presenting as Cutaneous Horn over the Prepuce: A Rare Appearance

    PubMed Central

    Agarwala, Manoj Kumar; Mukhopadhyay, Sramana; Sekhar, M Raja; Menon, Aswathy; Peter, CV Dincy

    2016-01-01

    We present a case of a 47-year-old man with 4 months history of conical growth on the prepuce with a progressive increase in size. The patient had been treated for seminoma a decade ago. Histopathology of the growth showed features of angiokeratoma. It is unusual for angiokeratoma to masquerade as a cutaneous horn. PMID:27057048

  4. Characterisation of rebound depolarisation in mice deep dorsal horn neurons in vitro.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Arconada, Ivan; Lopez-Garcia, Jose A

    2015-09-01

    Spinal dorsal horn neurons constitute the first relay for pain processing and participate in the processing of other sensory, motor and autonomic information. At the cellular level, intrinsic excitability is a factor contributing to network function. In turn, excitability is set by the array of ionic conductance expressed by neurons. Here, we set out to characterise rebound depolarisation following hyperpolarisation, a feature frequently described in dorsal horn neurons but never addressed in depth. To this end, an in vitro preparation of the spinal cord from mice pups was used combined with whole-cell recordings in current and voltage clamp modes. Results show the expression of H- and/or T-type currents in a significant proportion of dorsal horn neurons. The expression of these currents determines the presence of rebound behaviour at the end of hyperpolarising pulses. T-type calcium currents were associated to high-amplitude rebounds usually involving high-frequency action potential firing. H-currents were associated to low-amplitude rebounds less prone to elicit firing or firing at lower frequencies. For a large proportion of neurons expressing both currents, the H-current constitutes a mechanism to ensure a faster response after hyperpolarisations, adjusting the latency of the rebound firing. We conclude that rebound depolarisation and firing are intrinsic factors to many dorsal horn neurons that may constitute a mechanism to integrate somatosensory information in the spinal cord, allowing for a rapid switch from inhibited-to-excited states. PMID:25292284

  5. 23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    23. H.Q. Morton photograph #47 'South Light, Fog Horn from Bluff', (view looking NE) ca. 1880. (H. Q. Morton, Photographer, 75 Westminster Street, Providence, RI. - Block Island Southeast Light, Spring Street & Mohegan Trail at Mohegan Bluffs, New Shoreham, Washington County, RI

  6. Biochemical and protein profile of alpaca (Vicugna pacos) uterine horn fluid during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Argañaraz, M E; Apichela, S A; Zampini, R; Vencato, J; Stelletta, C

    2015-02-01

    South American camelids show high embryo loss rate, during the first 60 days of pregnancy. One of the factors which may be related to this situation is that over 98% of the embryos implant in the left uterine horn (LUH) even though both ovaries contribute similarly to ovulation. There is scarce information about the uterine environment of female camelids at any physiological state that could explain the capability of the LUH to attract the embryo and maintain pregnancy. We describe, for the first time, the biochemical and protein profile of uterine fluid (UF), addressing the right and LUH environment in non-pregnant and pregnant alpacas. Different substrates, electrolytes and metabolites were assayed in both uterine horn fluids. Small changes were observed in glucose and total protein levels, which were more noticeable during pregnancy. In addition, 10 specific proteins were found in the left horn fluid in 5-week-pregnant alpacas, and two protein bands were identified in non-pregnant alpaca right horn fluid. These results would provide basic information for identification of possible markers for pregnancy diagnosis, reproductive diseases and hormone-treated animals evaluation and hence contributing to improve the pregnancy rate.

  7. 3 CFR - Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of Africa

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs... Determination No. 2011-12 of August 8, 2011 Unexpected Urgent Refugee and Migration Needs Related to the Horn of... Constitution and the laws of the United States, including section 2(c)(1) of the Migration and...

  8. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums..., and sinew and are offered for entry as trophies or for consignment to museums may be imported without... the following methods: (i) Dry heat at 180°F (82.2°C) for 30 minutes; (ii) Soaking in boiling...

  9. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs. 95.11 Section 95.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE EXPORTATION AND IMPORTATION OF ANIMALS (INCLUDING POULTRY) AND ANIMAL PRODUCTS SANITARY CONTROL...

  10. Connecting Communities, Schools, and Families: An Interview with Arthur (Andy) Horne, Phd

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziomek-Daigle, Jolie

    2007-01-01

    Dr. Arthur (Andy) Horne completed his PhD at Southern Illinois University in 1971. He taught at Indiana State University from 1971 until 1989, during which time he served as a member of the faculty and the director of training of the APA-accredited Counseling Psychology Program. He also was a member of the AAMFT-accredited Marriage and Family…

  11. Radioactivity levels in mussels and sediments of the Golden Horn by the Bosphorus Strait, Marmara Sea.

    PubMed

    Kılıç, Önder; Belivermiş, Murat; Gözel, Furkan; Carvalho, Fernando P

    2014-09-15

    The Golden Horn is an estuary located in the center of İstanbul receiving freshwater discharges from two creeks and connecting to the Bosphorus Strait. Activity concentrations of natural and artificial radionuclides were determined in mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) and sediments from the Golden Horn sampled in February 2012. Mean activity concentrations of (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb in the mussels were determined at 1.03±0.23, 389±41.6, 2.61±1.23, not detected (ND), 91.96±37.88 and 11.48±4.85 Bq kg(-1), respectively. In sediments, it was observed that (137)Cs, (40)K, (226)Ra, (228)Ra, (210)Po and (210)Pb activity concentrations in<63 μm particle fraction of sediment were generally higher than those determined in mussels. Po-210 and (210)Po/(210)Pb ratios in mussels from the Golden Horn were much lower than in mussels from other coastal regions and this was related to low plankton productivity and eutrophication of the Golden Horn. PMID:25023437

  12. Milk production traits of beef cows as affected by horn fly numbers and breed type

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pesticide resistance in horn flies indicates the need for more sustainable production systems. Cows sired by Bonsmara (BONS;n=7), Brangus (BRAN;n=13), Charolais (CHAR;n=8), Gelbvieh (GELV;n=5), Hereford (HERF;n=12), and Romosinuano (ROMO;n=8) from Brangus dams were used to determine breed difference...

  13. High-resolution predictive mapping for Rhipicephalus appendiculatus (Acari: Ixodidae) in the Horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Leta, Samson; De Clercq, Eva M; Madder, Maxime

    2013-08-01

    The brown ear tick Rhipicephalus appendiculatus, vector of East Coast fever (ECF) and related cattle diseases caused by Theileria parva has never been reported from the Horn of Africa. Habitat suitability for this tick species was predicted using Maxent modelling technique based on R. appendiculatus records in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two models were developed: the first is based on the tropical R. appendiculatus distribution and the one is based on the distribution records in the temperate region of Sub-Saharan Africa. The tropical model shows favourable habitat in much of the Ethiopian highlands. The whole Djibouti, the south eastern Ethiopian lowlands, majority of Somalia and Eritrea were found to be not suitable for the survival and development of this tick species. Highly suitable areas occur in areas which have moderate temperature and high precipitation. Introductions of R. appendiculatus into the Horn of Africa probably have been prevented by the natural barrier between the known R. appendiculatus distribution range in East Africa and the Horn of Africa. The effect of an introduction of R. appendiculatus and thereby ECF into the Horn of Africa could be catastrophic since the cattle in this area have no immunity against ECF, and mortality might be considerable in all age groups of cattle. PMID:23413173

  14. Horn antenna design studies. Citations from the International Aerospace Abstract data base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gallagher, M. K.

    1980-01-01

    These citations from the international literature describe the antenna radiation patterns, polarization characteristics, wave propagation, noise temperature, wave diffraction, and wideband communication of various horn antennas. This updated bibliography contains 217 citations, 63 of which are new entries to the previous edition.

  15. Implementation of Linus Programme Based on the Model of Van Meter and Van Horn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sani, Nazariyah bt; Idris, Abdul Rahman

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify the understanding of school leaders on the implementation of LINUS programme that based on the features contained in the Implementation Model of Van Meter and Van Horn (1975). The study was carried out in the form of qualitative method and particularly, the multiple case studies that were conducted in four…

  16. 9 CFR 95.11 - Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums; disinfected hoofs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... or museums; disinfected hoofs. 95.11 Section 95.11 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT..., OFFERED FOR ENTRY INTO THE UNITED STATES § 95.11 Bones, horns, and hoofs for trophies or museums..., and sinew and are offered for entry as trophies or for consignment to museums may be imported...

  17. Sex-specific parental care strategies via nestling age: females pay more attention to nestling demands than males do in the horned lark, Eremophila alpestris.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chang-Jing; Du, Bo; Liu, Nai-Fa; Bao, Shi-Jie; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2014-06-01

    In many species, nestling demands vary continuously during early development and both parents have different parental care strategies at each nestling age. Sexual conflict arises when each parent expects its partner investing more in parental care. It is largely unknown how the two parents respond to the dynamics of nestling demands and resolve the sexual conflict during nestling period, especially on Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. To address this question, we monitored parental care behaviors of horned larks (Eremophila alpestris) using video-recording systems. We found that male horned larks invested less in parental care, but had a larger body size than females, which is consistent with the parental investment hypothesis. Only the female brooded nestlings, but both parents contributed to feeding efforts. Feeding rates of males and females were negatively correlated, indicating that they used evolutionarily stable strategies. Strategies of parental care via nestling age were sex-specific. Females continuously adjusted care behaviors to follow the dynamics of nestling demands as nestling age increased, such as decreasing brood attentiveness and increasing feeding rate. By contrast, male feeding rate showed no significant correlation with nestling age, but increased with the synchrony feeding rate. We suggest the synchrony feeding behavior may act as a control measure for females to promote and assess the males' contribution. We consider low mating opportunities drive males to act as assistants for females, and correspondingly cause males to pay less attention to nestling demands than females. PMID:24882094

  18. In vivo release of serotonin in cat dorsal vagal complex and cervical ventral horn induced by electrical stimulation of the medullary raphe nuclei.

    PubMed

    Brodin, E; Linderoth, B; Goiny, M; Yamamoto, Y; Gazelius, B; Millhorn, D E; Hökfelt, T; Ungerstedt, U

    1990-12-10

    Extracellular levels of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) were monitored by microdialysis in the dorsal vagal complex (DVC) and the ventral horn of the spinal cord at the level of the phrenic motor nucleus in decerebrated cats. A selective serotonin uptake inhibitor, alaproclate (10(-4) M) was included in the dialysis probe perfusion fluid to increase basal and stimulated levels of 5-HT. Electrical stimulation (30 Hz, 10 V, 0.5 ms) in the nucleus raphe obscurus, containing neurons projecting to the DVC and to the ventral horn, induced a 2-3-fold increase of the 5-HT release in both these regions. After termination of the stimulation, the release gradually decreased during the following 60 min. Substance P, which coexists with 5-HT in descending neurons, did not significantly affect the 5-HT release when it was added (100 microM) to the probe perfusion fluid. The present findings are in accordance with the hypothesis that prolonged release of 5-HT is responsible for the previously demonstrated long-lasting facilitation of phrenic activity following raphe obscurus stimulation. PMID:1705856

  19. Effects of deep-horn AI on fertilization and embryo production in superovulated cows and heifers.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, P D; Souza, A H; Sartori, R; Hackbart, K S; Dresch, A R; Vieira, L M; Baruselli, P S; Guenther, J N; Fricke, P M; Shaver, R D; Wiltbank, M C

    2013-12-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine the effect of site of semen deposition on fertilization rate and embryo quality in superovulated cows. The hypothesis was that deposition of semen into the uterine horns would increase the fertilization rate compared with deposition of semen into the uterine body. The secondary objective was to evaluate the effect of uterine environment on fertilization rate and embryo quality. It was hypothesized that subclinical endometritis at the onset of superstimulation would decrease the fertilization rates and embryo quality. In experiment 1, 17 superovulated heifers were randomly assigned to receive artificial insemination (AI) into the uterine body or uterine horns. The total number of fertilized structures and fertilization rate from superovulated heifers was increased (P = 0.04 and P = 0.02, respectively) when semen was deposited into the uterine horns compared with the uterine body. Other embryo characteristics did not differ based on the site of semen deposition. In experiment 2, 14 lactating dairy cows were superovulated twice and were randomly assigned to receive AI into the uterine body or deep into the uterine horns using a crossover design. Neither fertilization rate nor any other embryo characteristics were improved when semen was placed deep into the uterine horns compared with the uterine body. In experiment 3, 72 superovulated lactating dairy cows were randomly assigned to receive AI into the uterine body or uterine horns. Before initiation of superstimulatory treatments, an endometrial cytology sample was collected from each cow. Ova/embryos were collected by a nonsurgical technique at 70 ± 3 days in milk. Similar to experiment 2, neither fertilization rate nor any other embryo characteristics differed based on the site of semen deposition in experiment 3. The percentage of cows with subclinical endometritis did not differ between treatments. Interestingly, there was a tendency (P = 0.09) for a reduction

  20. A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Maiken; Ewart, Kyle; Troobnikoff, Amanda N; Frankham, Greta; Johnson, Rebecca N; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts. This difference was exploited to develop a rapid, non-invasive screening method for distinguishing rhinoceros horns of different species. The method involved the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). It was hypothesised that the use of the specific odour profile as a screening method could separate and differentiate geographic origin or exploit the difference in diets of different species within a family (such as white rhinoceros and black rhinoceros from the Rhinocerotidae family). Known black and white rhinoceros horn samples were analysed using HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS and multivariate statistics were applied to identify groupings in the data set. The black rhinoceros horn samples were distinctly different from the white rhinoceros horn samples. This demonstrated that seized rhinoceros horn samples can be identified based on their distinct odour profiles. The chemical odour profiling method has great potential as a rapid and non-invasive screening method in order to combat and track illegal trafficking of wildlife parts.

  1. Single nucleotide polymorphisms concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins

    PubMed Central

    Cargill, Edward J; Nissing, Nick J; Grosz, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Background Cattle that naturally do not grow horns are referred to as polled, a trait inherited in a dominant Mendelian fashion. Previous studies have localized the polled mutation (which is unknown) to the proximal end of bovine chromosome 1 in a region approximately 3 Mb in size. While a polled genetic test, Tru-Polled™, is commercially available from MetaMorphix Inc., Holsteins are not a validated breed for this test. Findings Approximately 160 kb were sequenced within the known polled region from 12 polled and 12 horned Holsteins. Analysis of the polymorphisms identified 13 novel single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that are concordant with the horned/polled trait. Three of the 13 SNPs are located in gene coding or regulatory regions (e.g., the untranslated region, or UTR) where one is located in the 3'UTR of a gene and the other two are located in the 5'UTR and coding region (synonymous SNP) of another gene. The 3'UTR of genes have been shown to be targets of microRNAs regulating gene expression. In silico analysis indicates the 3'UTR SNP may disrupt a microRNA target site. Conclusion These 13 novel SNPs concordant with the horned/polled trait in Holsteins represent a test panel for the breed and this is the first report to the authors' knowledge of SNPs within gene coding or regulatory regions concordant with the horned/polled trait in cattle. These SNPs will require further testing for verification and further study to determine if the 3'UTR SNP may have a functional effect on the polled trait in Holsteins. PMID:19063733

  2. A rapid chemical odour profiling method for the identification of rhinoceros horns.

    PubMed

    Ueland, Maiken; Ewart, Kyle; Troobnikoff, Amanda N; Frankham, Greta; Johnson, Rebecca N; Forbes, Shari L

    2016-09-01

    Illegal poaching causes great harm to species diversity and conservation. A vast amount of money is involved in the trade of illegal or forged animal parts worldwide. In many cases, the suspected animal part is unidentifiable and requires costly and invasive laboratory analysis such as isotopic fingerprinting or DNA testing. The lack of rapid and accurate methods to identify wildlife parts at the point of detection represents a major hindrance in the enforcement and prosecution of wildlife trafficking. The ability of wildlife detector dogs to alert to different wildlife species demonstrates that there is a detectable difference in scent profile of illegally traded animal parts. This difference was exploited to develop a rapid, non-invasive screening method for distinguishing rhinoceros horns of different species. The method involved the collection of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and analysis by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography - time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC-TOFMS). It was hypothesised that the use of the specific odour profile as a screening method could separate and differentiate geographic origin or exploit the difference in diets of different species within a family (such as white rhinoceros and black rhinoceros from the Rhinocerotidae family). Known black and white rhinoceros horn samples were analysed using HS-SPME-GC×GC-TOFMS and multivariate statistics were applied to identify groupings in the data set. The black rhinoceros horn samples were distinctly different from the white rhinoceros horn samples. This demonstrated that seized rhinoceros horn samples can be identified based on their distinct odour profiles. The chemical odour profiling method has great potential as a rapid and non-invasive screening method in order to combat and track illegal trafficking of wildlife parts. PMID:27240958

  3. Three-dimensional morphology of the Sinocyclocheilus hyalinus (Cypriniformes : Cyprinidae) horn based on synchrotron X-ray microtomography.

    PubMed

    He, You; Chen, Xiao-Yong; Xiao, Ti-Qao; Yang, Jun-Xing

    2013-10-01

    Sinocyclocheilus is a cave-dwelling cyprinid genus endemic to southwest China. Several species possess a conspicuous horn on their head, which has been suggested as a constructive troglomorphic trait but lacks substantial evidence. We used non-invasive, high spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray microtomography to investigate the three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the horn of Sinocyclocheilus hyalinus, one of eight such troglobiotic species. 3D renderings demonstrated the osteological components, which were comprised of a rear wall comprised of the supraoccipital bone, a remaining frontal wall with numerous fenestrae, and the bottom continuous with the parietal and epiotic. A horn cavity occurred within the horn. The fenestrae in the frontal wall were continuous in the horn cavity and showed elaborate channeling, and were, connected to the cranial cavity by soft tissue. We tentatively called this configuration the "otocornual connection" due to its anatomic and putative functional similarity to the otolateralic connection in clupeids and loricariids, which provide an indirect pathway to enhance perception of underwater sound signals. This study provides a functional morphology context for further histological and physiological investigations of such horn structures in Sinocyclocheilus cavefish, and we suggest that the horn might enhance acoustic perception to compensate for visual loss in subterranean life, which warrants future physiological examination as lab-reared S. hyalinus become available. PMID:24115670

  4. Conservation, Innovation, and Bias: Embryonic Segment Boundaries Position Posterior, but Not Anterior, Head Horns in Adult Beetles.

    PubMed

    Busey, Hannah A; Zattara, Eduardo E; Moczek, Armin P

    2016-07-01

    The integration of form and function of novel traits is a fundamental process during the developmental evolution of complex organisms, yet how novel traits and trait functions integrate into preexisting contexts remains poorly understood. Here, we explore the mechanisms by which the adult insect head has been able to integrate novel traits and features during its ontogeny, focusing on the cephalic horns of Onthophagus beetles. Specifically, using a microablation approach we investigate how different regions of the dorsal head of adult horned beetles relate to their larval and embryonic counterparts and test whether deeply conserved regional boundaries that establish the embryonic head might also facilitate or bias the positioning of cephalic horns along the dorsal adult head. We find that paired posterior horns-the most widespread horn type within the genus-are positioned along a border homologous to the embryonic clypeolabral (CL)-ocular boundary, and that this placement constitutes the ancestral form of horn positioning. In contrast, we observed that the phylogenetically much rarer anterior horns are positioned by larval head regions contained firmly within the CL segment and away from any major preexisting larval head landmarks or boundaries. Lastly, we describe the unexpected finding that ablations at medial head regions can result in ectopic outgrowths bearing terminal structures resembling the more anterior clypeal ridge. We discuss our results in the light of the developmental genetic mechanisms of head formation in holometabolous insects and the role of co-option in innovation and bias in developmental evolution.

  5. Use of the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and catworm (Nephtys incisa) in a sentinel species approach for monitoring the health of Bay of Fundy estuaries.

    PubMed

    Pippy, B A; Kidd, K A; Munkittrick, K R; Mercer, A; Hunt, H

    2016-05-15

    Designing an effective environmental monitoring system for population responses requires knowledge of the biology of appropriate sentinel species and baseline information on the area's physical and chemical characteristics. This study collected information in Saint John Harbor, NB, Canada, for two abundant marine benthic invertebrates, the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and the catworm (Nephtys incisa) to characterize their seasonal and spatial variability, determine the ideal sampling time and methods, and develop baseline data for future studies. We also evaluated whether contamination is impacting invertebrates by comparing sediment metal concentrations to responses of benthic infauna. Metals were generally below sediment quality guidelines except for nickel and arsenic. Clam densities were variable between sites but not seasons, whereas catworm densities were not significantly different between sites or seasons. Overall, these species show potential for environmental monitoring, although investigation at more contaminated sites is warranted to assess their sensitivity. PMID:26994836

  6. Use of the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and catworm (Nephtys incisa) in a sentinel species approach for monitoring the health of Bay of Fundy estuaries.

    PubMed

    Pippy, B A; Kidd, K A; Munkittrick, K R; Mercer, A; Hunt, H

    2016-05-15

    Designing an effective environmental monitoring system for population responses requires knowledge of the biology of appropriate sentinel species and baseline information on the area's physical and chemical characteristics. This study collected information in Saint John Harbor, NB, Canada, for two abundant marine benthic invertebrates, the Atlantic nut clam (Nucula proxima) and the catworm (Nephtys incisa) to characterize their seasonal and spatial variability, determine the ideal sampling time and methods, and develop baseline data for future studies. We also evaluated whether contamination is impacting invertebrates by comparing sediment metal concentrations to responses of benthic infauna. Metals were generally below sediment quality guidelines except for nickel and arsenic. Clam densities were variable between sites but not seasons, whereas catworm densities were not significantly different between sites or seasons. Overall, these species show potential for environmental monitoring, although investigation at more contaminated sites is warranted to assess their sensitivity.

  7. Effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Hidetoshi; Kurumado, Hisatoshi; Mori, Maya; Degawa, Aiko; Fujisawa, Hideyo; Kuwano, Atsutoshi; Nagahata, Hajime

    2009-01-01

    The effects of ammonia and hydrogen sulfide on the physical and biochemical properties of the claw horn of Holstein cows were evaluated. Significant (P < 0.05, 0.01) decreases in hardness and elasticity were found in claw horns soaked in ammonia (NH3) and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) solutions compared with those that were soaked in water for 12, 24, and 48 h. Water absorption rate, as a indicator of permeability barrier function, increased significantly (P < 0.05) over time during the soaking period and was found to be dependent on the concentrations of NH3 and H2S in the solutions. The contents of ceramide, the main lipid component for the permeability barrier system of the stratum corneum, were significantly decreased in claw horns soaked in NH3 and H2S solutions compared with the values before soaking. Quantities of eluted protein released from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were approximately 20 times and 30 to 40 times greater than those released from claw horns treated with water alone. Interestingly, the quantities of cytokeratin 10, the main cytoskeletal protein of the stratum corneum, eluted from claw horns treated with NH3 and H2S solutions were markedly greater than the quantity released from horns soaked in water. Our results suggest that abnormal changes in the physical property of claw horn caused by NH3 and H2S treatment are due to disruption of the biochemical property of the claw horn induced by these chemical agents derived from slurry. PMID:19337390

  8. Ground Truth, Magnitude Calibration and Regional Phase Propagation and Detection in the Middle East and Horn of Africa

    SciTech Connect

    Nyblade, A; Brazier, R; Adams, A; Park, Y; Rodgers, A; Al-Amri, A

    2007-07-08

    In this project, we are exploiting several seismic data sets to improve U.S. operational capabilities to monitor for low yield nuclear tests across the Middle East (including the Iranian Plateau, Zagros Mountains, Arabian Peninsula, Turkish Plateau, Gulf of Aqaba, Dead Sea Rift) and the Horn of Africa (including the northern part of the East African Rift, Afar Depression, southern Red Sea and Gulf of Aden). The data sets are being used to perform three related tasks. (1) We are determining moment tensors, moment magnitudes and source depths for regional events in the magnitude 3.0 to 6.0 range. (2) These events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds, especially from events in Iran recorded at stations across the Arabian Peninsula. (3) We are collecting location ground truth at GT5 (local) and GT20 (regional) levels for seismic events with M > 2.5, including source geometry information and source depths. Towards meeting these objectives, seismograms from earthquakes in the Zagros Mountains recorded at regional distances have been inverted for moment tensors, which have then been used to create synthetic seismograms to determine the source depths of the earthquakes via waveform matching. The source depths have been confirmed by modeling teleseismic depth phases recorded on GSN and IMS stations. Early studies of the distribution of seismicity in the Zagros region found evidence for earthquakes in the upper mantle. But subsequent relocations of teleseismic earthquakes suggest that source depths are generally much shallower, lying mainly within the upper crust. All of the regional events studied so far nucleated within the upper crust, and most of the events have thrust mechanisms. The source mechanisms for these events are being used to characterize high-frequency (0.5-16 Hz) regional phase attenuation and detection thresholds for broadband seismic stations in the Arabian Peninsula, including IMS

  9. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 2: A 90 GHz quasi-integrated horn antenna receiver

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Eleftheriades, George V.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    A receiver belonging to the family of integrated planar receivers has been developed at 90 GHz. It consists of a planar Schottky-diode placed at the feed of a dipole-probe suspended inside an integrated horn antenna. The measured planar mixer single-sideband conversion loss at 91.2 GHz (LO) with a 200 MHz IF frequency is 8.3dB plus or minus 0.3dB. The low cost of fabrication and simplicity of this design makes it ideal for millimeter and submillimeter-wave receivers.

  10. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or apotential terrorist weapon

    PubMed Central

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror. PMID:21502787

  11. A TEM-horn antenna with dielectric lens for fast impulse response

    SciTech Connect

    Aurand, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    We designed and constructed a pair of TEM-horn antennas specifically for the very fast time-domain boresight response. Two physical topologies were made. A printed-board configuration has much slower transient response, which we think is due to pulse-smearing of the antenna currents in the dielectric substrate of the printed wiring boards. The solid state version has a 20 ps transition duration response in the main beam endfire (boresight) direction, which is the fastest we have seen to date. And since the antenna has a round trip antenna current propagation time of 6 ns, it offers clean radiated electromagnetic field measurement capability with a clear time of several nanoseconds. The printed board version has resistive loading at the aperture end of the conductors, which should offer better low- frequency performance. The dielectric lens certainly does improve the transient performance of the TEM horn, and was simple to design.

  12. Rostral horn evolution among agamid lizards of the genus ceratophora endemic to Sri Lanka

    SciTech Connect

    Schulte II, James A.; Macey, J. Robert; Pethiyagoda, Rohan; Larson, Allan

    2001-07-10

    The first phylogenetic hypothesis for the Sri Lankan agamid lizard genus Ceratophora is presented based on 1670 aligned base positions (472 parsimony informative) of mitochondrial DNA sequences, representing coding regions for eight tRNAs, ND2, and portions of ND1 and COI. Phylogenetic analysis reveals multiple origins and possibly losses of rostral horns in the evolutionary history of Ceratophora. Our data suggest a middle Miocene origin of Ceratophora with the most recent branching of recognized species occurring at the Pliocene/Pleistocene boundary. Haplotype divergence suggests that an outgroup species, Lyriocephalus scutatus, dates at least to the Pliocene. These phylogenetic results provide a framework for comparative studies of the behavioral ecological importance of horn evolution in this group.

  13. Progress in integrated-circuit horn antennas for receiver applications. Part 1: Antenna design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eleftheriades, George V.; Ali-Ahmad, Walid Y.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to present a systematic method for the design of multimode quasi-integrated horn antennas. The design methodology is based on the Gaussian beam approach and the structures are optimized for achieving maximum fundamental Gaussian coupling efficiency. For this purpose, a hybrid technique is employed in which the integrated part of the antennas is treated using full-wave analysis, whereas the machined part is treated using an approximate method. This results in a simple and efficient design process. The developed design procedure has been applied for the design of a 20, a 23, and a 25 dB quasi-integrated horn antennas, all with a Gaussian coupling efficiency exceeding 97 percent. The designed antennas have been tested and characterized using both full-wave analysis and 90 GHz/370 GHz measurements.

  14. European springtime temperature synchronises ibex horn growth across the eastern Swiss Alps.

    PubMed

    Büntgen, Ulf; Liebhold, Andrew; Jenny, Hannes; Mysterud, Atle; Egli, Simon; Nievergelt, Daniel; Stenseth, Nils C; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-03-01

    Direct effects of climate change on animal physiology, and indirect impacts from disruption of seasonal synchrony and breakdown of trophic interactions are particularly severe in Arctic and Alpine ecosystems. Unravelling biotic from abiotic drivers, however, remains challenging because high-resolution animal population data are often limited in space and time. Here, we show that variation in annual horn growth (an indirect proxy for individual performance) of 8043 male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) over the past four decades is well synchronised among eight disjunct colonies in the eastern Swiss Alps. Elevated March to May temperatures, causing premature melting of Alpine snowcover, earlier plant phenology and subsequent improvement of ibex food resources, fuelled annual horn growth. These results reveal dependency of local trophic interactions on large-scale climate dynamics, and provide evidence that declining herbivore performance is not a universal response to global warming even for high-altitude populations that are also harvested.

  15. European springtime temperature synchronises ibex horn growth across the eastern Swiss Alps

    PubMed Central

    Büntgen, Ulf; Liebhold, Andrew; Jenny, Hannes; Mysterud, Atle; Egli, Simon; Nievergelt, Daniel; Stenseth, Nils C; Bollmann, Kurt

    2014-01-01

    Direct effects of climate change on animal physiology, and indirect impacts from disruption of seasonal synchrony and breakdown of trophic interactions are particularly severe in Arctic and Alpine ecosystems. Unravelling biotic from abiotic drivers, however, remains challenging because high-resolution animal population data are often limited in space and time. Here, we show that variation in annual horn growth (an indirect proxy for individual performance) of 8043 male Alpine ibex (Capra ibex) over the past four decades is well synchronised among eight disjunct colonies in the eastern Swiss Alps. Elevated March to May temperatures, causing premature melting of Alpine snowcover, earlier plant phenology and subsequent improvement of ibex food resources, fuelled annual horn growth. These results reveal dependency of local trophic interactions on large-scale climate dynamics, and provide evidence that declining herbivore performance is not a universal response to global warming even for high-altitude populations that are also harvested. PMID:24341995

  16. Hand-held cow horn: resurgence of an old arm or a potential terrorist weapon.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Lawal; Ahmed, Adamu

    2012-01-01

    A 23 year old man presented with intestinal evisceration from stab injury to the left side of the abdomen with a hand-held cow horn at a local night party. He complained of severe abdominal pain and bleeding at the site of injury. He was hemodynamically stable. At emergency exploration, the eviscerated bowel was viable with no adjacent mesenteric tear. Other intra abdominal organs were normal. The eviscerated bowel was lavaged and reduced into the abdomen through the 7 cm anterior abdominal wall laceration. The laceration was repaired and abdomen closed in layers. Post operative recovery was uneventful. The hand-held cow horn can easily be concealed and may pass through security checks undetected. It should be added to the ever increasing list of weapons of small scale terror.

  17. W-band prototype of platelet feed-horn array for CMB polarisation measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Torto, F.; Bersanelli, M.; Cavaliere, F.; De Rosa, A.; D'Arcangelo, O.; Franceschet, C.; Gervasi, M.; Mennella, A.; Pagana, E.; Simonetto, A.; Tartari, A.; Villa, F.; Zannoni, M.

    2011-06-01

    We present the design and performance of a 2x2 prototype array of corrugated feed-horns in W-band. The module is fabricated using a so-called ``platelet'' technique by milling Aluminum plates. This technique is suitable for low-cost and scalable high performance applications. Room temperature Return Loss measurements show a low ( < -30 dB) reflection over a 30% bandwidth with a maximum matching of -42 dB at 100 GHz for all four antennas. Beam pattern measurements indicate good repeatability and a low (-25 dB) sidelobe and crosspolarisation levels. This work is particularly relevant for future Cosmic Microwave Background polarisation measurements, which require large microwave cryogenic detector arrays coupled to high performance corrugated feed horns.

  18. Sarcocystis falcatula-associated encephalitis in a free-ranging great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Wünschmann, Arno; Rejmanek, Daniel; Cruz-Martinez, Luis; Barr, Bradd C

    2009-03-01

    A great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was admitted to a rehabilitation clinic with severe neurologic signs that were unresponsive to supportive care. The animal was euthanatized because of a poor prognosis. Marked granulomatous encephalitis with focal brainstem malacia was detected microscopically. The brainstem was the most severely affected brain location and the only place in which schizonts and merozoites, morphologically compatible with Sarcocystis spp., were detected. Immunohistochemistry with the use of polyclonal antisera indicated the presence of Sarcocystis falcatula. The species identification of the protozoa as S. falcatula was confirmed by polymerase chain reaction. To the author's knowledge, this is the first report of spontaneous S. falcatula-associated encephalitis in a great horned owl. PMID:19286517

  19. Antenna noise temperatures of the 34-meter beam-waveguide antenna with horns of different gains installed at F1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Otoshi, T. Y.; Lee, P. R.; Franco, M. M.

    1994-01-01

    This article presents a set of theoretical and measured zenith-antenna noise temperatures at 8.45 GHz for the DSS-13 34-m beam-waveguide antenna when horns of different gains are installed at F1. The methodology for calculations is shown in detail. The major differences between calculated and measured values are attributed to changes in subreflector support leg scattering when illuminated by the various horns.

  20. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-10-01

    Some traditional health practitioners of South Africa have claimed that Harpagophytum procumbens DC (family: Pedaliaceae) secondary root is a useful obstetric remedy for induction or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) on longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from non-pregnant and pregnant, young adult, female rats. HPE (10-800 microg/ml) induced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05) increases in the baseline tone, and caused powerful rhythmic, myogenic contractions of, oestrogen-dominated rat longitudinal uterine horn muscle strips taken from stilboesterol-pretreated, non-pregnant female rats. Relatively low to high concentrations of HPE (10-800 microg/ml) also provoked concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) increases in the baseline tone of, and contracted, longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from female rats in the early, middle and late stages of pregnancy. Moderate to high concentrations of HPE (200-1,000 microg/ml) always provoked powerful contractions of isolated longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle preparations of non-pregnant and pregnant rats. The results of this in vitro study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses spasmogenic, uterotonic action on mammalian uterine muscles. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric obstetric uses of the plant's secondary root for induction and/or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. PMID:19907121

  1. Primary closure of the corneas of two Great Horned owls after resection of nonhealing ulcers.

    PubMed

    Gionfriddo, Juliet R; Powell, Cynthia C

    2006-01-01

    Two Great Horned owls were presented to the Colorado State University Veterinary Teaching Hospital for evaluation of corneal lesions. Each bird had a corneal ulcer and bullous keratopathy. Following unsuccessful attempts at medical and surgical management, the corneal defects in each bird were treated with penetrating keratoplasties and conjunctival pedicle grafts. In each bird the cornea healed well and regained approximately its normal shape. Both birds fully recovered and have been released into the wild. PMID:16771761

  2. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta.

    PubMed

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-03-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  3. Experimental violation of local realism by four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entanglement.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Zhi; Yang, Tao; Chen, Yu-Ao; Zhang, An-Ning; Zukowski, Marek; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2003-10-31

    We report the first experimental violation of local realism by four-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement. In the experiment, the nonstatistical GHZ conflicts between quantum mechanics and local realism are confirmed, within the experimental accuracy, by four specific measurements of polarization correlations between four photons. In addition, our experimental results also demonstrate a strong violation of Mermin-Ardehali-Belinskii-Klyshko inequality by 76 standard deviations. Such a violation can only be attributed to genuine four-photon entanglement.

  4. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  5. Uterotonic effect of Harpagophytum procumbens DC (Pedaliaceae) secondary root aqueous extract on rat isolated uterine horns.

    PubMed

    Mahomed, Ismail M; Ojewole, John A O

    2009-10-01

    Some traditional health practitioners of South Africa have claimed that Harpagophytum procumbens DC (family: Pedaliaceae) secondary root is a useful obstetric remedy for induction or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the effect of H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract (HPE) on longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from non-pregnant and pregnant, young adult, female rats. HPE (10-800 microg/ml) induced concentration-related and significant (P<0.05) increases in the baseline tone, and caused powerful rhythmic, myogenic contractions of, oestrogen-dominated rat longitudinal uterine horn muscle strips taken from stilboesterol-pretreated, non-pregnant female rats. Relatively low to high concentrations of HPE (10-800 microg/ml) also provoked concentration-dependent and significant (P<0.05-0.001) increases in the baseline tone of, and contracted, longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle strips taken from female rats in the early, middle and late stages of pregnancy. Moderate to high concentrations of HPE (200-1,000 microg/ml) always provoked powerful contractions of isolated longitudinal, tubular uterine horn muscle preparations of non-pregnant and pregnant rats. The results of this in vitro study indicate that H. procumbens secondary root aqueous extract possesses spasmogenic, uterotonic action on mammalian uterine muscles. These findings lend pharmacological credence to the suggested folkloric obstetric uses of the plant's secondary root for induction and/or acceleration of labour, as well as for expelling retained placentas in pregnant women.

  6. Noncommuting local common causes for correlations violating the Clauser-Horne inequality

    SciTech Connect

    Hofer-Szabo, Gabor; Vecsernyes, Peter

    2012-12-15

    In the paper, the EPR-Bohm scenario will be reproduced in an algebraic quantum field theoretical setting with locally finite degrees of freedom. It will be shown that for a set of spatially separated correlating events (projections) maximally violating the Clauser-Horne inequality there can be given a common causal explanation if commutativity is abandoned between the common cause and the correlating events. Moreover, the noncommuting common cause will be local and supported in the common past of the correlating events.

  7. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide. PMID:25276929

  8. Peripheral nerve injury activates convergent nociceptive input to dorsal horn neurons from neighboring intact nerve.

    PubMed

    Terayama, Ryuji; Yamamoto, Yuya; Kishimoto, Noriko; Maruhama, Kotaro; Mizutani, Masahide; Iida, Seiji; Sugimoto, Tomosada

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies demonstrated that peripheral nerve injury induced excessive nociceptive response of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons and such change has been proposed to reflect the development of neuropathic pain state. The aim of this study was to examine the spinal dorsal horn for convergence of nociceptive input to second-order neurons deafferented by peripheral nerve injury. Double immunofluorescence labeling for c-Fos and phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) was performed to detect convergent synaptic input to spinal dorsal horn neurons after the saphenous nerve injury. c-Fos expression and the phosphorylation of ERK were induced by noxious heat stimulation of the hindpaw and by electrical stimulation of the injured or uninjured saphenous nerve, respectively. Within the central terminal field of the saphenous nerve, the number of c-Fos protein-like immunoreactive (c-Fos-IR) cell profiles was significantly decreased at 3 days and returned to the control level by 14 days after the injury. p-ERK immunoreactive (p-ERK-IR) cell profiles were distributed in the central terminal field of the saphenous nerve, and the topographic distribution pattern and number of such p-ERK-IR cell profiles remained unchanged after the nerve injury. The time course of changes in the number of double-labeled cell profiles was similar to that of c-Fos-IR cell profiles after the injury. These results indicate that convergent primary nociceptive input through neighboring intact nerves contributes to increased responsiveness of spinal dorsal horn nociceptive neurons.

  9. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, C. S.; Lee, S. W.; Justice, D. W.

    1986-01-01

    A circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. This device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  10. A simple circular-polarized antenna: Circular waveguide horn coated with lossy magnetic material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Choon S.; Justice, D. W.; Lee, Shung-Wu

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that a circular waveguide horn coated with a lossy material in its interior wall can be used as an alternative to a corrugated waveguide for radiating a circularly polarized (CP) field. To achieve good CP radiation, the diameter of the structure must be larger than the free-space wavelength, and the coating material must be sufficiently lossy and magnetic. The device is cheaper and lighter in weight than the corrugated one.

  11. Opposing Actions of Sevoflurane on GABAergic and Glycinergic Synaptic Inhibition in the Spinal Ventral Horn

    PubMed Central

    Eckle, Veit-Simon; Hauser, Sabrina; Drexler, Berthold; Antkowiak, Bernd; Grasshoff, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Background The ventral horn is a major substrate in mediating the immobilizing properties of the volatile anesthetic sevoflurane in the spinal cord. In this neuronal network, action potential firing is controlled by GABAA and glycine receptors. Both types of ion channels are sensitive to volatile anesthetics, but their role in mediating anesthetic-induced inhibition of spinal locomotor networks is not fully understood. Methodology/Principal Findings To compare the effects of sevoflurane on GABAergic and glycinergic inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSCs) whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings from ventral horn interneurons were carried out in organotypic spinal cultures. At concentrations close to MAC (minimum alveolar concentration), decay times of both types of IPSCs were significantly prolonged. However, at 1.5 MAC equivalents, GABAergic IPSCs were decreased in amplitude and reduced in frequency. These effects counteracted the prolongation of the decay time, thereby decreasing the time-averaged GABAergic inhibition. In contrast, amplitudes and frequency of glycinergic IPSCs were not significantly altered by sevoflurane. Furthermore, selective GABAA and glycine receptor antagonists were tested for their potency to reverse sevoflurane-induced inhibition of spontaneous action potential firing in the ventral horn. These experiments confirmed a weak impact of GABAA receptors and a prominent role of glycine receptors at a high sevoflurane concentration. Conclusions At high concentrations, sevoflurane mediates neuronal inhibition in the spinal ventral horn primarily via glycine receptors, and less via GABAA receptors. Our results support the hypothesis that the impact of GABAA receptors in mediating the immobilizing properties of volatile anesthetics is less essential in comparison to glycine receptors. PMID:23565218

  12. Survival and fate of Salmonella enterica serovar Montevideo in adult horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Edrington, Thomas S; Loneragan, Guy H

    2014-09-01

    Contamination of cattle peripheral lymph nodes with Salmonella enterica is proposed to occur via a transdermal route of entry. If so, bacteria may be introduced to cattle by biting arthropods. Biting flies, such as horn flies (Haematobia irritans irritans (L.)) (Diptera: Muscidae), are intriguing candidates for transmitting Salmonella to cattle because they provide a route of entry when they breach the skin barrier during blood feeding. Using a green fluorescent protein-expressing strain of Salmonella Montevideo (S. Montevideo-GFP), the current study demonstrated that horn fly grooming subsequent to tactile exposure to the bacteria resulted in acquisition of the bacteria on mouthparts as well as microbial ingestion. Consumption of a bloodmeal containing approximately 10(2), approximately 10(4), or 10(6) S. Montevideo-GFP resulted in horn fly colonization for up to 72 h postingestion (PI). Epifluorescent microscopy indicated that the bacteria were not localized to the crop but were observed within the endoperitrophic space, suggesting that regurgitation is not a primary route of transmission. S. Montevideo-GFP were cultured from excreta of 100% of flies beginning 6-7 h PI of a medium or high dose meal and > 12 h PI in excreta from 60% of flies fed the low-dose meal. Animal hides and manure pats are sources for horn flies to acquire the Salmonella and mechanically transmit them to an animal while feeding. Mean quantities of 5.65-67.5 x 10(2) CFU per fly were cultured from fly excreta passed within 1 d after feeding, suggesting the excreta can provide an additional microbial source on the animal's hide.

  13. Assessing Transmission of Salmonella to Bovine Peripheral Lymph Nodes upon Horn Fly Feeding.

    PubMed

    Olafson, Pia Untalan; Brown, Tyson R; Lohmeyer, Kimberly H; Harvey, Roger B; Nisbet, David J; Loneragan, Guy H; Edrington, Thomas S

    2016-07-01

    Biting arthropods are implicated in the transdermal transmission of Salmonella to bovine peripheral lymph nodes, and such contamination can contribute to increased Salmonella prevalence in processed beef. Since horn flies can acquire Salmonella and then excrete the bacteria in their feces, on-animal fly infestations were conducted in this study to assess whether horn flies have a role in this bacterial transmission. Three Salmonella serotypes were used to assess fly acquisition from and excretion onto cattle. The results indicated that flies can acquire Salmonella from the hide, as assessed by recovery from homogenates of surfacesterilized flies, and that Salmonella persists for at least 5 days in the fly. Fly fecal excreta serves as a bacterial contaminant on the hide, and the overall mean probable estimate of the quantity shed was ≈10(5) most probable number per fly cage area. In 5 days, no transmission of the bacteria to bovine peripheral lymph nodes was evident, prompting an assessment of the effects of prolonged horn fly feeding on transmission. Three groups of animals were infested with flies that had consumed a blood meal containing Salmonella Senftenberg. After 5 days, the study was either terminated or the flies were removed and the cages replenished with unfed flies either once or twice over the course of an 11- or 19-day fly exposure period, respectively. A microlancet-inoculated positive-control animal was included in each group for comparison. The impact of prolonged horn fly feeding was evident, as 8% of lymph nodes cultured were positive from the 5-day exposure, whereas 50 and 42% were positive from 11- and 19-day exposures, respectively. Higher concentrations of Salmonella were recovered from fly-infested animals than from the microlancet-inoculated control, likely a result of repeated inoculations over time by flies versus a single introduction. The data described provide new insights into the transmission dynamics of Salmonella in cattle

  14. Columbid herpesvirus-1 mortality in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) from Calgary, Alberta

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Nicole; Warren, Amy L.; Whiteside, Douglas; Bidulka, Julie; Robinson, John H.; Illanes, Oscar; Brookfield, Caroline

    2012-01-01

    Four cases of Columbid herpesvirus-1 infection in great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) were identified in Calgary, Alberta. Necropsy findings included severe multifocal hepatic and splenic necrosis, pharyngeal ulceration and necrosis, and gastrointestinal necrosis. Occasional eosinophilic intranuclear viral inclusion bodies were associated with the foci of necrosis and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing confirmed a diagnosis of herpesvirus-induced disease. The sequence of a PCR amplicon had 99.7% homology to Columbid herpesvirus-1. PMID:22942441

  15. Glaucoma in a captive-bred great horned owl (Bubo virginianus virginianus).

    PubMed

    Rayment, L J; Williams, D

    1997-05-01

    A captive-bred adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus virginianus) behaved as though it was bilaterally blind. An ophthalmological examination showed that it had an increased intraocular pressure in both eyes and gonioscopy showed an abnormality of the iridocorneal angles. Retinal changes were also observed. Treatment was not attempted and the owl was euthanased. Histopathology confirmed the abnormal iridocorneal angles, but the exact aetiology of the primary glaucoma was not identified. PMID:9160532

  16. Optimization of the magnetic horn for the nuSTORM non-conventional neutrino beam using the genetic algorithm

    DOE PAGES

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes the strategy for optimizing the magnetic horn for the neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility. The nuSTORM magnetic horn is the primary collection device for the secondary particles generated by bombarding a solid target with 120 GeV protons. As a consequence of the non-conventional beamline designed for nuSTORM, the requirements on the horn are different from those for a conventional neutrino beamline. At nuSTORM, muons decay while circulating in the storage ring, and the detectors are placed downstream of the production straight so as to be exposed to the neutrinos from muon decay. nuSTORM aims at preciselymore » measuring the neutrino cross sections, and providing a definitive statement about the existence of sterile neutrinos. The nuSTORM horn aims at focusing the pions into a certain phase space so that more muons from pion decay can be accepted by the decay ring. The paper demonstrates a numerical method that was developed to optimize the horn design to gain higher neutrino flux from the circulating muons. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to the simultaneous optimization of the two objectives in this study. In conclusion, the application of the technique discussed in this paper is not limited to either the nuSTORM facility or muon based facilities, but can be used for other neutrino facilities that use magnetic horns as collection devices.« less

  17. Effects of biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of samples of solar horn of Holstein cows

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Effects of dietary biotin supplementation on serum biotin levels and physical properties of sole horn of 40 Holstein cows were evaluated. The mean serum biotin level in biotin-supplemented cows after 10 mo of biotin supplementation (1163.2 ± 76.2 pg/mL) was significantly higher (P = 0.007) than that in control cows (382.0 ± 76.2 pg/mL). The sole horn of biotin-supplemented cows was significantly harder (P = 0.026) and had a significantly lower moisture content (P = 0.021) than that of control cows. No morphologic differences in horn tubules or intertubular horn were found between the biotin-supplemented and control cows. The total lipid content of sole horn was significantly higher (P = 0.030) in the biotin-supplemented cows than in the control cows. These results suggest that dietary biotin supplementation causes increases in serum biotin levels and changes in physical properties and fat content of sole horn. PMID:15188952

  18. Optimization of the magnetic horn for the nuSTORM non-conventional neutrino beam using the genetic algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, A.; Bross, A.; Neuffer, D.

    2015-05-28

    This paper describes the strategy for optimizing the magnetic horn for the neutrinos from STORed Muons (nuSTORM) facility. The nuSTORM magnetic horn is the primary collection device for the secondary particles generated by bombarding a solid target with 120 GeV protons. As a consequence of the non-conventional beamline designed for nuSTORM, the requirements on the horn are different from those for a conventional neutrino beamline. At nuSTORM, muons decay while circulating in the storage ring, and the detectors are placed downstream of the production straight so as to be exposed to the neutrinos from muon decay. nuSTORM aims at precisely measuring the neutrino cross sections, and providing a definitive statement about the existence of sterile neutrinos. The nuSTORM horn aims at focusing the pions into a certain phase space so that more muons from pion decay can be accepted by the decay ring. The paper demonstrates a numerical method that was developed to optimize the horn design to gain higher neutrino flux from the circulating muons. A Genetic Algorithm (GA) was applied to the simultaneous optimization of the two objectives in this study. In conclusion, the application of the technique discussed in this paper is not limited to either the nuSTORM facility or muon based facilities, but can be used for other neutrino facilities that use magnetic horns as collection devices.

  19. Efficacy of Brahman breeding in the management of insecticide-resistant horn flies (Diptera: Muscidae) on beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; McNew, R W; Brown, M A; Tolley, G; Phillips, J M

    1994-02-01

    The efficacy of Brahman breeding used as an alternative tactic to manage insecticide-resistant populations of adult horn flies, Haematobia irritans irritans (L.), was determined. Concentration-mortality bioassays done at Booneville and Hope, AR, in 1988 and 1989, respectively, showed that horn fly populations were resistant to diazinon, pirimiphos methyl, tetrachlorvinphos, and methoxychlor. Data showed loss of field efficacy for coumaphos and delnav. Mean horn fly counts on Braham cows were significantly lower than on Angus cows for all sampling dates in 1989 and 1990. Mean fly counts on Brahman x Angus cows were approximately intermediate to the two purebred mean fly counts. Brahman breeding caused significant reductions in the number of organophosphate-resistant horn flies, which had been equal to or greater than that obtained from continued spraying with organophosphate insecticides. The Brahman x Hereford cows, which have one-eighth greater Brahman breeding than the Brangus cows, had fewer horn flies on 48 of 56 sampling dates in 1988-1990 and significantly fewer flies on 37 sampling dates. The effectiveness of Brahman breeding in causing lower numbers of insecticide-resistant horn flies significantly increased as the percentage of Brahman breeding increased. PMID:8144749

  20. Neurones in the dorsal horn of the rat responding to scrotal skin temperature changes

    PubMed Central

    Hellon, R. F.; Misra, N. K.

    1973-01-01

    1. Micro-electrode recordings have been made from single neurones in the dorsal horn of male rats anaesthetized with urethane. Scrotal temperature was altered within the range 13-43° C by means of a thermode. The mean firing rate of neurones was correlated with step and ramp changes of temperature. 2. In the region where the scrotal nerve enters the cord, 47% of the neurones were responsive to scrotal temperature: half were excited by warming and half by cooling. Most of these thermally responding units were not affected when the scrotal skin was touched and only one-fifth responded to both modalities. 3. Both the `warm' and `cold' groups of neurones showed responses to step changes of temperature which were classified as dynamic plus static, dynamic only or static only. Comparison of these responses with those published for the scrotal thermoreceptors showed that the incoming thermal information was being processed in the dorsal horn. 4. Histological examination of the cord showed that recording sites were in laminae I to V of the dorsal horn. PMID:4727086

  1. Hydrocarbon maturation in Laramide basins - constraints from evolution of northern Big Horn basin, Wyoming and Montana

    SciTech Connect

    Hagen, E.S.; Furlong, K.P.; Surdam, R.C.

    1984-04-01

    Thermal and mechanical models were used to quantify the effects of Laramide uplifts and subsequent synorogenic deposition on the hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks in the Big Horn basin. Laramide deformation and resultant sedimentation has clearly affected hydrocarbon maturation of Cretaceous source rocks. (Thermopolis, Mowry, Frontier, Cody). Modified Lopatin-type reconstructions suggest that a significant region containing Cretaceous source rocks has been within the liquid hydrocarbon window. The earliest onset of hydrocarbon maturation in the northern Big Horn basin was latest Eocene, with some regions still containing immature Cretaceous source rocks as a consequence of Cenozoic erosion, uplift of the Pryor Mountains, and lack of burial. Regional geologic features indicate that the basin formed as a result of flexural compensation of an elastic lithosphere during emplacement of the Beartooth and Pryor Mountains, and possibly the Absaroka volcanics. This was determined by 2-dimensional models which predict sediment thickness caused by tectonic loading and subsequent sedimentation. Flexural rigidities of 10/sup 2/2exclamation-10/sup 22/ newton-meters adequately explain flexural subsidence in the northern Big Horn basin. The present basin configuration also was compared with a theoretical profile based on geologic constraints. Subsidence models for the present basin profile suggest the Paleocene thrusting of the Beartooth block contributes a majority of the tectonic loading and that Cenozoic erosion has drastically affected the resultant sedimentary sequence (Fort Union and Wasatch). These models, along with stratigraphic reconstructions, can be combined to pinpoint areas of potential hydrocarbon maturation within Laramide-type basins.

  2. Acetaldehyde Content and Oxidative Stress in the Deleterious Effects of Alcohol Drinking on Rat Uterine Horn

    PubMed Central

    Buthet, Lara Romina; Maciel, María Eugenia; Quintans, Leandro Néstor; Rodríguez de Castro, Carmen; Costantini, Martín Hernán; Castro, José Alberto

    2013-01-01

    After alcohol exposure through a standard Lieber and De Carli diet for 28 days, a severe atrophy in the rat uteirne horn was observed, accompanied by significant alterations in its epithelial cells. Microsomal pathway of acetaldehyde production was slightly increased. Hydroxyl radicals were detected in the cytosolic fraction, and this was attributed to participation of xanthine oxidoreductase. They were also observed in the microsomal fraction in the presence of NADPH generating system. No generation of 1-hydroxyethyl was evidenced. The t-butylhydroperoxide-induced chemiluminescence analysis of uterine horn homogenates revealed a significant increase in the chemiluminiscence emission due to ethanol exposure. In the animals repeatedly exposed to alcohol, sulfhydryl content from uterine horn proteins was decreased, but no significant changes were observed in the protein carbonyl content from the same samples. Minor but significant decreasing changes were observed in the GSH content accompanied by a tendency to decrease in the GSH/GSSG ratio. A highly significant finding was the diminished activity content of glutathione peroxidase. Results suggest that acetaldehyde accumulation plus the oxidative stress may play an additional effect to the alcohol-promoted hormonal changes in the uterus reported by others after chronic exposure to alcohol. PMID:24348548

  3. Polyceraty (multi-horns) in Damara sheep maps to ovine chromosome 2.

    PubMed

    Greyvenstein, O F C; Reich, C M; van Marle-Koster, E; Riley, D G; Hayes, B J

    2016-04-01

    Polyceraty (presence of multiple horns) is rare in modern day ungulates. Although not found in wild sheep, polyceraty does occur in a small number of domestic sheep breeds covering a wide geographical region. Damara are fat-tailed hair sheep, from the south-western region of Africa, which display polyceraty, with horn number ranging from zero to four. We conducted a genome-wide association study for horn number with 43 Damara genotyped with 606 006 SNP markers. The analysis revealed a region with multiple significant SNPs on ovine chromosome 2, in a location different from the mutation for polled in sheep on chromosome 10. The causal mutation for polyceraty was not identified; however, the region associated with polyceraty spans nine HOXD genes, which are critical in embryonic development of appendages. Mutations in HOXD genes are implicated in polydactly phenotypes in mice and humans. There was no evidence for epistatic interactions contributing to polyceraty. This is the first report on the genetic mechanisms underlying polyceraty in the under-studied Damara.

  4. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields. PMID:24889548

  5. Dynamics of cypermethrin resistance in the field in the horn fly, Haematobia irritans.

    PubMed

    Guglielmone, A A; Castelli, M E; Volpogni, M M; Anziani, O S; Mangold, A J

    2002-09-01

    The toxicity of cypermethrin to the horn fly Haematobia irritans (L.) (Diptera: Muscidae) was determined for samples collected from untreated herds at a farm in central Argentina from October 1997 to May 2001. Field tests of the efficacy of cypermethrin against horn flies were first carried out at this farm in 1993, when the fly was shown to be susceptible to pyrethroids. Subsequently the horn fly populations on this farm were shown to have become resistant and, since 1997, the use of cypermethrin has been restricted to experimental purposes. In this study, fly samples collected in 1999, 2000 and 2001 were subjected to a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the presence of a specific nucleotide substitution in the sodium channel gene sequence, which has been associated with target site insensitivity to pyrethroids. This analysis showed that the level of cypermethrin resistance had diminished between 1997 and 2001. However, this was not sufficient to restore the efficacy of this pyrethroid to the level found prior to the onset of resistance. Heterozygous and homozygous resistant flies were detected in all samples of flies subjected to PCR diagnosis of alleles conferring target site resistance.

  6. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields.

  7. Nonlinear effects contributing to hand-stopping tones in a horn.

    PubMed

    Ebihara, Takayasu; Yoshikawa, Shigeru

    2013-05-01

    Hand stopping is a technique for playing the French horn while closing the bell relatively tightly using the right hand. The resulting timbre is called "penetrating" and "metallic." The effect of hand stopping on the horn input impedance has been studied, but the tone quality has hardly ever been considered. In the present paper, the dominant physical cause of the stopped-tone quality is discussed in detail. Numerical calculations of the transmission function of the stopped-horn model and the measurements of both sound pressure and wall vibration in hand stopping are carried out. They strongly suggest that the metallicness of the stopped tone is characterized by the generation of higher harmonics extending over 10 kHz due to the rapidly corrugating waveform and that the associated wall vibration on the bell may be responsible for this higher harmonic generation. However, excitation experiments and immobilization experiments performed to elucidate the relationship between sound radiation and wall vibration deny their correlation. Instead, the measurement result of the mouthpiece pressure in hand stopping suggests that minute wave corrugations peculiar to the metallic stopped tones are probably formed by nonlinear sound propagation along the bore. PMID:23654412

  8. Purification and identification of three novel antioxidant peptides from Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn).

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Min; Duan, Jin-Ao; Guo, Jian-Ming; Tang, Yu-Ping

    2010-05-01

    Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) for thousands of years. In the present study, three peptides with antioxidant properties were purified from aqueous extract of Cornu Bubali (water buffalo horn, WBH) by consecutive chromatographic methods including gel filtration chromatography, ion-exchange chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography. The sequences of the three peptides were identified to be Gln-Tyr-Asp-Gln-Gly-Val (WBH-1, 708Da), Tyr-Glu-Asp-Cys-Thr-Asp-Cys-Gly-Asn (WBH-2, 1018Da) and Ala-Ala-Asp-Asn-Ala-Asn-Glu-Leu-Phe-Pro-Pro-Asn (WBH-3, 1271Da) by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-LIFT-TOF/TOF MS). The antioxidant activity of these peptides was tested using 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) scavenging assay directly. Methylthiazol tetrazolium (MTT) assay and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release assay were also used to evaluate the protection of peptides against hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) induced injury. The results showed that these peptides could reduce the DPPH radical and protect rat cerebral microvascular endothelial cells (rCMECs) against H(2)O(2)-induced injury, thus demonstrating that these peptides had antioxidant activity. These results suggest that WBH-1, WBH-2 and WBH-3, isolated from the aqueous extract of water buffalo horn are natural antioxidants and may contribute to the efficacy of WBH.

  9. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data.

  10. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset

    PubMed Central

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E.; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded ‘Centennial Trends’ precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  11. The Centennial Trends Greater Horn of Africa precipitation dataset.

    PubMed

    Funk, Chris; Nicholson, Sharon E; Landsfeld, Martin; Klotter, Douglas; Peterson, Pete; Harrison, Laura

    2015-01-01

    East Africa is a drought prone, food and water insecure region with a highly variable climate. This complexity makes rainfall estimation challenging, and this challenge is compounded by low rain gauge densities and inhomogeneous monitoring networks. The dearth of observations is particularly problematic over the past decade, since the number of records in globally accessible archives has fallen precipitously. This lack of data coincides with an increasing scientific and humanitarian need to place recent seasonal and multi-annual East African precipitation extremes in a deep historic context. To serve this need, scientists from the UC Santa Barbara Climate Hazards Group and Florida State University have pooled their station archives and expertise to produce a high quality gridded 'Centennial Trends' precipitation dataset. Additional observations have been acquired from the national meteorological agencies and augmented with data provided by other universities. Extensive quality control of the data was carried out and seasonal anomalies interpolated using kriging. This paper documents the CenTrends methodology and data. PMID:26451250

  12. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  13. [Preliminary study on substitution of Antelope Horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Chen, Tao; Li, Zheng; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-09-01

    To study the protective effect of Danqi Piantan capsule ( DPC) and its antelope horn substitution (DPCAS) on the cerebral ischemia, in order to preliminary study the possibility of replacing antelope horn with artificial bezoar. In this study, the left middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was adopted. Totally 150 SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the sham operation group, the model group, the Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn (DPCRA) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)), the Danqi Piantan capsule without antelope horn and with double artificial bezoar (DPCDB) group (0.246 g x kg(-1) x d(-1)). The MCAO model was prepared 1 h later after the administration on the 5th day. At 24 h after the operation, the inner canthus blood was collected to determine the serum superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and the endothelin (ET) content. At 72 h after the operation, the cerebral infarct size and the cerebral index were determined by TTC-staining. The fluorescent quantitative PCR method was used to detect brain Bcl-2, Caspase-3, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions. The mmunohistochemical method was used to detect ICAM-1, IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6 expressions in ischemic penumbra. According to the results, compared with the model group, DPCDB and DPC groups showed almost consistent results, indicating both of the two group can significantly improved cerebral infarction index and cerebral index (P < 0.05), increase the serum SOD activity (P < 0.05), decrease the serum ET level and Caspase-3 expression, IL-1β, P-selectin, E-selectin, ICAM-1 mRNA expressions in brain tissues (P < 0.05) and expressions of ICAM-1, IL-1,6, TNF-α, IL-6 positive cells in ischemic penumbra (P < 0.05) and increase the Bcl-2 expression (P < 0.05). The DPCRA group showed much lower impacts on indexes than DPCDB and DPC groups. This suggests that DPCDB and DPC reveal similar efficacies and antelope horn in

  14. Structure-function relationships in rat medullary and cervical dorsal horns. I. Trigeminal primary afferents.

    PubMed

    Jacquin, M F; Renehan, W E; Mooney, R D; Rhoades, R W

    1986-06-01

    Intracellular recording and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeling were used to examine structure-function relationships in the medullary dorsal horn (MDH) and rostral cervical dorsal horn. In Nembutal-anesthetized rats, 78 trigeminal (V) primary afferent fibers were physiologically characterized and injected with HRP. Axons were sufficiently well stained to reconstruct all of their collaterals in the MDH. Many also extended into the cervical dorsal horn. Except for four axons, which responded best to noxious stimuli, all responded at short (mean = 0.50 ms) latencies to V ganglion shocks and to innocuous stimulation. Forty-five of our recovered fibers were associated with facial vibrissae and responded in either a rapidly adapting, slowly adapting type I, slowly adapting type IIa, or slowly adapting type IIb fashion. The adequate stimuli consisted of either slow deflection, high-velocity deflection, or a noxious pinch of the vibrissa follicle. The collaterals of all of the above-described mystacial vibrissa primary afferents proceeded directly to their region of arborization in a plane perpendicular to the lateral border of the medulla to collectively form a largely continuous, circumscribed terminal column. This longitudinally oriented column of terminal and en passant boutons angled from lamina V rostrally to lamina III caudally. In the magnocellular laminae of the MDH, all mystacial vibrissa primary afferents gave rise to similarly shaped arbors, regardless of their functional classification. While morphological variability was observed both within and between individual axons, variance between functional classes was no greater than that within a class. Moreover, number of collaterals, number of boutons, or bouton size did not distinguish functional classes. Nonmystacial vibrissa afferent arbors, with more caudal peripheral fields, had their primary arbor focus in C1 and C2 dorsal horn. These arbors had relatively little rostrocaudal overlap with mystacial

  15. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair. PMID:9330257

  16. Spatial selectivity and binaural responses in the inferior colliculus of the great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Volman, S F; Konishi, M

    1989-09-01

    In this study we have investigated the processing of auditory cues for sound localization in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus). Previous studies have shown that the barn owl, whose ears are asymmetrically oriented in the vertical plane, has a 2-dimensional, topographic representation of auditory space in the external division of the inferior colliculus (ICx). As in the barn owl, the great horned owl's ICx is anatomically distinct and projects to the optic tectum. Neurons in ICx respond over only a small range of azimuths (mean = 32 degrees), and azimuth is topographically mapped. In contrast to the barn owl, the great horned owl has bilaterally symmetrical ears and its receptive fields are not restricted in elevation. The binaural cues available for sound localization were measured both with cochlear microphonic recordings and with a microphone attached to a probe tube in the auditory canal. Interaural time disparity (ITD) varied monotonically with azimuth. Interaural intensity differences (IID) also changed with azimuth, but the largest IIDs were less than 15 dB, and the variation was not monotonic. Neither ITD nor IID varied systematically with changes in the vertical position of a sound source. We used dichotic stimulation to determine the sensitivity of ICx neurons to these binaural cues. Best ITD of ICx units was topographically mapped and strongly correlated with receptive-field azimuth. The width of ITD tuning curves, measured at 50% of the maximum response, averaged 72 microseconds. All ICx neurons responded only to binaural stimulation and had nonmonotonic IID tuning curves. Best IID was weakly, but significantly, correlated with best ITD (r = 0.39, p less than 0.05). The IID tuning curves, however, were broad (mean 50% width = 24 dB), and 67% of the units had best IIDs within 5 dB of 0 dB IID. ITD tuning was sensitive to variations in IID in the direction opposite to that expected for time-intensity trading, but the magnitude of this effect was only

  17. The effects of hair density of beef cattle on Haematobia irritans horn fly populations.

    PubMed

    Steelman, C D; Brown, M A; Gbur, E E; Tolley, G

    1997-07-01

    We show the relationships that exist between the amount of hair and quantity of sebum on cattle skin and the population density of the horn fly, Haematobia irritans. Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 2390 and 1587 hairs per cm2, respectively, significantly more than the mean number of hairs on Angus, Brahman x Angus Crossbred, Charolais, and Red Poll steers. The Chianina steers had > 30% more sebum present on their skin and hair (0.58g/929 cm2) than the Angus, Charolais, and Red Poll steers at the Beef Cattle Research Station Savoy, Arkansas. The Brahman steers had a significantly greater amount of sebum present on the skin (1.51 g/929 cm2) than the Crossbred and purebred Angus steers (0.55 and 0.25 g/929 cm2, respectively) at the South Central Family Farms Research Centre Booneville, Arkansas. The Brahman and Chianina steers had means of 61.9 and 17.0 horn flies per steer, respectively, during the fly season, whereas the Angus, Crossbred, Charolais and Red Poll steers had fly season means that ranged from 76.9 to 265.8 flies per steer. Regression analysis showed that an increase of 100 hairs per cm2, was associated with a reduction of 11 horn flies in the Angus II, 5 in Angus I, 20 in Charolais, 37 in Red Poll, and 0.4 in Chianina steers at the Savoy Station and a reduction of 6.6 horn flies for the Angus, Brahman, and Crossbred steers at the Booneville Centre. Regardless of cattle breed, an increase of 1.0 g of sebum per 929 cm2 output by the steer was associated with 478.5 additional hairs per cm2 on the animal. Each increase of 0.25 g of sebum per 929 cm2 resulted in a decrease of 9.2 horn flies per steer. We conclude that some of the factors responsible for fly-resistance in cattle are hair density and the corresponding amount of sebum present on cattle skin and hair.

  18. Activation of medullary dorsal horn γ isoform of protein kinase C interneurons is essential to the development of both static and dynamic facial mechanical allodynia.

    PubMed

    Pham-Dang, Nathalie; Descheemaeker, Amélie; Dallel, Radhouane; Artola, Alain

    2016-03-01

    The γ isoform of protein kinase C (PKCγ), which is concentrated in a specific class of interneurons within inner lamina II (IIi ) of the spinal dorsal horn and medullary dorsal horn (MDH), is known to be involved in the development of mechanical allodynia, a widespread and intractable symptom of inflammatory or neuropathic pain. However, although genetic and pharmacological impairment of PKCγ were shown to prevent mechanical allodynia in animal models of pain, after nerve injury or reduced inhibition, the functional consequences of PKCγ activation alone on mechanical sensitivity are still unknown. Using behavioural and anatomical approaches in the rat MDH, we tested whether PKCγ activation in naive animals is sufficient for the establishment of mechanical allodynia. Intracisternal injection of the phorbol ester, 12,13-dibutyrate concomitantly induced static as well as dynamic facial mechanical allodynia. Monitoring neuronal activity within the MDH with phospho-extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1 and 2 immunoreactivity revealed that activation of both lamina I-outer lamina II and IIi -outer lamina III neurons, including lamina IIi PKCγ-expressing interneurons, was associated with the manifestation of mechanical allodynia. Phorbol ester, 12,13-dibutyrate-induced mechanical allodynia and associated neuronal activations were all prevented by inhibiting selectively segmental PKCγ with KIG31-1. Our findings suggest that PKCγ activation, without any other experimental manipulation, is sufficient for the development of static and dynamic mechanical allodynia. Lamina IIi PKCγ interneurons have been shown to be directly activated by low-threshold mechanical inputs carried by myelinated afferents. Thus, the level of PKCγ activation within PKCγ interneurons might gate the transmission of innocuous mechanical inputs to lamina I, nociceptive output neurons, thus turning touch into pain.

  19. Role of insects in the transmission of bovine leukosis virus: potential for transmission by stable flies, horn flies, and tabanids.

    PubMed

    Buxton, B A; Hinkle, N C; Schultz, R D

    1985-01-01

    The ability of stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans), horn flies (Haematobia irritans), and tabanids (Diptera: Tabanidae) to transmit bovine leukosis virus (BLV) was investigated. Stable flies and horn flies were fed on blood collected from an infected cow, and the flies' mouthparts were immediately removed, placed in RPMI-1640 medium, ground, and inoculated into sheep and calves. Infection of sheep occurred with mouthparts from as few as 25 stable flies or 25 horn flies. However, sheep were not infected when removal of stable fly mouthparts was delayed greater than or equal to 1 hour after blood feeding. Infection of calves occurred after inoculation of mouthparts removed immediately after feeding from as few as 50 stable flies or 100 horn flies. Infected blood, applied by capillary action to the mouthparts (labella) of 15 deer flies (Chrysops sp) and a single horse fly (Tabanus atratus) caused infection in each of 2 sheep. Infection did not occur in 2 calves inoculated daily for 5 days with mouthparts from 50 horn flies collected after feeding on a BLV-infected steer. Four calves receiving bites from 75 stable flies interrupted from feeding on a BLV-positive cow also were not infected. Seronegative cattle held for 1 to 4 months in a screened enclosure with positive cattle in the presence of biting flies were not infected with BLV. The feeding behavior of each insect is discussed to assess their potential as vectors of BLV. PMID:2982293

  20. Available sustainable alternatives replace endangered animal horn based on their proteomic analysis and bio-effect evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Rui; Wang, Fei; Huang, Qiong; Duan, Jin-ao; Liu, Pei; Shang, Erxin; Zhu, Dong; Wen, Hongmei; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The use of endangered animal products in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and other ethno-medicines is culturally widespread across many regions of Asia. In the present study, traditional efficacies of seven types of animal horn including antipyretic, sedative and procoagulant activities were evaluated. Shotgun proteomic analysis was performed on material from horns following separation into soluble and insoluble fractions. Over 200 proteins were identified in each sample using nano LC-MS/MS, and these were classified according to their molecular function and cellular component using principal component analysis (PCA). The results indicated that seven horns showed antipyretic, sedative and procoagulant effect. Proteomic analysis showed that YH and WBH were similar to RH in terms of protein profile, and GH was similar to SAH. In addition, YH and GH were similar to RH in their cellular component classification profile. PCA based on the composition of keratin and keratin-associated proteins showed that constituents of WBH and GH were similar to RH and SAH, respectively. This is the first analysis of the protein content of animal horns used in TCM, and it is effective to substitute the horn of endangered animals with sustainable alternatives from domestic animals. PMID:27786274

  1. Geology and mammalian paleontology of the Horned Toad Hills, Mojave Desert, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    May, S.R.; Woodburne, M.O.; Lindsay, E.H.; Albright, L.B.; Sarna-Wojcicki, A.; Wan, E.; Wahl, D.B.

    2011-01-01

    The Horned Toad Formation includes five lithostratigraphic members that record alluvial fan, fluvial, lake margin, and lacustrine deposition within a relatively small basin just south of the active Garlock fault during the late Miocene to early Pliocene. These sediments experienced northwest-southeast contractional deformation during the Pliocene-Pleistocene associated with basement-involved reverse faults. Member Two of the Horned Toad Formation has yielded 24 taxa of fossil mammals, referred to as the Warren Local Fauna, including Cryptotis sp., cf. Scapanus, Hypolagus vetus, Hypolagus edensis,? Spermophilus sp., Prothomomys warrenensis n. gen., n. sp., Perognathus sp., Repomys gustelyi, Postcopemys valensis, Peromyscus sp. A, Peromyscus sp. B, Jacobsomys dailyi n. sp., Borophagus cf. B. secundus, cf. Agriotherium, Machairodus sp. cf. M. coloradensis, Rhynchotherium sp. cf. R. edensis, Pliomastodon vexillarius, Dinohippus edensis, Teleoceras sp. cf. T. fossiger, cf. Prosthennops, Megatylopus sp. cf. M. matthewi, Hemiauchenia vera, Camelidae gen. et. sp. indet., and the antilocaprid cf. Sphenophalos. The majority of fossil localities are confined to a 20 m thick stratigraphic interval within a reversed polarity magnetozone. The fauna demonstrates affinity with other late Hemphillian faunas from California, Nevada, Nebraska, Texas, and Mexico. The Lawlor Tuff, dated elsewhere in California at 4.83 ?? 0.04 Ma and geochemically identified in the Horned Toad Formation, overlies most of the fossil mammal localities. Magnetic polarity data are correlated with Chrons 3n.3r, 3n.3n, and 3n.2r, suggesting an age of approximately 5.0 - 4.6 Ma. These constraints indicate an age for the late Hemphillian Warren Local Fauna of 4.85 - 5.0 Ma. ?? Society of Vertebrate Paleontology November 2011.

  2. Morphometric study on the uterine horn and thyroid gland in hypothyroid, and thyroxine treated hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed Central

    Inuwa, I; Williams, M A

    1996-01-01

    A wide range of reproductive disorders such as irregular menstruation and frank infertility is found in women with hypothyroidism. Most research done on these patients has focused on steroid and gonadotropin hormone profiles, whilst there has been little work on uterine morphology. Studies on hypothyroid animals have also demonstrated increases in fetal wastage, but there have been few studies of uterine structure in the hypothyroid rat. The present study has used hypothyroid Wistar rats as a model for investigating the effects of hypothyroidism on uterine structure. Three groups of Wistar rats were studied. One was made hypothyroid with methimazole (MMI), the 2nd was also made hypothyroid with methimazole but in addition the rats were simultaneously given daily thyroxine intraperitoneally (MMI + T4), and the 3rd was an untreated euthyroid group (control). Daily vaginal smears were obtained from rats in all 3 groups. All rats were aged 6 wk at the start of treatment and were killed after a further 6 wk. Uterine horns were removed and studied. Systematic random transverse sections were obtained from the proximal, middle, and distal regions of the horn and subjected to morphometric analysis. Difference between regions was assessed using 2-way analysis of variance. Absolute volume of endometrium in the uteri of hypothyroid rats was reduced by 45.1% (P < 0.05), whilst that of the muscle layer was decreased by 33.6% (P < 0.05). The cross-sectional area and absolute volume of the uterine horns were also reduced in hypothyroid animals (P < 0.05). In hypothyroid rats given thyroxine (MMI + T4) all variables increased significantly above those of hypothyroid rats. These changes suggest that hypothyroidism has an effect on uterine structure, which demonstrably improves under exogenous thyroxine administration. The observed structural changes might well play a significant role in the reproductive difficulties observed during hypothyroidism. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 (cont.) Fig. 2

  3. Primary Intraventricular Brain Abscess Resulting in Isolated Dilation of the Inferior Horn and Unilateral Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Kawazoe, Yushi; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Primary intraventricular brain abscesses are rare, and there are no established treatment guidelines for this condition. We report a case in which isolated ventricular dilatation and unilateral hydrocephalus developed after seemingly successful conservative management and which required surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid. A 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with high-grade fever and headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abscesses in the bilateral posterior horn. Although surgical evacuation of the abscesses was considered, conservative management with antibiotics was selected because of the paucity of severe neurological deficits and the concern that an attempt to evacuate the intraventricular abscess might lead to inadvertent rupture of the abscess capsule and acute ventriculitis. Despite reduction in the abscess volume, the patient developed an altered mental status 4 weeks after admission. Follow-up MRI revealed isolated dilation of the left inferior horn, compressing the brainstem. Emergency fenestration of the dilated inferior horn was performed, and endoscopic observation revealed an encapsulated abscess with adhesion to the ventricular wall which was thought responsible for the ventricular dilation and unilateral hydrocephalus. Two weeks after the initial surgery, the unilateral hydrocephalus was treated by placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Eradication of the intraventricular brain abscesses without surgical evacuation may justify the conservative management of this patient. However, the possibility that earlier surgical evacuation might have prevented development of the isolated ventricular dilation cannot be denied. Additional clinical experience is required to determine which treatment (surgical vs. conservative) is more appropriate in patients with primary intraventricular brain abscesses. PMID:26351446

  4. Primary Intraventricular Brain Abscess Resulting in Isolated Dilation of the Inferior Horn and Unilateral Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Inamasu, Joji; Moriya, Shigeta; Kawazoe, Yushi; Nagahisa, Shinya; Hasegawa, Mitsuhiro; Hirose, Yuichi

    2015-01-01

    Primary intraventricular brain abscesses are rare, and there are no established treatment guidelines for this condition. We report a case in which isolated ventricular dilatation and unilateral hydrocephalus developed after seemingly successful conservative management and which required surgical diversion of the cerebrospinal fluid. A 59-year-old woman presented to our emergency department with high-grade fever and headache. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed abscesses in the bilateral posterior horn. Although surgical evacuation of the abscesses was considered, conservative management with antibiotics was selected because of the paucity of severe neurological deficits and the concern that an attempt to evacuate the intraventricular abscess might lead to inadvertent rupture of the abscess capsule and acute ventriculitis. Despite reduction in the abscess volume, the patient developed an altered mental status 4 weeks after admission. Follow-up MRI revealed isolated dilation of the left inferior horn, compressing the brainstem. Emergency fenestration of the dilated inferior horn was performed, and endoscopic observation revealed an encapsulated abscess with adhesion to the ventricular wall which was thought responsible for the ventricular dilation and unilateral hydrocephalus. Two weeks after the initial surgery, the unilateral hydrocephalus was treated by placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Eradication of the intraventricular brain abscesses without surgical evacuation may justify the conservative management of this patient. However, the possibility that earlier surgical evacuation might have prevented development of the isolated ventricular dilation cannot be denied. Additional clinical experience is required to determine which treatment (surgical vs. conservative) is more appropriate in patients with primary intraventricular brain abscesses. PMID:26351446

  5. High chromosomal variation in wild horn fly Haematobia irritans (Linnaeus) (Diptera, Muscidae) populations

    PubMed Central

    Forneris, Natalia S.; Otero, Gabriel; Pereyra, Ana; Repetto, Gustavo; Rabossi, Alejandro; Quesada-Allué, Luis A.; Basso, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The horn fly, Haematobia irritans is an obligate haematophagous cosmopolitan insect pest. The first reports of attacks on livestock by Haematobia irritans in Argentina and Uruguay occurred in 1991, and since 1993 it is considered an economically important pest. Knowledge on the genetic characteristics of the horn fly increases our understanding of the phenotypes resistant to insecticides that repeatedly develop in these insects. The karyotype of Haematobia irritans, as previously described using flies from an inbred colony, shows a chromosome complement of 2n=10 without heterochromosomes (sex chromosomes). In this study, we analyze for the first time the chromosome structure and variation of four wild populations of Haematobia irritans recently established in the Southern Cone of South America, collected in Argentina and Uruguay. In these wild type populations, we confirmed and characterized the previously published “standard” karyotype of 2n=10 without sex chromosomes; however, surprisingly a supernumerary element, called B-chromosome, was found in about half of mitotic preparations. The existence of statistically significant karyotypic diversity was demonstrated through the application of orcein staining, C-banding and H-banding. This study represents the first discovery and characterization of horn fly karyotypes with 2n=11 (2n=10+B). All spermatocytes analyzed showed 5 chromosome bivalents, and therefore, 2n=10 without an extra chromosome. Study of mitotic divisions showed that some chromosomal rearrangements affecting karyotype structure are maintained as polymorphisms, and multiple correspondence analyses demonstrated that genetic variation was not associated with geographic distribution. Because it was never observed during male meiosis, we hypothesize that B-chromosome is preferentially transmitted by females and that it might be related to sex determination. PMID:25893073

  6. Microarray analysis of female- and larval-specific gene expression in the horn fly (Diptera: Muscidae).

    PubMed

    Guerrero, Felix D; Dowd, Scot E; Sun, Yan; Saldivar, Leonel; Wiley, Graham B; Macmil, Simone L; Najar, Fares; Roe, Bruce A; Foil, Lane D

    2009-03-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding parasite of cattle, and control of this pest is a continuing problem because the fly is becoming resistant to pesticides. Dominant conditional lethal gene systems are being studied as population control technologies against agricultural pests. One of the components of these systems is a female-specific gene promoter that drives expression of a lethality-inducing gene. To identify candidate genes to supply this promoter, microarrays were designed from a horn fly expressed sequence tag (EST) database and probed to identify female-specific and larval-specific gene expression. Analysis of dye swap experiments found 432 and 417 transcripts whose expression levels were higher or lower in adult female flies, respectively, compared with adult male flies. Additionally, 419 and 871 transcripts were identified whose expression levels were higher or lower in first-instar larvae compared with adult flies, respectively. Three transcripts were expressed more highly in adult females flies compared with adult males and also higher in the first-instar larval lifestage compared with adult flies. One of these transcripts, a putative nanos ortholog, has a high female-to-male expression ratio, a moderate expression level in first-instar larvae, and has been well characterized in Drosophila. melanogaster (Meigen). In conclusion, we used microarray technology, verified by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and massively parallel pyrosequencing, to study life stage- and sex-specific gene expression in the horn fly and identified three gene candidates for detailed evaluation as a gene promoter source for the development of a female-specific conditional lethality system.

  7. Effect of horn fly and internal parasite control on growth of beef heifers.

    PubMed

    Sanson, D W; DeRosa, A A; Oremus, G R; Foil, L D

    2003-11-28

    The effects of horn fly and gastrointestinal nematode control on body weight gain of yearling Angus-Brangus cross heifers were evaluated in three separate studies during the years 1999, 2000 and 2002. In each year, the studies started in late May and lasted for 150, 148 and 123 days, respectively. In all three studies, the tag treatment (10% lambdacyhalothrin+13% piperonyl butoxide impregnated ear tags) provided excellent horn fly control. In the three studies, the average weekly horn fly counts for tagged heifers were 1, 3, and 0 flies per side while the average on untreated heifers was 52, 163 and 90 flies per side. In studies 1 and 2, there was no difference (P>0.1) in weight gain between tagged and untreated heifers, but in study 3, tagged heifers gained 50% more weight (P<0.001) than the untreated heifers. For gastrointestinal nematode control, ivermectin (IVM) was administered on Day 0 in studies 1 and 3 using a sustained release bolus and on Day 0 and subsequent 56-day intervals in study 2 using either the injectable or pour-on formulation. Heifers treated with IVM in studies 1 and 3 had significantly lower (P<0.05) GI nematode fecal egg counts compared to control heifers. In study 2, IVM treated heifers also had significantly lower GI nematode fecal egg counts compared to control heifers, except for Day 90 when no differences in fecal egg counts were observed between IVM pour-on treated and control heifers. Weight gain of heifers that received IVM was significantly greater (P<0.005) than untreated heifers in each of the three studies. IVM treated heifers gained 45, 61 and 184% more weight than the untreated heifers during the three studies. There was no interaction (P>0.1) between the main treatment effects of fly control and gastrointestinal nematode control. PMID:14637031

  8. [Substitution of antelope horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Li, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro cell culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) and DPC dislodge the antelope horn with artificial bezoar double (DPCBD) on nerve regeneration and blood vessel regeneration and preliminarily investigate the possibility of substituting antelope horn in DPC with artificial bezoar. In this experiment, rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the blank serum control group, the model group, DPC groups (0.306 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), the same below), DPC remove of antelope horn (DPCRA) groups and DPCBD groups. Brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro (BMEC), astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) were co-cultured to simulate neurovascular unit, label neurons with microtubule associated protein III (β-tubulin III) antibody and lable astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidicprotein (GFAP). ELISA was used for the detection of the content of BMEC lactate dehydrogenase instrument method (LDH), the inverted phase contrastmicroscope was adopted to observe the formation of BMEC tube like structure, the number of leukocytes and leukocytes adherent to BMEC were counted under the microscope, the expression levels of β-tubulin III and the ratio of GFAP positive cells was detected with inimmunofluorescence, and RT-PCR method was used to detect NGF, BDNF, VEGF and VEGFr-2 mRNA. According to the result, compared with the model group, both DPC and DPCBD can reduce LDH leakage, promote the formation of BMEC tube like structure, inhibit leukocytes and their adhesion to BMEC, increase the β-tubulin III positive cell differentiation proportion (P < 0. 01), reduce the proportion of GFAP positive cells (P < 0.01), increase the expressions of co-cultured NGF, VEGF, BDNF and VEGFr-2 mRNA to a certain extent, with the most significant difference on NGF and VEGF mRNA expressions (P < 0.05) and the same efficacy in both groups. DPCRA groups showed less impact on all indexes than that of DPCBD and DPC groups. The same efficacy of

  9. [Substitution of antelope horn in Danqi Piantan capsule with artificial bezoar in vitro].

    PubMed

    Wang, Jin-bo; Li, Zheng; Chen, Tao; Zhang, Yan-jun; Cui, Wei-li; Li, Jin

    2015-11-01

    The in vitro cell culture experiment was conducted to study the effect of Danqi Piantan capsule (DPC) and DPC dislodge the antelope horn with artificial bezoar double (DPCBD) on nerve regeneration and blood vessel regeneration and preliminarily investigate the possibility of substituting antelope horn in DPC with artificial bezoar. In this experiment, rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the blank serum control group, the model group, DPC groups (0.306 g x kg(-1) x d(-1), the same below), DPC remove of antelope horn (DPCRA) groups and DPCBD groups. Brain microvascular endothelial cells cultured in vitro (BMEC), astrocytes and neural stem cells (NSC) were co-cultured to simulate neurovascular unit, label neurons with microtubule associated protein III (β-tubulin III) antibody and lable astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidicprotein (GFAP). ELISA was used for the detection of the content of BMEC lactate dehydrogenase instrument method (LDH), the inverted phase contrastmicroscope was adopted to observe the formation of BMEC tube like structure, the number of leukocytes and leukocytes adherent to BMEC were counted under the microscope, the expression levels of β-tubulin III and the ratio of GFAP positive cells was detected with inimmunofluorescence, and RT-PCR method was used to detect NGF, BDNF, VEGF and VEGFr-2 mRNA. According to the result, compared with the model group, both DPC and DPCBD can reduce LDH leakage, promote the formation of BMEC tube like structure, inhibit leukocytes and their adhesion to BMEC, increase the β-tubulin III positive cell differentiation proportion (P < 0. 01), reduce the proportion of GFAP positive cells (P < 0.01), increase the expressions of co-cultured NGF, VEGF, BDNF and VEGFr-2 mRNA to a certain extent, with the most significant difference on NGF and VEGF mRNA expressions (P < 0.05) and the same efficacy in both groups. DPCRA groups showed less impact on all indexes than that of DPCBD and DPC groups. The same efficacy of

  10. Quantum Fisher information of the Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger state in decoherence channels

    SciTech Connect

    Ma Jian; Huang Yixiao; Wang Xiaoguang; Sun, C. P.

    2011-08-15

    Quantum Fisher information of a parameter characterizes the sensitivity of the state with respect to changes of the parameter. In this article, we study the quantum Fisher information of a state with respect to SU(2) rotations under three decoherence channels: the amplitude-damping, phase-damping, and depolarizing channels. The initial state is chosen to be a Greenberg-Horne-Zeilinger state of which the phase sensitivity can achieve the Heisenberg limit. By using the Kraus operator representation, the quantum Fisher information is obtained analytically. We observe the decay and sudden change of the quantum Fisher information in all three channels.

  11. Male Texas Horned Lizards increase daily movements and area covered in spring: A mate searching strategy?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stark, Richard C.; Fox, S. F.; David, M.L.

    2005-01-01

    Texas Horned Lizards, Phrynosoma cornutum, were tracked using fluorescent powder to determine exact daily movements. Daily linear movements and daily space use were compared between adult males and females. Lizards that traveled the greatest linear distances also covered the largest areas. In Oklahoma, adults emerge from hibernation in late April and early May and mate soon afterward. Males traveled significantly greater distances (and covered significantly larger areas in a day) than females in May but not after May. We propose that males move more and cover more area than females early in the mating season to intercept receptive females. Copyright 2005 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  12. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  13. Avulsion of the brachial plexus in a great horned owl (Bubo virginaus)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, M.P.; Stauber, E.; Thomas, N.J.

    1989-01-01

    Avulsion of the brachial plexus was documented in a Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus). A fractured scapula was also present. Cause of these injuries was not known but was thought to be due to trauma. Differentiation of musculoskeletal injury from peripheral nerve damage can be difficult in raptors. Use of electromyography and motor nerve conduction velocity was helpful in demonstrating peripheral nerve involvement. A brachial plexus avulsion was suspected on the basis of clinical signs, presence of electromyographic abnormalities in all muscles supplied by the nerves of the brachial plexus and absence of median-ulnar motor nerve conduction velocities.

  14. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennette, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approx. 14deg FWHM beam is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A power reflection below -28 dB was measured across the band.

  15. Entanglement and discord of the superposition of Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Parashar, Preeti; Rana, Swapan

    2011-03-15

    We calculate the analytic expression for geometric measure of entanglement for arbitrary superposition of two N-qubit canonical orthonormal Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states and the same for two W states. In the course of characterizing all kinds of nonclassical correlations, an explicit formula for quantum discord (via relative entropy) for the former class of states has been presented. Contrary to the GHZ state, the closest separable state to the W state is not classical. Therefore, in this case, the discord is different from the relative entropy of entanglement. We conjecture that the discord for the N-qubit W state is log{sub 2}N.

  16. Phase Center Stabilization of a Horn Antenna and its Application in a Luneburg Lens Feed Array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakauskas, Brian H.

    With any reflecting or refracting structure, such as a parabolic reflector or lens antenna, the knowledge of the focal point is critical in the design as it determines the point at which a feeding signal should originate for proper operation. Spherically symmetrical lenses have a distinct advantage over other structure types in that there exists an infinite number of focal points surrounding the lens. Due to this feature, a spherical lens can remain in a fixed position while a beam can be steered to any direction by movement of the feed only. Unlike phased arrays that beam-steer electronically, a spherical lens exhibits no beam deterioration at wide angles. The lens that accomplishes this is in practice called the Luneburg lens which has been studied since the 1940s. Due to the electromechanical properties of the horn antenna, it is often used to feed the above mentioned configurations. In the focusing of any feed antenna, its phase center is an approximate point in space that should be coincident with a reflector or lens's focal point to minimize phase error over the radiating aperture. Although this is often easily accomplished over a narrow bandwidth, over wide bandwidths some antennas have phase centers that vary significantly, making their focusing a challenge. This thesis seeks to explain the problem with focusing a Luneburg lens with a canonical horn antenna and offers a modified horn design that remains nearly focused over a frequency band of 18 -- 45 GHz. In addition to simulating the feed / lens configurations, the lens and feed horn will be fabricated and mounted for far field measurements to be taken in an anechoic antenna range. A final feed design will be implemented in an array configuration with the Luneburg lens, capable of transmitting and receiving multiple beams without requiring any moving parts or complex electronic beam-forming networks. As a tradeoff, a separate receiver or switching network is required to accommodate each feed antenna. This

  17. Severe meningeal fibrinoid vasculitis associated with Theileria taurotragi infection in two short-horned Zebu cattle.

    PubMed

    Biasibetti, Elena; Sferra, Chiara; Lynen, Godelieve; Di Giulio, Giuseppe; De Meneghi, Daniele; Tomassone, Laura; Valenza, Federico; Capucchio, Maria Teresa

    2016-08-01

    The Authors describe a severe vasculitis with fibrinoid necrosis of the meningeal arteries observed in two brains of indigenous short-horn zebu (Bos indicus) cattle, with bovine cerebral theileriosis (BCT) caused by a tick-transmitted hemoprotozoan, Theileria taurotragi, from Northern Tanzania. In the Author's opinion, the role of T. taurotragi infection in the angiocentric and angiodestructive detected features remains to be evaluated. A possible immunopathologic cancerous mechanism, secondary to the lymphoid deregulation, could be involved. This report suggests further studies to better characterize the lymphoid cell involvement in the pathogenesis of the meningeal vascular lesions by T. taurotragi. PMID:27145963

  18. Incidental Merkel cell carcinoma in a cutaneous horn: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Schick, Brian A.; Tobe, Joshua S.; Joseph, Mariamma G.; Rouse, Tyler B.; Gabril, Manal Y.

    2015-01-01

    Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare cutaneous neuroendocrine malignancy, which usually presents as an asymptomatic, rapidly growing, firm nodule on sun-damaged skin. We present a 93-year-old female who presented with a “cutaneous horn” on the face. On excision, histologic examination revealed a combined squamous cell carcinoma in situ with underlying MCC. Merkel cell polyomavirus immunohistochemistry was negative in this lesion. This case report highlights the significant association between MCC and squamous cell carcinoma and the uncommon clinical presentation of this combined tumor in the form of a cutaneous horn. PMID:25692082

  19. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kuwahara, D.; Ito, N.; Nagayama, Y.; Yoshinaga, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Yoshikawa, M.; Kohagura, J.; Sugito, S.; Kogi, Y.; Mase, A.

    2014-11-15

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array.

  20. A Low Cross-Polarization Smooth-Walled Horn with Improved Bandwidth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zeng, Lingzhen; Bennett, Charles L.; Chuss, David T.; Wollack, Edward J.

    2009-01-01

    Corrugated feed horns offer excellent beam symmetry, main beam efficiency, and cross-polar response over wide bandwidths, but can be challenging to fabricate. An easier-to-manufacture smooth-walled feed is explored that approximates these properties over a finite bandwidth. The design, optimization and measurement of a monotonically-profiled, smooth-walled scalar feedhorn with a diffraction-limited approximately 7 degrees full width at half maximum (FWHM) is presented. The feed was demonstrated to have low cross polarization (<-30 dB) across the frequency range 33-45 GHz (30% fractional bandwidth). A return loss better than -28 dB was measured across the band.

  1. The frontal and temporal horn ratio to assess dimension of paediatric hydrocephalus: a comparative volumetric study.

    PubMed

    Antes, Sebastian; Welsch, Melanie; Kiefer, Michael; Gläser, Mareike; Körner, Heiko; Eymann, Regina

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging and cranial -ultrasound are the most frequently implemented imaging methods for investigating the infantile hydrocephalic brain. A general and reliable measurement index that can be equally applied in both imaging methods to assess dimension of ventricular dilatation is currently not available. For this purpose, a new parameter called the frontal and temporal horn ratio - determinable in coronal slices of the brain - was developed and evaluated in a comparative volumetric retrospective study: Statistical analyses of 118 MRIs of 46 different shunt-treated pediatric patients revealed a good linear correlation between the new index and the actual ventricular volume.

  2. Disseminated lymphoma of presumptive T-cell origin in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Malka, Shachar; Crabbs, Torrie; Mitchell, Elizabeth B; Zehnder, Ashley; Kent, Michael S; Lowenstine, Linda J; Hawkins, Michelle G

    2008-09-01

    A geriatric male great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) that was a resident at a raptor center was presented for examination because of stridor and weight loss. Results of physical examination, diagnostic imaging, and biopsy were consistent with disseminated lymphoma involving the oropharynx, neck region (including thyroid and parathyroid glands), keel, spleen, and liver. Attempts to treat the owl with chlorambucil failed, and the owl was euthanatized 5 months later. Neoplastic cells from this owl were immunoreactive to CD-3 antibody, suggesting the lymphoma was of T-cell origin. PMID:19014096

  3. Development of horn antenna mixer array with internal local oscillator module for microwave imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Kuwahara, D; Ito, N; Nagayama, Y; Yoshinaga, T; Yamaguchi, S; Yoshikawa, M; Kohagura, J; Sugito, S; Kogi, Y; Mase, A

    2014-11-01

    A new antenna array is proposed in order to improve the sensitivity and complexity of microwave imaging diagnostics systems such as a microwave imaging reflectometry, a microwave imaging interferometer, and an electron cyclotron emission imaging. The antenna array consists of five elements: a horn antenna, a waveguide-to-microstrip line transition, a mixer, a local oscillation (LO) module, and an intermediate frequency amplifier. By using an LO module, the LO optics can be removed, and the supplied LO power to each element can be equalized. We report details of the antenna array and characteristics of a prototype antenna array. PMID:25430218

  4. Relativistic quantum nonlocality for the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state

    SciTech Connect

    Moradi, Shahpoor

    2008-02-15

    Lorentz transformation of the three-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state is studied. Also we obtain the relativistic spin joint measurement for the transformed state. Using these results it is shown that Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the three-qubit GHZ state in the relativistic regime. For ultrarelativistic particles we obtain the critical value for boost speed, which Bell's inequality is not violated for velocities smaller than this value. We also show that in the ultrarelativistic limit Bell's inequality is maximally violated for the GHZ state.

  5. Giant low-frequency multipeak self-biased magnetoelectric properties in four-phase structure with stepped ultrasonic horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jie; Lu, Caijiang

    2016-11-01

    This paper develops a self-biased magnetoelectric (ME) heterostructure FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d/ultrasonic-horn/PZT by sandwiching a piezoelectric Pb(Zr,Ti)O3 (PZT) plate and a magnetization-graded FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d layer on a rectangular-stepped ultrasonic horn substrate. The rectangular-stepped ultrasonic horn substrate severs as the resonance frequency determining element of the ME heterostructure, converges and amplifies the vibration excited by the magnetization-graded FeCuNbSiB/terfenol-d layer. The experiments show that fifteen large peaks of ME response with magnitudes of 0.2–7.5 V/(cm·Oe) in 0.5–50 kHz range are observed at zero-biased magnetic field. This demonstrates that the proposed multi-peak self-biased heterostructure may be useful for multifunctional devices for multi-frequency operation.

  6. Engineered far-fields of metal-metal terahertz quantum cascade lasers with integrated planar horn structures.

    PubMed

    Wang, F; Kundu, I; Chen, L; Li, L; Linfield, E H; Davies, A G; Moumdji, S; Colombelli, R; Mangeney, J; Tignon, J; Dhillon, S S

    2016-02-01

    The far-field emission profile of terahertz quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) in metal-metal waveguides is controlled in directionality and form through planar horn-type shape structures, whilst conserving a broad spectral response. The structures produce a gradual change in the high modal confinement of the waveguides and permit an improved far-field emission profile and resulting in a four-fold increase in the emitted output power. The two-dimensional far-field patterns are measured at 77 K and are agreement in with 3D modal simulations. The influence of parasitic high-order transverse modes is shown to be controlled by engineering the horn structure (ridge and horn widths), allowing only the fundamental mode to be coupled out.

  7. Frontal and temporal horn ratio: a valid and reliable index to determine ventricular size in paediatric hydrocephalus patients?

    PubMed

    Antes, Sebastian; Kiefer, Michael; Schmitt, Melanie; Lechtenfeld, Miriam; Geipel, Martina; Eymann, Regina

    2012-01-01

    Because there is currently no sufficient and prevalent parameter for estimating ventricular size in paediatric hydrocephalus patients by using cranial ultrasound, a new measurement index, called the "frontal and temporal horn ratio", is presented in this study. The advantage of the new quotient is that it can be detected in easily obtainable coronal ultrasound planes. A retrospective analysis of 149 MRIs of young hydrocephalus patients proved the new index to be a promising parameter of ventricular size assessment. Statistical comparison between the "frontal and temporal horn ratio" and the already validated "frontal and occipital horn ratio" revealed a strong and linear correlation between the two quotients. Current research is now evaluating the reliability of the new index in the context of an ultrasound study; first results indicate similar positive findings.

  8. From innervation density to tactile acuity 2: embryonic and adult pre- and postsynaptic somatotopy in the dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul B; Millecchia, Ronald; Lawson, Jeffrey J; Brown, Alan G; Koerber, H Richard; Culberson, James; Stephens, Stephanie

    2005-09-01

    We tested the hypothesis that dorsal horn laminae III-IV cell receptive fields (RFs) are initially established in three steps: cutaneous axons penetrate the dorsal horn near their rostrocaudal (RC) levels of entry into the spinal cord. Their terminal branches distribute mediolaterally (ML) according to their relative distoproximal RF locations on the leg, and form nonselective synapses with nearby dorsal horn cell dendrites, establishing the initial dorsal horn cell RFs. Rootlet axon RFs in adult cats were used to approximate the RC entry levels of hindlimb skin input. Cord dorsum recordings of monosynaptic field potentials evoked by electrical skin stimulation provided the RC distributions of synaptic input. These were in close agreement. Simulated projections of all 22,000 hindlimb axons were similar to projections predicted from EPSP distributions, and with the observed projections of dorsal roots, cutaneous nerves, and individual axons. The simulated terminals were connected nonselectively to nearby dendrites of 135,000 simulated lamina III-IV cells whose dendritic surface area distributions were based on intracellularly stained cells. There was an overall similarity among pre- and postsynaptic embryonic and adult somatotopies, with a progressive transformation of RF angular location as a function of RC, ML dorsal horn location from an initial embryonic presynaptic concentric pattern to an adult postsynaptic radial one. The initial embryonic dorsal horn cell RF assembly hypothesis was supported by the simulations, as was the additional hypothesis that further refinement of connections would be necessary to establish sufficient selectivity to account for observed adult RFs and somatotopy. PMID:16125155

  9. Integrating micro- and macroevolution of development through the study of horned beetles.

    PubMed

    Moczek, A P

    2006-09-01

    A major challenge in evolutionary developmental biology is to understand how developmental evolution on the level of populations and closely related species relates to macroevolutionary transitions and the origin of evolutionary novelty. Here, I review the genetic, developmental, endocrine, and ecological basis of beetle horns, a morphological novelty that exhibits remarkable diversity both below and above the species level. Integrating from a variety of approaches three major insights emerge: the origin of beetle horns relied at least in part on the redeployment of already existing genetic, developmental and endocrine mechanisms. At the same time little to no phylogenetic distance appeared to have been necessary for the evolution of diverse modifier mechanisms that permit substantial modulation of trait expression at different time points during development in different species, sexes, alternative male morphs or even different tissue regions of the same individual. Lastly, at least a subset of these modifier mechanisms can evolve rapidly in geographically isolated populations, apparently driven by relatively simple, and probably ubiquitous, changes in ecological conditions. I discuss the implications of these results for our understanding of the genesis of morphological novelty and diversity.

  10. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lovari, S.; Fattorini, N.; Boesi, R.; Bocci, A.

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso- genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  11. Independent uterine contractions in simultaneous twin pregnancy in each horn of the uterus didelphys.

    PubMed

    Maki, Yohei; Furukawa, Seishi; Sameshima, Hiroshi; Ikenoue, Tsuyomu

    2014-03-01

    The mechanism of synchronizing uterine contractions is not fully understood. We present a case of twin pregnancy in a uterus didelphys and objectively analyze the synchrony of bilateral uterine contractions. A 32-year-old woman, with a history of vaginal septal resection during her previous vaginal delivery, became pregnant with twins in a uterus didelphys in which each uterine horn had one fetus. At 37 weeks and 6 days, the first baby was delivered vaginally. The second baby was delivered by cesarean section due to recurrent late decelerations. Operative findings confirmed the didelphys uterus. We retrospectively reviewed the timing of contractions of both uteruses. The timing was determined by visual analysis as synchronous if both uteruses contracted within 5 s. Otherwise, contractions were considered solitary. Both uterine horns contracted independently in 90% of the incidence throughout labor and delivery. From this rare case of an 'experiment by nature', we speculated that the myometrium must be histologically connected in order to synchronize uterine contractions.

  12. Baseline assessment of ophthalmic parameters in the greater one-horned rhinoceros (Rhinoceros unicornis).

    PubMed

    Bapodra, Priya; Wolfe, Barbara A

    2014-12-01

    Five healthy captive greater one-horned rhinoceroses (Rhinoceros unicornis) were evaluated with standing sedation (detomidine hydrochloride 20-30 mg and butorphanol tartrate 50-60 mg per animal) to determine baseline values for tear production, intraocular pressure (IOP), conjunctival flora, and ocular anatomy using brightness mode transpalpebral ultrasonography with a 4- to 7-MHz broadband curvilinear transducer. The mean Schirmer tear test I value was 18.2 ± 3.49 mm/min. The mean IOP measured using applantation tonometry was 31.2 ± 6.62 mm Hg. Ocular biometry measurements were the following: axial length 2.61 ± 0.11 cm; corneal thickness 0.13 ± 0.01 cm; anterior segment depth 0.28 ± 0.06 cm; lens depth 0.70 ± 0.11 cm; and posterior segment depth 1.46 ± 0.13 cm. These values indicate that the globe is smaller than that of the domestic horse. All eight conjunctival swabs cultured bacterial and fungal microorganisms, with the most common being Staphylococcus spp. (57%). All bacterial isolates were considered to be commensal organisms due to the presence of mixed bacterial populations and lack of clinical signs of ocular disease. The data collected in this study should provide veterinarians with baseline information to assist in the diagnosis of ophthalmic conditions in the greater one-horned rhinoceros. PMID:25632674

  13. Fine structural dependence of ultraviolet reflections in the King Penguin beak horn.

    PubMed

    Dresp, Birgitta; Langley, Keith

    2006-03-01

    The visual perception of many birds extends into the near-ultraviolet (UV) spectrum and ultraviolet is used by some to communicate. The beak horn of the King Penguin (Aptenodytes patagonicus) intensely reflects in the ultraviolet and this appears to be implicated in partner choice. In a preliminary study, we recently demonstrated that this ultraviolet reflectance has a structural basis, resulting from crystal-like photonic structures, capable of reflecting in the near-UV. The present study attempted to define the origin of the photonic elements that produce the UV reflectance and to better understand how the UV signal is optimized by their fine structure. Using light and electron microscopic analysis combined with new spectrophotometric data, we describe here in detail the fine structure of the entire King Penguin beak horn in addition to that of its photonic crystals. The data obtained reveal a one-dimensional structural periodicity within this tissue and demonstrate a direct relationship between its fine structure and its function. In addition, they suggest how the photonic structures are produced and how they are stabilized. The measured lattice dimensions of the photonic crystals, together with morphological data on its composition, permit predictions of the wavelength of reflected light. These correlate well with experimentally observed values. The way the UV signal is optimized by the fine structure of the beak tissue is discussed with regard to its putative biological role. PMID:16470837

  14. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  15. PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL GABAPENTIN IN THE GREAT HORNED OWL (BUBO VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Yaw, Taylor J; Zaffarano, Bianca A; Gall, Andrew; Olds, June E; Wulf, Larry; Papastavros, Efthimia; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-09-01

    Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17±0.83 μg/ml, 51.43±5.66 min, and 264.60±69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls.

  16. Home range and habitat use by Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) in Southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bennett, J.R.; Bloom, P.H.

    2005-01-01

    Great Horned Owls (Bubo virginianus) are a common, widespread species that can be found in a variety of habitats across most of North America, but little is known about their space and habitat requirements. Using radiotelemetry, location data were collected on nine male and five female Great Horned Owls to determine home range and habitat use in southern California. Owls were tracked between January 1997 and September 1998 for periods ranging from 5-17 mo. Seven owls were also followed during 13 all-night observation periods. The mean 95% adaptive kernel home-range size for females was 180 ha (range = 88-282, SE = 36) and that for males was 425 ha (range = 147-1115 ha, SE = 105). Core areas estimated by the 50% adaptive kernel averaged 27 ha (range = 7-44, SE = 7) for females and 61 ha (range = 15-187, SE = 18) for males. Owls were located in areas with varying degrees of human disturbance ranging from almost entirely urban to native oak (Quercus agrifolia) woodland. Oak/sycamore (Quercus agrifolia/Platanus racemosa) woodland and ruderal grassland (Bromus spp., Avena spp., and various other non-native invasives), were used more often than expected based on availability, but we found no correlation between home-range size and any single habitat type or habitat groups. ?? 2005 The Raptor Research Foundation, Inc.

  17. Neuron volume in the ventral horn in Wobbler mouse motoneuron disease: a light microscope stereological study

    PubMed Central

    DOCKERY, P.; TANG, Y.; MORAIS, M.; VACCA-GALLOWAY, L. L.

    1997-01-01

    Previous pathological reports have indicated that swollen and vacuolated motoneuron cell bodies are the most predominant feature characterising Wobbler mouse motoneuron disease, but there has been little supportive evidence using area measurements. The present study focuses on the possible role of changes in neuronal nuclear and perikaryal volumes in the cervical spinal cord ventral horn, using new and traditional stereological probes which provide unbiased estimates of volume. Semithin sections from the ventral horn of Wobbler mice and age and sex-matched phenotypically normal littermates were examined at 2 ages (young and old). The young Wobbler group had significantly larger volume weighted mean perikaryal volumes compared with age-matched controls, reflecting the presence of large swollen cells characteristic of this group; this situation was reversed in the control group. Number-weighted perikaryal volume estimates in the old Wobbler group were smaller than in age-matched controls. The variation in perikaryal volume was greatest in the young Wobbler group in which the coefficient of variation was 127%. The mean number weighted and volume weighted mean nuclear volumes were significantly smaller in the old Wobbler group compared with age-matched controls and young Wobbler groups. The application of new stereological probes has enabled us to document more precisely these changes in neuronal structure in the Wobbler mutant mouse. PMID:9279662

  18. Improving multimodel medium range forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa using the FSU superensemble

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kipkogei, O.; Bhardwaj, A.; Kumar, V.; Ogallo, L. A.; Opijah, F. J.; Mutemi, J. N.; Krishnamurti, T. N.

    2016-08-01

    This study makes use of the WMO's multimodel data set called THORPEX integrated grand global ensemble (TIGGE) towards the construction of multimodel superensemble forecasts covering a period of 10 days. The goal of this study is to explore the forecast skill for precipitation forecasts over the Greater Horn of Africa (this is a consortium of 11 countries). The multimodels include forecast data set from a suite of models that include: The European Centre for Medium Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF), the National Centre for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), the Center for Weather Forecast and Climatic Studies (CPTEC) and the United Kingdom Meteorological Office (UKMO). After performing a training phase for the superensemble weights covering the previous 450 days of October, November and December months of 2008-2012, forecasts of precipitation were prepared for the multimodel superensemble. These covered day 1 to day 10 of forecasts over the region. Various skill metrics were prepared to validate the forecast rainfall against the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) observed rainfall data. This study shows that the construction of the multimodel superensemble was a worthwhile effort since it provided the best overall skills for the RMS errors, the spatial correlations and the equitable threat scores and their bias errors for precipitation forecasts from day 1 to day 10 over all of the countries covered by the Greater Horn of Africa. The best among the member model was the UKMO model. This study strongly suggests the usefulness of a product such as the multimodel superensemble for improved precipitation forecasts over East Africa.

  19. Comprehensive transcriptome profiling of squamous cell carcinoma of horn in Bos indicus.

    PubMed

    Koringa, P G; Jakhesara, S J; Bhatt, V D; Meshram, C P; Patel, A K; Fefar, D T; Joshi, C G

    2016-06-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of horn is frequently observed in Bos indicus affecting 1% of cattle population and accounting 83.34% of total tumours found. The transcriptome profile of horn cancer (HC) tissue and the matched normal (HN) tissue were analysed by RNA-seq using Roche 454 sequencing. A total of 1 504 900 reads comprising of 612 MB data were used to identify differentially expressed genes using CLC Genomic Workbench. These include up-regulation of KRT6A, KRT6B, KRT6C, KRT14, SFN, KRT84, PI3, COL17A1, ANLN, SERPINB5 and down-regulation of BOLA, SCGB1A1, CXCL17, KRT19, BPIFB1, NR4A1 and TFF3 in HC, which are involved in regulation of gene transcription, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell survival and metabolic pathways. The qPCR analysis of several targets suggested concordance of gene expression profile with RNA-seq analysis. The present findings would provide basis for further screening of genes and identification of markers for early diagnosis and therapeutic intervention of HC.

  20. Radiation patterns of multi-moded corrugated horns for far-IR space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, J. Anthony; Colgan, Ruth; O'Sullivan, Creidhe; Maffei, Bruno; Ade, Peter

    2001-12-01

    Multi-moded horn antennas are now being proposed for far-IR space imaging systems in which diffraction limited resolution is not required (e.g. the High-Frequency Instrument (HFI) on the ESA PLANCK Surveyor). In such systems individual modes in the waveguide filter section feeding the horn can couple independently to an overmoded detector (such as a bolometer in an integrating cavity). The number of modes is chosen to optimize the coupling efficiency to the source without compromising any spillover losses. We consider in detail the case of a cylindrically symmetric corrugated configuration, presenting two alternative techniques for modelling such few-moded systems. The first approach is based on a mode-matching description of propagation in a non-uniform waveguide structure, while the second approach makes use of hybrid mode solutions for a waveguide with corrugated walls assuming a uniform but non-isotropic impedance. We present practical examples comparing the radiation patterns predicted by both models.

  1. Evidence that substance P selectively modulates C-fiber-evoked discharges of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons.

    PubMed

    Kellstein, D E; Price, D D; Hayes, R L; Mayer, D J

    1990-09-01

    Previous studies suggest that the undecapeptide substance P (SP) functions as a primary afferent neurotransmitter or neuromodulator of nociception which may mediate the slow temporal summation ('windup') of discharges of dorsal horn nociceptive neurons elicited by repetitive stimulation of C-afferents. The present study tested this hypothesis by investigating the effects of local spinal application of SP and an SP antagonist. [D-Pro2,D-Trp7,9]-SP (DPDT), on A- and C-fiber-evoked firing of dorsal horn neurons in an intact, urethane-anesthetized rat preparation. Extracellular single unit recordings from both wide dynamic range and nociceptive specific neurons during controlled repetitive electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral hind paw indicated that SP enhanced C-evoked firing in an apparent dose-related manner (100 greater than 20 = 4 nmol), whereas DPDT inhibited C-evoked discharges with an apparent bell-shaped dose-response (20 greater than 100 = 4 nmol). Neither agent significantly altered either A-evoked or spontaneous activity. In agreement with previous investigators, morphine sulfate also selectively inhibited C-fiber-evoked firing without altering A-fiber-mediated activity, validating the selectivity of our system. These findings provide additional evidence that SP functions as a neuromodulator of primary afferent nociception, and further suggest that the effects of SP are selective to nociceptive transmission mediated by C-fibers. PMID:1701684

  2. Intraguild predation by shore crabs affects mortality, behavior, growth, and densities of California horn snails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lorda, J.; Hechinger, R.F.; Cooper, S. D.; Kuris, A. M.; Lafferty, Kevin D.

    2016-01-01

    The California horn snail, Cerithideopsis californica, and the shore crabs, Pachygrapsus crassipesand Hemigrapsus oregonensis, compete for epibenthic microalgae, but the crabs also eat snails. Such intraguild predation is common in nature, despite models predicting instability. Using a series of manipulations and field surveys, we examined intraguild predation from several angles, including the effects of stage-dependent predation along with direct consumptive and nonconsumptive predator effects on intraguild prey. In the laboratory, we found that crabs fed on macroalgae, snail eggs, and snails, and the size of consumed snails increased with predator crab size. In field experiments, snails grew less in the presence of crabs partially because snails behaved differently and were buried in the sediment (nonconsumptive effects). Consistent with these results, crab and snail abundances were negatively correlated in three field surveys conducted at three different spatial scales in estuaries of California, Baja California, and Baja California Sur: (1) among 61 sites spanning multiple habitat types in three estuaries, (2) among the habitats of 13 estuaries, and (3) among 34 tidal creek sites in one estuary. These results indicate that shore crabs are intraguild predators on California horn snails that affect snail populations via predation and by influencing snail behavior and performance.

  3. Abrupt shifts in Horn of Africa hydroclimate and the influence of the Indian Ocean (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tierney, J. E.; deMenocal, P. B.

    2013-12-01

    The timing and abruptness with which Northeast Africa transitioned into and out of the Early Holocene African Humid Period is a subject of ongoing debate, with direct consequences for our understanding of climate stability and paleoenvironments. Here we present a new proxy record of regional hydroclimate, based on the hydrogen isotopic composition of leaf waxes, from a marine core in the Gulf of Aden that documents rapid, century-scale transitions into and out of the African Humid Period across the Horn of Africa. The Gulf of Aden record also documents large drying events during the last deglacial, synchronous with Heinrich Event 1 and the Younger Dryas. Similar and generally synchronous abrupt transitions at other East African sites suggest that rapid shifts in hydroclimate are regionally coherent. In addition, the termination of the African Humid Period in East Africa is synchronous with the termination along the western Saharan margin. A probabilistic analysis of the abruptness of the transitions in East Africa suggests that they likely occurred within centuries, underscoring the sensitivity of northeast African hydroclimate to external forcings. We speculate that the non-linear behavior of hydroclimate in the Horn of Africa is related to convection thresholds in the western Indian Ocean, and test this hypothesis with preliminary SST proxy data.

  4. Preparation of briquettes from the Golden Horn bottom sediments by hydro-thermal agglomeration process.

    PubMed

    Celik, Ozlem; Elbeyli, iffet Yakar

    2004-04-01

    The Golden Horn (GH) sediments, which consist mainly of clay, organic substances and heavy metals, are formed with the contribution of industrial and domestic wastes released in the Golden Horn Estuary. On account of their mineralogical and chemical composition, these sediments may be regarded as a suitable raw material for briquette production. In this study, the utilization of GH dredged bottom sediments was investigated for preparation of briquettes. Dried GH sediments were mixed with lime and sand in different percentages, moulded at various squeezing pressures and hardened under several steam pressure values by autoclaving. The briquettes produced through these different process conditions were tested for compressive strength according to the Turkish standards (TS705). It was found that variations in compressive strength were dependent on the amount of lime (Ca(OH)2) and sand (SiO2) added. Results show that the compressive strength increased with increasing lime and decreasing sand in the mixtures prepared for briquettes. It is concluded that briquettes with a compressive strength value of 294 kgf cm(-2) can be produced. This allows the GH sediments to be taken into account as a raw material in brick production, as far as compressive strength requirements are concerned. This possibility may represent an important way either for reducing environmental pollution or for recycling waste materials in industrial applications.

  5. Fine structure of the pecten oculi in the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Braekevelt, C R

    1993-01-01

    The pecten oculi of the great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) has been examined by light and electron microscopy. The pecten in this species is of the pleated type and is small in comparison to the size of the eyeball. It consists of 7-8 accordion folds which are joined apically by a pigmented bridge of tissue. Within each fold are numerous capillaries, larger supply and drainage vessels and plentiful pleomorphic melanocytes. The capillaries are extremely specialized vessels, most of which display plentiful microfolds on both their luminal and abluminal surfaces although some capillaries show but a few microfolds. The endothelial cell bodies are extremely thin with most organelles located near the nucleus. All capillaries are surrounded by a thick fibrillar basal lamina which is felt to be structurally important. Pericytes are a common feature within these thickened basal laminae. The numerous melanocytes form an incomplete sheath around the capillaries and are also presumed to be fulfilling a structural role. While the morphology of the pecten in the great horned owl is certainly indicative of a heavy involvement in transport, when compared to the pecten in species that are more visually oriented it is smaller, displays fewer folds and a reduced number of microfolds within the capillaries. PMID:8443438

  6. PHARMACOKINETIC PROPERTIES OF A SINGLE ADMINISTRATION OF ORAL GABAPENTIN IN THE GREAT HORNED OWL (BUBO VIRGINIANUS).

    PubMed

    Yaw, Taylor J; Zaffarano, Bianca A; Gall, Andrew; Olds, June E; Wulf, Larry; Papastavros, Efthimia; Coetzee, Johann F

    2015-09-01

    Gabapentin (1-[aminomethyl] cyclohexane acetic acid) is a γ-aminobutyric acid analogue that has been shown to be efficacious for neuropathic pain control in humans. Plasma gabapentin concentrations >2 μg/ml are considered effective in treating epilepsy in humans and are suggested to provide analgesia for neuropathic pain. This study investigated the pharmacokinetics of a single oral dose of gabapentin suspension (11 mg/kg) in great horned owls ( Bubo virginianus ). Plasma gabapentin concentrations were determined in six healthy birds for 48 hr using high-performance liquid chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. Plasma gabapentin concentrations were estimated by noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis. The harmonic mean (±SD) maximum concentration (Cmax), time to maximum concentration (Tmax), and elimination half-life (tv2λZ) for gabapentin (11 mg/kg) were 6.17±0.83 μg/ml, 51.43±5.66 min, and 264.60±69.35 min, respectively. In this study, plasma gabapentin concentrations were maintained above 2 μg/ml for 528 min (8.8 hr), suggesting that gabapentin administered orally every 8 hr may be appropriate in great horned owls. PMID:26352959

  7. Male ruff colour as a rank signal in a monomorphic-horned mammal: behavioural correlates.

    PubMed

    Lovari, S; Fattorini, N; Boesi, R; Bocci, A

    2015-08-01

    Coexistence of individuals within a social group is possible through the establishment of a hierarchy. Social dominance is achieved through aggressive interactions, and, in wild sheep and goats, it is related mainly to age, body size and weapon size as rank signals. Adult male Himalayan tahr are much larger than females and subadult males. They have a prominent neck ruff, ranging in colour from yellow (5.5-9.5 years old, i.e. young adults, golden males) to brown (7.5-14.5 years old, i.e. older individuals, pale and dark brown males), with golden males being the most dominant. We investigated the social behaviour of male tahr and analysed the relationships between ruff colour, courtship and agonistic behaviour patterns during the rut. Colour classes varied in their use of several behaviour patterns (male dominance: approach, stare, horning vegetation; courtship: low stretch, naso-genital contact, rush). Golden-ruffed males used more threats than darker ones. Pale brown and dark brown males addressed threats significantly more often to males of lower or their own colour classes, respectively, whereas golden ones addressed threats to all colour classes, including their own. The courtship of dominant males was characterised by the assertive rush, whereas that of subordinates did not. Ruff colour of male Himalayan tahr may have evolved as a rank signal, homologous to horn size in wild sheep and goats.

  8. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Qiong; Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs).

  9. Robot-assisted laparoscopic surgery for a rudimentary uterine horn with two non-communicating cavities.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jan; Bossmar, Thomas; Teleman, Pia

    2010-08-01

    Due to severe dysmenorrhoea a 29-year-old woman, gravida 2 para 2, was diagnosed with a unicornuate uterus and a rare variety of a rudimentary uterine horn associated with two separate non-communicating cavities. Increasingly intense dysmenorrhoea, refractory to medical treatment, motivated fertility-sparing surgical treatment. A da Vinci S-HD robot was side-docked to facilitate simultaneous vaginal access during surgery. After sacrificing the left uterine artery for hemostatic reasons, the rudimentary horn with one cavity was resected. Guided by vaginal ultrasonography we then completely resected the second cavity located deep in the myometrium without entering the cavity of the functioning hemiuterus. Finally the uterine defect was sutured in two layers. Surgery and postoperative course were uneventful. At 4-month follow-up, dysmenorrhoea was alleviated, and 3 months later the patient had an early intrauterine pregnancy. We believe the precise dissection capabilities of the robot facilitated in particular resection of the second, deeply located cavity and its multilayer reapproximation by sutures. A video of the procedure is provided. PMID:27628780

  10. Metabolomics of the Antipyretic Effects of Bubali Cornu (Water Buffalo Horn) in Rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Rui; Huang, Qiong; Shan, Jinjun; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhu, Zhenhua; Liu, Pei; Bian, Yong; Shang, Er-Xin; Qian, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    Bubali Cornu (water buffalo horn, WBH) has been used for thousands of years in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) as an effective treatment for heat. In the present study, we have carried out a metabolomics profiling study on plasma and urine samples to explore potential biomarkers and determine how WBH exerts its antipyretic effects in yeast-induced pyrexia at a metabolomic level. Ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS), together with multivariate statistical analysis, was used to detect and identify potential biomarkers associated with pyrexia and with WBH treatment. In total, sixteen endogenous metabolites were identified in plasma samples and twenty-one metabolites were detected in urine samples. The biomarkers identified in this study, using metabolic pathway analysis (MetPA), are involved in glycerophospholipid, arachidonic acid, amino acid, sphingolipid, and purine metabolism, all of which are disturbed in rats with pyrexia. As a result, WBH affect arachidonic acid metabolism and oxidative stress in yeast-induced pyrexia rats chiefly. The present study determines the important substances underlying the antipyretic efficacy of WBH at a metabolic level. It might pave the way for further investigations into the mechanisms of action of other animal horn-derived traditional Chinese medicines (TCMs). PMID:27384078

  11. Reduction of provisioning effort in response to experimental manipulation of chick nutritional status in the Horned Puffin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harding, A.M.A.; van Pelt, Thomas I.; Piatt, J.F.; Kitaysky, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Using a supplemental feeding experiment, we investigated the ability of adult Horned Puffins to decrease provisioning effort in response to reduced nutritional requirements of chicks. We found no difference between experimental and control groups in parental provisioning before supplementary feeding was initiated. After receiving supplemental food for seven days, experimental chicks grew faster, gained more mass and received 87% less food from their parents than did control chicks. These results demonstrate that Horned Puffin parents can decrease food provisioning in response to a decrease in their chick nutritional requirements. ?? The Cooper Ornithological Society 2002.

  12. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... equipped flaggers, as defined in 49 CFR 234.5, flag the crossing to provide warning of approaching trains... malfunctioned and use of the horn is required by 49 CFR 234.105, 234.106, or 234.107. Silenced Horns at Groups... public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33...

  13. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... equipped flaggers, as defined in 49 CFR 234.5, flag the crossing to provide warning of approaching trains... malfunctioned and use of the horn is required by 49 CFR 234.105, 234.106, or 234.107. Silenced Horns at Groups... public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33...

  14. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... equipped flaggers, as defined in 49 CFR 234.5, flag the crossing to provide warning of approaching trains... malfunctioned and use of the horn is required by 49 CFR 234.105, 234.106, or 234.107. Silenced Horns at Groups... public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33...

  15. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... equipped flaggers, as defined in 49 CFR 234.5, flag the crossing to provide warning of approaching trains... malfunctioned and use of the horn is required by 49 CFR 234.105, 234.106, or 234.107. Silenced Horns at Groups... public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33...

  16. 49 CFR 222.33 - Can locomotive horns be silenced at an individual public highway-rail grade crossing which is not...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... equipped flaggers, as defined in 49 CFR 234.5, flag the crossing to provide warning of approaching trains... malfunctioned and use of the horn is required by 49 CFR 234.105, 234.106, or 234.107. Silenced Horns at Groups... public highway-rail grade crossing which is not within a quiet zone? 222.33 Section 222.33...

  17. It ain't What You Say, but the Way that You Say It: Jazz Articulation for Horns in the Big Band

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gudmundson, Jon

    2006-01-01

    A big-band horn section can play the correct rhythms, pitches, and dynamics with good tone and still be unintelligible. If the horns articulate together, however, the improvement will be dramatic. They will much more successfully convey the meaning of the music, and they will sound like a section rather than four or five individuals. In this…

  18. [Rupture of non-communicating rudimentary pregnant uterine horn in a pseudo-unicornuate uterus at 23 weeks of amenorrhea. Case report].

    PubMed

    Fuchs, F; Guillot, E; Cordier, A-G; Chis, C; Raynal, P; Panel, P

    2008-04-01

    Pregnancy in the rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus is an extremely rare form of ectopic gestation associated with a high risk of uterine rupture. We report the case of a pregnancy developed in a non communicating rudimentary horn of a unicornuate uterus complicated by horn rupture at 23 weeks of amenorrhea showing as an acute abdominal pain and massive hemoperitoneum. This patient's uterine abnormality was known before, as this woman has delivered two years before at term a healthy boy by cesarean section. This past pregnancy was located in the normal horn and the non communicating rudimentary horn seemed at this time normal. This uterine malformation is presented with its gynecological and obstetrical entailments as well as methods that could prevent such outcome.

  19. General and Specific Effects on Cattell-Horn-Carroll Broad Ability Composites: Analysis of the Woodcock-Johnson III Normative Update Cattell-Horn-Carroll Factor Clusters across Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Barry, Amberly; Rafael, Fawziya; Rogers, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Many school psychologists focus their interpretation on composite scores from intelligence test batteries designed to measure the broad abilities from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory. The purpose of this study was to investigate the general factor loadings and specificity of the broad ability composite scores from one such intelligence test…

  20. Peripheral nerve injury sensitizes neonatal dorsal horn neurons to tumor necrosis factor-α

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Xie, Wenrui; Zhang, Jun-Ming; Baccei, Mark L

    2009-01-01

    Background Little is known about whether peripheral nerve injury during the early postnatal period modulates synaptic efficacy in the immature superficial dorsal horn (SDH) of the spinal cord, or whether the neonatal SDH network is sensitive to the proinflammatory cytokine TNFα under neuropathic conditions. Thus we examined the effects of TNFα on synaptic transmission and intrinsic membrane excitability in developing rat SDH neurons in the absence or presence of sciatic nerve damage. Results The spared nerve injury (SNI) model of peripheral neuropathy at postnatal day (P)6 failed to significantly alter miniature excitatory (mEPSCs) or inhibitory (mIPSCs) postsynaptic currents in SDH neurons at P9-11. However, SNI did alter the sensitivity of excitatory synapses in the immature SDH to TNFα. While TNFα failed to influence mEPSCs or mIPSCs in slices from sham-operated controls, it significantly increased mEPSC frequency and amplitude following SNI without modulating synaptic inhibition onto the same neurons. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in the paired-pulse ratio of evoked EPSCs, suggesting TNFα increases the probability of glutamate release in the SDH under neuropathic conditions. Similarly, while SNI alone did not alter action potential (AP) threshold or rheobase in SDH neurons at this age, TNFα significantly decreased AP threshold and rheobase in the SNI group but not in sham-operated littermates. However, unlike the adult, the expression of TNFα in the immature dorsal horn was not significantly elevated during the first week following the SNI. Conclusion Developing SDH neurons become susceptible to regulation by TNFα following peripheral nerve injury in the neonate. This may include both a greater efficacy of glutamatergic synapses as well as an increase in the intrinsic excitability of immature dorsal horn neurons. However, neonatal sciatic nerve damage alone did not significantly modulate synaptic transmission or neuronal excitability in

  1. TWIK-Related Spinal Cord K+ Channel Expression Is Increased in the Spinal Dorsal Horn after Spinal Nerve Ligation

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Hee Youn; Zhang, Enji; Park, Sangil; Chung, Woosuk; Lee, Sunyeul; Kim, Dong Woon

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The TWIK-related spinal cord K+ channel (TRESK) has recently been discovered and plays an important role in nociceptor excitability in the pain pathway. Because there have been no reports on the TRESK expression or its function in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord in neuropathic pain, we analyzed TRESK expression in the spinal dorsal horn in a spinal nerve ligation (SNL) model. Materials and Methods We established a SNL mouse model by using the L5-6 spinal nerves ligation. We used real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry to investigate TRESK expression in the dorsal horn and L5 dorsal rot ganglion (DRG). Results The SNL group showed significantly higher expression of TRESK in the ipsilateral dorsal horn under pain, but low expression in L5 DRG. Double immunofluorescence staining revealed that immunoreactivity of TRESK was mostly restricted in neuronal cells, and that synapse markers GAD67 and VGlut2 appeared to be associated with TRESK expression. We were unable to find a significant association between TRESK and calcineurin by double immunofluorescence. Conclusion TRESK in spinal cord neurons may contribute to the development of neuropathic pain following injury. PMID:26256973

  2. The Relative Contributions of the Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive Abilities in Explaining Writing Achievement during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Randy G.; McGrew, Kevin S.; Evans, Jeffrey J.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of measures of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) cognitive abilities in explaining writing achievement. Drawing from samples that covered the age range of 7 to 18 years, simultaneous multiple regression was used to regress scores from the Woodcock-Johnson III (WJ III; Woodcock, McGrew, & Mather, 2001) that…

  3. A Natural Cattle Immune Response Against Horn Fly (Diptera: Muscidae) Salivary Antigens May Regulate Parasite Blood Intake.

    PubMed

    Breijo, M; Pastro, L; Rocha, S; Ures, X; Alonzo, P; Santos, M; Bolatto, C; Fernández, C; Meikle, A

    2016-08-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans (L.), is a blood-sucking ectoparasite that is responsible for sizeable economic losses in livestock. The salivary gland products facilitate blood intake. Taking advantage of the identification of novel H. irritans salivary antigens (Hematobin, HTB and Irritans 5, IT5), we investigated the parasite loads, H. irritans blood intake, and antibody response of naturally infected bovines during the fly season. Fly loads and fly hemoglobin content fluctuated during the trial. Each time horn fly loads exceeded 200 flies per cattle, a reduction in horn fly blood intake was observed three weeks later. All of the cattle elicited an antibody response against HTB and IT5 that declined once the fly season was over. Cattle anti-IT5 titers were positively correlated with parasite loads and negatively correlated with fly blood intake. These results suggest that the natural changes in the H. irritans blood intake observed in this study were associated with a natural host response against horn fly salivary antigens.

  4. Morphological study of surgical approach by superior temporal sulcus-temporal horn of lateral ventricle approach using volume rendering.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wei; Jia, Linpei; Dong, Yidian; Zhao, Hang; Liu, Haoyuan; Yang, Kerong; Li, Youqiong

    2014-03-01

    In this research, we acquired the length of the superior temporal sulcus, the shortest distance from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, and the approach angle between the median sagittal plane and the shortest segment from the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle measuring 98 specimens by magnetic resonance imaging volume rendering. At the same time, we preliminarily oriented the point of the superior temporal sulcus, which is closest to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle, aimed at finding out the best entrance point of surgical approach through the superior temporal sulcus to the temporal horn of the lateral ventricle and reducing the damage to optic radiation as well as other nerve fibers during the operation. The results indicate that the point at the front side 3/5 of the superior temporal sulcus may be the ideal surgical approach entrance point, and there is no difference between 2 cerebral hemispheres (P < 0.05).

  5. A Study of Music Students' Tempo Changes of a Soloist's Performance of Mozart's 1st Horn Concerto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Christopher M.; Madsen, Clifford K.; Geringer, John M.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to investigate music students' tempo changes of a soloist's performance in an excerpt from Mozart's "Concerto No. 1 in D Major for Horn and Orchestra." We then compared the composite rubato pattern to tendencies found in a previous investigation using Mozart's "Concerto No. 2 in E[flat] Major for Horn…

  6. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  7. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  8. 9 CFR 310.9 - Anthrax; carcasses not to be eviscerated; disposition of affected carcasses; hides, hoofs, horns...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...; handling of blood and scalding vat water; general cleanup and disinfection. 310.9 Section 310.9 Animals and...; hides, hoofs, horns, hair, viscera and contents, and fat; handling of blood and scalding vat water... scalding vat water through which hog carcasses affected with anthrax have passed shall be...

  9. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Cognitive-Achievement Relations: What We Have Learned from the Past 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Kevin S.; Wendling, Barbara J.

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of cognitive abilities has evolved over the past 20 years and serves as the theoretical foundation for a number of current cognitive ability assessments. CHC theory provides a means by which we can better understand the relationships between cognitive abilities and academic achievement, an important…

  10. Cattell-Horn-Carroll Abilities and Cognitive Tests: What We've Learned from 20 Years of Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keith, Timothy Z.; Reynolds, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    This article reviews factor-analytic research on individually administered intelligence tests from a Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) perspective. Although most new and revised tests of intelligence are based, at least in part, on CHC theory, earlier versions generally were not. Our review suggests that whether or not they were based on CHC theory, the…

  11. The Role of Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) Cognitive Abilities in Predicting Writing Achievement during the School-Age Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cormier, Damien C.; Bulut, Okan; McGrew, Kevin S.; Frison, Jessica

    2016-01-01

    Writing is a complex academic task--it involves numerous mental processes. Given the necessity for developing writing skills from elementary to secondary school, this study aimed to investigate the role of broad cognitive abilities derived from the Cattell-Horn-Carroll (CHC) theory of intelligence in predicting skills associated with writing…

  12. The Relationships between Internet Usage and Acculturation of the Horn of Africa Immigrants in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woldeab, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate Internet usage and its relationship with the acculturation of the Horn of Africa immigrants residing in urban Minnesota. Technology has and continues to be a cultural amplifier; in just two decades from its initial availability to the general public, the Internet has made geographical differences…

  13. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given.

  14. Detection of target site resistance to pyrethroids and organophosphates in the horn fly using multiplex polymerase chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Foil, L D; Guerrero, F D; Bendele, K G

    2010-09-01

    The horn fly, Haematobia irritans L., is an obligate blood-feeding fly and the primary insect pest parasitizing cattle in the United States. Pesticide resistance has become a substantial problem for cattle producers, and although several mechanisms of resistance are possible, target site resistance is the most important mechanism preventing control of this fly in the United States and possibly other countries. We developed a multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay to detect the known target site, pyrethroid resistance-associated mutation in the horn fly and a recently reported G262A mutation in the horn fly acetylcholinesterase, the target site for organophosphates. As expected, the pyrethroid resistance target site mutation was found in fly populations from Texas, Louisiana, Washington, Georgia, Mexico, and Brazil. This mutation was found to have a gender bias as it was more prevalent in females than males. The G262A acetylcholinesterase mutation was found in Texas, Louisiana, Washington, Georgia, and Mexico, but not Brazil. There was no gender bias in the occurrence of this mutation, and there was no correlation between the occurrence of the kdr and the G262A mutations. Unlike the case with the pyrethroid target site mutation, the presence of G262A did not appear to exclusively provide the level of resistance required to account for bioassay results. It is likely an additional mutation(s) occurs in the target site and/or a metabolic resistance mechanism exists in organophosphate-resistant horn fly populations.

  15. Effect of aggregation of horn fly populations within cattle herds and consequences for sampling to obtain unbiased estimates of abundance.

    PubMed

    Lysyk, T J; Steelman, C D

    2004-07-01

    Reanalysis of counts of horn fly, Hematobia irritans (L.), obtained from a variety of cattle herds indicated that aggregation of the flies within herds decreased as mean fly density increased. Aggregation was also related to the proportion of fly-resistant and fly-susceptible cattle in a herd. Herds were grouped according to their degree of horn fly aggregation. Low aggregation herds included larger framed Angus, Horned Hereford, Polled Hereford, and Red Poll breeds. Moderate aggregation occurred with Brahman, Charolais, small-framed Angus, mixed cows, and Hereford x Charolais cross. High aggregation occurred with Chianina and mixed herds. Relationships between the sample means and variances varied among aggregation groups. A resampling approach was used to determine the influence of random sampling of a herd on the proportion of horn fly population estimates within fixed percentages of the true mean. The proportion of sample means within +/- 5, 10, 15, and 20% of the true means varied with the proportion of the herd sampled, the mean and variance of fly density, and herd size. Recommendations for obtaining sample size to estimate fly density within a fixed percentage of the true mean are given. PMID:15311450

  16. The relationship between human security, demand for arms and disarmament in the horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Gebrewold, Kiflemariam

    2002-01-01

    The drive to find security through possession of weapons is linked to the history and culture of a social group. Amongst pastoralists in the Horn of Africa there is a failure of security through state systems such as police and the recent replacement of less-lethal traditional weapons by small arms and other light weapons. A warrior or vendetta culture with these arms leads to violent inter-clan clashes with many casualties, although traditional methods of weapons control still seem operational within clans. Understanding the drive to seek weapons is essential in finding ways to control their use. Improving the capacities of the police must come hand in hand with human rights training and an end to corruption. Further work is required on how traditional methods of arms control can be co-operatively linked with state controls. PMID:12498403

  17. Systematics and Taxonomy of the Long-horned Caddisfly Genus Tagalopsyche (Trichoptera: Leptoceridae)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, T.; Holzenthal, R. W.

    2005-05-01

    The long-horned caddisfly genus Tagalopsyche Banks 1913 contains 4 described species from the Oriental and Afrotropical regions: T. aethiopica Kimmins (Ethiopia), T. brunnea (Ulmer) (Indonesia), T. fletcheri Kimmins (India), and T. sisyroides Banks (Philippines), the type species. In addition, at least 6 new species are known from Ghana, India, Sri Lanka, and Malaysia, more than doubling the known species diversity. Diagnoses, descriptions, and illustrations of males and known females are provided for all species as well as a re-diagnosis of generic characters and a key to species. The genus is most closely related to Mystacides, with 19 species in the Nearctic, Palearctic and Oriental regions, with which is shares the synapomorpy: abdominal sternum IX of the male genitalia produced posteriorly. Little is known of the biology or ecology of the species.

  18. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn.

    PubMed

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C; Mennicken, Françoise; O'Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L; Woodbury, C Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I; MacDermott, Amy B; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-03-19

    Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  19. Response of great horned owls given the optical isomers of ketamine.

    PubMed

    Redig, P T; Larson, A A; Duke, G E

    1984-01-01

    The relative anesthetic effects of the 2 purified isomers and the racemic mixture of ketamine were compared in 6 great horned owls (Bubo virginianus), a species in which racemic ketamine is poorly tolerated. Other investigators have reported that the L(-) form is only a 3rd as potent as the D(+) form with respect to analgesic action in mammals. Accordingly, the racemic and the - forms were given at 2 X and 3 X, respectively, the dose of the + form in an attempt to achieve a potentially equivalent state of anesthesia. At these dose levels, there was no difference observed in the average duration of anesthesia with the 3 ketamine preparations. The - isomer yielded a poorer anesthetic response characterized by inadequate muscle relaxation, cardiac arrhythmias, and marked excitatory behavior during recovery. With the dosages used, the + form and the racemate were comparable in degree of muscle relaxation produced. The + form yielded smoother inductions and less cardiac arrhythmia than did the racemate. PMID:6703445

  20. Mechanism of pellet egestion in great-horned owls (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Duke, G E; Evanson, O A; Redig, P T; Rhoades, D D

    1976-12-01

    To study the mechanism of oral pellet egestion in great-horned owls, bipolar electrodes and strain-gauge transducers were chronically implanted in the esophagus, muscular stomach, and duodenum of six owls. Recordings from conscious owls plus simultaneous radiographic observations revealed characteristic gastrointestinal motility patterns associated with egestion. Beginning at about 12 min before egestion, gastric contractions formed the final shape of the pellet and pushed it into the lower esophagus. The pellet was moved out of the esophagus by antiperistalsis during the last 8--10 s before egestion. During pellet egestion, contractions of abdominal muscles were not detected. Pellet egestion appears to be unlike either emesis in mammals with a simple stomach or regurgitation in ruminants. PMID:1052819

  1. Secrecy in Prepare-and-Measure Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Tests with a Qubit Bound.

    PubMed

    Woodhead, Erik; Pironio, Stefano

    2015-10-01

    The security of device-independent (DI) quantum key distribution (QKD) protocols relies on the violation of Bell inequalities. As such, their security can be established based on minimal assumptions about the devices, but their implementation necessarily requires the distribution of entangled states. In a setting with fully trusted devices, any entanglement-based protocol is essentially equivalent to a corresponding prepare-and-measure protocol. This correspondence, however, is not generally valid in the DI setting unless one makes extra assumptions about the devices. Here we prove that a known tight lower bound on the min entropy in terms of the Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt Bell correlator, which has featured in a number of entanglement-based DI QKD security proofs, also holds in a prepare-and-measure setting, subject only to the assumption that the source is limited to a two-dimensional Hilbert space.

  2. Broadband integrated band-stop filter for horn antennas based on coupled SRRs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbuto, Mirko; Bilotti, Filiberto; Toscano, Alessandro

    2016-06-01

    In this contribution, inspired by a common phenomenon that is well-known in circuit theory, we show a simple method to increase the bandwidth of a band-stop filter based on the use of split-ring resonators (SRRs). In particular, the basic structure of the filtering module consists of a single SRR placed inside a pyramidal horn to implement a self-filtering antenna with a notched-band behavior. In order to increase the rejected band, we placed a second identical SRR in close proximity with the previous one. If the distance between the SRRs is suitably chosen, the two resonators are properly coupled leading to a widening of the notched-band of the filtering module. The effectiveness of the proposed approach is confirmed by the results of full-wave numerical simulations.

  3. Bladder Neck Rupture Following Perineal Bull Horn Injury: A Surgical Challenge

    PubMed Central

    Padilla-Fernandez, B.; Diaz-Alferez, F.J.; Garcia-Garcia, M.A.; Herrero-Polo, M.; Velasquez-Saldarriaga, J.F.; Lorenzo-Gomez, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Pelvic-abdominal injuries caused by goring are serious lesions which require rapid diagnosis and urgent treatment in the context of a polytraumatized patient. The simultaneous rupture of both the bladder and the prostatic-membranous urethra occurs in 10%–29% of males with pelvic fractures but bladder neck injuries in adults are rarer. Unstable pelvic fractures, bilateral fractures of the ischiopubic branches (also referred to as fractures from falling astride) and the diastasis of the pubic symphysis are those that have the greatest likelihood of injuring both the posterior urethra and the bladder. We present a case of perineal bull horn injury with muscle laceration, bone fractures, scrotal avulsion and rupture of the bladder neck involving the right ureter which required two operations to be repaired. PMID:23066348

  4. Efficient entanglement concentration for concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state with the cross-Kerr nonlinearity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Jun; Zhou, Lan; Gu, Shi-Pu; Wang, Xing-Fu; Sheng, Yu-Bo; Wang, Qin

    2016-04-01

    Concatenated Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (C-GHZ) state, which encodes physical qubits in a logic qubit, has great application in the future quantum communication. We present an efficient entanglement concentration protocol (ECP) for recovering less-entangled C-GHZ state into the maximally entangled C-GHZ state with the help of cross-Kerr nonlinearities and photon detectors. With the help of the cross-Kerr nonlinearity, the obtained maximally entangled C-GHZ state can be remained for other applications. Moreover, the ECP can be used repeatedly, which can increase the success probability largely. Based on the advantages above, our ECP may be useful in the future long-distance quantum communication.

  5. Modelling one row of Horns Rev wind farm with the Actuator Line Model with coarse resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Draper, M.; Guggeri, A.; Usera, G.

    2016-09-01

    Actuator models have been used to represent the presence of wind turbines in a simulation in the past few years. The Actuator Line Model (ALM) has shown to reproduce with reasonable accuracy the wind flow through wind turbines under different operational conditions. Nevertheless, there are not many simulations of wind farms performed with the ALM mainly because of its computational cost. The aim of the present paper is to evaluate the ALM in spatial resolutions coarser than what is generally recommended, also using larger time steps, in a simulation of a real wind farm. To accomplish this, simulations of one row of Horns Rev wind farm are performed, for different wind directions. It is concluded that the ALM is able to capture the main features of the interaction between wind turbines relaxing its resolution requirements. A sensitivity analysis is performed to assess the influence of the smearing factor and the spatial resolution.

  6. Shaped single reflector offset antenna with low cross-polarization fed by a lens horn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lier, Erik; Skyttemyr, Svein A.

    1994-04-01

    A novel compact primary-fed offset reflector antenna with the potential of radiating circular as well as elliptical beams with low cross-polarization, is proposed. The reflector is fed by a horn with a phase-correcting lens in the aperture. Compared to the dual-reflector offset antenna, the concept is easier to assemble and mechanically more robust. The antenna has been synthesized and analyzed by computer programs resulting from modifications of corresponding PO programs for dual-reflector offset antennas. The synthesized antenna exhibits similar cross-polarization, side-lobe level, and aperture efficiency as those of dual-reflector offset antennas, although the one-to-one correspondence between zero cross-polarization and conformal mapping from the feed to the aperture, is not exactly valid for this approach.

  7. Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger argument of nonlocality without inequalities for mixed states

    SciTech Connect

    Ghirardi, Gian Carlo; Marinatto, Luca

    2006-08-15

    We generalize the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger nonlocality without inequalities argument to cover the case of arbitrary mixed statistical operators associated to three-qubits quantum systems. More precisely, we determine the radius of a ball (in the trace distance topology) surrounding the pure GHZ state and containing arbitrary mixed statistical operators which cannot be described by any local and realistic hidden variable model and which are, as a consequence, noncompletely separable. As a practical application, we focus on certain one-parameter classes of mixed states which are commonly considered in the experimental realization of the original GHZ argument and which result from imperfect preparations of the pure GHZ state. In these cases we determine for which values of the parameter measuring the noise a nonlocality argument can still be exhibited, despite the mixedness of the considered states. Moreover, the effect of the imperfect nature of measurement processes is discussed.

  8. Remnants of ancient genetic diversity preserved within captive groups of scimitar-horned oryx (Oryx dammah).

    PubMed

    Iyengar, A; Gilbert, T; Woodfine, T; Knowles, J M; Diniz, F M; Brenneman, R A; Louis, E E; Maclean, N

    2007-06-01

    Scimitar-horned oryx, now considered extinct in the wild, persists in large numbers in captivity. In this first molecular genetic study on this species, we explore the patterns of genetic diversity across European, North American, and a few other captive groups using microsatellite markers and mitochondrial control region sequencing. Strong population structure was not evident from microsatellite data but we discovered deep divergence within the mitochondrial DNA haplotypes from a network analysis where three disconnected networks were obtained, with estimated divergence times of c. 2.1-2.7 million years. Mismatch distribution analyses suggest population expansions c. 1.2 and 0.5 million years ago. We discuss our findings in the context of historical climatic changes in North Africa and use information obtained on current patterns of genetic diversity within captive groups to make recommendations for future captive management and reintroduction strategies. PMID:17561904

  9. Generation of the quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger entangled state in quantum beat lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fei

    2013-12-01

    In this letter, a scheme is presented to obtain quadripartite Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) entanglement via quantum beats in a four-level diamond configuration atomic system. When the top and the ground states are initially prepared in a coherent superposition, the four quantized fields coupling with four dipole-allowed transitions can be correlated with each other by using a strong microwave field to drive the dipole-forbidden transition. It is the combined effect of atomic coherence-controlled correlated-spontaneous emission and double quantum beats that results in the quadripartite GHZ-type entanglement. Our numerical results show that the quadripartite entanglement, which can be controlled effectively by varying the amplitude and phase of the microwave field, occurs in a very wide parameter range. In addition, using input-output theory, we find that the output quadripartite entanglement is robust against thermal fluctuations, which may be useful for long-distance quantum communications.

  10. Experimental Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger-Type Six-Photon Quantum Nonlocality.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Huang, Yun-Feng; Wang, Zhao; Liu, Bi-Heng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can

    2015-12-31

    Quantum nonlocality gives us deeper insight into quantum physics. In addition, quantum nonlocality has been further recognized as an essential resource for device-independent quantum information processing in recent years. Most experiments of nonlocality are performed using a photonic system. However, until now, photonic experiments of nonlocality have involved at most four photons. Here, for the first time, we experimentally demonstrate the six-photon quantum nonlocality in an all-versus-nothing manner based on a high-fidelity (88.4%) six-photon Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. Our experiment pushes multiphoton nonlocality studies forward to the six-photon region and might provide a larger photonic system for device-independent quantum information protocols.

  11. Theoretical analysis of H-Horn annular phased array system for heating deep-seated tumors.

    PubMed

    Tianquan, D; Zheng, L; Wei, R

    1991-01-01

    This paper discusses a type of annular phased array system--H-Horn APA. The phase and amplitude control of power deposition patterns for this system are theoretically analyzed at a frequency of 200 MHz. The formulas for calculating E-field and SAR for this APA system are derived, and can be applied to other type APA systems. Models of computerized tomography (CT) scans from liver and lung regions have been used, respectively, for predicting optimization of E-field and SAR patterns in the case of the relative phase and amplitude changes. It is shown that the techniques of the phase and amplitude control of SAR patterns result in more selectively and effectively heating of tumors situated eccentrically and deeply within bodies of patients. The APA hyperthermia described in this paper shows great promise, and it looks very useful for developing clinical applications.

  12. The relationship between human security, demand for arms and disarmament in the horn of Africa.

    PubMed

    Gebrewold, Kiflemariam

    2002-01-01

    The drive to find security through possession of weapons is linked to the history and culture of a social group. Amongst pastoralists in the Horn of Africa there is a failure of security through state systems such as police and the recent replacement of less-lethal traditional weapons by small arms and other light weapons. A warrior or vendetta culture with these arms leads to violent inter-clan clashes with many casualties, although traditional methods of weapons control still seem operational within clans. Understanding the drive to seek weapons is essential in finding ways to control their use. Improving the capacities of the police must come hand in hand with human rights training and an end to corruption. Further work is required on how traditional methods of arms control can be co-operatively linked with state controls.

  13. Multiqubit W states lead to stronger nonclassicality than Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states

    SciTech Connect

    Sen, Aditi; Sen, Ujjwal; Zukowski, Marek; Wiesniak, Marcin; Kaszlikowski, Dagomir

    2003-12-01

    The N-qubit states of the W class, for N>10, lead to more robust (against noise admixture) violations of local realism, than the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) states. These violations are most pronounced for correlations for a pair of qubits, conditioned on specific measurement results for the remaining N-2 qubits. The considerations provide us with a qualitative difference between the W state and GHZ state in the situation when they are separately sent via depolarizing channels. For sufficiently high amount of noise in the depolarizing channel, the GHZ states cannot produce a distillable state between two qubits, whereas the W states can still produce a distillable state in a similar situation.

  14. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn

    PubMed Central

    Bardoni, Rita; Tawfik, Vivianne L.; Wang, Dong; François, Amaury; Solorzano, Carlos; Shuster, Scott A.; Choudhury, Papiya; Betelli, Chiara; Cassidy, Colleen; Smith, Kristen; de Nooij, Joriene C.; Mennicken, Françoise; O’Donnell, Dajan; Kieffer, Brigitte L.; Woodbury, C. Jeffrey; Basbaum, Allan I.; MacDermott, Amy B.; Scherrer, Grégory

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Cutaneous mechanosensory neurons detect mechanical stimuli that generate touch and pain sensation. Although opioids are generally associated only with the control of pain, here we report that the opioid system in fact broadly regulates cutaneous mechanosensation, including touch. This function is predominantly subserved by the delta opioid receptor (DOR), which is expressed by myelinated mechanoreceptors that form Meissner corpuscles, Merkel cell-neurite complexes, and circumferential hair follicle endings. These afferents also include a small population of CGRP-expressing myelinated nociceptors that we now identify as the somatosensory neurons that coexpress mu and delta opioid receptors. We further demonstrate that DOR activation at the central terminals of myelinated mechanoreceptors depresses synaptic input to the spinal dorsal horn, via the inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels. Collectively our results uncover a molecular mechanism by which opioids modulate cutaneous mechanosensation and provide a rationale for targeting DOR to alleviate injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. PMID:24583022

  15. Fast generating Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state via iterative interaction pictures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bi-Hua; Chen, Ye-Hong; Wu, Qi-Cheng; Song, Jie; Xia, Yan

    2016-10-01

    We delve a little deeper into the construction of shortcuts to adiabatic passage for three-level systems by iterative interaction picture (multiple Schrödinger dynamics). As an application example, we use the deduced iterative based shortcuts to rapidly generate the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger (GHZ) state in a three-atom system with the help of quantum Zeno dynamics. Numerical simulation shows the dynamics designed by the iterative picture method is physically feasible and the shortcut scheme performs much better than that using the conventional adiabatic passage techniques. Also, the influences of various decoherence processes are discussed by numerical simulation and the results prove that the scheme is fast and robust against decoherence and operational imperfection.

  16. Penetrating keratoplasty for treatment of corneal protrusion in a great horned owl (Bubo virginianus).

    PubMed

    Andrew, Stacy E; Clippinger, Tracy L; Brooks, Dennis E; Helmick, Kelly E

    2002-09-01

    A young adult great horned owl (Bubo virginianus) was examined following presumed trauma. The owl had soft tissue injury to its left wing as well as corneal protrusion, lens subluxation, and iridodialysis of the right eye. The bird's eye was treated surgically with a large, rectangular penetrating keratoplasty. Following escape from housing, the bird was found with partial wound dehiscence and iris prolapse 12 days post operation. Surgical repair was performed and healing progressed for 14 days, at which time the transplant dehisced and the globe was exenterated. The patient rehabilitated well until escaping from its cage again 4 weeks later, at which time it sustained an open comminuted humeral fracture and was euthanized. PMID:12236872

  17. Crystalline pteridines in the stromal pigment cells of the iris of the great horned owl.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, L W

    1981-01-01

    The bright yellow color of the iris of the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) is due to unusual pigment cells in the iris stroma. These cells are spherical and contain numerous clear lipid droplets. Around the periphery of these cells are ovoid crystalline granules that are highly birefringent and vary in color from yellow to clear gray. Differential extraction of the lipid droplets and peripheral granules with lipid solvents and 2% KOH confirmed the localization of the yellow pigment in these granules. The color, solubility, fluorescence, chromatographic mobility and ultraviolet absorption of the extracted pigment suggest it is primarily xanthopterin. It is proposed that the peripheral granules are crystalline pterinosomes capable of reflecting light. Most of the cells contain yellow reflecting granules and can be considered reflecting xanthophores. Cells lying deeper in the stroma have colorless reflecting granules and can be considered pteridine containing leucophores. PMID:7237534

  18. The musculature and pupillary response of the great horned owl iris.

    PubMed

    Oliphant, L W; Johnson, M R; Murphy, C; Howland, H

    1983-12-01

    There is considerable confusion in the literature regarding the nature of the musculature of the avian iris. The most commonly held view is that both the sphincter and dilator are striated. The iris of the Great Horned Owl (Bubo virginianus) has a complex iridial musculature consisting of three circumferential components (a myoepithelium, smooth muscle and striated muscle) and two radial components (a well-developed myoepithelium and a few striated fibers). On the basis of the anatomy and relative development of these components, and a quantitative analysis of the pupillary reflex, it is proposed that the circumferential striated muscle is the primary pupillary constrictor and radial myoepithelium is the primary dilator. The annular band of smooth muscle may play an important role in maintaining pupillary size. PMID:6662207

  19. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild <20 years under present management. The optimal scenario to maintain the rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present

  20. Identification of policies for a sustainable legal trade in rhinoceros horn based on population projection and socioeconomic models.

    PubMed

    Di Minin, Enrico; Laitila, Jussi; Montesino-Pouzols, Federico; Leader-Williams, Nigel; Slotow, Rob; Goodman, Peter S; Conway, Anthony J; Moilanen, Atte

    2015-04-01

    Between 1990 and 2007, 15 southern white (Ceratotherium simum simum) and black (Diceros bicornis) rhinoceroses on average were killed illegally every year in South Africa. Since 2007 illegal killing of southern white rhinoceros for their horn has escalated to >950 individuals/year in 2013. We conducted an ecological-economic analysis to determine whether a legal trade in southern white rhinoceros horn could facilitate rhinoceros protection. Generalized linear models were used to examine the socioeconomic drivers of poaching, based on data collected from 1990 to 2013, and to project the total number of rhinoceroses likely to be illegally killed from 2014 to 2023. Rhinoceros population dynamics were then modeled under 8 different policy scenarios that could be implemented to control poaching. We also estimated the economic costs and benefits of each scenario under enhanced enforcement only and a legal trade in rhinoceros horn and used a decision support framework to rank the scenarios with the objective of maintaining the rhinoceros population above its current size while generating profit for local stakeholders. The southern white rhinoceros population was predicted to go extinct in the wild <20 years under present management. The optimal scenario to maintain the rhinoceros population above its current size was to provide a medium increase in antipoaching effort and to increase the monetary fine on conviction. Without legalizing the trade, implementing such a scenario would require covering costs equal to approximately $147,000,000/year. With a legal trade in rhinoceros horn, the conservation enterprise could potentially make a profit of $717,000,000/year. We believe the 35-year-old ban on rhinoceros horn products should not be lifted unless the money generated from trade is reinvested in improved protection of the rhinoceros population. Because current protection efforts seem to be failing, it is time to evaluate, discuss, and test alternatives to the present