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Sample records for infectado con trypanosoma

  1. Lipid metabolism in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Terry K.; Bütikofer, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei membranes consist of all major eukaryotic glycerophospholipid and sphingolipid classes. These are de novo synthesized from precursors obtained either from the host or from catabolised endocytosed lipids. In recent years, substantial progress has been made in the molecular and biochemical characterisation of several of these lipid biosynthetic pathways, using gene knockout or RNA interference strategies or by enzymatic characterization of individual reactions. Together with the completed genome, these studies have highlighted several possible differences between mammalian and trypanosome lipid biosynthesis that could be exploited for the development of drugs against the diseases caused by these parasites. PMID:20382188

  2. Malleable mitochondrion of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Verner, Zdeněk; Basu, Somsuvro; Benz, Corinna; Dixit, Sameer; Dobáková, Eva; Faktorová, Drahomíra; Hashimi, Hassan; Horáková, Eva; Huang, Zhenqiu; Paris, Zdeněk; Peña-Diaz, Priscila; Ridlon, Lucie; Týč, Jiří; Wildridge, David; Zíková, Alena; Lukeš, Julius

    2015-01-01

    The importance of mitochondria for a typical aerobic eukaryotic cell is undeniable, as the list of necessary mitochondrial processes is steadily growing. Here, we summarize the current knowledge of mitochondrial biology of an early-branching parasitic protist, Trypanosoma brucei, a causative agent of serious human and cattle diseases. We present a comprehensive survey of its mitochondrial pathways including kinetoplast DNA replication and maintenance, gene expression, protein and metabolite import, major metabolic pathways, Fe-S cluster synthesis, ion homeostasis, organellar dynamics, and other processes. As we describe in this chapter, the single mitochondrion of T. brucei is everything but simple and as such rivals mitochondria of multicellular organisms.

  3. Immunotherapy of Trypanosoma cruzi infections.

    PubMed

    Chamond, N; Coatnoan, N; Minoprio, P

    2002-10-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas' disease, is transmitted to man and other mammals by triatominae insects, or 'kissing bugs'. Since its discovery in 1909, by Carlos Chagas, this parasite has been the object of several publications in the domains of immunology, cellular biology and of control gene organization, regulation and expression. Although much progress has been made concerning prophylaxis of Chagas' disease, particularly vector eradication, additional cases of infection and disease development still occur every day throughout the world. Whilst infection was largely limited in the past to vector transmission in endemic areas of Latin America, its impact has increased in terms of congenital and blood transmission, transplants and recrudescence following immunosuppressive states. Reports on new insect vectors adapted to the parasite and domestic animals infected in more developed countries, emphasize the continuing worldwide public health issue. Therapy against this parasite is limited and cure is subjected to several criteria, such as susceptibility of the parasite strain, age of the host and stage of the disease. The ability of Trypanosoma cruzi to induce important and various host immune system dysfunctions makes the development of effective vaccines a laborious and complex task. These considerations strengthen the latent significance of Chagas' disease and encourage the search for new preventive procedures and the research on rational vaccines.

  4. Characterization of Trypanosoma cruzi telomerase.

    PubMed

    Campelo, Riward; Galindo, Maria Mercedes; Ramirez, Jose Luis

    2011-12-01

    High telomerase activity is always associated with actively dividing cells, however the detection of this activity in dividing Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi cells has always been disappointingly low. Recently, we have found that Leishmania major telomerase activity can be activated by heat, which combined with dilutions of the nuclear extracts produced an increase in activity comparable to cancer cells. Here we examined whether T. cruzi telomerase shares the same physicochemical properties of primer specificity and overall features of the L. major. Our studies revealed that no telomerase inhibitory factors were present in the nuclear lysates of T. cruzi however the enzyme was activated by heat and was very resilient to heat denaturation. We also showed the extension primer specificity, susceptibility to RNase-A and RNase-H digestion, and the effect of telomerase inhibitors.

  5. Nuclear structure of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Schenkman, Sergio; Pascoalino, Bruno dos Santos; Nardelli, Sheila C

    2011-01-01

    The presence of nucleus in living organisms characterizes the Eukaryote domain. The nucleus compartmentalizes the genetic material surrounded by a double membrane called nuclear envelope. The nucleus has been observed since the advent of the light microscope, and sub-compartments such as nucleoli, diverse nuclear bodies and condensed chromosomes have been later recognized, being part of highly organized and dynamic structure. The significance and function of such organization has increased with the understanding of transcription, replication, DNA repair, recombination processes. It is now recognized as consequence of adding complexity and regulation in more complex eukaryotic cells. Here we provide a description of the actual stage of knowledge of the nuclear structure of Trypanosoma cruzi. As an early divergent eukaryote, it presents unique and/or reduced events of DNA replication, transcription and repair as well as RNA processing and transport to the cytosol. Nevertheless, it shows peculiar structure changes accordingly to the cell cycle and stage of differentiation. T. cruzi proliferates only as epimastigote and amastigote stages, and when these forms differentiate in trypomastigote forms, their cell cycle is arrested. This arrested stage is capable of invading mammalian cells and of surviving harsh conditions, such as the gut of the insect vector and mammalian macrophages. Transcription and replication decrease during transformation in trypomastigotes implicating large alterations in the nuclear structure. Recent evidences also suggest that T. cruzi nucleus respond to oxidative and nutritional stresses. Due to the phylogenetic proximity with other well-known trypanosomes, such as Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania major, they are expected to have similar nuclear organization, although differences are noticed due to distinct life cycles, cellular organizations and the specific adaptations for surviving in different host environments. Therefore, the general

  6. Transcription of Trypanosoma brucei maxicircles

    SciTech Connect

    Michelotti, E.F.; Hajduk, S.L.

    1987-05-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a protozoan parasite which developmentally regulates mitochondrial activity. In the mammal T. brucei produces ATP entirely by glycolysis while cytochrome mediated respiration resumes in the life-stage in the midgut of the insect vector. Using quantitative S1 nuclease protection assays two types of regulation of the steady state levels of the mitochondrial transcripts were found. Transcription of cytochrome b, cytochrome oxidase, and the rRNA genes is repressed in early bloodstream developmental stages, undergoes dramatic activation in later bloodstream stages, and finally a lesser activation in the insect developmental stage. Transcription of NADH dehydrogenase genes, however, is unregulated. Mitochondrial transcripts with a 5' triphosphate terminus, representing the site of transcription initiation, were capped using guanylyl transferase. The in vitro capped RNA hybridized to only one of eight mitochondrial restriction fragments on a Southern blot, however, hybridization of Southern blots with RNA from ..cap alpha..-/sup 32/P-UTP pulsed mitochondria labelled all restriction fragments equally. These results suggest that each DNA strand has a single promoter which directs the transcription of a full-length RNA which is subsequently processed. Different mitochondrial genes, despite being expressed on the same precursor RNA molecule, are independently regulated by both transcription initiation and RNA processing.

  7. RNA turnover in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Ehlers, B; Czichos, J; Overath, P

    1987-01-01

    Regulation of variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) mRNA turnover in Trypanosoma brucei was studied in bloodstream forms, in procyclic cells, and during in vitro transformation of bloodstream forms to procyclic cells by approach-to-equilibrium labeling and pulse-chase experiments. Upon initiation of transformation at 27 degrees C in the presence of citrate-cis-aconitate, the half-life of VSG mRNA was reduced from 4.5 h in bloodstream forms to 1.2 h in transforming cells. Concomitantly, an approximately 25-fold decrease in the rate of transcription was observed, resulting in a 100-fold reduction in the steady-state level of de novo-synthesized VSG mRNA. This low level of expression was maintained for at least 7 h, finally decreasing to an undetectable level after 24 h. Transcription of the VSG gene in established procyclic cells was undetectable. For comparison, the turnover of polyadenylated and nonpolyadenylated RNA, beta-tubulin mRNA, and mini-exon-derived RNA (medRNA) was studied. For medRNA, no significant changes in the rate of transcription or stability were observed during differentiation. In contrast, while the rate of transcription of beta-tubulin mRNA in in vitro-cultured bloodstream forms, transforming cells, and established procyclic cells was similar, the half life was four to five times longer in procyclic cells (t1/2, 7 h) than in cultured bloodstream forms (t1/2, 1.4 h) or transforming cells (t1/2, 1.7 h). Inhibition of protein synthesis in bloodstream forms at 37 degrees Celsius caused a dramatic 20-fold decrease in the rate of VSG mRNA synthesis and a 6-fold decrease in half-life to 45 min, while beta-tubulin mRNA was stabilized 2- to 3-fold and mRNA stability remained unaffected. It is postulated that triggering transformation or inhibiting protein synthesis induces changes in the abundance of the same regulatory molecules which effect the shutoff of VSG gene transcription in addition to shortening the half-life of VSG mRNA. Images PMID:2436040

  8. Overview of DNA Repair in Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei, and Leishmania major

    PubMed Central

    Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Rajão, Matheus Andrade; Nascimento de Aguiar, Pedro Henrique; Vieira-da-Rocha, João Pedro; Machado, Carlos Renato; Furtado, Carolina

    2010-01-01

    A wide variety of DNA lesions arise due to environmental agents, normal cellular metabolism, or intrinsic weaknesses in the chemical bonds of DNA. Diverse cellular mechanisms have evolved to maintain genome stability, including mechanisms to repair damaged DNA, to avoid the incorporation of modified nucleotides, and to tolerate lesions (translesion synthesis). Studies of the mechanisms related to DNA metabolism in trypanosomatids have been very limited. Together with recent experimental studies, the genome sequencing of Trypanosoma brucei, Trypanosoma cruzi, and Leishmania major, three related pathogens with different life cycles and disease pathology, has revealed interesting features of the DNA repair mechanism in these protozoan parasites, which will be reviewed here. PMID:20976268

  9. Activity of Bisnaphthalimidopropyl Derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Graça, Nuno A. G.; Gaspar, Luis; Costa, David M.; Loureiro, Inês; Thoo-Lin, Paul Kong; Ramos, Isbaal; Roura, Meritxell; Pruvost, Alain; Pemberton, Ian K.; Loukil, Hadjer; MacDougall, Jane

    2016-01-01

    Current treatments for African trypanosomiasis are either toxic, costly, difficult to administer, or prone to elicit resistance. This study evaluated the activity of bisnaphthalimidopropyl (BNIP) derivatives against Trypanosoma brucei. BNIPDiaminobutane (BNIPDabut), the most active of these compounds, showed in vitro inhibition in the single-unit nanomolar range, similar to the activity in the reference drug pentamidine, and presented low toxicity and adequate metabolic stability. Additionally, using a murine model of acute infection and live imaging, a significant decrease in parasite load in BNIPDabut-treated mice was observed. However, cure was not achieved. BNIPDabut constitutes a new scaffold for antitrypanosomal drugs that deserves further consideration. PMID:26787703

  10. Immune Evasion Strategies of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Flávia Nardy, Ana; Freire-de-Lima, Célio Geraldo; Morrot, Alexandre

    2015-01-01

    Microbes have evolved a diverse range of strategies to subvert the host immune system. The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, provides a good example of such adaptations. This parasite targets a broad spectrum of host tissues including both peripheral and central lymphoid tissues. Rapid colonization of the host gives rise to a systemic acute response which the parasite must overcome. The parasite in fact undermines both innate and adaptive immunity. It interferes with the antigen presenting function of dendritic cells via an action on host sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin receptors. These receptors also induce suppression of CD4+ T cells responses, and we presented evidence that the sialylation of parasite-derived mucins is required for the inhibitory effects on CD4 T cells. In this review we highlight the major mechanisms used by Trypanosoma cruzi to overcome host immunity and discuss the role of parasite colonization of the central thymic lymphoid tissue in chronic disease. PMID:26240832

  11. Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli of Colombia using minicircle hybridization tests.

    PubMed

    Botero, Adriana; Ortiz, Sylvia; Muñoz, Sergio; Triana, Omar; Solari, Aldo

    2010-11-01

    Although Trypanosoma rangeli is harmless for humans, it is a serious problem since it may be confused with diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Both parasites overlap geographically, share antigenic protein, and are able to infect the same Triatominae vector and vertebrate host, including human. Our objective was to differentiate T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from Colombia based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification of the minicircles followed by appropriate hybridization tests with selected DNA probes and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. We worked with highly characterized T. cruzi and T. rangeli isolates from different biologic origins and geographic areas of Colombia, and they were analyzed by RFLP and PCR amplification of variable region of minicircles and Southern blot analysis. Our results and experimental conditions demonstrate the usefulness of PCR amplification of the minicircles followed by Southern blot analysis to differentiate T. cruzi from T. rangeli, which can be highly important to improve diagnosis of Chagas disease.

  12. Variant surface glycoprotein from Trypanosoma evansi is partially responsible for the cross-reaction between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Uzcanga, Graciela L; Perrone, Trina; Noda, José Alfredo; Pérez-Pazos, Jacqueline; Medina, Rafael; Hoebeke, Johan; Bubis, José

    2004-01-27

    Salivarian trypanosomes use antigenic variation of their variant-specific surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat as a defense against the host immune system. Although about 1000 VSG and pseudo-VSG genes are scattered throughout the trypanosome genome, each trypanosome expresses only one VSG, while the rest of the genes are transcriptionally silent. A 64-kDa glycosylated cross-reacting antigen between Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax (p64), which was purified from the TEVA1 T. evansi Venezuelan isolate, was proven here to represent the soluble form of a VSG. Initially, a biochemical characterization of p64 was carried out. Gel filtration chromatography, sedimentation, and chemical cross-linking provided evidences of the dimeric nature of p64. The hydrodynamic parameters indicated that p64 is asymmetrical with a frictional ratio f/fo = 1.57. Isoelectric focusing and two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed that p64 contained two isoforms with isoelectric points of 6.8-6.9 and 7.1-7.2. When p64 and three p64 Staphylococcus aureus V8 proteolytic fragments were sequenced, the same N-termini sequence was obtained: Ala-Pro-Ile-Thr-Asp-Ala-Asp-Leu-Gly-Pro-Ala-Gln-Ile-Ala-Asp, which displayed a significant homology with a putative Trypanosoma brucei VSG gene located on chromosome 4. Additionally, immunofluorescence microscopy on T. evansi and T. vivax established that p64 and its T. vivax homologue were confined to the surface of both parasites. An immunological characterization of this antigen was also carried out using several Venezuelan T. evansi isolates expressing different VSGs, which were obtained from naturally infected animals. Although sera from animals infected with the various T. evansi isolates recognized p64, only one isolate, besides TEVA1, contained polypeptides that were recognized by anti-p64 antibodies. All these results together with prior evidences [Uzcanga, G. et al. (2002) Parasitology 124, 287-299] confirmed that p64 is the

  13. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M; Flash, Charlene A; Stager, Charles E; Goodman, Jerry C; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-07-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

  14. Proteomics of Trypanosoma evansi Infection in Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Pallavi, Rani; Chakravarthy, Harshini; Chandran, Syama; Kumar, Rajender; Gupta, Ashok Kumar; Singh, Raj Kumar; Yadav, Suresh Chandra; Tatu, Utpal

    2010-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma evansi infections, commonly called ‘surra’, cause significant economic losses to livestock industry. While this infection is mainly restricted to large animals such as camels, donkeys and equines, recent reports indicate their ability to infect humans. There are no World Animal Health Organization (WAHO) prescribed diagnostic tests or vaccines available against this disease and the available drugs show significant toxicity. There is an urgent need to develop improved methods of diagnosis and control measures for this disease. Unlike its related human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi whose genomes have been fully sequenced T. evansi genome sequence remains unavailable and very little efforts are being made to develop improved methods of prevention, diagnosis and treatment. With a view to identify potential diagnostic markers and drug targets we have studied the clinical proteome of T. evansi infection using mass spectrometry (MS). Methodology/Principal Findings Using shot-gun proteomic approach involving nano-lc Quadrupole Time Of Flight (QTOF) mass spectrometry we have identified over 160 proteins expressed by T. evansi in mice infected with camel isolate. Homology driven searches for protein identification from MS/MS data led to most of the matches arising from related Trypanosoma species. Proteins identified belonged to various functional categories including metabolic enzymes; DNA metabolism; transcription; translation as well as cell-cell communication and signal transduction. TCA cycle enzymes were strikingly missing, possibly suggesting their low abundances. The clinical proteome revealed the presence of known and potential drug targets such as oligopeptidases, kinases, cysteine proteases and more. Conclusions/Significance Previous proteomic studies on Trypanosomal infections, including human parasites T. brucei and T. cruzi, have been carried out from lab grown cultures. For T. evansi infection this is indeed the first ever

  15. Phylogenetic analysis of the Trypanosoma genus based on the heat-shock protein 70 gene.

    PubMed

    Fraga, Jorge; Fernández-Calienes, Aymé; Montalvo, Ana Margarita; Maes, Ilse; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Büscher, Philippe; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Van der Auwera, Gert

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosome evolution was so far essentially studied on the basis of phylogenetic analyses of small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU-rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. We used for the first time the 70kDa heat-shock protein gene (hsp70) to investigate the phylogenetic relationships among 11 Trypanosoma species on the basis of 1380 nucleotides from 76 sequences corresponding to 65 strains. We also constructed a phylogeny based on combined datasets of SSU-rDNA, gGAPDH and hsp70 sequences. The obtained clusters can be correlated with the sections and subgenus classifications of mammal-infecting trypanosomes except for Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma rangeli. Our analysis supports the classification of Trypanosoma species into clades rather than in sections and subgenera, some of which being polyphyletic. Nine clades were recognized: Trypanosoma carassi, Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma grayi, Trypanosoma lewisi, T. rangeli, T. theileri, Trypanosoma vivax and Trypanozoon. These results are consistent with existing knowledge of the genus' phylogeny. Within the T. cruzi clade, three groups of T. cruzi discrete typing units could be clearly distinguished, corresponding to TcI, TcIII, and TcII+V+VI, while support for TcIV was lacking. Phylogenetic analyses based on hsp70 demonstrated that this molecular marker can be applied for discriminating most of the Trypanosoma species and clades.

  16. Phospholipase A2 from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei: inhibition by organotins.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, M N; Kanbara, H; Yanagi, T; Ameh, D A; Bonire, J J; Nok, A J

    2001-11-01

    Activity and kinetics of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) from Trypanosoma brucei gambiense (Wellcome strain) and Trypanosoma brucei brucei (GUTat 3.1) were examined using two different fluorescent substrates. The activity in the supernatants of sonicated parasites was Ca2+-independent, strongly stimulated by Triton X-100 with optimum activity at 37 degrees C and pH 6.5-8.5. To encourage a possible interaction between the parasite enzyme and organotin compounds, fatty acid derivatives of dibutyltin dichloride were synthesized and evaluated as potential inhibitors of PLA2. The enzyme from the two-trypanosome species differ with respect to kinetic parameters and are noncompetitively inhibited by the organotin compounds. The Michaelis constant (KM) for PLA2 from T. b. brucei is 63.87 and 30.90 microM while for T. b. gambiense it is 119.64 and 32.91 microM for the substrates 1,2-bis-(1-pyrenebutanoyl)-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (PBGPC) and 2-(12-(7-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)amino)dodecanoyl-1-hexadecanoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (NBDC12-HPC), respectively.

  17. Evaluation of In Vitro Activity of Essential Oils against Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Habila, Nathan; Agbaji, Abel S.; Ladan, Zakari; Bello, Isaac A.; Haruna, Emmanuel; Dakare, Monday A.; Atolagbe, Taofiq O.

    2010-01-01

    Essential oils (EOs) from Cymbopogon citratus (CC), Eucalyptus citriodora (EC), Eucalyptus camaldulensis (ED), and Citrus sinensis (CS) were obtained by hydrodistillation process. The EOs were evaluated in vitro for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Tbb) and Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi). The EOs were found to possess antitrypanosomal activity in vitro in a dose-dependent pattern in a short period of time. The drop in number of parasite over time was achieved doses of 0.4 g/ml, 0.2 g/mL, and 0.1 g/mL for all the EOs. The concentration of 0.4 g/mL CC was more potent at 3 minutes and 2 minutes for Tbb and T. evansi, respectively. The GC-MS analysis of the EOs revealed presence of Cyclobutane (96.09%) in CS, 6-octenal (77.11%) in EC, Eucalyptol (75%) in ED, and Citral (38.32%) in CC among several other organic compounds. The results are discussed in relation to trypanosome chemotherapy. PMID:20700425

  18. Vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli induces resistance of guinea pigs to virulent Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Basso, B; Moretti, E; Fretes, R

    2014-01-15

    Chagas' disease, endemic in Latin America, is spread in natural environments through animal reservoirs, including marsupials, mice and guinea pigs. Farms breeding guinea pigs for food are located in some Latin-American countries with consequent risk of digestive infection. The aim of this work was to study the effect of vaccination with Trypanosoma rangeli in guinea pigs challenged with Trypanosoma cruzi. Animals were vaccinated with fixated epimastigotes of T. rangeli, emulsified with saponin. Controls received only PBS. Before being challenged with T. cruzi, parasitemia, survival rates and histological studies were performed. The vaccinated guinea pigs revealed significantly lower parasitemia than controls (p<0.0001-0.01) and a discrete lymphomonocytic infiltrate in cardiac and skeletal muscles was present. In the chronic phase, the histological view was normal. In contrast, control group revealed amastigote nests and typical histopathological alterations compatible with chagasic myocarditis, endocarditis and pericarditis. These results, together with previous works in our laboratory, show that T. rangeli induces immunoprotection in three species of animals: mice, guinea pigs and dogs. The development of vaccines for use in animals, like domestic dogs and guinea pigs in captivity, opens up new opportunities for preventive tools, and could reduce the risk of infection with T. cruzi in the community.

  19. Trypanosoma evansi is alike to Trypanosoma brucei brucei in the subcellular localisation of glycolytic enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Moreno, S Andrea; Nava, Mayerly

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, which causes surra, is descended from Trypanosoma brucei brucei, which causes nagana. Although both parasites are presumed to be metabolically similar, insufficient knowledge of T. evansi precludes a full comparison. Herein, we provide the first report on the subcellular localisation of the glycolytic enzymes in T. evansi, which is a alike to that of the bloodstream form (BSF) of T. b. brucei: (i) fructose-bisphosphate aldolase, glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), hexokinase, phosphofructokinase, glucose-6-phosphate isomerase, phosphoglycerate kinase, triosephosphate isomerase (glycolytic enzymes) and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (a glycolysis-auxiliary enzyme) in glycosomes, (ii) enolase, phosphoglycerate mutase, pyruvate kinase (glycolytic enzymes) and a GAPDH isoenzyme in the cytosol, (iii) malate dehydrogenase in cytosol and (iv) glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in both glycosomes and the cytosol. Specific enzymatic activities also suggest that T. evansi is alike to the BSF of T. b. brucei in glycolytic flux, which is much faster than the pentose phosphate pathway flux, and in the involvement of cytosolic GAPDH in the NAD+/NADH balance. These similarities were expected based on the close phylogenetic relationship of both parasites. PMID:26061149

  20. Motility modes of the parasite Trypanosoma brucei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Temel, Fatma Zeynep; Qu, Zijie; McAllaster, Michael; de Graffenried, Christopher; Breuer, Kenneth

    2015-11-01

    The parasitic single-celled protozoan Trypanosoma brucei causes African Sleeping Sickness, which is a fatal disease in humans and animals that threatens more than 60 million people in 36 African countries. Cell motility plays a critical role in the developmental phases and dissemination of the parasite. Unlike many other motile cells such as bacteria Escherichia coli or Caulobacter crescentus, the flagellum of T. brucei is attached along the length of its awl-like body, producing a unique mode of motility that is not fully understood or characterized. Here, we report on the motility of T. brucei, which swims using its single flagellum employing both rotating and undulating propulsion modes. We tracked cells in real-time in three dimensions using fluorescent microscopy. Data obtained from experiments using both short-term tracking within the field of view and long-term tracking using a tracking microscope were analyzed. Motility modes and swimming speed were analyzed as functions of cell size, rotation rate and undulation pattern. Research supported by NSF.

  1. Troglitazone induces differentiation in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Denninger, Viola; Figarella, Katherine; Schoenfeld, Caroline; Brems, Stefanie; Busold, Christian; Lang, Florian; Hoheisel, Joerg; Duszenko, Michael . E-mail: michael.duszenko@uni-tuebingen.de

    2007-05-15

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite causing sleeping sickness, is transmitted by the tsetse fly and undergoes a complex lifecycle including several defined stages within the insect vector and its mammalian host. In the latter, differentiation from the long slender to the short stumpy form is induced by a yet unknown factor of trypanosomal origin. Here we describe that some thiazolidinediones are also able to induce differentiation. In higher eukaryotes, thiazolidinediones are involved in metabolism and differentiation processes mainly by binding to the intracellular receptor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor {gamma}. Our studies focus on the effects of troglitazone on bloodstream form trypanosomes. Differentiation was monitored using mitochondrial markers (membrane potential, succinate dehydrogenase activity, inhibition of oxygen uptake by KCN, amount of cytochrome transcripts), morphological changes (Transmission EM and light microscopy), and transformation experiments (loss of the Variant Surface Glycoprotein coat and increase of dihydroliponamide dehydrogenase activity). To further investigate the mechanisms responsible for these changes, microarray analyses were performed, showing an upregulation of expression site associated gene 8 (ESAG8), a potential differentiation regulator.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi expresses diverse repetitive protein antigens.

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, D F; Kim, K S; Otsu, K; Moser, D R; Yost, W J; Blumin, J H; Donelson, J E; Kirchhoff, L V

    1989-01-01

    We screened a Trypanosoma cruzi cDNA expression library with human and rabbit anti-T. cruzi sera and identified cDNA clones that encode polypeptides containing tandemly arranged repeats which are 6 to 34 amino acids in length. The peptide repeats encoded by these cDNAs varied markedly in sequence, copy number, and location relative to the polyadenylation site of the mRNAs from which they were derived. The repeats were specific for T. cruzi, but in each case the sizes of the corresponding mRNAs and the total number of repeat copies encoded varied considerably among different isolates of the parasite. Expression of the peptide repeats was not stage specific. One of the peptide repeats occurred in a protein with an Mr of greater than 200,000 and one was in a protein of Mr 75,000 to 105,000. The frequent occurrence and diversity of these peptide repeats suggested that they may play a role in the ability of the parasite to evade immune destruction in its invertebrate and mammalian hosts, but the primary roles of these macromolecules may be unrelated to the host-parasite relationship. Images PMID:2659529

  3. Clomipramine kills Trypanosoma brucei by apoptosis.

    PubMed

    de Silva Rodrigues, Jean Henrique; Stein, Jasmin; Strauss, Mariana; Rivarola, Héctor Walter; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Nakamura, Celso Vataru; Duszenko, Michael

    2016-06-01

    Drug repositioning, i.e. use of existing medicals to treat a different illness, is especially rewarding for neglected tropical diseases (NTD), since in this field the pharmaceutical industry is rather reluctant to spend vast investments for drug development. NTDs afflict primarily poor populations in under-developed countries, which minimizes financial profit. Here we investigated the trypanocidal effect of clomipramine, a commercial antipsychotic drug, on Trypanosoma brucei. The data showed that this drug killed the parasite with an IC50 of about 5μM. Analysis of the involved cell death mechanism revealed furthermore an initial autophagic stress response and finally the induction of apoptosis. The latter was substantiated by a set of respective markers such as phosphatidylserine exposition, DNA degradation, loss of the inner mitochondrial membrane potential and characteristic morphological changes. Clomipramine was described as a trypanothione inhibitor, but as judged from our results it also showed DNA binding capacities and induced substantial morphological changes. We thus consider it likely that the drug induces a multifold adverse interaction with the parasite's physiology and induces stress in a way that trypanosomes cannot cope with.

  4. Trypanosoma brucei metabolism is under circadian control.

    PubMed

    Rijo-Ferreira, Filipa; Pinto-Neves, Daniel; Barbosa-Morais, Nuno L; Takahashi, Joseph S; Figueiredo, Luisa M

    2017-03-13

    The Earth's rotation forced life to evolve under cyclic day and night environmental changes. To anticipate such daily cycles, prokaryote and eukaryote free-living organisms evolved intrinsic clocks that regulate physiological and behavioural processes. Daily rhythms have been observed in organisms living within hosts, such as parasites. Whether parasites have intrinsic molecular clocks or whether they simply respond to host rhythmic physiological cues remains unknown. Here, we show that Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human sleeping sickness, has an intrinsic circadian clock that regulates its metabolism in two different stages of the life cycle. We found that, in vitro, ∼10% of genes in T. brucei are expressed with a circadian rhythm. The maximum expression of these genes occurs at two different phases of the day and may depend on a post-transcriptional mechanism. Circadian genes are enriched in cellular metabolic pathways and coincide with two peaks of intracellular adenosine triphosphate concentration. Moreover, daily changes in the parasite population lead to differences in suramin sensitivity, a drug commonly used to treat this infection. These results demonstrate that parasites have an intrinsic circadian clock that is independent of the host, and which regulates parasite biology throughout the day.

  5. Subcellular proteomics of Trypanosoma cruzi reservosomes

    PubMed Central

    Sant’Anna, Celso; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Pereira, Miria G.; Lourenço, Daniela; de Souza, Wanderley; Almeida, Igor C.; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa L.

    2009-01-01

    Reservosomes are the endpoint of the endocytic pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. These organelles have the particular ability to concentrate proteins and lipids obtained from medium together with the main proteolytic enzymes originated from the secretory pathway, being at the same time a storage organelle and the main site of protein degradation. Subcellular proteomics have been extensively used for profiling organelles in different cell types. Here, we combine cell fractionation and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis to identify reservosome-resident proteins. Starting from a purified reservosome fraction, we established a protocol to isolate reservosome membranes. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to confirm the purity of the fractions. To achieve a better coverage of identified proteins we analyzed the fractions separately and combined the results. LC-MS/MS analysis identified in total 709 T. cruzi-specific proteins; of these, 456 had predicted function and 253 were classified as hypothetical proteins. We could confirm the presence of most of the proteins validated by previous work and identify new proteins from different classes such as enzymes, proton pumps, transport proteins and others. The definition of the reservosome protein profile is a good tool to assess their molecular signature, identify molecular markers, and understand their relationship with different organelles. PMID:19288526

  6. Phosphatidylinositol kinase activities in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, Alba Marina; Gesumaría, María Celeste; Schoijet, Alejandra C; Alonso, Guillermo D; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Racagni, Graciela E; Machado, Estela E

    2015-01-01

    Phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) metabolism through phosphatidylinositol kinase (PIKs) activities plays a central role in different signaling pathways. In Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of Chagas disease, PIKs have been proposed as target for drug design in order to combat this pathogen. In this work, we studied the classes of PI4K, PIPK and PI3K that could participate in signaling pathways in T. cruzi epimastigote forms. For this reason, we analyzed their enzymatic parameters and detailed responses to avowed kinase inhibitors (adenosine, sodium deoxycholate, wortmannin and LY294002) and activators (Ca(2+), phosphatidic acid, spermine and heparin). Our results suggest the presence and activity of a class III PI4K, a class I PIPK, a class III PI3K previously described (TcVps34) and a class I PI3K. Class I PI3K enzyme, here named TcPI3K, was cloned and expressed in a bacterial system, and their product was tested for kinase activity. The possible participation of TcPI3K in central cellular events of the parasite is also discussed.

  7. A Protein Complex Map of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Vaibhav; Najafabadi, Hamed S.; Moshiri, Houtan; Jardim, Armando; Salavati, Reza

    2016-01-01

    The functions of the majority of trypanosomatid-specific proteins are unknown, hindering our understanding of the biology and pathogenesis of Trypanosomatida. While protein-protein interactions are highly informative about protein function, a global map of protein interactions and complexes is still lacking for these important human parasites. Here, benefiting from in-depth biochemical fractionation, we systematically interrogated the co-complex interactions of more than 3354 protein groups in procyclic life stage of Trypanosoma brucei, the protozoan parasite responsible for human African trypanosomiasis. Using a rigorous methodology, our analysis led to identification of 128 high-confidence complexes encompassing 716 protein groups, including 635 protein groups that lacked experimental annotation. These complexes correlate well with known pathways as well as for proteins co-expressed across the T. brucei life cycle, and provide potential functions for a large number of previously uncharacterized proteins. We validated the functions of several novel proteins associated with the RNA-editing machinery, identifying a candidate potentially involved in the mitochondrial post-transcriptional regulation of T. brucei. Our data provide an unprecedented view of the protein complex map of T. brucei, and serve as a reliable resource for further characterization of trypanosomatid proteins. The presented results in this study are available at: www.TrypsNetDB.org. PMID:26991453

  8. Crystal structure of a Trypanosoma brucei metacaspase.

    PubMed

    McLuskey, Karen; Rudolf, Jana; Proto, William R; Isaacs, Neil W; Coombs, Graham H; Moss, Catherine X; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2012-05-08

    Metacaspases are distantly related caspase-family cysteine peptidases implicated in programmed cell death in plants and lower eukaryotes. They differ significantly from caspases because they are calcium-activated, arginine-specific peptidases that do not require processing or dimerization for activity. To elucidate the basis of these differences and to determine the impact they might have on the control of cell death pathways in lower eukaryotes, the previously undescribed crystal structure of a metacaspase, an inactive mutant of metacaspase 2 (MCA2) from Trypanosoma brucei, has been determined to a resolution of 1.4 Å. The structure comprises a core caspase fold, but with an unusual eight-stranded β-sheet that stabilizes the protein as a monomer. Essential aspartic acid residues, in the predicted S1 binding pocket, delineate the arginine-specific substrate specificity. In addition, MCA2 possesses an unusual N terminus, which encircles the protein and traverses the catalytic dyad, with Y31 acting as a gatekeeper residue. The calcium-binding site is defined by samarium coordinated by four aspartic acid residues, whereas calcium binding itself induces an allosteric conformational change that could stabilize the active site in a fashion analogous to subunit processing in caspases. Collectively, these data give insights into the mechanistic basis of substrate specificity and mode of activation of MCA2 and provide a detailed framework for understanding the role of metacaspases in cell death pathways of lower eukaryotes.

  9. Messenger RNA processing sites in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Benz, Corinna; Nilsson, Daniel; Andersson, Björn; Clayton, Christine; Guilbride, D Lys

    2005-10-01

    In Kinetoplastids, protein-coding genes are transcribed polycistronically by RNA polymerase II. Individual mature mRNAs are generated from polycistronic precursors by 5' trans splicing of a 39-nt capped leader RNA and 3' polyadenylation. It was previously known that trans splicing generally occurs at an AG dinucleotide downstream of a polypyrimidine tract, and that polyadenylation is coupled to downstream trans splicing. The few polyadenylation sites that had been examined were 100-400 nt upstream of the polypyrimidine tract which marked the adjacent trans splice site. We wished to define the sequence requirements for trypanosome mRNA processing more tightly and to generate a predictive algorithm. By scanning all available Trypanosoma brucei cDNAs for splicing and polyadenylation sites, we found that trans splicing generally occurs at the first AG following a polypyrimidine tract of 8-25 nt, giving rise to 5'-UTRs of a median length of 68 nt. We also found that in general, polyadenylation occurs at a position with one or more A residues located between 80 and 140 nt from the downstream polypyrimidine tract. These data were used to calibrate free parameters in a grammar model with distance constraints, enabling prediction of polyadenylation and trans splice sites for most protein-coding genes in the trypanosome genome. The data from the genome analysis and the program are available from: .

  10. Nanomolar Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Triphosphatase

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Paul; Ho, C. Kiong; Takagi, Yuko; Djaballah, Hakim

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Eukaryal taxa differ with respect to the structure and mechanism of the RNA triphosphatase (RTPase) component of the mRNA capping apparatus. Protozoa, fungi, and certain DNA viruses have a metal-dependent RTPase that belongs to the triphosphate tunnel metalloenzyme (TTM) superfamily. Because the structures, active sites, and chemical mechanisms of the TTM-type RTPases differ from those of mammalian RTPases, the TTM RTPases are potential targets for antiprotozoal, antifungal, and antiviral drug discovery. Here, we employed RNA interference (RNAi) knockdown methods to show that Trypanosoma brucei RTPase Cet1 (TbCet1) is necessary for proliferation of procyclic cells in culture. We then conducted a high-throughput biochemical screen for small-molecule inhibitors of the phosphohydrolase activity of TbCet1. We identified several classes of chemicals—including chlorogenic acids, phenolic glycopyranosides, flavonoids, and other phenolics—that inhibit TbCet1 with nanomolar to low-micromolar 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC50s). We confirmed the activity of these compounds, and tested various analogs thereof, by direct manual assays of TbCet1 phosphohydrolase activity. The most potent nanomolar inhibitors included tetracaffeoylquinic acid, 5-galloylgalloylquinic acid, pentagalloylglucose, rosmarinic acid, and miquelianin. TbCet1 inhibitors were less active (or inactive) against the orthologous TTM-type RTPases of mimivirus, baculovirus, and budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae). Our results affirm that a TTM RTPase is subject to potent inhibition by small molecules, with the caveat that parallel screens against TTM RTPases from multiple different pathogens may be required to fully probe the chemical space of TTM inhibition. PMID:26908574

  11. Mapping of VSG similarities in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Weirather, Jason L; Wilson, Mary E; Donelson, John E

    2012-02-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei switches its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) to subvert its mammalian hosts' immune responses. The T. brucei genome contains as many as 1600 VSG genes (VSGs), but most are silent noncoding pseudogenes. Only one functional VSG, located in a telomere-linked expression site, is transcribed at a time. Silent VSGs are copied into a VSG expression site through gene conversion. Truncated gene conversion events can generate new mosaic VSGs with segments of sequence identity to other VSGs. To examine the VSG family sub-structure within which these events occur, we combined the available VSG sequences and annotations with scripted BLAST searches to map the relationships among VSGs in the T. brucei genome. Clusters of related VSGs were visualized in 2- and 3-dimensions for different N- and C-terminal regions. Five types of N-termini (N1-N5) were observed, within which gene recombinational events are likely to occur, often with fully-coding 'functional' or 'atypical'VSGs centrally located between more dissimilar VSGs. Members of types N1, N3 and N4 are most closely related in the middle of the N-terminal region, whereas type N2 members are more similar near the N-terminus. Some preference occurs in pairing between specific N- and C-terminal types. Statistical analyses indicated no overall tendency for more related VSGs to be located closer in the genome than less related VSGs, although exceptions were noted. Many potential mosaic gene formation events within each N-terminal type were identified, contrasted by only one possible mosaic gene formation between N-terminal types (N1 and N2). These data suggest that mosaic gene formation is a major contributor to the overall VSG diversity, even though gene recombinational events between members of different N-terminal types occur only rarely.

  12. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES IMMUNOLOGY AND MICROBIOLOGY DEVICES Serological Reagents § 866.3870...

  13. Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma Cruzi in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Hernandez, Salvador; Flores, Carmen A.; Viana, Gracia M.; Sanchez, Daniel R.; Traina, Mahmoud I.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi usually infects humans via triatomine insects in Latin America. Vector-borne transmission in the United States is exceedingly rare. We describe (1) the first case of probable autochthonous transmission reported in California in more than 30 years and (2) the first ever reported case in the greater Los Angeles area. PMID:28018928

  14. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... serum. The identification aids in the diagnosis of trypanosomiasis, a disease caused by parasitic protozoans belonging to the genus Trypanosoma. Trypanosomiasis in adults is a chronic disease characterized.... Chagas disease, an acute form of trypanosomiasis in children, most seriously affects the central...

  15. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  16. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  17. 21 CFR 866.3870 - Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Trypanosoma spp. serological reagents. 866.3870 Section 866.3870 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... system and heart muscle. (b) Classification. Class I (general controls)....

  18. Bestatin Induces Specific Changes in Trypanosoma cruzi Dipeptide Pool

    PubMed Central

    Creek, Darren J.; Faral-Tello, Paula; Barrett, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    Proteases and peptidases in Trypanosoma cruzi are considered potential targets for antichagasic chemotherapy. We monitored changes in low-mass metabolites in T. cruzi epimastigotes treated with bestatin, a dipeptide metalloaminopeptidase inhibitor. After treatment, multiple dipeptides were shown to be increased, confirming in situ inhibition of the leucine aminopeptidase of T. cruzi (LAPTc) and probably other peptidases. PMID:25712359

  19. Immunization of mice with Trypanosoma rhodesiense exposed to ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Charoenvit, Y.; Campbell, G.H.

    1981-11-01

    Exposure time of Trypanosoma rhodesiense as short as 1 minute to ultraviolet (uv) light prevents the organisms from causing infection. Live trypanosome challenge of mice immunized with uv-irradiated trypanosomes results in sterile immunity. This allows a method for the induction of protective immunity to experimental trypanosomiasis which can be performed in most laboratories using uv germicidal lamps found in sterile hoods.

  20. The susceptibility of Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei to isometamidium chloride and its synthetic impurities.

    PubMed

    Sahin, Annelise; Asencio, Corinne; Izotte, Julien; Pillay, Davita; Coustou, Virginie; Karembe, Hamadi; Baltz, Théo

    2014-07-14

    Since the 1950s, the chemotherapy of animal African trypanosomosis in cattle has essentially relied on only two compounds: isometamidium chloride (ISM), a phenanthridine, and diminazene aceturate, an aromatic diamidine. The commercial formulations of ISM, including Veridium(®) and Samorin(®), are a mixture of different compounds: ISM is the major component, mixed with the red isomer, blue isomer and disubstituted compound. To investigate the pharmacological effects of these individual compounds ISM, the blue and red isomers and the disubstituted compound were synthesised and purified by HPLC. The activity of each compound was analysed both in vitro, and in mice in vivo. For the in vitro analysis, a drug sensitivity assay was developed in 96-well tissue culture plates to determine the effective concentration which killed 50% of trypanosome population within 48 h of drug exposure (IC50). All compounds tested in vitro possessed trypanocidal activity, and purified ISM was the most active. Veridium(®) and Samorin(®) had similar IC50 values to purified ISM for both Trypanosoma congolense and Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The disubstituted compound had the highest IC50 values whereas intermediate IC50 values were obtained for the blue and red isomers. In vivo, single-dose tests were used to evaluate the trypanocidal and prophylactic activity against T. congolense. Interestingly, the prophylactic effect two months post treatment was as efficient with ISM, Veridium(®), Samorin(®) and the disubstituted compound at the highest dose of 1mg/kg whereas the red and blue isomers both showed much lower prophylactic activity. This study on T. congolense implies that it is necessary to limit the quantity of the blue and red isomers in the commercial mixture. Finally, the in vitro sensitivity assay may be useful for screening new trypanocides but also for the testing and detection of resistant trypanosome isolates.

  1. Adaptations of Trypanosoma brucei to gradual loss of kinetoplast DNA: Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are petite mutants of T. brucei

    PubMed Central

    Lai, De-Hua; Hashimi, Hassan; Lun, Zhao-Rong; Ayala, Francisco J.; Lukeš, Julius

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a kinetoplastid flagellate, the agent of human sleeping sickness and ruminant nagana in Africa. Kinetoplastid flagellates contain their eponym kinetoplast DNA (kDNA), consisting of two types of interlocked circular DNA molecules: scores of maxicircles and thousands of minicircles. Maxicircles have typical mitochondrial genes, most of which are translatable only after RNA editing. Minicircles encode guide RNAs, required for decrypting the maxicircle transcripts. The life cycle of T. brucei involves a bloodstream stage (BS) in vertebrates and a procyclic stage (PS) in the tsetse fly vector. Partial [dyskinetoplastidy (Dk)] or total [akinetoplastidy (Ak)] loss of kDNA locks the trypanosome in the BS form. Transmission between vertebrates becomes mechanical without PS and tsetse mediation, allowing the parasite to spread outside the African tsetse belt. Trypanosoma equiperdum and Trypanosoma evansi are agents of dourine and surra, diseases of horses, camels, and water buffaloes. We have characterized representative strains of T. equiperdum and T. evansi by numerous molecular and classical parasitological approaches. We show that both species are actually strains of T. brucei, which lost part (Dk) or all (Ak) of their kDNA. These trypanosomes are not monophyletic clades and do not qualify for species status. They should be considered two subspecies, respectively T. brucei equiperdum and T. brucei evansi, which spontaneously arose recently. Dk/Ak trypanosomes may potentially emerge repeatedly from T. brucei. PMID:18245376

  2. Protein geranylgeranyltransferase-I of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Yokoyama, Kohei; Gillespie, John R.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Buckner, Frederick S.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2008-01-01

    Protein geranylgeranyltransferase type I (PGGT-I) and protein farnesyltransferase (PFT) occur in many eukaryotic cells. Both consist of two subunits, the common αsubunit and a distinct β subunit. In the gene database of protozoa Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, a putative protein that consists of 401 amino acids with ∼20% amino acid sequence identity to the PGGT-I β of other species was identified, cloned, and characterized. Multiple sequence alignments show that the T. cruzi ortholog contains all three of the zinc-binding residues and several residues uniquely conserved in the β subunit of PGGT-I. Co-expression of this protein and the α subunit of T. cruzi PFT in Sf9 insect cells yielded a dimeric protein that forms a tight complex selectively with [3H]geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate, indicating a key characteristic of a functional PGGT-I. Recombinant T. cruzi PGGT-I ortholog showed geranylgeranyltransferase activity with distinct specificity toward the C-terminal CaaX motif of protein substrates compared to that of the mammalian PGGT-I and T. cruzi PFT. Most of the CaaX-containing proteins with X=Leu are good substrates of T. cruzi PGGT-I, and those with X=Met are substrates for both T. cruzi PFT and PGGT-I, whereas unlike mammalian PGGT-I, those with X=Phe are poor substrates for T. cruzi PGGT-I. Several candidates for T. cruzi PGGT-I or PFT substrates containing the C-terminal CaaX motif are found in the T. cruzi gene database. Among five C-terminal peptides of those tested, a peptide of a Ras-like protein ending with CVLL was selectively geranylgeranylated by T. cruzi PGGT-I. Other peptides with CTQQ (Tcj2 DNAJ protein), CAVM (TcPRL-1 protein tyrosine phosphatase), CHFM (a small GTPase like protein), and CQLF (TcRho1 GTPase) were specific substrates for T. cruzi PFT but not for PGGT-I. The mRNA and protein of the T. cruzi PGGT-I β ortholog were detected in three life-cycle stages of T. cruzi. Cytosol fractions from

  3. Comparative analysis of the kinomes of three pathogenic trypanosomatids: Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Parsons, Marilyn; Worthey, Elizabeth A; Ward, Pauline N; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2005-01-01

    Background The trypanosomatids Leishmania major, Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi cause some of the most debilitating diseases of humankind: cutaneous leishmaniasis, African sleeping sickness, and Chagas disease. These protozoa possess complex life cycles that involve development in mammalian and insect hosts, and a tightly coordinated cell cycle ensures propagation of the highly polarized cells. However, the ways in which the parasites respond to their environment and coordinate intracellular processes are poorly understood. As a part of an effort to understand parasite signaling functions, we report the results of a genome-wide analysis of protein kinases (PKs) of these three trypanosomatids. Results Bioinformatic searches of the trypanosomatid genomes for eukaryotic PKs (ePKs) and atypical PKs (aPKs) revealed a total of 176 PKs in T. brucei, 190 in T. cruzi and 199 in L. major, most of which are orthologous across the three species. This is approximately 30% of the number in the human host and double that of the malaria parasite, Plasmodium falciparum. The representation of various groups of ePKs differs significantly as compared to humans: trypanosomatids lack receptor-linked tyrosine and tyrosine kinase-like kinases, although they do possess dual-specificity kinases. A relative expansion of the CMGC, STE and NEK groups has occurred. A large number of unique ePKs show no strong affinity to any known group. The trypanosomatids possess few ePKs with predicted transmembrane domains, suggesting that receptor ePKs are rare. Accessory Pfam domains, which are frequently present in human ePKs, are uncommon in trypanosomatid ePKs. Conclusion Trypanosomatids possess a large set of PKs, comprising approximately 2% of each genome, suggesting a key role for phosphorylation in parasite biology. Whilst it was possible to place most of the trypanosomatid ePKs into the seven established groups using bioinformatic analyses, it has not been possible to ascribe function

  4. [Trypanosoma cruzi: transport of essential metabolites acquired from the host].

    PubMed

    Pereira, Claudio A; Carrillo, Carolina; Miranda, Mariana R; Bouvier, León A; Cánepa, Gaspar E

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a disease endemic not only in Argentina but also in all of Latin America. T. cruzi presents several metabolic characteristics which are completely absent in its insect vectors and in mammalian hosts. Some of these differences were acquired after millions of years of adaptation to parasitism, during which this protozoan replaced many biosynthetic routes for transport systems. In the present review, we describe the advances in the knowledge of T. cruzi transport processes and the molecules involved. In particular, we focus on amino acid and polyamine transporters from the AAAP family (Amino Acid/Auxin Permeases), because they seem to be exclusive transporters from trypanosomatids. Taking into account that these permeases are completely absent in mammals, they could be considered as a potential target against Trypanosoma cruzi.

  5. The detection of phosphonolipids in the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Allen, Anthony K.; Snary, David

    1982-01-01

    2-Aminoethylphosphonate was detected in the acid hydrolysates of the phosphonolipids and the lipopeptidophosphoglycan of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. This finding represents the first evidence of phosphonolipids in a zooflagellate. By comparison, no phosphonolipids were detected in Trypanosama brucei, indicating that phosphonolipids are not a ubiquitous feature of the Order Kinetoplastidia. ImagesFig. 1.Fig. 2.Fig. 3. PMID:6758765

  6. Characterization of a RAB5 homologue in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Araripe, Júlia Rolão; Ramos, Fabiane Pereira; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa Leal; Urményi, Turán Péter; Silva, Rosane; Leite Fontes, Carlos Frederico; da Silveira, José Franco; Rondinelli, Edson

    2005-04-08

    RAB proteins are small GTPases involved in exocytic and endocytic pathways of eukaryotic cells, controlling vesicle docking and fusion. RABs show a remarkable specificity in subcellular localization, so they can be used as molecular markers for studying protein trafficking in Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas' disease. RAB5 is a component of early endosomes. It has been identified in kinetoplastids such as Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania donovani. In this work, we describe the characterization of the complete coding sequence of a RAB5 gene homologue in T. cruzi (TcRAB5, GenBank Accession No. AY730667). It is present as a single copy gene, located at chromosomal bands XIII and XIV. TcRAB5 shares the highest degrees of similarity (71%) and identity (63%) with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense RAB5a and contains all five characteristic RAB motifs. TcRAB5 is transcribed as a single 1.5kb mRNA in epimastigotes. Its transcript was also detected in the other two forms of the parasite, metacyclic trypomastigotes and spheromastigotes. The recombinant TcRAB5 protein was able to bind and hydrolyze GTP. The identification of proteins involved in T. cruzi endo- and exocytic pathways may generate cellular compartment markers, an invaluable tool to better understand the vesicular transport in this parasite.

  7. Regulation and spatial organization of PCNA in Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Kaufmann, Doris; Gassen, Alwine; Maiser, Andreas; Leonhardt, Heinrich; Janzen, Christian J.

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Characterization of the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in Trypanosoma brucei (TbPCNA). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbPCNA is a suitable marker to detect replication in T. brucei. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TbPCNA distribution and regulation is different compared to closely related parasites T. cruzi and Leishmania donovani. -- Abstract: As in most eukaryotic cells, replication is regulated by a conserved group of proteins in the early-diverged parasite Trypanosoma brucei. Only a few components of the replication machinery have been described in this parasite and regulation, sub-nuclear localization and timing of replication are not well understood. We characterized the proliferating cell nuclear antigen in T. brucei (TbPCNA) to establish a spatial and temporal marker for replication. Interestingly, PCNA distribution and regulation is different compared to the closely related parasites Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania donovani. TbPCNA foci are clearly detectable during S phase of the cell cycle but in contrast to T. cruzi they are not preferentially located at the nuclear periphery. Furthermore, PCNA seems to be degraded when cells enter G2 phase in T. brucei suggesting different modes of replication regulation or functions of PCNA in these closely related eukaryotes.

  8. Vaccination of dogs with Trypanosoma rangeli induces antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area of Córdoba, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Basso, Beatriz; Marini, Vanina; Gauna, Diego; Frias, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, acting as reservoirs. In a previous work we have developed a model of vaccination of dogs in captivity with nonpathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes, resulting in the production of protective antibodies against T. cruzi, with dramatic decrease of parasitaemia upon challenge with 100,000 virulent forms of this parasite. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of this vaccine in dogs living in a rural area. Domestic dogs, free from T. cruzi infection, received three immunisations with fixed T. rangeli epimastigotes. Dogs were not challenged with T. cruzi, but they were left in their environment. This immunisation induced antibodies against T. cruzi for more than three years in dogs in their natural habitat, while control dogs remained serologically negative.

  9. Vaccination of dogs with Trypanosoma rangeli induces antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi in a rural area of Córdoba, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basso, Beatriz; Marini, Vanina; Gauna, Diego; Frias, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Dogs play a major role in the domestic cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, acting as reservoirs. In a previous work we have developed a model of vaccination of dogs in captivity with nonpathogenic Trypanosoma rangeli epimastigotes, resulting in the production of protective antibodies against T. cruzi, with dramatic decrease of parasitaemia upon challenge with 100,000 virulent forms of this parasite. The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity of this vaccine in dogs living in a rural area. Domestic dogs, free from T. cruziinfection, received three immunisations with fixed T. rangeliepimastigotes. Dogs were not challenged with T. cruzi, but they were left in their environment. This immunisation induced antibodies againstT. cruzi for more than three years in dogs in their natural habitat, while control dogs remained serologically negative. PMID:27074257

  10. Biosynthesis of very long chain fatty acids in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Livore, Verónica I; Uttaro, Antonio D

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi showed similar fatty acid (FA) compositions, having a high proportion of unsaturated FAs, mainly 18:2Δ9,12 (23-39%) and 18:1Δ9 (11-17%). C22 polyunsaturated FAs are in significant amounts only in T. brucei (12-20%) but represent a mere 2% of total FAs in T. cruzi. Both species have also similar profiles of medium- and long-chain saturated FAs, from 14:0 to 20:0. Interestingly, procyclic and bloodstream forms of T. brucei lack very long chain FAs (VLCFAs), whereas epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of T. cruzi contain 22:0 (0.1-0.2%), 24:0 (1.5-2%), and 26:0 (0.1-0.2%). This is in agreement with the presence of an additional FA elongase gene (TcELO4) in T. cruzi. TcELO4 was expressed in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant lacking the endogenous ScELO3, rescuing the synthesis of saturated and hydroxylated C26 FAs in the yeast. Expression of TcELO4 also rescued the synthetic lethality of a ScELO2, ScELO3 double mutation, and the VLCFA profile of the transformed yeast was similar to that found in T. cruzi. By identifying TcELO4 as the enzyme responsible for the elongation of FA from 16:0 and 18:0 up to 26:0, with 24:0 being the preferred product, this work completed the characterization of FA elongases in Trypanosoma spp.

  11. Virulence factors of Trypanosoma cruzi: who is who?

    PubMed

    Osorio, Luis; Ríos, Isabel; Gutiérrez, Bessy; González, Jorge

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this review is to gather the current knowledge of Trypanosoma cruzi's virulence factors described to date in an integrative way, relating these with the parasite's life cycle and trying to elucidate their importance in each process. Several aspects relevant for the parasite's survival, such as invasion, resistance to oxidative damage, escape from the phagolysosomal vacuole and differentiation, among others, will be discussed. However, there is still a lot to learn about what virulence really means in T. cruzi and which parasite molecules are absolutely required to make T. cruzi one of the most successful pathogens to invade, survive and persist in a mammalian host.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi screening in Texas blood donors, 2008-2012.

    PubMed

    Garcia, M N; Woc-Colburn, L; Rossmann, S N; Townsend, R L; Stramer, S L; Bravo, M; Kamel, H; Beddard, R; Townsend, M; Oldham, R; Bottazzi, M E; Hotez, P J; Murray, K O

    2016-04-01

    Chagas disease is an important emerging disease in Texas that results in cardiomyopathy in about 30% of those infected with the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Between the years 2008 and 2012, about 1/6500 blood donors were T. cruzi antibody-confirmed positive. We found older persons and minority populations, particularly Hispanic, at highest risk for screening positive for T. cruzi antibodies during routine blood donation. Zip code analysis determined that T. cruzi is associated with poverty. Chagas disease has a significant disease burden and is a cause of substantial economic losses in Texas.

  13. Non-natural acetogenin analogues as potent Trypanosoma brucei inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Florence, Gordon J.; Fraser, Andrew L.; Gould, Eoin R.; King, Elizabeth F.; Menzies, Stefanie K.; Morris, Joanne C.; Tulloch, Lindsay B.; Smith, Terry K.

    2015-01-01

    A series of novel bis-tetrahydropyran 1,4-triazole analogues based on the acetogenin framework display low micromolar trypanocidal activities towards both bloodstream and insect forms of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. A divergent synthetic strategy was adopted for the synthesis of the key tetrahydropyran intermediates to enable rapid access to diastereochemical variation either side of the 1,4-triazole core. The resulting diastereomeric analogues displayed varying degrees of trypanocidal activity and selectivity in structure activity relationship studies. PMID:25145275

  14. Design and evaluation of Trypanosoma brucei metacaspase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Berg, Maya; Van der Veken, Pieter; Joossens, Jurgen; Muthusamy, Venkatraj; Breugelmans, Matthias; Moss, Catherine X; Rudolf, Jana; Cos, Paul; Coombs, Graham H; Maes, Louis; Haemers, Achiel; Mottram, Jeremy C; Augustyns, Koen

    2010-03-15

    Metacaspase (MCA) is an important enzyme in Trypanosoma brucei, absent from humans and differing significantly from the orthologous human caspases. Therefore MCA constitutes a new attractive drug target for antiparasitic chemotherapeutics, which needs further characterization to support the discovery of innovative drug candidates. A first series of inhibitors has been prepared on the basis of known substrate specificity and the predicted catalytic mechanism of the enzyme. In this Letter we present the first inhibitors of TbMCA2 with low micromolar enzymatic and antiparasitic activity in vitro combined with low cytotoxicity.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in B-cell-deficient rats.

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, A M; Santoro, F; Afchain, D; Bazin, H; Capron, A

    1981-01-01

    The effect of neonatally initiated injections of anti-mu rabbit antiserum on immunity of rats against Trypanosoma cruzi infection was investigated in vivo. Anti-mu treatment resulted in a loss of immunoglobulin M (IgM) and IgG2a synthesis and, subsequently, of antibody production. These rats so treated were shown to be significantly more susceptible to the acute phase of the infection than the control rats treated with normal rabbit serum, as measured by increased parasitemia and mortality. These results indicate the essential role of antibodies, probably in association with complement or effector cells or both, in immunity to acute Chagas' disease. PMID:6783543

  16. Selective inhibition of 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertelli, Massimo; El-Bastawissy, Eman; Knaggs, Michael H.; Barrett, Michael P.; Hanau, Stefania; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2001-05-01

    A number of triphenylmethane derivatives have been screened against 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase from Trypanosoma brucei and sheep liver. Some of these compounds show good inhibition of the enzymes and also selectivity towards the parasite enzyme. Modelling was undertaken to dock the compounds into the active sites of both enzymes. Using a combination of DOCK 3.5 and FLEXIDOCK a correlation was obtained between docking score and both activity for the enzymes and selectivity. Visualisation of the docked structures of the inhibitors in the active sites of the enzymes yielded a possible explanation of the selectivity for the parasite enzyme.

  17. Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki in Choloepus hoffmanni and Didelphis marsupialis of the Pacific Coast of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Travi, B L; Zea, A; D'Alessandro, A

    1989-04-01

    Trypanosoma (Herpetosoma) leeuwenhoeki, originally described in Panamanian sloths, was isolated from Didelphis marsupialis (Marsupialia) and Choloepus hoffmanni (Edentata) inhabiting the Pacific coast of Colombia. Trypanosomes were characterized by their large blood forms (total length 51-53 microns), poor infectivity for mice, and lack of development in Rhodnius prolixus. Isoenzyme studies, with either strains or clones, revealed homogeneous profiles clearly distinct from Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli reference strains. The present report extends the geographical distribution of T. leeuwenhoeki to South America and broadens its known host range to another order of mammals.

  18. First Draft Genome Sequence of the Dourine Causative Agent: Trypanosoma Equiperdum Strain OVI

    PubMed Central

    Hébert, Laurent; Moumen, Bouziane; Madeline, Anthony; Steinbiss, Sascha; Lakhdar, Latifa; Van Reet, Nick; Büscher, Philippe; Laugier, Claire; Cauchard, Julien; Petry, Sandrine

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma equiperdum is the causative agent of dourine, a sexually-transmitted infection of horses. This parasite belongs to the subgenus Trypanozoon that also includes the agent of sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei) and surra (Trypanosoma evansi). We herein report the genome sequence of a T. equiperdum strain OVI, isolated from a horse in South-Africa in 1976. This is the first genome sequence of the T. equiperdum species, and its availability will provide important insights for future studies on genetic classification of the subgenus Trypanozoon. PMID:28138343

  19. Characterization of the M32 metallocarboxypeptidase of Trypanosoma brucei: differences and similarities with its orthologue in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Frasch, Alejandra P.; Carmona, Adriana K.; Juliano, Luiz; Cazzulo, Juan J.; Niemirowicz, Gabriela T.

    2012-01-01

    Metallocarboxypeptidases (MCP) of the M32 family of peptidases have been identified in a number of prokaryotic organisms but they are absent from eukaryotic genomes with the remarkable exception of those of trypanosomatids. The genome of Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of Sleeping Sickness, encodes one such MCP which displays 72% identity to the characterized TcMCP-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi. As its orthologue, TcMCP-1, Trypanosoma brucei MCP is a cytosolic enzyme expressed in both major stages of the parasite. Purified recombinant TbMCP-1 exhibits a significant hydrolytic activity against the carboxypeptidase B substrate FA (furylacryloil)-Ala-Lys at pH 7.0–7.8 resembling the T. cruzi enzyme. S everal divalent cations had little effect on TbMCP-1 activity but increasing amounts of Co2+ inhibited the enzyme. Despite having similar tertiary structure, both protozoan MCPs display different substrate specificity with respect to P1 position. Thus, TcMCP-1 enzyme cleaved Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH substrate (where Abz: o-aminobenzoic acid and Dnp: 2,4-dinitrophenyl) whereas TbMCP-1 had no activity on this substrate. Comparative homology models and sequence alignments using TcMCP-1 as a template led us to map several residues that could explain this difference. To verify this hypothesis, site-directed mutagenesis was undertaken replacing the TbMCP-1 residues by those present in TcMCP-1. We found that the substitution A414M led TbMCP-1 to gain activity on Abz-FVK-(Dnp)-OH, thus showing that this residue is involved in specificity determination, probably being part of the S1 sub-site. Moreover, the activity of both protozoan MCPs was explored on two vasoactive compounds such as bradykinin and angiotensin I resulting in two different hydrolysis patterns. PMID:22575602

  20. In vitro drug susceptibility of two strains of the wildlife trypanosome, Trypanosoma copemani: A comparison with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Botero, Adriana; Keatley, Sarah; Peacock, Christopher; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2017-04-01

    Trypanosomes are blood protozoan parasites that are capable of producing illness in the vertebrate host. Within Australia, several native Trypanosoma species have been described infecting wildlife. However, only Trypanosoma copemani has been associated with pathological lesions in wildlife hosts and more recently has been associated with the drastic decline of the critically endangered woylie (Bettongia penicillata). The impact that some trypanosomes have on the health of the vertebrate host has led to the development of numerous drug compounds that could inhibit the growth or kill the parasite. This study investigated and compared the in vitro susceptibility of two strains of T. copemani (G1 and G2) and one strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (10R26) against drugs that are known to show trypanocidal activity (benznidazole, posaconazole, miltefosine and melarsoprol) and against four lead compounds, two fenarimols and two pyridine derivatives (EPL-BS1937, EPL-BS2391, EPL-BS0967, and EPL-BS1246), that have been developed primarily against T.cruzi. The in vitro cytotoxicity of all drugs against L6 rat myoblast cells was also assessed. Results showed that both strains of T. copemani were more susceptible to all drugs and lead compounds than T. cruzi, with all IC50 values in the low and sub-μM range for both species. Melarsoprol and miltefosine exhibited the highest drug activity against both T. copemani and T. cruzi, but they also showed the highest toxicity in L6 cells. Interestingly, both fenarimol and pyridine derivative compounds were more active against T. copemani and T. cruzi than the reference drugs benznidazole and posaconazole. T. copemani strains exhibited differences in susceptibility to all drugs demonstrating once again considerable differences in their biological behaviour.

  1. Refractory hypoglycaemia in a dog infected with Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Desquesnes, Marc; Dorso, Laetitia; Ravel, Sophie; Bossard, Géraldine; Charbonneau, Morgane; Garand, Annabelle; Roux, Françoise A

    2016-01-01

    A 20 kg German shepherd dog was presented to a French veterinary teaching hospital for seizures and hyperthermia. The dog had returned 1 month previously from a six-month stay in Senegal and sub-Saharan Africa. Biochemistry and haematology showed severe hypoglycaemia (0.12 g/L), anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Despite administration of large amounts of glucose (30 mL of 30% glucose IV and 10 mL of 70% sucrose by gavage tube hourly), 26 consecutive blood glucose measurements were below 0.25 g/L (except one). Routine cytological examination of blood smears revealed numerous free extracytoplasmic protozoa consistent with Trypanosoma congolense. PCR confirmed a Trypanosoma congolense forest-type infection. Treatment consisted of six injections of pentamidine at 48-hour intervals. Trypanosomes had disappeared from the blood smears four days following the first injection. Clinical improvement was correlated with the normalization of laboratory values. The infection relapsed twice and the dog was treated again; clinical signs and parasites disappeared and the dog was considered cured; however, 6 years after this incident, serological examination by ELISA T. congolense was positive. The status of this dog (infected or non-infected) remains unclear. Hypoglycaemia was the most notable clinical feature in this case. It was spectacular in its severity and in its refractory nature; glucose administration seemed only to feed the trypanosomes, indicating that treatment of hypoglycaemia may in fact have been detrimental.

  2. Polypeptide profiles of South Indian isolate of Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Bhaskar Reddy, B V; Malakondaiah, P; Sreenivasulu, D; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2016-09-01

    The field isolates of Trypanosoma evansi was collected from the infected cattle and it was propagated in rats. Trypanosoma evansi parasites were separated from the blood of infected rats by using diethylaminoethyl cellulose column chromatography. Whole cell lysate antigen (WCL) was prepared from purified trypanosomes by ultrasonication and centrifugation. The prepared WCL antigen was further purified by 50 % ammonium sulphate precipitation. Protein concentration of WCL antigen of T. evansi was 60 mg/ml. Protein concentration was adjusted to 1.0 mg/ml in PBS, pH 8.0 and stored at -20(0) C.   Polypeptide profiles of WCL antigen of T. evansi was determined by sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. A total of eight polypeptide bands of the size ranging from 25 to 85 kDa in WCL antigen of T. evansi were obtained. Five prominent bands with molecular weight of 74, 60, 53, 42 and 37 kDa and three light bands with molecular weight of 85, 34 and 25 kDa were observed.

  3. Inositolphosphoceramide Metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi as Compared to other Trypanosomatids

    PubMed Central

    DE LEDERKREMER, ROSA M.; AGUSTI, ROSALÍA; DOCAMPO, ROBERTO

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and is endemic to North, Central and South American countries. Current therapy against this disease is only partially effective and produces adverse side effects. Studies on the metabolic pathways of T. cruzi, in particular those with no equivalent in mammalian cells, might identify targets for the development of new drugs. Ceramide is metabolized to inositolphosphoceramide (IPC) in T. cruzi and other kinetoplastid protists whereas in mammals it is mainly incorporated into sphingomyelin. In T. cruzi, in contrast to Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp., IPC functions as lipid anchor constituent of glycoproteins and free glycosylinositolphospholipids (GIPLs). Inhibition of IPC and GIPLs biosynthesis impairs differentiation of trypomastigotes into the intracellular amastigote forms. The gene encoding IPC synthase in T. cruzi has been identified and the enzyme has been expressed in a cell-free system. The enzyme involved in IPC degradation and the remodelases responsible for the incorporation of ceramide into free GIPLs or into the glycosylphosphatidyl inositols (GPIs) anchoring glycoproteins, and in fatty acid modifications of these molecules of T. cruzi have been understudied. IPC metabolism and remodeling could be exploited as targets for Chagas disease chemotherapy. PMID:21332877

  4. Catabolism of proline by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Obungu, V H; Kiaira, J K; Njogu, R M; Olembo, N K

    1999-05-01

    The effect of various metabolic inhibitors on the rate of oxygen consumption by procyclic culture forms of Trypanosoma congolense utilizing proline as substrate was investigated. Cyanide inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 81.0 +/- 6.7%, malonate inhibited the rate by 51.6 +/- 1.6% and Antimycin A by 73.1 +/- 5.9%. A combination of cyanide and malonate inhibited the rate of oxygen consumption by 84.9 +/- 6.7% while a combination of antimycin A and malonate inhibited the rate by 81.6 +/- 7.6%. Rotenone had no effect on the rate of respiration except when the intact cells were first permeabilized by digitonin after which rotenone decreased the rate of respiration by 20-30%. Salicylhydroxamate (SHAM) did not have any effect on the rate of oxygen consumption. Enzymes involved in the catabolism of proline with high activities were: proline dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase, fumarase, NADP-linked malic enzyme, alanine aminotransferase and malate dehydrogenase. Activities of 1-pyrroline-5 carboxylate dehydrogenase, glutamate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase and NAD-linked malic enzyme were detectable but lower. The end products of proline catabolism were alanine and glutamate. Unlike the case in Trypanosoma brucei brucei aspartate was not detected. Possible pathways of proline catabolism in procyclic culture forms of T. congolense and of electron transfer are proposed.

  5. Refractory hypoglycaemia in a dog infected with Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Deschamps, Jack-Yves; Desquesnes, Marc; Dorso, Laetitia; Ravel, Sophie; Bossard, Géraldine; Charbonneau, Morgane; Garand, Annabelle; Roux, Françoise A.

    2016-01-01

    A 20 kg German shepherd dog was presented to a French veterinary teaching hospital for seizures and hyperthermia. The dog had returned 1 month previously from a six-month stay in Senegal and sub-Saharan Africa. Biochemistry and haematology showed severe hypoglycaemia (0.12 g/L), anaemia and thrombocytopenia. Despite administration of large amounts of glucose (30 mL of 30% glucose IV and 10 mL of 70% sucrose by gavage tube hourly), 26 consecutive blood glucose measurements were below 0.25 g/L (except one). Routine cytological examination of blood smears revealed numerous free extracytoplasmic protozoa consistent with Trypanosoma congolense. PCR confirmed a Trypanosoma congolense forest-type infection. Treatment consisted of six injections of pentamidine at 48-hour intervals. Trypanosomes had disappeared from the blood smears four days following the first injection. Clinical improvement was correlated with the normalization of laboratory values. The infection relapsed twice and the dog was treated again; clinical signs and parasites disappeared and the dog was considered cured; however, 6 years after this incident, serological examination by ELISA T. congolense was positive. The status of this dog (infected or non-infected) remains unclear. Hypoglycaemia was the most notable clinical feature in this case. It was spectacular in its severity and in its refractory nature; glucose administration seemed only to feed the trypanosomes, indicating that treatment of hypoglycaemia may in fact have been detrimental. PMID:26795063

  6. Quercetin, a fluorescent bioflavanoid, inhibits Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, Heidi C.; Lyda, Todd L.; Chambers, Jeremy W.; Morris, Meredith T.; Christensen, Kenneth A.; Morris, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Hexokinases from the African trypanosome, Trypanosoma brucei, are attractive targets for the development of anti-parasitic drugs, in part because the parasite utilizes glycolysis exclusively for ATP production during the mammalian infection. Here, we have demonstrated that the bioflavanoid quercetin (QCN), a known trypanocide, is a mixed inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei hexokinase 1 (TbHK1) (IC50 = 4.1 ± 0.8 μM). Spectroscopic analysis of QCN binding to TbHK1, taking advantage of the intrinsically fluorescent single tryptophan (Trp177) in TbHK1, revealed that QCN quenches emission of Trp177, which is located near the hinge region of the enzyme. ATP similarly quenched Trp177 emission, while glucose had no impact on fluorescence. Supporting the possibility that QCN toxicity is a consequence of inhibition of the essential hexokinase, in live parasites QCN fluorescence localizes to glycosomes, the subcellular home of TbHK1. Additionally, RNAi-mediated silencing of TbHK1 expression expedited QCN induced death, while over-expressing TbHK1 protected trypanosomes from the compound. In summary, these observations support the suggestion that QCN toxicity is in part attributable to inhibition of the essential TbHK1. PMID:20971104

  7. A nested PCR for the ssrRNA gene detects Trypanosoma binneyi in the platypus and Trypanosoma sp. in wombats and kangaroos in Australia.

    PubMed

    Noyes, H A; Stevens, J R; Teixeira, M; Phelan, J; Holz, P

    1999-02-01

    Trypanosome infections in their natural hosts are frequently difficult to detect by microscopy, and culture methods are unreliable and not suitable for all species of Trypanosoma. A nested PCR strategy for detecting and identifying Trypanosoma species, suitable for detecting both known and unknown trypanosomes, is presented. Thirty-two blood samples from 23 species of Australian birds and mammals were screened by a nested PCR for the presence of Trypanosoma sp. ssrRNA. Three infections were detected, one in an eastern grey kangaroo (Macropus giganteus), one in a common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) and one in a platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus). The kangaroo and wombat are new host records for Trypanosoma sp.; the platypus parasite was Trypanosoma hinneyi. The three parasites could be distinguished by restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the amplified fragment of the ssrRNA gene. The kangaroo and wombat parasites were also isolated in a semi-solid blood agar medium. The culture forms of the kangaroo trypanosome had an expanded flagellar sheath in which structures similar to hemidesmosomes were detected by EM. The nested PCR was at least as sensitive as culture, and analysis of the PCR products gave parasite-specific fingerprints. Therefore this method could be suitable for rapidly screening host animals for the presence of trypanosomes and identifying the infecting strain.

  8. Partial Purification of Integral Membrane Antigenic Proteins from Trypanosoma evansi That Display Immunological Cross-Reactivity with Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Velásquez, Norma P.; Camargo, Rocío E.; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Bubis, José

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax, which are the major causative agents of animal trypanosomosis in Venezuela, have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Since the production of T. vivax antigens is a limiting factor as this parasite is difficult to propagate in experimental animal models, our goal has been to identify and isolate antigens from T. evansi that cross-react with T. vivax. Here, we used the Venezuelan T. evansi TEVA1 isolate to prepare the total parasite lysate and its corresponding cytosolic and membranous fractions. In order to extract the T. evansi integral membrane proteins, the particulate portion was further extracted first with Triton X-100, and then with sodium dodecyl sulfate. After discarding the cytosolic and Triton X-100 solubilized proteins, we employed sedimentation by centrifugation on linear sucrose gradients to partially purify the sodium dodecyl sulfate-solubilized proteins from the Triton X-100 resistant particulate fraction of T. evansi. We obtained enriched pools containing polypeptide bands with apparent molecular masses of 27 kDa, 31 kDa, and 53 kDa, which were recognized by anti-T. vivax antibodies from experimentally and naturally infected bovines. PMID:24757558

  9. Infestation of Mauritia flexuosa palms by triatomines (Hemiptera: Reduviidae), vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli in the Brazilian savanna.

    PubMed

    Gurgel-Gonçalves, Rodrigo; Cura, Carolina; Schijman, Alejandro G; Cuba, César A Cuba

    2012-02-01

    To determine the infestation and trypanosome infection of triatomines captured in Mauritia flexuosa palm trees across its geographic distribution in the Brazilian savanna (Cerrado), we sampled 42 localities in eight states and in the Federal District, Brazil, between July 2005 and January 2010. Overall, 2154 specimens of the species Rhodnius neglectus, Psammolestes tertius, Triatoma sordida, and Microtriatoma borbai, were collected. Among the 341 palms sampled, 182 (53.3%) were infested with R. neglectus, which resulted in the capture of 1639 specimens (9.0 insects per infested palm). P. tertius occurred in 26 palms (8%), which resulted in the capture of 484 specimens (19 insects per infested palm). T. sordida (n=30) and M. borbai (n=1) occurred in only one location. From 537 R. neglectus examined, 44 were infected (8%) with Trypanosoma rangeli and/or Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc Id). M. flexuosa was previously recognized as a suitable breeding ecotope for R. neglectus in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, Goiás, Tocantins and the Federal District. Our results expand this distribution to other states (São Paulo, Bahia, Mato Grosso, Maranhão and Piauí), and also show that this particular palm tree harbors other triatomine species. Finally, we show that R. neglectus plays an important role in maintaining the enzootic circulation of T. cruzi and T. rangeli in the Brazilian savanna.

  10. Electron Microscopy Analysis of the Nucleolus of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Velázquez, Gabriel; Hernández, Roberto; López-Villaseñor, Imelda; Reyes-Vivas, Horacio; Segura-Valdez, María De L.; Jiménez-García, Luis F.

    2005-08-01

    The nucleolus is the main site for synthesis and processing of ribosomal RNA in eukaryotes. In mammals, plants, and yeast the nucleolus has been extensively characterized by electron microscopy, but in the majority of the unicellular eukaryotes no such studies have been performed. Here we used ultrastructural cytochemical and immunocytochemical techniques as well as three-dimensional reconstruction to analyze the nucleolus of Trypanosoma cruzi, which is an early divergent eukaryote of medical importance. In T. cruzi epimastigotes the nucleolus is a spherical intranuclear ribonucleoprotein organelle localized in a relatively central position within the nucleus. Dense fibrillar and granular components but not fibrillar centers were observed. In addition, nuclear bodies resembling Cajal bodies were observed associated to the nucleolus in the surrounding nucleoplasm. Our results provide additional morphological data to better understand the synthesis and processing of the ribosomal RNA in kinetoplastids.

  11. Interaction of Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase with liver regulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C; Flawiá, M M; Torruella, M; Torres, H N

    1986-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi adenylate cyclase catalytic subunits may interact with regulatory factors from rat liver membranes, reconstituting heterologous systems which are catalytically active in assay mixtures containing MgATP. The systems show stimulatory responses to glucagon and guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate (p[NH]ppG) or fluoride. Reconstitution was obtained by three different methods: fusion of rat liver membranes (pretreated with N-ethylmaleimide) to T. cruzi membranes; interaction of detergent extracts of rat liver membranes with T. cruzi membranes; or interaction of purified preparations of T. cruzi adenylate cyclase and of liver membrane factors in phospholipid vesicles. The liver factors responsible for the guanine nucleotide effect were characterized as the NS protein. Data also indicate that reconstitution requires the presence of a membrane substrate. PMID:2947568

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi in Persons without Serologic Evidence of Disease, Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Basquiera, Ana L.; Sembaj, Adela; Aguerri, Ana M.; Reyes, María E.; Omelianuk, Mirtha; Fernández, Ruth A.; Enders, Julio; Palma, Atilio; Barral, José Moreno; Madoery, Roberto J.

    2003-01-01

    Current diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease relies on serologic detection of specific immunoglobulin G against Trypanosoma cruzi. However, the presence of parasites detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in patients without positive conventional serologic testing has been observed. We determined the prevalence and clinical characteristics of persons with seronegative results for T. cruzi DNA detected by PCR in a population at high risk for chronic American trypanosomiasis. We studied a total of 194 persons from two different populations: 110 patients were recruited from an urban cardiology clinic, and 84 persons were nonselected citizens from a highly disease-endemic area. Eighty (41%) of persons had negative serologic findings; 12 (15%) had a positive PCR. Three patients with negative serologic findings and positive PCR results had clinical signs and symptoms that suggested Chagas cardiomyopathy. This finding challenges the current recommendations for Chagas disease diagnosis, therapy, and blood transfusion policies. PMID:14720396

  13. Editing the Trypanosoma cruzi genome with zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Burle-Caldas, Gabriela Assis; Grazielle-Silva, Viviane; Soares-Simões, Melissa; Schumann Burkard, Gabriela; Roditi, Isabel; DaRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Teixeira, Santuza M

    2017-03-01

    Gene function studies in Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease, have been hindered by the lack of efficient genetic manipulation protocols. In most organisms, insertion and deletion of DNA fragments in the genome are dependent on the generation of double-stranded DNA break (DSB) and repair. By inducing a site-specific DSB, zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) have proven to be useful to enhance gene editing in many cell types. Using a pair of ZFNs targeted to the T. cruzi gp72 gene, we were able to generate gp72 knockout parasites with improved efficiency compared to the conventional gene knockout protocol. We also provide evidence that, in T. cruzi, repair of DSBs generated by ZFNs occurs primarily by the homologous recombination pathway.

  14. Structure of Trypanosoma brucei flagellum accounts for its bihelical motion

    PubMed Central

    Koyfman, Alexey Y.; Schmid, Michael F.; Gheiratmand, Ladan; Fu, Caroline J.; Khant, Htet A.; Huang, Dandan; He, Cynthia Y.; Chiu, Wah

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a parasitic protozoan that causes African sleeping sickness. It contains a flagellum required for locomotion and viability. In addition to a microtubular axoneme, the flagellum contains a crystalline paraflagellar rod (PFR) and connecting proteins. We show here, by cryoelectron tomography, the structure of the flagellum in three bending states. The PFR lattice in straight flagella repeats every 56 nm along the length of the axoneme, matching the spacing of the connecting proteins. During flagellar bending, the PFR crystallographic unit cell lengths remain constant while the interaxial angles vary, similar to a jackscrew. The axoneme drives the expansion and compression of the PFR lattice. We propose that the PFR modifies the in-plane axoneme motion to produce the characteristic trypanosome bihelical motility as captured by high-speed light microscope videography. PMID:21690369

  15. [Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina].

    PubMed

    Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Argentina has being increasing its relative importance with control of vectorial and transfusional transmission growth. It is for this reason that vertical transmission is seen, in the future, as a continuous source of infected newborns, even with vectorial and transfusional transmission completely controlled. Preventing vertical transmission of T.cruzi is not possible, but it can be precociously detected, permitting mother and child to be incorporated into the medical attention system, and so allowing the newbornś treatment with practically 100% efficacy. It is estimated that between 800 and 1700 children infected with T. cruzi by congenital transmission are born in Argentina, per year. The implementation of an early strategy of detection for an effective and opportune treatment acquires great relevance as a Public Health measure.

  16. The role of Trypanosoma brucei MRPA in melarsoprol susceptibility.

    PubMed

    Alibu, Vincent P; Richter, Christina; Voncken, Frank; Marti, Gabriela; Shahi, Sanjay; Renggli, Christina Kunz; Seebeck, Thomas; Brun, Reto; Clayton, Christine

    2006-03-01

    We previously showed that over-expression of Trypanosoma brucei MRPA, a member of the multidrug resistance protein family in T. brucei, reproducibly resulted in resistance to the anti-trypanosomal drug melarsoprol in vitro. MRPA is predicted to mediate efflux of melarsoprol as a conjugate with trypanothione, a glutathione-spermidine conjugate which is the major small thiol in trypanosomes. Here, we show that depletion of MRPA by RNA interference resulted in moderate hypersensitivity to both melarsoprol and melarsen oxide. Over-expression of MRPA alone is not sufficient to cause melarsoprol resistance in vivo, although it is sufficient in vitro. This discrepancy is not an effect of drug metabolism since over-expression of MRPA alone conferred resistance to melarsoprol and its principle metabolite, melarsen oxide, in vitro. Over-expression of MRPA was not detected in four melarsoprol-resistant trypanosome isolates from sleeping sickness patients.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi: susceptibility in mice carrying mutant gene lpr (lymphoproliferation).

    PubMed

    Boyer, M H; Hoff, R; Kipnis, T L; Murphy, E D; Roths, J B

    1983-03-01

    There is evidence that autoimmune aberrations may contribute to the immunopathological consequences of Chagas' disease and because of this we sought to determine whether four inbred strains of mice bearing the single autosomal recessive gene, lpr (lymphoproliferation), which controls certain autoimmune manifestations, are particularly susceptible to acute infection with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi. MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr, C57Bl/6J-lpr/lpr, AKR/J-lpr/lpr, C3H/HeJ-lpr/lpr showed parasitaemias 2-10 times higher when compared to their congenic partners. Mortality was significantly higher in three of the four lpr strains. The results indicate that a single autosomal recessive gene which is associated with autoimmunity can influence susceptibility to acute T. cruzi infection in mice.

  18. Human Trypanosoma cruzi infection and seropositivity in dogs, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Franco, Jose G; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen; Garg, Nisha

    2006-04-01

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas.

  19. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of plant terpenes against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Iwatsuki, Masato; Ishiyama, Aki; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2011-11-01

    During the course of screening to discover antitrypanosomal compounds, 24 known plant terpenes (6 sesquiterpenes, 14 sesquiterpene lactones and 4 diterpenes) were evaluated for in vitro antitrypanosomal activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Among them, 22 terpenes exhibited antitrypanosomal activity. In particular, α-eudesmol, hinesol, nardosinone and 4-peroxy-1,2,4,5-tetrahydro-α-santonin all exhibited selective and potent antitrypanosomal activities in vitro. Detailed here in an in vitro antitrypanosomal properties and cytotoxicities of the 24 terpenes compared with two therapeutic antitrypanosomal drugs (eflornithine and suramin). This finding represents the first report of promising trypanocidal activity of these terpenes. Present results also provide some valuable insight with regard to structure-activity relationships and the possible mode of action of the compounds.

  20. The Oral Antimalarial Drug Tafenoquine Shows Activity against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luis; Martínez-García, Marta; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Manzano, José Ignacio; Yardley, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei causes human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, a neglected tropical disease that requires new, safer, and more effective treatments. Repurposing oral drugs could reduce both the time and cost involved in sleeping sickness drug discovery. Tafenoquine (TFQ) is an oral antimalarial drug belonging to the 8-aminoquinoline family which is currently in clinical phase III. We show here that TFQ efficiently kills different T. brucei spp. in the submicromolar concentration range. Our results suggest that TFQ accumulates into acidic compartments and induces a necrotic process involving cell membrane disintegration and loss of cytoplasmic content, leading to parasite death. Cell lysis is preceded by a wide and multitarget drug action, affecting the lysosome, mitochondria, and acidocalcisomes and inducing a depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane potential, elevation of intracellular Ca2+, and production of reactive oxygen species. This is the first report of an 8-aminoquinoline demonstrating significant in vitro activity against T. brucei. PMID:26195527

  1. The inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol signalling pathway in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Docampo, R; Pignataro, O P

    1991-01-01

    Using [32P]Pi and [3H]inositol as precursors, we have detected the presence of phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate and phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, and their derivatives inositol phosphate, inositol 1,4-bisphosphate and inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate respectively, in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Using digitonin-permeabilized cells it was possible to detect a stimulation in the formation of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate and inositol 1,4-bisphosphate as well as an increased generation of diacylglycerol in the presence of 1 mM-CaCl2. These results are consistent with the operation of a functional inositol phosphate/diacylglycerol pathway in T. cruzi, and constitute the first demonstration of the presence and activation of this pathway in a parasitic protozoan. These results also indicate that this pathway is conserved during evolution from lower to higher eukaryotic organisms. Images Fig. 1. PMID:2025225

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: orchiectomy and dehydroepiandrosterone therapy in infected rats.

    PubMed

    Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Caetano, Luana Naiara; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2008-11-01

    The ability of gonadal hormones to influence and induce diverse immunological functions during the course of a number of parasitic infections has been extensively studied in the latest decades. Dehydroepiandrosterone and its sulfate are the most abundant steroid hormones secreted by the human adrenal cortex and are considered potent immune-activators. The effects of orchiectomy on the course of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rats, treated and untreated with DHEA were examined, by comparing blood and cardiac parasitism, macrophage numbers, nitric oxide and IFN-gamma levels. Orchiectomy enhanced resistance against infection with elevated numbers of macrophages, enhanced concentrations of NO and IFN-gamma and reduced amastigote burdens in heart when compared to control animals. DHEA replacement exerted a synergistic effect, up-modulating the immune response. Male sex steroids appear to play fundamental role in determining the outcome of disease, through the regulation and modulation of the activity of the immune response.

  3. Lysophosphatidylcholine: A Novel Modulator of Trypanosoma cruzi Transmission

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Neto, Mário A. C.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Silva-Cardoso, Livia; Atella, Georgia C.

    2012-01-01

    Lysophosphatidylcholine is a bioactive lipid that regulates a large number of cellular processes and is especially present during the deposition and infiltration of inflammatory cells and deposition of atheromatous plaque. Such molecule is also present in saliva and feces of the hematophagous organism Rhodnius prolixus, a triatominae bug vector of Chagas disease. We have recently demonstrated that LPC is a modulator of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission. It acts as a powerful chemoattractant for inflammatory cells at the site of the insect bite, which will provide a concentrated population of cells available for parasite infection. Also, LPC increases macrophage intracellular calcium concentrations that ultimately enhance parasite invasion. Finally, LPC inhibits NO production by macrophages stimulated by live T. cruzi, and thus interferes with the immune system of the vertebrate host. In the present paper, we discuss the main signaling mechanisms that are likely used by such molecule and their eventual use as targets to block parasite transmission and the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. PMID:22132309

  4. Predominance of Trypanosoma cruzi I among Panamanian sylvatic isolates.

    PubMed

    Samudio, Franklyn; Ortega-Barría, Eduardo; Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, Jose

    2007-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is throughout Panama, which is in agreement with the widespread of the sylvatic vectors implicated in the transmission. Eco-epidemiological changes in some regions of the country have led to a successful dissemination of the palm-tree Attalea butyracea and a possible adaptation of the primary vector of Chagas' disease to human settlements. These facts might increase both vector-human contact and human infection with different potentials T. cruzi genotypes and make therefore necessary a study to disclose Panamanian T. cruzi make-up. In this study, 71 T. cruzi isolates from Rhodnius pallescens were analyzed using mini-exon gene and sequence-characterized amplified region markers. The analyzed strains were T. cruzi lineage I. This finding along with prior results indicates that T. cruzi I is the principal genotype circulating in both sylvatic and domestic/peridomestic cycles and consequently responsible for the disease in the country.

  5. Bed bugs (Cimex lectularius) as vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z

    2015-02-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease.

  6. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi–infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Waller, Lance A.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Benzaquen, Eleazar Cordova; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2006-01-01

    In Arequipa, Peru, vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans has become an urban problem. We conducted an entomologic survey in a periurban community of Arequipa to identify risk factors for triatomine infestation and determinants of vector population densities. Of 374 households surveyed, triatomines were collected from 194 (52%), and Trypanosoma cruzi–carrying triatomines were collected from 72 (19.3%). Guinea pig pens were more likely than other animal enclosures to be infested and harbored 2.38× as many triatomines. Stacked brick and adobe enclosures were more likely to have triatomines, while wire mesh enclosures were protected against infestation. In human dwellings, only fully stuccoed rooms were protected against infestation. Spatially, households with triatomines were scattered, while households with T. cruzi–infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment. PMID:17073082

  7. Human Trypanosoma cruzi Infection and Seropositivity in Dogs, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Franco, Jose G.; Bhatia, Vandanajay; Diaz-Albiter, Hector; Ochoa-Garcia, Laucel; Barbabosa, Alberto; Vazquez-Chagoyan, Juan C.; Martinez-Perez, Miguel A.; Guzman-Bracho, Carmen

    2006-01-01

    We used 5 diagnostic tests in a cross-sectional investigation of the prevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in Tejupilco municipality, State of Mexico, Mexico. Our findings showed a substantial prevalence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgM antibodies to T. cruzi in human (n = 293, IgG 2.05%, IgM 5.5%, both 7.1%) and dog (n = 114, IgG 15.8%, IgM 11.4%, both 21%) populations. We also found antibodies to T. cruzi (n = 80, IgG 10%, IgM 15%, both 17.5%) in dogs from Toluca, an area previously considered free of T. cruzi. Our data demonstrate the need for active epidemiologic surveillance programs in these regions. A direct correlation (r2 = 0.955) of seropositivity between humans and dogs suggests that seroanalysis in dogs may help identify the human prevalence of T. cruzi infection in these areas. PMID:16704811

  8. Bed Bugs (Cimex lectularius) as Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, Renzo; Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Tustin, Aaron W.; Borrini-Mayorí, Katty; Náquira, César; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Populations of the common bed bug, Cimex lectularius, have recently undergone explosive growth. Bed bugs share many important traits with triatomine insects, but it remains unclear whether these similarities include the ability to transmit Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Here, we show efficient and bidirectional transmission of T. cruzi between hosts and bed bugs in a laboratory environment. Most bed bugs that fed on experimentally infected mice acquired the parasite. A majority of previously uninfected mice became infected after a period of cohabitation with exposed bed bugs. T. cruzi was also transmitted to mice after the feces of infected bed bugs were applied directly to broken host skin. Quantitative bed bug defecation measures were similar to those of important triatomine vectors. Our findings suggest that the common bed bug may be a competent vector of T. cruzi and could pose a risk for vector-borne transmission of Chagas disease. PMID:25404068

  9. Beta-interferon inhibits cell infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kierszenbaum, F.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1984-01-01

    Beta interferon has been shown to inhibit the capacity of bloodstream forms of the flagellate Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, to associate with and infect mouse peritoneal macrophages and rat heart myoblasts. The inhibitory effect was abrogated in the presence of specific antibodies to the interferon. Pretreatment of the parasites with interferon reduced their infectivity for untreated host cells, whereas pretreament of either type of host cell did not affect the interaction. The effect of interferon on the trypanosomes was reversible; the extent of the inhibitory effect was significantly reduced afer 20 min, and was undetectable after 60 min when macrophages were used as host cells. For the myoblasts, 60 min elapsed before the inhibitory effect began to subside and 120 min elapsed before it became insignificant or undetectable.

  10. Periurban Trypanosoma cruzi-infected Triatoma infestans, Arequipa, Peru.

    PubMed

    Levy, Michael Zachary; Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Waller, Lance A; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Cordova Benzaquen, Eleazar; Gilman, Robert H; Bern, Caryn

    2006-09-01

    In Arequipa, Peru, vectorborne transmission of Chagas disease by Triatoma infestans has become an urban problem. We conducted an entomologic survey in a periurban community of Arequipa to identify risk factors for triatomine infestation and determinants of vector population densities. Of 374 households surveyed, triatomines were collected from 194 (52%), and Trypanosoma cruzi-carrying triatomines were collected from 72 (19.3%). Guinea pig pens were more likely than other animal enclosures to be infested and harbored 2.38x as many triatomines. Stacked brick and adobe enclosures were more likely to have triatomines, while wire mesh enclosures were protected against infestation. In human dwellings, only fully stuccoed rooms were protected against infestation. Spatially, households with triatomines were scattered, while households with T. cruzi-infected triatomines were clustered. Keeping small animals in wire mesh cages could facilitate control of T. infestans in this densely populated urban environment.

  11. Mosaic VSGs and the Scale of Trypanosoma brucei Antigenic Variation

    PubMed Central

    Hall, James P. J.; Wang, Huanhuan; Barry, J. David

    2013-01-01

    A main determinant of prolonged Trypanosoma brucei infection and transmission and success of the parasite is the interplay between host acquired immunity and antigenic variation of the parasite variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat. About 0.1% of trypanosome divisions produce a switch to a different VSG through differential expression of an archive of hundreds of silent VSG genes and pseudogenes, but the patterns and extent of the trypanosome diversity phenotype, particularly in chronic infection, are unclear. We applied longitudinal VSG cDNA sequencing to estimate variant richness and test whether pseudogenes contribute to antigenic variation. We show that individual growth peaks can contain at least 15 distinct variants, are estimated computationally to comprise many more, and that antigenically distinct ‘mosaic’ VSGs arise from segmental gene conversion between donor VSG genes or pseudogenes. The potential for trypanosome antigenic variation is probably much greater than VSG archive size; mosaic VSGs are core to antigenic variation and chronic infection. PMID:23853603

  12. Molecular demonstration of Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma lewisi DNA in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand.

    PubMed

    Milocco, C; Kamyingkird, K; Desquesnes, M; Jittapalapong, S; Herbreteau, V; Chaval, Y; Douangboupha, B; Morand, S

    2013-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the molecular evidence of Trypanosoma evansi in wild rodents from Cambodia, Lao PDR and Thailand. Between November 2007 and June 2009, 1664 rodents were trapped at eight sites representative of various ecological habitats. Of those animals, 94 were tested by direct microscopic blood examination, 633 using the Card Agglutination Test for Trypanosomes (CATT/T. evansi) and 145 by Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) with two sets of primers: TRYP1 (amplifying ITS1 of ribosomal DNA of all trypanosomes) and TBR (amplifying satellite genomic DNA of Trypanozoon parasites). Using TRYP1, based on the size of the PCR products, 15 samples from the three countries were positive for Trypanosoma lewisi (two were confirmed by sequencing), and three were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing and three by TBR primers); the specificity of the primers failed as rodent DNA was amplified in some cases. Using TBR, six samples were positive for Trypanozoon (one was confirmed by sequencing); as T. evansi is the only species of the Trypanozoon sub-genus possibly present in Asian rodents, these results confirmed its presence in rodents from Thailand (Rattus tanezumi) and Cambodia (R. tanezumi, Niviventer fulvescens & Maxomys surifer). Further investigations are necessary to establish the situation in Lao PDR. None of the 16 samples most strongly positive to the CATT proved to be positive for Trypanozoon by PCR. The merits of the CATT for such studies were not confirmed. Studying the urban and rural circulation of these parasites in rodents will enable an evaluation of human exposure and infection risk, as human infections by T. evansi were recently described in India and by T. lewisi in India and Thailand. As sequencing PCR products is expensive, the development of new molecular and serological tools for rodents would be very useful.

  13. Trypanosoma livingstonei: a new species from African bats supports the bat seeding hypothesis for the Trypanosoma cruzi clade

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Bat trypanosomes have been implicated in the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade, which comprises species from a wide geographic and host range in South America, Africa and Europe, including bat-restricted species and the generalist agents of human American trypanosomosis T. cruzi and T. rangeli. Methods Trypanosomes from bats (Rhinolophus landeri and Hipposideros caffer) captured in Mozambique, southeast Africa, were isolated by hemoculture. Barcoding was carried out through the V7V8 region of Small Subunit (SSU) rRNA and Fluorescent Fragment Length barcoding (FFLB). Phylogenetic inferences were based on SSU rRNA, glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) and Spliced Leader (SL) genes. Morphological characterization included light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Results New trypanosomes from bats clustered together forming a clade basal to a larger assemblage called the T. cruzi clade. Barcoding, phylogenetic analyses and genetic distances based on SSU rRNA and gGAPDH supported these trypanosomes as a new species, which we named Trypanosoma livingstonei n. sp. The large and highly polymorphic SL gene repeats of this species showed a copy of the 5S ribosomal RNA into the intergenic region. Unique morphological (large and broad blood trypomastigotes compatible to species of the subgenus Megatrypanum and cultures showing highly pleomorphic epimastigotes and long and slender trypomastigotes) and ultrastructural (cytostome and reservosomes) features and growth behaviour (when co-cultivated with HeLa cells at 37°C differentiated into trypomastigotes resembling the blood forms and do not invaded the cells) complemented the description of this species. Conclusion Phylogenetic inferences supported the hypothesis that Trypanosoma livingstonei n. sp. diverged from a common ancestral bat trypanosome that evolved exclusively in Chiroptera or switched at independent opportunities to mammals of several orders forming the clade T. cruzi

  14. Glycoproteins, antigens, and regulation of complement activation on the surface of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma lewisi: implications for immune evasion

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    The surface antigens and glycoproteins of the rat parasitic protozoan, Trypanosoma lewisi were characterized. Radioiodination with /sup 125/I identified 10 out of more 40 polypeptides separated on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. All of these components were identified as glycoproteins by peroxidase-conjugated Conconavalin A (HR-Con A) lectin affinoblotting. This analysis detected that quantitative but not qualitative changes occurred during infection. Localization of most of the reactive determinants was indicated by immunoblotting extracts of radioiodinated T. lewisi. Changes in the antigenicity as related to survival in the host are discussed. The presence of IgG and IgM on the surface of T. lewisi isolated from intact and ..gamma..-irradiated rats (irr.) and that determinants bind Ig from uninfected rat sera (NRS) was indicated by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoblotting identified the major NRS IgG binding component as the 74 kd surface glycoprotein. Complement component C3 deposition during infection was indicated by flow cytometric analysis and immunoblotting. Incubation of intact T. lewisi with normal human sera indicated that C3, C5, and factor B deposition was Mg/sup 2 +/ dependent, Ca/sup 2 +/ independent and deposited C3 was rapidly processed to hemolytically inactive fragments. Radioiodination of intact and protease T. lewisi after cultivation identified three components which correlate with resistance to lysis. This suggests that surface moieties on intact T. lewisi modulate host complement activity by restricting C3/C5 convertase activity.

  15. Testicular pathology, gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams infected with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei and Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Yunusa A.; Oniye, Sonnie J.; Rekwot, Peter I.; Okubanjo, Oluyinka O.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The study was conducted to evaluate the pathological effects of trypanosomosis on the testes, gonadal, and epididymal sperm reserves of Yankasa rams for 98 days. Materials and Methods: A total of 16 Yankasa rams, aged between 24 and 30 months and weighed between 22 and 25 kg, were acclimatized for a period of 2-months in a clean fly proof house and were adequately fed and given water ad-libitum. Of the 16 rams, 12 that were clinically fit for the experiment at the end of the acclimatization period were randomly divided into four groups: Groups I, II, III, and IV, each having 3 rams. Groups I and II were each challenged singly with experimental Trypanosoma brucei brucei (Federer strain) and Trypanosoma evansi (Sokoto strain), respectively, while Group III was challenged with mixed T. brucei brucei and T. evansi parasites (50% of each species in the infective inoculum) and Group IV was left as an uninfected control. Each infected ram received 2 mL of the infected blood containing 2×106 trypomastigotes via the jugular vein, while the control group received 2 mL each, normal saline. Results: All the infected rams developed clinical signs typical of trypanosomosis at varying pre-patent periods. The gross lesions observed in the infected rams in Group II were moderate and more severe in those of Groups I and III. Histological sections of the testes of infected rams (Groups I, II, and III) showed moderate (T. evansi-infected group) to severe (mixed and T. brucei brucei-infected groups) testicular degenerations with reduction in number of spermatogenic cell layers, degenerated seminiferous tubules, congested interlobular spaces, loss of tissue architecture with significant (p<0.01) depletion, and loss of gonadal and epididymal sperm reserves in Groups I and III in comparison to Group II and the control Group IV. No observable clinical signs and histopathological lesions were found in those rams of the control Group IV. Conclusion: The study concluded that

  16. Rhodnius prolixus: from physiology by Wigglesworth to recent studies of immune system modulation by Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Azambuja, P; Garcia, E S; Waniek, P J; Vieira, C S; Figueiredo, M B; Gonzalez, M S; Mello, C B; Castro, D P; Ratcliffe, N A

    This review is dedicated to the memory of Professor Sir Vincent B. Wigglesworth (VW) in recognition of his many pioneering contributions to insect physiology which, even today, form the basis of modern-day research in this field. Insects not only make vital contributions to our everyday lives by their roles in pollination, balancing eco-systems and provision of honey and silk products, but they are also outstanding models for studying the pathogenicity of microorganisms and the functioning of innate immunity in humans. In this overview, the immune system of the triatomine bug, Rhodnius prolixus, is considered which is most appropriate to this dedication as this insect species was the favourite subject of VW's research. Herein are described recent developments in knowledge of the functioning of the R. prolixus immune system. Thus, the roles of the cellular defences, such as phagocytosis and nodule formation, as well as the role of eicosanoids, ecdysone, antimicrobial peptides, reactive oxygen and nitrogen radicals, and the gut microbiota in the immune response of R. prolixus are described. The details of many of these were unknown to VW although his work gives indications of his awareness of the importance to R. prolixus of cellular immunity, antibacterial activity, prophenoloxidase and the gut microbiota. This description of R. prolixus immunity forms a backdrop to studies on the interaction of the parasitic flagellates, Trypanosoma cruzi and Trypanosoma rangeli, with the host defences of this important insect vector. These parasites remarkably utilize different strategies to avoid/modulate the triatomine immune response in order to survive in the extremely hostile host environments present in the vector gut and haemocoel. Much recent information has also been gleaned on the remarkable diversity of the immune system in the R. prolixus gut and its interaction with trypanosome parasites. This new data is reviewed and gaps in our knowledge of R. prolixus immunity are

  17. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Ulloa, R M; Mesri, E; Esteva, M; Torres, H N; Téllez-Iñón, M T

    1988-01-01

    A cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was characterized. Cytosolic extracts were chromatographed on DEAE-cellulose columns, giving two peaks of kinase activity, which were eluted at 0.15 M- and 0.32 M-NaCl respectively. The second activity peak was stimulated by nanomolar concentrations of cyclic AMP. In addition, a cyclic AMP-binding protein co-eluted with the second kinase activity peak. Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase activity was further purified by gel filtration, affinity chromatography on histone-agarose and cyclic AMP-agarose, as well as by chromatography on CM-Sephadex. The enzyme ('holoenzyme') could be partially dissociated into two different components: 'catalytic' and 'regulatory'. The 'regulatory' component had specific binding for cyclic AMP, and it inhibited phosphotransferase activity of the homologous 'catalytic component' or of the 'catalytic subunit' from bovine heart. Cyclic AMP reversed these inhibitions. A 'holoenzyme preparation' was phosphorylated in the absence of exogenous phosphate acceptor and analysed by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. A 56 kDa band was phosphorylated. The same preparation was analysed by Western blotting, by using polyclonal antibodies to the regulatory subunits of protein kinases type I or II. Both antibodies reacted with the 56 kDa band. Images Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2848508

  18. Characterization of Protein Kinase CK2 from Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Bryan C; Kifer, Charles T; Brekken, Deirdre L; Randall, Amber C; Wang, Qin; Drees, Becky L.; Parsons, Marilyn

    2007-01-01

    CK2 is a ubiquitous but enigmatic kinase. The difficulty in assigning a role to CK2 centers on the fact that, to date, no biologically relevant modulator of its function has been identified. One common theme revolves around a constellation of known substrates involved in growth control, compatible with its concentration in the nucleus and nucleolus. We had previously described the identification of two catalytic subunits of CK2 in Trypanosoma brucei and characterized one of them. Here we report the characterization of the second catalytic subunit, CK2α’, and the identification and characterization of the regulatory subunit CK2β. All three subunits are primarily localized to the nucleolus in T. brucei. We also show that CK2β interacts with the nucleolar protein NOG1, adding to the interaction map which previously linked CK2α to the nucleolar protein NOPP44/46, which in turn associates with the rRNA binding protein p37. CK2 activity has four distinctive features: near equal affinity for GTP and ATP, heparin sensitivity, and stimulation by polyamines and polybasic peptides. Sequence comparison shows that the parasite orthologues have mutations in residues previously mapped as important in specifying affinity for GTP and stimulation by both polyamines and polybasic peptides. Studies of the enzymatic activity of the T. brucei CK2s show that both the affinity for GTP and stimulation by polyamines have been lost and only the features of heparin inhibition and stimulation by polybasic peptides are conserved. PMID:17097160

  19. Characterisation of the fumarate hydratase repertoire in Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    de Pádua, Ricardo A P; Kia, Ali Martin; Filho, Antonio José Costa; Wilkinson, Shane R; Nonato, M Cristina

    2017-03-27

    Nifurtimox and benznidazole represent the only treatments options available targeting Chagas disease, the most important parasitic infection in the Americas. However, use of these is problematic as they are toxic and ineffective against the more severe stages of the disease. In this work, we used a multidisciplinary approach to characterise the fumarases from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas Disease. We showed this trypanosome expresses cytosolic and mitochondrial fumarases that via an iron-sulfur cluster mediate the reversible conversion of fumarate to S-malate. Based on sequence, biochemical properties and co-factor binding, both T. cruzi proteins share characteristics with class I fumarases, enzymes found in bacteria and some other protozoa but absent from humans, that possess class II isoforms instead. Gene disruption suggested that although the cytosolic or mitochondrial fumarase activities are individually dispensable their combined activity is essential for parasite viability. Finally, based on the mechanistic differences with the human (host) fumarase, we designed and validated a selective inhibitor targeting the parasite enzyme. This study showed that T. cruzi fumarases should be exploited as targets for the development of new chemotherapeutic interventions against Chagas disease.

  20. Imidazolium compounds are active against all stages of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Faral-Tello, Paula; Liang, Mary; Mahler, Graciela; Wipf, Peter; Robello, Carlos

    2014-03-01

    Imidazolium salts are best known for their applications in organic synthesis as room-temperature ionic liquids, or as precursors of stable carbenes, but they also show important biological properties such as anti-oxidative effects, induction of mitochondrial membrane permeabilisation and inhibition of the infection cycle of Plasmodium falciparum. For these reasons, and since chemotherapy for Chagas disease is inefficient, the aim of this study was to test the use of imidazolium compounds against the kinetoplastid haemoflagellate aetiological agent for this disease, namely Trypanosoma cruzi. The results show that five of the tested compounds are more effective than the reference drug benznidazole against the epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. Moreover, intracellular amastigotes were also affected by the compounds, which showed lower toxicity in host cells. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated that the tested agents induced alterations of the kinetoplast and particularly of the mitochondria, leading to extraordinary swelling of the organelle. These results further demonstrate that the test agents with the best profile are those bearing symmetrical bulky substituents at N(1) and N(3), displaying promising activity against all forms of T. cruzi, interesting selectivity indexes and exceptional activity at low doses. Accordingly, these agents represent promising candidates for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  1. Trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin on Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Gressler, L T; Oliveira, C B; Coradini, K; Dalla Rosa, L; Grando, T H; Baldissera, M D; Zimmermann, C E; Da Silva, A S; Almeida, T C; Hermes, C L; Wolkmer, P; Silva, C B; Moreira, K L S; Beck, R C R; Moresco, R N; Da Veiga, M L; Stefani, L M; Monteiro, S G

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate in vitro and in vivo trypanocidal activity of free and nanoencapsulated curcumin against Trypanosoma evansi. In vitro efficacy of free curcumin (CURC) and curcumin-loaded in lipid-core nanocapsules (C-LNCs) was evaluated to verify their lethal effect on T. evansi. To perform the in vivo tests, T. evansi-infected animals were treated with CURC (10 and 100 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally [i.p.]) and C-LNCs (10 mg kg(-1), i.p.) during 6 days, with the results showing that these treatments significantly attenuated the parasitaemia. Infected untreated rats showed protein peroxidation and an increase of nitrites/nitrates, whereas animals treated with curcumin showed a reduction on these variables. As a result, the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase and catalase) differs between groups (P<0.05). Infected animals and treated with CURC exhibited a reduction in the levels of alanine aminotransferase and creatinine, when compared with the positive control group. The use of curcumin in vitro resulted in a better parasitaemia control, an antioxidant activity and a protective effect on liver and kidney functions of T. evansi-infected adult male Wistar rats.

  2. Phospholipid and glycolipid composition of acidocalcisomes of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Salto, María Laura; Kuhlenschmidt, Theresa; Kuhlenschmidt, Mark; de Lederkremer, Rosa M; Docampo, Roberto

    2008-04-01

    Highly purified acidocalcisomes from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were obtained by differential centrifugation and iodixanol gradient ultracentrifugation. Lipid analysis of acidocalcisomes revealed the presence of low amounts of 3beta-hydroxysterols and predominance of phospholipids. Alkylacyl phosphatidylinositol (16:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylinositol (18:0/18:2), diacyl phosphatidylcholine (16:0/18:2; 16:1/18:2; 16:2/18:2; 18:1/18:2 and 18:2/18:2), and diacyl phosphatidylethanolamine (16:0/18:2 and 16:1/18:2) were the only phospholipids characterized by electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). Incubation of epimastigotes with [(3)H]-mannose and isolation of acidocalcisomes allowed the detection of a glycoinositolphospholipid (GIPL) in these organelles. The sugar content of the acidocalcisomal GIPL was similar to that of the GIPL present in a microsomal fraction but the amount of galactofuranose and inositol with respect to the other monosaccharides was lower, suggesting a different chemical structure. Taken together, these results indicate that acidocalcisomes of T. cruzi have a distinct lipid and carbohydrate composition.

  3. Potent Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi Activities of Oxidosqualene Cyclase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Griffin, John H.; Wilson, Aaron J.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    2001-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan agent that causes Chagas' disease, a major health problem in Latin America. Better drugs are needed to treat infected individuals. The sterol biosynthesis pathway is a potentially excellent target for drug therapy against T. cruzi. In this study, we investigated the antitrypanosomal activities of a series of compounds designed to inhibit a key enzyme in sterol biosynthesis, oxidosqualene cyclase. This enzyme converts 2,3-oxidosqualene to the tetracyclic product, lanosterol. The lead compound, N-(4E,8E)-5,9, 13-trimethyl-4,8, 12-tetradecatrien-1-ylpyridinium, is an electron-poor aromatic mimic of a monocyclized transition state or high-energy intermediate formed from oxidosqualene. This compound and 27 related compounds were tested against mammalian-stage T. cruzi, and 12 inhibited growth by 50% at concentrations below 25 nM. The lead compound was shown to cause an accumulation of oxidosqualene and decreased production of lanosterol and ergosterol, consistent with specific inhibition of the oxidosqualene cyclase. The data demonstrate potent anti-T. cruzi activity associated with inhibition of oxidosqualene cyclase. PMID:11257036

  4. Perspectives on Trypanosoma cruzi-induced heart disease (Chagas disease)

    PubMed Central

    Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Machado, Fabiana S.; Jelicks, Linda A.; Shirani, Jamshid; Campos de Carvalho, Antonio C.; Spray, David C.; Factor, Stephen M.; Kirchhoff, Louis V.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2009-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi it is the most common cause of heart disease in endemic areas of Latin America. The year 2009 marks the 100th anniversary of the discovery of T. cruzi infection and Chagas disease by the Brazilian physician Carlos Chagas. Chagasic cardiomyopathy develops in from 10 to 30 percent of persons who are chronically infected with this parasite. Echocardiography and magnetic resonance imaging are important modalities in the evaluation and prognosis of individuals with chagasic heart disease. The etiology of chagasic heart disease likely is multifactorial. Parasite persistence, autoimmunity, and microvascular abnormalities have been studied extensively as possible pathogenic mechanisms. Experimental studies suggest that alterations in cardiac gap junctions may be etiologic in the pathogenesis of conduction abnormalities. The diagnosis of chronic Chagas disease is made by serology. The treatment of this infection has shortcomings that need to be addressed. Cardiac transplantation and bone marrow stem cell therapy for persons with Chagas disease have received increasing research attention in recent years. PMID:19410685

  5. Geographical distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi genotypes in Venezuela.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Hernán J; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A; Feliciangeli, M Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI - TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi and Chagas' Disease in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Bern, Caryn; Kjos, Sonia; Yabsley, Michael J.; Montgomery, Susan P.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: Chagas' disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and causes potentially life-threatening disease of the heart and gastrointestinal tract. The southern half of the United States contains enzootic cycles of T. cruzi, involving 11 recognized triatomine vector species. The greatest vector diversity and density occur in the western United States, where woodrats are the most common reservoir; other rodents, raccoons, skunks, and coyotes are also infected with T. cruzi. In the eastern United States, the prevalence of T. cruzi is highest in raccoons, opossums, armadillos, and skunks. A total of 7 autochthonous vector-borne human infections have been reported in Texas, California, Tennessee, and Louisiana; many others are thought to go unrecognized. Nevertheless, most T. cruzi-infected individuals in the United States are immigrants from areas of endemicity in Latin America. Seven transfusion-associated and 6 organ donor-derived T. cruzi infections have been documented in the United States and Canada. As improved control of vector- and blood-borne T. cruzi transmission decreases the burden in countries where the disease is historically endemic and imported Chagas' disease is increasingly recognized outside Latin America, the United States can play an important role in addressing the altered epidemiology of Chagas' disease in the 21st century. PMID:21976603

  7. A Primate APOL1 Variant That Kills Trypanosoma brucei gambiense

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Anneli; Capewell, Paul; Clucas, Caroline; Veitch, Nicola; Weir, William; Thomson, Russell; Raper, Jayne; MacLeod, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Humans are protected against infection from most African trypanosomes by lipoprotein complexes present in serum that contain the trypanolytic pore-forming protein, Apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1). The human-infective trypanosomes, Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense in East Africa and T. b. gambiense in West Africa have separately evolved mechanisms that allow them to resist APOL1-mediated lysis and cause human African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness, in man. Recently, APOL1 variants were identified from a subset of Old World monkeys, that are able to lyse East African T. b. rhodesiense, by virtue of C-terminal polymorphisms in the APOL1 protein that hinder that parasite’s resistance mechanism. Such variants have been proposed as candidates for developing therapeutic alternatives to the unsatisfactory anti-trypanosomal drugs currently in use. Here we demonstrate the in vitro lytic ability of serum and purified recombinant protein of an APOL1 ortholog from the West African Guinea baboon (Papio papio), which is able to lyse examples of all sub-species of T. brucei including T. b. gambiense group 1 parasites, the most common agent of human African trypanosomiasis. The identification of a variant of APOL1 with trypanolytic ability for both human-infective T. brucei sub-species could be a candidate for universal APOL1-based therapeutic strategies, targeted against all pathogenic African trypanosomes. PMID:27494254

  8. Modes of flagellar assembly in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii and Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Höög, Johanna L; Lacomble, Sylvain; O’Toole, Eileen T; Hoenger, Andreas; McIntosh, J Richard; Gull, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Defects in flagella growth are related to a number of human diseases. Central to flagellar growth is the organization of microtubules that polymerize from basal bodies to form the axoneme, which consists of hundreds of proteins. Flagella exist in all eukaryotic phyla, but neither the mechanism by which flagella grow nor the conservation of this process in evolution are known. Here, we study how protein complexes assemble onto the growing axoneme tip using (cryo) electron tomography. In Chlamydomonas reinhardtii microtubules and associated proteins are added simultaneously. However, in Trypanosoma brucei, disorganized arrays of microtubules are arranged into the axoneme structure by the later addition of preformed protein complexes. Post assembly, the T. brucei transition zone alters structure and its association with the central pair loosens. We conclude that there are multiple ways to form a flagellum and that species-specific structural knowledge is critical before evaluating flagellar defects. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.01479.001 PMID:24448408

  9. Trypanosoma cruzi: adaptation to its vectors and its hosts

    PubMed Central

    Noireau, François; Diosque, Patricio; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2009-01-01

    American trypanosomiasis is a parasitic zoonosis that occurs throughout Latin America. The etiological agent, Trypanosoma cruzi, is able to infect almost all tissues of its mammalian hosts and spreads in the environment in multifarious transmission cycles that may or not be connected. This biological plasticity, which is probably the result of the considerable heterogeneity of the taxon, exemplifies a successful adaptation of a parasite resulting in distinct outcomes of infection and a complex epidemiological pattern. In the 1990s, most endemic countries strengthened national control programs to interrupt the transmission of this parasite to humans. However, many obstacles remain to the effective control of the disease. Current knowledge of the different components involved in elaborate system that is American trypanosomiasis (the protozoan parasite T. cruzi, vectors Triatominae and the many reservoirs of infection), as well as the interactions existing within the system, is still incomplete. The Triatominae probably evolve from predatory reduvids in response to the availability of vertebrate food source. However, the basic mechanisms of adaptation of some of them to artificial ecotopes remain poorly understood. Nevertheless, these adaptations seem to be associated with a behavioral plasticity, a reduction in the genetic repertoire and increasing developmental instability. PMID:19250627

  10. Distinct phosphatase activity profiles in two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Morales-Neto, R; Hulshof, L; Ferreira, C V; Gadelha, F R

    2009-12-01

    Phosphorylation of parasite proteins plays a key role in the process of cell invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. In this sense, characterization of parasite kinases and phosphatases could open new possibilities for the rational design of chemotherapeutic agents for the treatment of Chagas' disease. In this work, we analyzed phosphatase activities in T. cruzi homogenates from 2 strains belonging to different lineages and with different resistance to oxidative stress. Tulahuen 2 cells (Lineage I) showed higher phosphatase activities and specificity constants when compared to the Y strain (Lineage II). Tulahuen 2 had an optimum phosphatase activity at pH 4.0 and the Y strain at pH 7.0. In both cases, neutral–basic, but not acid, phosphatase activities were increased in the presence of Mg2+. Although calcium had an inhibitory effect at a pH of 7.0 and 8.0 in the Y strain, this inhibition was restricted to pH 8.0 in the other strain. Different substrates and acid phosphotyrosine and alkaline phosphatase inhibitors exhibited distinct effects on the phosphatase activity of both strains. Our results provide a better understanding of T. cruzi phosphatases and reinforce the notion of heterogeneity among T. cruzi populations.

  11. Structural analysis of inositol phospholipids from Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote forms.

    PubMed Central

    Bertello, L E; Gonçalvez, M F; Colli, W; de Lederkremer, R M

    1995-01-01

    Inositol phospholipids (IPL) from epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi have been investigated by metabolic labelling with [3H]palmitic acid and by GLC-MS analysis of the lipids obtained from non-labelled parasites. The IPL fraction was separated into phosphatidylinositol (PI) and inositol-phosphoceramide subfractions, the latter accounting for 80-85% of the total IPL. The neutral lipids released from the IPLs by PI-specific phospholipase C (PI-PLC) from Bacillus thuringiensis were analysed by silica-gel and reverse-phase TLC for the radioactive lipids and by GLC-MS for the non-radioactive samples. Ceramides containing dihydrosphingosine and sphingosine with C16:0 and C18:0 fatty acids were identified. The main component in the [3H]palmitic acid-labelled ceramides was palmitoyldihydrospingosine, while in the non-labelled sample the ceramides contained mainly sphingosine. This could reflect partial uptake of phospholipid from the medium. The PI contain both alkylacyl- and diacyl-glycerol lipids, with the ether lipid being more abundant. The latter was identified as 1-O-hexadecylglycerol esterified by C18:2 and C18:1 fatty acids. Interestingly, the same lipid had been identified in the anchor of the 1G7 glycoprotein of T. cruzi metacyclic forms. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 7 PMID:7646454

  12. Mouse infection and pathogenesis by Trypanosoma brucei motility mutants.

    PubMed

    Kisalu, Neville K; Langousis, Gerasimos; Bentolila, Laurent A; Ralston, Katherine S; Hill, Kent L

    2014-06-01

    The flagellum of Trypanosoma brucei is an essential and multifunctional organelle that drives parasite motility and is receiving increased attention as a potential drug target. In the mammalian host, parasite motility is suspected to contribute to infection and disease pathogenesis. However, it has not been possible to test this hypothesis owing to lack of motility mutants that are viable in the bloodstream life cycle stage that infects the mammalian host. We recently identified a bloodstream-form motility mutant in 427-derived T. brucei in which point mutations in the LC1 dynein subunit disrupt propulsive motility but do not affect viability. These mutants have an actively beating flagellum, but cannot translocate. Here we demonstrate that the LC1 point mutant fails to show enhanced cell motility upon increasing viscosity of the surrounding medium, which is a hallmark of wild type T. brucei, thus indicating that motility of the mutant is fundamentally altered compared with wild type cells. We next used the LC1 point mutant to assess the influence of trypanosome motility on infection in mice. Wesurprisingly found that disrupting parasite motility has no discernible effect on T. brucei bloodstream infection. Infection time-course, maximum parasitaemia, number of waves of parasitaemia, clinical features and disease outcome are indistinguishable between motility mutant and control parasites. Our studies provide an important step toward understanding the contribution of parasite motility to infection and a foundation for future investigations of T. brucei interaction with the mammalian host.

  13. Molecular mechanisms of Trypanosoma cruzi infection by oral route.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Nobuko

    2009-07-01

    Frequent reports on outbreaks of acute Chagas' disease by ingestion of food contaminated with parasites from triatomine insects illustrate the importance of this mode of transmission. Studies on oral Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mice have indicated that metacyclic trypomastigotes invade the gastric mucosal epithelium. A key molecule in this process is gp82, a stage-specific surface glycoprotein that binds to both gastric mucin and to target epithelial cells. By triggering Ca2+ signalling, gp82 promotes parasite internalisation. Gp82 is relatively resistant to peptic digestion at acidic pH, thus preserving the properties critical for oral infection. The infection process is also influenced by gp90, a metacyclic stage-specific molecule that negatively regulates the invasion process. T. cruzi strains expressing high gp90 levels invade cells poorly in vitro. However, their infectivity by oral route varies considerably due to varying susceptibilities of different gp90 isoforms to peptic digestion. Parasites expressing pepsin-susceptible gp90 become highly invasive against target cells upon contact with gastric juice. Such is the case of a T. cruzi isolate from an acute case of orally acquired Chagas' disease; the gp90 from this strain is extensively degraded upon short period of parasite permanence in the gastric milieu. If such an exacerbation of infectivity occurs in humans, it may be responsible for the severity of Chagas' disease reported in outbreaks of oral infection.

  14. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C.; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A.; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L.; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-01-01

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5′ extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated. PMID:25690894

  15. Cell-substrate adhesion during Trypanosoma cruzi differentiation

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    The transformation of Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes to the mammal infective metacyclic trypomastigotes (metacyclogenesis) can be performed in vitro under chemically defined conditions. Under these conditions, differentiating epimastigotes adhere to a surface before their transformation into metacyclic trypomastigotes. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy of adhered and non-adhered parasites during the metacyclogenesis process show that only epimastigotes and few transition forms are found in the first population, whereas metacyclic trypomastigotes are exclusively found in the cell culture supernatant. PAGE analysis of the [35S]methionine metabolic labeling products of adhered and non-adhered parasites shows that although most of the polypeptides are conserved, adhered parasites express specifically four polypeptides in the range of 45-50 kD with an isoelectric point of 4.8. These proteins might be involved in the adhesion process and are recognized by an antiserum against total adhered parasite proteins. This antiserum also recognized a group of 45- 50 kD in the iodine-radiolabeled surface proteins of differentiating cells, providing direct evidence that these components are indeed surface antigens. The results suggest that epimastigotes must adhere to a substrate before their transformation to metacyclic trypomastigotes, being released to the medium as the metacyclogenesis process is accomplished. This could correspond to the process naturally occurring within the triatomine invertebrate host. PMID:3283152

  16. Structural characterization of NETNES glycopeptide from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Chiodi, Carla G; Verli, Hugo

    2013-05-24

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan, responsible for Chagas disease, that parasites triatomines and some vertebrates, mainly Homo sapiens. In 2010, nearly 10 million people in whole world, most from Latin America, had Chagas disease, which is an illness of high morbidity, low mortality, and serious problems of quality of life. The available treatment has high toxicity and low efficacy at chronic phase. Some of the protozoan antigenic or virulence factors include complex carbohydrate structures that, due to their uniqueness, may constitute potential selective targets for the development of new treatments. One example of such structures is NETNES, a low abundance T. cruzi glycopeptide, comprising 13 amino acid residues, one or two N-glycosylation chains, a GPI anchor and two P-glycosylations. In this context, the current work aims to obtain an atomic model for NETNES, including its glycan chains and membrane attachment, in order to contribute in the characterization of its structure and dynamics. Based on POPC and GPI models built in agreement with experimental data, our results indicate that, in the first third of the simulation, NETNES peptide is very flexible in solution, bending itself between asparagine residues and lying down on some carbohydrates and membrane, exposing amino acid residues and some other glycans, mainly terminal mannoses, to the extracellular medium, remaining in this position until the end of simulations.

  17. Characterization of the late endosomal ESCRT machinery in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Jason S; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

    2013-10-01

    The multivesicular body (MVB) is a specialized Rab7+ late endosome (LE) containing multiple intralumenal vesicles that function in targeting ubiquitinylated cell surface proteins to the lysosome for degradation. African trypanosomes lack a morphologically well-defined MVB, but contain orthologs of the ESCRT (Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport) machinery that mediates MVB formation. We investigate the role of TbVps23, an early ESCRT component, and TbVps4, the terminal ESCRT ATPase, in lysosomal trafficking in bloodstream form trypanosomes. Both localize to the TbRab7+ LE and RNAi silencing of each rapidly blocks growth. TbVps4 silencing results in approximately threefold accumulation of TbVps23 at the LE, consistent with blocking terminal ESCRT disassembly. Trafficking of endocytic and biosynthetic cargo, but not default lysosomal reporters, is also negatively affected. Others reported that TbVps23 mediates ubiquitin-dependent lysosomal degradation of invariant surface glycoproteins (ISG65) (Leung et al., Traffic 2008;9:1698-1716). In contrast, we find that TbVps23 ablation does not affect ISG65 turnover, while TbVps4 silencing markedly enhances lysosomal degradation. We propose several models to accommodate these results, including that the ESCRT machinery actually retrieves ISG65 from the LE to earlier endocytic compartments, and in its absence ISG65 traffics more efficiently to the lysosome. Overall, these results confirm that the ESCRT machinery is essential in Trypanosoma brucei and plays important and novel role(s) in LE function in trypanosomes.

  18. High throughput screening for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drug discovery.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Padilla, Julio; Rodríguez, Ana

    2014-12-01

    The discovery of new therapeutic options against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, stands as a fundamental need. Currently, there are only two drugs available to treat this neglected disease, which represents a major public health problem in Latin America. Both available therapies, benznidazole and nifurtimox, have significant toxic side effects and their efficacy against the life-threatening symptomatic chronic stage of the disease is variable. Thus, there is an urgent need for new, improved anti-T. cruzi drugs. With the objective to reliably accelerate the drug discovery process against Chagas disease, several advances have been made in the last few years. Availability of engineered reporter gene expressing parasites triggered the development of phenotypic in vitro assays suitable for high throughput screening (HTS) as well as the establishment of new in vivo protocols that allow faster experimental outcomes. Recently, automated high content microscopy approaches have also been used to identify new parasitic inhibitors. These in vitro and in vivo early drug discovery approaches, which hopefully will contribute to bring better anti-T. cruzi drug entities in the near future, are reviewed here.

  19. Murine models susceptibility to distinct Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes infection.

    PubMed

    León, Cielo M; Montilla, Marleny; Vanegas, Ricardo; Castillo, Maria; Parra, Edgar; Ramírez, Juan David

    2017-04-01

    Chagas disease is a complex zoonosis that affects around 8 million people worldwide. This pathology is caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, a kinetoplastid parasite that shows tremendous genetic diversity evinced in six distinct Discrete Typing Units (TcI-TcVI) including a recent genotype named as TcBat and associated with anthropogenic bats. TcI presents a broad geographical distribution and has been associated with chronic cardiomyopathy. Recent phylogenetic studies suggest the existence of two genotypes (Domestic (TcIDom) and sylvatic TcI) within TcI. The understanding of the course of the infection in different mouse models by these two genotypes is not yet known. Therefore, we infected 126 animals (ICR-CD1, National Institute of Health (NIH) and Balb/c) with two TcIDom strains and one sylvatic strain for a follow-up period of 60 days. We quantified the parasitaemia, immune response and histopathology observing that the maximum day of parasitaemia was achieved at day 21 post-infection. Domestic strains showed higher parasitaemia than the sylvatic strain in the three mouse models; however in the survival curves Balb/c mice were less susceptible to infection compared with NIH and ICR-CD1. Our results suggest that the genetic background plays a fundamental role in the natural history of the infection and the sympatric TcI genotypes have relevant implications in disease pathogenesis.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed.

  1. Antimicrobial activity of synthetic bornyl benzoates against Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Corrêa, P R C; Miranda, R R S; Duarte, L P; Silva, G D F; Filho, S A Vieira; Okuma, A A; Carazza, F; Morgado-Díaz, J A; Pinge-Filho, P; Yamauchi, L M; Nakamura, C V; Yamada-Ogatta, S F

    2012-01-01

    We report here for the first time the in vitro effects of (1S,2R,4S)-1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl-3′,4′,5′-trimethoxy benzoate (1) and (1S,2R,4S)-1,7,7-trimethyl-bicyclo[2.2.1]heptan-2-yl benzoate (2) on the growth and ultrastructure of Trypanosoma cruzi. These two synthetic compounds exerted an antiproliferative effect on the epimastigote forms of the parasite. The ICs50/72h of two synthetic L-bornyl benzoates, 1 and 2, was 10.1 and 12.8 μg/ml, respectively. Both compounds were more selective against epimastigotes than HEp-2 cells. Ultrastructural analysis revealed intense cytoplasmic vacuolization and the appearance of cytoplasmic materials surrounded by membranes. The treatment of peritoneal macrophages with compounds 1 and 2 caused a significant decrease in the number of T. cruzi-infected cells. L-Bornyl benzoate derivatives may serve as a potential source for the development of more effective and safer chemotherapeutic agents against T. cruzi infections. PMID:22943546

  2. MIF contributes to Trypanosoma brucei associated immunopathogenicity development.

    PubMed

    Stijlemans, Benoît; Leng, Lin; Brys, Lea; Sparkes, Amanda; Vansintjan, Liese; Caljon, Guy; Raes, Geert; Van Den Abbeele, Jan; Van Ginderachter, Jo A; Beschin, Alain; Bucala, Richard; De Baetselier, Patrick

    2014-09-01

    African trypanosomiasis is a chronic debilitating disease affecting the health and economic well-being of many people in developing countries. The pathogenicity associated with this disease involves a persistent inflammatory response, whereby M1-type myeloid cells, including Ly6C(high) inflammatory monocytes, are centrally implicated. A comparative gene analysis between trypanosusceptible and trypanotolerant animals identified MIF (macrophage migrating inhibitory factor) as an important pathogenic candidate molecule. Using MIF-deficient mice and anti-MIF antibody treated mice, we show that MIF mediates the pathogenic inflammatory immune response and increases the recruitment of inflammatory monocytes and neutrophils to contribute to liver injury in Trypanosoma brucei infected mice. Moreover, neutrophil-derived MIF contributed more significantly than monocyte-derived MIF to increased pathogenic liver TNF production and liver injury during trypanosome infection. MIF deficient animals also featured limited anemia, coinciding with increased iron bio-availability, improved erythropoiesis and reduced RBC clearance during the chronic phase of infection. Our data suggest that MIF promotes the most prominent pathological features of experimental trypanosome infections (i.e. anemia and liver injury), and prompt considering MIF as a novel target for treatment of trypanosomiasis-associated immunopathogenicity.

  3. Trypanosoma evansi: hematologic changes in experimentally infected cats.

    PubMed

    Da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer; Costa, Márcio Machado; Wolkmer, Patrícia; Zanette, Régis Adriel; Faccio, Luciana; Gressler, Lucas Trevisan; Dorneles, Tagor Eduardo Andreolla; Santurio, Janio Morais; Lopes, Sonia Terezinha dos Anjos; Monteiro, Silvia Gonzalez

    2009-09-01

    This study aimed at evaluating hemogram and erythropoietic changes in cats experimentally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Thirteen adult female non-breeding Felix catus were separated into two groups: seven animals were infected with 10(8) trypomastigotes each, and six animals were used as negative controls. Animals were kept in air-conditioned rooms and blood smears were performed daily for 49 days. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein at days 0, 7, 21, 35 and 49 and stored in blood-collecting tubes containing anticoagulant. Bone marrow was collected from the proximal epiphysis of the right femur at days 14 and 42 post-inoculation (PI). Total erythrocyte count, hematocrit and hemoglobin showed statistical differences among groups from the seventh day PI onwards (P<0.05). The mean corpuscular volume and the mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration remained normal, characterizing a normocytic-normochromic anemia. Reticulocyte count increased in the infected group from the 21st day onwards, but remained near normal values suggesting a mild regenerative anemia. Moreover, the myeloid:erythroid ratio significantly reduced at day 42 PI, evidencing a bone marrow hematopoietic response. Based on these results we conclude that cats infected with T. evansi have normocytic, normochromic, regenerative anemia.

  4. Exosome secretion affects social motility in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Hadassa; Arvatz, Gil; Tkacz, Itai Dov; Binder, Lior; Waldman Ben-Asher, Hiba; Okalang, Uthman; Chikne, Vaibhav; Cohen-Chalamish, Smadar; Michaeli, Shulamit

    2017-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) secreted by pathogens function in a variety of biological processes. Here, we demonstrate that in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, exosome secretion is induced by stress that affects trans-splicing. Following perturbations in biogenesis of spliced leader RNA, which donates its spliced leader (SL) exon to all mRNAs, or after heat-shock, the SL RNA is exported to the cytoplasm and forms distinct granules, which are then secreted by exosomes. The exosomes are formed in multivesicular bodies (MVB) utilizing the endosomal sorting complexes required for transport (ESCRT), through a mechanism similar to microRNA secretion in mammalian cells. Silencing of the ESCRT factor, Vps36, compromised exosome secretion but not the secretion of vesicles derived from nanotubes. The exosomes enter recipient trypanosome cells. Time-lapse microscopy demonstrated that cells secreting exosomes or purified intact exosomes affect social motility (SoMo). This study demonstrates that exosomes are delivered to trypanosome cells and can change their migration. Exosomes are used to transmit stress signals for communication between parasites. PMID:28257521

  5. Tracking autophagy during proliferation and differentiation of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Proto, William R.; Jones, Nathaniel G.; Coombs, Graham H.; Mottram, Jeremy C.

    2014-01-01

    Autophagy is a lysosome-dependent degradation mechanism that sequesters target cargo into autophagosomal vesicles. The Trypanosoma brucei genome contains apparent orthologues of several autophagy-related proteins including an ATG8 family. These ubiquitin-like proteins are required for autophagosome membrane formation, but our studies show that ATG8.3 is atypical. To investigate the function of other ATG proteins, RNAi compatible T. brucei were modified to function as autophagy reporter lines by expressing only either YFP-ATG8.1 or YFP-ATG8.2. In the insect procyclic lifecycle stage, independent RNAi down-regulation of ATG3 or ATG7 generated autophagy-defective mutants and confirmed a pro-survival role for autophagy in the procyclic form nutrient starvation response. Similarly, RNAi depletion of ATG5 or ATG7 in the bloodstream form disrupted autophagy, but did not impede proliferation. Further characterisation showed bloodstream form autophagy mutants retain the capacity to undergo the complex cellular remodelling that occurs during differentiation to the procyclic form and are equally susceptible to dihydroxyacetone-induced cell death as wild type parasites, not supporting a role for autophagy in this cell death mechanism. The RNAi reporter system developed, which also identified TOR1 as a negative regulator controlling YFP-ATG8.2 but not YFP-ATG8.1 autophagosome formation, will enable further targeted analysis of the mechanisms and function of autophagy in the medically relevant bloodstream form of T. brucei. PMID:28357206

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi: histopathology of endocrine system in immunocompromised mice.

    PubMed Central

    Calabrese, K. S.; Lagrange, P. H.; da Costa, S. C.

    1994-01-01

    Naturally immunocompromised athymic mice, neonatal mice and adult outbred OFI mice treated with the immunosuppressive agents cyclophosphamide (CY), dexamethasone (DM) and indomethacin (IM) were infected with trypomastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi Y and CL strains. 10(4) parasites were used, except in the case of IM treatment, where mice received 10(3) trypomastigotes in one group and 10(5) in another. The course of parasitaemia, tissue distribution of amastigotes and time of mortality were compared with an infected thymus intact control group. Neonate and indomethacin treated mice presented the same pattern of parasitaemia. Death occurred as early as 9-10 days after infection. A single dose of CY 200 mg/kg given 5 days after infection enhanced the parasitaemia and increased the number of parasites in the tissues. All groups were similar in terms of colonization of the endocrine system by parasites and the adrenals showed the highest density of amastigotes nests. The thyroid gland (analysed only in neonates) showed intense amastigote accumulation. Colonization of the ovary was observed with amastigotes in both the theca interna and in the stroma. The testes (also examined only in the neonate) showed that the interstitial cells, the tunica albuginea of the seminiferous tubules and the loose connective tissue were infected. Athymic nude mice showed the most intense parasite colonization of the islets of Langerhans. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:7734334

  7. Cancer in the parasitic protozoans Trypanosoma brucei and Toxoplasma gondii

    PubMed Central

    Lun, Zhao-Rong; Lai, De-Hua; Wen, Yan-Zi; Zheng, Ling-Ling; Shen, Ji-Long; Yang, Ting-Bo; Zhou, Wen-Liang; Qu, Liang-Hu; Hide, Geoff; Ayala, Francisco J.

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is a general name for more than 100 malignant diseases. It is postulated that all cancers start from a single abnormal cell that grows out of control. Untreated cancers can cause serious consequences and deaths. Great progress has been made in cancer research that has significantly improved our knowledge and understanding of the nature and mechanisms of the disease, but the origins of cancer are far from being well understood due to the limitations of suitable model systems and to the complexities of the disease. In view of the fact that cancers are found in various species of vertebrates and other metazoa, here, we suggest that cancer also occurs in parasitic protozoans such as Trypanosoma brucei, a blood parasite, and Toxoplasma gondii, an obligate intracellular pathogen. Without treatment, these protozoan cancers may cause severe disease and death in mammals, including humans. The simpler genomes of these single-cell organisms, in combination with their complex life cycles and fascinating life cycle differentiation processes, may help us to better understand the origins of cancers and, in particular, leukemias. PMID:26195778

  8. Ca2+/H+ exchange in acidic vacuoles of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed Central

    Vercesi, A E; Moreno, S N; Docampo, R

    1994-01-01

    The use of digitonin to permeabilize the plasma membrane of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic and bloodstream trypomastigotes allowed the identification of a non-mitochondrial nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. The proton ionophore carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone (FCCP) was able to cause Ca2+ release from this compartment, which was also sensitive to sodium orthovanadate. Preincubation of the cells with the vacuolar H(+)-ATPase inhibitor bafilomycin A1 greatly reduced the nigericin-sensitive Ca2+ compartment. Bafilomycin A1 inhibited the initial rate of ATP-dependent non-mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake and stimulated the initial rate of nigericin-induced Ca2+ release by permeabilized procyclic trypomastigotes. ATP-dependent and bafilomycin A1- and 7-chloro-4-nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazole (NBD-Cl)-sensitive Acridine Orange uptake was demonstrated in permeabilized cells. Under these conditions Acridine Orange was concentrated in abundant cytoplasmic round vacuoles by a process inhibited by bafilomycin A1, NBD-Cl, nigericin, and Ca2+. Vanadate or EGTA significantly increased Acridine Orange uptake, while Ca2+ released Acridine Orange from these preparations, thus suggesting that the dye and Ca2+ were being accumulated in the same acidic vacuole. Acridine Orange uptake was reversed by nigericin, bafilomycin A1 and NH4Cl. The results are consistent with the presence of a Ca2+/H(+)-ATPase system pumping Ca2+ into an acidic vacuole, that we tentatively named the acidocalcisome. Images Figure 5 PMID:7998937

  9. Heterogeneous infectiousness in guinea pigs experimentally infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Castillo-Neyra, Ricardo; Borrini Mayorí, Katty; Salazar Sánchez, Renzo; Ancca Suarez, Jenny; Xie, Sherrie; Náquira Velarde, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z

    2016-02-01

    Guinea pigs are important reservoirs of Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative parasite of Chagas disease, and in the Southern Cone of South America, transmission is mediated mainly by the vector Triatoma infestans. Interestingly, colonies of Triatoma infestans captured from guinea pig corrals sporadically have infection prevalence rates above 80%. Such high values are not consistent with the relatively short 7-8 week parasitemic period that has been reported for guinea pigs in the literature. We experimentally measured the infectious periods of a group of T. cruzi-infected guinea pigs by performing xenodiagnosis and direct microscopy each week for one year. Another group of infected guinea pigs received only direct microscopy to control for the effect that inoculation by triatomine saliva may have on parasitemia in the host. We observed infectious periods longer than those previously reported in a number of guinea pigs from both the xenodiagnosis and control groups. While some guinea pigs were infectious for a short time, other "super-shedders" were parasitemic up to 22 weeks after infection, and/or positive by xenodiagnosis for a year after infection. This heterogeneity in infectiousness has strong implications for T. cruzi transmission dynamics and control, as super-shedder guinea pigs may play a disproportionate role in pathogen spread.

  10. A multigene family encoding surface glycoproteins in Trypanosoma congolense

    PubMed Central

    Thonnus, Magali; Guérin, Amandine; Rivière, Loïc

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma congolense, the causative agent of the most important livestock disease in Africa, expresses specific surface proteins involved in its parasitic lifestyle. Unfortunately, the complete repertoire of such molecules is far from being deciphered. As these membrane components are exposed to the host environment, they could be used as therapeutic or diagnostic targets. By mining the T. congolense genome database, we identified a novel family of lectin-like glycoproteins (TcoClecs). These molecules are predicted to have a transmembrane domain, a tandem repeat amino acid motif, a signal peptide and a C-type lectin-like domain (CTLD). This paper depicts several experimental arguments in favor of a surface localization in bloodstream forms of T. congolense. A TcoClec gene was heterologously expressed in U-2 OS cells and the product could be partially found at the plasma membrane. TcoClecs were also localized at the surface of T. congolense bloodstream forms. The signal was suppressed when the cells were treated with a detergent to remove the plasma membrane or with trypsin to « shave » the parasites and remove their external proteins. This suggests that TcoClecs could be potential diagnostic or therapeutic antigens of African animal trypanosomiasis. The potential role of these proteins in T. congolense as well as in other trypanosomatids is discussed. PMID:28357394

  11. Dehydroepiandrosterone increases resistance to experimental infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Santos, Carla Domingues; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Santello, Fabrícia Helena; Filipin, Marina Del Vecchio; Brazão, Vânia; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2008-05-31

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) enhances immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. In a previous study, we reported that administration of DHEA significantly decreased the numbers of blood parasites in Trypanosoma cruzi experimental infection. The present study was undertaken to determine the effectiveness of DHEA in reducing the severity of acute phase T. cruzi infection of male and female Wistar rats. Animals were treated subcutaneously with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. The concentration of nitric oxide (NO) was determined in spleen peritoneal cavity. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) were determined in the sera of uninfected and infected animals. DHEA treatment augments NO production for both sexes after in vitro LPS treatment for uninfected animals. Infection triggered enhanced NO levels although not significant. IL-2 and IFN-gamma were detectable in higher concentrations in treated and infected rats of both genders when compared to untreated controls. These data suggest that DHEA may have a potent immunoregulatory function that can affect the course of T. cruzi infection.

  12. Conservation and divergence within the clathrin interactome of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Kalb, Ligia Cristina; Frederico, Yohana Camila A.; Boehm, Cordula; Moreira, Claudia Maria do Nascimento; Soares, Maurilio José; Field, Mark C.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomatids are parasitic protozoa with a significant burden on human health. African and American trypanosomes are causative agents of Nagana and Chagas disease respectively, and speciated about 300 million years ago. These parasites have highly distinct life cycles, pathologies, transmission strategies and surface proteomes, being dominated by the variant surface glycoprotein (African) or mucins (American) respectively. In African trypanosomes clathrin-mediated trafficking is responsible for endocytosis and post-Golgi transport, with several mechanistic aspects distinct from higher organisms. Using clathrin light chain (TcCLC) and EpsinR (TcEpsinR) as affinity handles, we identified candidate clathrin-associated proteins (CAPs) in Trypanosoma cruzi; the cohort includes orthologs of many proteins known to mediate vesicle trafficking, but significantly not the AP-2 adaptor complex. Several trypanosome-specific proteins common with African trypanosomes, were also identified. Fluorescence microscopy revealed localisations for TcEpsinR, TcCLC and TcCHC at the posterior region of trypomastigote cells, coincident with the flagellar pocket and Golgi apparatus. These data provide the first systematic analysis of clathrin-mediated trafficking in T. cruzi, allowing comparison between protein cohorts and other trypanosomes and also suggest that clathrin trafficking in at least some life stages of T. cruzi may be AP-2-independent. PMID:27502971

  13. VSG gene expression site control in insect form Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Rudenko, G; Blundell, P A; Taylor, M C; Kieft, R; Borst, P

    1994-11-15

    When the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is taken up from mammals by a tse-tse fly, it replaces its variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) coat by a procyclin coat. Transcription of VSG genes stops in the fly, but transcription of sequences derived from the promoter area of the VSG expression site(s) remains high. Whether this is due to continuing high activity of one promoter or to low activity of many promoters was unclear. We have used the small differences between the sequences of different expression sites to show that multiple expression site promoters are active in insect form trypanosomes. This is confirmed by the low expression of single copy marker genes introduced into the transcribed area. However, if the expression site promoter is removed from the genomic location of the expression site and inserted in the non-transcribed spacer of the ribosomal DNA (rDNA), it is derepressed. Derepression of transcription can also be accomplished by replacing the promoter of an expression site by an rDNA promoter. We conclude that the down-regulation of VSG gene expression site promoters in insect form trypanosomes is affected by both the DNA sequence of the promoter and the genomic context in which it resides.

  14. Surface proteins, ERAD and antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Tiengwe, Calvin; Muratore, Katherine A; Bangs, James D

    2016-11-01

    Variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) is central to antigenic variation in African trypanosomes. Although much prior work documents that VSG is efficiently synthesized and exported to the cell surface, it was recently claimed that 2-3 fold more is synthesized than required, the excess being eliminated by ER-Associated Degradation (ERAD) (Field et al., ). We now reinvestigate VSG turnover and find no evidence for rapid degradation, consistent with a model whereby VSG synthesis is precisely regulated to match requirements for a functional surface coat on each daughter cell. However, using a mutated version of the ESAG7 subunit of the transferrin receptor (E7:Ty) we confirm functional ERAD in trypanosomes. E7:Ty fails to assemble into transferrin receptors and accumulates in the ER, consistent with retention of misfolded protein, and its turnover is selectively rescued by the proteasomal inhibitor MG132. We also show that ER accumulation of E7:Ty does not induce an unfolded protein response. These data, along with the presence of ERAD orthologues in the Trypanosoma brucei genome, confirm ERAD in trypanosomes. We discuss scenarios in which ERAD could be critical to bloodstream parasites, and how these may have contributed to the evolution of antigenic variation in trypanosomes.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  16. Geographical Distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi Genotypes in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Hernán J.; Segovia, Maikell; Llewellyn, Martin S.; Morocoima, Antonio; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio; Martínez, Cinda; Martínez, Clara E.; Garcia, Carlos; Rodríguez, Marlenes; Espinosa, Raul; de Noya, Belkisyolé A.; Díaz-Bello, Zoraida; Herrera, Leidi; Fitzpatrick, Sinead; Yeo, Matthew; Miles, Michael A.; Feliciangeli, M. Dora

    2012-01-01

    Chagas disease is an endemic zoonosis native to the Americas and is caused by the kinetoplastid protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite is also highly genetically diverse, with six discrete typing units (DTUs) reported TcI – TcVI. These DTUs broadly correlate with several epidemiogical, ecological and pathological features of Chagas disease. In this manuscript we report the most comprehensive evaluation to date of the genetic diversity of T. cruzi in Venezuela. The dataset includes 778 samples collected and genotyped over the last twelve years from multiple hosts and vectors, including nine wild and domestic mammalian host species, and seven species of triatomine bug, as well as from human sources. Most isolates (732) can be assigned to the TcI clade (94.1%); 24 to the TcIV group (3.1%) and 22 to TcIII (2.8%). Importantly, among the 95 isolates genotyped from human disease cases, 79% belonged to TcI - a DTU common in the Americas, however, 21% belonged to TcIV- a little known genotype previously thought to be rare in humans. Furthermore, were able to assign multiple oral Chagas diseases cases to TcI in the area around the capital, Caracas. We discuss our findings in the context of T. cruzi DTU distributions elsewhere in the Americas, and evaluate the impact they have on the future of Chagas disease control in Venezuela. PMID:22745843

  17. Gene Discovery through Expressed Sequence Tag Sequencing in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Verdun, Ramiro E.; Di Paolo, Nelson; Urmenyi, Turan P.; Rondinelli, Edson; Frasch, Alberto C. C.; Sanchez, Daniel O.

    1998-01-01

    Analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) constitutes a useful approach for gene identification that, in the case of human pathogens, might result in the identification of new targets for chemotherapy and vaccine development. As part of the Trypanosoma cruzi genome project, we have partially sequenced the 5′ ends of 1,949 clones to generate ESTs. The clones were randomly selected from a normalized CL Brener epimastigote cDNA library. A total of 14.6% of the clones were homologous to previously identified T. cruzi genes, while 18.4% had significant matches to genes from other organisms in the database. A total of 67% of the ESTs had no matches in the database, and thus, some of them might be T. cruzi-specific genes. Functional groups of those sequences with matches in the database were constructed according to their putative biological functions. The two largest categories were protein synthesis (23.3%) and cell surface molecules (10.8%). The information reported in this paper should be useful for researchers in the field to analyze genes and proteins of their own interest. PMID:9784549

  18. Transcriptional and phenotypical heterogeneity of Trypanosoma cruzi cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Seco-Hidalgo, Víctor; De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Osuna, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a complex life cycle comprising pools of cell populations which circulate among humans, vectors, sylvatic reservoirs and domestic animals. Recent experimental evidence has demonstrated the importance of clonal variations for parasite population dynamics, survival and evolution. By limiting dilution assays, we have isolated seven isogenic clonal cell lines derived from the Pan4 strain of T. cruzi. Applying different molecular techniques, we have been able to provide a comprehensive characterization of the expression heterogeneity in the mucin-associated surface protein (MASP) gene family, where all the clonal isogenic populations were transcriptionally different. Hierarchical cluster analysis and sequence comparison among different MASP cDNA libraries showed that, despite the great variability in MASP expression, some members of the transcriptome (including MASP pseudogenes) are conserved, not only in the life-cycle stages but also among different strains of T. cruzi. Finally, other important aspects for the parasite, such as growth, spontaneous metacyclogenesis or excretion of different catabolites, were also compared among the clones, demonstrating that T. cruzi populations of cells are also phenotypically heterogeneous. Although the evolutionary strategy that sustains the MASP expression polymorphism remains unknown, we suggest that MASP clonal variability and phenotypic heterogeneities found in this study might provide an advantage, allowing a rapid response to environmental pressure or changes during the life cycle of T. cruzi. PMID:26674416

  19. Blood viscosity changes in experimentally Trypanosoma cruzi-infected rats.

    PubMed

    Berra, H H; Piaggio, E; Revelli, S S; Luquita, A

    2005-01-01

    Microcirculatory alterations would explain focal lesions found in Chagas' cardiomyopathy. Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infection induces host blood properties modifications and defensive responses capable of producing blood hyperviscosity, an ischemic risk factor able to affect microvascular blood flow. We studied whole blood viscosity (eta(b)) and plasmatic and cellular factors influencing it in rats, 7 and 14 days after experimental infection with T. cruzi. Increased plasma viscosity (eta(p)) was found in infected versus control rats and it was correlated with high blood parasite levels at 7 days and enhanced gamma-globulin fraction concentration at 14 days. The hematocrit, mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and eta(b) were higher in 14 days infected rats vs. 7 days and control animals. Also, electron microscopy observation showed morphological changes in red blood cells (RBC) at 7 and 14 days post-infection, with increased proportion of echinocyte and stomatocyte shapes transformation. In our rat model of Chagas' disease, BPL, increased plasmatic protein concentration, enhanced MCV and RBC shapes transformation would determine blood hyperviscosity, cause of microvascular blood flow abnormalities.

  20. Interferon-Gamma Promotes Infection of Astrocytes by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Silva, Rafael Rodrigues; Mariante, Rafael M.; Silva, Andrea Alice; dos Santos, Ana Luiza Barbosa; Roffê, Ester; Santiago, Helton; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Lannes-Vieira, Joseli

    2015-01-01

    The inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFNγ) is crucial for immunity against intracellular pathogens such as the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease (CD). IFNγ is a pleiotropic cytokine which regulates activation of immune and non-immune cells; however, the effect of IFNγ in the central nervous system (CNS) and astrocytes during CD is unknown. Here we show that parasite persists in the CNS of C3H/He mice chronically infected with the Colombian T. cruzi strain despite the increased expression of IFNγ mRNA. Furthermore, most of the T. cruzi-bearing cells were astrocytes located near IFNγ+ cells. Surprisingly, in vitro experiments revealed that pretreatment with IFNγ promoted the infection of astrocytes by T. cruzi increasing uptake and proliferation of intracellular forms, despite inducing increased production of nitric oxide (NO). Importantly, the effect of IFNγ on T. cruzi uptake and growth is completely blocked by the anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) antibody Infliximab and partially blocked by the inhibitor of nitric oxide synthesis L-NAME. These data support that IFNγ fuels astrocyte infection by T. cruzi and critically implicate IFNγ-stimulated T. cruzi-infected astrocytes as sources of TNF and NO, which may contribute to parasite persistence and CNS pathology in CD. PMID:25695249

  1. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia.

    PubMed

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein.

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a review with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Hemmige, Vagish; Tanowitz, Herbert; Sethi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease, an infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the Reduuvid insect vector, remains a major cause of morbidity in Central and South America over a century after its discovery in 1909. Though major advances in preventing the spread of this disease have been made in recent decades, millions of individuals remain chronically infected due to prior exposure to T. cruzi and are at risk for future complications from the disease. Dermatologic manifestations of acute infection may include localized swelling at the site of inoculation (chagoma), conjunctivitis (Romaña’s sign), and a generalized morbilliform eruption (schizotrypanides). Reactivation of quiescent infection in immunocompromised hosts due to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or organ transplantation can present with fever and skin lesions including panniculitis. The wide-spread emigration of chronic carriers of T. cruzi to North America, Europe, and Australia makes it imperative that dermatologists worldwide be familiar with this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22515575

  3. An in vivo role for Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin in antiangiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Molina, María C; Ferreira, Viviana; Valck, Carolina; Aguilar, Lorena; Orellana, Juana; Rojas, Alvaro; Ramirez, Galia; Billetta, Rosario; Schwaeble, Wilhelm; Lemus, David; Ferreira, Arturo

    2005-04-01

    Angiogenesis leads to neovascularization from existing blood vessels. It is associated with tumor growth and metastasis and is regulated by pro- and antiangiogenic molecules, some of them currently under clinical trials for cancer treatment. During the last few years we have cloned, sequenced and expressed a Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin gene (TcCRT). Its product, TcCRT, a 45 kDa protein, is more than 50% identical to human CRT (HuCRT). TcCRT, present on the surface of trypomastigotes, binds both C1q and mannan binding lectin and inhibits the classical activation pathway of human complement. Since TcCRT is highly homologous to a functional antiangiogenic fragment from HuCRT (aa 120-180), recombinant (r) and native (n) TcCRT were tested in their antiangiogenic effects, in the chick embryonic chorioallantoid membrane (CAM) assay. Both proteins mediated highly significant antiangiogenic effects in the in vivo CAM assay. This effect was further substantiated in experiments showing that the plasmid construct pSecTag/TcCRT also displayed significant antiangiogenic properties, as compared to the empty vector. Most likely, the fact that antiangiogenic substances act preferentially on growing neoplasic tissues, but not on already established tumors, is due to their effects on emerging blood vessels. The results shown here indicate that TcCRT, like its human counterpart, has antiangiogenic properties. These properties may explain, at least partly, the reported antineoplasic effect of experimental T. cruzi infection.

  4. Comparative genomics of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Graf, Fabrice E; Ludin, Philipp; Arquint, Christian; Schmidt, Remo S; Schaub, Nadia; Kunz Renggli, Christina; Munday, Jane C; Krezdorn, Jessica; Baker, Nicola; Horn, David; Balmer, Oliver; Caccone, Adalgisa; de Koning, Harry P; Mäser, Pascal

    2016-09-01

    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense is one of the causative agents of human sleeping sickness, a fatal disease that is transmitted by tsetse flies and restricted to Sub-Saharan Africa. Here we investigate two independent lines of T. b. rhodesiense that have been selected with the drugs melarsoprol and pentamidine over the course of 2 years, until they exhibited stable cross-resistance to an unprecedented degree. We apply comparative genomics and transcriptomics to identify the underlying mutations. Only few mutations have become fixed during selection. Three genes were affected by mutations in both lines: the aminopurine transporter AT1, the aquaporin AQP2, and the RNA-binding protein UBP1. The melarsoprol-selected line carried a large deletion including the adenosine transporter gene AT1, whereas the pentamidine-selected line carried a heterozygous point mutation in AT1, G430R, which rendered the transporter non-functional. Both resistant lines had lost AQP2, and both lines carried the same point mutation, R131L, in the RNA-binding motif of UBP1. The finding that concomitant deletion of the known resistance genes AT1 and AQP2 in T. b. brucei failed to phenocopy the high levels of resistance of the T. b. rhodesiense mutants indicated a possible role of UBP1 in melarsoprol-pentamidine cross-resistance. However, homozygous in situ expression of UBP1-Leu(131) in T. b. brucei did not affect the sensitivity to melarsoprol or pentamidine.

  5. Single molecule analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DNA replication dynamics.

    PubMed

    Calderano, Simone Guedes; Drosopoulos, William C; Quaresma, Marina Mônaco; Marques, Catarina A; Kosiyatrakul, Settapong; McCulloch, Richard; Schildkraut, Carl L; Elias, Maria Carolina

    2015-03-11

    Eukaryotic genome duplication relies on origins of replication, distributed over multiple chromosomes, to initiate DNA replication. A recent genome-wide analysis of Trypanosoma brucei, the etiological agent of sleeping sickness, localized its replication origins to the boundaries of multigenic transcription units. To better understand genomic replication in this organism, we examined replication by single molecule analysis of replicated DNA. We determined the average speed of replication forks of procyclic and bloodstream form cells and we found that T. brucei DNA replication rate is similar to rates seen in other eukaryotes. We also analyzed the replication dynamics of a central region of chromosome 1 in procyclic forms. We present evidence for replication terminating within the central part of the chromosome and thus emanating from both sides, suggesting a previously unmapped origin toward the 5' extremity of chromosome 1. Also, termination is not at a fixed location in chromosome 1, but is rather variable. Importantly, we found a replication origin located near an ORC1/CDC6 binding site that is detected after replicative stress induced by hydroxyurea treatment, suggesting it may be a dormant origin activated in response to replicative stress. Collectively, our findings support the existence of more replication origins in T. brucei than previously appreciated.

  6. Trypanosoma cruzi Gene Expression in Response to Gamma Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Grynberg, Priscila; Passos-Silva, Danielle Gomes; Mourão, Marina de Moraes; Hirata Jr, Roberto; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Franco, Glória Regina

    2012-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is an organism highly resistant to ionizing radiation. Following a dose of 500 Gy of gamma radiation, the fragmented genomic DNA is gradually reconstructed and the pattern of chromosomal bands is restored in less than 48 hours. Cell growth arrests after irradiation but, while DNA is completely fragmented, RNA maintains its integrity. In this work we compared the transcriptional profiles of irradiated and non-irradiated epimastigotes at different time points after irradiation using microarray. In total, 273 genes were differentially expressed; from these, 160 were up-regulated and 113 down-regulated. We found that genes with predicted functions are the most prevalent in the down-regulated gene category. Translation and protein metabolic processes, as well as generation of precursor of metabolites and energy pathways were affected. In contrast, the up-regulated category was mainly composed of obsolete sequences (which included some genes of the kinetoplast DNA), genes coding for hypothetical proteins, and Retrotransposon Hot Spot genes. Finally, the tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 1, a gene involved in double-strand DNA break repair process, was up-regulated. Our study demonstrated the peculiar response to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism changes its gene expression to manage such a harmful stress. PMID:22247781

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi: modification of macrophage function during infection

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Infection of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent intraperitoneal challenge with heat-killed trypanosomes elicits peritoneal macrophages which display in vitro microbicidal activity against trypomastigotes of T. cruzi. These cells also display other activated properties including rapid spreading, intense membrane activity, secretion of high levels of plasminogen activator, and ingestion mediated by the C3 receptor. An intravenous infection with BCG, followed by an intraperitoneal challenge with mycobacterial antigens brings about macrophages with similar properties. These criteria of macrophage activation were compared in normal and BCG- or T. cruzi-immune mice, with or without an intraperitoneal challenge with specific or unrelated antigens. Trypanocidal activity is displayed by both BCG- and T. cruzi-immune macrophages after intraperitoneal challenge with either antigen. Resident-immune macrophages from both T. cruzi- and BCG-infected mice show a trypanostatic, rather than trypanocidal activity. Macrophages from noninfected mice, challenged with the same antigens, show neither trypanostatic nor trypanocidal activity. Increased secretion of plasminogen activator shows a definite immunological specificity. Challenge with the specific antigen induces the appearance of macrophages secreting high levels of plasminogen activator, while unrelated antigens induce much smaller levels. Noninfected mice challenged with the same antigens do not display any enchancement in secretion. In contrast, increased spreading and phagocytosis mediated by the complement receptor are also displayed by cells from noninfected mice challenged with any of the agents tested. PMID:327012

  8. Resistance to drug by different isolates Trypanosoma evansi in China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jinlin; Shen, Jie; Liao, Dangjin; Zhou, Yongzhi; Lin, Jiaojiao

    2004-05-01

    In order to understand drug resistance in Chinese Trypanosoma evansi isolates, the in vitro growth inhibition test was carried out to detect the sensitivities to suramin and antrycide of 12 T. evansi isolates. For suramin, 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) ranged from 0.041 to 0.752 microg/ml; for antrycide, the IC(50) values ranged from 0.00151 to 0.06694 microg/ml. In vivo experiments in mice with selected isolates showed that the isolate most resistant to suramin was not cured at a dosage of 10 mg/kg, while the isolate that was most resistant to antrycide showed only 50% cure rate at a dose rate of 5 mg/kg. The data presented here indicate that T. evansi isolates from China had differences in drug resistance, with some isolates exhibiting low sensitivity to suramin or antrycide, while a few isolates showed complete drug resistance to curative dosages of suramin or antrycide. No drug cross-resistance was observed between suramin and antrycide.

  9. Retrospective distribution of Trypanosoma cruzi I genotypes in Colombia

    PubMed Central

    León, Cielo M; Hernández, Carolina; Montilla, Marleny; Ramírez, Juan David

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately eight million people in the Americas. This parasite exhibits genetic variability, with at least six discrete typing units broadly distributed in the American continent. T. cruzi I (TcI) shows remarkable genetic diversity; a genotype linked to human infections and a domestic cycle of transmission have recently been identified, hence, this strain was named TcIDom. The aim of this work was to describe the spatiotemporal distribution of TcI subpopulations across humans, insect vectors and mammalian reservoirs in Colombia by means of molecular typing targeting the spliced leader intergenic region of mini-exon gene. We analysed 101 TcI isolates and observed a distribution of sylvatic TcI in 70% and TcIDom in 30%. In humans, the ratio was sylvatic TcI in 60% and TcIDom in 40%. In mammal reservoirs, the distribution corresponded to sylvatic TcI in 96% and TcIDom in 4%. Among insect vectors, sylvatic TcI was observed in 48% and TcIDom in 52%. In conclusion, the circulation of TcIDom is emerging in Colombia and this genotype is still adapting to the domestic cycle of transmission. The epidemiological and clinical implications of these findings are discussed herein. PMID:25946157

  10. Clonal population structure of Colombian sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Márquez, E; Arcos-Burgos, M; Triana, O; Moreno, J; Jaramillo, N

    1998-12-01

    Isoenzyme variability and evidence of genetic exchange were evaluated in 75 wild stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi obtained from different hosts from 5 geographical regions within the endemic area in Colombia. Cluster analysis of genetic variability was attempted. Thirty-three multilocus enzyme genotypes (clonets) were identified from 75 stocks, 27 of which clustered with zymodeme Z1 and 6 with zymodeme Z3. Two stocks isolated from human infections showed the potential risk to rural communities in Colombia. The stocks exhibited departures from Hardy-Weinberg expectations, including both fixed heterozygote and fixed homozygote demes, where both segregation and recombination were absent. To inspect for population subdivision that might falsely imply clonality in these stocks, Wright's F statistics were calculated. Theta values (Fst) were significantly different from 0 when 33 clonets, 27 Z1-like clonets, and 5 geographical subpopulations were compared; thus, a significant amount of divergence has occurred between and within them. In addition, linkage disequilibrium was detected for most possible pairwise comparisons of loci. In conclusion, the above results all support a scenario of long-term clonal evolution in Colombian sylvatic T. cruzi populations.

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi as an effective cancer antigen delivery vector

    PubMed Central

    Junqueira, Caroline; Santos, Luara I.; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; Teixeira, Santuza M.; Rodrigues, Flávia G.; DaRocha, Wanderson D.; Chiari, Egler; Jungbluth, Achim A.; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Old, Lloyd J.; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T.

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges in cancer research is the development of vaccines that induce effective and long-lived protective immunity against tumors. Significant progress has been made in identifying members of the cancer testis antigen family as potential vaccine candidates. However, an ideal form for antigen delivery that induces robust and sustainable antigen-specific T-cell responses, and in particular of CD8+ T lymphocytes, remains to be developed. Here we report the use of a recombinant nonpathogenic clone of Trypanosoma cruzi as a vaccine vector to induce vigorous and long-term T cell-mediated immunity. The rationale for using the highly attenuated T. cruzi clone was (i) the ability of the parasite to persist in host tissues and therefore to induce a long-term antigen-specific immune response; (ii) the existence of intrinsic parasite agonists for Toll-like receptors and consequent induction of highly polarized T helper cell type 1 responses; and (iii) the parasite replication in the host cell cytoplasm, leading to direct antigen presentation through the endogenous pathway and consequent induction of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells. Importantly, we found that parasites expressing a cancer testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) were able to elicit human antigen-specific T-cell responses in vitro and solid protection against melanoma in a mouse model. Furthermore, in a therapeutic protocol, the parasites expressing NY-ESO-1 delayed the rate of tumor development in mice. We conclude that the T. cruzi vector is highly efficient in inducing T cell-mediated immunity and protection against cancer cells. More broadly, this strategy could be used to elicit a long-term T cell-mediated immunity and used for prophylaxis or therapy of chronic infectious diseases. PMID:22114198

  12. Biochemical diversity in the Trypanosoma congolense trans-sialidase family.

    PubMed

    Gbem, Thaddeus T; Waespy, Mario; Hesse, Bettina; Dietz, Frank; Smith, Joel; Chechet, Gloria D; Nok, Jonathan A; Kelm, Sørge

    2013-01-01

    Trans-sialidases are key enzymes in the life cycle of African trypanosomes in both, mammalian host and insect vector and have been associated with the disease trypanosomiasis, namely sleeping sickness and nagana. Besides the previously reported TconTS1, we have identified three additional active trans-sialidases, TconTS2, TconTS3 and TconTS4, and three trans-sialidase like genes in Trypanosoma congolense. At least TconTS1, TconTS2 and TconTS4 are found in the bloodstream of infected animals. We have characterised the enzymatic properties of recombinant proteins expressed in eukaryotic fibroblasts using fetuin as model blood glycoprotein donor substrate. One of the recombinant trans-sialidases, TconTS2, had the highest specific activity reported thus far with very low sialidase activity. The active trans-sialidases share all the amino acids critical for the catalytic reaction with few variations in the predicted binding site for the leaving or acceptor glycan. However, these differences cannot explain the orders of magnitudes between their transfer activities, which must be due to other unidentified structural features of the proteins or substrates selectivity. Interestingly, the phylogenetic relationships between the lectin domains correlate with their specific trans-sialylation activities. This raises the question whether and how the lectin domains regulate the trans-sialidase reaction. The identification and enzymatic characterisation of the trans-sialidase family in T. congolense will contribute significantly towards the understanding of the roles of these enzymes in the pathogenesis of Animal African Trypanosomiasis.

  13. Induction of Resistance to Azole Drugs in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Wilson, Aaron J.; White, Theodore C.; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.

    1998-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas’ disease, a frequently fatal illness affecting the heart and gastrointestinal systems. An estimated 16 million to 18 million people in Latin America and 50,000 to 100,000 people in the United States are infected with this pathogen. Treatment options for T. cruzi infections are suboptimal due to the toxicities and limited effectiveness of the available drugs. Azole antimicrobial agents have been discovered to have antitrypanosomal activity by inhibition of ergosterol synthesis. The triazole itraconazole was recently shown to produce a parasitologic cure rate of 53% in chronically infected patients (W. Apt et al., Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 59:133–138, 1998), a result which may lead to more use of this family of drugs for the treatment of T. cruzi infections. In the experiments reported on here, resistance to azoles was induced in vitro by serial passage of mammalian-stage parasites in the presence of fluconazole for 4 months. These parasites were cross resistant to the other azoles, ketoconazole, miconazole, and itraconazole. They remained susceptible to benznidazole and amphotericin B. The azole-resistant phenotype was stable for more than 2 months of in vitro serial passage without fluconazole. In addition, the parasites resisted treatment in mice receiving ketoconazole. The rapid development of azole resistance in T. cruzi in vitro suggests that resistance to azole drugs has the potential to occur in patients and may pose an impediment to the progress being made in the treatment of T. cruzi infection. PMID:9835521

  14. Role of iron in Trypanosoma cruzi infection of mice.

    PubMed Central

    Lalonde, R G; Holbein, B E

    1984-01-01

    The role of iron in experimental infection of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi was investigated. B6 mice had a transient parasitemia and a transient anemia, both of maximal intensity 28 d after the inoculation of T. cruzi. There was a biphasic hypoferremic host response to infection with T. cruzi with the peak hypoferremia also occurring 28 d after inoculation of the parasite. The mortality rate from infection was increased from 23% in phosphate-buffered saline-treated B6 mice to 50% in a group of B6 mice receiving iron-dextran (P less than or equal to 0.025), whereas depletion of iron stores with the iron chelator desferrioxamine B and an iron-deficient diet provided complete protection of B6 mice (P less than or equal to 0.05). The mortality rate in the highly susceptible C3H strain was reduced from 100% in the control group to 45% (P less than or equal to 0.025) in the iron-depleted group. The tissue iron stores were altered in mice receiving either iron-dextran or desferrioxamine B and an iron-deficient diet. In vitro, T. cruzi was shown to require both a heme and a nonheme iron source for an optimal growth rate. The effects of iron excess or depletion on the outcome of infection with T. cruzi correlated both with the growth requirements of the parasite for iron and with the availability of intracellular iron. Thus, it was suggested that the hypoferremic response, by sequestering iron within intracellular stores, potentially enhanced the pathogenicity of the intracellular parasites. Furthermore, the in vivo effects of iron excess and depletion correlated with an effect of iron on the growth rate and pathogenicity of the parasite. PMID:6421877

  15. Role of placental barrier integrity in infection by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Luján, C; Triquell, M F; Castillo, C; Hardisson, D; Kemmerling, U; Fretes, R E

    2016-12-01

    American trypanosomiasis has long been a neglected disease endemic in LatinAmerica, but congenital transmission has now spread Chagas disease to cause a global health problem. As the early stages of the infection of placental tissue and the vertical transmission by Trypanosoma cruzi are still not well understood, it is important to investigate the relevance of the first structure of the placental barrier in chorionic villi infection by T. cruzi during the initial stage of the infection. Explants of human chorionic villi from healthy pregnant women at term were denuded of their syncytiotrophoblast and co-cultured for 3h, 24h and 96h with 800,000 trypomastigotes (simulating acute infection). T. cruzi infected cells were identified by immunohistochemistry for cytokeratin-7 (+cytotrophoblast) and CD68 (+macrophages), and the infection was quantified. In placental tissue, the parasite load was analyzed by qPCR and microscopy, and the motile trypomastigotes were quantified in culture supernatant. In denuded chorionic villous, the total area occupied by the parasite (451.23μm(2), 1.33%) and parasite load (RQ: 87) was significantly higher (p<0.05) than in the entire villous (control) (5.98μm(2), 0.016%) (RQ:1) and with smaller concentration of nitric oxide. Stromal non-macrophage cells were infected as well as cytotrophoblasts and some macrophages, but with significant differences being observed. The parasite quantity in the culture supernatant was significantly higher (p<0.05) in denuded culture explants from 96h of culture. Although the human complete chorionic villi limited the infection, the detachment of the first structure of the placenta barrier (syncytiotrophoblast) increased both the infection of the villous stroma and the living trypomastigotes in the culture supernatant. Therefore structural and functional alterations to chorionic villi placental barrier reduce placental defenses and may contribute to the vertical transmission of Chagas.

  16. Aspirin treatment exacerbates oral infections by Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Cossentini, Luana Aparecida; Da Silva, Rosiane Valeriano; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli Fumie; Yamauchi, Lucy Megumi; De Almeida Araújo, Eduardo José; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2016-05-01

    Oral transmission of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, has been documented in Latin American countries. The reported cases of infection were due to the ingestion of contaminated fresh fruit, juices, or sugar cane juice. There have been few studies on the physiopathology of the disease in oral transmission cases. Gastritis is a common ailment that can be caused by poor dietary habits, intake of alcohol or other gastric irritants, bacterial infection, or by the widespread use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). This study investigated in a mouse model whether gastric mucosal injury, induced by aspirin, would affect the course of disease in animals infected with T. cruzi by the oral route. The CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi, both of low infectivity, were used. To this end, groups of BALB/c mice were treated during 5 days with aspirin (100 mg kg(-1)) before oral infection with T. cruzi metacyclic forms (4 × 10(5) or 5 × 10(7) parasites/mouse). Histological analysis and determination of nitric oxide and TNF-α were performed in gastric samples obtained 5 days after infection. Parasitemia was monitored from the thirteenth day after infection. The results indicate that aspirin treatment of mice injured their gastric mucosa and facilitated invasion by both CL14 and G strains of T. cruzi. Strain CL14 caused more severe infection compared to the G strain, as larger numbers of amastigote nests were found in the stomach and parasitemia levels were higher. Our study is novel in that it shows that gastric mucosal damage caused by aspirin, a commonly used NSAID, facilitates T. cruzi infection by the oral route.

  17. Sialic Acid Glycobiology Unveils Trypanosoma cruzi Trypomastigote Membrane Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Lantos, Andrés B.; Carlevaro, Giannina; Araoz, Beatriz; Ruiz Diaz, Pablo; Camara, María de los Milagros; Buscaglia, Carlos A.; Bossi, Mariano; Yu, Hai; Chen, Xi; Bertozzi, Carolyn R.; Mucci, Juan; Campetella, Oscar

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the flagellate protozoan agent of Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis, is unable to synthesize sialic acids de novo. Mucins and trans-sialidase (TS) are substrate and enzyme, respectively, of the glycobiological system that scavenges sialic acid from the host in a crucial interplay for T. cruzi life cycle. The acquisition of the sialyl residue allows the parasite to avoid lysis by serum factors and to interact with the host cell. A major drawback to studying the sialylation kinetics and turnover of the trypomastigote glycoconjugates is the difficulty to identify and follow the recently acquired sialyl residues. To tackle this issue, we followed an unnatural sugar approach as bioorthogonal chemical reporters, where the use of azidosialyl residues allowed identifying the acquired sugar. Advanced microscopy techniques, together with biochemical methods, were used to study the trypomastigote membrane from its glycobiological perspective. Main sialyl acceptors were identified as mucins by biochemical procedures and protein markers. Together with determining their shedding and turnover rates, we also report that several membrane proteins, including TS and its substrates, both glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins, are separately distributed on parasite surface and contained in different and highly stable membrane microdomains. Notably, labeling for α(1,3)Galactosyl residues only partially colocalize with sialylated mucins, indicating that two species of glycosylated mucins do exist, which are segregated at the parasite surface. Moreover, sialylated mucins were included in lipid-raft-domains, whereas TS molecules are not. The location of the surface-anchored TS resulted too far off as to be capable to sialylate mucins, a role played by the shed TS instead. Phosphatidylinositol-phospholipase-C activity is actually not present in trypomastigotes. Therefore, shedding of TS occurs via microvesicles instead of as a fully soluble form. PMID

  18. Trypanosoma brucei prenylated-protein carboxyl methyltransferase prefers farnesylated substrates.

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S; Kateete, David P; Lubega, George W; Van Voorhis, Wesley C; Yokoyama, Kohei

    2002-01-01

    Carboxyl methylation of the C-terminal prenylated cysteine, which occurs in most farnesylated and geranylgeranylated proteins, is a reversible step and is implicated in the regulation of membrane binding and cellular functions of prenylated proteins such as GTPases. The gene coding for prenylated-protein carboxyl methyltransferase (PPMT) of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei has been cloned and expressed in the baculovirus/Sf9 cell system. The protein of 245 amino acids has 24-28% sequence identity to the orthologues from other species including human and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Methyltransferase activity was detected in the membrane fraction from Sf9 cells infected with the recombinant baculovirus using N -acetyl- S -farnesylcysteine (AFC) and S -adenosyl[ methyl -(3)H]methionine ([(3)H]AdoMet) as substrates. Recombinant T. brucei PPMT prefers AFC to N -acetyl- S -geranylgeranylcysteine (AGGC) by 10-50-fold based on the V (max)/ K (m) values. Native PPMT activity detected in the membrane fraction from T. brucei procyclics displays similar substrate specificity ( approximately 40-fold preference for AFC over AGGC). In contrast, mouse liver PPMT utilizes both AFC and AGGC as substrates with similar catalytic efficiencies. Several cellular proteins of the T. brucei bloodstream form were shown to be carboxyl methylated in a cell-free system. Incorporation of [(3)H]methyl group from [(3)H]AdoMet into most of the proteins was significantly inhibited by AFC but not AGGC at 20 microM, suggesting that T. brucei PPMT acts on farnesylated proteins in the cell. Cells of the T. brucei bloodstream form show higher sensitivity to AFC and AGGC (EC(50)=70-80 microM) compared with mouse 3T3 cells (EC(50)>150 microM). PMID:12141948

  19. KINETOPLAST DEOXYRIBONUCLEIC ACID OF THE HEMOFLAGELLATE TRYPANOSOMA LEWISI

    PubMed Central

    Renger, Hartmut C.; Wolstenholme, David R.

    1970-01-01

    Cesium chloride centrifugation of DNA extracted from cells of blood strain Trypanosoma lewisi revealed a main band, ρ = 1.707, a light satellite, ρ = 1.699, and a heavy satellite, ρ = 1.721. Culture strain T. lewisi DNA comprised only a main band, ρ = 1.711, and a light satellite, ρ = 1.699. DNA isolated from DNase-treated kinetoplast fractions of both the blood and culture strains consisted of only the light satellite DNA. Electron microscope examination of rotary shadowed preparations of lysates revealed that DNA from kinetoplast fractions was mainly in the form of single 0.4 µ circular molecules and large masses of 0.4 µ interlocked circles with which longer, often noncircular molecules were associated. The 0.4 µ circular molecules were mainly in the covalently closed form: they showed a high degree of resistance to thermal denaturation which was lost following sonication; and they banded at a greater density than linear DNA in cesium chloride-ethidium bromide gradients. Interpretation of the large masses of DNA as comprising interlocked covalently closed 0.4 µ circles was supported by the findings that they banded with single circular molecules in cesium chloride-ethidium bromide gradients, and following breakage of some circles by mild sonication, they disappeared and were replaced by molecules made up of low numbers of apparently interlocked 0.4 µ circles. When culture strain cells were grown in the presence of either ethidium bromide or acriflavin, there was a loss of stainable kinetoplast DNA in cytological preparations. There was a parallel loss of light satellite and of circular molecules from DNA extracted from these cells. PMID:5497546

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi as an effective cancer antigen delivery vector.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Caroline; Santos, Luara I; Galvão-Filho, Bruno; Teixeira, Santuza M; Rodrigues, Flávia G; DaRocha, Wanderson D; Chiari, Egler; Jungbluth, Achim A; Ritter, Gerd; Gnjatic, Sacha; Old, Lloyd J; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2011-12-06

    One of the main challenges in cancer research is the development of vaccines that induce effective and long-lived protective immunity against tumors. Significant progress has been made in identifying members of the cancer testis antigen family as potential vaccine candidates. However, an ideal form for antigen delivery that induces robust and sustainable antigen-specific T-cell responses, and in particular of CD8(+) T lymphocytes, remains to be developed. Here we report the use of a recombinant nonpathogenic clone of Trypanosoma cruzi as a vaccine vector to induce vigorous and long-term T cell-mediated immunity. The rationale for using the highly attenuated T. cruzi clone was (i) the ability of the parasite to persist in host tissues and therefore to induce a long-term antigen-specific immune response; (ii) the existence of intrinsic parasite agonists for Toll-like receptors and consequent induction of highly polarized T helper cell type 1 responses; and (iii) the parasite replication in the host cell cytoplasm, leading to direct antigen presentation through the endogenous pathway and consequent induction of antigen-specific CD8(+) T cells. Importantly, we found that parasites expressing a cancer testis antigen (NY-ESO-1) were able to elicit human antigen-specific T-cell responses in vitro and solid protection against melanoma in a mouse model. Furthermore, in a therapeutic protocol, the parasites expressing NY-ESO-1 delayed the rate of tumor development in mice. We conclude that the T. cruzi vector is highly efficient in inducing T cell-mediated immunity and protection against cancer cells. More broadly, this strategy could be used to elicit a long-term T cell-mediated immunity and used for prophylaxis or therapy of chronic infectious diseases.

  1. Targeted Screening Strategies to Detect Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Children

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Michael Z.; Kawai, Vivian; Bowman, Natalie M.; Waller, Lance A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V.; Seitz, Amy E.; Steurer, Frank J.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn

    2007-01-01

    Background Millions of people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Anti-trypanosomal drug therapy can cure infected individuals, but treatment efficacy is highest early in infection. Vector control campaigns disrupt transmission of T. cruzi, but without timely diagnosis, children infected prior to vector control often miss the window of opportunity for effective chemotherapy. Methods and Findings We performed a serological survey in children 2–18 years old living in a peri-urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and linked the results to entomologic, spatial and census data gathered during a vector control campaign. 23 of 433 (5.3% [95% CI 3.4–7.9]) children were confirmed seropositive for T. cruzi infection by two methods. Spatial analysis revealed that households with infected children were very tightly clustered within looser clusters of households with parasite-infected vectors. Bayesian hierarchical mixed models, which controlled for clustering of infection, showed that a child's risk of being seropositive increased by 20% per year of age and 4% per vector captured within the child's house. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots of best-fit models suggest that more than 83% of infected children could be identified while testing only 22% of eligible children. Conclusions We found evidence of spatially-focal vector-borne T. cruzi transmission in peri-urban Arequipa. Ongoing vector control campaigns, in addition to preventing further parasite transmission, facilitate the collection of data essential to identifying children at high risk of T. cruzi infection. Targeted screening strategies could make integration of diagnosis and treatment of children into Chagas disease control programs feasible in lower-resource settings. PMID:18160979

  2. Growth hormones therapy in immune response against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Frare, Eduardo Osório; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Caetano, Leony Cristina; Caldeira, Jerri C; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; Prado, José Clóvis do

    2010-04-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is an important hypophyseal hormone that is primarily involved in body growth and metabolism. In mammals, control of Trypanosoma cruzi parasitism during the acute phase of infection is considered to be critically dependent on direct macrophage activation by cytokines. To explore the possibility that GH might be effective in the treatment of Chagas' disease, we investigated its effects on the course of T. cruzi infection in rats, focusing our analyses on its influences on parasitemia, NO, TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma concentration and on histopathological alterations and parasite burden in heart tissue. T. cruzi-infected male Wistar rats were intraperitoneally treated with 5 ng/10 g body weight/day of GH. Animals treated with GH showed a significant reduction in the number of blood trypomastigotes during the acute phase of infection compared with untreated animals (P<0.05). For all experimental days (7, 14 and 21 post infection) of the acute phase, infected and GH treated animals reached higher concentrations of TNF-alpha, IFN-gamma and nitric oxide as compared to untreated and infected counterparts (P<0.05) Histopathological observations of heart tissue revealed that GH administration also resulted in fewer and smaller amastigote burdens, and less inflammatory infiltrate and tissue disorganization, indicating a reduced parasitism of this tissue. These results show that GH can be considered as an immunomodulator substance for controlling parasite replication and combined with the current drug used may represent in the future a new therapeutic tool to reduce the harmful effects of Chagas' disease.

  3. Structural features affecting variant surface glycoprotein expression in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Böhme, Ulrike; Cross, George A M

    2003-05-01

    The glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) of Trypanosoma brucei is the most abundant GPI-anchored protein expressed on any cell, and is an essential virulence factor. To determine what structural features affect efficient expression of VSG, we made a series of mutations in two VSGs. Inserting 18 amino acids, between the amino- and carboxy-terminal domains, reduced the expression of VSG 221 to about 3% of the wild-type level. When this insertion was combined with deletion of the single carboxy-terminal subdomain, expression was reduced a further three-fold. In VSG 117, which contains two carboxy-terminal subdomains, point mutation of the intervening N-glycosylation site reduced expression about 15-fold. Deleting the most carboxy-terminal subdomain and intervening region, including the N-glycosylation site, reduced expression to 15-20% of wild type VSG, and deletion of both subdomains reduced expression to <1%. Despite their low abundance, all VSG mutants were GPI anchored on the cell surface. Our results suggest that, for a protein to be efficiently displayed on the surface of bloodstream-form T. brucei, it is essential that it contains the conserved structural motifs of a T. brucei VSG. Serum resistance-associated protein (SRA), which confers human infectivity on T. brucei, strongly resembles a VSG deletion mutant. Expression of three epitope-tagged versions of SRA in T. brucei conferred total resistance to human serum. SRA possesses a canonical GPI signal sequence, but we were unable to obtain unequivocal evidence for the presence of a GPI anchor. SRA was not released during osmotic lysis, indicating that it is not GPI anchored on the cell surface.

  4. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in raccoons from Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Jenny; Newsome, Anthony; Huang, Junjun; Kirby, Jordona; Kranz, Melissa; Wateska, Angela; Dunlap, Brett; Yabsley, Michael J; Dunn, John R; Jones, Timothy F; Moncayo, Abelardo C

    2010-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiologic agent of Chagas' disease. Autochthonous human and canine transmission of T. cruzi has been documented in Tennessee, but little is known about its ecology, including the prevalence of T. cruzi among wildlife in Tennessee. Serum samples from 706 raccoons (Procyon lotor) from 10 counties in the Ridge and Valley and Blue Ridge Mountains ecoregions of eastern Tennessee were tested for antibodies reactive with T. cruzi using the indirect fluorescent antibody assay. Two hundred six (29.2%) samples were seropositive, with 9 counties yielding positive samples (range 14.6-63.6%). Significantly more raccoons from rural habitats (35.1%) were found positive for T. cruzi exposure than were those from suburban habitats (23.1%, P < 0.001). Land cover class was not associated with seropositivity status (P = 0.441), even though deciduous forest was the most common site from where raccoons were trapped and the most common site of positive raccoons in rural areas (42%). Interestingly, age was positively associated with seropositivity. Raccoons older than 1 yr (adults) were 40.1% seropositive compared to 12.2% of those less than 1 yr (juveniles; P < 0.001). Female adults were significantly more likely to be exposed to T. cruzi than were male adult raccoons (P < 0.001). No significant seroprevalence difference was seen among male and female juveniles. This study contributes to understanding the dynamics of T. cruzi exposure within raccoon populations in Tennessee. The importance of habitat (rural vs. suburban) and microhabitat (dens) in risk of exposure to these populations is also discussed.

  5. Succinate-dependent metabolism in Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Denicola-Seoane, A; Rubbo, H; Prodanov, E; Turrens, J F

    1992-08-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes permeabilized with digitonin (65 micrograms (mg protein)-1) to measure mitochondrial respiration were exposed to different substrates. Although none of the NADH-dependent substrates stimulated respiration, succinate supported not only oxygen consumption but also oxidative phosphorylation (respiratory control ratio of 1.9 +/- 0.3) indicating that the mitochondria were coupled. The rate of NADH-dependent oxygen consumption by membrane fractions (9.4 +/- 0.7 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1) was reduced by 50% upon addition of catalase indicating that the electrons from NADH oxidation reduced oxygen to H2O2. NADH-dependent H2O2 production (16 +/- 1 nmol min-1 (mg protein)-1) was confirmed using cytochrome c peroxidase. This activity was inhibited by fumarate by 70%, suggesting a competition between fumarate and oxygen for the electrons from NADH, probably at the fumarate reductase level. The respiratory chain inhibitor antimycin blocked both respiration by intact cells and succinate-dependent cytochrome c by isolated membranes. No inhibition by antimycin was observed when NADH replaced succinate as an electron donor, indicating that the electrons from NADH oxidation reduced cytochrome c through a different route. Malonate blocked not only succinate-cytochrome c reductase and fumarate reductase, but also intact cell motility. These results suggest that succinate has a central role in the intermediate metabolism of i. cruzi, as it may be used for respiration or excreted to the extracellular space under anaerobic conditions. In addition, 2 potential sources of H2O2 were tentatively identified as: (a) the enzyme fumarate reductase; and (b) a succinate-dependent site, which may be the semiquinone form of Coenzyme Q9, as in mammalian mitochondria.

  6. Quantitative Proteomic and Phosphoproteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Amastigogenesis*

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Charneau, Sébastien; Mandacaru, Samuel C.; Schwämmle, Veit; Lima, Beatriz D.; Roepstorff, Peter; Ricart, Carlos A. O.

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease is a tropical neglected disease endemic in Latin America caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. The parasite has four major life stages: epimastigote, metacyclic trypomastigote, bloodstream trypomastigote, and amastigote. The differentiation from infective trypomastigotes into replicative amastigotes, called amastigogenesis, takes place in vivo inside mammalian host cells after a period of incubation in an acidic phagolysosome. This differentiation process can be mimicked in vitro by incubating tissue-culture-derived trypomastigotes in acidic DMEM. Here we used this well-established differentiation protocol to perform a comprehensive quantitative proteomic and phosphoproteomic analysis of T. cruzi amastigogenesis. Samples from fully differentiated forms and two biologically relevant intermediate time points were Lys-C/trypsin digested, iTRAQ-labeled, and multiplexed. Subsequently, phosphopeptides were enriched using a TiO2 matrix. Non-phosphorylated peptides were fractionated via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography prior to LC-MS/MS analysis. LC-MS/MS and bioinformatics procedures were used for protein and phosphopeptide quantitation, identification, and phosphorylation site assignment. We were able to identify regulated proteins and pathways involved in coordinating amastigogenesis. We also observed that a significant proportion of the regulated proteins were membrane proteins. Modulated phosphorylation events coordinated by protein kinases and phosphatases that are part of the signaling cascade induced by incubation in acidic medium were also evinced. To our knowledge, this work is the most comprehensive quantitative proteomics study of T. cruzi amastigogenesis, and these data will serve as a trustworthy basis for future studies, and possibly for new potential drug targets. PMID:25225356

  7. OBSERVATIONS ON THE RESPIRATION OF TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI IN CULTURE

    PubMed Central

    von Brand, Theodor; Johnson, Eleanor M.; Rees, Charles W.

    1946-01-01

    1. The oxygen consumption of cultural forms of Trypanosoma cruzi decreases in intensity with increasing age of the cultures; no correlation with any other factor studied could be established. 2. The respiratory quotient was high for the first 10 days, i.e. as long as the population increased; with the onset of a decline in numbers, the R.Q. began to drop. It is believed that the flagellates consume in the beginning predominantly sugar and later predominantly protein. Observations on the pH of the cultures bear out this view. 3. The oxygen consumption was independent of the oxygen tension over a wide range of tensions. 4. The oxygen consumption increased in the temperature range 13° to 40°C., while a temperature of 44°C. proved to be lethal. Upon application of Arrhenius' equation, two straight lines, intersecting at about 28°C., resulted. The µ values were 23,980 and 5275 for the lower and higher temperature range respectively. 5. Of the oxidase inhibitors tested, strong inhibition of the oxygen consumption was achieved with azide, cyanide, and hydrogen sulfide. Pyrophosphate had no influence at all. There is some probability that cytochrome oxidase is the chief oxidase present. 6. The strongest inhibitory influence due to dehydrogenase inhibitors was observed with propyl carbamate and high concentrations of ethyl carbamate. 7. A small fraction of the oxygen consumption, about 10 per cent, may be due to substances with sulfhydryl groups, as indicated by a slight but distinct inhibition due to dilute iodoacetate and to arsenite. PMID:19873484

  8. Arginine and Lysine Transporters Are Essential for Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Hürlimann, Daniel; Wirdnam, Corina; Haindrich, Alexander C.; Suter Grotemeyer, Marianne; González-Salgado, Amaia; Schmidt, Remo S.; Inbar, Ehud; Mäser, Pascal; Bütikofer, Peter; Zilberstein, Dan; Rentsch, Doris

    2017-01-01

    For Trypanosoma brucei arginine and lysine are essential amino acids and therefore have to be imported from the host. Heterologous expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutants identified cationic amino acid transporters among members of the T. brucei AAAP (amino acid/auxin permease) family. TbAAT5-3 showed high affinity arginine uptake (Km 3.6 ± 0.4 μM) and high selectivity for L-arginine. L-arginine transport was reduced by a 10-times excess of L-arginine, homo-arginine, canavanine or arginine-β-naphthylamide, while lysine was inhibitory only at 100-times excess, and histidine or ornithine did not reduce arginine uptake rates significantly. TbAAT16-1 is a high affinity (Km 4.3 ± 0.5 μM) and highly selective L-lysine transporter and of the compounds tested, only L-lysine and thialysine were competing for L-lysine uptake. TbAAT5-3 and TbAAT16-1 are expressed in both procyclic and bloodstream form T. brucei and cMyc-tagged proteins indicate localization at the plasma membrane. RNAi-mediated down-regulation of TbAAT5 and TbAAT16 in bloodstream form trypanosomes resulted in growth arrest, demonstrating that TbAAT5-mediated arginine and TbAAT16-mediated lysine transport are essential for T. brucei. Growth of induced RNAi lines could partially be rescued by supplementing a surplus of arginine or lysine, respectively, while addition of both amino acids was less efficient. Single and double RNAi lines indicate that additional low affinity uptake systems for arginine and lysine are present in T. brucei. PMID:28045943

  9. Identification of Contractile Vacuole Proteins in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Park, Miyoung; Martins, Vicente P.; Atwood, James; Moles, Kristen; Collins, Dalis; Rohloff, Peter; Tarleton, Rick; Moreno, Silvia N. J.; Orlando, Ron; Docampo, Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Contractile vacuole complexes are critical components of cell volume regulation and have been shown to have other functional roles in several free-living protists. However, very little is known about the functions of the contractile vacuole complex of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, other than a role in osmoregulation. Identification of the protein composition of these organelles is important for understanding their physiological roles. We applied a combined proteomic and bioinfomatic approach to identify proteins localized to the contractile vacuole. Proteomic analysis of a T. cruzi fraction enriched for contractile vacuoles and analyzed by one-dimensional gel electrophoresis and LC-MS/MS resulted in the addition of 109 newly detected proteins to the group of expressed proteins of epimastigotes. We also identified different peptides that map to at least 39 members of the dispersed gene family 1 (DGF-1) providing evidence that many members of this family are simultaneously expressed in epimastigotes. Of the proteins present in the fraction we selected several homologues with known localizations in contractile vacuoles of other organisms and others that we expected to be present in these vacuoles on the basis of their potential roles. We determined the localization of each by expression as GFP-fusion proteins or with specific antibodies. Six of these putative proteins (Rab11, Rab32, AP180, ATPase subunit B, VAMP1, and phosphate transporter) predominantly localized to the vacuole bladder. TcSNARE2.1, TcSNARE2.2, and calmodulin localized to the spongiome. Calmodulin was also cytosolic. Our results demonstrate the utility of combining subcellular fractionation, proteomic analysis, and bioinformatic approaches for localization of organellar proteins that are difficult to detect with whole cell methodologies. The CV localization of the proteins investigated revealed potential novel roles of these organelles in phosphate metabolism

  10. Polyamine depletion inhibits the autophagic response modulating Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity

    PubMed Central

    Vanrell, María C.; Cueto, Juan A.; Barclay, Jeremías J.; Carrillo, Carolina; Colombo, María I.; Gottlieb, Roberta A.; Romano, Patricia S.

    2013-01-01

    Autophagy is a cell process that in normal conditions serves to recycle cytoplasmic components and aged or damaged organelles. The autophagic pathway has been implicated in many physiological and pathological situations, even during the course of infection by intracellular pathogens. Many compounds are currently used to positively or negatively modulate the autophagic response. Recently it was demonstrated that the polyamine spermidine is a physiological inducer of autophagy in eukaryotic cells. We have previously shown that the etiological agent of Chagas disease, the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, interacts with autophagic compartments during host cell invasion and that preactivation of autophagy significantly increases host cell colonization by this parasite. In the present report we have analyzed the effect of polyamine depletion on the autophagic response of the host cell and on T. cruzi infectivity. Our data showed that depleting intracellular polyamines by inhibiting the biosynthetic enzyme ornithine decarboxylase with difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) suppressed the induction of autophagy in response to starvation or rapamycin treatment in two cell lines. This effect was associated with a decrease in the levels of LC3 and ATG5, two proteins required for autophagosome formation. As a consequence of inhibiting host cell autophagy, DFMO impaired T. cruzi colonization, indicating that polyamines and autophagy facilitate parasite infection. Thus, our results point to DFMO as a novel autophagy inhibitor. While other autophagy inhibitors such as wortmannin and 3-methyladenine are nonspecific and potentially toxic, DFMO is an FDA-approved drug that may have value in limiting autophagy and the spread of the infection in Chagas disease and possibly other pathological settings. PMID:23697944

  11. Proteomic Analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi Response to Ionizing Radiation Stress

    PubMed Central

    Vieira, Helaine Graziele Santos; Grynberg, Priscila; Bitar, Mainá; Pires, Simone da Fonseca; Hilário, Heron Oliveira; Macedo, Andrea Mara; Machado, Carlos Renato; de Andrade, Hélida Monteiro; Franco, Glória Regina

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease, is extremely resistant to ionizing radiation, enduring up to 1.5 kGy of gamma rays. Ionizing radiation can damage the DNA molecule both directly, resulting in double-strand breaks, and indirectly, as a consequence of reactive oxygen species production. After a dose of 500 Gy of gamma rays, the parasite genome is fragmented, but the chromosomal bands are restored within 48 hours. Under such conditions, cell growth arrests for up to 120 hours and the parasites resume normal growth after this period. To better understand the parasite response to ionizing radiation, we analyzed the proteome of irradiated (4, 24, and 96 hours after irradiation) and non-irradiated T. cruzi using two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis followed by mass spectrometry for protein identification. A total of 543 spots were found to be differentially expressed, from which 215 were identified. These identified protein spots represent different isoforms of only 53 proteins. We observed a tendency for overexpression of proteins with molecular weights below predicted, indicating that these may be processed, yielding shorter polypeptides. The presence of shorter protein isoforms after irradiation suggests the occurrence of post-translational modifications and/or processing in response to gamma radiation stress. Our results also indicate that active translation is essential for the recovery of parasites from ionizing radiation damage. This study therefore reveals the peculiar response of T. cruzi to ionizing radiation, raising questions about how this organism can change its protein expression to survive such a harmful stress. PMID:24842666

  12. Vertical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi in experimentally infected rats.

    PubMed

    Campigotto, Gabriela; Volpato, Andréia; Galli, Gabriela M; Glombowsky, Patrícia; Baldissera, Matheus D; Miletti, Luiz Claudio; Jaguezeski, Antonise M; Stefani, Lenita M; Da Silva, Aleksandro S

    2017-03-01

    Many reproductive problems has been described in male and female animals infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of vertical (Experiment I) and venereal (Experiment II) transmission of T. evansi in rats experimentally infected. In the experiment I, eight female Wistar rats were used: three animals as negative controls, and five rats were infected by T. evansi on day ten of gestation. Out of these eight females, half puppies were used for molecular analysis (polymerase chain reaction - PCR) for T. evansi. Two infected females showed delivery problems, such as stillbirth, and fetal death that also led to female death. Three female rats infected had normal delivery of stunted offspring at term that died 2 days after birth. Rats from the control group had normal delivery of healthy offspring. T. evansi PCR was positive for 80% (12/15) of pups in the infected group. For the experiment II, five male rats were infected by T. evansi, and monitored by blood smears to check the parasitemia level. When the male rats showed parasitemia between 2 and 5 parasites per field, they were individually housed with one female adult rat. After approximately 21 days, the females delivered their offspring. Blood sample was collected from the females for blood smears and T. evansi PCR tests, which revealed negative results. Therefore, we were able to prove the occurrence of transplacental transmission of T. evansi and its negative effect on female rats and their offspring.

  13. New Trypanosoma evansi Type B Isolates from Ethiopian Dromedary Camels

    PubMed Central

    Birhanu, Hadush; Gebrehiwot, Tadesse; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe; Van Reet, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma (T.) evansi is a dyskinetoplastic variant of T. brucei that has gained the ability to be transmitted by all sorts of biting flies. T. evansi can be divided into type A, which is the most abundant and found in Africa, Asia and Latin America and type B, which has so far been isolated only from Kenyan dromedary camels. This study aimed at the isolation and the genetic and phenotypic characterisation of type A and B T. evansi stocks from camels in Northern Ethiopia. Methodology/principal findings T. evansi was isolated in mice by inoculation with the cryopreserved buffy coat of parasitologically confirmed animals. Fourteen stocks were thus isolated and subject to genotyping with PCRs targeting type-specific variant surface glycoprotein genes, mitochondrial minicircles and maxicircles, minisatellite markers and the F1-ATP synthase γ subunit gene. Nine stocks corresponded to type A, two stocks were type B and three stocks represented mixed infections between A and B, but not hybrids. One T. evansi type A stock was completely akinetoplastic. Five stocks were adapted to in vitro culture and subjected to a drug sensitivity assay with melarsomine dihydrochloride, diminazene diaceturate, isometamidium chloride and suramin. In vitro adaptation induced some loss of kinetoplasts within 60 days. No correlation between drug sensitivity and absence of the kinetoplast was observed. Sequencing the full coding sequence of the F1-ATP synthase γ subunit revealed new type-specific single nucleotide polymorphisms and deletions. Conclusions/significance This study addresses some limitations of current molecular markers for T. evansi genotyping. Polymorphism within the F1-ATP synthase γ subunit gene may provide new markers to identify the T. evansi type that do not rely on variant surface glycoprotein genes or kinetoplast DNA. PMID:27035661

  14. TESA-blot for the diagnosis of Chagas disease in dogs from co-endemic regions for Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma evansi and Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, E S; Souza, A I; Pinedo-Cancino, V; Marcondes, M; Marcili, A; Camargo, L M A; Camacho, A A; Stolf, A M S; Teixeira, M M G

    2009-07-01

    We standardized serodiagnosis of dogs infected with Trypanosoma cruzi using TESA (trypomastigote excreted-secreted antigen)-blot developed for human Chagas disease. TESA-blot showed 100% sensitivity and specificity. In contrast, ELISA using TESA (TESA-ELISA) or epimastigotes (epi-ELISA) as antigen yielded 100% sensitivity but specificity of 94.1% and 49.4%, respectively. When used in field studies in an endemic region for Chagas disease, visceral leishmaniasis and Trypanosoma evansi (Mato Grosso do Sul state, Central Brazil), positivities were 9.3% for TESA-blot, 10.7% for TESA-ELISA and 32% for epi-ELISA. Dogs from a non-endemic region for these infections (Rondonia state, western Amazonia) where T. cruzi is enzootic showed positivity of 4.5% for TESA-blot and epi-ELISA and 6.8% for TESA-ELISA. Sera from urban dogs from Santos, São Paulo, where these diseases are absent, yielded negative results. TESA-blot was the only method that distinguished dogs infected with T. cruzi from those infected with Leishmania chagasi and/or Trypanosoma evansi.

  15. Novel trypanosome Trypanosoma gilletti sp. (Euglenozoa: Trypanosomatidae) and the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    McInnes, L M; Hanger, J; Simmons, G; Reid, S A; Ryan, U M

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma irwini was previously described from koalas and we now report the finding of a second novel species, T. gilletti, as well as the extension of the host range of Trypanosoma copemani to include koalas. Phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA and gGAPDH loci demonstrated that T. gilletti was genetically distinct with a genetic distance (± s.e.) at the 18S rDNA locus of 2.7 ± 0.5% from T. copemani (wombat). At the gGAPDH locus, the genetic distance (± s.e.) of T. gilletti was 8.7 ± 1.1% from T. copemani (wombat). Trypanosoma gilletti was detected using a nested trypanosome 18S rDNA PCR in 3/139 (∼2%) blood samples and in 2/29 (∼7%) spleen tissue samples from koalas whilst T. irwini was detected in 72/139 (∼52%) blood samples and T. copemani in 4/139 (∼3%) blood samples from koalas. In addition, naturally occurring mixed infections were noted in 2/139 (∼1.5%) of the koalas tested.

  16. Anti-trypanosomal effect of Peristrophe bicalyculata extract on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats

    PubMed Central

    Abimbola, Abdulazeez Mansurah; Baba, Ibrahim Abdulrazak; Yenusa, Edibo Zakari; Omanibe, Sidali Joseph; Oladimeji, Idris Habeeb

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the in vitro and in vivo effect of whole plant extracts of Peristrophe bicalyculata on Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Methods The experiment was divided into two phases: In the first phase, the anti-trypanosomal activity of the hot water, cold water, methanol and butanol extracts of the whole plant were determined by incubating with Trypanosoma brucei brucei. The cold water extract was partially-purified and the anti-trypanosomal activity of the fractions determined. In the second phase, Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats were treated with fraction 2c for nine days. Packed cell volume (PCV), high density lipoprotein (HDL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferases (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total and direct bilirubin levels were determined at the end of the experiment. Results Cold water extract immobilized 90% of the parasites after 60 min of incubation, and fraction 2c completely immobilized the parasites after 35 min. It significantly increased PCV in Trypanosoma brucei brucei-infected rats. Decreased TC, TAG, HDL and LDL levels of infected rats increased significantly when rats were treated with the fraction, while elevated levels of total bilirubin and ALT also decreased. The difference in urea, direct bilirubin and ALP was not significant when infected rats were compared to rats in other groups. Conclusions The ability of the plant to ameliorate the infection-induced biochemical changes calls for detailed investigation of the potentials of the plant for antitrypanosomiasis drug delivery. PMID:23835905

  17. Trypanosomiasis:goats as a possible reservoir of Trypanosoma congolense in the Republic of the Sudan.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, M M; Elmalik, K H

    1977-08-01

    Experimental Trypanosoma congolense infections of goats and calves were compared. Goats developed a chronic form of trypanosomiasis, often recovering spontaneously from a strain which caused an acute fatal disease in calves. Goats may be important in the maintenace of T. congolense in nature in the Sudan.

  18. Likely Autochthonous Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to Humans, South Central Texas, USA

    PubMed Central

    Gunter, Sarah M.; Murray, Kristy O.; Gorchakov, Rodion; Beddard, Rachel; Rossmann, Susan N.; Montgomery, Susan P.; Rivera, Hilda; Brown, Eric L.; Aguilar, David; Widman, Lawrence E.

    2017-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major neglected tropical disease affecting the Americas. The epidemiology of this disease in the United States is incomplete. We report evidence of likely autochthonous vectorborne transmission of T. cruzi and health outcomes in T. cruzi–seropositive blood donors in south central Texas, USA. PMID:28221110

  19. Two new Trypanosoma species from African birds, with notes on the taxonomy of avian trypanosomes.

    PubMed

    Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Iezhova, Tatjana A; Carlson, Jenny S; Sehgal, Ravinder N M

    2011-10-01

    Trypanosoma anguiformis n. sp. and Trypanosoma polygranularis n. sp. are described from the African olive sunbird, Cyanomitra olivacea, and Latham's forest francolin, Francolinus lathami, respectively, based on the morphology of their hematozoic trypomastigotes and partial sequences of the small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Both new species belong to the group of small non-striated avian trypanosomes (<30 µm in length on average) with the kinetoplast situated close to the posterior end of the body. Trypanosoma anguiformis can be readily distinguished from other small avian trypanosomes due to its markedly attenuated (snake-shaped) form of the hematozoic trypomastigotes and the dumbbell-shaped nucleus of the parasite. Trypanosoma polygranularis is readily distinguishable due to the markedly off-center (anteriorly) located nucleus, numerous azurophilic granules that are arranged in a line following the undulating membrane, and the large kinetoplast (with an area up to 1.7 µm(2) [1.1 µm(2) on average]). Illustrations of hematozoic trypomastigotes of the new species are given, and DNA lineages associated with these parasites are reported. The current situation in species taxonomy of avian trypanosomes is discussed. We call for the redescription of valid species of avian trypanosomes from their type vertebrate hosts and type localities by using morphological and polymerase chain reaction-based techniques as an initial essential step towards revising the species composition of avian trypanosomes and reconstructing the taxonomy of these organisms.

  20. ConSCRIPT

    PubMed Central

    Mottarella, Scott E.; Rosa, Mario; Bangura, Abdul; Bernstein, Herbert J.; Craig, Paul A.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the Structural Biology Extensible Visualization Scripting Language (SBEVSL) project is to allow users who are experts in one scripting language to use that language in a second molecular visualization environment without requiring the user to learn a new scripting language. ConSCRIPT, the first SBEVSL release, is a plug-in for PyMOL that accepts RasMol scripting commands either as premade scripts or as line-by-line entries from PyMOL's own command line. The plug-in is available for download at http://sourceforge.net/projects/sbevsl/files in the ConSCRIPT folder. PMID:21567873

  1. Ageing is not associated with an altered immune response during Trypanosoma cruzi infection: Ageing and Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Colato, Rafaela Pravato; Brazão, Vânia; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Toldo, Míriam Paula Alonso; do Vale, Gabriel Tavares; Tirapelli, Carlos Renato; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela; do Prado, José Clóvis

    2017-01-25

    The aims of this work were to evaluate the influence of ageing on the magnitude of the immune response in male Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi). Infected young animals displayed enhanced CD4(+) T cells as compared to uninfected counterparts. Ageing also triggered a significant reduction in CD8(+) T cells compared to young and uninfected groups. The percentage of spleen NKT cells was reduced for all groups, regardless of the infection status. Significant decreased B-cells was noted in aged controls and infected animals as compared to young counterparts. A significant decrease in MHC class II (RT1B) expression in all aged animals was observed, whether infected or not. The highest and significant levels of Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) were noted in the aged and infected animals as compared to young-infected ones (16day). Consequently superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was reduced for both control and infected aged animals. Significant elevation of 8-isoprostane levels was found in aged control and infected animals. Plasma glutathione (GSH) concentration was reduced in aged control animals, as well as, in the young infected animals. NO production was increased in both infected and uninfected aged animals compared to young infected and uninfected animals. Corticosterone levels were elevated in aged animals, whether infected or not. Thus, our results are inedited since the immune response is not worsened by the simple fact of animals being older. Ageing by itself triggered a damaged immune response as well as enhanced reactive oxygen species, when compared to young counterparts, but it did not contribute to impair the immune response of T. cruzi infected and aged rats.

  2. Trypanosoma from rodents as potential source of infection in human-shaped landscapes of South-East Asia.

    PubMed

    Pumhom, Pornpan; Morand, Serge; Tran, Annelise; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Desquesnes, Marc

    2015-03-15

    Reports of atypical human cases of Trypanosoma lewisi or T. lewisi-like and Trypanosoma evansi infections have increased in South-East Asia, urging to investigate the possible links between humans, animal reservoirs and habitats. We tested how habitat structure affects the infection by Trypanosoma species of common murine rodents, inhabiting human-dominated landscapes in South East Asia. For this, we used geo-referenced data of rodents investigated for Trypanosoma infection and land cover maps produced for seven study sites in Thailand, Cambodia and Lao PDR. High prevalence of infection by T. lewisi was observed in rodents living near human settlement and in areas with high cover of built-up habitat, while the infection of rodents by T. evansi was explained by increased landscape patchiness and high cover of rain-fed agriculture lands. These results suggest a likely role of wild rodents as reservoir and possible source of atypical human infection by animal trypanosomes.

  3. Vector Surveillance to Determine Species Composition and Occurrence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection at Three Military Installations in San Antonio, Texas

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi Chagas, which was identifi ed by the Brazilian physician Carlos R. J. Chagas in 1909.1 It is a serious disease that mainly...ABSTRACT Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the hemofl agellate protozoan Trypano- soma cruzi which is transmitted by...Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is caused by the hemofl agellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi which is transmitted by blood

  4. Nitric oxide-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seabra, A. B.; Kitice, N. A.; Pelegrino, M. T.; Lancheros, C. A. C.; Yamauchi, L. M.; Pinge-Filho, P.; Yamada-Ogatta, S. F.

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a potentially life-threatening illness caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi), and the disease remains a major health problem in many Latin American countries. Several papers report that the killing of the parasite is dependent on the production of nitric oxide (NO). The endogenous free radical NO is an important cellular signalling molecule that plays a key role in the defense against pathogens, including T. cruzi. As T. cruzi is able to compromise host macrophages decreasing endogenous NO production, the administration of exogenous NO donors represents an interesting strategy to combat Chagas disease. Thus, the aims of this study were to prepare and evaluate the antimicrobial activity of NO-releasing polymeric nanoparticles against T. cruzi. Biocompatible polymeric nanoparticles composed of chitosan/sodium tripolyphosphate(TPP) were prepared and used to encapsulate mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA), which is a thiol-containing molecule. Nitrosation of free thiols (SH) groups of MSA were performed by the addition of equimolar amount of sodium nitrite (NaNO2), leading to the formation of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles. These polymeric nanoparticles act as spontaneous NO donors, with free NO release. The results show the formation of nanoparticles with average hydrodynamic diameter ranging from 270 to 500 nm, average of polydispersity index of 0.35, and encapsulation efficiency in the range of 99%. The NO release kinetics from the S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles showed sustained and controlled NO release over several hours. The microbicidal activity of S-nitroso-MSA-containing nanoparticles was evaluated by incubating NO-releasing nanoparticles (200 - 600 μg/mL) with replicative and non-infective epimastigote, and non-replicative and infective trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In addition, a significant decrease in the percentage of macrophage-infected (with amastigotes) and

  5. Heme modulates Trypanosoma cruzi bioenergetics inducing mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Nogueira, Natália P; Saraiva, Francis M S; Oliveira, Matheus P; Mendonça, Ana Paula M; Inacio, Job D F; Almeida-Amaral, Elmo E; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F; Laranja, Gustavo A T; Torres, Eduardo J Lopes; Oliveira, Marcus F; Paes, Marcia C

    2017-03-29

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas disease and has a single mitochondrion, an organelle responsible for ATP production and the main site for the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). T. cruzi is an obligate intracellular parasite with a complex life cycle that alternates between vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, therefore the development of survival strategies and morphogenetic adaptations to deal with the various environments is mandatory. Over the years our group has been studying the vector-parasite interactions using heme as a physiological oxidant molecule that triggered epimastigote proliferation however, the source of ROS induced by heme remained unknown. In the present study we demonstrate the involvement of heme in the parasite mitochondrial metabolism, decreasing oxygen consumption leading to increased mitochondrial ROS and membrane potential. First, we incubated epimastigotes with carbonyl cyanide p-(trifluoromethoxy) phenylhydrazone (FCCP), an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation, which led to decreased ROS formation and parasite proliferation, even in the presence of heme, correlating mitochondrial ROS and T. cruzi survival. This hypothesis was confirmed after the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant ((2-(2,2,6,6 Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl-4-ylamino)-2-oxoethyl) triphenylphosphonium chloride (MitoTEMPO) decreased both heme-induced ROS and epimastigote proliferation. Furthermore, heme increased the percentage of tetramethylrhodamine methyl ester (TMRM) positive parasites tremendously-indicating the hyperpolarization and increase of potential of the mitochondrial membrane (ΔΨm). Assessing the mitochondrial functional metabolism, we observed that in comparison to untreated parasites, heme-treated epimastigotes decreased their oxygen consumption, and increased the complex II-III activity. These changes allowed the electron flow into the electron transport system, even though the complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) activity decreased

  6. Prevention of transfusional Trypanosoma cruzi infection in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Schmunis, G A

    1999-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan infection widely spread in Latin America, from Mexico in the north to Argentina and Chile in the south. The second most important way of acquiring the infection is by blood transfusion. Even if most countries of Latin America have law/decree/norms, that make mandatory the screening of blood donors for infectious diseases, including T. cruzi (El Salvador and Nicaragua do not have laws on the subject), there is usually no enforcement or it is very lax. Analysis of published serologic surveys of T. cruzi antibodies in blood donors done in 1993, indicating the number of donors and screening coverage for T. cruzi in ten countries of Central and South America indicated that the probability of receiving a potentially infected transfusion unit in each country varied from 1,096 per 10,000 transfusions in Bolivia, the highest, to 13.02 or 13.86 per 10,000 transfusions in Honduras and Venezuela respectively, where screening coverage was 100%. On the other hand the probability of transmitting a T. cruzi infected unit was 219/10,000 in Bolivia, 24/10,000 in Colombia, 17/10,000 in El Salvador, and around 2-12/10,000 for the seven other countries. Infectivity risks defined as the likelihood of being infected when receiving an infected transfusion unit were assumed to be 20% for T. cruzi. Based on this, estimates of the absolute number of infections induced by transfusion indicated that they were 832, 236, and 875 in Bolivia, Chile and Colombia respectively. In all the other countries varied from seven in Honduras to 85 in El Salvador. Since 1993, the situation has improved. At that time only Honduras and Venezuela screened 100% of donors, while seven countries, Argentina, Colombia, El Salvador, Honduras, Paraguay, Uruguay and Venezuela, did the same in 1996. In Central America, without information from Guatemala, the screening of donors for T. cruzi prevented the transfusion of 1,481 infected units and the potential infection of 300 individuals in

  7. Landscape ecology of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern Yucatan Peninsula.

    PubMed

    López-Cancino, Sury Antonio; Tun-Ku, Ezequiel; De la Cruz-Felix, Himmler Keynes; Ibarra-Cerdeña, Carlos Napoleón; Izeta-Alberdi, Amaia; Pech-May, Angélica; Mazariegos-Hidalgo, Carlos Jesús; Valdez-Tah, Alba; Ramsey, Janine M

    2015-11-01

    Landscape interactions of Trypanosoma cruzi (Tc) with Triatoma dimidiata (Td) depend on the presence and relative abundance of mammal hosts. This study analyzed a landscape adjacent to the Calakmul Biosphere Reserve, composed of conserved areas, crop and farming areas, and the human community of Zoh Laguna with reported Chagas disease cases. Sylvatic mammals of the Chiroptera, Rodentia, and Marsupialia orders were captured, and livestock and pets were sampled along with T. dimidiata in all habitats. Infection by T. cruzi was analyzed using mtDNA markers, while lineage and DTU was analyzed using the mini-exon. 303 sylvatic specimens were collected, corresponding to 19 species during the rainy season and 114 specimens of 18 species during dry season. Five bats Artibeus jamaicensis, Artibeus lituratus, Sturnira lilium, Sturnira ludovici, Dermanura phaeotis (Dp) and one rodent Heteromys gaumeri were collected in the three habitats. All but Dp, and including Carollia brevicauda and Myotis keaysi, were infected with predominately TcI in the sylvatic habitat and TcII in the ecotone. Sigmodon hispidus was the rodent with the highest prevalence of infection by T. cruzi I and II in ecotone and domestic habitats. Didelphis viginiana was infected only with TcI in both domestic and sylvatic habitats; the only two genotyped human cases were TcII. Two main clades of T. cruzi, lineages I (DTU Ia) and II (DTU VI), were found to be sympatric (all habitats and seasons) in the Zoh-Laguna landscape, suggesting that no species-specific interactions occur between the parasite and any mammal host, in any habitat. We have also found mixed infections of the two principal T. cruzi clades in individuals across modified habitats, particularly in livestock and pets, and in both haplogroups of T. dimidiata. Results are contradictory to the dilution hypothesis, although we did find that most resilient species had an important role as T. cruzi hosts. Our study detected some complex trends in

  8. The potential of canine sentinels for reemerging Trypanosoma cruzi transmission

    PubMed Central

    Neyra, Ricardo Castillo; Chu, Lily Chou; Quispe-Machaca, Victor; Ancca-Juarez, Jenny; Malaga Chavez, Fernando S.; Mazuelos, Milagros Bastos; Naquira, Cesar; Bern, Caryn; Gilman, Robert H.; Levy, Michael Z.

    2015-01-01

    Background Chagas disease, a vector-borne disease transmitted by triatomine bugs and caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, affects millions of people in the Americas. In Arequipa, Peru, indoor residual insecticide spraying campaigns are routinely conducted to eliminate Triatoma infestans, the only vector in this area. Following insecticide spraying, there is risk of vector return and reinitiation of parasite transmission. Dogs are important reservoirs of T. cruzi and may play a role in reinitiating transmission in previously sprayed areas. Dogs may also serve as indicators of reemerging transmission. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional serological screening to detect T. cruzi antibodies in dogs, in conjunction with an entomological vector collection survey at the household level, in a disease endemic area that had been treated with insecticide 13 years prior. Spatial clustering of infected animals and vectors was assessed using Ripley’s K statistic, and the odds of being seropositive for dogs proximate to infected colonies was estimated with multivariate logistic regression. Results There were 106 triatomine-infested houses (41.1%), and 45 houses infested with T. cruzi-infected triatomine insects (17.4%). Canine seroprevalence in the area was 12.3% (n=154); all seropositive dogs were 9 months old or older. We observed clustering of vectors carrying the parasite, but no clustering of seropositive dogs. The age- and sex-adjusted odds ratio between seropositivity to T. cruzi and proximity to an infected triatomine (≤50m) was 5.67 (95% CI: 1.12 – 28.74; p=0.036). Conclusions Targeted control of reemerging transmission can be achieved by improved understanding of T. cruzi in canine populations. Our results suggest that dogs may be useful sentinels to detect re-initiation of transmission following insecticide treatment. Integration of canine T. cruzi blood sampling into existing interventions for zoonotic disease control (e.g. rabies vaccination programs

  9. Recent, independent and anthropogenic origins of Trypanosoma cruzi hybrids.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael D; Llewellyn, Martin S; Yeo, Matthew; Acosta, Nidia; Gaunt, Michael W; Miles, Michael A

    2011-10-01

    The single celled eukaryote Trypanosoma cruzi, a parasite transmitted by numerous species of triatomine bug in the Americas, causes Chagas disease in humans. T. cruzi generally reproduces asexually and appears to have a clonal population structure. However, two of the six major circulating genetic lineages, TcV and TcVI, are TcII-TcIII inter-lineage hybrids that are frequently isolated from humans in regions where chronic Chagas disease is particularly severe. Nevertheless, a prevalent view is that hybridisation events in T. cruzi were evolutionarily ancient and that active recombination is of little epidemiological importance. We analysed genotypes of hybrid and non-hybrid T. cruzi strains for markers representing three distinct evolutionary rates: nuclear GPI sequences (n = 88), mitochondrial COII-ND1 sequences (n = 107) and 28 polymorphic microsatellite loci (n = 35). Using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian phylogenetic approaches we dated key evolutionary events in the T. cruzi clade including the emergence of hybrid lineages TcV and TcVI, which we estimated to have occurred within the last 60,000 years. We also found evidence for recent genetic exchange between TcIII and TcIV and between TcI and TcIV. These findings show that evolution of novel recombinants remains a potential epidemiological risk. The clearly distinguishable microsatellite genotypes of TcV and TcVI were highly heterozygous and displayed minimal intra-lineage diversity indicative of even earlier origins than sequence-based estimates. Natural hybrid genotypes resembled typical meiotic F1 progeny, however, evidence for mitochondrial introgression, absence of haploid forms and previous experimental crosses indicate that sexual reproduction in T. cruzi may involve alternatives to canonical meiosis. Overall, the data support two independent hybridisation events between TcII and TcIII and a recent, rapid spread of the hybrid progeny in domestic transmission cycles concomitant with, or as a

  10. The Con Test

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fletcher, Michael

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the format of the Con Test, an Australian television game show which followed the same general rules and game play as the UK show PokerFace. At the end of each round a contestant needs to decide whether or not he or she should fold. A contestant needs to know how likely it is that he or she is in last place.…

  11. The isolation and identification of Trypanosoma cruzi from raccoons in Maryland

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walton, B.C.; Bauman, P.M.; Diamond, L.S.; Herman, C.M.

    1958-01-01

    Five raccoons trapped at Patuxent Research Refuge, Laurel, Maryland, were found to have trypanosomes in the blood which were morphologically indistinguishable from Trypanosoma cruzi on stained smears. The organism grew well in culture. It developed and reproduced in Triatoma protracta, T. infestans, T. phyllosoma, and Rhodnius prolixus. Experimental infections were produced in raccoons, opossums, mice, rats, and monkeys by inoculation of blood, culture, and triatome forms. Typical leishmaniform bodies were found in tissue sections of cardiac muscle fibers from naturally and experimentally infected animals. Cross agglutinations carried out with Iiving cultural forms and rabbit antisera demonstrated a close antigenic relationship between the raccoon trypanosome and T. cruzi (Brazil strain). On the basis of (1) morphology, (2) presence of leishmaniform tissue stages, (3) development in triatomes, (4) infectivity to a variety of mammals, (5) culture characteristics, and (6) cross reactions in serological tests, this parasite is considered conspecific with Trypanosoma cruzi (Chagas, 1909), the causative agent of American human trypanosomiasis.

  12. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi in stray and pet dogs in Grenada, West Indies.

    PubMed

    Chikweto, A; Kumthekar, S; Chawla, P; Tiwari, K P; Perea, L M; Paterson, T; Sharma, R N

    2014-06-01

    American trypanosomiasis (Chagas disease) caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is endemic to parts of South America and the Caribbean. Infected dogs are important in the epidemiology of the parasite as they can play a role in the transmission of the parasite to humans. A total of 399 dog sera (242 stray and 157 pet dogs) were examined for T. cruzi infection; using a qualitative immunochromatographic dipstick test, based on recombinant antigens specific for American trypanosomiasis (Trypanosoma detect rapid test; InBios international, Inc., Seattle, Washington). Overall seroprevalence for T. cruzi was estimated at 10.5% (95% confidence interval: 7.5% to 13.5%); with stray dogs being significantly more affected (p<0.05, χ2). Results from this study indicate that dogs in Grenada are moderately exposed to T. cruzi compared to other areas in the region.

  13. Structural and Functional Highlights of Vacuolar Soluble Protein 1 from Pathogen Trypanosoma brucei brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Jamwal, Abhishek; Round, Adam R.; Bannwarth, Ludovic; Venien-Bryan, Catherine; Belrhali, Hassan; Yogavel, Manickam; Sharma, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei (T. brucei) is responsible for the fatal human disease called African trypanosomiasis, or sleeping sickness. The causative parasite, Trypanosoma, encodes soluble versions of inorganic pyrophosphatases (PPase), also called vacuolar soluble proteins (VSPs), which are localized to its acidocalcisomes. The latter are acidic membrane-enclosed organelles rich in polyphosphate chains and divalent cations whose significance in these parasites remains unclear. We here report the crystal structure of T. brucei brucei acidocalcisomal PPases in a ternary complex with Mg2+ and imidodiphosphate. The crystal structure reveals a novel structural architecture distinct from known class I PPases in its tetrameric oligomeric state in which a fused EF hand domain arranges around the catalytic PPase domain. This unprecedented assembly evident from TbbVSP1 crystal structure is further confirmed by SAXS and TEM data. SAXS data suggest structural flexibility in EF hand domains indicative of conformational plasticity within TbbVSP1. PMID:26494625

  14. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi growth in vitro by Solanum alkaloids: a comparison with ketoconazole.

    PubMed

    Chataing, B; Concepción, J L; Lobatón, R; Usubillaga, A

    1998-02-01

    The glycoalkaloids alpha-chaconine, alpha-solamargine, alpha-solanine, solasonine, sycophantine, and tomatine, as well as the aglycones demissidine, solanidine, solanocapsine, solasodine, tomatidine, and veratrine were tested as growth inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi, strain EP, in LIT medium. Their activity was compared with the antifungal ketoconazole. Glycoalkaloids containing alpha-chacotriose showed trypanolytic activity against the epimastigote form and trypanocidal activity against the bloodstream and metacyclic trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi in culture medium in micromolar concentrations. Ketoconazole showed a lower activity, at the same concentrations of alpha-chaconine and alpha-solamargine. The observations indicate that the initial target of the compound is at the membrane level with a concomitant change in the parasite morphology. Moreover, internal compartments of the parasites were observed to be affected by the drugs, revealing the dissolution of some organelles as mitocondrias and glycosomes.

  15. Preparation, crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Sugiyama, Shigeru; Tokuoka, Keiji; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Okamoto, Naoki; Okano, Yousuke; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Inaka, Koji; Urade, Yoshihiro; Inoue, Tsuyoshi

    2007-10-01

    Old yellow enzyme from Trypanosoma cruzi, has been crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. Old yellow enzyme (OYE) is an NADPH oxidoreductase that contains a flavin mononucleotide as a prosthetic group. The OYE from Trypanosoma cruzi, which produces prostaglandin F{sub 2α}, a potent mediator of various physiological and pathological processes, from prostaglandin H2. The protein was recombinantly expressed and purified from Escherichia coli and was crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. The crystal belongs to the monoclinic space group P2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 56.3, b = 78.8, c = 78.8 Å, β = 93.4° and two molecules per asymmetric unit. The crystals were suitable for X-ray crystallographic studies and diffracted to 1.70 Å resolution. A Patterson search method is in progress using the structure of OYE from Pseudomonas putida as a starting model.

  16. Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. from the Chilean catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis (Guichenot, 1848).

    PubMed

    Morillas, J; George-Nascimento, M; Valeria, H; Khan, R A

    1987-08-01

    The morphology of Trypanosoma humboldti n. sp. is described from living and stained specimens obtained from the blood of a catshark, Schroederichthys chilensis. This represents the first report of a trypanosome in fish from the eastern Pacific Ocean. It is distinguished by its size and apparent lack of pleomorphism. The presence of a leech, Branchellion ravenellii, attached to the catshark, raises the possibility that it can act as a vector. Additionally, this leech is recorded for the first time from the Pacific Ocean.

  17. First case of natural infection in pigs. Review of Trypanosoma cruzi reservoirs in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Salazar-Schettino, P M; Bucio, M I; Cabrera, M; Bautista, J

    1997-01-01

    An epidemiological research project was performed in the State of Morelos including collection of samples for blood smears and culture, serological tests, and xenodiagnoses from a total of 76 domestic and peridomestic mammals. Two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi were isolated by haemocultures; one from a pig (Sus scrofa), the first case of natural infection reported in Mexico, and the other from a dog (Canis familiaris). This study summarizes current information in Mexico concerning confirmed reservoirs of T. cruzi.

  18. Evidence for Trypanosoma cruzi in adipose tissue in human chronic Chagas disease

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; Segatto, Marcela; Menezes, Zélia; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Gelape, Cláudio; de Oliveira Andrade, Luciana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Scherer, Philipp E.; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Tanowitz, Herbert B.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected experimental animals and humans. Here we demonstrate the persistence of the parasite in adipose tissue from of three of 10 elderly seropositive patients with chronic chagasic heart disease. Nine control patients had no parasites in the fat. We also demonstrate that T. cruzi parasitizes primary adipocytes in vitro. Thus, in humans as in mice the parasite may persist in adipose tissue for decades and become a reservoir of infection. PMID:21726660

  19. Evidence for Trypanosoma cruzi in adipose tissue in human chronic Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Adaliene Versiani Matos; Segatto, Marcela; Menezes, Zélia; Macedo, Andréa Mara; Gelape, Cláudio; de Oliveira Andrade, Luciana; Nagajyothi, Fnu; Scherer, Philipp E; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Tanowitz, Herbert B

    2011-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi the cause of Chagas disease persists in tissues of infected experimental animals and humans. Here we demonstrate the persistence of the parasite in adipose tissue from of three of 10 elderly seropositive patients with chronic chagasic heart disease. Nine control patients had no parasites in the fat. We also demonstrate that T. cruzi parasitizes primary adipocytes in vitro. Thus, in humans as in mice the parasite may persist in adipose tissue for decades and become a reservoir of infection.

  20. Mammalian cell invasion by closely related Trypanosoma species T. dionisii and T. cruzi.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Alves, Renan Melatto; Yoshida, Nobuko

    2012-02-01

    Protozoan parasites of the genus Trypanosoma can infect virtually all mammalian species. Within this genus, Trypanosoma dionisii from bats and Trypanosoma cruzi that causes Chagas' disease, belonging to the subgenus Schizotrypanum, can invade mammalian cells. The mechanisms of cell invasion by T. dionisii are poorly understood. To address that question, metacyclic trypomastigotes (MT) and human epithelial HeLa cells were used. Similarly to genetically divergent T. cruzi strains G (TcI) and CL (TcVI), associated, respectively with marsupial and human infections, T. dionisii infectivity increased under nutritional stress, a condition that induces host cell lysosome exocytosis required for parasite internalization. For efficient internalization, T. dionisii depended on MT protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) and Ca(2+) mobilization from acidocalcisomes, whereas T. cruzi strains also relied on phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), protein kinase C (PKC) and Ca(2+) released from thapsigargin-sensitive compartments. T. dionisii-induced signaling in host cells implicated PKC and Ca(2+) mobilized from thapsigargin-sensitive stores, like T. cruzi, but without PI3K involvement. Unlike T. cruzi, T. dionisii metacyclic forms did not use l-proline as source of energy required for internalization. Molecules related to T. cruzi surface glycoproteins involved in MT-host cell interaction were undetectable in T. dionisii. The difference in the surface profile of the two species was also inferred from the susceptibility of T. dionisii metacyclic forms to complement-mediated lysis, as opposed to complete resistance of T. cruzi. In summary, the two Trypanosoma species display distinct surface profiles but invade host cells through a common mechanism involving lysosome mobilization to the site of parasite entry.

  1. Digestion of human immunoglobulin G by the major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Bontempi, E; Cazzulo, J J

    1990-08-01

    The major cysteine proteinase (cruzipain) from Trypanosoma cruzi was able to digest human IgG, as shown by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the presence of SDS, and by gel filtration on a Superose 12 column, in a FPLC system. The Fab fragment of IgG was only slightly degraded, but Fc was extensively hydrolyzed to small peptides. The results suggest that cruzipain might be involved in the defense mechanisms of the parasite against the immune response of the host.

  2. Influence of saccharides and sodium chloride on growth and differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Lupiáñez, J A; Osuna, A

    1988-01-01

    The influence of saccharides, especially glucose and fructose, on the metacyclogenesis and growth of Trypanosoma cruzi has been investigated. In the absence of glucose and fructose in the media, both the percentage of metacyclic forms and the growth increased significantly. Furthermore, the addition of NaCl to the medium without monosaccharides strongly increased the formation of metacyclic forms. Presence of NaCl and absence of monosaccharides showed a synergic effect on differentiation of T. cruzi.

  3. Farnesyl Diphosphate Synthase Localizes to the Cytoplasm of Trypanosoma cruzi and T.brucei

    PubMed Central

    Ferella, Marcela; Li, Zhu-Hong; Andersson, Björn; Docampo, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    The farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) has previously been characterized in trypanosomes as an essential enzyme for their survival and as the target for bisphosphonates, drugs that are effective both in vitro and in vivo against these parasites. Enzymes from the isoprenoid pathway have been assigned to different compartments in eukaryotes, including trypanosomatids. We here report that FPPS localizes to the cytoplasm of both Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei, and is not present in other organelles such as the mitochondria and glycosomes. PMID:18406406

  4. An evaluation of Minor Groove Binders as anti-Trypanosoma brucei brucei therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Scott, Fraser J; Khalaf, Abedawn I; Giordani, Federica; Wong, Pui Ee; Duffy, Sandra; Barrett, Michael; Avery, Vicky M; Suckling, Colin J

    2016-06-30

    A series of 32 structurally diverse MGBs, derived from the natural product distamycin, was evaluated for activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Four compounds have been found to possess significant activity, in the nanomolar range, and represent hits for further optimisation towards novel treatments for Human and Animal African Trypanosomiases. Moreover, SAR indicates that the head group linking moiety is a significant modulator of biological activity.

  5. Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense (WRATat Serodeme): Purification and Characterization of Surface Antigens for the Vaccine Development Program.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-04-01

    of Trypanosoma b. rhodesiense (WRATat Serodeme) .... 20 Figure 4: PAGE gel of VSSA2...respectively. Gel permeation chromatography using HPLC and a TSK 3,000-SW column was performed on WRATat-12 glycoorotein. Molecular weight analyses of...LECTIN*! Mac lura porrif-era Seeds lomoCjenize w/ blendor / 4 C Extract wl PBS - 24 h/ 4 C Filter Extract ’* i ue (di scird) I Filtrate (save) Add 1.1

  6. The diversity and expansion of the trans-sialidase gene family is a common feature in Trypanosoma cruzi clade members.

    PubMed

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Cortez, Danielle R; Lima, Fábio M; Cortez, Caroline; Ramírez, José Luis; Martins, Andre G; Serrano, Myrna G; Teixeira, Marta M G; da Silveira, José Franco

    2016-01-01

    Trans-sialidase (TS) is a polymorphic protein superfamily described in members of the protozoan genus Trypanosoma. Of the eight TS groups recently described, TS group I proteins (some of which have catalytic activity) are present in the distantly related Trypanosoma brucei and Trypanosoma cruzi phylogenetic clades, whereas other TS groups have only been described in some species belonging to the T. cruzi clade. In the present study we analyzed the repertoire, distribution and phylogenetic relationships of TS genes among species of the T. cruzi clade based on sequence similarity, multiple sequence alignment and tree-reconstruction approaches using TS sequences obtained with the aid of PCR-based strategies or retrieved from genome databases. We included the following representative isolates of the T. cruzi clade from South America: T. cruzi, T. cruzi Tcbat, Trypanosoma cruzi marinkellei, Trypanosoma dionisii, Trypanosoma rangeli and Trypanosoma conorhini. The cloned sequences encoded conserved TS protein motifs Asp-box and VTVxNVxLYNR but lacked the FRIP motif (conserved in TS group I). The T. conorhini sequences were the most divergent. The hybridization patterns of TS probes with chromosomal bands confirmed the abundance of these sequences in species in the T. cruzi clade. Divergence and relationship analysis placed most of the TS sequences in the groups defined in T. cruzi. Further examination of members of TS group II, which includes T. cruzi surface glycoproteins implicated in host cell attachment and invasion, showed that sequences of T. cruzi Tcbat grouped with those of T. cruzi genotype TcI. Our analysis indicates that different members of the T. cruzi clade, with different vertebrate hosts, vectors and pathogenicity, share the extensive expansion and sequence diversification of the TS gene family. Altogether, our results are congruent with the evolutionary history of the T. cruzi clade and represent a contribution to the understanding of the molecular

  7. Nam Con Son Basin

    SciTech Connect

    Tin, N.T.; Ty, N.D.; Hung, L.T.

    1994-07-01

    The Nam Con Son basin is the largest oil and gas bearing basin in Vietnam, and has a number of producing fields. The history of studies in the basin can be divided into four periods: Pre-1975, 1976-1980, 1981-1989, and 1990-present. A number of oil companies have carried out geological and geophysical studies and conducted drilling activities in the basin. These include ONGC, Enterprise Oil, BP, Shell, Petro-Canada, IPL, Lasmo, etc. Pre-Tertiary formations comprise quartz diorites, granodiorites, and metamorphic rocks of Mesozoic age. Cenozoic rocks include those of the Cau Formation (Oligocene and older), Dua Formation (lower Miocene), Thong-Mang Cau Formation (middle Miocene), Nam Con Son Formation (upper Miocene) and Bien Dong Formation (Pliocene-Quaternary). The basement is composed of pre-Cenozoic formations. Three fault systems are evident in the basin: north-south fault system, northeast-southwest fault system, and east-west fault system. Four tectonic zones can also be distinguished: western differentiated zone, northern differentiated zone, Dua-Natuna high zone, and eastern trough zone.

  8. Structural Insights into Inhibition of Sterol 14[alpha]-Demethylase in the Human Pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Lepesheva, Galina I.; Hargrove, Tatiana Y.; Anderson, Spencer; Kleshchenko, Yuliya; Furtak, Vyacheslav; Wawrzak, Zdzislaw; Villalta, Fernando; Waterman, Michael R.

    2010-09-02

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis), which threatens the lives of millions of people and remains incurable in its chronic stage. The antifungal drug posaconazole that blocks sterol biosynthesis in the parasite is the only compound entering clinical trials for the chronic form of this infection. Crystal structures of the drug target enzyme, Trypanosoma cruzi sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51), complexed with posaconazole, another antifungal agent fluconazole and an experimental inhibitor, (R)-4{prime}-chloro-N-(1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-2-(1H-imid-azol-1-yl)ethyl)biphenyl-4-carboxamide (VNF), allow prediction of important chemical features that enhance the drug potencies. Combined with comparative analysis of inhibitor binding parameters, influence on the catalytic activity of the trypanosomal enzyme and its human counterpart, and their cellular effects at different stages of the Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle, the structural data provide a molecular background to CYP51 inhibition and azole resistance and enlighten the path for directed design of new, more potent and selective drugs to develop an efficient treatment for Chagas disease.

  9. Exploring the Trypanosoma brucei Hsp83 potential as a target for structure guided drug design.

    PubMed

    Pizarro, Juan Carlos; Hills, Tanya; Senisterra, Guillermo; Wernimont, Amy K; Mackenzie, Claire; Norcross, Neil R; Ferguson, Michael A J; Wyatt, Paul G; Gilbert, Ian H; Hui, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is a neglected parasitic disease that is fatal if untreated. The current drugs available to eliminate the causative agent Trypanosoma brucei have multiple liabilities, including toxicity, increasing problems due to treatment failure and limited efficacy. There are two approaches to discover novel antimicrobial drugs--whole-cell screening and target-based discovery. In the latter case, there is a need to identify and validate novel drug targets in Trypanosoma parasites. The heat shock proteins (Hsp), while best known as cancer targets with a number of drug candidates in clinical development, are a family of emerging targets for infectious diseases. In this paper, we report the exploration of T. brucei Hsp83--a homolog of human Hsp90--as a drug target using multiple biophysical and biochemical techniques. Our approach included the characterization of the chemical sensitivity of the parasitic chaperone against a library of known Hsp90 inhibitors by means of differential scanning fluorimetry (DSF). Several compounds identified by this screening procedure were further studied using isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and X-ray crystallography, as well as tested in parasite growth inhibitions assays. These experiments led us to the identification of a benzamide derivative compound capable of interacting with TbHsp83 more strongly than with its human homologs and structural rationalization of this selectivity. The results highlight the opportunities created by subtle structural differences to develop new series of compounds to selectively target the Trypanosoma brucei chaperone and effectively kill the sleeping sickness parasite.

  10. Developmental and Ultrastructural Characterization and Phylogenetic Analysis of Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp. of Brazilian Leptodactilydae Frogs.

    PubMed

    Attias, Márcia; Sato, Lyslaine H; Ferreira, Robson C; Takata, Carmen S A; Campaner, Marta; Camargo, Erney P; Teixeira, Marta M G; de Souza, Wanderley

    2016-09-01

    We described the phylogenetic affiliation, development in cultures and ultrastructural features of a trypanosome of Leptodacylus chaquensis from the Pantanal biome of Brazil. In the inferred phylogeny, this trypanosome nested into the Anura clade of the basal Aquatic clade of Trypanosoma, but was separate from all known species within this clade. This finding enabled us to describe it as Trypanosoma herthameyeri n. sp., which also infects other Leptodacylus species from the Pantanal and Caatinga biomes. Trypanosoma herthameyeri multiplies as small rounded forms clumped together and evolving into multiple-fission forms and rosettes of epimastigotes released as long forms with long flagella; scarce trypomastigotes and glove-like forms are common in stationary-phase cultures. For the first time, a trypanosome from an amphibian was observed by field emission scanning electron microscopy, revealing a cytostome opening, well-developed flagellar lamella, and many grooves in pumpkin-like forms. Transmission electron microscopy showed highly developed Golgi complexes, relaxed catenation of KDNA, and a rich set of spongiome tubules in a regular parallel arrangement to the flagellar pocket as confirmed by electron tomography. Considering the basal position in the phylogenetic tree, developmental and ultrastructural data of T. herthameyeri are valuable for evolutionary studies of trypanosome architecture and cell biology.

  11. Molecular characterization of Trypanosoma spp. infecting cattle (Bos taurus), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), and elk (Cervus elaphus canadensis) in the United States

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The benign trypanosomes of cattle and wild ungulates in the United States are designated Trypanosoma theileri and Trypanosoma cervi, respectively. Historically these parasites have been identified based on morphology, host, and vector, if known. No molecular characterization has been reported for T....

  12. Occurrence of Trypanosoma caninum in areas overlapping with leishmaniasis in Brazil: what is the real impact of canine leishmaniasis control?

    PubMed

    Barros, J H S; Almeida, A B P F; Figueiredo, F B; Sousa, V R F; Fagundes, A; Pinto, A G S; Baptista, C; Madeira, M F

    2012-07-01

    Trypanosoma caninum is a parasite of the Trypanosoma genus recently described in the natural infection of dogs in the municipality of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Suspecting the existence of a natural cycle and the circulation of this new species, the objective of this study was the taxonomic identification of samples of Trypanosoma spp. isolated from dogs in different Brazilian regions. Parasites were solely obtained from skin fragments culture and characterized by nested-PCR targeting the partial sequence of 18S rRNA gene and PCR products were sequenced. Thirty-three samples, obtained in São Paulo, Minas Gerais, Goiás, Mato Grosso and Rio de Janeiro states were analyzed. PCR and sequencing showed that the isolates were genetically identical or closely similar and confirmed T. caninum identity. This report broadens the geographical distribution of T. caninum in Brazil and discusses the impact of the presence of this parasite in areas of canine leishmaniasis occurrence.

  13. Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P; Escalona, José L; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

    2015-01-15

    Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48-67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence, the

  14. Variant surface glycoproteins from Venezuelan trypanosome isolates are recognized by sera from animals infected with either Trypanosoma evansi or Trypanosoma vivax

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, Rocío; Izquier, Adriana; Uzcanga, Graciela L.; Perrone, Trina; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Carrasquel, Liomary; Arias, Laura P.; Escalona, José L.; Cardozo, Vanessa; Bubis, José

    2015-01-01

    Salivarian trypanosomes sequentially express only one variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) on their cell surface from a large repertoire of VSG genes. Seven cryopreserved animal trypanosome isolates known as TeAp-ElFrio01, TEVA1 (or TeAp-N/D1), TeGu-N/D1, TeAp-Mantecal01, TeGu-TerecayTrino, TeGu-Terecay03 and TeGu-Terecay323, which had been isolated from different hosts identified in several geographical areas of Venezuela were expanded using adult albino rats. Soluble forms of predominant VSGs expressed during the early infection stages were purified and corresponded to concanavalin A-binding proteins with molecular masses of 48–67 kDa by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electropohoresis, and pI values between 6.1 and 7.5. The biochemical characterization of all purified soluble VSGs revealed that they were dimers in their native form and represented different gene products. Sequencing of some of these proteins yielded peptides homologous to VSGs from Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) brucei and Trypanosoma (Trypanozoon) evansi and established that they most likely are mosaics generated by homologous recombination. Western blot analysis showed that all purified VSGs were cross-reacting antigens that were recognized by sera from animals infected with either T. evansi or Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax. The VSG glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol cross-reacting determinant epitope was only partially responsible for the cross-reactivity of the purified proteins, and antibodies appeared to recognize cross-reacting conformational epitopes from the various soluble VSGs. ELISA experiments were performed using infected bovine sera collected from cattle in a Venezuelan trypanosome-endemic area. In particular, soluble VSGs from two trypanosome isolates, TeGu-N/D1 and TeGu-TeracayTrino, were recognized by 93.38% and 73.55% of naturally T. vivax-infected bovine sera, respectively. However, approximately 70% of the sera samples did not recognize all seven purified proteins. Hence

  15. Synergy testing of FDA-approved drugs identifies potent drug combinations against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Planer, Joseph D; Hulverson, Matthew A; Arif, Jennifer A; Ranade, Ranae M; Don, Robert; Buckner, Frederick S

    2014-07-01

    An estimated 8 million persons, mainly in Latin America, are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. Existing antiparasitic drugs for Chagas disease have significant toxicities and suboptimal effectiveness, hence new therapeutic strategies need to be devised to address this neglected tropical disease. Due to the high research and development costs of bringing new chemical entities to the clinic, we and others have investigated the strategy of repurposing existing drugs for Chagas disease. Screens of FDA-approved drugs (described in this paper) have revealed a variety of chemical classes that have growth inhibitory activity against mammalian stage Trypanosoma cruzi parasites. Aside from azole antifungal drugs that have low or sub-nanomolar activity, most of the active compounds revealed in these screens have effective concentrations causing 50% inhibition (EC50's) in the low micromolar or high nanomolar range. For example, we have identified an antihistamine (clemastine, EC50 of 0.4 µM), a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (fluoxetine, EC50 of 4.4 µM), and an antifolate drug (pyrimethamine, EC50 of 3.8 µM) and others. When tested alone in the murine model of Trypanosoma cruzi infection, most compounds had insufficient efficacy to lower parasitemia thus we investigated using combinations of compounds for additive or synergistic activity. Twenty-four active compounds were screened in vitro in all possible combinations. Follow up isobologram studies showed at least 8 drug pairs to have synergistic activity on T. cruzi growth. The combination of the calcium channel blocker, amlodipine, plus the antifungal drug, posaconazole, was found to be more effective at lowering parasitemia in mice than either drug alone, as was the combination of clemastine and posaconazole. Using combinations of FDA-approved drugs is a promising strategy for developing new treatments for Chagas disease.

  16. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Sülsen, Valeria P; Puente, Vanesa; Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S; Frank, Fernanda M; Lombardo, María E

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas' disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its antiparasitic

  17. Mode of Action of the Sesquiterpene Lactones Psilostachyin and Psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Papademetrio, Daniela; Batlle, Alcira; Martino, Virginia S.; Frank, Fernanda M.; Lombardo, María E.

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the causative agent of Chagas’ disease, which is a major endemic disease in Latin America and is recognized by the WHO as one of the 17 neglected tropical diseases in the world. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C, two sesquiterpene lactones isolated from Ambrosia spp., have been demonstrated to have trypanocidal activity. Considering both the potential therapeutic targets present in the parasite, and the several mechanisms of action proposed for sesquiterpene lactones, the aim of this work was to characterize the mode of action of psilostachyin and psilostachyin C on Trypanosoma cruzi and to identify the possible targets for these molecules. Psilostachyin and psilostachyin C were isolated from Ambrosia tenuifolia and Ambrosia scabra, respectively. Interaction of sesquiterpene lactones with hemin, the induction of oxidative stress, the inhibition of cruzipain and trypanothione reductase and their ability to inhibit sterol biosynthesis were evaluated. The induction of cell death by apoptosis was also evaluated by analyzing phosphatidylserine exposure detected using annexin-V/propidium iodide, decreased mitochondrial membrane potential, assessed with Rhodamine 123 and nuclear DNA fragmentation evaluated by the TUNEL assay. Both STLs were capable of interacting with hemin. Psilostachyin increased about 5 times the generation of reactive oxygen species in Trypanosoma cruzi after a 4h treatment, unlike psilostachyin C which induced an increase in reactive oxygen species levels of only 1.5 times. Only psilostachyin C was able to inhibit the biosynthesis of ergosterol, causing an accumulation of squalene. Both sesquiterpene lactones induced parasite death by apoptosis. Upon evaluating the combination of both compounds, and additive trypanocidal effect was observed. Despite their structural similarity, both sesquiterpene lactones exerted their anti-T. cruzi activity through interaction with different targets. Psilostachyin accomplished its

  18. Trypanosoma brucei adenine-phosphoribosyltransferases mediate adenine salvage and aminopurinol susceptibility but not adenine toxicity.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, Alexandra; Lamprea-Burgunder, Estelle; Graf, Fabrice E; de Koning, Harry P; Mäser, Pascal

    2014-04-01

    African trypanosomes, like all obligate parasitic protozoa, cannot synthesize purines de novo and import purines from their hosts to build nucleic acids. The purine salvage pathways of Trypanosoma brucei being redundant, none of the involved enzymes is likely to be essential. Nevertheless they can be of pharmacological interest due to their role in activation of purine nucleobase or nucleoside analogues, which only become toxic when converted to nucleotides. Aminopurine antimetabolites, in particular, are potent trypanocides and even adenine itself is toxic to trypanosomes at elevated concentrations. Here we report on the T. brucei adenine phosphoribosyltransferases TbAPRT1 and TbAPRT2, encoded by the two genes Tb927.7.1780 and Tb927.7.1790, located in tandem on chromosome seven. The duplication is syntenic in all available Trypanosoma genomes but not in Leishmania. While TbAPRT1 is cytosolic, TbAPRT2 possesses a glycosomal targeting signal and co-localizes with the glycosomal marker aldolase. Interestingly, the distribution of glycosomal targeting signals among trypanosomatid adenine phosphoribosyltransferases is not consistent with their phylogeny, indicating that the acquisition of adenine salvage to the glycosome happened after the radiation of Trypanosoma. Double null mutant T. brucei Δtbaprt1,2 exhibited no growth phenotype but no longer incorporated exogenous adenine into the nucleotide pool. This, however, did not reduce their sensitivity to adenine. The Δtbaprt1,2 trypanosomes were resistant to the adenine isomer aminopurinol, indicating that it is activated by phosphoribosyl transfer. Aminopurinol was about 1000-fold more toxic to bloodstream-form T. brucei than the corresponding hypoxanthine isomer allopurinol. Aminopurinol uptake was not dependent on the aminopurine permease P2 that has been implicated in drug resistance.

  19. Evidence for the existence of an Ns-type regulatory protein in Trypanosoma cruzi membranes.

    PubMed Central

    Eisenschlos, C D; Paladini, A A; Molina y Vedia, L; Torres, H N; Flawiá, M M

    1986-01-01

    The existence of a GTP-binding protein of the Ns type in Trypanosoma cruzi was explored. Epimastigote membranes were labelled by cholera toxin in the presence of [adenine-14C]NAD+. After SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis of extracted membrane proteins, a single labelled polypeptide band of apparent Mr approx. 45,000 was detected. Epimastigote cells were treated with N-ethylmaleimide and electrofused to lymphoma S49 cells lacking the Ns protein. Evidence indicates that in such electrofusion-generated cell hybrids a heterologous adenylate cyclase system was reconstituted with the Ns protein provided by T. cruzi epimastigotes. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3099761

  20. Structures of aspartate aminotransferases from Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania major and Giardia lamblia

    PubMed Central

    Abendroth, Jan; Choi, Ryan; Wall, Abigail; Clifton, Matthew C.; Lukacs, Christine M.; Staker, Bart L.; Van Voorhis, Wesley; Myler, Peter; Lorimer, Don D.; Edwards, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    The structures of three aspartate aminotransferases (AATs) from eukaryotic pathogens were solved within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). Both the open and closed conformations of AAT were observed. Pyridoxal phosphate was bound to the active site via a Schiff base to a conserved lysine. An active-site mutant showed that Trypanosoma brucei AAT still binds pyridoxal phosphate even in the absence of the tethering lysine. The structures highlight the challenges for the structure-based design of inhibitors targeting the active site, while showing options for inhibitor design targeting the N-terminal arm. PMID:25945710

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: TcRAB7 protein is localized at the Golgi apparatus in epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Araripe, Júlia R; Cunha e Silva, Narcisa L; Leal, Simone T; de Souza, Wanderley; Rondinelli, Edson

    2004-08-20

    In mammalian cells, the Rab7 protein is a key element of late endocytic membrane traffic. Several results suggest that it is involved in the transport from early to late endosome or from late endosome to lysosome. We have previously characterized a Rab7 gene homologue (TcRAB7) in Trypanosoma cruzi. Now, using an affinity-purified antibody specific to TcRAB7 protein we have determined that it is localized at the Golgi apparatus of the parasite. Our results indicate that the T. cruzi Rab7 homologue may function in a different route than its counterparts in mammalian cells.

  2. Structures of aspartate aminotransferases from Trypanosoma brucei, Leishmania major and Giardia lamblia.

    PubMed

    Abendroth, Jan; Choi, Ryan; Wall, Abigail; Clifton, Matthew C; Lukacs, Christine M; Staker, Bart L; Van Voorhis, Wesley; Myler, Peter; Lorimer, Don D; Edwards, Thomas E

    2015-05-01

    The structures of three aspartate aminotransferases (AATs) from eukaryotic pathogens were solved within the Seattle Structural Genomics Center for Infectious Disease (SSGCID). Both the open and closed conformations of AAT were observed. Pyridoxal phosphate was bound to the active site via a Schiff base to a conserved lysine. An active-site mutant showed that Trypanosoma brucei AAT still binds pyridoxal phosphate even in the absence of the tethering lysine. The structures highlight the challenges for the structure-based design of inhibitors targeting the active site, while showing options for inhibitor design targeting the N-terminal arm.

  3. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity

    PubMed Central

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

    2014-01-01

    This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape. PMID:25317712

  4. 5-Nitro-2-furyl derivative actives against Trypanosoma cruzi: preliminary in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Cabrera, Eliana; Murguiondo, Mariana González; Arias, Marelina González; Arredondo, Carolina; Pintos, Cristina; Aguirre, Gabriela; Fernández, Marcelo; Basmadjián, Yester; Rosa, Raquel; Pacheco, José Pedro; Raymondo, Stella; Di Maio, Rossanna; González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2009-10-01

    Ten 5-nitro-2-furyl derivatives, with good to excellent in vitro anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity, and nifurtimox were tested oral and intraperitoneally on healthy animals for its acute toxicity on murine models. According to animals' survival percentage, organ histological results, biochemical and haematological findings, three new derivatives, with toxicity like nifurtimox, were selected to test in vivo as antichagasic agents. Clearly, dependences between chemical structure and both acute toxicity and in vivo anti-T. cruzi activity were observed. 4-Hexyl-1-[3-(5-nitro-2-furyl)-2-propenylidene]semicarbazide displayed good profile as anti-T. cruzi agent and better acute toxicity profile than nifurtimox.

  5. Active penetration of Trypanosoma cruzi into host cells: historical considerations and current concepts

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Wanderley; de Carvalho, Tecia M. Ulisses

    2013-01-01

    In the present short review, we analyze past experiments that addressed the interactions of intracellular pathogenic protozoa (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Plasmodium) with host cells and the initial use of the term active penetration to indicate that a protozoan “crossed the host cell membrane, penetrating into the cytoplasm.” However, the subsequent use of transmission electron microscopy showed that, for all of the protozoans and cell types examined, endocytosis, classically defined as involving the formation of a membrane-bound vacuole, took place during the interaction process. As a consequence, the recently penetrated parasites are always within a vacuole, designated the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). PMID:23355838

  6. Trypanothione Reductase: A Target for the Development of Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi drugs.

    PubMed

    Vázquez, Karina; Paulino, Margot; Salas, Cristian O; Zarate-Ramos, Juan J; Vera, Brenda; Rivera, Gildardo

    2017-03-15

    Chagas disease or American trypanosomiasis is a major parasitic disease in Latin America with treatment available via two drugs: nifurtimox and benznidazole. These two treatments are ineffective in the chronic phase of the disease. Therefore, there is a need for the development of new, efficient and safe drugs for the treatment of these diseases. With this goal, one of the promising targets proposed is the trypanothione reductase (TR), a key enzyme important in the metabolism of Trypanosoma cruzi. In this review, we analyze the importance of TR as a drug target, as well as their compounds inhibitors reported in the last decade as potential therapeutic agents for Chagas disease.

  7. Selective delivery of 2-hydroxy APA to Trypanosoma brucei using the melamine motif

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Nina; Wong, Pui Ee; Baragaña, Beatriz; Mazouni, Farah El; Phillips, Margaret A.; Barrett, Michael P.; Gilbert, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei, the parasite that causes human African trypanosomiasis, is auxotrophic for purines and has specialist nucleoside transporters to import these metabolites. In particular, the P2 aminopurine transporter can also selectively accumulate melamine derivatives. In this Letter, we report the coupling of the melamine moiety to 2-hydroxy APA, a potent ornithine decarboxylase inhibitor, with the aim of selectively delivering this compound to the parasite. The best compound described here shows an increased in vitro trypanocidal activity compared with the parent. PMID:20615694

  8. Metacaspase 2 of Trypanosoma brucei is a calcium-dependent cysteine peptidase active without processing.

    PubMed

    Moss, Catherine X; Westrop, Gareth D; Juliano, Luiz; Coombs, Graham H; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2007-12-11

    Metacaspases are cysteine peptidases that are distantly related to the caspases, for which proteolytic processing is central to their activation. Here, we show that recombinant metacaspase 2 (MCA2) from Trypanosoma brucei has arginine/lysine-specific, Ca(2+)-dependent proteolytic activity. Autocatalytic processing of MCA2 occurred after Lys55 and Lys268; however, this was shown not to be required for the enzyme to be proteolytically active. The necessity of Ca(2+), but not processing, for MCA2 enzymatic activity clearly distinguishes MCA2 from the caspases and would be consistent with different physiological roles.

  9. Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma congolense in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus agrestis.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dia, Mamadou Lamine

    2003-01-01

    The trypanosomes pathogenic to livestock in Africa (Trypanosoma congolense, Trypanosoma vivax, and Trypanosoma brucei) are mainly cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina). However, T. vivax, can also be mechanically transmitted by haematophagous insects. Laboratory studies have demonstrated the mechanical transmission of T. congolense, but confirmation of this under natural conditions was necessary. An experiment was therefore carried out in Lahirasso, Burkina Faso, in a corral completely covered by mosquito net, to avoid exposure to tsetse. Eight receiver heifers, free of trypanosome infection, were kept together with two donor heifers, experimentally infected with local stocks of T. congolense. On average, 291 Atylotus agrestis, freshly captured in Nzi traps, were introduced into the mosquito net daily for a period of 20 days to initiate mechanical transmission among cattle. Daily microscopical observation of their blood indicated that two of the eight receiver heifers became infected with T. congolense from days 42 and 53. Mechanical transmission of T. congolense by A. agrestis was demonstrated unequivocally with a 25% incidence over a 20-day period of exposure under a mean challenge of 29 insects/animal/day. These results, in addition to previous reports, demonstrate the ability of A. agrestis to transmit T. vivax and T. congolense to cattle in Africa by mechanical means. Efforts to eliminate cattle trypanosomosis should therefore consider the eventual persistence of disease as a result of mechanical transmission of trypanosomes by tabanids. Index descriptor and abbreviations: Trypanosoma congolense (Trypanosomatidae) is a pathogenic trypanosome found in wild and domestic herbivores, principally in cattle (Bos taurus, Bos indicus, and cross-breds), in Africa. It is cyclically transmitted by tsetse (Glossina, Diptera); however, mechanical transmission by biting insects may also occur. The present study demonstrates unequivocally the mechanical transmission of

  10. Trypanosoma vivax: a simplified protocol for in vivo growth, isolation and cryopreservation.

    PubMed

    Ndao, M; Magnus, E; Büscher, P; Geerts, S

    2004-03-01

    A rodent adapted clone of Trypanosoma vivax was used to infect cyclophosphamide treated mice and rats. Fresh blood containing trypanosomes, was centrifuged in a density gradient of three Percoll solutions, 1.07, 1.06, 1.05 g/ml, respectively, carefully layered on top of each other. The yields of this simple procedure for trypanosome purification were about six times higher than those obtained with the conventional anion-exchange columns. Cryopreservation of trypanosomes using glycerol yielded 90% viable parasites, whereas using dimethylsulfoxide, a more commonly used cryoprotectant, the viability was only 35%.

  11. Membrane traffic and synaptic cross-talk during host cell entry by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Butler, Claire E; Tyler, Kevin M

    2012-01-01

    It is widely accepted that Trypanosoma cruzi can exploit the natural exocytic response of the host to cell damage, utilizing host cell lysosomes as important effectors. It is, though, increasingly clear that the parasite also exploits endocytic mechanisms which allow for incorporation of plasma membrane into the parasitophorous vacuole. Further, that these endocytic mechanisms are involved in cross-talk with the exocytic machinery, in the recycling of vesicles and in the manipulation of the cytoskeleton. Here we review the mechanisms by which T. cruzi exploits features of the exocytic and endocytic pathways in epithelial and endothelial cells and the evidence for cross-talk between these pathways. PMID:22646288

  12. Long-term preservation of blood samples for diagnosis of Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Pérez, A C; Cura, E; Subías, E; Lansetti, J C; Segura, E L

    1990-03-01

    Feasability and suitability for field research of a whole-blood preservation method was evaluated through the screening of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies in 1209 samples under different conditions. Antibody reactivity of paired samples from preserved capillary blood (CBP) and sera from venous blood (VBS) were studied by specific techniques. Over 96% concordance was found on indoor studies carried out with samples without storage or after 15 or 30 days preservation of CBP at 37 degrees C and VBS at -20 degrees C. Outdoor studies performed at field conditions, achieved a 92.1% concordance.

  13. Influence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes on growth and differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Osuna, A; Adroher, F J; Lupiáñez, J A

    1990-05-01

    The influence of electrolytes and non-electrolytes, especially NaCl and sorbitol, on the metacyclogenesis and growth of Trypanosoma cruzi has been studied. The addition of 50 or 100 mEq/l NaCl to the culture media significantly increased the development of metacyclic forms. Other electrolytes and non-electrolytes had no effect on epimastigote-metacyclic differentiation. The growth rate was never modified to any extent. The influence of sodium concentration, osmotic pressure, among other factors, are discussed. Electrophoresis showed proteins bands which could be related either to the adaptation of T. cruzi to the new culture media or to the initiation of differentiation processes.

  14. Drug discovery for Chagas disease should consider Trypanosoma cruzi strain diversity.

    PubMed

    Zingales, Bianca; Miles, Michael A; Moraes, Carolina B; Luquetti, Alejandro; Guhl, Felipe; Schijman, Alejandro G; Ribeiro, Isabela

    2014-09-01

    This opinion piece presents an approach to standardisation of an important aspect of Chagas disease drug discovery and development: selecting Trypanosoma cruzi strains for in vitro screening. We discuss the rationale for strain selection representing T. cruzi diversity and provide recommendations on the preferred parasite stage for drug discovery, T. cruzi discrete typing units to include in the panel of strains and the number of strains/clones for primary screens and lead compounds. We also consider experimental approaches for in vitro drug assays. The Figure illustrates the current Chagas disease drug-discovery and development landscape.

  15. Treatment and follow-up of the first case of human trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi in India.

    PubMed

    Joshi, P P; Chaudhari, A; Shegokar, V R; Powar, R M; Dani, V S; Somalwar, A M; Jannin, J; Truc, P

    2006-10-01

    The first reported human case of trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma evansi was treated using suramin. Patient follow-up indicates that the drug and specific regimen used were well tolerated. Clinical, serological and parasitological investigations at 6 months indicate complete cure of the patient. Suramin should be considered in the treatment of other cases of human T. evansi infection, if they occur.

  16. 75 FR 75809 - Guidance for Industry: Use of Serological Tests To Reduce the Risk of Transmission of Trypanosoma...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-06

    ... antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. These tests are intended for use as donor screening tests to reduce the risk of transmission of T. cruzi infection by detecting antibodies to T. cruzi in plasma and serum samples... recommendations for HCT/P donor screening and testing for T. cruzi antibodies contained in the draft guidance...

  17. Cell-penetrating peptide TP10 shows broad-spectrum activity against both Plasmodium falciparum and Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Arrighi, Romanico B G; Ebikeme, Charles; Jiang, Yang; Ranford-Cartwright, Lisa; Barrett, Michael P; Langel, Ulo; Faye, Ingrid

    2008-09-01

    Malaria and trypanosomiasis are diseases which afflict millions and for which novel therapies are urgently required. We have tested two well-characterized cell-penetrating peptides (CPPs) for antiparasitic activity. One CPP, designated TP10, has broad-spectrum antiparasitic activity against Plasmodium falciparum, both blood and mosquito stages, and against blood-stage Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

  18. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Schoolchildren and in Pregnant Women from an Amazonian Region in Orellana Province, Ecuador

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Caty Carrera; Narváez, Alberto Orlando; Aroca, Jenny Muzzio; Shiguango, Gonzalo; Robles, Luiggi Martini; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and about 230,000 persons are estimated to be infected in Ecuador. However, limited studies have been performed in the Amazon region, on the eastern side of the country. We evaluated here the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 12 rural villages of the Loreto canton, Orellana Province in schoolchildren aged 5–15 years and in pregnant women. A total of 1,649 blood samples were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemaglutination, and discordant samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We detected a seroprevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies of 1.3% in schoolchildren aged 5–15 years, indicating the persistence of a constant and active vectorial transmission in the Loreto County and confirming the need of the implementation of nonconventional vector control. We also observed a seroprevalence of 3.8% in pregnant women, indicating a clear risk of congenital transmission. Further studies should help define this risk more precisely and implement current international guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and care of these cases. PMID:26283751

  19. Screening North American plant extracts in vitro against Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent for Human African Trypanosomiasis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Natural products extracts from 522 plants collected from different parts of the North America were screened in vitro against trypamastigote forms of Trypanosoma brucei. The active extracts(150)with >90% inhibition at 20ug/mL concentrations from the plants namely, Alnus rubra, Hoita macrostachya, S...

  20. Molecular survey of rodent-borne Trypanosoma in Niger with special emphasis on T. lewisi imported by invasive black rats.

    PubMed

    Dobigny, Gauthier; Poirier, Philippe; Hima, Karmadine; Cabaret, Odile; Gauthier, Philippe; Tatard, Caroline; Costa, Jean-Marc; Bretagne, Stéphane

    2011-03-01

    Invading rodent species can harbor parasites with potential transmission to native rodents and/or humans. To investigate trypanosomes prevalence in rodents, the spleen of 76 rodents from Niger identified by their karyotype was used as a DNA source for Trypanosoma detection using a newly developed qPCR assay. Of the invasive black rat, Rattus rattus, 71% (10/14) were PCR positive as well as 6% (4/62) of native African rodents. Sequences of ~400bp of the SSU rDNA gene identified phylogenetically close Trypanosoma lineages. Trypanosoma lewisi was present in all positive black rats and the sequences displayed 100% similarity with T. lewisi-infected humans in Senegal. T. lewisi was also detected in one Acomys johannis, suggesting a possible transmission to native species. In addition to improved knowledge of Trypanosoma diversity in rodents, our data underscore the introduction of the potentially pathogenic T. lewisi kinetoplastid through the human-mediated invasion of black rats all over West Africa.

  1. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Schoolchildren and in Pregnant Women from an Amazonian Region in Orellana Province, Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Carrera Vargas, Caty; Narváez, Alberto Orlando; Muzzio Aroca, Jenny; Shiguango, Gonzalo; Robles, Luiggi Martini; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Chagas disease is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and about 230,000 persons are estimated to be infected in Ecuador. However, limited studies have been performed in the Amazon region, on the eastern side of the country. We evaluated here the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in 12 rural villages of the Loreto canton, Orellana Province in schoolchildren aged 5-15 years and in pregnant women. A total of 1,649 blood samples were tested for Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and indirect hemaglutination, and discordant samples were tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. We detected a seroprevalence of anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies of 1.3% in schoolchildren aged 5-15 years, indicating the persistence of a constant and active vectorial transmission in the Loreto County and confirming the need of the implementation of nonconventional vector control. We also observed a seroprevalence of 3.8% in pregnant women, indicating a clear risk of congenital transmission. Further studies should help define this risk more precisely and implement current international guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment, and care of these cases.

  2. Trans-Sialidase Inhibition Assay Detects Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Different Wild Mammal Species

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Paula A.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Orozco, Marcela M.; Cardinal, Marta V.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in mammals is crucial for understanding the eco-epidemiological role of the different species involved in parasite transmission cycles. Xenodiagnosis (XD) and hemoculture (HC) are routinely used to detect T. cruzi in wild mammals. Serological methods are much more limited because they require the use of specific antibodies to immunoglobulins of each mammalian species susceptible to T. cruzi. In this study we detected T. cruzi infection by trans-sialidase (TS) inhibition assay (TIA). TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of a recombinant TS that avoids the use of anti-immunoglobulins. TS activity is not detected in the co-endemic protozoan parasites Leishmania spp and T. rangeli. In the current study, serum samples from 158 individuals of nine wild mammalian species, previously tested by XD, were evaluated by TIA. They were collected from two endemic areas in northern Argentina. The overall TIA versus XD co-reactivity was 98.7% (156/158). All 18 samples from XD-positive mammals were TIA-positive (co-positivity, 100%) and co-negativity was 98.5% (138/140). Two XD-negative samples from a marsupial (Didelphis albiventris) and an edentate (Dasypus novemcinctus) were detected by TIA. TIA could be used as a novel tool for serological detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in a wide variety of sylvatic reservoir hosts. PMID:23930975

  3. Nitrofuran drugs as common subversive substrates of Trypanosoma cruzi lipoamide dehydrogenase and trypanothione reductase.

    PubMed

    Blumenstiel, K; Schöneck, R; Yardley, V; Croft, S L; Krauth-Siegel, R L

    1999-12-01

    Lipoamide dehydrogenase (LipDH), trypanothione reductase (TR), and glutathione reductase (GR) catalyze the NAD(P)H-dependent reduction of disulfide substrates. TR occurs exclusively in trypanosomatids which lack a GR. Besides their physiological reactions, the flavoenzymes catalyze the single-electron reduction of nitrofurans with the concomitant generation of superoxide anions. Here, we report on the interaction of clinically used antimicrobial nitrofurans with LipDH and TR from Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease (South American trypanosomiasis), in comparison to mammalian LipDH and GR. The compounds were studied as inhibitors and as subversive substrates of the enzymes. None of the nitrofurans inhibited LipDH, although they did interfere with the disulfide reduction of TR and GR. When the compounds were studied as substrates, T. cruzi LipDH showed a high rate of nitrofuran reduction and was even more efficient than its mammalian counterpart. Several derivatives were also effective subversive substrates of TR, but the respective reaction with human GR was negligible. Nifuroxazide, nifuroxime, and nifurprazine proved to be the most promising derivatives since they were redox-cycled by both T. cruzi LipDH and TR and had pronounced antiparasitic effects in cultures of T. cruzi and Trypanosoma brucei. The results suggest that those nitrofuran derivatives which interact with both parasite flavoenzymes should be revisited as trypanocidal drugs.

  4. Structural role of the active-site metal in the conformation of Trypanosoma brucei phosphoglycerate mutase.

    PubMed

    Mercaldi, Gustavo F; Pereira, Humberto M; Cordeiro, Artur T; Michels, Paul A M; Thiemann, Otavio H

    2012-06-01

    Phosphoglycerate mutases (PGAMs) participate in both the glycolytic and the gluconeogenic pathways in reversible isomerization of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate. PGAMs are members of two distinct protein families: enzymes that are dependent on or independent of the 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate cofactor. We determined the X-ray structure of the monomeric Trypanosoma brucei independent PGAM (TbiPGAM) in its apoenzyme form, and confirmed this observation by small angle X-ray scattering data. Comparing the TbiPGAM structure with the Leishmania mexicana independent PGAM structure, previously reported with a phosphoglycerate molecule bound to the active site, revealed the domain movement resulting from active site occupation. The structure reported here shows the interaction between Asp319 and the metal bound to the active site, and its contribution to the domain movement. Substitution of the metal-binding residue Asp319 by Ala resulted in complete loss of independent PGAM activity, and showed for the first time its involvement in the enzyme's function. As TbiPGAM is an attractive molecular target for drug development, the apoenzyme conformation described here provides opportunities for its use in structure-based drug design approaches. Database Structural data for the Trypanosoma brucei 2,3-bisphosphoglycerate-independent phosphoglycerate mutase (iPGAM) has been deposited with the Research Collaboratory for Structural Bioinformatics (RCSB) Protein Data Bank under code 3NVL.

  5. Molecular profiles of Venezuelan isolates of Trypanosoma sp. by random amplified polymorphic DNA method.

    PubMed

    Perrone, T M; Gonzatti, M I; Villamizar, G; Escalante, A; Aso, P M

    2009-05-12

    Nine Trypanosoma sp. Venezuelan isolates, initially presumed to be T. evansi, were collected from three different hosts, capybara (Apure state), horse (Apure state) and donkey (Guarico state) and compared by the random amplification polymorphic DNA technique (RAPD). Thirty-one to 46 reproducible fragments were obtained with 12 of the 40 primers that were used. Most of the primers detected molecular profiles with few polymorphisms between the seven horse, capybara and donkey isolates. Quantitative analyses of the RAPD profiles of these isolates revealed a high degree of genetic conservation with similarity coefficients between 85.7% and 98.5%. Ten of the primers generated polymorphic RAPD profiles with two of the three Trypanosoma sp. horse isolates, namely TeAp-N/D1 and TeGu-N/D1. The similarity coefficient between these two isolates and the rest, ranged from 57.9% to 68.4% and the corresponding dendrogram clustered TeAp-N/D1 and Te Gu-N/D1 in a genetically distinct group.

  6. Molecular epidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi and Triatoma dimidiata in costal Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Wong, Yim Yan; Sornosa Macias, Karen Jeniffer; Guale Martínez, Doris; Solorzano, Luis F; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Herrera, Claudia; Dumonteil, Eric

    2016-07-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. In Ecuador, Triatoma dimidiata and Rhodnius ecuadoriensis are the main vector species, responsible for over half of the cases of T. cruzi infection in the country. T. dimidiata is believed to have been introduced in Ecuador during colonial times, and its elimination from the country is thus believed to be feasible. We investigated here the molecular ecology of T. dimidiata and T. cruzi in costal Ecuador to further guide control efforts. Analysis of the Internal Transcribed Spacer 2 (ITS-2) of 23 specimens from Progreso, Guayas, unambiguously supported the likely importation of T. dimidiata from Central America to Ecuador. The observation of a very high parasite infection rate (54%) and frequent feeding on humans (3/5) confirmed a continued risk of transmission to humans. All genotyped parasites corresponded to TcI DTU and Trypanosoma rangeli was not detected in T. dimidiata. TcI subgroups corresponded to TcIa (25%), and mixed infections with TcIa and TcId (75%). Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi genetic structure in the country, and the possible impact of the introduction of T. dimidiata on the circulating parasite strains. The elevated risk posed by this species warrants continuing efforts for its control, but its apparent mobility between peridomestic and domestic habitats may favor reinfestation following insecticide spraying.

  7. Antiparasitic evaluation of betulinic acid derivatives reveals effective and selective anti-Trypanosoma cruzi inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Meira, Cássio Santana; Barbosa-Filho, José Maria; Lanfredi-Rangel, Adriana; Guimarães, Elisalva Teixeira; Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo Magalhães; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira

    2016-07-01

    Betulinic acid is a pentacyclic triterpenoid with several biological properties already described, including antiparasitic activity. Here, the anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of betulinic acid and its semi-synthetic amide derivatives (BA1-BA8) was investigated. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity and selectivity were enhanced in semi-synthetic derivatives, specially on derivatives BA5, BA6 and BA8. To understand the mechanism of action underlying betulinic acid anti-T. cruzi activity, we investigated ultrastructural changes by electron microscopy. Ultrastructural studies showed that trypomastigotes incubated with BA5 had membrane blebling, flagella retraction, atypical cytoplasmic vacuoles and Golgi cisternae dilatation. Flow cytometry analysis showed that parasite death is mainly caused by necrosis. Treatment with derivatives BA5, BA6 or BA8 reduced the invasion process, as well as intracellular parasite development in host cells, with a potency and selectivity similar to that observed in benznidazole-treated cells. More importantly, the combination of BA5 and benznidazole revealed synergistic effects on trypomastigote and amastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, we demonstrated that BA5 compound is an effective and selective anti-T. cruzi agent.

  8. Trypanosoma cf. varani in an imported ball python (Python reginus) from Ghana.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hiroshi; Takano, Ai; Kawabata, Hiroki; Une, Yumi; Watanabe, Haruo; Mukhtar, Maowia M

    2009-08-01

    Peripheral blood from a ball python (Python reginus) imported from Ghana was cultured in Barbour-Stoenner-Kelly (BSK) medium for Borrelia spp. isolation, resulting in the prominent appearance of free, and clusters of, trypanosomes in a variety of morphological forms. The molecular phylogenetic characterization of these cultured trypanosomes, using the small subunit rDNA, indicated that this python was infected with a species closely related to Trypanosoma varani Wenyon, 1908, originally described in the Nile monitor lizard (Varanus niloticus) from Sudan. Furthermore, nucleotide sequences of glycosomal glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase gene of both isolates showed few differences. Giemsa-stained blood smears, prepared from the infected python 8 mo after the initial observation of trypanosomes in hemoculture, contained trypomastigotes with a broad body and a short, free flagellum; these most closely resembled the original description of T. varani, or T. voltariae Macfie, 1919 recorded in a black-necked spitting cobra (Naja nigricollis) from Ghana. It is highly possible that lizards and snakes could naturally share an identical trypanosome species. Alternatively, lizards and snakes in the same region might have closely related, but distinct, Trypanosoma species as a result of sympatric speciation. From multiple viewpoints, including molecular phylogenetic analyses, reappraisal of trypanosome species from a wide range of reptiles in Africa is needed to clarify the relationship of recorded species, or to unmask unrecorded species.

  9. Expression, purification and crystallization of Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase complexed with orotate

    SciTech Connect

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Takashima, Eizo; Osanai, Arihiro; Shimizu, Hironari; Nara, Takeshi; Aoki, Takashi; Harada, Shigeharu; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2005-10-01

    The Trypanosoma cruzi dihydroorotate dehydrogenase, a key enzyme in pyrimidine de novo biosynthesis and redox homeostasis, was crystallized in complex with its first reaction product, orotate. Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHOD) catalyzes the oxidation of dihydroorotate to orotate, the fourth step and the only redox reaction in the de novo biosynthesis of pyrimidine. DHOD from Trypanosoma cruzi (TcDHOD) has been expressed as a recombinant protein in Escherichia coli and purified to homogeneity. Crystals of the TcDHOD–orotate complex were grown at 277 K by the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique using polyethylene glycol 3350 as a precipitant. The crystals diffract to better than 1.8 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation (λ = 0.900 Å). X-ray diffraction data were collected at 100 K and processed to 1.9 Å resolution with 98.2% completeness and an overall R{sub merge} of 7.8%. The TcDHOD crystals belong to the orthorhombic space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}, with unit-cell parameters a = 67.87, b = 71.89, c = 123.27 Å. The presence of two molecules in the asymmetric unit (2 × 34 kDa) gives a crystal volume per protein weight (V{sub M}) of 2.2 Å{sup 3} Da{sup −1} and a solvent content of 44%.

  10. Analysis of the Trypanosoma brucei cell cycle by quantitative DAPI imaging.

    PubMed

    Siegel, T Nicolai; Hekstra, Doeke R; Cross, George A M

    2008-08-01

    Trypanosoma brucei has two DNA compartments: the nucleus and the kinetoplast. DNA replication of these two compartments only partially coincides. Woodward and Gull [Woodward R, Gull K. Timing of nuclear and kinetoplast DNA replication and early morphological events in the cell cycle of Trypanosoma brucei. J Cell Sci 1990;95:49-57] comprehensively studied the relative timing of the replication and segregation of nuclear DNA (nDNA) and kinetoplast DNA (kDNA). Others have since assumed the consistency of morphological indicators of cell-cycle stage among strains and conditions. We report the use of quantitative DAPI imaging to determine the cell-cycle stage of individual procyclic cells. Using this approach, we found that kinetoplast elongation occurs mainly during nuclear S phase and not during G2, as previously assumed. We confirmed this finding by sorting cells by DNA content, followed by fluorescence microscopy. In addition, simultaneous quantitative imaging at two wavelengths can be used to determine the abundance of cell-cycle-regulated proteins during the cell cycle. We demonstrate this technique by co-staining for the non-acetylated state of lysine 4 of histone H4 (H4K4), which is enriched during nuclear S phase.

  11. Insight into the Exoproteome of the Tissue-Derived Trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Rayner M. L.; Ricart, Carlos A. O.; Machado, Mara O.; Bastos, Izabela M. D.; de Santana, Jaime M.; de Sousa, Marcelo V.; Roepstorff, Peter; Charneau, Sébastien

    2016-01-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, one of the major neglected infectious diseases. It has the potential to infect any nucleated mammalian cell. The secreted/excreted protein repertoire released by T. cruzi trypomastigotes is crucial in host-pathogen interactions. In this study, mammalian tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (Y strain) were used to characterize the exoproteome of the infective bloodstream life form. Proteins released into the serum-free culture medium after 3 h of incubation were harvested and digested with trypsin. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 540 proteins, the largest set of released proteins identified to date in Trypanosoma spp. Bioinformatic analysis predicted most identified proteins as secreted, predominantly by non-classical pathways, and involved in host-cell infection. Some proteins possess predicted GPI-anchor signals, these being mostly trans-sialidases, mucin associated surface proteins and surface glycoproteins. Moreover, we enriched phosphopeptides and glycopeptides from tryptic digests. The majority of identified glycoproteins are trans-sialidases and surface glycoproteins involved in host-parasite interaction. Conversely, most identified phosphoproteins have no Gene Ontology classification. The existence of various proteins related to similar functions in the exoproteome likely reflects this parasite's enhanced mechanisms for adhesion, invasion, and internalization of different host-cell types, and escape from immune defenses. PMID:27872839

  12. Identification of a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor-modifying β1-3 galactosyltransferase in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Izquierdo, Luis; Acosta-Serrano, Alvaro; Mehlert, Angela; Ferguson, Michael AJ

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causative agent of human African sleeping sickness and the cattle disease nagana.  Trypanosoma brucei is dependent on glycoproteins for its survival and infectivity throughout its life cycle. Here we report the functional characterization of TbGT3, a glycosyltransferase expressed in the bloodstream and procyclic form of the parasite. Bloodstream and procyclic form TbGT3 conditional null mutants were created and both exhibited normal growth under permissive and nonpermissive conditions. Under nonpermissive conditions, the normal glycosylation of the major glycoprotein of bloodstream form T. brucei, the variant surface glycoprotein and the absence of major alterations in lectin binding to other glycoproteins suggested that the major function of TbGT3 occurs in the procyclic form of the parasite. Consistent with this, the major surface glycoprotein of the procyclic form, procyclin, exhibited a marked reduction in molecular weight due to changes in glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor side chains. Structural analysis of the mutant procyclin GPI anchors indicated that TbGT3 encodes a UDP-Gal: β-GlcNAc-GPI β1-3 Gal transferase. Despite the alterations in GPI anchor side chains, TbGT3 conditional null mutants remained infectious to tsetse flies under nonpermissive conditions. PMID:25467966

  13. Differential behaviour of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in two morphological forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Lupiañez, J A; Adroher, F J; Vargas, A M; Osuna, A

    1987-01-01

    1. Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity (EC 1.1.1.49) of two morphological forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, epimastigotes and metacyclics, are reported. 2. The kinetic behaviour and some of the kinetic parameters of the enzyme in both forms were studied. The enzymes showed a simple Michaelis-Menten kinetic. 3. The activity in epimastigote forms was alway higher than the metacyclic ones. At subsaturating concentrations of substrate was almost 10-fold higher, whereas at saturating concentrations was about 2-fold higher. 4. In epimastigote forms the specific activity and Km values, at pH 7.5 and 37 degrees C, was found to be 142 mUnits x mg-1 of protein and 0.23 mM, respectively. 5. In the same conditions, the specific activity and Km values in metacyclic forms was 75 mUnits x mg-1 of protein and 1.06 mM, respectively. 6. A possible role in the carbohydrate metabolism of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase in both forms of Trypanosoma cruzi is discussed.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of domestic and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, Marta V.; Lauricella, Marta A.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Lanati, Leonardo; Marcet, Paula L.; Levin, Mariano J.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2011-01-01

    Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi populations and parasite transmission dynamics have been well documented throughout the Americas, but few studies have been conducted in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, one of the most highly endemic areas for Chagas disease, caused by T. cruzi. In this study we assessed the distribution of T. cruzi lineages (identified by PCR strategies) in Triatoma infestans, domestic dogs, cats, humans and sylvatic mammals from two neighboring rural areas with different histories of transmission and vector control in northern Argentina. Lineage II predominated among the 99 isolates characterized and lineage I among the six isolates obtained from sylvatic mammals. Trypanosoma cruzi lineage IIe predominated in domestic habitats; it was found in 87% of 54 isolates from Tr. infestans, in 82% of 33 isolates from dogs, and in the four cats found infected. Domestic and sylvatic cycles overlapped in the study area in the late 1980s, when intense domestic transmission occurred, and still overlap marginally. The introduction of T. cruzi from sylvatic into domestic habitats is likely to occur very rarely in the current epidemiological context. The household distribution of T. cruzi lineages showed that Tr. infestans, dogs and cats from a given house compound shared the same parasite lineage in most cases. Based on molecular evidence, this result lends further support to the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts of T. cruzi. We believe that in Argentina, this is the first time that lineage IIc has been isolated from naturally-infected domestic dogs and Tr. infestans. PMID:18585717

  15. The challenge of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense sleeping sickness diagnosis outside Africa.

    PubMed

    Lejon, V; Boelaert, M; Jannin, J; Moore, A; Büscher, P

    2003-12-01

    Sleeping sickness is a lethal African disease caused by parasites of the Trypanosoma brucei subspecies, which is transmitted by tsetse flies. Occasionally, patients are reported outside Africa. Diagnosis of such imported cases can be problematic when the infection is due to Trypanosoma brucei gambiense, the chronic form of sleeping sickness found in west and central Africa. The low number of trypanosomes in the blood and the non-specific, variable symptoms make the diagnosis difficult, particularly when the index of suspicion is low. When the trypanosomes have penetrated into the central nervous system, neuropathological signs become apparent but even at this stage, misdiagnosis is frequent. Rapid and correct diagnosis of sleeping sickness can avoid inappropriate or delayed treatment and even death of the patient. In this article, an overview on diagnosis of imported cases of T b gambiense sleeping sickness is given, and possible pitfalls in the diagnostic process are highlighted. Bioclinical parameters that should raise the suspicion of sleeping sickness in a patient who has been in west or central Africa are discussed. Techniques for diagnosis are reviewed. A clinician suspecting sleeping sickness should contact a national reference centre for tropical medicine in his or her country, or the WHO, Geneva, Switzerland, or the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), Atlanta, GA, USA, for clinical consultation and provision of specific diagnostic tests. Appropriate drugs for sleeping sickness treatment are also provided by WHO and the CDC.

  16. The Role of the Trypanosoma cruzi TcNRBD1 Protein in Translation

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Camila; Carvalho, Paulo Costa; Goldenberg, Samuel

    2016-01-01

    The regulation of gene expression in trypanosomatids occurs mainly at the post-transcriptional level. Despite the importance of this type of control in Trypanosoma cruzi, few RNA binding proteins have been characterized. The RRM domain (RNA Recognition Motif) is one of the most abundant domains found in RNA-binding proteins in higher eukaryotes. Proteins containing the RRM domain are involved in the majority of post-transcriptional processes regulating gene expression. In this work, we aimed to characterize the protein TcNRBD1 from T. cruzi. TcNRBD1 is an RNA-binding protein that contains 2 RRM domains and is the ortholog of the P34 and P37 proteins from Trypanosoma brucei. The TcNRBD1 protein is expressed in all developmental stages of T. cruzi, and its localization pattern is concentrated at the perinuclear region. TcNRBD1 is associated with polysomes and with the 80S monosomes. Furthermore, sequencing of the mRNAs bound to TcNRBD1 allowed the identification of several transcripts that encode ribosomal proteins. Immunoprecipitation assays followed by mass spectrometry showed that the protein complexes with several ribosomal proteins from both the 40S and 60S subunits. In summary, the results indicate that TcNRBD1 is associated with different parts of the translation process, either by regulating mRNAs that encode ribosomal proteins or by acting in some step of ribosome assembly in T. cruzi. PMID:27760165

  17. Genetic Engineering of Trypanosoma (Dutonella) vivax and In Vitro Differentiation under Axenic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    D'Archivio, Simon; Medina, Mathieu; Cosson, Alain; Chamond, Nathalie; Rotureau, Brice; Minoprio, Paola; Goyard, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is one of the most common parasites responsible for animal trypanosomosis, and although this disease is widespread in Africa and Latin America, very few studies have been conducted on the parasite's biology. This is in part due to the fact that no reproducible experimental methods had been developed to maintain the different evolutive forms of this trypanosome under laboratory conditions. Appropriate protocols were developed in the 1990s for the axenic maintenance of three major animal Trypanosoma species: T. b. brucei, T. congolense and T. vivax. These pioneer studies rapidly led to the successful genetic manipulation of T. b. brucei and T. congolense. Advances were made in the understanding of these parasites' biology and virulence, and new drug targets were identified. By contrast, challenging in vitro conditions have been developed for T. vivax in the past, and this per se has contributed to defer both its genetic manipulation and subsequent gene function studies. Here we report on the optimization of non-infective T. vivax epimastigote axenic cultures and on the process of parasite in vitro differentiation into metacyclic infective forms. We have also constructed the first T. vivax specific expression vector that drives constitutive expression of the luciferase reporter gene. This vector was then used to establish and optimize epimastigote transfection. We then developed highly reproducible conditions that can be used to obtain and select stably transfected mutants that continue metacyclogenesis and are infectious in immunocompetent rodents. PMID:22216367

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi: variability of stocks from Colombia determined by molecular karyotype and minicircle Southern blot analysis.

    PubMed

    Triana, Omar; Ortiz, Sylvia; Dujardin, Jean-Claude; Solari, Aldo

    2006-05-01

    Nineteen Trypanosoma cruzi stocks, most of them of wild origin, and four Trypanosoma rangeli stocks from Colombia were analysed by molecular karyotype analysis with cloned DNA cruzipain as the probe. Another 27 cloned stocks of T. cruzi from different geographic areas of South America were used as reference for T. cruzi lineages. Phenetic analysis of chromosome size polymorphism demonstrated a great variability of Colombian T. cruzi stocks, suggesting that most belong to lineage I, although two of them belong to lineage II. The 2 lineage II T. cruzi, 17 T. cruzi lineage I, and 3 T. rangeli stocks from Colombia were studied further by Southern blot analysis with a panel of kinetoplast DNA minicircle probes. Hybridisation results indicate that the two T. cruzi II stocks are genetically distant from each other and from T. cruzi lineages IIb, IId, and IIe from Chile. Finally, T. cruzi minicircle probes do not cross-hybridise in any stringency condition tested with T. rangeli minicircles, a clear indication that these parasites can be easily distinguished by this method.

  19. The Dialogue of the Host-Parasite Relationship: Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Morais, Carlos Gustavo Vieira; Castro Lima, Ana Karina; dos Santos, Rosiane Freire; Da-Silva, Silvia Amaral Gonçalves; Dutra, Patrícia Maria Lourenço

    2015-01-01

    The intracellular protozoa Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi and the causative agents of Leishmaniasis and Chagas disease, respectively, belong to the Trypanosomatidae family. Together, these two neglected tropical diseases affect approximately 25 million people worldwide. Whether the host can control the infection or develops disease depends on the complex interaction between parasite and host. Parasite surface and secreted molecules are involved in triggering specific signaling pathways essential for parasite entry and intracellular survival. The recognition of the parasite antigens by host immune cells generates a specific immune response. Leishmania spp. and T. cruzi have a multifaceted repertoire of strategies to evade or subvert the immune system by interfering with a range of signal transduction pathways in host cells, which causes the inhibition of the protective response and contributes to their persistence in the host. The current therapeutic strategies in leishmaniasis and trypanosomiasis are very limited. Efficacy is variable, toxicity is high, and the emergence of resistance is increasingly common. In this review, we discuss the molecular basis of the host-parasite interaction of Leishmania and Trypanosoma cruzi infection and their mechanisms of subverting the immune response and how this knowledge can be used as a tool for the development of new drugs. PMID:26090399

  20. Prevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, Encephalitozonn cuniculi, Sarcocystis neurona, Besnoitia darlingi, and Neospora caninum in North American opossum, Didelphis virginiana, from Southern Louisian

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the prevalence of antibodies to zoonotic protozoan parasites (Trypanosoma cruzi, Toxoplasma gondii, and Encephalitozoon cuniculi) and protozoan’s of veterinary importance (Neospora caninum, Sarcocystis neurona and Besnoitia darlingi) in a population of North American opossums (Didelphis...

  1. Trypanosoma teixeirae: A new species belonging to the T. cruzi clade causing trypanosomosis in an Australian little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus).

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Amanda D; Mackie, John T; Stenner, Robyn; Gillett, Amber; Irwin, Peter; Ryan, Una

    2016-06-15

    Little is known about the genetic diversity and pathogenicity of trypanosomes in Australian bats. Recently a novel trypanosome species was identified in an adult female little red flying fox (Pteropus scapulatus) with clinical and pathological evidence of trypanosomosis. The present study used morphology and molecular methods to demonstrate that this trypanosome is a distinct species and we propose the name Trypanosoma teixeirae sp. n. Morphological comparison showed that its circulating trypomastigotes were significantly different from those of Trypanosoma pteropi and Trypanosoma hipposideri, two species previously described from Australian bats. Genetic information was not available for T. pteropi and T. hipposideri but phylogenetic analyses at the 18S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) and glycosomal glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) loci indicated that T. teixeirae sp. n. was genetically distinct and clustered with other bat-derived trypanosome species within the Trypanosoma cruzi clade.

  2. Southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus) from southern Texas are important reservoirs of two genotypes of Trypanosoma cruzi and host of a putative novel Trypanosoma species.

    PubMed

    Charles, Roxanne A; Kjos, Sonia; Ellis, Angela E; Barnes, John C; Yabsley, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease, is an important public health and veterinary pathogen. Although human cases are rare in the United States, infections in wildlife, and in some areas domestic dogs, are common. In 2008 and 2010, we investigated T. cruzi prevalence in possible vertebrate reservoirs in southern Texas, with an emphasis on southern plains woodrats (Neotoma micropus). Infection status was determined using a combination of culture isolation, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and serologic testing. Based on PCR and/or culture, T. cruzi was detected in 35 of 104 (34%) woodrats, 3 of 4 (75%) striped skunks (Mephitis mephitis), 12 of 20 (60%) raccoons (Procyon lotor), and 5 of 28 (18%) other rodents including a hispid cotton rat (Sigmodon hispidus), rock squirrel (Otospermophilus variegatus), black rat (Rattus rattus), and two house mice (Mus musculus). Additionally, another Trypanosoma species was detected in 41 woodrats, of which 27 were co-infected with T. cruzi. Genetic characterization of T. cruzi revealed that raccoon, rock squirrel, and cotton rat isolates were genotype TcIV, while woodrats and skunks were infected with TcI and TcIV. Based on the Chagas Stat-Pak assay, antibodies were detected in 27 woodrats (26%), 13 raccoons (65%), 4 skunks (100%), and 5 other rodents (18%) (two white-ankled mice [Peromyscus pectoralis laceianus], two house mice, and a rock squirrel). Seroprevalence based on indirect immunofluorescence antibody testing was higher for both woodrats (37%) and raccoons (90%), compared with the Chagas Stat-Pak. This is the first report of T. cruzi in a hispid cotton rat, black rat, rock squirrel, and white-ankled mouse. These data indicate that based on culture and PCR testing, the prevalence of T. cruzi in woodrats is comparable with other common reservoirs (i.e., raccoons and opossums) in the United States. However, unlike raccoons and opossums, which tend to be infected with a particular genotype, southern

  3. Unraveling the differences of the hydrolytic activity of Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase and Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase: a quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics modeling study.

    PubMed

    Bueren-Calabuig, Juan A; Pierdominici-Sottile, Gustavo; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2014-06-05

    Chagas' disease, also known as American trypanosomiasis, is a lethal, chronic disease that currently affects more than 10 million people in Central and South America. The trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi, TcTS) is a crucial enzyme for the survival of this parasite: sialic acids from the host are transferred to the cell surface glycoproteins of the trypanosome, thereby evading the host's immune system. On the other hand, the sialidase of T. rangeli (TrSA), which shares 70% sequence identity with TcTS, is a strict hydrolase and shows no trans-sialidase activity. Therefore, TcTS and TrSA represent an excellent framework to understand how different catalytic activities can be achieved with extremely similar structures. By means of combined quantum mechanics-molecular mechanics (QM/MM, SCC-DFTB/Amberff99SB) calculations and umbrella sampling simulations, we investigated the hydrolysis mechanisms of TcTS and TrSA and computed the free energy profiles of these reactions. The results, together with our previous computational investigations, are able to explain the catalytic mechanism of sialidases and describe how subtle differences in the active site make TrSA a strict hydrolase and TcTS a more efficient trans-sialidase.

  4. Developmental and reproductive patterns of Triatoma brasiliensis infected with Trypanosoma cruzi under laboratory conditions.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Tiago G; Carvalho-Costa, Filipe A; Gomes, Taís F; Sarquis, Otília; Sposina, Ricardo; Lima, Marli M

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the interaction between Trypanosoma cruzi-1 and Triatoma brasiliensis. A group of 1st instar nymphs was initially fed on T. cruzi-infected mice and a control group was fed on uninfected mice. From the second feeding onwards, both groups were otherwise fed on non-infected mice. The resulting adults were grouped in pairs: infected male/uninfected female, uninfected male/infected female, infected male and female and uninfected male/uninfected female. The infection affected only the 1st instar nymphs, which took significantly more time to reach the 2nd instar than uninfected nymphs. The differences in the molting time between the infected and uninfected nymphs from the 2nd to the 5th instars were not statistically significant. Both groups presented similar rates of nymphal mortality and reproductive performance was not significantly affected by infection in any of the treatments.

  5. Aromatic glycosyl disulfide derivatives: evaluation of their inhibitory activities against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Bessy; Muñoz, Christian; Osorio, Luis; Fehér, Krisztina; Illyés, Tünde-Zita; Papp, Zsuzsa; Kumar, Ambati Ashok; Kövér, Katalin E; Sagua, Hernán; Araya, Jorge E; Morales, Patricio; Szilágyi, László; González, Jorge

    2013-06-15

    Aromatic oligovalent glycosyl disulfides and some diglycosyl disulfides were tested against three different Trypanosoma cruzi strains. Di-(β-D-galactopyranosyl-dithiomethylene) benzenes 2b and 4b proved to be the most active derivatives against all three strains of cell culture-derived trypomastigotes with IC50 values ranging from 4 to 11 μM at 37 °C. The inhibitory activities were maintained, although somewhat lowered, at a temperature of 4 °C as well. Three further derivatives displayed similar activities against at least one of the three strains. Low cytotoxicities of the active compounds, tested on confluent HeLa, Vero and peritoneal macrophage cell cultures, resulted in significantly higher selectivity indices (SI) than that of the reference drug benznidazole. Remarkably, several molecules of the tested panel strongly inhibited the parasite release from T. cruzi infected HeLa cell cultures suggesting an effect against the intracellular development of T. cruzi amastigotes as well.

  6. Trypanosoma Cruzi Cyp51 Inhibitor Derived from a Mycobacterium Tuberculosis Screen Hit

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chiung-Kuang; Doyle, Patricia S.; Yermalitskaya, Liudmila V.; Mackey, Zachary B.; Ang, Kenny K.H.; McKerrow, James H.; Podust, Larissa M.

    2009-02-18

    The two front-line drugs for chronic Trypanosoma cruzi infections are limited by adverse side-effects and declining efficacy. One potential new target for Chagas disease chemotherapy is sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51), a cytochrome P450 enzyme involved in biosynthesis of membrane sterols. In a screening effort targeting Mycobacterium tuberculosis CYP51 (CYP51{sub Mt}), we previously identified the N-[4-pyridyl]-formamide moiety as a building block capable of delivering a variety of chemotypes into the CYP51 active site. In that work, the binding modes of several second generation compounds carrying this scaffold were determined by high-resolution co-crystal structures with CYP51{sub Mt}. Subsequent assays against the CYP51 orthologue in T. cruzi, CYP51{sub Tc}, demonstrated that two of the compounds tested in the earlier effort bound tightly to this enzyme. Both were tested in vitro for inhibitory effects against T. cruzi and the related protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of African sleeping sickness. One of the compounds had potent, selective anti-T. cruzi activity in infected mouse macrophages. Cure of treated host cells was confirmed by prolonged incubation in the absence of the inhibiting compound. Discrimination between T. cruzi and T. brucei CYP51 by the inhibitor was largely based on the variability (phenylalanine versus isoleucine) of a single residue at a critical position in the active site. CYP51{sub Mt}-based crystal structure analysis revealed that the functional groups of the two tightly bound compounds are likely to occupy different spaces in the CYP51 active site, suggesting the possibility of combining the beneficial features of both inhibitors in a third generation of compounds to achieve more potent and selective inhibition of CYP51{sub Tc}. Enzyme sterol 14{alpha}-demethylase (CYP51) is a well-established target for anti-fungal therapy and is a prospective target for Chagas disease therapy. We previously identified a

  7. Antibody profiles induced by Trypanosoma cruzi in chagasic patients with previous or current exposure to mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Peverengo, Luz; Prochetto, Estefanía; Rodeles, Luz; Valenzuela, Ignacio; Marcipar, Iván Sergio; Bottasso, Oscar; Vicco, Miguel Hernán

    2016-12-01

    Since the immune response mounted by the host to a particular microorganism might be influenced by the acquired immunological experience due to previous contact with other microorganisms, we performed a cross-sectional study to explore the pattern of Trypanosoma cruzi infection-related antibodies in T. cruzi-seropositive individuals presenting concomitant tuberculosis, or the antecedent of BCG vaccination. Sampled individuals were grouped as follows: patients with Chagas disease, not vaccinated with BCG, who further developed pulmonary tuberculosis; individuals with Chagas disease, BCG-vaccinated; and subjects with Chagas disease, presenting neither BCG scar nor tuberculosis disease. Non-vaccinated individuals or without tuberculosis, presented the highest values of anti-PH (P < 0.001), anti-FRA (P < 0.001), anti-p2β (P = 0.0023) and anti-B13 (P < 0.001) antibodies. The present findings constitute the first demonstration of the potential influence of concomitant tuberculosis on Chagas disease.

  8. Deciphering RNA Regulatory Elements Involved in the Developmental and Environmental Gene Regulation of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Gazestani, Vahid H; Salavati, Reza

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is a vector-borne parasite with intricate life cycle that can cause serious diseases in humans and animals. This pathogen relies on fine regulation of gene expression to respond and adapt to variable environments, with implications in transmission and infectivity. However, the involved regulatory elements and their mechanisms of actions are largely unknown. Here, benefiting from a new graph-based approach for finding functional regulatory elements in RNA (GRAFFER), we have predicted 88 new RNA regulatory elements that are potentially involved in the gene regulatory network of T. brucei. We show that many of these newly predicted elements are responsive to both transcriptomic and proteomic changes during the life cycle of the parasite. Moreover, we found that 11 of predicted elements strikingly resemble previously identified regulatory elements for the parasite. Additionally, comparison with previously predicted motifs on T. brucei suggested the superior performance of our approach based on the current limited knowledge of regulatory elements in T. brucei.

  9. Attenuated Salmonella sp. as a DNA Delivery System for Trypanosoma cruzi Antigens.

    PubMed

    Bivona, Augusto E; Cerny, Natacha; Alberti, Andrés Sánchez; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is an important neglected disease affecting thousands of people in the Americas. Novel strategies for prophylactic and therapeutic vaccines against the etiological agent, the intracellular protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, are urgently needed. Vaccines based on attenuated virus and bacteria as a foreign DNA delivery system represent a strong advantage over naked DNA-based vaccines. Here we describe the use of attenuated Salmonella carrying a eukaryotic expression plasmid encoding a T. cruzi antigen. The main advantages of the methodology are the oral administration of the Salmonella-based vaccine and the induction of a strong humoral and cell-mediated immune response at both mucosal and systemic level, favored by the adjuvant effect elicited by the bacteria pathogen-associated molecular patterns.

  10. Standard culture medium allows clonal dilution of Trypanosoma brucei procyclic cells after auto-conditioning.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stuart K

    2009-03-01

    Trypanosoma brucei can be cultured in vitro in the mammalian bloodstream form or in the procyclic (PC) form found in the insect vector. Bloodstream trypanosomes can be cloned by limiting dilution, but PCs can only be diluted in conditioned medium, i.e., medium in which PC cells have previously been grown. It is shown here that this limitation does not apply to the most commonly used PC cell strain, Lister 427, if free radicals are removed from the medium. The reported benefit of conditioning media may arise in part from a process of hemin-catalysed depletion of peroxide ("auto-conditioning") which occurs during extended incubation at growth temperature. Scavenging free radicals by addition of pyruvate also improves PC cell viability. However, other PC cell strains such as Treu 927 require cell-conditioned media unless grown in a 5% CO2 atmosphere. Several other culture parameters that affect growth rates and dilution capability were identified.

  11. Evidence for a degradosome-like complex in the mitochondria of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Mattiacio, Jonelle L.; Read, Laurie K.

    2009-01-01

    Mitochondrial RNA turnover in yeast involves the degradosome, composed of DSS-1 exoribonuclease and SUV3 RNA helicase. Here, we describe a degradosome-like complex, containing SUV3 and DSS-1 homologues, in the early branching protozoan, Trypanosoma brucei. TbSUV3 is mitochondrially localized and co-sediments with TbDSS-1 on glycerol gradients. Co-immunoprecipitation demonstrates that TbSUV3 and TbDSS-1 associate in a stable complex, which differs from the yeast degradosome in that it is not stably associated with mitochondrial ribosomes. This is the first report of a mitochondrial degradosome-like complex outside of yeast. Our data indicate an early evolutionary origin for the mitochondrial SUV3/DSS-1 containing complex. PMID:19540236

  12. Assembly of the flagellum and its role in cell morphogenesis in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Vaughan, Sue

    2010-08-01

    Eukaryotic flagella are microtubule-based structures required for a variety of functions including cell motility and sensory perception. Most eukaryotic flagella grow out from a cell into the surrounding medium, but when the flagellum of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei exits the cell via the flagellar pocket, it is attached along the length of the cell body by a cytoskeletal structure called the flagellum attachment zone (FAZ). The exact reasons for flagellum attachment have remained elusive, but evidence is emerging that the attached flagellum plays a major role in cell morphogenesis in this organism. In this review we discuss evidence published in the past four years that is unravelling the role of the flagellum in organelle segregation, inheritance of cell shape and cytokinesis.

  13. The natural compounds piperovatine and piperlonguminine induce autophagic cell death on Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Veiga-Santos, Phercyles; Desoti, Vânia Cristina; Miranda, Nathielle; Ueda-Nakamura, Tânia; Dias-Filho, Benedito Prado; Silva, Sueli Oliveira; Cortez, Diogenes Aparício Garcia; de Mello, João Carlos Palazzo; Nakamura, Celso Vataru

    2013-03-01

    The currently available treatments for Chagas disease show limited therapeutic potential and are associated with serious side effects. Our group has been attempting to find alternative drugs isolated from natural products as a potential source of pharmacological agents against Trypanosoma cruzi. Here, we demonstrate the antitrypanosomal activity of the amides piperovatine and piperlonguminine isolated from Piper ovatum against epimastigotes and intracellular amastigotes. We also investigated the mechanisms of action of these compounds on extracellular amastigote and epimastigote forms of T. cruzi. These amides showed low toxicity to LLCMK(2) mammalian cells. By using transmission and scanning electron microscopy, we observed that the compounds caused severe alterations in T. cruzi. These alterations were mainly located in plasma membrane and mitochondria. Furthermore, the study of treated parasites labeled with Rh123, PI and MDC corroborate with our TEM data. These mitochondrial dysfunctions induced by the amides might trigger biochemical alterations that lead to cell death. Altogether, our data evidence a possible autophagic process.

  14. Production, purification and crystallization of a trans-sialidase from Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Haynes, Carole L F; Ameloot, Paul; Remaut, Han; Callewaert, Nico; Sterckx, Yann G J; Magez, Stefan

    2015-05-01

    Sialidases and trans-sialidases play important roles in the life cycles of various microorganisms. These enzymes can serve nutritional purposes, act as virulence factors or mediate cellular interactions (cell evasion and invasion). In the case of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma vivax, trans-sialidase activity has been suggested to be involved in infection-associated anaemia, which is the major pathology in the disease nagana. The physiological role of trypanosomal trans-sialidases in host-parasite interaction as well as their structures remain obscure. Here, the production, purification and crystallization of a recombinant version of T. vivax trans-sialidase 1 (rTvTS1) are described. The obtained rTvTS1 crystals diffracted to a resolution of 2.5 Å and belonged to the orthorhombic space group P212121, with unit-cell parameters a = 57.3, b = 78.4, c = 209.0 Å.

  15. Oral exposure to Phytomonas serpens attenuates thrombocytopenia and leukopenia during acute infection with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Rosiane V; Malvezi, Aparecida D; Augusto, Leonardo da Silva; Kian, Danielle; Tatakihara, Vera Lúcia H; Yamauchi, Lucy M; Yamada-Ogatta, Sueli F; Rizzo, Luiz V; Schenkman, Sergio; Pinge-Filho, Phileno

    2013-01-01

    Mice infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, rapidly develop anemia and thrombocytopenia. These effects are partially promoted by the parasite trans-sialidase (TS), which is shed in the blood and depletes sialic acid from the platelets, inducing accelerated platelet clearance and causing thrombocytopenia during the acute phase of disease. Here, we demonstrate that oral immunization of C57BL/6 mice with Phytomonas serpens, a phytoflagellate parasite that shares common antigens with T. cruzi but has no TS activity, reduces parasite burden and prevents thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Immunization also reduces platelet loss after intraperitoneal injection of TS. In addition, passive transfer of immune sera raised in mice against P. serpens prevented platelet clearance. Thus, oral exposure to P. serpens attenuates the progression of thrombocytopenia induced by TS from T. cruzi. These findings are not only important for the understanding of the pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection but also for developing novel approaches of intervention in Chagas disease.

  16. Trypanosoma cruzi: characterization of reinfection and search for tissue tropism in hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus).

    PubMed

    Cabrine-Santos, M; Lages Silva, E; Chapadeiro, E; Ramírez, L E

    2001-11-01

    Tissue tropism, the role of reinfection in the development of Chagas' disease, and the selection of subpopulations of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in hamsters inoculated with the VIC strain of T. cruzi. Adult allogeneic male hamsters were inoculated once or reinoculated by the intraperitoneal route up to four times with 2000 blood trypomastigotes. Animals were studied by blood culture, histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and molecular techniques (PCR and low-stringency single specific primer-PCR). Homogeneity of the T. cruzi population observed in different tissues suggests that selective tropism of the VIC strain extends only to various muscle tissues in hamsters and that reinfection is not a factor in the development of the inflammatory processes, although it may aggravate it, possibly due to an increase in tissue parasitism, which might induce autoimmune mechanisms. Reinfection did not induce selection of subpopulations in the tissue or in the blood.

  17. Gene-deleted live-attenuated Trypanosoma cruzi parasites as vaccines to protect against Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Valdéz, Fernando J; Pérez Brandán, Cecilia; Ferreira, Arturo; Basombrío, Miguel Ángel

    2015-05-01

    Chagas disease is a neglected tropical disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. This illness is now becoming global, mainly due to congenital transmission, and so far, there are no prophylactic or therapeutic vaccines available to either prevent or treat Chagas disease. Therefore, different approaches aimed at identifying new protective immunogens are urgently needed. Live vaccines are likely to be more efficient in inducing protection, but safety issues linked with their use have been raised. The development of improved protozoan genetic manipulation tools and genomic and biological information has helped to increase the safety of live vaccines. These advances have generated a renewed interest in the use of genetically attenuated parasites as vaccines against Chagas disease. This review discusses the protective capacity of genetically attenuated parasite vaccines and the challenges and perspectives for the development of an effective whole-parasite Chagas disease vaccine.

  18. High throughput sequencing analysis of Trypanosoma brucei DRBD3/PTB1-bound mRNAs.

    PubMed

    Das, Anish; Bellofatto, Vivian; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Carrington, Mark; Romero-Zaliz, Rocío; del Val, Coral; Estévez, Antonio M

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosomes are early-branched eukaryotes that show an unusual dependence on post-transcriptional mechanisms to regulate gene expression. RNA-binding proteins are crucial in controlling mRNA fate in these organisms, but their RNA substrates remain largely unknown. Here we have analyzed on a global scale the mRNAs associated with the Trypanosoma brucei RNA-binding protein DRBD3/PTB1, by capturing ribonucleoprotein complexes using UV cross-linking and subsequent immunoprecipitation. DRBD3/PTB1 associates with many transcripts encoding ribosomal proteins and translation factors. Consequently, silencing of DRBD3/PTB1 expression altered the protein synthesis rate. DRBD3/PTB1 also binds to mRNAs encoding the enzymes required to obtain energy through the oxidation of proline to succinate. We hypothesize that DRBD3/PTB1 is a key player in RNA regulon-based gene control influencing protein synthesis in trypanosomes.

  19. Proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi developmental stages using isotope-coded affinity tag reagents.

    PubMed

    Paba, Jaime; Ricart, Carlos A O; Fontes, Wagner; Santana, Jaime M; Teixeira, Antonio R L; Marchese, Jason; Williamson, Brian; Hunt, Tony; Karger, Barry L; Sousa, Marcelo V

    2004-01-01

    Comparative proteome analysis of developmental stages of the human pathogen Trypanosoma cruzi was carried out by isotope-coded affinity tag technology (ICAT) associated with liquid cromatography-mass spectrometry peptide sequencing (LC-MS/MS). Protein extracts of the protozoan trypomastigote and amastigote stages were labeled with heavy (D8) and light (D0) ICAT reagents and subjected to cation exchange and avidin affinity chromatographies followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. High confidence sequence information and expression levels for 41 T. cruzi polypeptides, including metabolic enzymes, paraflagellar rod components, tubulins, and heat-shock proteins were reported. Twenty-nine proteins displayed similar levels of expression in both forms of the parasite, nine proteins presented higher levels in trypomastigotes, whereas three were more expressed in amastigotes.

  20. In vitro activity of Etanidazole against the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Petray, Patricia B; Morilla, María J; Corral, Ricardo S; Romero, Eder L

    2004-03-01

    We investigated the in vitro action of an hydrosoluble 2-nitroimidazole, Etanidazole (EZL), against Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease. EZL displayed lethal activity against isolated trypomastigotes as well as amastigotes of T. cruzi (RA strain) growing in Vero cells or J774 macrophages, without affecting host cell viability. Although not completely equivalent to Benznidazole (BZL), the reference drug for Chagas chemotherapy, EZL takes advantage in exerting its anti-T. cruzi activity for longer periods without serious toxic side effects, as those recorded in BZL-treated patients. Our present results encourage further experiments to study in depth the trypanocidal properties of this drug already licensed for use in human cancers.

  1. JVG9, a benzimidazole derivative, alters the surface and cytoskeleton of Trypanosoma cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Chiguer, Dylan L; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Nogueda-Torres, Benjamín; Castillo, Rafael; Reynoso-Ducoing, Olivia; Hernández-Campos, Alicia; Ambrosio, Javier R

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi has a particular cytoskeleton that consists of a subpellicular network of microtubules and actin microfilaments. Therefore, it is an excellent target for the development of new anti-parasitic drugs. Benzimidazole 2-carbamates, a class of well-known broad-spectrum anthelmintics, have been shown to inhibit the in vitro growth of many protozoa. Therefore, to find efficient anti-trypanosomal (trypanocidal) drugs, our group has designed and synthesised several benzimidazole derivatives. One, named JVG9 (5-chloro-1H-benzimidazole-2-thiol), has been found to be effective against T. cruzi bloodstream trypomastigotes under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we present the in vitro effects observed by laser scanning confocal and scanning electron microscopy on T. cruzi trypomastigotes. Changes in the surface and the distribution of the cytoskeletal proteins are consistent with the hypothesis that the trypanocidal activity of JVG9 involves the cytoskeleton as a target. PMID:25317703

  2. Tc45, a dimorphic Trypanosoma cruzi immunogen with variable chromosomal localization, is calreticulin.

    PubMed

    Aguillón, J C; Ferreira, L; Pérez, C; Colombo, A; Molina, M C; Wallace, A; Solari, A; Carvallo, P; Galindo, M; Galanti, N; Orn, A; Billetta, R; Ferreira, A

    2000-01-01

    We demonstrate that Tc45, a polypeptide described as an immunogenetically restricted Trypanosoma cruzi antigen in mice, is calreticulin, a dimorphic molecule encoded by genes with variable chromosomal distribution. Previously we showed that IgG from A.SW (H2s) mice immunized with T. cruzi trypomastigotes or epimastigotes and sera from infected humans recognize Tc45, a 45 kD parasite polypeptide. Herein we describe the cloning, sequencing, and expression of the Tc45 gene. A 98% homology in the deduced amino acid sequence was found with a T. cruzi calreticulin-like molecule and 41% with Leishmania donovani and human calreticulin. In the T. cruzi CL Brener clone and in the Tulahuén strain, the gene is located in two and four chromosomes, respectively. Calreticulin was detected in several T. cruzi clones, in the Tulahuén strain, and in T. rangeli, displaying alternative 43 and 46 kD forms.

  3. Anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of 10 medicinal plants used in northeast Mexico.

    PubMed

    Molina-Garza, Zinnia Judith; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Galaviz-Silva, Lucio

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to screen the trypanocidal activity of plants used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of various diseases related to parasitic infections. Cultured Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes were incubated for 96h with different concentrations of methanolic extracts obtained from Artemisia mexicana, Castela texana, Cymbopogon citratus, Eryngium heterophyllum, Haematoxylum brasiletto, Lippia graveolens, Marrubium vulgare, Persea americana, Ruta chalepensis and Schinus molle. The inhibitory concentration (IC50) was determined for each extract via a colorimetric method. Among the evaluated species, the methanolic extracts of E. heterophyllum, H. brasiletto, M. vulgare and S. molle exhibited the highest trypanocidal activity, showing percentages of growth inhibition between 88 and 100% at a concentration of 150μg/ml. These medicinal plants may represent a valuable source of new bioactive compounds for the therapeutic treatment of trypanosomiasis.

  4. Solution structure of Q388A3 PDZ domain from Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Mei, Song; Dong, Yuanqiu; Zhang, Jiahai; Zhang, Xuecheng; Tu, Xiaoming

    2016-05-01

    PDZ domains are abundant protein interaction modules that often recognize short amino acid motifs at the C-termini of target proteins and regulate multiple biological processes. So far, no PDZ domain in Trypanosoma brucei, an eukaryotic parasite causing sleeping sickness, has been studied. Q388A3, conserved in the related kinetoplastid parasites, is a 1634-residue protein containing a PDZ domain at its C-terminus. In this work, the solution structure of Q388A3 PDZ domain was solved by NMR spectroscopy. Q388A3 PDZ domain adopts a PDZ-like fold composed by a five-stranded β-sheet capped by two α-helices, which is similar to the PDZ domains from HtrA family proteins. Meanwhile, Q388A3 PDZ domain shows some structural features quite different from HtrA PDZ domain.

  5. Sec16 determines the size and functioning of the Golgi in the protist parasite, Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Sealey-Cardona, Marco; Schmidt, Katy; Demmel, Lars; Hirschmugl, Tatjana; Gesell, Tanja; Dong, Gang; Warren, Graham

    2014-06-01

    The Sec16 homologue in Trypanosoma brucei has been identified and characterized. TbSec16 colocalizes with COPII components at the single endoplasmic reticulum exit site (ERES), which is next to the single Golgi stack in the insect (procyclic) form of this organism. Depletion of TbSec16 reduces the size of the ERES and the Golgi, and slows growth and transport of a secretory marker to the cell surface; conversely, overexpression of TbSec16 increases the size of the ERES and Golgi but has no effect on growth or secretion. Together these data suggest that TbSec16 regulates the size of the ERES and Golgi and this size is set for optimal growth of the organism.

  6. ORC1/CDC6 and MCM7 distinct associate with chromatin through Trypanosoma cruzi life cycle.

    PubMed

    Calderano, Simone; Godoy, Patricia; Soares, Daiane; Sant'Anna, Osvaldo Augusto; Schenkman, Sergio; Elias, M Carolina

    2014-02-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi alternates between replicative and non-replicative stages. We analyzed the expression of components of the pre-replication machinery TcORC1/CDC6 and TcMCM7 and their interaction with DNA in all T. cruzi stages. TcORC1/CDC6 remains in the nuclear space during all stages of the life cycle and interacts with DNA in the replicative stages; however, it does not bind to DNA in the non-replicative forms. Moreover, TcMCM7 is not present in the non-replicative stages. These data suggest that the lacking of DNA replication during the T. cruzi life cycle may be a consequence of the blocking of TcORC1/CDC6-DNA interaction and of the down regulation of the TcMCM7 expression.

  7. The Role of Heme and Reactive Oxygen Species in Proliferation and Survival of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Marcia Cristina; Cosentino-Gomes, Daniela; de Souza, Cíntia Fernandes; Nogueira, Natália Pereira de Almeida; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2011-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan responsible for Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle comprehending two distinct hosts and a series of morphological and functional transformations. Hemoglobin degradation inside the insect vector releases high amounts of heme, and this molecule is known to exert a number of physiological functions. Moreover, the absence of its complete biosynthetic pathway in T. cruzi indicates heme as an essential molecule for this trypanosomatid survival. Within the hosts, T. cruzi has to cope with sudden environmental changes especially in the redox status and heme is able to increase the basal production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) which can be also produced as byproducts of the parasite aerobic metabolism. In this regard, ROS sensing is likely to be an important mechanism for the adaptation and interaction of these organisms with their hosts. In this paper we discuss the main features of heme and ROS susceptibility in T. cruzi biology. PMID:22007287

  8. Surface charge of trypanosoma cruzi. Binding of cationized ferritin and measurement of cellular electrophoretic mobility.

    PubMed

    De Souza, W; Arguello, C; Martinez-Paloma, A; Trissl, D; Gonzáles-Robles, A; Chiari, E

    1977-08-01

    The surface charge of epimastigote and trypomastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi was evaluated by means of binding of cationized ferritin to the cell surface as visualized by electron microscopy, and by direct measurements of the cellular microelectrophoretic mobility (EPM). Epimastigote forms had a mean EPM of -0.52 micrometer-s-1-V-1-cm and were lightly labeled with cationized ferritin. In contrast, bloodstream trypomastigotes had a much higher EPM (-1.14), and the surface was heavily labeled with cationized ferritin. When trypomastigotes from staionary phase cultures were isolated on DEAE cellulose columns, the mean EPM was found to be significantly lower (-0.63), and labeling with cationized ferritin decreased. With a mixed population containing epimastigote, trypomastigote, and intermediate forms, EPM values ranging between -0.70 to -1.14 were found. From these observations we conclude that there is a definite increase in negative surface charge during development from epi- to trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi.

  9. Mitochondrial and Nucleolar Localization of Cysteine Desulfurase Nfs and the Scaffold Protein Isu in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Kovářová, Julie; Horáková, Eva; Changmai, Piya; Vancová, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei has a complex life cycle during which its single mitochondrion is subjected to major metabolic and morphological changes. While the procyclic stage (PS) of the insect vector contains a large and reticulated mitochondrion, its counterpart in the bloodstream stage (BS) parasitizing mammals is highly reduced and seems to be devoid of most functions. We show here that key Fe-S cluster assembly proteins are still present and active in this organelle and that produced clusters are incorporated into overexpressed enzymes. Importantly, the cysteine desulfurase Nfs, equipped with the nuclear localization signal, was detected in the nucleolus of both T. brucei life stages. The scaffold protein Isu, an interacting partner of Nfs, was also found to have a dual localization in the mitochondrion and the nucleolus, while frataxin and both ferredoxins are confined to the mitochondrion. Moreover, upon depletion of Isu, cytosolic tRNA thiolation dropped in the PS but not BS parasites. PMID:24243795

  10. Characterization of the genes specifying two metacyclic variable antigen types in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense.

    PubMed Central

    Lenardo, M J; Rice-Ficht, A C; Kelly, G; Esser, K M; Donelson, J E

    1984-01-01

    Bloodstream trypanosomes evade the immune system of their mammalian host by sequentially expressing a large number of different variable surface glycoproteins (VSGs). In contrast, metacyclic trypanosomes, the final developmental stage in the tsetse fly, express a much more restricted set of VSGs. These metacyclic VSGs are the first to be exposed to the immune system of the mammalian host after infection and may offer the potential for the eventual development of a vaccine. We have identified cDNAs for two VSGs in cDNA libraries prepared from amplified metacyclic populations of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and show that they correspond to two different metacyclic serotypes. Determination of the cDNA sequences shows that metacyclic VSG mRNAs are similar to VSG mRNAs expressed during the bloodstream stage. Southern blots demonstrate that the metacyclic VSG genes are located near chromosomal telomeres. No evidence of gene rearrangement associated with expression of these VSGs was found. Images PMID:6593722

  11. Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase as a drug target against Chagas disease (American trypanosomiasis).

    PubMed

    Miller, Bill R; Roitberg, Adrian E

    2013-10-01

    Chagas disease (or American trypanosomiasis) is a deadly tropical disease that affects millions of people worldwide, primarily in rural regions of South America. Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic cause of Chagas disease, possesses a membrane-anchored trans-sialidase enzyme that transfers sialic acids from the host cell surface to the parasitic cell surface, allowing T. cruzi to effectively evade the host's immune system. This enzyme has no analogous human counterpart and thus has become an interesting drug target to combat the parasite. Recent computational efforts have improved our knowledge about the enzyme's structure, dynamics and catalyzed reaction. Many compounds have been tested against trans-sialidase activity, but no strong inhibitors have been identified yet. The current lack of drugs for Chagas disease necessitates more R&D into the design and discovery of strong inhibitors of T. cruzi trans-sialidase.

  12. Antiheart antibody-dependent cytotoxicity in the sera of mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Laguens, R P; Meckert, P C; Chambó, J G

    1988-01-01

    Sera of mice chronically infected with Trypanosoma cruzi contain antibodies that bind to the surface of living adult syngeneic heart muscle cells. In a syngeneic system, with nonadherent spleen mononuclear cells as effector cells and cardiocytes as targets, antibody-dependent cytotoxicity (ADCC), revealed by the liberation of creatine phosphokinase from damaged cardiocytes, was observed after incorporation of serum samples from infected mice. Target damage was decreased after absorption with syngeneic myocardium, but absorption with T. cruzi epimastigotes or trypomastigotes or with syngeneic skeletal muscle had no effect on ADCC. No complement-dependent lysis against heart muscle cells was detected in the same serum samples. These observations indicate that serum from chronically chagasic mice contain antibodies that bind to the surface of living adult syngeneic cardiocytes and are able to exert ADCC, suggesting that they could play a role in the pathogenesis of the heart damage that occurs in Chagas' disease. Images PMID:3126153

  13. Extracellular vesicles from Trypanosoma brucei mediate virulence factor transfer and cause host anemia

    PubMed Central

    Szempruch, Anthony J.; Sykes, Steven E.; Kieft, Rudo; Denison, Lauren; Becker, Allison C.; Gartrell, Anzio; Martin, William J.; Nakayasu, Ernesto S.; Almeida, Igor C.; Hajduk, Stephen L.; Harrington, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Intercellular communication between parasites and with host cells provides mechanisms for parasite development, immune evasion and disease pathology. Bloodstream African trypanosomes produce membranous nanotubes that originate from the flagellar membrane and disassociate into free extracellular vesicles (EVs). Trypanosome EVs contain several flagellar proteins that contribute to virulence and Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense EVs contain the serum resistance-associated protein (SRA) necessary for human infectivity. T. b. rhodesiense EVs transfer SRA to non-human infectious trypanosomes allowing evasion of human innate immunity. Trypanosome EVs can also fuse with mammalian erythrocytes resulting in rapid erythrocyte clearance and anemia. These data indicate that trypanosome EVs are organelles mediating non-hereditary virulence factor transfer and causing host erythrocyte remodeling inducing anemia. PMID:26771494

  14. Evaluation of dipeptide nitriles as inhibitors of rhodesain, a major cysteine protease of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Schirmeister, Tanja; Schmitz, Janina; Jung, Sascha; Schmenger, Torsten; Krauth-Siegel, R Luise; Gütschow, Michael

    2017-01-01

    A series of dipeptide nitriles known as inhibitors of mammalian cathepsins were evaluated for inhibition of rhodesain, the cathepsin L-like protease of Trypanosoma brucei. Compound 35 consisting of a Leu residue fitting into the S2 pocket and a triarylic moiety consisting of thiophene, a 1,2,4-oxadiazole and a phenyl ring fitting into the S3 pocket, and compound 33 with a 3-bromo-Phe residue (S2) and a biphenyl fragment (S3) were found to inhibit rhodesain in the single-digit nanomolar range. The observed steep structure-activity relationship could be explained by covalent docking simulations. With their high selectivity indices (ca. 200) and the good antitrypanosomal activity (8μM) the compounds represent promising starting points for new rhodesain inhibitors.

  15. Trypanosoma irwini n. sp (Sarcomastigophora: Trypanosomatidae) from the koala ( Phascolarctos cinereus).

    PubMed

    McInnes, L M; Gillett, A; Ryan, U M; Austen, J; Campbell, R S F; Hanger, J; Reid, S A

    2009-07-01

    The morphology and genetic characterization of a new species of trypanosome infecting koalas (Phascolarctos cinereus) are described. Morphological analysis of bloodstream forms and phylogenetic analysis at the 18S rDNA and gGAPDH loci demonstrated this trypanosome species to be genetically distinct and most similar to Trypanosoma bennetti, an avian trypanosome with a genetic distance of 0.9% at the 18S rDNA and 10.7% at the gGAPDH locus. The trypanosome was detected by 18S rDNA PCR in the blood samples of 26 out of 68 (38.2%) koalas studied. The aetiological role of trypanosomes in koala disease is currently poorly defined, although infection with these parasites has been associated with severe clinical signs in a number of koalas. Based on biological and genetic characterization data, this trypanosome species infecting koalas is proposed to be a new species Trypanosome irwini n. sp.

  16. An automatic algorithm for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi parasites in blood sample images.

    PubMed

    Soberanis-Mukul, Roger; Uc-Cetina, Víctor; Brito-Loeza, Carlos; Ruiz-Piña, Hugo

    2013-12-01

    Chagas disease is a tropical parasitic disease caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) and currently affecting large portions of the Americas. One of the standard laboratory methods to determine the presence of the parasite is by direct visualization in blood smears stained with some colorant. This method is time-consuming, requires trained microscopists and is prone to human mistakes. In this article we propose a novel algorithm for the automatic detection of T. cruzi parasites, in microscope digital images obtained from peripheral blood smears treated with Wright's stain. Our algorithm achieved a sensitivity of 0.98 and specificity of 0.85 when evaluated against a dataset of 120 test images. Experimental results show the versatility of the method for parasitemia determination.

  17. Changes in immunoglobulin levels in zinc-deficient mice infected with Trypanosoma musculi.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P. A.; Lee, C. M.; Ashraf, M.

    1994-01-01

    A metabolic imbalance technique was used to study the effects of zinc deficiency on immunoglobulin levels in mice infected with Trypanosoma musculi or immunized with parasite products. Zinc-deficient mice developed higher numbers of parasitemia earlier and exhibited prolonged infection. Irrespective of the diet, higher IgG1, IgG2b, and IgM levels, lower IgG2a and IgA levels, and uniform IgG3 levels were exhibited primarily by mice infected with T musculi and to a lesser extent by mice immunized with parasite products. Zinc-deficient mice showed smaller increases in IgG1 and IgM, but larger gains in IgG2b compared with mice on full-complement and pair-fed diets. However, IgG2a decreased significantly in zinc-deficient mice. PMID:7932840

  18. African trypanosomiasis with special reference to Egyptian Trypanosoma evansi: is it a neglected zoonosis?

    PubMed

    El-Bahnasawy, Mamdouh M M; Khater, Mai Kh A; Morsy, Tosson A

    2014-12-01

    Trypanosomes (including humans) are blood and sometimes tissue parasites of the order Kinetoplastida, family Trypanosomatidae, genus Trypanosoma, principally transmitted by biting insects where most of them undergo a biological cycle. They are divided into Stercoraria with the posterior station inoculation, including T. cruzi, both an extra- and intracellular parasite that causes Chagas disease, a major human disease affecting 15 million people and threatening 100 million people in Latin America, and the Salivaria with the anterior station inoculation, mainly African livestock pathogenic trypanosomes, including the agents of sleeping sickness, a major human disease affecting around half a million people and threatening 60 million people in Africa. Now, T. evansi was reported in man is it required to investigate its zoonotic potential?

  19. Gene expression and molecular modeling of the HSP104 chaperone of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Campos, R A; da Silva, M L; da Costa, G V; Bisch, P M; Peralta, J M; Silva, R; Rondinelli, E; Urményi, T P

    2012-08-06

    Heat shock protein (HSP) 104 is a highly conserved molecular chaperone that catalyzes protein unfolding, disaggregation and degradation under stress conditions. We characterized HSP104 gene structure and expression in Trypanosoma cruzi, a protozoan parasite that causes Chagas' disease. The T. cruzi HSP104 is an 869 amino-acid protein encoded by a single-copy gene that has the highest sequence similarity (76%) with that of T. brucei and the lowest (23%) with that of the human protein. HSP104 transcripts were detected at room temperature, and levels increased after incubation at 37° or 40°C. The HSP104 protein was found at low levels in non-heat-shocked cells, and accumulated continuously up to 24 h at elevated temperatures. We developed a predicted structural model of hexameric T. cruzi HSP104, which showed some conserved features.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi Epimastigotes Are Able to Manage Internal Cholesterol Levels under Nutritional Lipid Stress Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Miria Gomes; Visbal, Gonzalo; Salgado, Leonardo T.; Vidal, Juliana Cunha; Godinho, Joseane L. P.; De Cicco, Nuccia N. T.; Atella, Geórgia C.; de Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-e-Silva, Narcisa

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes store high amounts of cholesterol and cholesteryl esters in reservosomes. These unique organelles are responsible for cellular digestion by providing substrates for homeostasis and parasite differentiation. Here we demonstrate that under nutritional lipid stress, epimastigotes preferentially mobilized reservosome lipid stocks, instead of lipid bodies, leading to the consumption of parasite cholesterol reservoirs and production of ergosterol. Starved epimastigotes acquired more LDL-NBD-cholesterol by endocytosis and distributed the exogenous cholesterol to their membranes faster than control parasites. Moreover, the parasites were able to manage internal cholesterol levels, alternating between consumption and accumulation. With normal lipid availability, parasites esterified cholesterol exhibiting an ACAT-like activity that was sensitive to Avasimibe in a dose-dependent manner. This result also implies that exogenous cholesterol has a role in lipid reservoirs in epimastigotes. PMID:26068009

  1. The Cyclical Development of Trypanosoma vivax in the Tsetse Fly Involves an Asymmetric Division

    PubMed Central

    Ooi, Cher-Pheng; Schuster, Sarah; Cren-Travaillé, Christelle; Bertiaux, Eloise; Cosson, Alain; Goyard, Sophie; Perrot, Sylvie; Rotureau, Brice

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma vivax is the most prevalent trypanosome species in African cattle. It is thought to be transmitted by tsetse flies after cyclical development restricted to the vector mouthparts. Here, we investigated the kinetics of T. vivax development in Glossina morsitans morsitans by serial dissections over 1 week to reveal differentiation and proliferation stages. After 3 days, stable numbers of attached epimastigotes were seen proliferating by symmetric division in the cibarium and proboscis, consistent with colonization and maintenance of a parasite population for the remaining lifespan of the tsetse fly. Strikingly, some asymmetrically dividing cells were also observed in proportions compatible with a continuous production of pre- metacyclic trypomastigotes. The involvement of this asymmetric division in T. vivax metacyclogenesis is discussed and compared to other trypanosomatids. PMID:27734008

  2. Assembly mechanism of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1 at the flagellar pocket collar.

    PubMed

    Vidilaseris, Keni; Lesigang, Johannes; Morriswood, Brooke; Dong, Gang

    2015-01-01

    The flagellar pocket is a bulb-like invagination of the plasma membrane that encloses the base of the single flagellum in trypanosomes. It is the site of all endo- and exocytic activity in the parasite and has thus been proposed to be a therapeutic target. At the neck of the flagellar pocket is an electron-dense cytoskeletal structure named the flagellar pocket collar. The protein BILBO1 was the first characterized and remains the only known component of the flagellar pocket collar, with essential functions in the biogenesis of both the flagellar pocket and flagellar pocket collar. We recently reported that the filamentous assembly of Trypanosoma brucei BILBO1 (TbBILBO1) is mediated by its central coiled coil domain and C-terminal leucine zipper. Here, we discuss how TbBILBO1 might assemble at the flagellar pocket collar in T. brucei.

  3. Molecular phylogeny of Trypanosoma cruzi from Central America (Guatemala) and a comparison with South American strains.

    PubMed

    Iwagami, M; Higo, H; Miura, S; Yanagi, T; Tada, I; Kano, S; Agatsuma, T

    2007-12-01

    Molecular phylogenetic analysis was carried out for 21 strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, nine of which were obtained from Guatemala and 12 from South America. Phylogenetic trees were constructed using the nucleotide sequences of two nuclear gene regions, dihydrofolate reductase-thymidylate synthase (DHFR-TS) and trypanothione reductase (TR), and contiguous portions of two mitochondrial genes, cytochrome oxidase subunit II (COII) and reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide dehydrogenase subunit 1 (ND1). Possible genetic exchange between the rather divergent lineages of T. cruzi II from South America was suggested in the trees of the two nuclear genes. T. cruzi I strains obtained from Guatemala and Colombia were identical in all the genes examined, but other T. cruzi I isolates from South America were rather polymorphic in the DHFR-TS and mitochondrial genes. No genetic exchange was identified between T. cruzi I populations from Central and South America in the present study.

  4. Autonomic Dysfunction and Risk Factors Associated with Trypanosoma cruzi Infection among Children in Arequipa, Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H.; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V.; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E.; Maguire, James H.; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20–30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections. PMID:21212207

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and immune response during the chronic phase of the experimental Chagas' disease.

    PubMed

    Caetano, Leony Cristina; Santello, Fabricia Helena; Del Vecchio Filipin, Marina; Brazão, Vânia; Caetano, Luana Naiara; Toldo, Miriam Paula Alonso; Caldeira, Jerri C; do Prado Júnior, José Clóvis

    2009-07-07

    Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has long been considered as a precursor for many steroid hormones. It also enhances the immune responses against a wide range of viral, bacterial, and parasitic pathogens. The aims of this work were to evaluate the influences of exogenous DHEA treatment on Wistar rats infected with the Y strain of Trypanosoma cruzi during the acute and its influence on the chronic phase of infection. Animals were subcutaneous treated with 40 mg/kg body weight/day of DHEA. DHEA treatment promoted increased lymphoproliferative responses as well as enhanced concentrations of NO and IL-12. So, we point in the direction that our results validate the utility of the use of DHEA as an alternative therapy candidate against T. cruzi.

  6. Induction and regulation of Trypanosoma brucei VSG-specific antibody responses.

    PubMed

    Black, S J; Guirnalda, P; Frenkel, D; Haynes, C; Bockstal, V

    2010-12-01

    The review addresses how infection with Trypanosoma brucei affects the development, survival and functions of B lymphocytes in mice. It discusses (1) the contributions of antibodies to trypanosome clearance from the bloodstream, (2) how B lymphocytes, the precursors of antibody producing plasma cells, interact with membrane form variable surface glycoprotein (VSG), i.e. with monovalent antigen that is free to diffuse within the lipid bilayer of the trypanosome plasma membrane and consequently can cross-link B cell antigen specific receptors by indirect processes only and (3) the extent and underlying causes of dysregulation of humoral immune responses in infected mice, focusing on the impact of wild type and GPI-PLC⁻/⁻ trypanosomes on bone marrow and extramedullary B lymphopoiesis, B cell maturation and survival.

  7. Consequences of telomere shortening at an active VSG expression site in telomerase-deficient Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Dreesen, Oliver; Cross, George A M

    2006-12-01

    Trypanosoma brucei evades the host immune response by sequential expression of a large family of variant surface glycoproteins (VSG) from one of approximately 20 subtelomeric expression sites (ES). VSG transcription is monoallelic, and little is known about the regulation of antigenic switching. To explore whether telomere length could affect antigenic switching, we created a telomerase-deficient cell line, in which telomeres shortened at a rate of 3 to 6 bp at each cell division. Upon reaching a critical length, short silent ES telomeres were stabilized by a telomerase-independent mechanism. The active ES telomere progressively shortened and frequently broke. Upon reaching a critical length, the short active ES telomere stabilized, but the transcribed VSG was gradually lost from the population and replaced by a new VSG through duplicative gene conversion. We propose a model in which subtelomeric-break-induced replication-mediated repair at a short ES telomere leads to duplicative gene conversion and expression of a new VSG.

  8. Trypanosoma brucei: Enrichment by UV of intergenic transcripts from the variable surface glycoprotein gene expression site

    SciTech Connect

    Coquelet, H.; Tebabi, P.; Pays, A.; Steinert, M.; Pays, E. )

    1989-09-01

    The expression site for the variable surface glycoprotein (VSG) gene AnTat 1.3A of Trypanosoma brucei is 45 kilobases long and encompasses seven expression site-associated genes (ESAGs). After UV irradiation, several large transcripts from the putative promoter region were strongly enriched. We report that one such major transcript starts near the poly(A) addition site of the first gene (ESAG 7), spans the intergenic region, and extends to the poly(A) addition site of the second gene (ESAG 6), thus bypassing the normal 3' splice site of the ESAG 6 mRNA. Since this transcript is spliced, we conclude that UV irradiation does not inhibit splicing but stabilizes unstable processing products. This demonstrates that at least some intergenic regions of the VSG gene expression site are continuously transcribed in accordance with a polycistronic transcription model.

  9. Solution structure of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor glycan of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein

    SciTech Connect

    Homans, S.W.; Edge, C.J.; Ferguson, M.A.J.; Dwek, R.A.; Rademacher, T.W. )

    1989-04-04

    The average solution conformation of the glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) membrane anchor of Trypanosoma brucei variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) has been determined by using a combination of two-dimensional {sup 1}H-{sup 1}H NMR methods together with molecular orbital calculations and restrained molecular dynamics simulations. This allows the generation of a model to describe the orientation of the glycan with respect to the membrane. This shows that the glycan exists in an extended configuration along the plane of the membrane and spans an area of 600 {angstrom}{sup 2}, which is similar to the cross-sectional area of a monomeric N-terminal VSG domain. Taken together, these observations suggest a possible space-filling role for the GPI anchor that may maintain the integrity of the VSG coat. The potential importance of the GPI glycan as a chemotherapeutic target is discussed in light of these observations.

  10. Mapping replication dynamics in Trypanosoma brucei reveals a link with telomere transcription and antigenic variation.

    PubMed

    Devlin, Rebecca; Marques, Catarina A; Paape, Daniel; Prorocic, Marko; Zurita-Leal, Andrea C; Campbell, Samantha J; Lapsley, Craig; Dickens, Nicholas; McCulloch, Richard

    2016-05-26

    Survival of Trypanosoma brucei depends upon switches in its protective Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat by antigenic variation. VSG switching occurs by frequent homologous recombination, which is thought to require locus-specific initiation. Here, we show that a RecQ helicase, RECQ2, acts to repair DNA breaks, including in the telomeric site of VSG expression. Despite this, RECQ2 loss does not impair antigenic variation, but causes increased VSG switching by recombination, arguing against models for VSG switch initiation through direct generation of a DNA double strand break (DSB). Indeed, we show DSBs inefficiently direct recombination in the VSG expression site. By mapping genome replication dynamics, we reveal that the transcribed VSG expression site is the only telomeric site that is early replicating - a differential timing only seen in mammal-infective parasites. Specific association between VSG transcription and replication timing reveals a model for antigenic variation based on replication-derived DNA fragility.

  11. Characterization of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense variant surface glycoprotein LiTat 1.5.

    PubMed

    Van Nieuwenhove, L; Rogé, S; Lejon, V; Guisez, Y; Büscher, P

    2012-05-09

    At present, all available diagnostic antibody detection tests for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense human African trypanosomiasis are based on predominant variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs), such as VSG LiTat 1.5. During investigations aiming at replacement of the native VSGs by recombinant proteins or synthetic peptides, the sequence of VSG LiTat 1.5 was derived from cDNA and direct N-terminal amino acid sequencing. Characterization of the VSG based on cysteine distribution in the amino acid sequence revealed an unusual cysteine pattern identical to that of VSG Kinu 1 of T. b. brucei. Even though both VSGs lack the third of four conserved cysteines typical for type A N-terminal domains, they can be classified as type A.

  12. RAP1 is essential for silencing telomeric variant surface glycoprotein genes in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaofeng; Figueiredo, Luisa M; Espinal, Amin; Okubo, Eiji; Li, Bibo

    2009-04-03

    Trypanosoma brucei expresses variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) genes in a strictly monoallelic fashion in its mammalian hosts, but it is unclear how this important virulence mechanism is enforced. Telomere position effect, an epigenetic phenomenon, has been proposed to play a critical role in VSG regulation, yet no telomeric protein has been identified whose disruption led to VSG derepression. We now identify tbRAP1 as an intrinsic component of the T. brucei telomere complex and a major regulator for silencing VSG expression sites (ESs). Knockdown of tbRAP1 led to derepression of all VSGs in silent ESs, but not VSGs located elsewhere, and resulted in stronger derepression of genes located within 10 kb from telomeres than genes located further upstream. This graduated silencing pattern suggests that telomere integrity plays a key role in tbRAP1-dependent silencing and VSG regulation.

  13. Delineation of the regulated Variant Surface Glycoprotein gene expression site domain of Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Sheader, Karen; Berberof, Magali; Isobe, Tomoko; Borst, Piet; Rudenko, Gloria

    2003-05-01

    The African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei is protected in the bloodstream of the mammalian host by a dense Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG) coat. Although an individual cell has hundreds of VSG genes, the active VSG is transcribed in a mutually exclusive fashion from one of about twenty telomeric VSG expression sites. Expression sites are regulated domains flanked by 50 bp repeat arrays and extensive tracts of repetitive elements. We have integrated exogenous rDNA and expression site promoters upstream of the 50 bp repeats of the VO2 VSG expression site. Transcription from both types of exogenous promoter is downregulated and comparable to promoters targeted into the VSG Basic Copy arrays. We show that the upstream exogenous rDNA promoter escapes VSG expression site control, as switching the downstream VO2 VSG expression site on and off does not affect its activity. Therefore, the 50 bp repeat arrays appear to be the boundary of the regulated expression site domain.

  14. A VSG expression site-associated gene confers resistance to human serum in Trypanosoma rhodesiense.

    PubMed

    Xong, H V; Vanhamme, L; Chamekh, M; Chimfwembe, C E; Van Den Abbeele, J; Pays, A; Van Meirvenne, N; Hamers, R; De Baetselier, P; Pays, E

    1998-12-11

    Infectivity of Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense to humans is due to its resistance to a lytic factor present in human serum. In the ETat 1 strain this character was associated with antigenic variation, since expression of the ETat 1.10 variant surface glycoprotein was required to generate resistant (R) clones. In addition, in this strain transcription of a gene termed SRA was detected in R clones only. We show that the ETat 1.10 expression site is the one selectively transcribed in R variants. This expression site contains SRA as an expression site-associated gene (ESAG) and is characterized by the deletion of several ESAGs. Transfection of SRA into T.b. brucei was sufficient to confer resistance to human serum, identifying this gene as one of those responsible for T.b. rhodesiense adaptation to humans.

  15. Trypanosoma rangeli: a new perspective for studying the modulation of immune reactions of Rhodnius prolixus

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Eloi S; Castro, Daniele P; Figueiredo, Marcela B; Genta, Fernando A; Azambuja, Patrícia

    2009-01-01

    Insects are exposed to a wide range of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses) and have interconnected powerful immune reactions. Although insects lack an acquired immune system they have well-developed innate immune defences that allow a general and rapid response to infectious agents. Over the last few decades we have observed a dramatic increase in the knowledge of insect innate immunity, which relies on both humoral and cellular responses. However, innate reactions to natural insect pathogens and insect-transmitted pathogens, such as parasites, still remain poorly understood. In this review, we briefly introduce the general immune system of insects and highlight our current knowledge of these reactions focusing on the interactions of Trypanosoma rangeli with Rhodnius prolixus, an important model for innate immunity investigation. PMID:19615044

  16. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification test for Trypanosoma vivax based on satellite repeat DNA.

    PubMed

    Njiru, Z K; Ouma, J O; Bateta, R; Njeru, S E; Ndungu, K; Gitonga, P K; Guya, S; Traub, R

    2011-08-25

    Trypanosoma vivax is major cause of animal trypanosomiasis and responsible for enormous economic burden in Africa and South America animal industry. T. vivax infections mostly run low parasitaemia with no apparent clinical symptoms, making diagnosis a challenge. This work reports the design and evaluation of a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test for detecting T. vivax DNA based on the nuclear satellite repeat sequence. The assay is rapid with results obtained within 35 min. The analytical sensitivity is ∼ 1 trypanosome/ml while that of the classical PCR tests ranged from 10 to 10(3)trypanosomes/ml. The T. vivax LAMP test reported here is simple, robust and has future potential in diagnosis of animal trypanosomiasis in the field.

  17. Plasmid vectors and molecular building blocks for the development of genetic manipulation tools for Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Bouvier, León A; Cámara, María de los Milagros; Canepa, Gaspar E; Miranda, Mariana R; Pereira, Claudio A

    2013-01-01

    The post genomic era revealed the need for developing better performing, easier to use and more sophisticated genetic manipulation tools for the study of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. In this work a series of plasmids that allow genetic manipulation of this protozoan parasite were developed. First of all we focused on useful tools to establish selection strategies for different strains and which can be employed as expression vectors. On the other hand molecular building blocks in the form of diverse selectable markers, modifiable fluorescent protein and epitope-tag coding sequences were produced. Both types of modules were harboured in backbone molecules conceived to offer multiple construction and sub-cloning strategies. These can be used to confer new properties to already available genetic manipulation tools or as starting points for whole novel designs. The performance of each plasmid and building block was determined independently. For illustration purposes, some simple direct practical applications were conducted.

  18. Familial Analysis of Seropositivity to Trypanosoma cruzi and of Clinical Forms of Chagas Disease

    PubMed Central

    Silva-Grecco, Roseane L.; Balarin, Marly A. S.; Correia, Dalmo; Prata, Aluízio; Rodrigues, Virmondes

    2010-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was carried out in Água Comprida, MG, Brazil, a region previously endemic to Chagas disease whose vectorial transmission was interrupted around 20 year ago. A total of 998 individuals were examined for anti-Trypanosoma cruzi antibodies. Seropositivity was observed in 255 subjects (25.5%), and 743 subjects were negative. Forty-one families with 5–80 individuals with similar environmental conditions were selected for familial analysis. In 15 families, seropositivity to T. cruzi was observed in > 50% of individuals. The segregation analysis confirmed family aggregation for the seropositivity to the T. cruzi. Heart commitment was the major clinical form observed, and in six families, > 50% of the individuals display cardiopathy that may be attributed to T. cruzi infection. Our results support the hypothesis that there is a family aggregation for the seropositivity but without the effect of one major gene. PMID:20064994

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi parasites fight for control of the JAK-STAT pathway by disarming their host

    PubMed Central

    Stahl, Philipp; Schwarz, Ralph T; Debierre-Grockiego, Françoise; Meyer, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    The zoonotic Chagas’ disease is caused by infections with the hemoflagellate Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) which is endemic in Latin America. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease, the underlying molecular processes involved in host-parasite interactions are only poorly understood. In particular, the mechanisms for parasite persistence in host cells remain largely unknown. Cytokine-driven transcription factors from the family of STAT (signal transducer and activator of transcription) proteins appear to play a central role in the fight against T. cruzi infection. However, amastigotes proliferating in the cytoplasm of infected host cells develop effective strategies to circumvent the attack executed by STAT proteins. This review highlights the interactions between T. cruzi parasites and human host cells in terms of cytokine signaling and, in particular, discusses the impact of STATs on the balance between parasite invasion and clearance. PMID:26413423

  20. Mapping of B-Cell Epitopes in a Trypanosoma cruzi Immunodominant Antigen Expressed in Natural Infections

    PubMed Central

    Lesénéchal, Mylène; Becquart, Laurence; Lacoux, Xavier; Ladavière, Laurent; Baida, Renata C. P.; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; da Silveira, José Franco

    2005-01-01

    Tc40 is an immunodominant antigen present in natural Trypanosoma cruzi infections. This immunogen was thoroughly mapped by using overlapping amino acid sequences identified by gene cloning and chemical peptide synthesis. To map continuous epitopes of the Tc40 antigen, an epitope expression library was constructed and screened with sera from human chagasic patients. A major, linear B-cell epitope spanning residues 403 to 426 (PAKAAAPPAA) was identified in the central domain of Tc40. A synthetic peptide spanning this region reacted strongly with 89.8% of the serum samples from T. cruzi-infected individuals. This indicates that the main antigenic site is defined by the linear sequence of the peptide rather than a conformation-dependent structure. The major B-cell epitope of Tc40 shares a high degree of sequence identity with T. cruzi ribosomal and RNA binding proteins, suggesting the existence of cross-reactivity among these molecules. PMID:15699429

  1. Prevalence of antibody to Trypanosoma cruzi in pregnant Hispanic women in Houston.

    PubMed

    Di Pentima, M C; Hwang, L Y; Skeeter, C M; Edwards, M S

    1999-06-01

    We assessed the seroprevalence of antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi among pregnant Hispanic women in Houston. Sera from 2,107 Hispanic and 1,658 non-Hispanic subjects were tested by ELISA for the presence of antibodies to T. cruzi. Twenty-two (0.6%) of 3,765 subjects had sera that were reactive. Seroreactivity was confirmed by hemagglutination assay. Eleven subjects had reactive sera, giving a confirmed seroprevalence of 0.3% (95% CI, 0-1%). Nine sera from Hispanic and two from non-Hispanic women were positive by hemagglutination assay, for a prevalence of 0.4% and 0.1%, respectively, during pregnancy. On the basis of these seroreactivity data, transplacental transmission of T. cruzi could occur in the continental United States. Screening for antibodies to T. cruzi during pregnancy would provide the potential for early intervention in congenital Chagas' disease.

  2. Therapeutic activity of crude ethanolic extract of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi in rabbits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awad, Fathy M.; Hasan, Zainal Abidin Abu; Osman, Abdinasir Yusuf; Ibrahim, Nazlina

    2013-11-01

    The present work was conducted to evaluate the antitrypanosomal efficacy of crude ethanolic extract (CEE) of the aerial parts of Artemisia herba alba against Trypanosoma evansi infection in an animal model. The results indicated low levels of parasitaemia in rabbits administered with crude ethanolic extract (CEE) compared to those from the negative control group. Similarly, there was also haematologically significant difference (p<0.05) where low mean levels of packed cell volume (PCV) was observed in Groups 1-4 respectively. In contrast, there was no statistically significant difference in almost all investigated parameters between positive control and treatment groups of animals. In conclusion, both CEE of A. herba-alba and Berenil® showed relatively a parasitaemia and normal haematological values in infected rabbits, thereby confirming their antiparasitic properties.

  3. Phylogenetic character mapping of proteomic diversity shows high correlation with subspecific phylogenetic diversity in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Telleria, Jenny; Biron, David G.; Brizard, Jean-Paul; Demettre, Edith; Séveno, Martial; Barnabé, Christian; Ayala, Francisco J.; Tibayrenc, Michel

    2010-01-01

    We performed a phylogenetic character mapping on 26 stocks of Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasite responsible for Chagas disease, and 2 stocks of the sister taxon T. cruzi marinkellei to test for possible associations between T. cruzi–subspecific phylogenetic diversity and levels of protein expression, as examined by proteomic analysis and mass spectrometry. We observed a high level of correlation (P < 10−4) between genetic distance, as established by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis, and proteomic dissimilarities estimated by proteomic Euclidian distances. Several proteins were found to be specifically associated to T. cruzi phylogenetic subdivisions (discrete typing units). This study explores the previously uncharacterized links between infraspecific phylogenetic diversity and gene expression in a human pathogen. It opens the way to searching for new vaccine and drug targets and for identification of specific biomarkers at the subspecific level of pathogens. PMID:21059959

  4. Identification of novel Trypanosoma cruzi prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitors by structure-based virtual screening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Almeida, Hugo; Leroux, Vincent; Motta, Flávia Nader; Grellier, Philippe; Maigret, Bernard; Santana, Jaime M.; Bastos, Izabela Marques Dourado

    2016-12-01

    We have previously demonstrated that the secreted prolyl oligopeptidase of Trypanosoma cruzi (POPTc80) is involved in the infection process by facilitating parasite migration through the extracellular matrix. We have built a 3D structural model where POPTc80 is formed by a catalytic α/β-hydrolase domain and a β-propeller domain, and in which the substrate docks at the inter-domain interface, suggesting a "jaw opening" gating access mechanism. This preliminary model was refined by molecular dynamics simulations and next used for a virtual screening campaign, whose predictions were tested by standard binding assays. This strategy was successful as all 13 tested molecules suggested from the in silico calculations were found out to be active POPTc80 inhibitors in the micromolar range (lowest K i at 667 nM). This work paves the way for future development of innovative drugs against Chagas disease.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei parasites occupy and functionally adapt to the adipose tissue in mice

    DOE PAGES

    Trindade, Sandra; Rijo-Ferreira, Filipa; Carvalho, Tania; ...

    2016-05-26

    Trypanosoma brucei is an extracellular parasite that causes sleeping sickness. In mammalian hosts, trypanosomes are thought to exist in two major niches: early in infection, they populate the blood; later, they breach the blood-brain barrier. Working with a well-established mouse model, we discovered that adipose tissue constitutes a third major reservoir for T. brucei. Parasites from adipose tissue, here termed adipose tissue forms (ATFs), can replicate and were capable of infecting a naive animal. ATFs were transcriptionally distinct from bloodstream forms, and the genes upregulated included putative fatty acid β-oxidation enzymes. Consistent with this, ATFs were able to utilize exogenousmore » myristate and form β-oxidation intermediates, suggesting that ATF parasites can use fatty acids as an external carbon source. Lastly, these findings identify the adipose tissue as a niche for T. brucei during its mammalian life cycle and could potentially explain the weight loss associated with sleeping sickness.« less

  6. Role of Trypanosoma cruzi Trans-sialidase on the Escape from Host Immune Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Nardy, Ana F. F. R.; Freire-de-Lima, Celio G.; Pérez, Ana R.; Morrot, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by the flagellate protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, affecting millions of people throughout Latin America. The parasite dampens host immune response causing modifications in diverse lymphoid compartments, including the thymus. T. cruzi trans-sialidase (TS) seems to play a fundamental role in such immunopathological events. This unusual enzyme catalyses the transference of sialic acid molecules from host glycoconjugates to acceptor molecules placed on the parasite surface. TS activity mediates several biological effects leading to the subversion of host immune system, hence favoring both parasite survival and the establishment of chronic infection. This review summarizes current findings on the roles of TS in the immune response during T. cruzi infection. PMID:27047464

  7. Trypanosoma cruzi, the Causal Agent of Chagas Disease: Boundaries between Wild and Domestic Cycles in Venezuela

    PubMed Central

    Herrera, Leidi

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi the etiological agent of American Trypanosomiasis or Chagas disease (ChD) is transmitted by triatomines vectors between mammals including man. T. cruzi has existed for circa 150 Ma in the Americas and nearly 10 million people are currently infected. The overlap between wild and domestic ecotopes where T. cruzi circulates is increasing. Host–parasite interactions have been determined by infection patterns in these cycles, all under natural or laboratorial conditions. This mini-review describes specific parasite niches, such as plant communities or biological corridors between domestic and wild landscapes, in order to help identify risk factors for ChD and define the boundaries between wild and domestic transmission cycles, with an emphasis on research undertaken in Venezuela. PMID:25506587

  8. Protein preparation, crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi nucleoside diphosphate kinase 1.

    PubMed

    Gómez Barroso, J A; Pereira, H; Miranda, M; Pereira, C; Garratt, R C; Aguilar, C F

    2010-07-01

    The flagellated protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi is the aetiological agent of Chagas disease. Nucleoside diphosphate kinases (NDPKs) are enzymes that are involved in energy management and nucleoside balance in the cell. T. cruzi TcNDPK1, a canonical isoform, was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally poly-His-tagged fusion protein and crystallized. Crystals grew after 72 h in 0.2 M MgCl(2), 20% PEG 3350. Data were collected to 3.5 A resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation at the National Synchrotron Light Laboratory (Campinas, Brazil). The crystals belonged to the trigonal space group P3, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 127.84, c = 275.49 A. Structure determination is under way and will provide relevant information that may lead to the first step in rational drug design for the treatment of Chagas disease.

  9. Lysosome-like compartments of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes may originate directly from epimastigote reservosomes.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Juliana C; Alcantara, Carolina DE L; DE Souza, Wanderley; Cunha-E-Silva, Narcisa L

    2017-01-12

    Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigote reservosomes store nutrients taken up during the intense endocytic activity exhibited by this developmental form. Reservosomes were classified as pre-lysosomal compartments. In contrast, trypomastigote forms are not able to take up nutrients from the medium. Interestingly, trypomastigotes also have acidic organelles with the same proteases contained in epimastigote reservosomes. Nevertheless, the origin and function of these organelles have not been disclosed so far. Given the similarities between the compartments of epimastigotes and trypomastigotes, the present study aimed to investigate the origin of metacyclic trypomastigote protease-containing organelles by tracking fluorospheres or colloidal gold particles previously stored in epimastigotes' reservosomes throughout metacyclogenesis. Using three-dimensional reconstruction of serial electron microscopy images, it was possible to find trypomastigote compartments containing the tracer. Our observations demonstrate that the protease-containing compartments from metacyclic trypomastigotes may originate directly from the reservosomes of epimastigotes.

  10. In vitro antitrypanosomal activity of bis(bibenzyls)s and bibenzyls from liverworts against Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Otoguro, Kazuhiko; Ishiyama, Aki; Iwatsuki, Masato; Namatame, Miyuki; Nishihara-Tukashima, Aki; Kiyohara, Hiroaki; Hashimoto, Toshihiro; Asakawa, Yoshinori; Omura, Satoshi; Yamada, Haruki

    2012-04-01

    During the course of our screening program to discover new antitrypanosomal compounds, 17 known plant aromatic compounds [12 bis(bibenzyls)s and 5 bibenzyls] were evaluated for in vitro activity against Trypanosoma brucei brucei. Sixteen compounds were found to exhibit antitrypanosomal activity. In particular, three compounds, marchantin A (1), plagiochin A (5) and 2(R)-2-isopropenyl-6,7-dihydroxy-4-(2-phenylethyl)dihydrobenzofuran (16) demonstrated moderate selective and potent antitrypanosomal activities in vitro. We detail here the antitrypanosomal properties and cytotoxicities of the compounds in comparison with two commonly used therapeutic drugs, eflornithine and suramin. Our finding represents the first report of the promising trypanocidal activity of these compounds. The research also provides valuable insight into structure-activity relationships and the possible mode of action of the compounds.

  11. Autonomic dysfunction and risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi infection among children in Arequipa, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E; Maguire, James H; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20-30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections.

  12. Regional variation in the correlation of antibody and T-cell responses to Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Martin, Diana L; Marks, Morgan; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Gilman, Robert H; Goodhew, Brook; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Halperin, Anthony; Sanchez, Gerardo; Verastegui, Manuela; Escalante, Patricia; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z; Bern, Caryn

    2014-06-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Central and South America. Geographic variations in the sensitivity of serologic diagnostic assays to T. cruzi may reflect differences in T. cruzi exposure. We measured parasite-specific T-cell responses among seropositive individuals in two populations from South America with widely varying antibody titers against T. cruzi. Antibody titers among seropositive individuals were significantly lower in Arequipa, Peru compared with Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Similarly, the proportion of seropositive individuals with positive T-cell responses was lower in Peru than Bolivia, resulting in overall lower frequencies of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting cells from Peruvian samples. However, the magnitude of the IFNγ response was similar among the IFNγ responders in both locations. These data indicate that immunological discrepancies based on geographic region are reflected in T-cell responses as well as antibody responses.

  13. Regional Variation in the Correlation of Antibody and T-Cell Responses to Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Diana L.; Marks, Morgan; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Gilman, Robert H.; Goodhew, Brook; Ferrufino, Lisbeth; Halperin, Anthony; Sanchez, Gerardo; Verastegui, Manuela; Escalante, Patricia; Naquira, Cesar; Levy, Michael Z.; Bern, Caryn

    2014-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Central and South America. Geographic variations in the sensitivity of serologic diagnostic assays to T. cruzi may reflect differences in T. cruzi exposure. We measured parasite-specific T-cell responses among seropositive individuals in two populations from South America with widely varying antibody titers against T. cruzi. Antibody titers among seropositive individuals were significantly lower in Arequipa, Peru compared with Santa Cruz, Bolivia. Similarly, the proportion of seropositive individuals with positive T-cell responses was lower in Peru than Bolivia, resulting in overall lower frequencies of interferon-γ (IFNγ)-secreting cells from Peruvian samples. However, the magnitude of the IFNγ response was similar among the IFNγ responders in both locations. These data indicate that immunological discrepancies based on geographic region are reflected in T-cell responses as well as antibody responses. PMID:24710614

  14. Phloretin and citrate promote the differentiation rate from epimastigote to metacyclic forms of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Adroher, F J; Osuna, A; Lupiáñez, J A

    1991-11-01

    We have investigated the effects of the metabolic inhibitors, phloretin, 2-deoxy-D-glucose, maleate and trans-aconitate, as well as two intermediates of the tricarboxylic-acid cycle, acetate and citrate, on the growth and metacyclogenesis of Trypanosoma cruzi. 0.1 mM phloretin increased the percentage of metacyclic forms about 2.7-fold without affecting growth rate, whereas the other inhibitors had no apparent effect on either growth or differentiation rates. The addition of 5 mM citrate stimulated differentiation by about 2.6-fold. When either 10 mM citrate or 10 mM acetate were added, on the other hand, both the growth and differentiation rates were severely inhibited.

  15. A shuttle vector which facilitates the expression of transfected genes in Trypanosoma cruzi and Leishmania.

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J M; Ward, H M; Miles, M A; Kendall, G

    1992-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi expression vector has been constructed using sequences derived from the flanking regions of the glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (gGAPDH) genes. The neomycin phosphotransferase (neor) gene was incorporated as a selectable marker. Using electroporation we have introduced this vector into both T. cruzi and Leishmania cells and conferred G418 resistance. Transformation is mediated by large extrachromosomal circular elements composed of head-to-tail tandem repeats of the vector. The transformed phenotype is stable for at least 6 months in the absence of G418 and can be maintained during passage through the T. cruzi life-cycle. Foreign genes inserted into an expression site within the vector (pTEX) can be expressed at high levels in transformed cells. To our knowledge this paper describes the first trypanosome shuttle vector and the first vector which functions in both trypanosomes and Leishmania. Images PMID:1324472

  16. Gastric invasion by Trypanosoma cruzi and induction of protective mucosal immune responses.

    PubMed Central

    Hoft, D F; Farrar, P L; Kratz-Owens, K; Shaffer, D

    1996-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is an intracellular parasite transmitted from a reduviid insect vector to humans by exposure of mucosal surfaces to infected insect excreta. We have used an oral challenge murine model that mimics vector-borne transmission to study T. cruzi mucosal infection. Although gastric secretions have microbicidal activity against most infectious pathogens, we demonstrate that T. cruzi can invade and replicate in the gastric mucosal epithelium. In addition, gastric mucosal invasion appears to be the unique portal of entry for systemic T. cruzi infection after oral challenge. The mucosal immune responses stimulated by T. cruzi gastric infection are protective against a secondary mucosal parasite challenge. This protective mucosal immunity is associated with increased numbers of lymphocytes that secrete parasite-specific immunoglobulin A. Our results document the first example of systemic microbial invasion through gastric mucosa and suggest the feasibility of a mucosal vaccine designed to prevent infection with this important human pathogen. PMID:8751932

  17. First report of surra (Trypanosoma evansi infection) in a Tunisian dog

    PubMed Central

    Rjeibi, Mohamed Ridha; Ben Hamida, Taoufik; Dalgatova, Zara; Mahjoub, Tarek; Rejeb, Ahmed; Dridi, Walid; Gharbi, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma evansi, the agent of surra, is a salivarian trypanosome, originating from Africa. Surra is a major disease in camels, equines and dogs, in which it can often be fatal in the absence of treatment. Animals exhibit nonspecific clinical signs (anaemia, loss of weight and abortion). In the present survey, a blood sample was collected in Sousse (Central Tunisia) from a dog that presented clinical signs of trypanosomiasis. Giemsa-stained blood smears and PCR were performed. ITS1 sequences from blood had 99.8 and 99.5% homology with published T. evansi sequences from cattle and camels, respectively. To our knowledge, this is the first report of T. evansi in a Tunisian dog. PMID:25654368

  18. Prevalence of antibodies to Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi in wild canids from South Carolina.

    PubMed

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Tidwell, Richard R; Lindsay, David S

    2007-08-01

    Wild canids are reservoir hosts for Leishmania infantum and Trypanosoma cruzi. The present study examined the prevalence of antibodies to these zoonotic parasites in a population of wild canids from a nonagricultural setting in South Carolina. Sera from 26 gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus) and 2 coyotes (Canis latrans) were examined for antibodies to L. infantum and T. cruzi using the indirect immunofluorescent antibody test and commercially available parasite-specific immunochromatigraphic strip assays. Antibodies to L. infantum were not detected by either assay in gray foxes or coyotes. Two (8%) of 26 gray foxes were positive in both the T. cruzi immunofluorescent antibody and strip assays. Antibodies to T. cruzi were not detected in coyotes. Results from this study indicate that wild canids are exposed to T. cruzi, but not L. infantum. in this geographic region.

  19. trans-Sialidase Neutralizing Antibody Detection in Trypanosoma cruzi-Infected Domestic Reservoirs ▿

    PubMed Central

    Sartor, Paula A.; Cardinal, Martha V.; Orozco, Marcela M.; Gürtler, Ricardo E.; Leguizamón, M. Susana

    2011-01-01

    The detection of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in domestic dogs and cats is relevant to evaluating human transmission risks and the effectiveness of insecticide spraying campaigns. However, the serological assays routinely used are associated with cross-reactivity in sera from mammals infected with Leishmania spp. We used a trans-sialidase inhibition assay (TIA) for T. cruzi diagnosis in serum samples from 199 dogs and 57 cats from areas where these types of infections are endemic. TIA is based on the antibody neutralization of recombinant trans-sialidase, an enzyme that is not detected in the coendemic Leishmania species or Trypanosoma rangeli parasites. T. cruzi infection was also evaluated by conventional serology (CS) (indirect immunofluorescence, indirect hemagglutination, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunochromatographic dipstick test) and xenodiagnosis. Sera from 30 dogs and 15 cats from areas where these organisms are not endemic and 5 dogs with visceral leishmaniasis were found to be nonreactive by TIA and CS. Samples from dogs and cats demonstrated 91 and 95% copositivities between TIA and CS, whereas the conegativities were 98 and 97%, respectively. Sera from xenodiagnosis-positive dogs and cats also reacted by TIA (copositivities of 97 and 83%, respectively). TIA was reactive in three CS-negative samples and was able to resolve results in two cat serum samples that were CS inconclusive. Our study is the first to describe the development of trans-sialidase neutralizing antibodies in naturally infected dogs and cats. High CS conegativity and the absence of trans-sialidase neutralization in dog sera from areas where leishmaniasis is not endemic and from dogs with visceral leishmaniasis support TIA specificity. The TIA may be a useful tool for T. cruzi detection in the main domestic reservoirs. PMID:21471302

  20. Zoonotic trypanosomes in South East Asia: Attempts to control Trypanosoma lewisi using veterinary drugs.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Yangtara, Sarawut; Kunphukhieo, Pawinee; Chalermwong, Piangjai; Jittapalapong, Sathaporn; Herder, Stéphane

    2016-06-01

    A growing number of atypical human infections due to the livestock parasite Trypanosoma evansi, or to the rat parasite Trypanosoma lewisi, are reported in humans in Asia. In some cases, clinical evolutions request treatments, however, so far, there were very few attempts to control T. lewisi using trypanocidal drugs. In a study published elsewhere, the efficacy of human trypanocides is evaluated in laboratory rats, and it concludes that none of them is able to cure rats experimentally infected with T. lewisi. Control of T. lewisi in rat would be a step for identification of drugs against this parasite. In the present study, 4 veterinary drugs: diminazene aceturate, isometamidium chloride, melarsomine hydrochloride and quinapyramine sulfate and chloride, were evaluated at low and high doses, in intra-muscular injections to normal rats experimentally infected with a stock of T. lewisi from Thailand. None of these treatments being efficient, a trial was also made using melarsomine hydrochloride in T. evansi infected rats and in mixed T. lewisi and T. evansi infected rats, in order to demonstrate the efficacy of the drugs under the present protocol. T. evansi was cleared from the rat's blood the day after the treatment, while, T. lewisi remained unaffected until the end of the experiment. These observations clearly demonstrated the efficacy of melarsomine hydrochloride against T. evansi and its inefficacy against T. lewisi. In conclusion none of the veterinary drugs was efficient against this stock of T. lewisi. Other protocols using higher doses or other drugs and T. lewisi stocks should be investigated in further studies. The control of T. lewisi infection in Wistar rats, using veterinary trypanocidal drugs, remains so far unsuccessful.

  1. Tigutcystatin, a cysteine protease inhibitor from Triatoma infestans midgut expressed in response to Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Buarque, Diego S.; Spindola, Leticia M.N.; Martins, Rafael M.; Braz, Gloria R.C.; Tanaka, Aparecida S.

    2011-09-23

    Highlights: {yields} Tigutcystatin inhibits Trypanosoma cruzi cysteine proteases with high specificity. {yields} Tigutcystatin expression is up-regulated in response to T. cruzi infection. {yields} It is the first cysteine proteases inhibitor characterized from a triatomine insect. -- Abstract: The insect Triatoma infestans is a vector of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. A cDNA library was constructed from T. infestans anterior midgut, and 244 clones were sequenced. Among the EST sequences, an open reading frame (ORF) with homology to a cystatin type 2 precursor was identified. Then, a 288-bp cDNA fragment encoding mature cystatin (lacking signal peptide) named Tigutcystatin was cloned fused to a N-terminal His tag in pET-14b vector, and the protein expressed in Escherichia coli strain Rosetta gami. Tigutcystatin purified and cleaved by thrombin to remove His tag presented molecular mass of 11 kDa and 10,137 Da by SDS-PAGE and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, respectively. Purified Tigutcystatin was shown to be a tight inhibitor towards cruzain, a T. cruzi cathepsin L-like enzyme (K{sub i} = 3.29 nM) and human cathepsin L (K{sub i} = 3.78 nM). Tissue specific expression analysis showed that Tigutcystatin was mostly expressed in anterior midgut, although amplification in small intestine was also detected by semi quantitative RT-PCR. qReal time PCR confirmed that Tigutcystatin mRNA is significantly up-regulated in anterior midgut when T. infestans is infected with T. cruzi. Together, these results indicate that Tigutcystatin may be involved in modulation of T. cruzi in intestinal tract by inhibiting parasite cysteine proteases, which represent the virulence factors of this protozoan.

  2. Quantitative enzymatic production of sialylated galactooligosaccharides with an engineered sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli.

    PubMed

    Zeuner, Birgitte; Holck, Jesper; Perna, Valentina; Mikkelsen, Jørn Dalgaard; Meyer, Anne S

    2016-01-01

    Sialylated galactooligosaccharides (GOS) represent a potential infant formula ingredient, which is believed to contribute with a combination of the beneficial properties of the prebiotic GOS as well as of sialylated human milk oligosaccharides. Sialylated GOS do not exist in natural milk, but can be produced from κ(kappa)-casein glycomacropeptide (CGMP), a sialylated side stream component from cheese-making, by sialidase-catalyzed transsialylation. Using a rationally designed mutant of the sialidase from Trypanosoma rangeli, Tr13, with enhanced transsialylation activity, six different GOS preparations with a varying degree of polymerization (DP) were effectively sialylated with molar yields of 20-30% on the CGMP sialyl in batch reactions. The rate of sialylation of the individual DPs was largely dependent on the DP distribution in each GOS preparation, and Tr13 catalysis did not discriminate against large GOS molecules, providing the novelty point that GOS molecules are sialylated independently of their size by Tr13. Using CGMP, GOS, and Tr13, the production of gram-scale quantities of sialyl-GOS was achieved in 20L volume reactions. Compared to the benchmark transsialidase from pathogenic Trypanosoma cruzi, the Tr13 was significantly more thermostable. By employing an enzymatic membrane reactor, Tr13 could be recycled and after seven consecutive 1-h reaction cycles, the biocatalytic productivity of the enzyme was increased 7-fold compared to the batch reaction. Assuming that the enzyme may be specific for α-2,3-bound sialyl moieties only, and that only 50% of sialyl linkages in CGMP are α-2,3-linked, the molar yield of sialyl-GOS on the available α-2,3-bound sialyl moieties in CGMP reached 80% in the enzymatic membrane reactor system.

  3. Rational design of a new Trypanosoma rangeli trans-sialidase for efficient sialylation of glycans.

    PubMed

    Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina; Larsen, Dorte M; Kepp, Kasper P; Li, Haiying; Guo, Yao; Kirpekar, Finn; Meyer, Anne S; Mikkelsen, Jørn D

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports rational engineering of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase to develop an effective enzyme for a potentially important type of reactivity: production of sialylated prebiotic glycans. The Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase and the homologous T. rangeli sialidase has previously been used to investigate the structural requirements for trans-sialidase activity. We observed that the T. cruzi trans-sialidase has a seven-amino-acid motif (197-203) at the border of the substrate binding cleft. The motif differs substantially in chemical properties and substitution probability from the homologous sialidase, and we hypothesised that this motif is important for trans-sialidase activity. The 197-203 motif is strongly positively charged with a marked change in hydrogen bond donor capacity as compared to the sialidase. To investigate the role of this motif, we expressed and characterised a T. rangeli sialidase mutant, Tr13. Conditions for efficient trans-sialylation were determined, and Tr13's acceptor specificity demonstrated promiscuity with respect to the acceptor molecule enabling sialylation of glycans containing terminal galactose and glucose and even monomers of glucose and fucose. Sialic acid is important in association with human milk oligosaccharides, and Tr13 was shown to sialylate a number of established and potential prebiotics. Initial evaluation of prebiotic potential using pure cultures demonstrated, albeit not selectively, growth of Bifidobacteria. Since the 197-203 motif stands out in the native trans-sialidase, is markedly different from the wild-type sialidase compared to previous mutants, and is shown here to confer efficient and broad trans-sialidase activity, we suggest that this motif can serve as a framework for future optimization of trans-sialylation towards prebiotic production.

  4. The Effectiveness of Natural Diarylheptanoids against Trypanosoma cruzi: Cytotoxicity, Ultrastructural Alterations and Molecular Modeling Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sueth-Santiago, Vitor; Moraes, Julliane de B. B.; Sobral Alves, Eliomara Sousa; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Castro, Rosane N.; Mendes-Silva, Gustavo Peron; Del Cistia, Catarina de Nigris; Magalhães, Luma Godoy; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Sant´Anna, Carlos Mauricio R.; Decoté-Ricardo, Debora; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson

    2016-01-01

    Curcumin (CUR) is the major constituent of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and has been widely investigated for its chemotherapeutic properties. The well-known activity of CUR against Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum led us to investigate its activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we tested the cytotoxic effects of CUR and other natural curcuminoids on different forms of T. cruzi, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced in epimastigote form of the parasite. CUR was verified as the curcuminoid with more significant trypanocidal properties (IC50 10.13 μM on epimastigotes). Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) was equipotent to CUR (IC50 11.07 μM), but bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) was less active (IC50 45.33 μM) and cyclocurcumin (CC) was inactive. In the experiment with infected murine peritoneal macrophages all diarylheptanoids were more active than the control in the inhibition of the trypomastigotes release. The electron microscopy images showed ultrastructural changes associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite, indicating tubulin as possible target of CUR in T. cruzi. The results obtained by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content of the parasites treated with natural curcuminoids suggested a mechanism of action on microtubules related to the paclitaxel`s mode of action. To better understand the mechanism of action highlighted by electron microscopy and flow cytometry experiments we performed the molecular docking of natural curcuminoids on tubulin of T. cruzi in a homology model and the results obtained showed that the observed interactions are in accordance with the IC50 values found, since there CUR and DMC perform similar interactions at the binding site on tubulin while BDMC do not realize a hydrogen bond with Lys163 residue due to the absence of methoxyl groups. These results indicate that trypanocidal properties of CUR may be related to the cytoskeletal alterations. PMID:27658305

  5. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase is an essential enzyme for the parasitic protist Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Alloatti, Andres; Gupta, Shreedhara; Gualdron-Lopez, Melisa; Nguewa, Paul A.; Altabe, Silvia G.; Deumer, Gladys; Wallemacq, Pierre; Michels, Paul A.M.; Uttaro, Antonio D.

    2011-08-26

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibiting {Delta}9 desaturase drastically changes T. brucei's fatty-acid composition. {yields} Isoxyl specifically inhibits the {Delta}9 desaturase causing a growth arrest. {yields} RNA interference of desaturase expression causes a similar effect. {yields} Feeding T. brucei-infected mice with Isoxyl decreases the parasitemia. {yields} 70% of Isoxyl-treated mice survived the trypanosome infection. -- Abstract: Trypanosoma brucei, the etiologic agent of sleeping sickness, is exposed to important changes in nutrients and temperature during its life cycle. To adapt to these changes, the fluidity of its membranes plays a crucial role. This fluidity, mediated by the fatty-acid composition, is regulated by enzymes named desaturases. We have previously shown that the oleoyl desaturase is essential for Trypanosoma cruzi and T. brucei. In this work, we present experimental support for the relevance of stearoyl-CoA desaturase (SCD) for T. brucei's survival, in both its insect or procyclic-form (PCF) and bloodstream-form (BSF) stages. We evaluated this essentiality in two different ways: by generating a SCD knocked-down parasite line using RNA interference, and by chemical inhibition of the enzyme with two compounds, Isoxyl and a thiastearate with the sulfur atom at position 10 (10-TS). The effective concentration for 50% growth inhibition (EC{sub 50}) of PCF was 1.0 {+-} 0.2 {mu}M for Isoxyl and 5 {+-} 2 {mu}M for 10-TS, whereas BSF appeared more susceptible with EC{sub 50} values 0.10 {+-} 0.03 {mu}M (Isoxyl) and 1.0 {+-} 0.6 {mu}M (10-TS). RNA interference showed to be deleterious for both stages of the parasite. In addition, T. brucei-infected mice were fed with Isoxyl, causing a reduction of the parasitemia and an increase of the rodents' survival.

  6. Genetic and expression analysis of cattle identifies candidate genes in pathways responding to Trypanosoma congolense infection

    PubMed Central

    Noyes, Harry; Brass, Andy; Obara, Isaiah; Anderson, Susan; Archibald, Alan L.; Bradley, Dan G.; Fisher, Paul; Freeman, Abigail; Gibson, John; Gicheru, Michael; Hall, Laurence; Hanotte, Olivier; Hulme, Helen; McKeever, Declan; Murray, Caitriona; Oh, Sung Jung; Tate, Catriona; Smith, Ken; Tapio, Miika; Wambugu, John; Williams, Diana J.; Agaba, Morris; Kemp, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    African bovine trypanosomiasis caused by Trypanosoma sp., is a major constraint on cattle productivity in sub-Saharan Africa. Some African Bos taurus breeds are highly tolerant of infection, but the potentially more productive Bos indicus zebu breeds are much more susceptible. Zebu cattle are well adapted for plowing and haulage, and increasing their tolerance of trypanosomiasis could have a major impact on crop cultivation as well as dairy and beef production. We used three strategies to obtain short lists of candidate genes within QTL that were previously shown to regulate response to infection. We analyzed the transcriptomes of trypanotolerant N'Dama and susceptible Boran cattle after infection with Trypanosoma congolense. We sequenced EST libraries from these two breeds to identify polymorphisms that might underlie previously identified quantitative trait loci (QTL), and we assessed QTL regions and candidate loci for evidence of selective sweeps. The scan of the EST sequences identified a previously undescribed polymorphism in ARHGAP15 in the Bta2 trypanotolerance QTL. The polymorphism affects gene function in vitro and could contribute to the observed differences in expression of the MAPK pathway in vivo. The expression data showed that TLR and MAPK pathways responded to infection, and the former contained TICAM1, which is within a QTL on Bta7. Genetic analyses showed that selective sweeps had occurred at TICAM1 and ARHGAP15 loci in African taurine cattle, making them strong candidates for the genes underlying the QTL. Candidate QTL genes were identified in other QTL by their expression profile and the pathways in which they participate. PMID:21593421

  7. Host Cell Poly(ADP-Ribose) Glycohydrolase Is Crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Cycle

    PubMed Central

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C.; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L.; Flawiá, Mirtha M.; Alonso, Guillermo D.; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H.

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas’ disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas’ disease. PMID:23776710

  8. Genome of the Avirulent Human-Infective Trypanosome—Trypanosoma rangeli

    PubMed Central

    Stoco, Patrícia Hermes; Wagner, Glauber; Talavera-Lopez, Carlos; Gerber, Alexandra; Zaha, Arnaldo; Thompson, Claudia Elizabeth; Bartholomeu, Daniella Castanheira; Lückemeyer, Débora Denardin; Bahia, Diana; Loreto, Elgion; Prestes, Elisa Beatriz; Lima, Fábio Mitsuo; Rodrigues-Luiz, Gabriela; Vallejo, Gustavo Adolfo; Filho, José Franco da Silveira; Schenkman, Sérgio; Monteiro, Karina Mariante; Tyler, Kevin Morris; de Almeida, Luiz Gonzaga Paula; Ortiz, Mauro Freitas; Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; de Moraes, Milene Höehr; Cunha, Oberdan de Lima; Mendonça-Neto, Rondon; Silva, Rosane; Teixeira, Santuza Maria Ribeiro; Murta, Silvane Maria Fonseca; Sincero, Thais Cristine Marques; Mendes, Tiago Antonio de Oliveira; Urmenyi, Turán Peter; Silva, Viviane Grazielle; DaRocha, Wanderson Duarte; Andersson, Björn; Romanha, Álvaro José; Steindel, Mário; de Vasconcelos, Ana Tereza Ribeiro; Grisard, Edmundo Carlos

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma rangeli is a hemoflagellate protozoan parasite infecting humans and other wild and domestic mammals across Central and South America. It does not cause human disease, but it can be mistaken for the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, Trypanosoma cruzi. We have sequenced the T. rangeli genome to provide new tools for elucidating the distinct and intriguing biology of this species and the key pathways related to interaction with its arthropod and mammalian hosts. Methodology/Principal Findings The T. rangeli haploid genome is ∼24 Mb in length, and is the smallest and least repetitive trypanosomatid genome sequenced thus far. This parasite genome has shorter subtelomeric sequences compared to those of T. cruzi and T. brucei; displays intraspecific karyotype variability and lacks minichromosomes. Of the predicted 7,613 protein coding sequences, functional annotations could be determined for 2,415, while 5,043 are hypothetical proteins, some with evidence of protein expression. 7,101 genes (93%) are shared with other trypanosomatids that infect humans. An ortholog of the dcl2 gene involved in the T. brucei RNAi pathway was found in T. rangeli, but the RNAi machinery is non-functional since the other genes in this pathway are pseudogenized. T. rangeli is highly susceptible to oxidative stress, a phenotype that may be explained by a smaller number of anti-oxidant defense enzymes and heat-shock proteins. Conclusions/Significance Phylogenetic comparison of nuclear and mitochondrial genes indicates that T. rangeli and T. cruzi are equidistant from T. brucei. In addition to revealing new aspects of trypanosome co-evolution within the vertebrate and invertebrate hosts, comparative genomic analysis with pathogenic trypanosomatids provides valuable new information that can be further explored with the aim of developing better diagnostic tools and/or therapeutic targets. PMID:25233456

  9. Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi in Argentina, Honduras, and Mexico: study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi has been divided into Discrete Typing Units I and non-I (II-VI). T. cruzi I is predominant in Mexico and Central America, while non-I is predominant in most of South America, including Argentina. Little is known about congenital transmission of T. cruzi I. The specific aim of this study is to determine the rate of congenital transmission of T. cruzi I compared to non-I. Methods/design We are conducting a prospective study to enroll at delivery, 10,000 women in Argentina, 7,500 women in Honduras, and 13,000 women in Mexico. We are measuring transmitted maternal T. cruzi antibodies by performing two rapid tests in cord blood (Stat-Pak, Chembio, Medford, New York, and Trypanosoma Detect, InBios, Seattle, Washington). If at least one of the results is positive, we are identifying infants who are congenitally infected by performing parasitological examinations on cord blood and at 4–8 weeks, and serological follow-up at 10 months. Serological confirmation by ELISA (Wiener, Rosario, Argentina) is performed in cord and maternal blood, and at 10 months. We also are performing T. cruzi standard PCR, real-time quantitative PCR and genotyping on maternal venous blood and on cord blood, and serological examinations on siblings. Data are managed by a Data Center in Montevideo, Uruguay. Data are entered online at the sites in an OpenClinica data management system, and digital pictures of data forms are sent to the Data Center for quality control. Weekly reports allow for rapid feedback to the sites. Trial registration Observational study with ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01787968 PMID:24119247

  10. Host cell poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase is crucial for Trypanosoma cruzi infection cycle.

    PubMed

    Vilchez Larrea, Salomé C; Schlesinger, Mariana; Kevorkian, María L; Flawiá, Mirtha M; Alonso, Guillermo D; Fernández Villamil, Silvia H

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, etiological agent of Chagas' disease, has a complex life cycle which involves the invasion of mammalian host cells, differentiation and intracellular replication. Here we report the first insights into the biological role of a poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in a trypanosomatid (TcPARG). In silico analysis of the TcPARG gene pointed out the conservation of key residues involved in the catalytic process and, by Western blot, we demonstrated that it is expressed in a life stage-dependant manner. Indirect immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy using an anti-TcPARG antibody showed that this enzyme is localized in the nucleus independently of the presence of DNA damage or cell cycle stage. The addition of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitors ADP-HPD (adenosine diphosphate (hydroxymethyl) pyrrolidinediol) or DEA (6,9-diamino-2-ethoxyacridine lactate monohydrate) to the culture media, both at a 1 µM concentration, reduced in vitro epimastigote growth by 35% and 37% respectively, when compared to control cultures. We also showed that ADP-HPD 1 µM can lead to an alteration in the progression of the cell cycle in hydroxyurea synchronized cultures of T. cruzi epimastigotes. Outstandingly, here we demonstrate that the lack of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activity in Vero and A549 host cells, achieved by chemical inhibition or iRNA, produces the reduction of the percentage of infected cells as well as the number of amastigotes per cell and trypomastigotes released, leading to a nearly complete abrogation of the infection process. We conclude that both, T. cruzi and the host, poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase activities are important players in the life cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi, emerging as a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of Chagas' disease.

  11. Anti-VSG antibodies induce an increase in Trypanosoma evansi intracellular Ca2+ concentration.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, M; Uzcanga, G L; Pacheco, R; Rojas, H; Carrasquel, L M; García-Marchan, Y; Serrano-Martín, X; Benaím, G; Bubis, J; Mijares, A

    2008-09-01

    Trypanosoma evansi and Trypanosoma vivax have shown a very high immunological cross-reactivity. Anti-T. vivax antibodies were used to monitor changes in the T. evansi intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) by fluorometric ratio imaging from single parasites. A short-time exposure of T. evansi parasites to sera from T. vivax-infected bovines induced an increase in [Ca2+]i, which generated their complete lysis. The parasite [Ca2+]i boost was reduced but not eliminated in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ or following serum decomplementation. Decomplemented anti-T. evansi VSG antibodies also produced an increase in the parasite [Ca2+]i, in the presence of extracellular Ca2+. Furthermore, this Ca2+ signal was reduced following blockage with Ni2+ or in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, suggesting that this response was a combination of an influx of Ca2+ throughout membrane channels and a release of this ion from intracellular stores. The observed Ca2+ signal was specific since (i) it was completely eliminated following pre-incubation of the anti-VSG antibodies with the purified soluble VSG, and (ii) affinity-purified anti-VSG antibodies also generated an increase in [Ca2+]i by measurements on single cells or parasite populations. We also showed that an increase of the T. evansi [Ca2+]i by the calcium A-23187 ionophore led to VSG release from the parasite surface. In addition, in vivo immunofluorescence labelling revealed that anti-VSG antibodies induced the formation of raft patches of VSG on the parasite surface. This is the first study to identify a ligand that is coupled to calcium flux in salivarian trypanosomes.

  12. Detection of Trypanosoma brucei Variant Surface Glycoprotein Switching by Magnetic Activated Cell Sorting and Flow Cytometry.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Danae; Mugnier, Monica R; Boothroyd, Catherine E; Papavasiliou, F Nina

    2016-10-19

    Trypanosoma brucei, a protozoan parasite that causes both Human and Animal African Trypanosomiasis (known as sleeping sickness and nagana, respectively) cycles between a tsetse vector and a mammalian host. It evades the mammalian host immune system by periodically switching the dense, variant surface glycoprotein (VSG) that covers its surface. The detection of antigenic variation in Trypanosoma brucei can be both cumbersome and labor intensive. Here, we present a method for quantifying the number of parasites that have 'switched' to express a new VSG in a given population. The parasites are first stained with an antibody against the starting VSG, and then stained with a secondary antibody attached to a magnetic bead. Parasites expressing the starting VSG are then separated from the rest of the population by running the parasites over a column attached to a magnet. Parasites expressing the dominant, starting VSG are retained on the column, while the flow-through contains parasites that express a new VSG as well as some contaminants expressing the starting VSG. This flow-through population is stained again with a fluorescently labeled antibody against the starting VSG to label contaminants, and propidium iodide (PI), which labels dead cells. A known number of absolute counting beads that are visible by flow cytometry are added to the flow-through population. The ratio of beads to number of cells collected can then be used to extrapolate the number of cells in the entire sample. Flow cytometry is used to quantify the population of switchers by counting the number of PI negative cells that do not stain positively for the starting, dominant VSG. The proportion of switchers in the population can then be calculated using the flow cytometry data.

  13. Frequency of the Congenital Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Elizabeth J.; Xiong, Xu; Carlier, Yves; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Buekens, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease is caused by the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi and endemic in much of Latin America. With increased globalization and immigration, it is a risk in any country due in part to congenital transmission. The frequency of congenital transmission is unclear. Objective To assess the frequency of congenital transmission of T. cruzi. Search Strategy PubMed, Journals@Ovid Full Text, EMBASE, CINAHL, Fuente Academica and BIREME databases were searched using seven search terms related to Chagas disease or Trypanosoma cruzi and congenital transmission. Selection Criteria The inclusion criteria were the following: Dutch, English, French, Portuguese or Spanish language; case report, case series or observational study; original data on congenital T. cruzi infection in humans; congenital infection rate reported or it could be derived. This systematic review included 13 case reports/series and 51 observational studies. Data Collection and Analysis Two investigators independently collected data on study characteristics, diagnosis and congenital infection rate. The principal summary measure – the congenital transmission rate – is defined as the number of congenitally infected infants divided by the number of infants born to infected mothers. A random effects model was utilized. Main Results The pooled congenital transmission rate was 4.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.9–5.6%). Endemic countries had a higher rate of congenital transmission compared to non-endemic (5.0% vs. 2.7%). Conclusions Congenital transmission of Chagas disease is a global problem. Overall risk of congenital infection in infants born to infected mothers is about 5%. The congenital mode of transmission requires targeted screening to prevent future cases of Chagas disease. PMID:23924273

  14. The Effectiveness of Natural Diarylheptanoids against Trypanosoma cruzi: Cytotoxicity, Ultrastructural Alterations and Molecular Modeling Studies.

    PubMed

    Sueth-Santiago, Vitor; Moraes, Julliane de B B; Sobral Alves, Eliomara Sousa; Vannier-Santos, Marcos André; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G; Castro, Rosane N; Mendes-Silva, Gustavo Peron; Del Cistia, Catarina de Nigris; Magalhães, Luma Godoy; Andricopulo, Adriano Defini; Sant Anna, Carlos Mauricio R; Decoté-Ricardo, Debora; Freire de Lima, Marco Edilson

    Curcumin (CUR) is the major constituent of the rhizomes of Curcuma longa and has been widely investigated for its chemotherapeutic properties. The well-known activity of CUR against Leishmania sp., Trypanosoma brucei and Plasmodium falciparum led us to investigate its activity against Trypanosoma cruzi. In this work, we tested the cytotoxic effects of CUR and other natural curcuminoids on different forms of T. cruzi, as well as the ultrastructural changes induced in epimastigote form of the parasite. CUR was verified as the curcuminoid with more significant trypanocidal properties (IC50 10.13 μM on epimastigotes). Demethoxycurcumin (DMC) was equipotent to CUR (IC50 11.07 μM), but bisdemethoxycurcumin (BDMC) was less active (IC50 45.33 μM) and cyclocurcumin (CC) was inactive. In the experiment with infected murine peritoneal macrophages all diarylheptanoids were more active than the control in the inhibition of the trypomastigotes release. The electron microscopy images showed ultrastructural changes associated with the cytoskeleton of the parasite, indicating tubulin as possible target of CUR in T. cruzi. The results obtained by flow cytometry analysis of DNA content of the parasites treated with natural curcuminoids suggested a mechanism of action on microtubules related to the paclitaxel`s mode of action. To better understand the mechanism of action highlighted by electron microscopy and flow cytometry experiments we performed the molecular docking of natural curcuminoids on tubulin of T. cruzi in a homology model and the results obtained showed that the observed interactions are in accordance with the IC50 values found, since there CUR and DMC perform similar interactions at the binding site on tubulin while BDMC do not realize a hydrogen bond with Lys163 residue due to the absence of methoxyl groups. These results indicate that trypanocidal properties of CUR may be related to the cytoskeletal alterations.

  15. Rational Design of a New Trypanosoma rangeli Trans-Sialidase for Efficient Sialylation of Glycans

    PubMed Central

    Jers, Carsten; Michalak, Malwina; Larsen, Dorte M.; Kepp, Kasper P.; Li, Haiying; Guo, Yao; Kirpekar, Finn; Meyer, Anne S.; Mikkelsen, Jørn D.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports rational engineering of Trypanosoma rangeli sialidase to develop an effective enzyme for a potentially important type of reactivity: production of sialylated prebiotic glycans. The Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase and the homologous T. rangeli sialidase has previously been used to investigate the structural requirements for trans-sialidase activity. We observed that the T. cruzi trans-sialidase has a seven-amino-acid motif (197–203) at the border of the substrate binding cleft. The motif differs substantially in chemical properties and substitution probability from the homologous sialidase, and we hypothesised that this motif is important for trans-sialidase activity. The 197–203 motif is strongly positively charged with a marked change in hydrogen bond donor capacity as compared to the sialidase. To investigate the role of this motif, we expressed and characterised a T. rangeli sialidase mutant, Tr13. Conditions for efficient trans-sialylation were determined, and Tr13's acceptor specificity demonstrated promiscuity with respect to the acceptor molecule enabling sialylation of glycans containing terminal galactose and glucose and even monomers of glucose and fucose. Sialic acid is important in association with human milk oligosaccharides, and Tr13 was shown to sialylate a number of established and potential prebiotics. Initial evaluation of prebiotic potential using pure cultures demonstrated, albeit not selectively, growth of Bifidobacteria. Since the 197–203 motif stands out in the native trans-sialidase, is markedly different from the wild-type sialidase compared to previous mutants, and is shown here to confer efficient and broad trans-sialidase activity, we suggest that this motif can serve as a framework for future optimization of trans-sialylation towards prebiotic production. PMID:24404142

  16. Projected Future Distributions of Vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in North America under Climate Change Scenarios

    PubMed Central

    Garza, Miroslava; Feria Arroyo, Teresa Patricia; Casillas, Edgar A.; Sanchez-Cordero, Victor; Rivaldi, Chissa-Louise; Sarkar, Sahotra

    2014-01-01

    Background Chagas disease kills approximately 45 thousand people annually and affects 10 million people in Latin America and the southern United States. The parasite that causes the disease, Trypanosoma cruzi, can be transmitted by insects of the family Reduviidae, subfamily Triatominae. Any study that attempts to evaluate risk for Chagas disease must focus on the ecology and biogeography of these vectors. Expected distributional shifts of vector species due to climate change are likely to alter spatial patterns of risk of Chagas disease, presumably through northward expansion of high risk areas in North America. Methodology/Principal Findings We forecast the future (2050) distributions in North America of Triatoma gerstaeckeri and T. sanguisuga, two of the most common triatomine species and important vectors of Trypanosoma cruzi in the southern United States. Our aim was to analyze how climate change might affect the future shift of Chagas disease in North America using a maximum entropy algorithm to predict changes in suitable habitat based on vector occurrence points and predictive environmental variables. Projections based on three different general circulation models (CCCMA, CSIRO, and HADCM3) and two IPCC scenarios (A2 and B2) were analyzed. Twenty models were developed for each case and evaluated via cross-validation. The final model averages result from all twenty of these models. All models had AUC >0.90, which indicates that the models are robust. Our results predict a potential northern shift in the distribution of T. gerstaeckeri and a northern and southern distributional shift of T. sanguisuga from its current range due to climate change. Conclusions/Significance The results of this study provide baseline information for monitoring the northward shift of potential risk from Chagas disease in the face of climate change. PMID:24831117

  17. Ebsulfur Is a Benzisothiazolone Cytocidal Inhibitor Targeting the Trypanothione Reductase of Trypanosoma brucei *

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jun; Vodnala, Suman K.; Gustavsson, Anna-Lena; Gustafsson, Tomas N.; Sjöberg, Birger; Johansson, Henrik A.; Kumar, Sangit; Tjernberg, Agneta; Engman, Lars; Rottenberg, Martin E.; Holmgren, Arne

    2013-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is the causing agent of African trypanosomiasis. These parasites possess a unique thiol redox system required for DNA synthesis and defense against oxidative stress. It includes trypanothione and trypanothione reductase (TryR) instead of the thioredoxin and glutaredoxin systems of mammalian hosts. Here, we show that the benzisothiazolone compound ebsulfur (EbS), a sulfur analogue of ebselen, is a potent inhibitor of T. brucei growth with a favorable selectivity index over mammalian cells. EbS inhibited the TryR activity and decreased non-protein thiol levels in cultured parasites. The inhibition of TryR by EbS was irreversible and NADPH-dependent. EbS formed a complex with TryR and caused oxidation and inactivation of the enzyme. EbS was more toxic for T. brucei than for Trypanosoma cruzi, probably due to lower levels of TryR and trypanothione in T. brucei. Furthermore, inhibition of TryR produced high intracellular reactive oxygen species. Hydrogen peroxide, known to be constitutively high in T. brucei, enhanced the EbS inhibition of TryR. The elevation of reactive oxygen species production in parasites caused by EbS induced a programmed cell death. Soluble EbS analogues were synthesized and cured T. brucei brucei infection in mice when used together with nifurtimox. Altogether, EbS and EbS analogues disrupt the trypanothione system, hampering the defense against oxidative stress. Thus, EbS is a promising lead for development of drugs against African trypanosomiasis. PMID:23900839

  18. Lipid Body Organelles within the Parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: A Role for Intracellular Arachidonic Acid Metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Toledo, Daniel A. M.; Roque, Natália R.; Teixeira, Lívia; Milán-Garcés, Erix A.; Carneiro, Alan B.; Almeida, Mariana R.; Andrade, Gustavo F. S.; Martins, Jefferson S.; Pinho, Roberto R.; Freire-de-Lima, Célio G.; Bozza, Patrícia T.; D’Avila, Heloisa

    2016-01-01

    Most eukaryotic cells contain varying amounts of cytosolic lipidic inclusions termed lipid bodies (LBs) or lipid droplets (LDs). In mammalian cells, such as macrophages, these lipid-rich organelles are formed in response to host-pathogen interaction during infectious diseases and are sites for biosynthesis of arachidonic acid (AA)-derived inflammatory mediators (eicosanoids). Less clear are the functions of LBs in pathogenic lower eukaryotes. In this study, we demonstrated that LBs, visualized by light microscopy with different probes and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), are produced in trypomastigote forms of the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causal agent of Chagas’ disease, after both host interaction and exogenous AA stimulation. Quantitative TEM revealed that LBs from amastigotes, the intracellular forms of the parasite, growing in vivo have increased size and electron-density compared to LBs from amastigotes living in vitro. AA-stimulated trypomastigotes released high amounts of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and showed PGE2 synthase expression. Raman spectroscopy demonstrated increased unsaturated lipid content and AA incorporation in stimulated parasites. Moreover, both Raman and MALDI mass spectroscopy revealed increased AA content in LBs purified from AA-stimulated parasites compared to LBs from unstimulated group. By using a specific technique for eicosanoid detection, we immunolocalized PGE2 within LBs from AA-stimulated trypomastigotes. Altogether, our findings demonstrate that LBs from the parasite Trypanosoma cruzi are not just lipid storage inclusions but dynamic organelles, able to respond to host interaction and inflammatory events and involved in the AA metabolism. Acting as sources of PGE2, a potent immunomodulatory lipid mediator that inhibits many aspects of innate and adaptive immunity, newly-formed parasite LBs may be implicated with the pathogen survival in its host. PMID:27490663

  19. Trypanosome species, including Trypanosoma cruzi, in sylvatic and peridomestic bats of Texas, USA.

    PubMed

    Hodo, Carolyn L; Goodwin, Chloe C; Mayes, Bonny C; Mariscal, Jacqueline A; Waldrup, Kenneth A; Hamer, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    In contrast to other mammalian reservoirs, many bat species migrate long-distances and have the potential to introduce exotic pathogens to new areas. Bats have long been associated with blood-borne protozoal trypanosomes of the Schizotrypanum subgenus, which includes the zoonotic parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, agent of Chagas disease. Another member of the subgenus, Trypanosoma dionisii, infects bats of Europe and South America, and genetic similarities between strains from the two continents suggest transcontinental movement of this parasite via bats. Despite the known presence of diverse trypanosomes in bats of Central and South America, and the presence of T. cruzi-infected vectors and wildlife in the US, the role of bats in maintaining and dispersing trypanosomes in the US has not yet been reported. We collected hearts and blood from 8 species of insectivorous bats from 30 counties across Texas. Using PCR and DNA sequencing, we tested 593 bats for trypanosomes and found 1 bat positive for T. cruzi (0.17%), 9 for T. dionisii (1.5%), and 5 for Blastocrithidia spp. (0.8%), a group of insect trypanosomes. The T. cruzi-infected bat was carrying TcI, the strain type associated with human disease in the US. In the T. dionisii-infected bats, we detected three unique variants associated with the three infected bat species. These findings represent the first report of T. cruzi in a bat in the US, of T. dionisii in North America, and of Blastocrithidia spp. in mammals, and underscore the importance of bats in the maintenance of trypanosomes, including agents of human and animal disease, across broad geographic locales.

  20. Novel 2-arylazoimidazole derivatives as inhibitors of Trypanosoma cruzi proliferation: Synthesis and evaluation of their biological activity.

    PubMed

    Salerno, Alejandra; Celentano, Ana M; López, Julieta; Lara, Virginia; Gaozza, Carlos; Balcazar, Darío E; Carrillo, Carolina; Frank, Fernanda M; Blanco, María M

    2017-01-05

    In this work, the synthesis of a series of 2-arylazoimidazole derivatives 6-20 has been achieved through the reaction of imidazole with aryldiazonium salts, followed by ultrasound-assisted alkylation. This approach has important advantages including higher yield, shorter reaction times and milder reaction conditions. The structures of the compounds obtained were determined by MS, IR; and (1)H and (13)C NMR. The anti-Trypanosoma cruzi activity of the 15 compounds obtained was evaluated. Two compounds with piperidino substituents in the carboxamide moiety proved to be effective inhibitors of epimastigote proliferation, obtaining inhibition values comparable to those achieved with the reference drug Benznidazole. Besides, these compounds displayed low cytotoxicity on mammalian cells. In vivo, both compounds protected mice against a challenge with a lethal Trypanosoma cruzi strain. These results allow us to propose 2-arylazoimidazoles as lead compounds for the design of novel drugs to treat Chagas' disease.

  1. Ribosomal RNA genes of Trypanosoma brucei. Cloning of a rRNA gene containing a mobile element.

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, G; Turner, M J; Cordingley, J S

    1982-01-01

    An ordered restriction map of the ribosomal RNA genes of Trypanosoma brucei brucei is presented. Bgl II fragments of T.b.brucei genomic DNA were cloned into pAT 153, and the clones containing rDNA identified. Restriction maps were established and the sense strands identified. One clone was shown by heteroduplex mapping to contain a 1.1 kb inserted sequence which was demonstrated to be widely distributed throughout the genomes of members of the subgenus Trypanozoon. However, in two other subgenera of Trypanosoma, Nannomonas and Schizotrypanum, the sequence is far less abundant. Analysis of the genomic DNA from two serodemes of T.b.brucei showed that the sequence was present in the rRNA of only one of them, implying that the sequence is a mobile element and that its appearance in rDNA is a comparitively recent occurrence. Images PMID:6294613

  2. Trypanosoma cruzi: Biological characterization of a isolate from an endemic area and its susceptibility to conventional drugs

    PubMed Central

    Grosso, Noelia L.; Bua, Jacqueline; Perrone, Alina E.; Gonzalez, Mariela N.; Bustos, Patricia L.; Postan, Miriam; Fichera, Laura E.

    2010-01-01

    We describe some biological and molecular characteristics of a Trypanosoma cruzi isolate derived from a Triatomine captured in Nicaragua. PCR based typification showed that this isolate, named Nicaragua, belonged to the lineage Tc I. Nicaragua infected culture cells were treated with allopurinol, showing different behaviour according to the cellular compartment, being cardiomyocyte primary cultures more resistant to this drug. The course of the infection in a mice experimental model and its susceptibility to benznidazole and allopurinol was analysed. In benznidazole treatment, mice reverted the high lethal effect of parasites during the acute infection, however, a few parasites were detected in the heart of 88 % of mice one year post-infection. Since Trypanosoma cruzi is a heterogeneous species population it is important to study and characterize different parasites actually circulating in humans in endemic areas. In this work we show that T. cruzi Nicaragua isolate, is sensitive to early benznidazole treatment. PMID:20493848

  3. Discovery of Indoline-2-carboxamide Derivatives as a New Class of Brain-Penetrant Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    There is an urgent need for new, brain penetrant small molecules that target the central nervous system second stage of human African trypanosomiasis (HAT). We report that a series of novel indoline-2-carboxamides have been identified as inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei from screening of a focused protease library against Trypanosoma brucei brucei in culture. We describe the optimization and characterization of this series. Potent antiproliferative activity was observed. The series demonstrated excellent pharmacokinetic properties, full cures in a stage 1 mouse model of HAT, and a partial cure in a stage 2 mouse model of HAT. Lack of tolerability prevented delivery of a fully curative regimen in the stage 2 mouse model and thus further progress of this series. PMID:26418485

  4. An improved general approach for cloning and characterizing telomeres: the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi as model organism.

    PubMed

    Chiurillo, Miguel Angel; Santos, Marcia R M; Franco Da Silveira, Jose; Ramírez, Jose Luis

    2002-07-10

    We here describe a general strategy for cloning and characterizing telomeric and sub-telomeric regions of the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. The use of a bacterial artificial chromosome vector and a telomeric adaptor produced stable telomeric recombinant clones with inserts ranging from 5 to 25 kb. Analysis of these recombinants provided unique landmarks for chromosomal mapping and sequencing and enabled us to derive a more accurate picture of T. cruzi telomeric organization.

  5. Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infection in a German traveller returning from the Masai Mara area, Kenya, January 2012.

    PubMed

    Wolf, T; Wichelhaus, T; Gottig, S; Kleine, C; Brodt, H R; Just-Nuebling, G

    2012-03-08

    In January 2012, a case of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) has been identified in Germany in a traveller returning from the Masai Mara area in Kenya. The 62-year-old man had travelled to the Masai Mara game park from 18 to 19 January 2012 and developed fever on 28 January. The infection with Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense was confirmed by laboratory testing three days hereafter.

  6. Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi and T. congolense by Stomoxys niger and S. taeniatus in a laboratory mouse model.

    PubMed

    Sumba, A L; Mihok, S; Oyieke, F A

    1998-10-01

    Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma evansi (South American origin) and T. congolense of Kilifi DNA type (Kenyan origin) was studied in laboratory mice using the African stable flies Stomoxys niger niger and S. taeniatus. Altogether, 355 flies were interrupted after feeding on infected blood and then transferred immediately to an uninfected mouse to complete feeding. Microscopy and subinoculation of triturated flies into uninfected mice demonstrated the survival of T. congolense in Stomoxys for up to 210 min and T. evansi for up to 480 min. Parasites survived for much longer periods in the digestive tract than inside or on the mouthparts. Trypanosoma congolense was transmitted only by S. n. niger, and only at low rates of 3, 8 and 10% using flies of different feeding histories: fed on blood the previous day, freshly caught, and teneral. Trypanosoma evansi was transmitted by both Stomoxys species at higher rates: S. taeniatus range 13-18%; S. n. niger range 17-35%. The highest transmission rate occurred with the combination of teneral S. n. niger and T. evansi.

  7. Trypanosoma evansi: identification and characterization of a variant surface glycoprotein lacking cysteine residues in its C-terminal domain.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yonggen; Zhao, Xinxin; Zou, Jingru; Suo, Xun

    2011-01-01

    African trypanosomes are flagellated unicellular parasites which proliferate extracellularly in the mammalian host blood-stream and tissue spaces. They evade the hosts' antibody-mediated lyses by sequentially changing their variant surface glycoprotein (VSG). VSG tightly coats the entire parasite body, serving as a physical barrier. In Trypanosoma brucei and the closely related species Trypanosoma evansi, Trypanosoma equiperdum, each VSG polypeptide can be divided into N- and C-terminal domains, based on cysteine distribution and sequence homology. N-terminal domain, the basis of antigenic variation, is hypervariable and contains all the exposed epitopes; C-terminal domain is relatively conserved and a full set of four or eight cysteines were generally observed. We cloned two genes from two distinct variants of T. evansi, utilizing RT-PCR with VSG-specific primers. One contained a VSG type A N-terminal domain followed a C-terminal domain lacking cysteine residues. To confirm that this gene is expressed as a functional VSG, the expression and localization of the corresponding gene product were characterized using Western blotting and immunofluorescent staining of living trypanosomes. Expression analysis showed that this protein was highly expressed, variant-specific, and had a ubiquitous cellular surface localization. All these results indicated that it was expressed as a functional VSG. Our finding showed that cysteine residues in VSG C-terminal domain were not essential; the conserved C-terminal domain generally in T. brucei like VSGs would possibly evolve for regulating the VSG expression.

  8. Phylogeny and Morphological Variability of Trypanosomes from African Pelomedusid Turtles with Redescription of Trypanosoma mocambicum Pienaar, 1962.

    PubMed

    Dvořáková, Nela; Čepička, Ivan; Qablan, Moneeb A; Gibson, Wendy; Blažek, Radim; Široký, Pavel

    2015-12-01

    Little is known about host specificity, genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of African turtle trypanosomes. Using PCR targeting the SSU rRNA gene, we detected trypanosomes in 24 of 134 (17.9%) wild caught African pelomedusid turtles: Pelusios upembae (n=14), P. bechuanicus (n=1), P. rhodesianus (n=3) and P. subniger (n=6). Mixed infection of Trypanosoma species was confirmed by PCR in three specimens of P. upembae, and in one specimen each of P. bechuanicus, P. rhodesianus, and P. subniger. Microscopic examination of stained blood smears revealed two distinct forms (broad and slender) of trypomastigotes. The broad form coincided in morphology with T. mocambicumPienaar, 1962. Accordingly, we have designated this form as the neotype of T. mocambicum. In phylogenetic analysis of the SSU rRNA gene, all the new turtle trypanosome sequences grouped in a single clade within the strongly supported "aquatic" clade of Trypanosoma species. The turtle trypanosome clade was further subdivided into two subclades, which did not correlate with host turtle species or trypanosome morphology. This study provides the first sequence data of Trypanosoma species isolated from freshwater turtles from tropical Africa and extends knowledge on diversity of trypanosomes in the Afrotropical zoogeographical realm.

  9. Development of drug resistance in Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. Treatment of human African trypanosomiasis with natural products (Review).

    PubMed

    Gehrig, Stefanie; Efferth, Thomas

    2008-10-01

    Human African trypanosomiasis is an infectious disease which has resulted in the deaths of thousands of people in Sub-Saharan Africa. Two subspecies of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei are the causative agents of the infection, whereby T. b. gambiense leads to chronic development of the disease and T. b. rhodesiense establishes an acute form, which is fatal within months or even weeks. Current chemotherapy treatment is complex, since special drugs have to be used for the different development stages of the disease, as well as for the parasite concerned. Melarsoprol is the only approved drug for effectively treating both subspecies of human African trypanosomiasis in its advanced stage, however, the drug's potency is constrained due to an unacceptable side effect: encephalopathy, which develops in one out of every 20 patients who are treated with the drug. In addition to the deleterious treatment with melarsoprol, the number of drug-resistant strains of T. brucei supp. increases. Mechanisms of drug resistance have been elucidated and involve decreased drug import through the loss of the purine transporter P2 as well as enhanced drug export, mediated by a multidrug resistance-associated protein called TbMRPA. Thereby, the medical treatment with the available chemotherapeutics becomes exceedingly difficult. A promising strategy for research into new drugs and moreover, to overcome drug resistance, are compounds derived from natural sources. This study provides an overview of the recently discovered small molecules with trypanocidal activity against T. b. gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. In addition, former promising compounds are touched upon.

  10. Distantiae Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi: A New Epidemiological Feature of Acute Chagas Disease in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Xavier, Samanta Cristina das Chagas; Roque, André Luiz Rodrigues; Bilac, Daniele; de Araújo, Vitor Antônio Louzada; Neto, Sócrates Fraga da Costa; Lorosa, Elias Seixas; da Silva, Luiz Felipe Coutinho Ferreira; Jansen, Ana Maria

    2014-01-01

    Background The new epidemiological scenario of orally transmitted Chagas disease that has emerged in Brazil, and mainly in the Amazon region, needs to be addressed with a new and systematic focus. Belém, the capital of Pará state, reports the highest number of acute Chagas disease (ACD) cases associated with the consumption of açaí juice. Methodology/Principal Findings The wild and domestic enzootic transmission cycles of Trypanosoma cruzi were evaluated in the two locations (Jurunas and Val-de Cães) that report the majority of the autochthonous cases of ACD in Belém city. Moreover, we evaluated the enzootic cycle on the three islands that provide most of the açaí fruit that is consumed in these localities. We employed parasitological and serological tests throughout to evaluate infectivity competence and exposure to T. cruzi. In Val-de-Cães, no wild mammal presented positive parasitological tests, and 56% seroprevalence was observed, with low serological titers. Three of 14 triatomines were found to be infected (TcI). This unexpected epidemiological picture does not explain the high number of autochthonous ACD cases. In Jurunas, the cases of ACD could not be autochthonous because of the absence of any enzootic cycle of T. cruzi. In contrast, in the 3 island areas from which the açaí fruit originates, 66.7% of wild mammals and two dogs displayed positive hemocultures, and 15.6% of triatomines were found to be infected by T. cruzi. Genotyping by mini-exon gene and PCR-RFLP (1f8/Akw21I) targeting revealed that the mammals and triatomines from the islands harbored TcI and Trypanosoma rangeli in single and mixed infections. Conclusion/Significance These findings show that cases of Chagas disease in the urban area of Belém may be derived from infected triatomines coming together with the açaí fruits from distant islands. We term this new epidemiological feature of Chagas disease as “Distantiae transmission”. PMID:24854494

  11. Trypanocide treatment of women infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and its effect on preventing congenital Chagas.

    PubMed

    Fabbro, Diana L; Danesi, Emmaria; Olivera, Veronica; Codebó, Maria Olenka; Denner, Susana; Heredia, Cecilia; Streiger, Mirtha; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2014-11-01

    With the control of the vectorial and transfusional routes of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, congenital transmission has become an important source of new cases. This study evaluated the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy to prevent congenital Chagas disease and compared the clinical and serological evolution between treated and untreated infected mothers. We conducted a multicenter, observational study on a cohort of mothers infected with T. cruzi, with and without trypanocidal treatment before pregnancy. Their children were studied to detect congenital infection. Among 354 "chronically infected mother-biological child" pairs, 132 were treated women and 222 were untreated women. Among the children born to untreated women, we detected 34 infected with T. cruzi (15.3%), whose only antecedent was maternal infection. Among the 132 children of previously treated women, no infection with T. cruzi was found (0.0%) (p<0.05). Among 117 mothers with clinical and serological follow up, 71 had been treated and 46 were untreated. The women were grouped into three groups. Group A: 25 treated before 15 years of age; Group B: 46 treated at 15 or more years of age; Group C: untreated, average age of 29.2 ± 6.2 years at study entry. Follow-up for Groups A, B and C was 16.3 ± 5.8, 17.5 ± 9.2 and 18.6 ± 8.6 years respectively. Negative seroconversion: Group A, 64.0% (16/25); Group B, 32.6% (15/46); Group C, no seronegativity was observed. Clinical electrocardiographic alterations compatible with chagasic cardiomyopathy: Group A 0.0% (0/25); B 2.2% (1/46) and C 15.2% (7/46). The trypanocidal treatment of women with chronic Chagas infection was effective in preventing the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to their children; it had also a protective effect on the women's clinical evolution and deparasitation could be demonstrated in many treated women after over 10 years of follow up.

  12. Trypanocide Treatment of Women Infected with Trypanosoma cruzi and Its Effect on Preventing Congenital Chagas

    PubMed Central

    Fabbro, Diana L.; Danesi, Emmaria; Olivera, Veronica; Codebó, Maria Olenka; Denner, Susana; Heredia, Cecilia; Streiger, Mirtha; Sosa-Estani, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    With the control of the vectorial and transfusional routes of infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, congenital transmission has become an important source of new cases. This study evaluated the efficacy of trypanocidal therapy to prevent congenital Chagas disease and compared the clinical and serological evolution between treated and untreated infected mothers. We conducted a multicenter, observational study on a cohort of mothers infected with T. cruzi, with and without trypanocidal treatment before pregnancy. Their children were studied to detect congenital infection. Among 354 “chronically infected mother-biological child” pairs, 132 were treated women and 222 were untreated women. Among the children born to untreated women, we detected 34 infected with T. cruzi (15.3%), whose only antecedent was maternal infection. Among the 132 children of previously treated women, no infection with T. cruzi was found (0.0%) (p<0.05). Among 117 mothers with clinical and serological follow up, 71 had been treated and 46 were untreated. The women were grouped into three groups. Group A: 25 treated before 15 years of age; Group B: 46 treated at 15 or more years of age; Group C: untreated, average age of 29.2±6.2 years at study entry. Follow-up for Groups A, B and C was 16.3±5.8, 17.5±9.2 and 18.6±8.6 years respectively. Negative seroconversion: Group A, 64.0% (16/25); Group B, 32.6% (15/46); Group C, no seronegativity was observed. Clinical electrocardiographic alterations compatible with chagasic cardiomyopathy: Group A 0.0% (0/25); B 2.2% (1/46) and C 15.2% (7/46). The trypanocidal treatment of women with chronic Chagas infection was effective in preventing the congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to their children; it had also a protective effect on the women's clinical evolution and deparasitation could be demonstrated in many treated women after over 10 years of follow up. PMID:25411847

  13. GRAIL and Otubain-1 are Related to T Cell Hyporesponsiveness during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stempin, Cinthia C.; Rojas Marquez, Jorge D.; Ana, Yamile

    2017-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi infection is associated with severe T cell unresponsiveness to antigens and mitogens and is characterized by decreased IL-2 synthesis. In addition, the acquisition of the anergic phenotype is correlated with upregulation of “gene related to anergy in lymphocytes” (GRAIL) protein in CD4 T cells. We therefore sought to examine the role of GRAIL in CD4 T cell proliferation during T. cruzi infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Balb/c mice were infected intraperitoneally with 500 blood-derived trypomastigotes of Tulahuen strain, and spleen cells from control non-infected or infected animals were obtained. CD4 T cell proliferation was assessed by CFSE staining, and the expression of GRAIL in splenic T cells was measured by real-time PCR, flow cytometry and Western blot. We found increased GRAIL expression at the early stages of infection, coinciding with the peak of parasitemia, with these findings correlating with impaired proliferation and poor IL-2 and IFN-γ secretion in response to plate-bound antibodies. In addition, we showed that the expression of GRAIL E3-ubiquitin ligase in CD4 T cells during the acute phase of infection was complemented by a high expression of inhibitory receptors such as PD-1 and CTLA-4. We demonstrated that GRAIL expression during infection was modulated by the mammalian target of the rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, since addition of IL-2 or CTLA-4 blockade in splenocytes from mice 21 days post infection led to a reduction in GRAIL expression. Furthermore, addition of IL-2 was able to activate the mTOR pathway, inducing Otubain-1 expression, which mediated GRAIL degradation and improved T cell proliferation. Conclusions We hypothesize that GRAIL expression induced by the parasite may be maintained by the increased expression of inhibitory molecules, which blocked mTOR activation and IL-2 secretion. Consequently, the GRAIL regulator Otubain-1 was not expressed and GRAIL maintained the brake on T cell

  14. Recombinant expression and biochemical characterisation of two alanyl aminopeptidases of Trypanosoma congolense.

    PubMed

    Pillay, Davita; Boulangé, Alain F V; Coustou, Virginie; Baltz, Théo; Coetzer, Theresa H T

    2013-12-01

    Trypanosoma congolense is a haemoprotozoan parasite that causes African animal trypanosomosis, a wasting disease of cattle and small ruminants. Current control methods are unsatisfactory and no conventional vaccine exists due to antigenic variation. An anti-disease vaccine approach to control T. congolense has been proposed requiring the identification of parasitic factors that cause disease. Immunoprecipitation of T. congolense antigens using sera from infected trypanotolerant cattle allowed the identification of several immunogenic antigens including two M1 type aminopeptidases (APs). The two APs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. As the APs were expressed as insoluble inclusion bodies it was necessary to develop a method for solubilisation and subsequent refolding to restore conformation and activity. The refolded APs both showed a distinct substrate preference for H-Ala-AMC, an optimum pH of 8.0, puromycin-sensitivity, inhibition by bestatin and amastatin, and cytoplasmic localisation. The two APs are expressed in procyclic metacyclic and bloodstream form parasites. Down-regulation of both APs by RNAi resulted in a slightly reduced growth rate in procyclic parasites in vitro.

  15. Trypanosoma cruzi induces cellular proliferation in the trophoblastic cell line BeWo.

    PubMed

    Droguett, Daniel; Carrillo, Ileana; Castillo, Christian; Gómez, Fresia; Negrete, Miguel; Liempi, Ana; Muñoz, Lorena; Galanti, Norbel; Maya, Juan Diego; Kemmerling, Ulrike

    2017-02-01

    Congenital transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) is partially responsible for the progressive globalization of Chagas disease. During congenital transmission the parasite must cross the placental barrier where the trophoblast, a continuous renewing epithelium, is the first tissue in contact with the parasite. The trophoblast turnover implies cellular proliferation, differentiation and apoptotic cell death. The epithelial turnover is considered part of innate immunity. We previously demonstrated that T. cruzi induces cellular differentiation and apoptosis in this tissue. Here we demonstrate that T. cruzi induces cellular proliferation in a trophoblastic cell line. We analyzed the cellular proliferation in BeWo cells by determining DNA synthesis by BrdU incorporation assays, mitotic index, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry, as well as quantification of nucleolus organizer regions by histochemistry and expression of the proliferation markers PCNA and Ki67 by Western blotting and/or immunofluorescence. Additionally, we determined the ERK1/2 MAPK pathway activation by the parasite by Western blotting.

  16. Identification of paralogous life-cycle stage specific cytoskeletal proteins in the parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Portman, Neil; Gull, Keith

    2014-01-01

    The life cycle of the African trypanosome Trypanosoma brucei, is characterised by a transition between insect and mammalian hosts representing very different environments that present the parasite with very different challenges. These challenges are met by the expression of life-cycle stage-specific cohorts of proteins, which function in systems such as metabolism and immune evasion. These life-cycle transitions are also accompanied by morphological rearrangements orchestrated by microtubule dynamics and associated proteins of the subpellicular microtubule array. Here we employed a gel-based comparative proteomic technique, Difference Gel Electrophoresis, to identify cytoskeletal proteins that are expressed differentially in mammalian infective and insect form trypanosomes. From this analysis we identified a pair of novel, paralogous proteins, one of which is expressed in the procyclic form and the other in the bloodstream form. We show that these proteins, CAP51 and CAP51V, localise to the subpellicular corset of microtubules and are essential for correct organisation of the cytoskeleton and successful cytokinesis in their respective life cycle stages. We demonstrate for the first time redundancy of function between life-cycle stage specific paralogous sets in the cytoskeleton and reveal modification of cytoskeletal components in situ prior to their removal during differentiation from the bloodstream form to the insect form. These specific results emphasise a more generic concept that the trypanosome genome encodes a cohort of cytoskeletal components that are present in at least two forms with life-cycle stage-specific expression.

  17. Specific Uptake of Tumor Necrosis Factor-α Is Involved in Growth Control of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Magez, Stefan; Geuskens, Maurice; Beschin, Alain; Favero, Herwig del; Verschueren, Hendrik; Lucas, Ralf; Pays, Etienne; Baetselier, Patrick de

    1997-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei is lysed by tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in a dose-dependent way, involving specific binding of the cytokine to a trypanosomal glycoprotein present in the flagellar pocket of the parasite. TNF-α–gold particles are endocytosed via coated pits and vesicles and are directed towards lysosome-like digestive organelles. The specific uptake of the cytokine by the parasite results in a developmentally regulated loss of osmoregulatory capacity. TNF-α specific lysis is prevented when lysis assays are performed at a temperature <26°C, despite uptake of the cytokine. Inhibition of lysis is also observed when a lysosomotropic agent is added during the first 2 h of incubation. Both monomorphic and pleomorphic trypanosomes are lysed but only when isolated during the peak of parasitaemia. Lysis is not observed with early infection stage parasites or procyclic (insect-specific) forms. Anti– TNF-α treatment of T. brucei-infected mice reveals a dramatic increase in parasitaemia in the blood circulation, the spleen, the lymph nodes, and the peritoneal cavity. These data suggest that in the mammalian host, TNF-α is involved in the growth control of T. brucei. PMID:9151676

  18. Trypanosoma evansi: A clinical, parasitological and immunological evaluation of trypanosomosis using a chronic rabbit model

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Iglesias, J.R.; Eleizalde, M.C.; Gómez-Piñeres, E.; Mendoza, M.

    2012-01-01

    We evaluated the clinical, parasitological and immunological effects of a Venezuelan strain of Trypanosoma evansi (T. evansi) throughout in experimentally inoculated rabbits over the course of infection and compared them with the same aspect in healthy animals. Body temperature was recorded in degrees Celsius, animal weight in kilograms, serum proteins in g/dl using a refractometer, haematocrit percentage by capillary centrifugation and the anti-T. evansi IgG titer by indirect ELISA immunoassay, from both infected animals and controls for 95 days. Infected animals showed a higher body temperature, total serum protein and anti- T. evansi antibody titer, and a lower haematocrit and weight gain than controls. These differences were related to the presence of the parasites in the blood as detected micro-haematocrit centrifugation technique (MHCT) and direct microscopic examination (DME). This study confirms the usefulness of rabbits as a model for the study of trypanosomosis; the clinical features of the disease can be observed and the three characteristic stages, prepatent period, acute and chronic phase clearly defined over the course of the infection. PMID:26623297

  19. Towards a Better Understanding of the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma copemani.

    PubMed

    Botero, Adriana; Clode, Peta L; Peacock, Christopher; Thompson, R C Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Trypanosoma copemani has been found infecting several threatened/endangered marsupial species within Australia and is thought to be a key player in the rapid decline of the woylie (Bettongia penicillata). To better understand the biology and life cycle of this parasite, the growth requirements, and kinetics of infection of two newly described genotypes, T. copemani G1 and G2, were investigated and compared with the T. cruzi strain-10R26 in vitro. Both G1 and G2 were able to infect all four cell lines tested. The number of infected cells where at least one intracellular amastigote of T. copemani G1 and G2 was seen was below 7% and 15% respectively in most cell lines. However, in VERO cells the rate of infection for T. copemani G2 was 70%-approximately seven and two times higher than for G1 and T. cruzi respectively. Despite the higher infection rate, the number of intracellular forms of T. copemani G2 was lower compared with T. cruzi, and intracellular replicating forms were not observed. The capability of T. copemani G2 to infect cells may have important consequences for pathogenicity and suggests it might employ similar strategies to complete its life cycle in the vertebrate host to those seen in T. cruzi.

  20. Genetic immunization based on the ubiquitin-fusion degradation pathway against Trypanosoma cruzi

    SciTech Connect

    Chou, Bin; Hiromatsu, Kenji; Hisaeda, Hajime; Duan, Xuefeng; Imai, Takashi; Murata, Shigeo; Tanaka, Keiji; Himeno, Kunisuke

    2010-02-12

    Cytotoxic CD8{sup +} T cells are particularly important to the development of protective immunity against the intracellular protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease. We have developed a new effective strategy of genetic immunization by activating CD8{sup +} T cells through the ubiquitin-fusion degradation (UFD) pathway. We constructed expression plasmids encoding the amastigote surface protein-2 (ASP-2) of T. cruzi. To induce the UFD pathway, a chimeric gene encoding ubiquitin fused to ASP-2 (pUB-ASP-2) was constructed. Mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 presented lower parasitemia and longer survival period, compared with mice immunized with pASP-2 alone. Depletion of CD8{sup +} T cells abolished protection against T. cruzi in mice immunized with pUB-ASP-2 while depletion of CD4{sup +} T cells did not influence the effective immunity. Mice deficient in LMP2 or LMP7, subunits of immunoproteasomes, were not able to develop protective immunity induced. These results suggest that ubiquitin-fused antigens expressed in antigen-presenting cells were effectively degraded via the UFD pathway, and subsequently activated CD8{sup +} T cells. Consequently, immunization with pUB-ASP-2 was able to induce potent protective immunity against infection of T. cruzi.

  1. Studying nanotoxic effects of CdTe quantum dots in Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stahl, C. V.; Almeida, D. B.; de Thomaz, A. A.; Fontes, A.; Menna-Barreto, R. F. S.; Santos-Mallet, J. R.; Cesar, C. L.; Gomes, S. A. O.; Feder, D.

    2010-02-01

    Many studies have been done in order to verify the possible nanotoxicity of quantum dots in some cellular types. Protozoan pathogens as Trypanosoma cruzi, etiologic agent of Chagas1 disease is transmitted to humans either by blood-sucking triatomine vectors, blood transfusion, organs transplantation or congenital transmission. The study of the life cycle, biochemical, genetics, morphology and others aspects of the T. cruzi is very important to better understand the interactions with its hosts and the disease evolution on humans. Quantum dot, nanocrystals, highly luminescent has been used as tool for experiments in in vitro and in vivo T. cruzi life cycle development in real time. We are now investigating the quantum dots toxicity on T. cruzi parasite cells using analytical methods. In vitro experiments were been done in order to test the interference of this nanoparticle on parasite development, morphology and viability (live-death). Ours previous results demonstrated that 72 hours after parasite incubation with 200 μM of CdTe altered the development of T. cruzi and induced cell death by necrosis in a rate of 34%. QDs labeling did not effect: (i) on parasite integrity, at least until 7 days; (ii) parasite cell dividing and (iii) parasite motility at a concentration of 2 μM CdTe. This fact confirms the low level of cytotoxicity of these QDs on this parasite cell. In summary our results is showing T. cruzi QDs labeling could be used for in vivo cellular studies in Chagas disease.

  2. Involvement of TatD nuclease during programmed cell death in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Gannavaram, Sreenivas; Debrabant, Alain

    2012-03-01

    In this report, we describe the involvement of TatD nuclease during programmed cell death (PCD) in the human protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei. T. brucei TatD nuclease showed intrinsic DNase activity, was localized in the cytoplasm and translocated to the nucleus when cells were treated with inducers previously demonstrated to cause PCD in T. brucei. Overexpression of TatD nuclease resulted in elevated PCD and conversely, loss of TatD expression by RNAi conferred significant resistance to the induction of PCD in T. brucei. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that TatD nuclease interacts with endonucleaseG suggesting that these two nucleases could form a DNA degradation complex in the nucleus. Together, biochemical activity, RNAi and subcellular localization results demonstrate the role of TatD nuclease activity in DNA degradation during PCD in these evolutionarily ancient eukaryotic organisms. Further, in conjunction with endonucleaseG, TatD may represent a critical nuclease in a caspase-independent PCD pathway in trypanosomatid parasites since caspases have not been identified in these organisms.

  3. Amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi escape destruction by the terminal complement components

    SciTech Connect

    Iida, K.; Whitlow, M.B.; Nussenzweig, V.

    1989-03-01

    We studied the effect of complement on two life cycle stages of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi: epimastigotes, found in the insect vector, and amastigotes, found in the mammalian host. We found that while both stages activate vigorously the alternative pathway, only epimastigotes are destroyed. The amounts of C3 and C5b-7 deposited on the amastigotes were similar to those bound to the much larger epimastigotes. Binding of C9 to amastigotes was four to six times less than binding to epimastigotes, resulting in a lower C9/C5b-7 ratio. Although a fairly large amount of C9 bound stably to amastigotes, no functional channels were formed as measured by release of incorporated /sup 86/Rb. The bound C9 had the characteristic properties of poly-C9, that is, it expressed a neo-antigen unique to poly-C9, and migrated in SDS-PAGE with an apparent Mr greater than 10(5). The poly-C9 was removed from the surface of amastigotes by treatment with trypsin, indicating that it was not inserted in the lipid bilayer. Modification of amastigote surface by pronase treatment rendered the parasites susceptible to complement attack. These results suggest that amastigotes have a surface protein that binds to the C5b-9 complex and inhibits membrane insertion, thus protecting the parasites from complement-mediated lysis.

  4. Trypanosoma acomys (Wenyon, 1909): continuous culturing with a mouse fibroblast cell-line (A9).

    PubMed

    Abdallah, M A; Abdel-Hafez, S K; al-Yaman, F M

    1990-01-01

    The continuous culturing of Trypanosoma acomys in the presence of a murine areolar-adipose cell line (A9) was possible for the 1st time. The trypanosomes were cultured at 37 degrees C with A9 in DMEM supplemented with 20% heat inactivated fetal bovine serum, using an initial inoculum from primary cultures of lung or blood clots from infected spiny mice. The cultures were maintained for 115 days and underwent 15 passages before termination and cryopreservation. Using this culture system T. acomys subcultures were initiated from 3 different initial inocula (3 x 10(4), 1.5 x 10(5) and 7.4 x 10(5) parasites/ml) and growth curves revealed that the lowest inoculum gave the best growth pattern. This inoculum yielded a population doubling time of less than 12 h for 4 days, a high peak density of 7 x 10(6) parasites/ml and the most gradual decline compared to the other 2 inocula. Rosetting epimastigotes and nests of amastigotes were observed in close association with the feeder layer cells. Epimastigotes were the most predominant form in culture supernatants but other morphological forms observed included trypomastigotes and sphaeromastigotes.

  5. In vitro cultivation of Trypanosoma acomys: production of insect stages and bloodstream forms.

    PubMed

    Maraghi, S; Wallbanks, K R; Molyneux, D H; Abdel-Hafez, S K

    1995-01-01

    When Trypanosoma acomys bloodstream forms were cultivated at 37 degrees C in Schneider's Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% (v/v) heat-inactivated foetal calf serum (FCS), with Microtus agrestis embryonic fibroblasts in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 20% FCS or in Baltz's medium supplemented with 10% FCS, the parasites transformed and largely remained as epimastigotes. Epimastigotes were also usually the commonest stage observed when the parasites were co-cultivated with a mosquito cell line at 27 degrees C. However, if these cultures were initiated with the supernatant suspensions from fibroblast cultures that had been cryopreserved, trypomastigotes, including bloodstream-like forms, were the predominant stage for the first 4 days of culture. It is suggested that the glycerol supplement or the temperature changes stimulated this unusual morphogenesis. At 27 degrees C, T. acomys was incapable of multiplying and died when cultured in fresh Schneider's Drosophila medium supplemented with 20% FCS, but co-cultivation with the mosquito cell lines or cultivation in cell-free supernatants from 1-week-old mosquito cell cultures was successful at this temperature; most of the parasites multiplied as epimastigotes.

  6. Biosynthesis of SUMOylated Proteins in Bacteria Using the Trypanosoma brucei Enzymatic System.

    PubMed

    Iribarren, Paula Ana; Berazategui, María Agustina; Cazzulo, Juan José; Alvarez, Vanina Eder

    2015-01-01

    Post-translational modification with the Small Ubiquitin-like Modifier (SUMO) is conserved in eukaryotic organisms and plays important regulatory roles in proteins affecting diverse cellular processes. In Trypanosoma brucei, member of one of the earliest branches in eukaryotic evolution, SUMO is essential for normal cell cycle progression and is likely to be involved in the epigenetic control of genes crucial for parasite survival, such as those encoding the variant surface glycoproteins. Molecular pathways modulated by SUMO have started to be discovered by proteomic studies; however, characterization of functional consequences is limited to a reduced number of targets. Here we present a bacterial strain engineered to produce SUMOylated proteins, by transferring SUMO from T. brucei together with the enzymes essential for its activation and conjugation. Due to the lack of background in E. coli, this system is useful to express and identify SUMOylated proteins directly in cell lysates by immunoblotting, and SUMOylated targets can be eventually purified for biochemical or structural studies. We applied this strategy to describe the ability of TbSUMO to form chains in vitro and to detect SUMOylation of a model substrate, PCNA both from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and from T. brucei. To further validate targets, we applied an in vitro deconjugation assay using the T. brucei SUMO-specific protease capable to revert the pattern of modification. This system represents a valuable tool for target validation, mutant generation and functional studies of SUMOylated proteins in trypanosomatids.

  7. Requirement for Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase in Trypanosoma brucei is Dependent Upon the Growth Environment

    PubMed Central

    Vigueira, Patrick A.; Paul, Kimberly S.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent of human African trypanosomiasis, possesses two fatty acid synthesis pathways: a major de novo synthesis pathway in the ER and a mitochondrial pathway. The 2-carbon donor for both pathways is malonyl-CoA, which is synthesized from acetyl-CoA by Acetyl-CoA Carboxylase (ACC). Here, we show that T. brucei ACC shares the same enzyme architecture and moderate ~30% identity with yeast and human ACCs. ACC is cytoplasmic and appears to be distributed throughout the cell in numerous puncta distinct from glycosomes and other organelles. ACC is active in both bloodstream and procyclic forms. Reduction of ACC activity by RNA interference (RNAi) resulted in a stage-specific phenotype. In procyclic forms, ACC RNAi resulted in 50-75% reduction in fatty acid elongation and a 64% reduction in growth in low lipid media. In bloodstream forms, ACC RNAi resulted in a minor 15% decrease in fatty acid elongation and no growth defect in culture, even in low lipid media. However, ACC RNAi did attenuate virulence in a mouse model of infection. Thus the requirement for ACC in T. brucei is dependent upon the growth environment in two different life cycle stages. PMID:21306439

  8. Household risk factors for Trypanosoma cruzi seropositivity in two geographic regions of Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Black, Carla L; Ocaña, Sofia; Riner, Diana; Costales, Jaime A; Lascano, Mauricio S; Davila, Santiago; Arcos-Teran, Laura; Seed, J Richard; Grijalva, Mario J

    2007-02-01

    Few studies on the relationship between environmental factors and Trypanosoma cruzi transmission have been conducted in Ecuador. We conducted a cross-sectional study of household risk factors for T. cruzi seropositivity in 2 distinct geographical regions of Ecuador. Exposure information was collected via household surveys, and subjects were tested for serological evidence of T. cruzi infection. In total, 3,286 subjects from 997 households were included. In the coastal region, factors associated with seropositivity were living in a house with a palm roof (odds ratio [OR] = 2.63, 95% confidence interval, [1.61. 4.27]), wood walls (OR = 5.75 [2.04, 16.18]), or cane walls (OR = 2.81 11.31, 6.04]), and the presence of firewood in the peridomicile (OR = 2.48 [1.54, 4.01]). Accumulation of trash outside the home was associated with a reduced risk of seropositivity (OR = 0.25 [0.12, 0.51]). In the Andean region, living in a house with adobe walls was the only factor predictive of T. cruzi seropositivity. In conclusion, risk factors for T. cruzi transmission in Ecuador varied by geographic region, probably because of differing behavior of the triatomine vector species in each region. An understanding of the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi in a particular area is necessary for the development of effective Chagas disease control strategies in those areas.

  9. Host and parasite genetics shape a link between Trypanosoma cruzi infection dynamics and chronic cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael D; Francisco, Amanda Fortes; Taylor, Martin C; Jayawardhana, Shiromani; Kelly, John M

    2016-10-01

    Host and parasite diversity are suspected to be key factors in Chagas disease pathogenesis. Experimental investigation of underlying mechanisms is hampered by a lack of tools to detect scarce, pleiotropic infection foci. We developed sensitive imaging models to track Trypanosoma cruzi infection dynamics and quantify tissue-specific parasite loads, with minimal sampling bias. We used this technology to investigate cardiomyopathy caused by highly divergent parasite strains in BALB/c, C3H/HeN and C57BL/6 mice. The gastrointestinal tract was unexpectedly found to be the primary site of chronic infection in all models. Immunosuppression induced expansion of parasite loads in the gut and was followed by widespread dissemination. These data indicate that differential immune control of T. cruzi occurs between tissues and shows that the large intestine and stomach provide permissive niches for active infection. The end-point frequency of heart-specific infections ranged from 0% in TcVI-CLBR-infected C57BL/6 to 88% in TcI-JR-infected C3H/HeN mice. Nevertheless, infection led to fibrotic cardiac pathology in all models. Heart disease severity was associated with the model-dependent frequency of dissemination outside the gut and inferred cumulative heart-specific parasite loads. We propose a model of cardiac pathogenesis driven by periodic trafficking of parasites into the heart, occurring at a frequency determined by host and parasite genetics.

  10. Metabolomics Guides Rational Development of a Simplified Cell Culture Medium for Drug Screening against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Creek, Darren J.; Nijagal, Brunda; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Rojas, Federico; Matthews, Keith R.

    2013-01-01

    In vitro culture methods underpin many experimental approaches to biology and drug discovery. The modification of established cell culture methods to make them more biologically relevant or to optimize growth is traditionally a laborious task. Emerging metabolomic technology enables the rapid evaluation of intra- and extracellular metabolites and can be applied to the rational development of cell culture media. In this study, untargeted semiquantitative and targeted quantitative metabolomic analyses of fresh and spent media revealed the major nutritional requirements for the growth of bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei. The standard culture medium (HMI11) contained unnecessarily high concentrations of 32 nutrients that were subsequently removed to make the concentrations more closely resemble those normally found in blood. Our new medium, Creek's minimal medium (CMM), supports in vitro growth equivalent to that in HMI11 and causes no significant perturbation of metabolite levels for 94% of the detected metabolome (<3-fold change; α = 0.05). Importantly, improved sensitivity was observed for drug activity studies in whole-cell phenotypic screenings and in the metabolomic mode of action assays. Four-hundred-fold 50% inhibitory concentration decreases were observed for pentamidine and methotrexate, suggesting inhibition of activity by nutrients present in HMI11. CMM is suitable for routine cell culture and offers important advantages for metabolomic studies and drug activity screening. PMID:23571546

  11. Immobilization of NTPDase-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi and Development of an Online Label-Free Assay

    PubMed Central

    Lima, Juliana Maria; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante

    2016-01-01

    The use of IMERs (Immobilized Enzyme Reactors) as a stationary phase coupled to high performance chromatographic systems is an interesting approach in the screening of new ligands. In addition, IMERs offer many advantages over techniques that employ enzymes in solution. The enzyme nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1) from Trypanosoma cruzi acts as a pathogen infection facilitator, so it is a good target in the search for inhibitors. In this paper, immobilization of NTPDase-1 afforded ICERs (Immobilized Capillary Enzyme Reactors). A liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to monitor the ICER activity. The conditions for the application of these bioreactors were investigated, and excellent results were obtained. The enzyme was successfully immobilized, as attested by the catalytic activity detected in the TcNTPDase-1-ICER chromatographic system. Kinetic studies on the substrate ATP gave KM of 0.317 ± 0.044 mmol·L−1, which still presented high affinity compared to in solution. Besides that, the ICER was stable for 32 days, enough time to investigate samples of possible inhibitors, including especially the compound Suramin, that inhibited 51% the enzyme activity at 100 µmol·L−1, which is in accordance with the data for the enzyme in solution. PMID:28070446

  12. Immobilization of NTPDase-1 from Trypanosoma cruzi and Development of an Online Label-Free Assay.

    PubMed

    Calil, Felipe Antunes; Lima, Juliana Maria; de Oliveira, Arthur Henrique Cavalcante; Mariotini-Moura, Christiane; Fietto, Juliana Lopes Rangel; Cardoso, Carmen Lucia

    2016-01-01

    The use of IMERs (Immobilized Enzyme Reactors) as a stationary phase coupled to high performance chromatographic systems is an interesting approach in the screening of new ligands. In addition, IMERs offer many advantages over techniques that employ enzymes in solution. The enzyme nucleoside triphosphate diphosphohydrolase (NTPDase-1) from Trypanosoma cruzi acts as a pathogen infection facilitator, so it is a good target in the search for inhibitors. In this paper, immobilization of NTPDase-1 afforded ICERs (Immobilized Capillary Enzyme Reactors). A liquid chromatography method was developed and validated to monitor the ICER activity. The conditions for the application of these bioreactors were investigated, and excellent results were obtained. The enzyme was successfully immobilized, as attested by the catalytic activity detected in the TcNTPDase-1-ICER chromatographic system. Kinetic studies on the substrate ATP gave KM of 0.317 ± 0.044 mmol·L(-1), which still presented high affinity compared to in solution. Besides that, the ICER was stable for 32 days, enough time to investigate samples of possible inhibitors, including especially the compound Suramin, that inhibited 51% the enzyme activity at 100 µmol·L(-1), which is in accordance with the data for the enzyme in solution.

  13. Nucleotide excision repair in Trypanosoma brucei: specialization of transcription-coupled repair due to multigenic transcription

    PubMed Central

    Machado, Carlos R; Vieira-da-Rocha, João P; Mendes, Isabela Cecilia; Rajão, Matheus A; Marcello, Lucio; Bitar, Mainá; Drummond, Marcela G; Grynberg, Priscila; Oliveira, Denise A A; Marques, Catarina; Van Houten, Ben; McCulloch, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Nucleotide excision repair (NER) is a highly conserved genome repair pathway acting on helix distorting DNA lesions. NER is divided into two subpathways: global genome NER (GG-NER), which is responsible for repair throughout genomes, and transcription-coupled NER (TC-NER), which acts on lesions that impede transcription. The extent of the Trypanosoma brucei genome that is transcribed is highly unusual, since most genes are organized in multigene transcription units, each transcribed from a single promoter. Given this transcription organization, we have addressed the importance of NER to T. brucei genome maintenance by performing RNAi against all predicted contributing factors. Our results indicate that TC-NER is the main pathway of NER repair, but only CSB, XPBz and XPG contribute. Moreover, we show that UV lesions are inefficiently repaired in T. brucei, perhaps due to preferential use of RNA polymerase translesion synthesis. RNAi of XPC and DDB was found to be lethal, and we show that these factors act in inter-strand cross-link repair. XPD and XPB appear only to act in transcription, not repair. This work indicates that the predominance of multigenic transcription in T. brucei has resulted in pronounced adaptation of NER relative to the host and may be an attractive drug target. PMID:24661334

  14. Recruitment and endo-lysosomal activation of TLR9 in dendritic cells infected with Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Ropert, Catherine; Melo, Mariane B; Parroche, Peggy; Junqueira, Caroline F; Teixeira, Santuza M R; Sirois, Cherilyn; Kasperkovitz, Pia; Knetter, Cathrine F; Lien, Egil; Latz, Eicke; Golenbock, Douglas T; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2008-07-15

    TLR9 is critical in parasite recognition and host resistance to experimental infection with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, no information is available regarding nucleotide sequences and cellular events involved on T. cruzi recognition by TLR9. In silico wide analysis associated with in vitro screening of synthetic oligonucleotides demonstrates that the retrotransposon VIPER elements and mucin-like glycoprotein (TcMUC) genes in the T. cruzi genome are highly enriched for CpG motifs that are immunostimulatory for mouse and human TLR9, respectively. Importantly, infection with T. cruzi triggers high levels of luciferase activity under NF-kappaB-dependent transcription in HEK cells cotransfected with human TLR9, but not in control (cotransfected with human MD2/TLR4) HEK cells. Further, we observed translocation of TLR9 to the lysosomes during invasion/uptake of T. cruzi parasites by dendritic cells. Consistently, potent proinflammatory activity was observed when highly unmethylated T. cruzi genomic DNA was delivered to the endo-lysosomal compartment of host cells expressing TLR9. Thus, together our results indicate that the unmethylated CpG motifs found in the T. cruzi genome are likely to be main parasite targets and probably become available to TLR9 when parasites are destroyed in the lysosome-fused vacuoles during parasite invasion/uptake by phagocytes.

  15. Inhibition of Trypanosoma cruzi by plant extracts used in Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Lirussi, D; Li, J; Prieto, J M; Gennari, M; Buschiazzo, H; Ríos, J L; Zaidenberg, A

    2004-12-01

    In this work, we assessed the effect of extracts obtained from 17 plants used in traditional Chinese medicine. These extracts were tested in vitro with the epimastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi, clone Bra C(15) C(2), at 27 degrees C in F-29 medium at a concentration of 100 microg/ml in axenic cultures. Allopurinol was used as reference drug. Seven plant extracts showed inhibitory activities lower than 25%. Pueraria lobata, Mahonia beaei, Dictamus dasycarpus, Kochia scoparia, Sophora flavescens and Ligustrum lucidum showed effects with inhibition values between 25% and 60%, whereas Lithospermum erythrorhizon, Saussurea lappa, Melia toosendan and Cinnamomum cassia showed the greatest inhibitory activity of 100%. The IC(50) of these extracts were: 0.4, 2.4, 1.8 and 3.9 microg/ml, respectively. The MTT assay was made and did not show cytotoxic activity. These results allowed us to suggest that L. erythrorhizon, S. lappa, M. toosendan and C. cassia could be a source of new compounds against T. cruzi.

  16. In vitro antiprotozoal activity of (S)-cis-Verbenol against Leishmania spp. and Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Yaluff, Gloria; Vega, Celeste; Alvarenga, Nelson

    2017-04-01

    (S)-cis-Verbenol, a monoterpene frequently found as a component of essential oils, was assayed against Leishmania amazonensis, Leishmania infantum, Leishmania brasiliensis and against two strains of Trypanosoma cruzi. The cytotoxicity of the compound was also assayed against human fibroblast cells using a colorimetric method. Benznidazole was used as reference drug against T. cruzi and amphotericin B was used against Leishmania spp. The compound showed good activity against the trypanosomes, being more active against the CL Brenner strain, with an IC50 value of 8.3μg/mL. Against Leishmania, the IC50 values were between 2.1 and 3.8μg/mL. The compound showed no cytotoxicity against human fibroblasts at the concentrations assayed and was 100-500 times more toxic for the parasites than for the human cells, as indicated by the selectivity indexes. The results open interesting perspectives about the potential of (S)-cis-Verbenol and other individual components of essential oils for the treatment of these diseases.

  17. The trans-sialidase, the major Trypanosoma cruzi virulence factor: Three decades of studies.

    PubMed

    Freire-de-Lima, L; Fonseca, L M; Oeltmann, T; Mendonça-Previato, L; Previato, J O

    2015-11-01

    Chagas' disease is a potentially life-threatening disease caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi. Since the description of Chagas'disease in 1909 extensive research has identified important events in the disease in order to understand the biochemical mechanism that modulates T. cruzi-host cell interactions and the ability of the parasite to ensure its survival in the infected host. Exactly 30 years ago, we presented evidence for the first time of a trans-sialidase activity in T. cruzi (T. cruzi-TS). This enzyme transfers sialic acid from the host glycoconjugates to the terminal β-galactopyranosyl residues of mucin-like molecules on the parasite's cell surface. Thenceforth, many articles have provided convincing data showing that T. cruzi-TS is able to govern relevant mechanisms involved in the parasite's survival in the mammalian host, such as invasion, escape from the phagolysosomal vacuole, differentiation, down-modulation of host immune responses, among others. The aim of this review is to cover the history of the discovery of T. cruzi-TS, as well as some well-documented biological effects encompassed by this parasite's virulence factor, an enzyme with potential attributes to become a drug target against Chagas disease.

  18. Identification of a second catalytically active trans-sialidase in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Fumiki; Morita, Yasu S; Ashida, Hisashi; Nagamune, Kisaburo; Maeda, Yusuke; Kinoshita, Taroh

    2011-11-18

    The procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei is covered by glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored surface proteins called procyclins. The procyclin GPI anchor contains a side chain of N-acetyllactosamine repeats terminated by sialic acids. Sialic acid modification is mediated by trans-sialidases expressed on the parasite's cell surface. Previous studies suggested the presence of more than one active trans-sialidases, but only one has so far been reported. Here we cloned and examined enzyme activities of four additional trans-sialidase homologs, and show that one of them, Tb927.8.7350, encodes another active trans-sialidase, designated as TbSA C2. In an in vitro assay, TbSA C2 utilized α2-3 sialyllactose as a donor, and produced an α2-3-sialylated product, suggesting that it is an α2-3 trans-sialidase. We suggest that TbSA C2 plays a role in the sialic acid modification of the trypanosome cell surface.

  19. Cavia porcellus as a Model for Experimental Infection by Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Castro-Sesquen, Yagahira E.; Gilman, Robert H.; Yauri, Verónica; Angulo, Noelia; Verastegui, Manuela; Velásquez, Daniel E.; Sterling, Charles R.; Martin, Diana; Bern, Caryn

    2011-01-01

    The guinea pig (Cavia porcellus) is a natural reservoir for Trypanosoma cruzi but has seldom been used as an experimental infection model. We developed a guinea pig infection model for acute and chronic Chagas disease. Seventy-two guinea pigs were inoculated intradermally with 104 trypomastigotes of T. cruzi strain Y (experimental group); 18 guinea pigs were used as control group. Eight animals from the experimental group and two from the control group were sacrificed 5, 15, 20, 25, 40, 55, 115, 165, and 365 days after inoculation. During the acute phase (15 to 55 days), we observed parasitemia (with a peak on day 20) and positive IgM and IgG Western blots with anti-shed acute-phase antigen bands. The cardiac tissue showed vasculitis, necrosis (on days 40 to 55), moderate to severe inflammation, and abundant amastigote nests. Smaller numbers of amastigote nests were also present in kidney, brain, and other organs. In the early chronic phase (115 to 165 days), parasitemia disappeared and anti–T. cruzi IgG antibodies were still detectable. In cardiac tissue, the number of amastigote nests and the grade of inflammation decreased. In the chronic phase (365 days), the cardiac tissue showed vasculitis and fibrosis; detectable parasite DNA was associated with higher grades of inflammation. The experimental T. cruzi infection model in guinea pigs shows kinetics and pathologic changes similar to those of the human disease. PMID:21703410

  20. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide by Trypanosoma cruzi in renal cells.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Gabriel M; Yoshida, Nobuko; Higa, Elisa M S; Shenkman, Sérgio; Alves, Monique; Staquicini, Daniela; Cascabulho, Cynthia; Schor, Nestor

    2011-08-01

    Chagas disease is typically associated with cardiac involvement. During the acute phase of murine infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, severe acute myocarditis can develop. Prior to cardiac alteration, however, infected mice present with renal inflammatory infiltration causing acute kidney injury due to an ischemia/reperfusion lesion. Thus, the present study was undertaken in order to evaluate whether the parasites or some of their components would directly affect renal cells. As such, this study employed kidney cell lines (mesangial, epithelial, and proximal tubular) that mimic different regions of the renal system. Mesangial cells are more resistant to infection, showing reduced parasite internalization relative to epithelial and proximal tubular cells. Upon infection, mesangial cells produced more nitric oxide, tumor factor necrosis-α, and interferon-γ and showed decreased viability when compared to the other cell lines. These results indicate that the resistance of mesangial cells to infection may be related to the increased expression of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines. Conversely, the high levels of nitric oxide produced by these cells caused impairment of cell integrity and viability. Higher nitric oxide concentrations promote cellular injury and can be involved in the genesis of ischemia/reperfusion lesions in acute kidney injury.

  1. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles

    PubMed Central

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite’s genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite. PMID:27270330

  2. Is the Antitumor Property of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Mediated by Its Calreticulin?

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Toloza, Galia; Abello, Paula; Ferreira, Arturo

    2016-01-01

    Eight to 10 million people in 21 endemic countries are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi. However, only 30% of those infected develop symptoms of Chagas’ disease, a chronic, neglected tropical disease worldwide. Similar to other pathogens, T. cruzi has evolved to resist the host immune response. Studies, performed 80 years ago in the Soviet Union, proposed that T. cruzi infects tumor cells with similar capacity to that displayed for target tissues such as cardiac, aortic, or digestive. An antagonistic relationship between T. cruzi infection and cancer development was also proposed, but the molecular mechanisms involved have remained largely unknown. Probably, a variety of T. cruzi molecules is involved. This review focuses on how T. cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), exteriorized from the endoplasmic reticulum, targets the first classical complement component C1 and negatively regulates the classical complement activation cascade, promoting parasite infectivity. We propose that this C1-dependent TcCRT-mediated virulence is critical to explain, at least an important part, of the parasite capacity to inhibit tumor development. We will discuss how TcCRT, by directly interacting with venous and arterial endothelial cells, inhibits angiogenesis and tumor growth. Thus, these TcCRT functions not only illustrate T. cruzi interactions with the host immune defensive strategies, but also illustrate a possible co-evolutionary adaptation to privilege a prolonged interaction with its host. PMID:27462315

  3. Formation and remodeling of inositolphosphoceramide during differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi from trypomastigote to amastigote.

    PubMed

    Salto, Maria Laura; Bertello, Laura E; Vieira, Mauricio; Docampo, Roberto; Moreno, Silvia N J; de Lederkremer, Rosa M

    2003-08-01

    Differentiation of Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigotes to amastigotes inside myoblasts or in vitro, at low extracellular pH, in the presence of [(3)H]palmitic acid or [(3)H]inositol revealed differential labeling of inositolphosphoceramide and phosphatidylinositol, suggesting that a remodeling process takes place in both lipids. Using (3)H-labeled inositolphosphoceramide and phosphatidylinositol as substrates, we demonstrated the association of at least five enzymatic activities with the membranes of amastigotes and trypomastigotes. These included phospholipase A(1), phospholipase A(2), inositolphosphoceramide-fatty acid hydrolase, acyltransferase, and a phospholipase C releasing either ceramide or a glycerolipid from the inositolphospholipids. These enzymes may be acting in remodeling reactions leading to the anchor of mature glycoproteins or glycoinositolphospholipids and helping in the transformation of the plasma membrane, a necessary step in the differentiation of slender trypomastigotes to round amastigotes. Synthesis of inositolphosphoceramide and particularly of glycoinositolphospholipids was inhibited by aureobasidin A, a known inhibitor of fungal inositolphosphoceramide synthases. The antibiotic impaired the differentiation of trypomastigotes at acidic pH, as indicated by an increased appearance of intermediate forms and a decreased expression of the Ssp4 glycoprotein, a characteristic marker of amastigote forms. Aureobasidin A was also toxic to differentiating trypomastigotes at acidic pH but not to trypomastigotes maintained at neutral pH. Our data suggest that inositolphosphoceramide is implicated in T. cruzi differentiation and that its metabolism could provide important targets for the development of antiparasitic therapies.

  4. Structural design, synthesis and pharmacological evaluation of 4-thiazolidinones against Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira Filho, Gevanio Bezerra; de Oliveira Cardoso, Marcos Veríssimo; Espíndola, José Wanderlan Pontes; Ferreira, Luiz Felipe Gomes Rebello; de Simone, Carlos Alberto; Ferreira, Rafaela Salgado; Coelho, Pollyanne Lacerda; Meira, Cássio Santana; Magalhaes Moreira, Diogo Rodrigo; Soares, Milena Botelho Pereira; Lima Leite, Ana Cristina

    2015-12-01

    Chagas disease is an infection caused by protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi, which affects approximately 8-10million people worldwide. Benznidazole is the only drug approved for treatment during the acute and asymptomatic chronic phases of Chagas disease; however, it has poor efficacy during the symptomatic chronic phase. Therefore, the development of new pharmaceuticals is needed. Here, we employed the bioisosterism to modify a potent antiparasitic and cruzain-inhibitor aryl thiosemicarbazone (4) into 4-thiazolidinones (7-21). Compounds (7-21) were prepared by using a straightforward synthesis and enabled good to excellent yields. As a chemical elucidation tool, X-ray diffraction of compound (10) revealed the geometry and conformation of this class compounds. The screening against cruzain showed that 4-thiazolidinones were less active than thiosemicarbazone (4). However, the antiparasitic activity in Y strain trypomastigotes and host cell cytotoxicity in J774 macrophages revealed that compounds (10 and 18-21) are stronger and more selective antiparasitic agents than thiosemicarbazone (4). Specifically, compounds (18-20), which carry a phenyl at position N3 of heterocyclic ring, were the most active ones, suggesting that this is a structural determinant for activity. In infected macrophages, compounds (18-20) reduced intracellular amastigotes, whereas Benznidazole did not. In T. cruzi-infected mice treated orally with 100mg/kg of compound (20), a decreased of parasitemia was observed. In conclusion, we demonstrated that the conversation of thiosemicarbazones into 4-thiazolidinones retains pharmacological property while enhances selectivity.

  5. Association of a novel preribosomal complex in Trypanosoma brucei determined by fluorescence resonance energy transfer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lei; Ciganda, Martin; Williams, Noreen

    2013-02-01

    We have previously reported that the trypanosome-specific proteins P34 and P37 form a unique preribosomal complex with ribosomal protein L5 and 5S rRNA in the nucleoplasm. We hypothesize that this novel trimolecular complex is necessary for stabilizing 5S rRNA in Trypanosoma brucei and is essential for the survival of the parasite. In vitro quantitative analysis of the association between the proteins L5 and P34 is fundamental to our understanding of this novel complex and thus our ability to exploit its unique characteristics. Here we used in vitro fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) to analyze the association between L5 and P34. First, we demonstrated that FRET can be used to confirm the association between L5 and P34. We then determined that the binding constant for L5 and P34 is 0.60 ± 0.03 μM, which is in the range of protein-protein binding constants for RNA binding proteins. In addition, we used FRET to identify the critical regions of L5 and P34 involved in the protein-protein association. We found that the N-terminal APK-rich domain and RNA recognition motif (RRM) of P34 and the L18 domain of L5 are important for the association of the two proteins with each other. These results provide us with the framework for the discovery of ways to disrupt this essential complex.

  6. The extraordinary mitochondrion and unusual citric acid cycle in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    van Hellemond, J J; Opperdoes, F R; Tielens, A G M

    2005-11-01

    African trypanosomes are parasitic protozoa that cause sleeping sickness and nagana. Trypanosomes are not only of scientific interest because of their clinical importance, but also because these protozoa contain several very unusual biological features, such as their specially adapted mitochondrion and the compartmentalization of glycolytic enzymes in glycosomes. The energy metabolism of Trypanosoma brucei differs significantly from that of their hosts and changes drastically during the life cycle. Despite the presence of all citric acid cycle enzymes in procyclic insect-stage T. brucei, citric acid cycle activity is not used for energy generation. Recent investigations on the influence of substrate availability on the type of energy metabolism showed that absence of glycolytic substrates did not induce a shift from a fermentative metabolism to complete oxidation of substrates. Apparently, insect-stage T. brucei use parts of the citric acid cycle for other purposes than for complete degradation of mitochondrial substrates. Parts of the cycle are suggested to be used for (i) transport of acetyl-CoA units from the mitochondrion to the cytosol for the biosynthesis of fatty acids, (ii) degradation of proline and glutamate to succinate, (iii) generation of malate, which can then be used for gluconeogenesis. Therefore the citric acid cycle in trypanosomes does not function as a cycle.

  7. Discovery of Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei by Phenotypic Screening of a Focused Protein Kinase Library.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Andrew; Thompson, Stephen; Cleghorn, Laura A T; Norcross, Neil; De Rycker, Manu; Grimaldi, Raffaella; Hallyburton, Irene; Rao, Bhavya; Norval, Suzanne; Stojanovski, Laste; Brun, Reto; Kaiser, Marcel; Frearson, Julie A; Gray, David W; Wyatt, Paul G; Read, Kevin D; Gilbert, Ian H

    2015-11-01

    A screen of a focused kinase inhibitor library against Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense led to the identification of seven series, totaling 121 compounds, which showed >50 % inhibition at 5 μm. Screening of these hits in a T. b. brucei proliferation assay highlighted three compounds with a 1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyrazin-2(3H)-one scaffold that showed sub-micromolar activity and excellent selectivity against the MRC5 cell line. Subsequent rounds of optimisation led to the identification of compounds that exhibited good in vitro drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (DMPK) properties, although in general this series suffered from poor solubility. A scaffold-hopping exercise led to the identification of a 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine scaffold, which retained potency. A number of examples were assessed in a T. b. brucei growth assay, which could differentiate static and cidal action. Compounds from the 1H-imidazo[4,5-b]pyrazin-2(3H)-one series were found to be either static or growth-slowing and not cidal. Compounds with the 1H-pyrazolo[3,4-b]pyridine scaffold were found to be cidal and showed an unusual biphasic nature in this assay, suggesting they act by at least two mechanisms.

  8. Third target of rapamycin complex negatively regulates development of quiescence in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Barquilla, Antonio; Saldivia, Manuel; Diaz, Rosario; Bart, Jean-Mathieu; Vidal, Isabel; Calvo, Enrique; Hall, Michael N.; Navarro, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    African trypanosomes are protozoan parasites transmitted by a tsetse fly vector to a mammalian host. The life cycle includes highly proliferative forms and quiescent forms, the latter being adapted to host transmission. The signaling pathways controlling the developmental switch between the two forms remain unknown. Trypanosoma brucei contains two target of rapamycin (TOR) kinases, TbTOR1 and TbTOR2, and two TOR complexes, TbTORC1 and TbTORC2. Surprisingly, two additional TOR kinases are encoded in the T. brucei genome. We report that TbTOR4 associates with an Armadillo domain-containing protein (TbArmtor), a major vault protein, and LST8 to form a unique TOR complex, TbTORC4. Depletion of TbTOR4 caused irreversible differentiation of the parasite into the quiescent form. AMP and hydrolysable analogs of cAMP inhibited TbTOR4 expression and induced the stumpy quiescent form. Our results reveal unexpected complexity in TOR signaling and show that TbTORC4 negatively regulates differentiation of the proliferative form into the quiescent form. PMID:22908264

  9. Nicotinamide mononucleotide adenylyltransferase of Trypanosoma cruzi (TcNMNAT): a cytosol protein target for serine kinases

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Lancheros, Diana Milena; Ospina-Giraldo, Luis Fernando; Ramírez-Hernández, María Helena

    2016-01-01

    Nicotinamide/nicotinate adenine dinucleotide (NAD+/NaAD) performs essential functions in cell metabolism and energy production due to its redox properties. The nicotinamide/nicotinate mononucleotide adenylyltransferase (NMNAT, EC 2.7.7.1/18) enzyme catalyses the key step in the biosynthesis of NAD+. Previously, the enzyme NMNAT was identified in Trypanosoma cruzi (TcNMNAT), a pathogenic agent with epidemiological importance in Latin America. To continue with the functional characterisation of this enzyme, its subcellular location and its possible post-translational modifications were examined in this study. For this, polyclonal antibodies were generated in mice, with soluble and denatured recombinant protein being used to detect the parasite’s NMNAT. Immunodetection assays were performed on whole extracts of T. cruzi, and an approximation of its intracellular location was determined using confocal microscopy on wild and transgenic parasites, which revealed the cytosol distribution patterns. This localisation occurs according to the needs of the dinucleotides that exist in this compartment. Additionally, a bioinformatics study was performed as a first approach to establish the post-translational modifications of the enzyme. Possible phosphorylation events were experimentally analysed by western blot, highlighting TcNMNAT as a potential target for serine kinases. PMID:27783719

  10. In vitro antiparasitic activity of new thiosemicarbazones in strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Rodríguez, Adriana; Salazar-Schettino, Paz María; Bautista, Juan Luis; Hernández-Luis, Francisco; Torrens, Hugo; Guevara-Gómez, Yolanda; Pina-Canseco, Socorro; Torres, Martha Bucio; Cabrera-Bravo, Margarita; Martinez, Cesar Mendoza; Pérez-Campos, Eduardo

    2014-11-24

    In this study thiosemicarbazones derivatives of 5-[(trifluoromethyl)phenylthio]-2-furaldehyde were synthesized and evaluated in terms of their efficiency in challenging the growth of epimastigote forms of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas' disease. A number of compounds were synthesized from 5-bromo-2-furfuraldehyde using nucleophilic aromatic substitution, with a series of trifluoromethyl thiolates, followed by condensation reactions with thiosemicarbazide. Their molecular structures were determined by (1)H, (13)C and (19)F NMR, MS and IR spectroscopy. When tested with T. cruzi, they showed a stronger reaction, similar to nifurtimox and benznidazole, with the 5-[nitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyltio]-2-furaldehyde thiosemicarbazone (compound 4) showing the highest antiparasitic activity. This improved activity may be explained due to the nitro group present in the molecule, which potentiates its activity. The thiosemicarbazone derivatives in this study showed no apoptosis in platelets or monocytes, nor did they induce platelet activation. The trypanocidal activity of these substances represents a good starting point for a medicinal chemistry program aimed at therapy for Chagas' disease.

  11. A Class of 5-Nitro-2-furancarboxylamides with Potent Trypanocidal Activity against Trypanosoma brucei in Vitro

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the World Health Organization approved the nifurtimox–eflornithine combination therapy for the treatment of human African trypanosomiasis, renewing interest in nitroheterocycle therapies for this and associated diseases. In this study, we have synthesized a series of novel 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides that show potent trypanocidal activity, ∼1000-fold more potent than nifurtimox against in vitro Trypanosoma brucei with very low cytotoxicity against human HeLa cells. More importantly, the most potent analogue showed very limited cross-resistance to nifurtimox-resistant cells and vice versa. This implies that our novel, relatively easy to synthesize and therefore cheap, 5-nitro-2-furancarboxylamides are targeting a different, but still essential, biochemical process to those targeted by nifurtimox or its metabolites in the parasites. The significant increase in potency (smaller dose probably required) has the potential for greatly reducing unwanted side effects and also reducing the likelihood of drug resistance. Collectively, these findings have important implications for the future therapeutic treatment of African sleeping sickness. PMID:23281892

  12. Platinum(II) metal complexes as potential anti-Trypanosoma cruzi agents.

    PubMed

    Vieites, Marisol; Otero, Lucía; Santos, Diego; Toloza, Jeannette; Figueroa, Roberto; Norambuena, Ester; Olea-Azar, Claudio; Aguirre, Gabriela; Cerecetto, Hugo; González, Mercedes; Morello, Antonio; Maya, Juan Diego; Garat, Beatriz; Gambino, Dinorah

    2008-01-01

    In the search for new therapeutic tools against Chagas' disease (American Trypanosomiasis) two series of new platinum(II) complexes with bioactive 5-nitrofuryl containing thiosemicarbazones as ligands were synthesized, characterized and in vitro evaluated. Most of the complexes showed IC50 values in the muM range against two different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi, causative agent of the disease, being as active as the anti-trypanosomal drug Nifurtimox. In particular, the coordination of L3 (4-ethyl-1-(5-nitrofurfurylidene)thiosemicarbazide) to Pt(II) forming [Pt(L3)2] lead to almost a five-fold activity increase in respect to the free ligand. Trying to get an insight into the trypanocidal mechanism of action of these compounds, DNA and redox metabolism (intra-parasite free radical production) were evaluated as potential parasite targets. Results suggest that the complexes could inhibit parasite growth through a dual mechanism of action involving production of toxic free radicals by bioreduction and DNA interaction.

  13. Evaluation of VDR gene polymorphisms in Trypanosoma cruzi infection and chronic Chagasic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    Leon Rodriguez, Daniel A; Carmona, F David; González, Clara Isabel; Martin, Javier

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is an important modulator of the immune response. It acts over several immune cell types where the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is expressed. Due to the high relevance of this signaling pathway, several studies have investigated the possible influence of genes involved in the metabolism of Vitamin D and its receptor in different human diseases. Here, we analyzed whether four single-nucleotide polymorphisms of the VDR gene (rs731236, rs7975232, rs1544410 and rs2228570) are involved in the susceptibility to infection by Trypanosoma cruzi and/or to chronic Chagas cardiomyopathy (CCC) in a Colombian endemic population for this parasite. Our results showed that the rs2228570*A allele is associated with CCC development (P = 4.46E−03, OR = 1.51). In summary, the data presented in this report suggest that variation within the VDR gene may affect the immune response against T. cruzi, increasing the probability of cardiac complications in infected individuals. PMID:27502545

  14. Platelet-aggregating activity of released factor(s) from Trypanosoma brucei brucei.

    PubMed

    Nwagwu, M; Inyang, A L; Molokwu, R I; Essien, E M

    1989-12-01

    The effect of factors derived from Trypanosoma brucei brucei on rat platelets was studied. T. brucei at a concentration of 4 X 10(9) trypanosomes/ml phosphate saline glucose (PSG) was stored at -20 degrees C for 18 h, thawed, and a supernatant fraction, trypanosome-derived supernatant (TDS) was obtained by spinning the sample at 3000 g for 10 min at 20 degrees C. Normal rat platelets, prepared as platelet-rich plasma (PRP), were then incubated with TDS in the absence or presence of ADP (0.05-0.1 microM). The results showed that approximately 83% platelet aggregation was induced by addition of TDS (50 microliters; 113 micrograms protein) to 100 microliters PRP with a platelet count of 10(6). simultaneous addition of ADP and TDS to PRP produced a synergistic effect. It was also shown that a supernatant fraction, obtained by incubating live T. brucei (4 X 10(9)/microliters PSG) at 0 degrees C 1 h and spinning down the trypanosomes (3000 g for 10 min), also induced platelet aggregation. The nature of the factor(s) derived from, or released by, T. brucei inducing platelet aggregation is being investigated but it has been shown not to be ADP.

  15. Procyclic Trypanosoma brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation.

    PubMed

    van Weelden, Susanne W H; Fast, Beate; Vogt, Achim; van der Meer, Pieter; Saas, Joachim; van Hellemond, Jaap J; Tielens, Aloysius G M; Boshart, Michael

    2003-04-11

    The importance of a functional Krebs cycle for energy generation in the procyclic stage of Trypanosoma brucei was investigated under physiological conditions during logarithmic phase growth of a pleomorphic parasite strain. Wild type procyclic cells and mutants with targeted deletion of the gene coding for aconitase were derived by synchronous in vitro differentiation from wild type and mutant (Delta aco::NEO/Delta aco::HYG) bloodstream stage parasites, respectively, where aconitase is not expressed and is dispensable. No differences in intracellular levels of glycolytic and Krebs cycle intermediates were found in procyclic wild type and mutant cells, except for citrate that accumulated up to 90-fold in the mutants, confirming the absence of aconitase activity. Surprisingly, deletion of aconitase did not change differentiation nor the growth rate or the intracellular ATP/ADP ratio in those cells. Metabolic studies using radioactively labeled substrates and NMR analysis demonstrated that glucose and proline were not degraded via the Krebs cycle to CO(2). Instead, glucose was degraded to acetate, succinate, and alanine, whereas proline was degraded to succinate. Importantly, there was absolutely no difference in the metabolic products released by wild type and aconitase knockout parasites, and both were for survival strictly dependent on respiration via the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Hence, although the Krebs cycle enzymes are present, procyclic T. brucei do not use Krebs cycle activity for energy generation, but the mitochondrial respiratory chain is essential for survival and growth. We therefore propose a revised model of the energy metabolism of procyclic T. brucei.

  16. From genome screening to creation of vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi by use of immunoinformatics.

    PubMed

    Teh-Poot, Christian; Tzec-Arjona, Evelyn; Martínez-Vega, Pedro; Ramirez-Sierra, Maria Jesus; Rosado-Vallado, Miguel; Dumonteil, Eric

    2015-01-15

    Chagas disease is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, and activation of CD8(+) T cells is crucial for a protective immune response. Therefore, the identification of antigens with major histocompatibility complex class I epitopes is a crucial step for vaccine development against T. cruzi. Our aim was to identify novel antigens and epitopes by immunoinformatics analysis of the parasite proteome (12 969 proteins) and to validate their immunotherapeutic potential in infected mice. We identified 172 predicted epitopes, using NetMHC and RANKPEP. The corresponding protein sequences were reanalyzed to generate a consensus prediction, and 26 epitopes were selected for in vivo validation. The interferon γ (IFN-γ) recall response of splenocytes from T. cruzi-infected mice confirmed that 10 of 26 epitopes (38%) induced IFN-γ production. The immunotherapeutic potential of a mixture of all 10 peptides was evaluated in infected mice. The therapeutic vaccine was able to control T. cruzi infection, as evidenced by reduced parasitemia, cardiac tissue inflammation, and parasite burden and increased survival. These findings illustrate the benefits of this approach for the rapid development of a vaccine against pathogens with large genomes. The identified peptides and the proteins from which they are derived are excellent candidates for the development of a vaccine against T. cruzi.

  17. Melittin peptide kills Trypanosoma cruzi parasites by inducing different cell death pathways.

    PubMed

    Adade, Camila M; Oliveira, Isabelle R S; Pais, Joana A R; Souto-Padrón, Thaïs

    2013-07-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are components of the innate immune response that represent desirable alternatives to conventional pharmaceuticals, as they have a fast mode of action, a low likelihood of resistance development and can act in conjunction with existing drug regimens. AMPs exhibit strong inhibitory activity against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, viruses, metazoans and other parasites, such as the protozoan Leishmania. Melittin is a naturally occurring AMP, which comprises 40-50% of the dry weight of Apis mellifera venom. Our group has recently shown that crude A. mellifera venom is lethal to Trypanosoma cruzi, the Chagas disease etiologic agent, and generates a variety of cell death phenotypes among treated parasites. Here, we demonstrate that the melittin affected all of T. cruzi developmental forms, including the intracellular amastigotes. The ultrastructural changes induced by melittin suggested the occurrence of different programmed cell death pathways, as was observed in A. mellifera-treated parasites. Autophagic cell death appeared to be the main death mechanism in epimastigotes. In contrast, melittin-treated trypomastigotes appeared to be dying via an apoptotic mechanism. Our findings confirm the great potential of AMPs, including melittin, as a potential source of new drugs for the treatment of neglected diseases, such as Chagas disease.

  18. ORAL TRANSMISSION OF TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI WITH OPPOSING EVIDENCE FOR THE THEORY OF CARNIVORY

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, Angela E.; Yabsley, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of oral transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi to raccoons (Procyon lotor), a natural reservoir host in the United States, by ingestion of trypomastigotes and infected bugs, but not infected tissue. To investigate an alternative, non-vector–based transmission method, we tested the hypothesis that raccoons scavenging on infected hosts results in patent infection. Macerated tissue from selected organs infected with amastigote stages of T. cruzi was orally administered to experimental groups of raccoons (n = 2/group) at 2, 12, or 24 hr after collection of the tissue samples. Additionally, raccoons (n = 1) in control groups were inoculated intravenously or per os with trypomastigotes. To further elucidate transmission routes of T. cruzi to raccoons, infected Rhodnius prolixus were fed to raccoons (n = 2). Raccoons did not become infected after ingestion of amastigote-infected tissues as evidenced by negative polymerase chain reaction results from blood and tissue, lack of seroconversion, and negative parasitemias. However, per os transmission can occur by ingestion of the infective trypomastigote stage or infected reduviid bugs. We conclude from these findings that oral transmission of T. cruzi may be a route of infection for wildlife in sylvatic cycles, but the scavenging behavior of animals is not likely a significant transmission route. PMID:18763853

  19. Identification of a new EF-hand superfamily member from Trypanosoma brucei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wong, S.; Kretsinger, R. H.; Campbell, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    We identified several open reading frames between the regions encoding calmodulin and ubiquitin-EP52/1 in the genome of Trypanosoma brucei. One of these, EFH5, encodes a protein 192 amino acids long. The EFH5 transcript is present in poly(A)+ mRNA and is present at similar levels in the mammalian bloodstream form and the insect procyclic form. EFH5 contains four EF-hand homolog domains, two of which are inferred to bind Ca2+ ions. We expressed EFH5 as a fusion protein in Escherichia coli and demonstrated calcium-binding activity of the fusion protein using the 45Ca-overlay technique. The function of EFH5 remains unknown; however, as the fourth EF-hand homolog identified in trypanosomes, it attests to the broad range of functions assumed by calcium functioning as a second messenger. EFH5, which is most closely related to LAV1-2 from Physarum, represents a distinct subfamily among the EF-hand-containing proteins.

  20. Organ donor screening practices for Trypanosoma cruzi infection among US Organ Procurement Organizations.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, B S; Paster, M; Ison, M G; Chin-Hong, P V

    2011-04-01

    Donor-derived Trypanosoma cruzi infection in solid organ transplant recipients is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Little is known about T. cruzi screening practices among U.S. organ procurement organizations (OPOs). We distributed a questionnaire to all U.S. OPO directors, requesting data on T. cruzi screening strategies, laboratory methods, number of donors screened, disposition of organs from positive donors and attitudes toward screening. Fifty-eight (100%) U.S. OPOs responded to the survey. Donor screening began in 2002 and is presently performed by 11 (19%) OPOs. Among screening OPOs, four screen all donors and seven use a risk-based strategy. Three different T. cruzi serology tests are used for donor screening. During 2008, 9/993 (0.9%) donors screened positive by a T. cruzi screening test, 6/9 (66%) had confirmatory tests performed and 4/6 (66%) had positive confirmatory tests. These results led to the nonuse of five donors and 17 organs. Five organs from three seropositive donors were transplanted in 2008 without recognized disease transmission. Variability of T. cruzi donor screening strategies, laboratory methods and disposition of organs from positive donors currently exists. Further research is needed to identify the risk of donor-derived T. cruzi infections to help inform the best screening strategy.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi: H2 complex and genetic background influence on the humoral immune response against epimastigotes.

    PubMed

    Aguillón, J C; Hermosilla, T; Molina, M C; Morello, A; Repetto, Y; Orn, A; Ferreira, A

    2000-08-01

    Using A.SW, A.CA, B10.S and B10.M congenic mouse strains, we measured the IgG specific humoral immune responses against sonicated and live Trypanosoma cruzi epimastigotes. Genes located in the A background (A.SW and A.CA strains) mediate higher IgG responses against the parasite antigenic complexes than those located in the B background (strains B10.S and B10.M), regardless of the H2 haplotypes. Thus, non H2 genetic elements seem to be more important in determining differences in the total IgG immune response against T. cruzi. Whether a detectable H2 effect, in favor of the H2(s) haplotype, occurred in the A or B background, was contingent on the immunisation protocol used. Thus, the H2(s) haplotype mediates a higher IgG response in the A background, if immunised with live epimastigotes, and in the B background against sonicated epimastigotes. Most likely this represents a complex sequence of events, controlled by non-MHC genes, involving antigen handling and processing and depending on the physical form of antigen delivery.

  2. Chagas' disease: reactivity against homologous tissues induced by different strains of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Tekiel, V S; Mirkin, G A; Gonzalez Cappa, S M

    1997-11-01

    We have previously reported that the mechanisms of neuromyopathic damage induced by Trypanosoma cruzi are mediated by T cells and are parasite-strain dependent. In the present study our aim was to determine whether the humoral response against muscle and nervous system is also parasite-strain dependent. Of the sera from mice infected with RA and CA-I. T. cruzi strains, 93% reacted against antigens of the nervous system (sciatic nerve, spinal cord and brain). No differences in the ability to recognize heart antigens were found between RA (48%) and CA-I (63%) antisera. Reactivity against skeletal muscle was only relevant in anti-CA-I sera at 270 days post-infection. Each of the antisera assayed in Western blots developed a particular antigenic pattern, but 3 antigens in the nervous system of molecular weight 48, 60 and 70 kDa were detected by 42, 28 and 23% of the sera, respectively. On the other hand, deposits of IgG were observed at the interstitial matrix in sciatic nerve and as endomisial and sarcolemmal patterns in skeletal muscle by IFAT for both RA and CA-I antisera. Absorption of sera with parasite antigens did not abolish the autoreactivity. Our results suggest that major serum autoreactivity from T. cruzi-infected mice is not parasite-strain dependent and does not arise from molecular mimicry.

  3. Trypanosoma vivax Adhesion to Red Blood Cells in Experimentally Infected Sheep

    PubMed Central

    Boada-Sucre, Alpidio A.; Rossi Spadafora, Marcello Salvatore; Tavares-Marques, Lucinda M.; Finol, Héctor J.; Reyna-Bello, Armando

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomosis, a globally occurring parasitic disease, poses as a major obstacle to livestock production in tropical and subtropical regions resulting in tangible economic losses. In Latin America including Venezuela, trypanosomosis of ruminants is mainly caused by Trypanosoma vivax. Biologically active substances produced from trypanosomes, as well as host-trypanosome cellular interactions, contribute to the pathogenesis of anemia in an infection. The aim of this study was to examine with a scanning electron microscope the cellular interactions and alterations in ovine red blood cells (RBC) experimentally infected with T. vivax. Ovine infection resulted in changes of RBC shape as well as the formation of surface holes or vesicles. A frequent observation was the adhesion to the ovine RBC by the trypanosome's free flagellum, cell body, or attached flagellum in a process mediated by the filopodia emission from the trypanosome surface. The observed RBC alterations are caused by mechanical and biochemical damage from host-parasite interactions occurring in the bloodstream. The altered erythrocytes are prone to mononuclear phagocytic removal contributing to the hematocrit decrease during infection. PMID:27293960

  4. Identification of a Hyperendemic Area for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Central Veracruz, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Ramos-Ligonio, Angel; López-Monteon, Aracely; Guzmán-Gómez, Daniel; Rosales-Encina, José Luis; Limón-Flores, Yairh; Dumonteil, Eric

    2010-01-01

    The state of Veracruz, Mexico, is a well-recognized endemic region for Chagas disease, but the geographic distribution of the disease and its magnitude are still poorly documented. We evaluated the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in the sanitary jurisdictions of Cordoba and Cosamaloapan in central Veracruz. A total of 654 serum samples from 19 rural localities were tested by using four tests: two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays, an indirect immunofluorescent, and Western blotting. Overall, 110 (16.8%) of 654 samples were positive for T. cruzi by ≥ 2 tests (95% confidence interval = 14.2–19.9%). The municipality of Tezonapa in the jurisdiction of Cordoba was identified as a potential hyperendemic region with seroprevalence rates ≤ 45% in young children. No cases were detected in the jurisdiction of Cosamaloapan. Further studies should help clarify T. cruzi transmission dynamics in Tezonapa. The magnitude of T. cruzi infection rate in this region calls for the urgent implementation of extensive epidemiologic surveillance and control programs. PMID:20595496

  5. DO COMMERCIAL SEROLOGIC TESTS FOR TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI INFECTION DETECT MEXICAN STRAINS IN WOMEN AND NEWBORNS?

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-León, Rubi; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Claudia; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolas; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Caamal-Kantun, Alejandra; Buekens, Pierre; Dumonteil, Eric

    2012-01-01

    We sought to determine the serological test that could be used for Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence studies in Mexico, where lineage I predominates. In a previous study among pregnant women and their newborns in the states of Yucatan and Guanajuato, we reported a 0.8–0.9% of prevalence for T. cruzi–specific antibodies by Stat-Pak and Wiener ELISA. We have expanded this study here by performing an additional non-commercial ELISA and confirming the seropositives with Western blot, using whole antigens of a local parasite strain. We found a seroprevalence of 0.6% (3/500) in Merida and 0.4% in Guanajuato (2/488). The 5 seropositive umbilical cord samples reacted to both non-commercial ELISA and Western blot tests, and only 1 of the maternal samples was not reactive to non-commercial ELISA. A follow-up of the newborns at 10 mo was performed in Yucatan to determine the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in children as evidence of congenital infection. None of the children was seropositive. One newborn from an infected mother died at 2 wk of age of cardiac arrest, but T. cruzi infection was not confirmed. The T. cruzi seroprevalence data obtained with both commercial tests (Stat-Pak and ELISA Wiener) are similar to those from non-commercial tests using a local Mexican strain of T. cruzi. PMID:21506787

  6. The ethanolamine branch of the Kennedy pathway is essential in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Gibellini, Federica; Hunter, William N; Smith, Terry K

    2009-01-01

    Phosphatidylethanolamine (GPEtn), a major phospholipid component of trypanosome membranes, is synthesized de novo from ethanolamine through the Kennedy pathway. Here the composition of the GPEtn molecular species in the bloodstream form of Trypanosoma brucei is determined, along with new insights into phospholipid metabolism, by in vitro and in vivo characterization of a key enzyme of the Kennedy pathway, the cytosolic ethanolamine-phosphate cytidylyltransferase (TbECT). Gene knockout indicates that TbECT is essential for growth and survival, thus highlighting the importance of the Kennedy pathway for the pathogenic stage of the African trypanosome. Phosphatiylserine decarboxylation, a potential salvage pathway, does not appear to be active in cultured bloodstream form T. brucei, and it is not upregulated even when the Kennedy pathway is disrupted. In vivo metabolic labelling and phospholipid composition analysis by ESI-MS/MS of the knockout cells confirmed a significant decrease in GPEtn species, as well as changes in the relative abundance of other phospholipid species. Reduction in GPEtn levels had a profound influence on the morphology of the mutants and it compromised mitochondrial structure and function, as well as glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor biosynthesis. TbECT is therefore genetically validated as a potential drug target against the African trypanosome. PMID:19555461

  7. In Vitro Trypanocidal Activity of Macela (Achyrocline satureioides) Extracts against Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Camila B.; Zimmermann, Carine E. P.; Boligon, Aline A.; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Bolzan, Leandro P.; Vaucher, Rodrigo de A.; Santurio, Janio M.; Sagrillo, Michele R.; da Silva, Aleksandro Schafer

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the trypanocidal effectiveness of aqueous, methanolic, and ethanolic extracts of Achyrocline satureioides against Trypanosoma evansi in vitro. A. satureioides extracts, known as macela, were used on trypomastigotes at different concentrations (1, 5, 10, 50, 100, 500, and 1,000 µg/ml) and exposure times (0, 1, 3, 6, and 9 hr). A dose-dependent effect was observed when the 3 extracts were tested. The concentrations of 1, 5, and 10 µg/ml were not able to kill trypomastigotes until 3 hr after exposure, and the highest concentrations (500 and 1,000 µg/ml) were able to kill all trypomastigotes after 1 hr. When the time of exposure was increased up to 9 hr, the concentrations at 50 and 100 µg/ml were 100% effective to 3 extracts. The chemical analysis of the extracts revealed the presence of flavonoids, a trypanocidal compound already described. Based on the results, we can conclude that the A. satureioides extracts exhibit trypanocidal effects. PMID:25031474

  8. An Overview of Trypanosoma brucei Infections: An Intense Host–Parasite Interaction

    PubMed Central

    Ponte-Sucre, Alicia

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense and T. brucei gambiense, the causative agents of Human African Trypanosomiasis, are transmitted by tsetse flies. Within the vector, the parasite undergoes through transformations that prepares it to infect the human host. Sequentially these developmental stages are the replicative procyclic (in which the parasite surface is covered by procyclins) and trypo-epimastigote forms, as well as the non-replicative, infective, metacyclic form that develops in the vector salivary glands. As a pre-adaptation to their life in humans, metacyclic parasites begin to express and be densely covered by the Variant Surface Glycoprotein (VSG). Once the metacyclic form invades the human host the parasite develops into the bloodstream form. Herein the VSG triggers a humoral immune response. To avoid this humoral response, and essential for survival while in the bloodstream, the parasite changes its cover periodically and sheds into the surroundings the expressed VSG, thus evading the consequences of the immune system activation. Additionally, tools comparable to quorum sensing are used by the parasite for the successful parasite transmission from human to insect. On the other hand, the human host promotes clearance of the parasite triggering innate and adaptive immune responses and stimulating cytokine and chemokine secretion. All in all, the host–parasite interaction is extremely active and leads to responses that need multiple control sites to develop appropriately. PMID:28082973

  9. Effect of dibutyltin(IV) on the ultrastructure of African Trypanosoma spp.

    PubMed

    Shuaibu, M N; Kanbara, H; Yanagi, T; Ichinose, A; Ameh, D A; Bonire, J J; Nok, A J

    2004-01-01

    Diorganotins (R2SnX2) are compounds with a wide variety of biological properties. In an attempt to follow the morphological events and to characterize the toxic effects of diorganotins on in vitro cultured African Trypanosoma spp., the ultrastructural alterations induced on the parasites by dibutyltins (Bu2SnX2) were followed. The data obtained indicate that these compounds induced irreparable damage to the in vitro cultured bloodstream forms of the parasites. Transmission and scanning electron microscopy allowed observations on the perturbation of the kinetoplast, extensive cytoplasmic swellings, disconfiguration around the flagellar pocket and membrane disintegration. Fluorescence microscopy with 4,6-diamidine-2-phenylindole stain was also used to visualize the survival or degeneration of kDNA. Understanding the collateral cellular toxic effect of these compounds on the parasites may shed light on the possible mechanism by which they kill trypanosomes. Agarose gel electrophoresis resolution of isolated kDNAs revealed no fragmentation by these compounds following in vitro incubation at 37 degrees C. However, fragmentation was observed from the gel electrophoresis of kDNA isolated from in vitro cultured Bu2SnX2-exposed parasites. Transmission electron microscopy of the kDNAs revealed the same pattern as observed with gel electrophoresis. These results provide evidence for the possible involvement of the Bu2Sn moiety in the in vivo-induced fragmentation of trypanosomal kDNA and consequent trypanolysis. This observation also underlies the relevance of organometallics in the therapy of African trypanosomiasis.

  10. Immunopathology of experimental Chagas' disease: binding of T cells to Trypanosoma cruzi-infected heart tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Mortatti, R C; Maia, L C; de Oliveira, A V; Munk, M E

    1990-01-01

    The immunopathology of Chagas' disease was studied in the experimental model of chronic infection in C57BL/10JT or mice. Sublethal infection with Trypanosoma cruzi, Y strain, induced specific antibodies and a delayed hypersensitivity response to parasite antigens. Mice developed chronic chagasic myocarditis but not skeletal muscle myositis. Binding of T cells to infected heart tissue was investigated during short-term cocultivation of lymphocytes with heart cryostat sections. T cells from infected mice and from normal controls bound equally to myocardium and liver sections from both infected and normal mice. A search in depth was attempted with cells heavily tagged with 99mTc. Labeled T cells from chagasic mice bound to both normal and infected myocardium slices. 99mTc-labeled T cells from controls gave the same binding values. Glass-adherent spleen cells behaved identically to T cells. Prior treatment of the tissue with serum from chronically infected mice did not increase the number of binding cells. Peritoneal macrophages tagged with 99mTc-sulfur colloid also bound to infected myocardium slices. The binding of macrophages was not changed by pretreatment of infected tissue with anti-T, cruzi antibodies. In short, this work did not detect any population of T cells or macrophages which could bind specifically to infected heart tissue to initiate an autoreactive process. Images PMID:2228230

  11. Fibronectin-Degrading Activity of Trypanosoma cruzi Cysteine Proteinase Plays a Role in Host Cell Invasion

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Fernando Yukio; Cortez, Cristian; Izidoro, Mario Augusto; Juliano, Luiz

    2014-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, binds to diverse extracellular matrix proteins. Such an ability prevails in the parasite forms that circulate in the bloodstream and contributes to host cell invasion. Whether this also applies to the insect-stage metacyclic trypomastigotes, the developmental forms that initiate infection in the mammalian host, is not clear. Using T. cruzi CL strain metacyclic forms, we investigated whether fibronectin bound to the parasites and affected target cell invasion. Fibronectin present in cell culture medium bound to metacyclic forms and was digested by cruzipain, the major T. cruzi cysteine proteinase. G strain, with negligible cruzipain activity, displayed a minimal fibronectin-degrading effect. Binding to fibronectin was mediated by gp82, the metacyclic stage-specific surface molecule implicated in parasite internalization. When exogenous fibronectin was present at concentrations higher than cruzipain can properly digest, or fibronectin expression was stimulated by treatment of epithelial HeLa cells with transforming growth factor beta, the parasite invasion was reduced. Treatment of HeLa cells with purified recombinant cruzipain increased parasite internalization, whereas the treatment of parasites with cysteine proteinase inhibitor had the opposite effect. Metacyclic trypomastigote entry into HeLa cells was not affected by anti-β1 integrin antibody but was inhibited by anti-fibronectin antibody. Overall, our results have indicated that the cysteine proteinase of T. cruzi metacyclic forms, through its fibronectin-degrading activity, is implicated in host cell invasion. PMID:25267835

  12. Antibodies to calmodulin during experimental Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections in rabbits.

    PubMed Central

    Ruben, L; Patton, C L

    1985-01-01

    Calmodulin is an intracellular Ca2+ receptor protein which regulates a wide variety of enzymatic processes in eukaryotic cells examined in detail. Native calmodulin is not antigenic in rabbits because of its small size, high degree of amino acid sequence conservation and hydrophobicity. African trypanosomes contain a novel calmodulin which is structurally distinct from bovine brain and Tetrahymena calmodulins. In the present study, we examine the antibody response towards these calmodulins during chronic Trypanosoma brucei rhodesiense infections. Injection of purified trypanosome calmodulin into rabbits stimulates the production of specific IgG antibodies which recognize trypanosome, but not bovine brain or Tetrahymena calmodulins. By contrast, during chronic T. brucei infections in rabbits, antibodies (IgG + IgM + IgA) that recognize trypanosome, Tetrahymena and mammalian calmodulins arise. When only IgG antibodies are evaluated from infection sera, the major response is against mammalian and Tetrahymena calmodulins. Significantly fewer IgG antibodies are measured in the infection sera which recognize trypanosome calmodulin, while the non-specific control protein, chicken ovalbumin, is not recognized. Peak IgG antibody responses against calmodulin occur between Days 30-34 post-infection. Competition assays indicate that Tetrahymena and mammalian calmodulins are recognized at identical epitopes which are distinct from epitopes on trypanosome calmodulin. We conclude that, in the context of chronic T. brucei infections in rabbits, antibodies arise which are able to recognize mammalian host calmodulin. Images Figure 1 PMID:2414212

  13. Selective Testing of At-Risk Blood Donors for Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp. in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    Niederhauser, Christoph; Gottschalk, Jochen; Tinguely, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background Population migrations and overseas recreational travel to regions at risk for tropical diseases are increasing. A major challenge in non-endemic countries is to decrease the number of blood donor deferrals due those tropical disease pathogens, without compromising the high level of blood safety. The protozoans Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium spp., the causative organisms of Chagas disease (CD) and malaria are becoming a major focus in the blood transfusion community. Methods: National guidelines of the Blood Transfusion Service of the Swiss Red Cross propose an algorithm for dealing with these pathogens, including a mandatory selective serological testing of donors at risk. Results 6,978 donors at risk for CD were tested. Three of them were confirmed anti-T. cruzi -positive, and in one case a transfusion-transmitted infection was highly possible. The specificity of the assay was 99.94%. For malaria 12,887 donors were at risk and 178 were confirmed positive. The specificity of the assays was 92.8%. Conclusion CD and malaria in non-endemic countries may represent a certain risk for blood transfusion. Switzerland chose a selective testing approach. The specificity of the assays is a crucial topic for this approach because it ensures a minimal loss of false-reactive donors and helps towards an easier counselling of implicated donors. PMID:27403088

  14. Characterization of a 21kDa protein from Trypanosoma cruzi associated with mammalian cell invasion.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Claudio V; Kawashita, Silvia Y; Probst, Christian M; Dallagiovanna, Bruno; Cruz, Mário C; da Silva, Erika A; Souto-Padrón, Thaís C B S; Krieger, Marco A; Goldenberg, Samuel; Briones, Marcelo R S; Andrews, Norma W; Mortara, Renato A

    2009-04-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi genomic database was screened for hypothetical proteins that showed high probability of being secreted or membrane anchored and thus, likely involved in host-cell invasion. A sequence that codes for a 21kDa protein that showed high probability of being secreted was selected. After cloning this protein sequence, the results showed that it was a ubiquitous protein and secreted by extracellular amastigotes. The recombinant form (P21-His(6)) adhered to HeLa cells in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment of host cells with P21-His(6) inhibited cell invasion by extracellular amastigotes from G and CL strains. On the other hand, when the protein was added to host cells at the same time as amastigotes, an increase in cell invasion was observed. Host-cell pretreatment with P21-His(6) augmented invasion by metacyclic trypomastigotes. Moreover, polyclonal antibody anti-P21 inhibited invasion only by extracellular amastigotes and metacyclic trypomastigotes from G strain. These results suggested that P21 might be involved in T. cruzi cell invasion. We hypothesize that P21 could be secreted in the juxtaposition parasite-host cell and triggers signaling events yet unknown that lead to parasite internalization.

  15. Wild fauna as a probable animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Njiokou, F; Laveissière, C; Simo, G; Nkinin, S; Grébaut, P; Cuny, G; Herder, S

    2006-03-01

    In order to study the existence of a wild animal reservoir for Trypanosoma brucei gambiense in South Cameroon, blood was collected from wild animals in three human African trypanosomiasis foci and from a nonendemic control area. The 1142 wild animals sampled belonged to 36 different species pertaining to eight orders (407 primates, 347 artiodactyls, 265 rodents, 54 pangolins, 53 carnivores, 11 saurians and crocodilians, and five hyraxes). QBC and KIVI tests detected trypanosomes on 1.7% (13/762) and 18.4% (43/234) of animals examined, respectively. Using specific primers, T. brucei non-gambiense group 1 DNA was detected on 56 animals (4.9%). This infection rate was 5.3% in the endemic zone and 3.8% in the control zone. Of the 832 animals of the endemic zone, PCR revealed T. b. gambiense group 1 DNA in 18 (2.2%). These hosts included two rodents, two artiodactyls, two carnivores and two primates. T. b. gambiense group 1 was absent from animals from the nonendemic zone. A decrease in the prevalence of T. b. gambiense group 1 was observed in wild animals from the Bipindi sleeping sickness focus after a medical survey and vector control in this area. The epidemiological implications of these findings remain to be determined with further investigations.

  16. CD8(+) T cell-mediated immunity during Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a path for vaccine development?

    PubMed

    Dos Santos Virgilio, Fernando; Pontes, Camila; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Ersching, Jonatan; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD8(+) T cells are important during infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Experimental studies performed in the past 25 years have elucidated a number of features related to the immune response mediated by these T cells, which are important for establishing the parasite/host equilibrium leading to chronic infection. CD8(+) T cells are specific for highly immunodominant antigens expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family. After infection, their activation is delayed, and the cells display a high proliferative activity associated with high apoptotic rates. Although they participate in parasite control and elimination, they are unable to clear the infection due to their low fitness, allowing the parasite to establish the chronic phase when these cells then play an active role in the induction of heart immunopathology. Vaccination with a number of subunit recombinant vaccines aimed at eliciting specific CD8(+) T cells can reverse this path, thereby generating a productive immune response that will lead to the control of infection, reduction of symptoms, and reduction of disease transmission. Due to these attributes, activation of CD8(+) T lymphocytes may constitute a path for the development of a veterinarian or human vaccine.

  17. TrypanoCyc: a community-led biochemical pathways database for Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Shameer, Sanu; Logan-Klumpler, Flora J.; Vinson, Florence; Cottret, Ludovic; Merlet, Benjamin; Achcar, Fiona; Boshart, Michael; Berriman, Matthew; Breitling, Rainer; Bringaud, Frédéric; Bütikofer, Peter; Cattanach, Amy M.; Bannerman-Chukualim, Bridget; Creek, Darren J.; Crouch, Kathryn; de Koning, Harry P.; Denise, Hubert; Ebikeme, Charles; Fairlamb, Alan H.; Ferguson, Michael A. J.; Ginger, Michael L.; Hertz-Fowler, Christiane; Kerkhoven, Eduard J.; Mäser, Pascal; Michels, Paul A. M.; Nayak, Archana; Nes, David W.; Nolan, Derek P.; Olsen, Christian; Silva-Franco, Fatima; Smith, Terry K.; Taylor, Martin C.; Tielens, Aloysius G. M.; Urbaniak, Michael D.; van Hellemond, Jaap J.; Vincent, Isabel M.; Wilkinson, Shane R.; Wyllie, Susan; Opperdoes, Fred R.; Barrett, Michael P.; Jourdan, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    The metabolic network of a cell represents the catabolic and anabolic reactions that interconvert small molecules (metabolites) through the activity of enzymes, transporters and non-catalyzed chemical reactions. Our understanding of individual metabolic networks is increasing as we learn more about the enzymes that are active in particular cells under particular conditions and as technologies advance to allow detailed measurements of the cellular metabolome. Metabolic network databases are of increasing importance in allowing us to contextualise data sets emerging from transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolomic experiments. Here we present a dynamic database, TrypanoCyc (http://www.metexplore.fr/trypanocyc/), which describes the generic and condition-specific metabolic network of Trypanosoma brucei, a parasitic protozoan responsible for human and animal African trypanosomiasis. In addition to enabling navigation through the BioCyc-based TrypanoCyc interface, we have also implemented a network-based representation of the information through MetExplore, yielding a novel environment in which to visualise the metabolism of this important parasite. PMID:25300491

  18. Purification and characterization of an 80-kilodalton Trypanosoma cruzi urinary antigen.

    PubMed Central

    Corral, R S; Orn, A; Freilij, H L; Bergman, T; Grinstein, S

    1989-01-01

    A Trypanosoma cruzi antigen eliminated in the urine of experimentally infected dogs was detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay between 9 and 28 days after infection. The parasite urinary antigen (UAg) was purified by affinity chromatography with polyclonal antibodies to T. cruzi. The eluate of the antibody column was subjected to high-performance liquid chromatography and showed a single peak of A280. This antigen was the only parasite component found in the urine of infected dogs during the course of acute T. cruzi infection. Antigen characterization was performed by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, lectin affinity chromatography, proteolytic digestion, and Western blotting (immunoblotting). The isolated UAg exhibited a relative molecular size of 80 kilodaltons (kDa), an isoelectric point of 6.2 to 6.8, binding to concanavalin A, and sensitivity to trypsin. The parasite antigen was electroeluted from polyacrylamide gels and subjected to acid hydrolysis and amino acid analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The 80-kDa glycoprotein was recognized by serum antibodies from a wide variety of T. cruzi-infected hosts. The UAg proved to be a highly antigenic component present in different strains of T. cruzi. This 80-kDa polypeptide resembles one of the parasite antigens previously found in the urine of patients with acute Chagas' disease. Images PMID:2643616

  19. Identification of major Trypanosoma cruzi antigenic determinants in chronic Chagas' heart disease.

    PubMed

    Levin, M J; Mesri, E; Benarous, R; Levitus, G; Schijman, A; Levy-Yeyati, P; Chiale, P A; Ruiz, A M; Kahn, A; Rosenbaum, M B

    1989-11-01

    To identify Trypanosoma cruzi target antigens in overt Chagas' heart disease, a parasite lambda gt11 cDNA library was screened with the serum of a patient with a severe chagasic heart involvement (JL). Using a phage dot array immunoassay, 5 highly antigenic clones, JL1, JL5, JL7, JL8, and JL9, were probed with sera from clinically characterized T. cruzi infected subjects. The correlation of cloned T. cruzi antigen recognition with the clinical status of the subjects led to the identification of a recombinant antigen, JL5, that reacted predominantly with sera from patients with Chagas' heart disease. The antigenic determinant of the JL5 recombinant was a small 35 amino acid peptide. The nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence, together with other experimental data, allowed identification as the C-terminal portion of a T. cruzi P ribosomal protein. The C-terminal undecapeptide in JL5, EDDDMGFGLFD, was highly homologous to the same region of the human P protein SD(D/E)DMGFGLFD. The latter sequence has been identified as the P protein epitope in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Positive SLE sera reacted with the JL5 recombinant phage, suggesting that the T. cruzi P protein might induce antibodies with a similar specificity to that of P antibodies in SLE.

  20. Human recombinant antibodies against Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P2β protein.

    PubMed

    Grippo, Vanina; Niborski, Leticia L; Gomez, Karina A; Levin, Mariano J

    2011-05-01

    Patients with chronic Chagas' Heart Disease (cChHD) develop an antibody response that is suspected to be involved in the cardiac pathogenesis. The response against Trypanosoma cruzi ribosomal P proteins is of particular interest, as these antibodies can cross-react with host cardiac receptors causing electrophysiological alterations. To better understand the humoral anti-P response we constructed a single-chain variable fragment library derived from a cChHD patient. The variable heavy and light regions were amplified from bone-marrow RNA and subcloned into the vector pComb3X. The phage library was subsequently panned against T. cruzi ribosomal P2β protein (TcP2β). We obtained 3 different human recombinant antibodies that specifically reacted with TcP2β in ELISA and Western blots. Two of them reacted with the C-terminal region of TcP2β, peptide R13, as the recombinant autoanti-P antibodies from Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) patients. Interestingly, the third one was specific for TcP2β but did not recognize R13, confirming the specific nature of the anti-P response in Chagas disease. Neither sequence nor VH usage similarities between Chagas and SLE anti-P autoantibodies were observed. Herein, the first human mAbs against TcP2β have been obtained and characterized showing that the humoral anti-P response is directed against the parasite and does not include an autoimmune component.

  1. Trypanosoma cruzi Infection Is Enhanced by Vector Saliva through Immunosuppressant Mechanisms Mediated by Lysophosphatidylcholine▿

    PubMed Central

    Mesquita, Rafael D.; Carneiro, Alan Brito; Bafica, André; Gazos-Lopes, Felipe; Takiya, Christina M.; Souto-Padron, Thaís; Vieira, Danielle P.; Ferreira-Pereira, Antônio; Almeida, Igor C.; Figueiredo, Rodrigo T.; Porto, Bárbara N.; Bozza, Marcelo T.; Graça-Souza, Aurélio V.; Lopes, Angela H. C. S.; Atella, Geórgia C.; Silva-Neto, Mário A. C.

    2008-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiological agent of Chagas disease, is transmitted by bug feces deposited on human skin during a blood meal. However, parasite infection occurs through the wound produced by insect mouthparts. Saliva of the Triatominae bug Rhodnius prolixus is a source of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC). Here, we tested the role of both triatomine saliva and LPC on parasite transmission. We show that vector saliva is a powerful inducer of cell chemotaxis. A massive number of inflammatory cells were found at the sites where LPC or saliva was inoculated into the skin of mice. LPC is a known chemoattractant for monocytes, but neutrophil recruitment induced by saliva is LPC independent. The preincubation of peritoneal macrophages with saliva or LPC increased fivefold the association of T. cruzi with these cells. Moreover, saliva and LPC block nitric oxide production by T. cruzi-exposed macrophages. The injection of saliva or LPC into mouse skin in the presence of the parasite induces an up-to-sixfold increase in blood parasitemia. Together, our data suggest that saliva of the Triatominae enhances T. cruzi transmission and that some of its biological effects are attributed to LPC. This is a demonstration that a vector-derived lysophospholipid may act as an enhancing factor of Chagas disease. PMID:18794282

  2. Identification of Protein Complex Associated with LYT1 of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Lugo-Caballero, C.; Ballesteros-Rodea, G.; Martínez-Calvillo, S.; Manning-Cela, Rebeca

    2013-01-01

    To carry out the intracellular phase of its life cycle, Trypanosoma cruzi must infect a host cell. Although a few molecules have been reported to participate in this process, one known protein is LYT1, which promotes lysis under acidic conditions and is involved in parasite infection and development. Alternative transcripts from a single LYT1 gene generate two proteins with differential functions and compartmentalization. Single-gene products targeted to more than one location can interact with disparate proteins that might affect their function and targeting properties. The aim of this work was to study the LYT1 interaction map using coimmunoprecipitation assays with transgenic parasites expressing LYT1 products fused to GFP. We detected several proteins of sizes from 8 to 150 kDa that bind to LYT1 with different binding strengths. By MS-MS analysis, we identified proteins involved in parasite infectivity (trans-sialidase), development (kDSPs and histones H2A and H2B), and motility and protein traffic (dynein and α- and β-tubulin), as well as protein-protein interactions (TPR-protein and kDSPs) and several hypothetical proteins. Our approach led us to identify the LYT1 interaction profile, thereby providing insights into the molecular mechanisms that contribute to parasite stage development and pathogenesis of T. cruzi infection. PMID:23586042

  3. Virulence in Trypanosoma congolense Savannah subgroup. A comparison between strains and transmission cycles.

    PubMed

    Van den Bossche, P; Chitanga, S; Masumu, J; Marcotty, T; Delespaux, V

    2011-08-01

    Trypanosoma congolense strains have been shown to differ in their virulence both between subgroups and within the Savannah subgroup between strains. This review revisits these findings and complements them with information on the virulence of T. congolense Savannah subgroup strains isolated from cattle (domestic transmission cycle) in different geographical areas and of strains isolated in protected areas where trypanotolerant wildlife species are the reservoir of the trypanosomes (sylvatic transmission cycle). The virulence of a total of 62 T. congolense Savannah subgroup strains (50 domestic and 12 sylvatic), determined using a standard protocol in mice, was compared. Virulence varied substantially between strains with, depending on the strain, the median survival time of infected mice varying from five to more than sixty days. The proportion of highly virulent strains (median survival time <10 days) was significantly (P = 0·005) higher in strains from the sylvatic transmission cycle. The analysis highlights repercussions of the domestication of the trypanosomiasis transmission cycle that may have to be taken in consideration in the development of trypanosomiasis control strategies.

  4. Novel Naphthalene-Based Inhibitors of Trypanosoma brucei RNA Editing Ligase 1

    PubMed Central

    Swift, Robert V.; Landon, Melissa; Schnaufer, Achim; Amaro, Rommie E.

    2010-01-01

    Background Neglected tropical diseases, including diseases caused by trypanosomatid parasites such as Trypanosoma brucei, cost tens of millions of disability-adjusted life-years annually. As the current treatments for African trypanosomiasis and other similar infections are limited, new therapeutics are urgently needed. RNA Editing Ligase 1 (REL1), a protein unique to trypanosomes and other kinetoplastids, was identified recently as a potential drug target. Methodology/Principal Findings Motivated by the urgent need for novel trypanocidal therapeutics, we use an ensemble-based virtual-screening approach to discover new naphthalene-based TbREL1 inhibitors. The predicted binding modes of the active compounds are evaluated within the context of the flexible receptor model and combined with computational fragment mapping to determine the most likely binding mechanisms. Ultimately, four new low-micromolar inhibitors are presented. Three of the four compounds may bind to a newly revealed cleft that represents a putative druggable site not evident in any crystal structure. Conclusions/Significance Pending additional optimization, the compounds presented here may serve as precursors for future novel therapies useful in the fight against several trypanosomatid pathogens, including human African trypanosomiasis, a devastating disease that afflicts the vulnerable patient populations of sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:20808768

  5. Coadministration of cruzipain and GM-CSF DNAs, a new immunotherapeutic vaccine against Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Cerny, Natacha; Sánchez Alberti, Andrés; Bivona, Augusto E; De Marzi, Mauricio C; Frank, Fernanda M; Cazorla, Silvia I; Malchiodi, Emilio L

    2016-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccine research and development are especially important in Chagas disease considering the characteristics of the chronic infection and the number of people in the Americas living with a parasite infection for decades. We have previously reported the efficacy of attenuated Salmonella enterica (S) carrying plasmid encoding cruzipain (SCz) to protect against Trypanosoma cruzi infection. In the present work we investigated whether Cz DNA vaccine immunotherapy could be effective in controlling an ongoing T. cruzi infection in mice. We here report the intramuscular administration of naked Cz DNA or the oral administration of Salmonella as Cz DNA delivery system as therapeutic vaccines in mice during acute or chronic infection. The coadministration of a plasmid encoding GM-CSF improved vaccine performance, indicating that the stimulation of innate immune cells is needed in the event of an ongoing infection. These therapeutic vaccines were able to address the response to a protective and sustained Th1 biased profile not only against Cz but also against a variety of parasite antigens. The combined therapeutic vaccine during the chronic phase of infection prevents tissue pathology as shown by a reduced level of enzyme activity characteristic of tissue damage and a tissue status compatible with normal tissue. The obtained results suggest that immunotherapy with Cz and GM-CSF DNAs, either alone or in combination with other drug treatments, may represent a promising alternative for Chagas disease therapy.

  6. How Trypanosoma cruzi handles cell cycle arrest promoted by camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Zuma, Aline Araujo; Mendes, Isabela Cecília; Reignault, Lissa Catherine; Elias, Maria Carolina; de Souza, Wanderley; Machado, Carlos Renato; Motta, Maria Cristina M

    2014-02-01

    The protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, which affects approximately 8 million people in Latin America. This parasite contains a single nucleus and a kinetoplast, which harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA). DNA topoisomerases act during replication, transcription and repair and modulate DNA topology by reverting supercoiling in the DNA double-strand. In this work, we evaluated the effects promoted by camptothecin, a topoisomerase I inhibitor that promotes protozoan proliferation impairment, cell cycle arrest, ultrastructure alterations and DNA lesions in epimastigotes of T. cruzi. The results showed that inhibition of cell proliferation was reversible only at the lowest drug concentration (1μM) used. The unpacking of nuclear heterochromatin and mitochondrion swelling were the main ultrastructural modifications observed. Inhibition of parasite proliferation also led to cell cycle arrest, which was most likely caused by nuclear DNA lesions. Following camptothecin treatment, some of the cells restored their DNA, whereas others entered early apoptosis but did not progress to late apoptosis, indicating that the protozoa stay alive in a "senescence-like" state. This programmed cell death may be associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential and an increase in the production of reactive oxygen species. Taken together, these results indicate that the inhibition of T. cruzi proliferation is related to events capable of affecting cell cycle, DNA organization and mitochondrial activity.

  7. Chromatin Proteomics Reveals Variable Histone Modifications during the Life Cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    de Jesus, Teresa Cristina Leandro; Nunes, Vinícius Santana; Lopes, Mariana de Camargo; Martil, Daiana Evelin; Iwai, Leo Kei; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Machado, Fabrício Castro; de Lima-Stein, Mariana L; Thiemann, Otavio Henrique; Elias, Maria Carolina; Janzen, Christian; Schenkman, Sergio; da Cunha, Julia Pinheiro Chagas

    2016-06-03

    Histones are well-conserved proteins that form the basic structure of chromatin in eukaryotes and undergo several post-translational modifications, which are important for the control of transcription, replication, DNA damage repair, and chromosome condensation. In early branched organisms, histones are less conserved and appear to contain alternative sites for modifications, which could reveal evolutionary unique functions of histone modifications in gene expression and other chromatin-based processes. Here, by using high-resolution mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified histone post-translational modifications in two life cycle stages of Trypanosoma cruzi, the protozoan parasite that causes Chagas disease. We detected 44 new modifications, namely: 18 acetylations, seven monomethylations, seven dimethylations, seven trimethylations, and four phosphorylations. We found that replicative (epimastigote stage) contains more histone modifications than nonreplicative and infective parasites (trypomastigote stage). Acetylations of lysines at the C-terminus of histone H2A and methylations of lysine 23 of histone H3 were found to be enriched in trypomastigotes. In contrast, phosphorylation in serine 23 of H2B and methylations of lysine 76 of histone H3 predominates in proliferative states. The presence of one or two methylations in the lysine 76 was found in cells undergoing mitosis and cytokinesis, typical of proliferating parasites. Our findings provide new insights into the role of histone modifications related to the control of gene expression and cell-cycle regulation in an early divergent organism.

  8. Characterization of the plasma-membrane calcium pump from Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed Central

    Benaim, G; Moreno, S N; Hutchinson, G; Cervino, V; Hermoso, T; Romero, P J; Ruiz, F; de Souza, W; Docampo, R

    1995-01-01

    Despite previous reports [McLaughlin (1985) Mol. Biochem. Parasitol. 15, 189-201; Ghosh, Ray, Sarkar and Bhaduri (1990) J. Biol. Chem. 265, 11345-11351; Mazumder, Mukherjee, Ghosh, Ray and Bhaduri (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 18440-18446] suggesting that the plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPases of different trypanosomatids differ from the Ca2+ pumps present in mammalian cells, Trypanosoma cruzi plasma-membrane Ca(2+)-ATPase shares several characteristics with the Ca2+ pumps present in other systems. This enzyme could be partially purified from epimastigote plasma-membrane vesicles using calmodulin-agarose affinity chromatography. The activity of the partially purified enzyme was stimulated by T. cruzi or bovine brain calmodulin. In addition, the enzyme cross-reacted with antiserum and monoclonal antibody 5F10 raised against human red-blood-cell Ca(2+)-ATPase, has a molecular mass of 140 kDa and forms Ca(2+)-dependent hydroxylamine-sensitive phosphorylated intermediates. These results, together with its high sensitivity to vanadate, indicate that this enzyme belongs to the P-type class of ionic pumps. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:7532400

  9. Giant FAZ10 is required for flagellum attachment zone stabilization and furrow positioning in Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Fonseca, Carol K.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT The flagellum and flagellum attachment zone (FAZ) are important cytoskeletal structures in trypanosomatids, being required for motility, cell division and cell morphogenesis. Trypanosomatid cytoskeletons contain abundant high molecular mass proteins (HMMPs), but many of their biological functions are still unclear. Here, we report the characterization of the giant FAZ protein, FAZ10, in Trypanosoma brucei, which, using immunoelectron microscopy, we show localizes to the intermembrane staples in the FAZ intracellular domain. Our data show that FAZ10 is a giant cytoskeletal protein essential for normal growth and morphology in both procyclic and bloodstream parasite life cycle stages, with its depletion leading to defects in cell morphogenesis, flagellum attachment, and kinetoplast and nucleus positioning. We show that the flagellum attachment defects are probably brought about by reduced tethering of the proximal domain of the paraflagellar rod to the FAZ filament. Further, FAZ10 depletion also reduces abundance of FAZ flagellum domain protein, ClpGM6. Moreover, ablation of FAZ10 impaired the timing and placement of the cleavage furrow during cytokinesis, resulting in premature or asymmetrical cell division. PMID:28193733

  10. Potential Role of Carvedilol in the Cardiac Immune Response Induced by Experimental Infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Horta, Aline Luciano; Leite, Ana Luisa Junqueira; Paula Costa, G.

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes a cardiac infection characterized by an inflammatory imbalance that could become the inciting factor of the illness. To this end, we evaluated the role of carvedilol, a beta-blocker with potential immunomodulatory properties, on the immune response in C57BL/6 mice infected with VL-10 strain of T. cruzi in the acute phase. Animals (n = 40) were grouped: (i) not infected, (ii) infected, (iii) infected + carvedilol, and (iv) not infected + carvedilol. We analyzed parameters related to parasitemia, plasma levels of TNF, IL-10, and CCL2, and cardiac histopathology after the administration of carvedilol for 30 days. We did not observe differences in the maximum peaks of parasitemia in the day of their detection among the groups. The plasma TNF was elevated at 60 days of infection in mice treated or not with carvedilol. However, we observed a decreased CCL2 level and increased IL-10 levels in those infected animals treated with carvedilol, which impacted the reduction of the inflammatory infiltration in cardiac tissue. For this experimental model, carvedilol therapy was not able to alter the levels of circulating parasites but modulates the pattern of CCL2 and IL-10 mediators when the VL10 strain of T. cruzi was used in C57BL6 mice. PMID:28377930

  11. Cruzipain, a major Trypanosoma cruzi antigen, conditions the host immune response in favor of parasite.

    PubMed

    Giordanengo, Laura; Guiñazú, Natalia; Stempin, Cinthia; Fretes, Ricardo; Cerbán, Fabio; Gea, Susana

    2002-04-01

    We recently demonstrated that humoral immune response to cruzipain, a major antigen of Trypanosoma cruzi parasite, is implicated in the pathogenesis of experimental Chagas' disease. In the present study, the spleen cell phenotype and the cytokine profile induced by cruzipain in immunized mice were analyzed. The results showed that cruzipain increases the number of spleen cells with large size and granularity. Splenocyte populations with CD19(+), Mac-1(+), Gr-1(+) and CD11c(+) positive surface markers significantly increased in immune mice compared to controls ones. Histological study revealed the presence of high number of megacariocyte and granulocyte-macrophage progenitors, indicating extramedullary hemopoiesis in spleens of immune mice. The finding of high levels of IL-4, IL5 and IL-10 and low levels of IFN-gamma and IL-12 in supernatants of immune cells stimulated with cruzipain indicates a preferential activation of T2 type cells in immune animals. To investigate the role of innate immunity cells, the classical and alternative metabolic pathways of spleen macrophages from immune mice stimulated by cruzipain were also studied. The results showed an increase of urea associated with a decrease of nitrite levels, suggesting that cruzipain up-regulates the arginase way. Therefore, cruzipain leads to T2 type cytokine profile which may enhance the arginase via in the macrophages promoting a susceptible mechanism to infection. Thus, we postulate that during T. cruzi infection, cruzipain could be used by the parasite to spread inside the host.

  12. Interactions between Trypanosoma cruzi Secreted Proteins and Host Cell Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe Costa, Renata; da Silveira, Jose F.; Bahia, Diana

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is one of the prevalent neglected tropical diseases, affecting at least 6–7 million individuals in Latin America. It is caused by the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, which is transmitted to vertebrate hosts by blood-sucking insects. After infection, the parasite invades and multiplies in the myocardium, leading to acute myocarditis that kills around 5% of untreated individuals. T. cruzi secretes proteins that manipulate multiple host cell signaling pathways to promote host cell invasion. The primary secreted lysosomal peptidase in T. cruzi is cruzipain, which has been shown to modulate the host immune response. Cruzipain hinders macrophage activation during the early stages of infection by interrupting the NF-kB P65 mediated signaling pathway. This allows the parasite to survive and replicate, and may contribute to the spread of infection in acute Chagas disease. Another secreted protein P21, which is expressed in all of the developmental stages of T. cruzi, has been shown to modulate host phagocytosis signaling pathways. The parasite also secretes soluble factors that exert effects on host extracellular matrix, such as proteolytic degradation of collagens. Finally, secreted phospholipase A from T. cruzi contributes to lipid modifications on host cells and concomitantly activates the PKC signaling pathway. Here, we present a brief review of the interaction between secreted proteins from T. cruzi and the host cells, emphasizing the manipulation of host signaling pathways during invasion. PMID:27065960

  13. Seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Mothers and Children in Rural Mayan Communities and Associated Reproductive Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Gamboa-León, Rubi; Ramirez-Gonzalez, Claudia; S. Pacheco-Tucuch, Freddy; O'Shea, Matthew; Rosecrans, Kathryn; Pippitt, Julia; Dumonteil, Eric; Buekens, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the seroprevalence of Trypanosoma cruzi infection among mothers and children in two rural Mayan communities in Yucatan, Mexico and examine sociodemographic characteristics and adverse reproductive outcomes associated with maternal infection. We performed household surveys in the communities of Sudzal and Teya. Mothers were interviewed, and blood samples were obtained to perform rapid tests and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). We surveyed 390 mothers and 685 children. The overall seroprevalence was 2.3% among mothers and 0.4% among children. In Sudzal, we found a seroprevalence of 4.4% among mothers and 0.7% in children. In Teya, we found a seroprevalence of 0.9% among mothers and 0.3% among children. Compared with uninfected mothers, seropositive mothers reported more stillbirths (relative risk = 4.7; 95% confidence interval = 2.1–10.4). T. cruzi infection is present in these communities, and infected children indicate active transmission. Seropositivity in mothers is associated with a history of adverse reproductive outcomes. PMID:24935948

  14. Proteomic analysis of Trypanosoma cruzi secretome: characterization of two populations of extracellular vesicles and soluble proteins.

    PubMed

    Bayer-Santos, Ethel; Aguilar-Bonavides, Clemente; Rodrigues, Silas Pessini; Cordero, Esteban Maurício; Marques, Alexandre Ferreira; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Choi, Hyungwon; Yoshida, Nobuko; da Silveira, José Franco; Almeida, Igor C

    2013-02-01

    Microorganisms use specialized systems to export virulence factors into host cells. Secretion of effector proteins into the extracellular environment has been described in Trypanosoma cruzi; however, a comprehensive proteomic analysis of the secretome and the secretion mechanisms involved remain elusive. Here, we present evidence that T. cruzi releases proteins associated with vesicles that are formed by at least two different mechanisms. Transmission electron microscopy showed larger vesicles budding from the plasma membrane of noninfective epimastigotes and infective metacyclic trypomastigotes, as well as smaller vesicles within the flagellar pocket of both forms. Parasite conditioned culture supernatant was fractionated and characterized by morphological, immunochemical, and proteomic analyses. Three fractions were obtained by differential ultracentrifugation: the first enriched in larger vesicles resembling ectosomes, the second enriched in smaller vesicles resembling exosomes, and a third fraction enriched in soluble proteins not associated with extracellular vesicles. Label-free quantitative proteomic analysis revealed a rich collection of proteins involved in metabolism, signaling, nucleic acid binding, and parasite survival and virulence. These findings support the notion that T. cruzi uses different secretion pathways to excrete/secrete proteins. Moreover, our results suggest that metacyclic forms may use extracellular vesicles to deliver cargo into host cells.

  15. Comparative structural, kinetic and inhibitor studies of Trypanosoma brucei trypanothione reductase with T. cruzi☆

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deuan C.; Ariza, Antonio; Chow, Wing-Huen A.; Oza, Sandra L.; Fairlamb, Alan H.

    2010-01-01

    As part of a drug discovery programme to discover new treatments for human African trypanosomiasis, recombinant trypanothione reductase from Trypanosoma brucei has been expressed, purified and characterized. The crystal structure was solved by molecular replacement to a resolution of 2.3 Å and found to be nearly identical to the T. cruzi enzyme (root mean square deviation 0.6 Å over 482 Cα atoms). Kinetically, the Km for trypanothione disulphide for the T. brucei enzyme was 4.4-fold lower than for T. cruzi measured by either direct (NADPH oxidation) or DTNB-coupled assay. The Km for NADPH for the T. brucei enzyme was found to be 0.77 μM using an NADPH-regenerating system coupled to reduction of DTNB. Both enzymes were assayed for inhibition at their respective S = Km values for trypanothione disulphide using a range of chemotypes, including CNS-active drugs such as clomipramine, trifluoperazine, thioridazine and citalopram. The relative IC50 values for the two enzymes were found to vary by no more than 3-fold. Thus trypanothione reductases from these species are highly similar in all aspects, indicating that they may be used interchangeably for structure-based inhibitor design and high-throughput screening. PMID:19747949

  16. Heterogeneities in the ecoepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural communities of the Argentinean Chaco.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, M Victoria; Orozco, M Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A; Gurevitz, Juan M; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E

    2014-06-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Triatoma infestans as well as dogs and cats in 327 households from a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina to test whether the household distribution of infection differed between local ethnic groups (Tobas and Creoles) and identify risk factors for host infection. Overall prevalence of infection of bugs (27.2%; 95% confidence interval = 25.3-29.3%), dogs (26.0%; 95% confidence interval = 23.3-30.1%), and cats examined (28.7%; 95% confidence interval = 20.2-39.0%) was similar. A multimodel inference approach showed that infection in dogs was associated strongly with the intensity and duration of local exposure to infected bugs and moderately with household ethnic background. Overall, Toba households were at a substantially greater risk of infection than Creole households. The strong heterogeneities in the distribution of bug, dog, and cat infections at household, village, and ethnic group levels may be used for targeted vector and disease control.

  17. Heterogeneities in the Ecoepidemiology of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection in Rural Communities of the Argentinean Chaco

    PubMed Central

    Cardinal, M. Victoria; Orozco, M. Marcela; Enriquez, Gustavo F.; Ceballos, Leonardo A.; Gaspe, María Sol; Alvarado-Otegui, Julián A.; Gurevitz, Juan M.; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E.

    2014-01-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey of Trypanosoma cruzi infection of Triatoma infestans as well as dogs and cats in 327 households from a well-defined rural area in northeastern Argentina to test whether the household distribution of infection differed between local ethnic groups (Tobas and Creoles) and identify risk factors for host infection. Overall prevalence of infection of bugs (27.2%; 95% confidence interval = 25.3–29.3%), dogs (26.0%; 95% confidence interval = 23.3–30.1%), and cats examined (28.7%; 95% confidence interval = 20.2–39.0%) was similar. A multimodel inference approach showed that infection in dogs was associated strongly with the intensity and duration of local exposure to infected bugs and moderately with household ethnic background. Overall, Toba households were at a substantially greater risk of infection than Creole households. The strong heterogeneities in the distribution of bug, dog, and cat infections at household, village, and ethnic group levels may be used for targeted vector and disease control. PMID:24732461

  18. Molecular epidemiology of domestic and sylvatic Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marta V; Lauricella, Marta A; Ceballos, Leonardo A; Lanati, Leonardo; Marcet, Paula L; Levin, Mariano J; Kitron, Uriel; Gürtler, Ricardo E; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2008-11-01

    Genetic diversity of Trypanosoma cruzi populations and parasite transmission dynamics have been well documented throughout the Americas, but few studies have been conducted in the Gran Chaco ecoregion, one of the most highly endemic areas for Chagas disease, caused by T. cruzi. In this study, we assessed the distribution of T. cruzi lineages (identified by PCR strategies) in Triatoma infestans, domestic dogs, cats, humans and sylvatic mammals from two neighbouring rural areas with different histories of transmission and vector control in northern Argentina. Lineage II predominated amongst the 99 isolates characterised and lineage I amongst the six isolates obtained from sylvatic mammals. T. cruzi lineage IIe predominated in domestic habitats; it was found in 87% of 54 isolates from Tr. infestans, in 82% of 33 isolates from dogs, and in the four cats found infected. Domestic and sylvatic cycles overlapped in the study area in the late 1980s, when intense domestic transmission occurred, and still overlap marginally. The introduction of T. cruzi from sylvatic into domestic habitats is likely to occur very rarely in the current epidemiological context. The household distribution of T. cruzi lineages showed that Tr. infestans, dogs and cats from a given house compound shared the same parasite lineage in most cases. Based on molecular evidence, this result lends further support to the importance of dogs and cats as domestic reservoir hosts of T. cruzi. We believe that in Argentina, this is the first time that lineage IIc has been isolated from naturally infected domestic dogs and Tr. infestans.

  19. Domestic dogs and cats as sources of Trypanosoma cruzi infection in rural northwestern Argentina.

    PubMed

    Gürtler, R E; Cecere, M C; Lauricella, M A; Cardinal, M V; Kitron, U; Cohen, J E

    2007-01-01

    The reservoir capacity of domestic cats and dogs for Trypanosoma cruzi infection and the host-feeding patterns of domestic Triatoma infestans were assessed longitudinally in 2 infested rural villages in north-western Argentina. A total of 86 dogs and 38 cats was repeatedly examined for T. cruzi infection by serology and/or xenodiagnosis. The composite prevalence of infection in dogs (60%), but not in cats, increased significantly with age and with the domiciliary density of infected T. infestans. Dogs and cats had similarly high forces of infection, prevalence of infectious hosts (41-42%), and infectiousness to bugs at a wide range of infected bug densities. The infectiousness to bugs of seropositive dogs declined significantly with increasing dog age and was highly aggregated. Individual dog infectiousness to bugs was significantly autocorrelated over time. Domestic T. infestans fed on dogs showed higher infection prevalence (49%) than those fed on cats (39%), humans (38%) or chickens (29%) among 1085 bugs examined. The basic reproduction number of T. cruzi in dogs was at least 8.2. Both cats and dogs are epidemiologically important sources of infection for bugs and householders, dogs nearly 3 times more than cats.

  20. In vitro lysis of the bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense by stearylamine-bearing liposomes.

    PubMed Central

    Tachibana, H; Yoshihara, E; Kaneda, Y; Nakae, T

    1988-01-01

    Cytolytic activity of liposomes consisting of stearylamine and phosphatidylcholine (SA/PC-liposomes) was examined in vitro against the bloodstream forms of Trypanosoma brucei gambiense. More than 99% of the cells (2 X 10(6)/ml) were killed within 30 min by treatment with 15 mol% SA/PC-liposomes (100 microM total lipids). As few as 1.2 X 10(12) liposomes per ml (equivalent to 2 nM liposome) showed trypanocidal activity. Fluorescence microscopy of cells treated with the dansylated SA/PC-liposomes suggested that the liposomes bound to and accumulated on the cell surface, eventually damaging the plasma membrane. SA/PC-liposomes showed no significant hemolysis when incubated with human and mouse erythrocytes under conditions that killed greater than 99.9% of the T. b. gambiense trypomastigotes. Human leukocytes were also shown to be less susceptible to SA/PC-liposomes than T. b. gambiense. These results may point to a new direction in strategy for therapy of African trypanosomiasis. Images PMID:3056249

  1. Establishment of clones of Trypanosoma cruzi and their characterization in vitro and in vivo*

    PubMed Central

    Pan, S. Chia-tung

    1982-01-01

    An efficient technique for isolating clones of Trypanosoma cruzi from cultures and from animals has been developed. It is based on the inoculation of one organism, obtained by serial dilutions of cultured epimastigotes or isolated blood stream trypomastigotes, into enriched NNN medium (NNN-F:93). The cloning efficiency (percentage of positive cultures over the number inoculated) was 70% for cultured epimastigotes and 30-40% for blood-stream trypomastigotes. In vitro cultural characteristics of 14 secondary clones of an avirulent strain indicated that 12 clones grew in the F-94 medium primarily as epimastigotes at 27 °C and exclusively as amastigotes at 37 °C; 2 clones grew in F-94 medium primarily as amastigotes regardless of incubation temperature (27 °C or 37 °C). In vivo characterization of 7 clones from 2 virulent strains indicated that the virulence of individual clones was low immediately after isolation in NNN-F:93 medium, but the virulence of some clones returned to the level of the parent strain after more than 8 serial passages in CD-1 mice. PMID:7044587

  2. Crystal structures and inhibition of Trypanosoma brucei hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase.

    PubMed

    Terán, David; Hocková, Dana; Česnek, Michal; Zíková, Alena; Naesens, Lieve; Keough, Dianne T; Guddat, Luke W

    2016-10-27

    Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) is a life-threatening infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite, Trypanosoma brucei (Tbr). Due to the debilitating side effects of the current therapeutics and the emergence of resistance to these drugs, new medications for this disease need to be developed. One potential new drug target is 6-oxopurine phosphoribosyltransferase (PRT), an enzyme central to the purine salvage pathway and whose activity is critical for the production of the nucleotides (GMP and IMP) required for DNA/RNA synthesis within this protozoan parasite. Here, the first crystal structures of this enzyme have been determined, these in complex with GMP and IMP and with three acyclic nucleoside phosphonate (ANP) inhibitors. The Ki values for GMP and IMP are 30.5 μM and 77 μM, respectively. Two of the ANPs have Ki values considerably lower than for the nucleotides, 2.3 μM (with guanine as base) and 15.8 μM (with hypoxanthine as base). The crystal structures show that when two of the ANPs bind, they induce an unusual conformation change to the loop where the reaction product, pyrophosphate, is expected to bind. This and other structural differences between the Tbr and human enzymes suggest selective inhibitors for the Tbr enzyme can be designed.

  3. Modulation of the Immune Response by Nematode Secreted Acetylcholinesterase Revealed by Heterologous Expression in Trypanosoma musculi

    PubMed Central

    Vaux, Rachel; Schnoeller, Corinna; Berkachy, Rita; Roberts, Luke B.; Hagen, Jana; Gounaris, Kleoniki

    2016-01-01

    Nematode parasites secrete molecules which regulate the mammalian immune system, but their genetic intractability is a major impediment to identifying and characterising the biological effects of these molecules. We describe here a novel system for heterologous expression of helminth secreted proteins in the natural parasite of mice, Trypanosoma musculi, which can be used to analyse putative immunomodulatory functions. Trypanosomes were engineered to express a secreted acetylcholinesterase from Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Infection of mice with transgenic parasites expressing acetylcholinesterase resulted in truncated infection, with trypanosomes cleared early from the circulation. Analysis of cellular phenotypes indicated that exposure to acetylcholinesterase in vivo promoted classical activation of macrophages (M1), with elevated production of nitric oxide and lowered arginase activity. This most likely occurred due to the altered cytokine environment, as splenocytes from mice infected with T. musculi expressing acetylcholinesterase showed enhanced production of IFNγ and TNFα, with diminished IL-4, IL-13 and IL-5. These results suggest that one of the functions of nematode secreted acetylcholinesterase may be to alter the cytokine environment in order to inhibit development of M2 macrophages which are deleterious to parasite survival. Transgenic T. musculi represents a valuable new vehicle to screen for novel immunoregulatory proteins by extracellular delivery in vivo to the murine host. PMID:27802350

  4. Nuclear Compartmentalization Contributes to Stage-Specific Gene Expression Control in Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Pastro, Lucía; Smircich, Pablo; Di Paolo, Andrés; Becco, Lorena; Duhagon, María A.; Sotelo-Silveira, José; Garat, Beatriz

    2017-01-01

    In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, as in other trypanosomatids, transcription of protein coding genes occurs in a constitutive fashion, producing large polycistronic transcription units. These units are composed of non-functionally related genes which are pervasively processed to yield each mRNA. Therefore, post-transcriptional processes are crucial to regulate gene expression. Considering that nuclear compartmentalization could contribute to gene expression regulation, we comparatively studied the nuclear, cytoplasmic and whole cell transcriptomes of the non-infective epimastigote stage of T. cruzi, using RNA-Seq. We found that the cytoplasmic transcriptome tightly correlates with the whole cell transcriptome and both equally correlate with the proteome. Nonetheless, 1,200 transcripts showed differential abundance between the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions. For the genes with transcript content augmented in the nucleus, significant structural and compositional differences were found. The analysis of the reported epimastigote translatome and proteome, revealed scarce ribosome footprints and encoded proteins for them. Ontology analyses unveiled that many of these genes are distinctive of other parasite life-cycle stages. Finally, the relocalization of transcript abundance in the metacyclic trypomastigote infective stage was confirmed for specific genes. While gene expression is strongly dependent on transcript steady-state level, we here highlight the importance of the distribution of transcripts abundance between compartments in T. cruzi. Particularly, we show that nuclear compartmentation is playing an active role in the developmental stage determination preventing off-stage expression. PMID:28243589

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi: the immunological induction of macrophage plasminogen activator requires thymus-derived lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    In this article we describe methods in which unstimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages were induced to secrete high livels of plasminogen activator under in vitro conditions. The exposure of sensitized peritoneal or spleen cell populations from Trypanosoma cruzi- infected animals to either viable or heat-killed trypanosomes lead to the release of an inducing factor(s). Maximal levels of plasminogen activator secretion are achieved by the incubation of such factors (s) with unstimulated macrophages for 48 h. A significant increase in enzyme secretion was already observed after a 24 h incubation. The production of the inducing factor(s) by sensitized cells was immunologically specific and unrelated antigens did not stimulate the production of the factor(s) by sensitized peritoneal or spleen cell populations. The inducing factor(s) was produced by nylon-wool- fractionated spleen and peritoneal cells which had been depleted of marcrophages. Pretreatment of sensitized spleen cells with anti-theta serum and C abolished the production of the activating factor(s). The active supernatant fluids were able to induce secretion of macrophage plasminogen activator across H-2 barriers. Attempts to induce trypanocidal activity in unstimulated macrophages have not been successful. PMID:327013

  6. Experimental chemotherapy and approaches to drug discovery for Trypanosoma cruzi infection.

    PubMed

    Buckner, Frederick S

    2011-01-01

    In the 100 years since the discovery of Chagas disease, only two drugs have been developed and introduced into clinical practice, and these drugs were introduced over 40 years ago. The tools of drug discovery have improved dramatically in the interim; however, this has not translated into new drugs for Chagas disease. This has been largely because the main practitioners of drug discovery are pharmaceutical companies who are not financially motivated to invest in Chagas disease and other "orphan" diseases. As a result, it has largely been up to academic groups to bring drug candidates through the discovery pipeline and to clinical trials. The difficulty with drug discovery in academia has been the challenge of bringing together the diverse expertise in biology, chemistry, and pharmacology in concerted efforts towards a common goal of developing therapeutics. Funding is often inadequate, but lack of coordination amongst academic investigators with different expertise has also contributed to the slow progress. The purpose of this chapter is to provide an overview of approaches that can be accomplished in academic settings for preclinical drug discovery for Chagas disease. The chapter addresses methods of drug screening against Trypanosoma cruzi cultures and in animal models and includes general topics on compound selection, testing for drug-like properties (including oral bioavailability), investigating the pharmacokinetics and toxicity of compounds, and finally providing parameters to help with triaging compounds.

  7. First report of Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in dairy cattle in São Paulo state, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Teixeira, Márcia Cristina Alves; André, Marcos Rogério; Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidélis Junior, Otávio Luiz; Teixeira, Marta Maria Geraldes; Marques, Luiz Carlos

    2012-01-01

    This is the first description of a Trypanosoma vivax outbreak in the state of São Paulo (municipality of Lins). Fever, jaundice, decreased milk production, weight loss, profuse diarrhea, abortion, anemia, leukocytosis and hyperfibrinogenemia were observed in the affected animals. Thirty-one cows and calves died out of a total of 1080 in the herd. Three cows showed neurological symptoms like dysmetria, ataxia, muscle weakness, ptyalism, lymph node enlargement and submandibular edema. Flagellated hemoparasites were observed in blood smears. The species was diagnosed as T. vivax by means of PCR. This T.vivax strain showed resistance to diaminazene aceturate and the infection spread quickly at the herd. From the ELISA test, 599 serum samples (98.36%) were positive for anti-T.vivax IgG antibodies. This outbreak occurred during a very dry period, which indicates that other factors were involved in the outbreak, such as absence of tabanids and large populations of Haematobia irritans and Stomoxys calcitrans. The increases in these populations may have been due to the use of biosolid waste from sugar and ethanol plants in the sugarcane plantations surrounding the dairy farm.

  8. Trypanosoma cruzi infection in captive Neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon.

    PubMed

    Bahia, Michele; de Nazaré Leite Barros, Flávia; Magalhães-Matos, Paulo Cesar; de Souza Gonçalves, Thamirys; Chiesorin Neto, Laerzio; Oliveira Faria, Diogo Cesar Lagroteria; Aparecida Romeiro, Sandra; Barros Monteiro, Frederico Ozanan; Góes-Cavalcante, Gustavo; Scofield, Alessandra

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to detect the infection by Trypanosoma cruzi in captive Neotropical primates in the Brazilian Amazon. From February 2013 to July 2014, 112 blood samples were collected from Neotropical primates from the Amazonas, Amapá, and Pará States, north of Brazil. The subjects belonged to the families Cebidae (N = 59), Atelidae (N = 41), Callitrichidae (N = 5), Pitheciidae (N = 4), and Aotidae (N = 3). Blood smears also were examined for the presence of trypomastigotes by optical microscopy. For the detection of T. cruzi DNA, a Nested-PCR with primers TCZ1/TCZ2 and TCZ3/TCZ4 was performed. T. cruzi DNA was detected in 12.5% (14/112) of Neotropical primates examined. Positive samples were detected in 16%, 12.5%, and 11.11% of the different species of primates sampled from the Amapá, Pará, and Amazonas states, respectively. The analysis of the blood smears did not reveal trypomastigote forms of T. cruzi. In conclusion, Neotropical primates kept in captivity were infected by T. cruzi in the studied areas. We recommend that a health management protocol be put into place to prevent the transmission of infectious agents among captive populations, captive and wild populations, and between NHPs and the technicians who handle these animals.

  9. [The mammalian TOR pathway is present in Trypanosoma cruzi. In silico reconstruction and possible functions].

    PubMed

    Digirolamo, Fabio A; Miranda, Mariana R; Bouvier, León A; Cámara, María M; Cánepa, Gaspar E; Pereira, Claudio A

    2012-01-01

    The mammalian TOR pathway ("Target Of Rapamycin") is a regulatory protein network involved in a wide range of processes including cell growth and differentiation, providing a functional switch between anabolic and catabolic cell metabolism. Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, has a complex life cycle with different morphological stages in various hosts. This life cycle implies that parasites have to deal with fluctuations in the extracellular medium that should be detected and counteracted adapting their metabolism. A candidate to be the mediator between the receptors / sensors of the environment and cellular adaptive response is the TOR pathway. In this paper we integrate the bibliographic data of the TOR pathway in trypanosomatids by in silico analysis (computer simulation of biological structures and processes) of the parasite's genome. Possible effectors and processes regulated by this metabolic pathway are also proposed. Given that the information on the mechanisms of signal transduction in trypanosomatids is scarce, we consider the model presented in this work may be a reference for future experimental work.

  10. Ultrastructural and physiological changes induced by different stress conditions on the human parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Hernández, Karla Daniela Rodríguez; Martínez, Ignacio; Agredano-Moreno, Lourdes Teresa; Jiménez-García, Luis Felipe; Espinoza, Bertha

    2017-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease. The life cycle of this protozoan parasite is digenetic because it alternates its different developmental forms through two hosts, a vector insect and a vertebrate host. As a result, the parasites are exposed to sudden and drastic environmental changes causing cellular stress. The stress response to some types of stress has been studied in T. cruzi, mainly at the molecular level; however, data about ultrastructure and physiological state of the cells in stress conditions are scarce or null. In this work, we analyzed the morphological, ultrastructural, and physiological changes produced on T. cruzi epimastigotes when they were exposed to acid, nutritional, heat, and oxidative stress. Clear morphological changes were observed, but the physiological conditions varied depending on the type of stress. The maintenance of the physiological state was severely affected by heat shock, acidic, nutritional, and oxidative stress. According to the surprising observed growth recovery after damage by stress alterations, different adaptations from the parasite to these harsh conditions were suggested. Particular cellular death pathways are discussed.

  11. A proline racemase based PCR for identification of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle blood.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Regassa; Hagos, Ashenafi; Rogé, Stijn; Reyna-Bello, Armando; Gonzatti, Mary Isabel; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    A study was conducted to develop a Trypanosoma vivax (T. vivax) specific PCR based on the T. vivax proline racemase (TvPRAC) gene. Forward and reverse primers were designed that bind at 764-783 bp and 983-1002 bp of the gene. To assess its specificity, TvPRAC PCR was conducted on DNA extracted from different haemotropic pathogens: T. vivax from Nigeria, Ethiopia and Venezuela, T. congolense Savannah type, T. brucei brucei, T. evansi, T. equiperdum, T. theileri, Theileria parva, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis and Babesia bigemina and from bovine, goat, mouse, camel and human blood. The analytical sensitivity of the TvPRAC PCR was compared with that of the ITS-1 PCR and the 18S PCR-RFLP on a dilution series of T. vivax DNA in water. The diagnostic performance of the three PCRs was compared on 411 Ethiopian bovine blood specimens collected in a former study. TvPRAC PCR proved to be fully specific for T. vivax, irrespective of its geographical origin. Its analytical sensitivity was lower than that of ITS-1 PCR. On these bovine specimens, TvPRAC PCR detected 8.3% T. vivax infections while ITS-1 PCR and 18S PCR-RFLP detected respectively 22.6 and 6.1% T. vivax infections. The study demonstrates that a proline racemase based PCR could be used, preferably in combination with ITS-1 PCR, as a species-specific diagnostic test for T. vivax infections worldwide.

  12. In Vitro and In Vivo Activity of Multi-Target Inhibitors Against Trypanosoma brucei

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Gyongseon; Zhu, Wei; Wang, Yang; Huang, Guozhong; Byun, Sooyoung; Choi, Gahee; Li, Kai; Huang, Zhuoli; Docampo, Roberto; Oldfield, Eric; No, Joo Hwan

    2015-01-01

    We tested a series of amidine and related compounds against Trypanosoma brucei. The most active compound was a biphenyldiamidine which had an EC50 of 7.7 nM against bloodstream form parasites. There was little toxicity against two human cell lines with CC50 > 100 μM. There was also good in vivo activity in a mouse model of infection with 100% survival at 3 mg/kg i.p. The most potent lead blocked replication of kinetoplast DNA (k-DNA), but not nuclear DNA, in the parasite. Some compounds also inhibited the enzyme farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FPPS) and some were uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. We developed a computational model for T. brucei cell growth inhibition (R2 = 0.76) using DNA ΔTm values for inhibitor binding, combined with T. brucei FPPS IC50 values. Overall, the results suggest that it may be possible to develop multi-target drug leads against T. brucei that act by inhibiting both k-DNA replication and isoprenoid biosynthesis. PMID:26295062

  13. Do commercial serologic tests for Trypanosoma cruzi infection detect Mexican strains in women and newborns?

    PubMed

    Gamboa-León, Rubi; Gonzalez-Ramirez, Claudia; Padilla-Raygoza, Nicolas; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Caamal-Kantun, Alejandra; Buekens, Pierre; Dumonteil, Eric

    2011-04-01

    We sought to determine the serological test that could be used for Trypanosoma cruzi seroprevalence studies in Mexico, where lineage I predominates. In a previous study among pregnant women and their newborns in the states of Yucatan and Guanajuato, we reported a 0.8-0.9% of prevalence for T. cruzi -specific antibodies by Stat-Pak and Wiener ELISA. We have expanded this study here by performing an additional non-commercial ELISA and confirming the seropositives with Western blot, using whole antigens of a local parasite strain. We found a seroprevalence of 0.6% (3/500) in Merida and 0.4% in Guanajuato (2/488). The 5 seropositive umbilical cord samples reacted to both non-commercial ELISA and Western blot tests, and only 1 of the maternal samples was not reactive to non-commercial ELISA. A follow-up of the newborns at 10 mo was performed in Yucatan to determine the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in children as evidence of congenital infection. None of the children was seropositive. One newborn from an infected mother died at 2 wk of age of cardiac arrest, but T. cruzi infection was not confirmed. The T. cruzi seroprevalence data obtained with both commercial tests (Stat-Pak and ELISA Wiener) are similar to those from non-commercial tests using a local Mexican strain of T. cruzi.

  14. Antagonic activities of Trypanosoma cruzi metacaspases affect the balance between cell proliferation, death and differentiation.

    PubMed

    Laverrière, M; Cazzulo, J J; Alvarez, V E

    2012-08-01

    Metacaspases are distant relatives of animal caspases present in plants, fungi and protozoa. At variance with caspases, metacaspases exhibit stringent specificity for basic amino-acid residues and are absolutely dependent on millimolar concentrations of calcium. In the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, metacaspases have been suggested to be involved in an apoptosis-like phenomenon upon exposure of the parasite to fresh human serum (FHS). Nuclear relocalization of metacaspases was observed after FHS treatment and overexpression of metacaspase-5 led to enhanced sensitivity to this stimulus. Here we report some biochemical properties of T. cruzi metacaspases. Performing fluorescent-activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis of epimastigotes inducibly overexpressing metacaspase-3, we demonstrate a role for this metacaspase in cell cycle progression, protection of epimastigotes from naturally occurring cell death and differentiation to infective metacyclic trypomastigotes. We also show that regulation of metacaspase-3 activity is important for cell cycle completion inside the mammalian host. On the other hand, inducible overexpression of metacaspase-5 lacking its C-terminal domain caused an apoptotic-like response. These results suggest that the two T. cruzi metacaspases could play an important role in the life cycle and bring to light the close relationship between cell division, death and differentiation in this ancient unicellular eukaryote.

  15. Trypanosoma brucei metacaspase 4 is a pseudopeptidase and a virulence factor.

    PubMed

    Proto, William R; Castanys-Munoz, Esther; Black, Alana; Tetley, Laurence; Moss, Catherine X; Juliano, Luiz; Coombs, Graham H; Mottram, Jeremy C

    2011-11-18

    Metacaspases are caspase family cysteine peptidases found in plants, fungi, and protozoa but not mammals. Trypanosoma brucei is unusual in having five metacaspases (MCA1-MCA5), of which MCA1 and MCA4 have active site substitutions, making them possible non-enzymatic homologues. Here we demonstrate that recombinant MCA4 lacks detectable peptidase activity despite maintaining a functional peptidase structure. MCA4 is expressed primarily in the bloodstream form of the parasite and associates with the flagellar membrane via dual myristoylation/palmitoylation. Loss of function phenotyping revealed critical roles for MCA4; rapid depletion by RNAi caused lethal disruption to the parasite's cell cycle, yet the generation of MCA4 null mutant parasites (Δmca4) was possible. Δmca4 had normal growth in axenic culture but markedly reduced virulence in mice. Further analysis revealed that MCA4 is released from the parasite and is specifically processed by MCA3, the only metacaspase that is both palmitoylated and enzymatically active. Accordingly, we have identified that the multiple metacaspases in T. brucei form a membrane-associated proteolytic cascade to generate a pseudopeptidase virulence factor.

  16. Inactivation of mitochondrial adenosine triphosphatase from Trypanosoma cruzi by oxygen radicals.

    PubMed

    Cataldi de Flombaum, M A; Stoppani, A O

    1986-06-01

    Incubation of Trypanosoma cruzi mitochondrial ATPase (Fo-F1) with the xanthine oxidase system (XO), Fenton's reagent (Fe2+ + H2O2) and the ascorbate-Cu system, caused gradual loss of enzyme activity, which increased as a function of incubation time and rate of oxygen radical generation. The essential role of OH. radicals for ATPase inactivation was supported by a) the enzyme protection afforded by superoxide dismutase, catalase and mannitol, when using the XO system; b) the similar effect of mannitol and benzoate with Fenton's reagent; c) the similar effect of catalase, EDTA and histidine with the ascorbate-Cu system; d) the increased rate of ATPase inactivation by 1) the XO system supplemented with chelated iron, and 2) the ascorbate-Cu system supplemented with H2O2. Comparison of oxygen radical generators for their action on membrane-bound (Fo-F1) and soluble F1 revealed that ascorbate-Cu was the most effective one, possibly because of its capability of producing OH. radicals that react preferentially with the enzyme at their formation site.

  17. The effect of the diterpene 5-epi-icetexone on the cell cycle of Trypanosoma cruzi.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Esteban; Barrera, Patricia; Tonn, Carlos; Nieto, Matías; Sartor, Tirso; Sosa, Miguel A

    2012-06-01

    Numerous natural compounds have been used against Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas' disease. Here, we studied the effect of the diterpene 5-epi-icetexone on growth and morphology of parasites synchronized with hydroxyurea, at different periods of time after removal of the nucleotide. We observed that the diterpene does not affect the growth of the parasites when added within 10 h after removal of hydroxyurea, but the compound was effective on growth when added to the cultures after 12 h. Thymidine incorporation was somewhat inhibited when the diterpene was added at 12 h after removal of hydroxyurea, possibly on the transition S/G2. Using transmission electron microscopy we observed that the diterpene induced a delay in the progression of cell division. We conclude that the compound, at cytostatic dose, affects the cell cycle of T. cruzi, possibly in the transition S/G2 phase and cell division. Further studies will focus to identify the molecular targets for the action of 5-epi-icetexone.

  18. Oxidative Stress in the Heart of Rats Infected with Trypanosoma evansi

    PubMed Central

    Baldissera, Matheus D.; Souza, Carine de F.; Bertoncheli, Cláudia M.; da Silveira, Karine L.; Grando, Thirssa H.; Porto, Bianca C. Z.; Leal, Daniela B. R.; Silva, Aleksandro S. Da; Mendes, Ricardo E.; Stefani, Lenita M.; Monteiro, Silvia G.

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the occurrence of oxidative stress in the heart tissue of rats infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Rats were divided into 2 groups (A and B) with 12 animals each, and further subdivided into 4 subgroups (A1 and A2, 6 animals/each; and B1 and B2, 6 animals/each). Animals in the groups B1 and B2 were subcutaneously inoculated with T. evansi. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), superoxide dismutase activity (SOD), glutathione S-transferase activity (GST), reduced glutathione activity (GSH), and non-protein thiols (NPSH) in the heart tissue were evaluated. At day 5 and 15 post-infection (PI), an increase in the TBARS levels and a decrease in the SOD activity (P<0.05) were observed. GSH and GST activities were decreased in infected animals at day 15 PI (P<0.05). Considering the proper functioning of the heart, it is possible that the changes in the activity of these enzymes involved in the oxidative stress may be related, at least in part, in the pathophysiology of rats infected with T. evansi. PMID:27417077

  19. Acute-phase protein behavior in dairy cattle herd naturally infected with Trypanosoma vivax.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Paulo Henrique; Fidelis Junior, Otavio Luiz; Marques, Luiz Carlos; Machado, Rosangela Zacarias; Barnabé, Patrícia de Athayde; André, Marcos Rogério; Balbuena, Tiago Santana; Cadioli, Fabiano Antonio

    2015-07-30

    Trypanosoma vivax is a hemoprotozoon that causes disease in cattle and is difficult to diagnose. The host-parasite relationship in cattle that are infected by T. vivax has only been poorly studied. In the present study, a total of 429 serum proteinograms were produced from naturally infected animals (NIF) and were compared with 50 samples from control animals (C). The total protein, IgA band, complement C3 β chain band, albumin band, antitrypsin band, IgG band, haptoglobin band, complement C3c α chain band and protein HP-20 band presented higher levels in the serum proteinograms of the NIF group. Inter-alpha-trypsin inhibitor heavy chain H4, α2-macroglobulin, complement C6, ceruloplasmin, transferrin band and apolipoprotein A1 band presented lower levels in this group. There was no significant difference (p<0.05) in acid glycoprotein serum concentration between the NIF and C groups. Acute phase proteins may be useful for understanding the host-parasite relationship, since the antitrypsin band was only present in the NIF group. This can be used as an indicator for infection in cattle that are naturally infected by T. vivax.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi: experimental parasitism in the central nervous system of albino mice.

    PubMed

    Morocoima, Antonio; Socorro, Grace; Avila, Régulo; Hernández, Ana; Merchán, Solángel; Ortiz, Diana; Primavera, Gabriela; Chique, José; Herrera, Leidi; Urdaneta-Morales, Servio

    2012-11-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi causes a pan-infection, Chagas disease, in American mammals through fecal transmission by triatomine insects, resulting in an acute phase parasitemia with intracellularity mainly in the myocells and cells of the central nervous system (CNS).The parasites, due to the immune response, then decrease in number, characteristic of the life-long chronicity of the disease. We infected a mouse model with isolates obtained from reservoirs and vectors from rural and urban endemic areas in Venezuela. Intracellular proliferation and differentiation of the parasite in astrocytes, microglia, neurons, endothelial cells of the piarachnoid, cells of the Purkinje layer, and spinal ganglion cells, as well as extracellularly in the neuropil, were evaluated during the acute phase. Damages were identified as meningoencephalitis, astrocytosis, reactive microglia, acute neuronal degeneration by central chromatolysis, endothelial cell hyperplasia, edema of the neuropil, and satellitosis. This is the first time that satellitosis has been reported from a mammal infected with T. cruzi. Intracellular T. cruzi and inflammatory infiltrates were found in cardiac and skeletal myocytes and liver cells. No parasitism or alterations to the CNS were observed in the chronic mice, although they did show myocarditis and myocitis with extensive infiltrates. Our results are discussed in relation to hypotheses that deny the importance of the presence of tissue parasites versus the direct relationship between these and the damages produced during the chronic phase of Chagas disease. We also review the mechanisms proposed as responsible for the nervous phase of this parasitosis.

  1. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of oligopeptidase B from Trypanosoma brucei

    SciTech Connect

    Rea, Dean; Hazell, Carole; Andrews, Norma W.; Morty, Rory E.; Fülöp, Vilmos

    2006-08-01

    Recombinant oligopeptidase B from T. brucei has been prepared and crystallized. Data were collected to 2.7 Å. Heavy-atom soaks and preparation of selenomethionine-substituted protein are in progress for structure determination by MAD or MIR. African sleeping sickness, also called trypanosomiasis, is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in sub-Saharan Africa. Peptidases from Trypanosoma brucei, the causative agent, include the serine peptidase oligopeptidase B, a documented virulence factor and therapeutic target. Determination of the three-dimensional structure of oligopeptidase B is desirable to facilitate the development of novel inhibitors. Oligopeptidase B was overexpressed in Escherichia coli as an N-terminally hexahistidine-tagged fusion protein, purified using metal-affinity chromatography and crystallized using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion technique in 7%(w/v) polyethylene glycol 6000, 1 M LiCl, 0.1 M bis-tris propane pH 7.5. Diffraction data to 2.7 Å resolution were collected using synchrotron radiation. The crystals belong to space group P3{sub 1}21 or P3{sub 2}21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 124.5, c = 249.9 Å. A complete data set to 2.7 Å was collected using synchrotron radiation.

  2. Haemato-biochemical and oxidative status of buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Vijay; Nigam, Rajesh; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Yadav, Pramod Kumar

    2015-09-15

    Blood samples were collected from 05 clinically healthy and 10 adult female water buffaloes naturally infected with Trypanosoma evansi. Confirmation of disease free and infected status of buffaloes was made on clinical signs, observation of T. evansi parasites in the blood smear and duplex PCR based assay. Blood samples were evaluated for levels of haemoglobin (Hb), packed cell volume (PCV), differential leucocytes count (DLC), lipid peroxidation (LPO), calcium, phosphorous, magnesium sodium and potassium and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), aspartate transaminase (AST), lactate dehydogenase (LDH) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP). The results of the study revealed substantial decrease in levels of Hb, PCV and increase in LPO, SOD, CAT and AST in infected animals compared to healthy animals. However other haematological and biochemical indices did not show significant variations in infected and healthy buffaloes. The enhanced erythrocytic oxidation and reduction of hematological indices, suggests that the enhanced oxidation of the erythrocytes may be a contributory factor in erythrocytic destruction and progression of the anaemia in T. evansi infection in water buffaloes.

  3. CD8+ T Cell-Mediated Immunity during Trypanosoma cruzi Infection: A Path for Vaccine Development?

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Virgilio, Fernando; Pontes, Camila; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Ersching, Jonatan; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    MHC-restricted CD8+ T cells are important during infection with the intracellular protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease. Experimental studies performed in the past 25 years have elucidated a number of features related to the immune response mediated by these T cells, which are important for establishing the parasite/host equilibrium leading to chronic infection. CD8+ T cells are specific for highly immunodominant antigens expressed by members of the trans-sialidase family. After infection, their activation is delayed, and the cells display a high proliferative activity associated with high apoptotic rates. Although they participate in parasite control and elimination, they are unable to clear the infection due to their low fitness, allowing the parasite to establish the chronic phase when these cells then play an active role in the induction of heart immunopathology. Vaccination with a number of subunit recombinant vaccines aimed at eliciting specific CD8+ T cells can reverse this path, thereby generating a productive immune response that will lead to the control of infection, reduction of symptoms, and reduction of disease transmission. Due to these attributes, activation of CD8+ T lymphocytes may constitute a path for the development of a veterinarian or human vaccine. PMID:25104879

  4. Genetic Vaccination against Experimental Infection with Myotropic Parasite Strains of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Araújo, Adriano Fernando; de Oliveira, Gabriel; Vasconcelos, Juliana Fraga; Ersching, Jonatan; Dominguez, Mariana Ribeiro; Vasconcelos, José Ronnie; Machado, Alexandre Vieira; Gazzinelli, Ricardo Tostes; Bruna-Romero, Oscar; Soares, Milena Botelho; Rodrigues, Mauricio Martins

    2014-01-01

    In earlier studies, we reported that a heterologous prime-boost regimen using recombinant plasmid DNA followed by replication-defective adenovirus vector, both containing Trypanosoma cruzi genes encoding trans-sialidase (TS) and amastigote surface protein (ASP) 2, provided protective immunity against experimental infection with a reticulotropic strain of this human protozoan parasite. Herein, we tested the outcome of genetic vaccination of F1 (CB10XBALB/c) mice challenged with myotropic parasite strains (Brazil and Colombian). Initially, we determined that the coadministration during priming of a DNA plasmid containing the murine IL-12 gene improved the immune response and was essential for protective immunity elicited by the heterologous prime-boost regimen in susceptible male mice against acute lethal infections with these parasites. The prophylactic or therapeutic vaccination of resistant female mice led to a drastic reduction in the number of inflammatory infiltrates in cardiac and skeletal muscles during the chronic phase of infection with either strain. Analysis of the electrocardiographic parameters showed that prophylactic vaccination reduced the frequencies of sinus arrhythmia and atrioventricular block. Our results confirmed that prophylactic vaccination using the TS and ASP-2 genes benefits the host against acute and chronic pathologies caused by T. cruzi and should be further evaluated for the development of a veterinary or human vaccine against Chagas disease. PMID:25061263

  5. Insight into the exoproteome of the tissue-derived trypomastigote form of Trypanosoma cruzi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Queiroz, Rayner; Ricart, Carlos; Machado, Mara; Bastos, Izabela; Santana, Jaime; Sousa, Marcelo; Roepstorff, Peter; Charneau, Sébastien

    2016-11-01

    The protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi causes Chagas disease, one of the major neglected infectious diseases. It has the potential to infect any nucleated mammalian cell. The secreted/excreted protein repertoire released by T. cruzi trypomastigotes is crucial in host-pathogen interactions. In this study, mammalian tissue culture-derived trypomastigotes (Y strain) were used to characterize the exoproteome of the infective bloodstream life form. Proteins released into the serum-free culture medium after 3h of incubation were harvested and digested with trypsin. NanoLC-MS/MS analysis resulted in the identification of 540 proteins, the largest set of released proteins identified to date in Trypanosome spp. Bioinformatic analysis predicted most identified proteins as secreted, predominantly by non-classical pathways, and involved in host-cell infection. Some proteins possess predicted GPI-anchor signals, these being mostly trans-sialidases, mucin associated surface proteins and surface glycoproteins. Moreover, we enriched phosphopeptides and glycopeptides from tryptic digests. The majority of identified glycoproteins are trans-sialidases and surface glycoproteins involved in host-parasite interaction. Conversely, most identified phosphoproteins have no Gene Ontology classification. The existence of various proteins related to similar functions in the exoproteome likely reflects this parasite’s enhanced mechanisms for adhesion, invasion and internalization of different host-cell types, and escape from immune defences.

  6. Effects of camptothecin derivatives and topoisomerase dual inhibitors on Trypanosoma cruzi growth and ultrastructure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas’ disease that is an endemic disease in Latin America and affects about 8 million people. This parasite belongs to the Trypanosomatidae family which contains a single mitochondrion with an enlarged region, named kinetoplast that harbors the mitochondrial DNA (kDNA). The kinetoplast and the nucleus present a great variety of essential enzymes involved in DNA replication and topology, including DNA topoisomerases. Such enzymes are considered to be promising molecular targets for cancer treatment and for antiparasitic chemotherapy. In this work, the proliferation and ultrastructure of T. cruzi epimastigotes were evaluated after treatment with eukaryotic topoisomerase I inhibitors, such as topotecan and irinotecan, as well as with dual inhibitors (compounds that block eukaryotic topoisomerase I and topoisomerase II activities), such as baicalein, luteolin and evodiamine. Previous studies have shown that such inhibitors were able to block the growth of tumor cells, however most of them have never been tested on trypanosomatids. Results Considering the effects of topoisomerase I inhibitors, our results showed that topotecan decreased cell proliferation and caused unpacking of nuclear heterochromatin, however none of these alterations were observed after treatment with irinotecan. The dual inhibitors baicalein and evodiamine decreased cell growth; however the nuclear and kinetoplast ultrastructures were not affected. Conclusions Taken together, our data showed that camptothecin is more efficient than its derivatives in decreasing T. cruzi proliferation. Furthermore, we conclude that drugs pertaining to a certain class of topoisomerase inhibitors may present different efficiencies as chemotherapeutical agents. PMID:24917086

  7. Rab32 is essential for maintaining functional acidocalcisomes, and for growth and infectivity of Trypanosoma cruzi

    PubMed Central

    Niyogi, Sayantanee; Jimenez, Veronica; Girard-Dias, Wendell; de Souza, Wanderley; Miranda, Kildare; Docampo, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The contractile vacuole complex (CVC) of Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, collects and expels excess water as a mechanism of regulatory volume decrease after hyposmotic stress; it also has a role in cell shrinking after hyperosmotic stress. Here, we report that, in addition to its role in osmoregulation, the CVC of T. cruzi has a role in the biogenesis of acidocalcisomes. Expression of dominant-negative mutants of the CVC-located small GTPase Rab32 (TcCLB.506289.80) results in lower numbers of less-electron-dense acidocalcisomes, lower content of polyphosphate, lower capacity for acidocalcisome acidification and Ca2+ uptake that is driven by the vacuolar proton pyrophosphatase and the Ca2+-ATPase, respectively, as well as less-infective parasites, revealing the role of this organelle in parasite infectivity. By using fluorescence, electron microscopy and electron tomography analyses, we provide further evidence of the active contact of acidocalcisomes with the CVC, indicating an active exchange of proteins between the two organelles. PMID:25964650

  8. Cloning, Heterologous Expression, and Distinct Substrate Specificity of Protein Farnesyltransferase from Trypanosoma brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Buckner, Frederick S.; Yokoyama, Kohei; Nguyen, Lisa; Grewal, Anita; Erdjument-Bromage, Hediye; Tempst, Paul; Strickland, Corey L.; Xiao, Li; Van Voorhis, Wesley C.; Gelb, Michael H.

    2010-01-01

    Protein prenylation occurs in the protozoan that causes African sleeping sickness (Trypanosoma brucei), and the protein farnesyltransferase appears to be a good target for developing drugs. We have cloned the α- and β-subunits of T. brucei protein farnesyltransferase (TB-PFT) using nucleic acid probes designed from partial amino acid sequences obtained from the enzyme purified from insect stage parasites. TB-PFT is expressed in both bloodstream and insect stage parasites. Enzymatically active TB-PFT was produced by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli. Compared with mammalian protein farnesyltransferases, TB-PFT contains a number of inserts of >25 residues in both subunits that reside on the surface of the enzyme in turns linking adjacent α-helices. Substrate specificity studies with a series of 20 peptides SSCALX (where X indicates a naturally occurring amino acid) show that the recombinant enzyme behaves identically to the native enzyme and displays distinct specificity compared with mammalian protein farnesyltransferase. TB-PFT prefers Gln and Met at the X position but not Ser, Thr, or Cys, which are good substrates for mammalian protein farnesyltransferase. A structural homology model of the active site of TB-PFT provides a basis for understanding structure-activity relations among substrates and CAAX mimetic inhibitors. PMID:10749864

  9. Mitochondrial growth during the cell cycle of Trypanosoma brucei bloodstream forms

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Martin; Hoffmann, Anneliese; Amodeo, Simona; Peitsch, Camille; Zuber, Benoît; Ochsenreiter, Torsten

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondrial organelles need to be replicated during cell division. Many aspects of this process have been studied in great detail, however the actual size increase and the position of organelle growth are less well understood. We use the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei that contains a single mitochondrion to study organelle biogenesis by fluorescence microscopy. From the analysis of more than 1000 T. brucei bloodstream form cells of a nonsynchronous population we conclude that the mitochondrial network mostly grows from two areas along the main organelle axis, posterior and anterior of the nucleus. Loops and branches from these two areas eventually fuse to build a complex network. Together with the appearance of the division fold in the posterior part of the cell, pruning of the mitochondrial network and finally separation into the two daughter cells occurs. Overall organelle biogenesis is not continuous during cell growth and occurs mostly in the last part of the cell cycle. Furthermore, using 3D STED super resolution microscopy we reconstruct the volume of the organelle and characterize the region where the mitochondrial genome is positioned by serial block face scanning electron microscopy. PMID:27874016

  10. The C-terminal region of Trypanosoma cruzi MASPs is antigenic and secreted via exovesicles.

    PubMed

    De Pablos, Luis Miguel; Díaz Lozano, Isabel María; Jercic, Maria Isabel; Quinzada, Markela; Giménez, Maria José; Calabuig, Eva; Espino, Ana Margarita; Schijman, Alejandro Gabriel; Zulantay, Inés; Apt, Werner; Osuna, Antonio

    2016-06-08

    Trypanosoma cruzi is the etiological agent of Chagas disease, a neglected and emerging tropical disease, endemic to South America and present in non-endemic regions due to human migration. The MASP multigene family is specific to T. cruzi, accounting for 6% of the parasite's genome and plays a key role in immune evasion. A common feature of MASPs is the presence of two conserved regions: an N-terminal region codifying for signal peptide and a C-terminal (C-term) region, which potentially acts as GPI-addition signal peptide. Our aim was the analysis of the presence of an immune response against the MASP C-term region. We found that this region is highly conserved, released via exovesicles (EVs) and has an associated immune response as revealed by epitope affinity mapping, IFA and inhibition of the complement lysis assays. We also demonstrate the presence of a fast IgM response in Balb/c mice infected with T. cruzi. Our results reveal the presence of non-canonical secreted peptides in EVs, which can subsequently be exposed to the immune system with a potential role in evading immune system targets in the parasite.

  11. New scenarios of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Orinoco region of Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Rendón, Lina María; Guhl, Felipe; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Erazo, Diana

    2015-01-01

    Rhodnius prolixus, a blood-sucking triatomine with domiciliary anthropophilic habits, is the main vector of Chagas disease. The current paradigm of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in Columbia includes a sylvatic and domiciliary cycle co-existing with domestic and sylvatic populations of reservoirs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the population densities and relative abundance of triatomines and mammals that may be involved in the sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease to clarify the epidemiological scenario in an endemic area in the province of Casanare. Insect vectors on Attalea butyracea palms were captured using both manual searches and bait traps. The capture of mammals was performed using Sherman and Tomahawk traps. We report an infestation index of 88.5% in 148 palms and an index of T. cruzi natural infection of 60.2% in 269 dissected insects and 11.9% in 160 captured mammals. High population densities of triatomines were observed in the sylvatic environment and there was a high relative abundance of reservoirs in the area, suggesting a stable enzootic cycle. We found no evidence of insect domiciliation. Taken together, these observations suggest that eco-epidemiological factors shape the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi, creating diverse scenarios of disease transmission. PMID:25830543

  12. New scenarios of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in the Orinoco region of Colombia.

    PubMed

    Rendón, Lina María; Guhl, Felipe; Cordovez, Juan Manuel; Erazo, Diana

    2015-05-01

    Rhodnius prolixus, a blood-sucking triatomine with domiciliary anthropophilic habits, is the main vector of Chagas disease. The current paradigm of Trypanosoma cruzi transmission in Columbia includes a sylvatic and domiciliary cycle co-existing with domestic and sylvatic populations of reservoirs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the population densities and relative abundance of triatomines and mammals that may be involved in the sylvatic cycle of Chagas disease to clarify the epidemiological scenario in an endemic area in the province of Casanare. Insect vectors on Attalea butyracea palms were captured using both manual searches and bait traps. The capture of mammals was performed using Sherman and Tomahawk traps. We report an infestation index of 88.5% in 148 palms and an index of T. cruzi natural infection of 60.2% in 269 dissected insects and 11.9% in 160 captured mammals. High population densities of triatomines were observed in the sylvatic environment and there was a high relative abundance of reservoirs in the area, suggesting a stable enzootic cycle. We found no evidence of insect domiciliation. Taken together, these observations suggest that eco-epidemiological factors shape the transmission dynamics of T. cruzi, creating diverse scenarios of disease transmission.

  13. Comparative ribosome profiling reveals extensive translational complexity in different Trypanosoma brucei life cycle stages

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Juan-José; Hon, Chung-Chau; Vanselow, Jens T.; Schlosser, Andreas; Siegel, T. Nicolai

    2014-01-01

    While gene expression is a fundamental and tightly controlled cellular process that is regulated at multiple steps, the exact contribution of each step remains unknown in any organism. The absence of transcription initiation regulation for RNA polymerase II in the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma brucei greatly simplifies the task of elucidating the contribution of translation to global gene expression. Therefore, we have sequenced ribosome-protected mRNA fragments in T. brucei, permitting the genome-wide analysis of RNA translation and translational efficiency. We find that the latter varies greatly between life cycle stages of the parasite and ∼100-fold between genes, thus contributing to gene expression to a similar extent as RNA stability. The ability to map ribosome positions at sub-codon resolution revealed extensive translation from upstream open reading frames located within 5′ UTRs and enabled the identification of hundreds of previously un-annotated putative coding sequences (CDSs). Evaluation of existing proteomics and genome-wide RNAi data confirmed the translation of previously un-annotated CDSs and suggested an important role for >200 of those CDSs in parasite survival, especially in the form that is infective to mammals. Overall our data show that translational control plays a prevalent and important role in different parasite life cycle stages of T. brucei. PMID:24442674

  14. The Role of Folate Transport in Antifolate Drug Action in Trypanosoma brucei*

    PubMed Central

    Dewar, Simon; Sienkiewicz, Natasha; Ong, Han B.; Wall, Richard J.; Horn, David

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and characterize mechanisms of resistance to antifolate drugs in African trypanosomes. Genome-wide RNAi library screens were undertaken in bloodstream form Trypanosoma brucei exposed to the antifolates methotrexate and raltitrexed. In conjunction with drug susceptibility and folate transport studies, RNAi knockdown was used to validate the functions of the putative folate transporters. The transport kinetics of folate and methotrexate were further characterized in whole cells. RNA interference target sequencing experiments identified a tandem array of genes encoding a folate transporter family, TbFT1–3, as major contributors to antifolate drug uptake. RNAi knockdown of TbFT1–3 substantially reduced folate transport into trypanosomes and reduced the parasite's susceptibly to the classical antifolates methotrexate and raltitrexed. In contrast, knockdown of TbFT1–3 increased susceptibly to the non-classical antifolates pyrimethamine and nolatrexed. Both folate and methotrexate transport were inhibited by classical antifolates but not by non-classical antifolates or biopterin. Thus, TbFT1–3 mediates the uptake of folate and classical antifolates in trypanosomes, and TbFT1–3 loss-of-function is a mechanism of antifolate drug resistance. PMID:27703008

  15. Maf1 is a negative regulator of transcription in Trypanosoma brucei.

    PubMed

    Romero-Meza, Gabriela; Vélez-Ramírez, Daniel E; Florencio-Martínez, Luis E; Román-Carraro, Fiordaliso C; Manning-Cela, Rebeca; Hernández-Rivas, Rosaura; Martínez-Calvillo, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    RNA polymerase III (Pol III) produces small RNA molecules that play essential roles in mRNA processing and translation. Maf1, originally described as a negative regulator of Pol III transcription, has been studied from yeast to human. Here we characterized Maf1 in the parasitic protozoa Trypanosoma brucei (TbMaf1), representing the first report to analyse Maf1 in an early-diverged eukaryote. While Maf1 is generally encoded by a single-copy gene, the T. brucei genome contains two almost identical TbMaf1 genes. The TbMaf1 protein has the three conserved sequences and is predicted to fold into a globular structure. Unlike in yeast, TbMaf1 localizes to the nucleus in procyclic forms of T. brucei under normal growth conditions. Cell lines that either downregulate or overexpress TbMaf1 were generated, and growth curve analysis with them suggested that TbMaf1 participates in the regulation of cell growth of T. brucei. Nuclear run-on and chromatin immunoprecipitation analyses demonstrated that TbMaf1 represses Pol III transcription of tRNA and U2 snRNA genes by associating with their promoters. Interestingly, 5S rRNA levels do not change after TbMaf1 ablation or overexpression. Notably, our data also revealed that TbMaf1 regulates Pol I transcription of procyclin gene and Pol II transcription of SL RNA genes.

  16. Trypanosoma vivax: mechanical transmission in cattle by one of the most common African tabanids, Atylotus agrestis.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dia, Mamadou Lamine

    2003-01-01

    The role of mechanical vectors in the transmission of African livestock trypanosomes has always been controversial relative to tsetse flies, their cyclical vectors. An experiment was carried out in Burkina Faso to demonstrate mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax by one of the most common tabanids in Africa: Atylotus agrestis. Eight heifers (crossbred zebuxBaoulé), free of trypanosome infection, were kept in a corral covered by a mosquito net, together with two heifers infected experimentally with a local stock of T. vivax. On average, 324 A. agrestis, freshly captured with Nzi traps, were introduced daily over 20 days. Parasitological, PCR and serological examinations were carried out regularly to assess infections and levels of parasitaemia. Microscopic examination of buffy-coats indicated that five of the eight receiver-heifers were infected on days 8, 13, 32, 41, and 48. PCR results indicated that these five heifers were already infected by day 13. Mechanical transmission of T. vivax by A. agrestis was demonstrated unequivocally, at a high rate (63% in 13-20 days). Conditions of transmission in this experiment are discussed in terms of natural rates of challenge. The importance of tabanids as mechanical vectors of T. vivax should be re-considered, in light of these results. Creation of tsetse free zones in Africa will generally lead to the disappearance of T. congolense, T. brucei, and most often T. vivax as well; however, in areas where T. vivax can be mechanically transmitted, clearance of tsetse may not be sufficient to eradicate livestock trypanosomosis.

  17. Mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax in cattle by the African tabanid Atylotus fuscipes.

    PubMed

    Desquesnes, Marc; Dia, Mamadou Lamine

    2004-01-05

    An experiment was carried out in Burkina Faso to evaluate the potential for mechanical transmission of Trypanosoma vivax by the African tabanid Atylotus fuscipes. The experiment was carried out in a corral (10 m x 10 m) completely covered by a mosquito net (12 m x 12 m and 2.5m high). Eight heifers (cross-bred Zebu X Baoulé), free of trypanosome infection, were kept together with two heifers experimentally infected with a local stock of T. vivax. An average of 539 A. fuscipes per day, freshly captured with two Nzi traps, were introduced into the mosquito net from Day 1 to 20, to allow mechanical transmission of the parasites among cattle. Daily parasitological examinations (BCM) of cattle blood samples indicated that six of the eight receiver heifers were positive from days 9, 10, 15, 16, 19 and 29. Mechanical transmission of T. vivax by A. fuscipes was demonstrated unequivocally in close to natural conditions, at a high rate (75% incidence over a 20-day period) under a mean challenge of 54 insects per heifer per day. These results, in addition to previous demonstration of mechanical transmission of T. vivax by Atylotus agrestis, confirm that mechanical transmission can be a significant route of infection.

  18. The endless race between Trypanosoma cruzi and host immunity: lessons for and beyond Chagas disease.

    PubMed

    Junqueira, Caroline; Caetano, Braulia; Bartholomeu, Daniella C; Melo, Mariane B; Ropert, Catherine; Rodrigues, Maurício M; Gazzinelli, Ricardo T

    2010-09-15

    Infection with the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma cruzi, the agent of Chagas disease, is characterised by a variable clinical course - from symptomless cases to severe chronic disease with cardiac and/or gastrointestinal involvement. The variability in disease outcome has been attributed to host responses as well as parasite heterogeneity. In this article, we review studies indicating the importance of immune responses as key determinants of host resistance to T. cruzi infection and the pathogenesis of Chagas disease. Particular attention is given to recent studies defining the role of cognate innate immune receptors and immunodominant CD8+ T cells that recognise parasite components - both crucial for host-parasite interaction and disease outcome. In light of these studies we speculate about parasite strategies that induce a strong and long-lasting T-cell-mediated immunity but at the same time allow persistence of the parasite in the vertebrate host. We also discuss what we have learned from these studies for increasing our understanding of Chagas pathogenesis and for the design of new strategies to prevent the development of Chagas disease. Finally, we highlight recent studies employing a genetically engineered attenuated T. cruzi strain as a vaccine shuttle that elicits potent T cell responses specific to a tumour antigen and protective immunity against a syngeneic melanoma cell line.

  19. Trypanosoma cruzi: desferrioxamine decreases mortality and parasitemia in infected mice through a trypanostatic effect.

    PubMed

    Arantes, Jerusa Marilda; Francisco, Amanda Fortes; de Abreu Vieira, Paula Melo; Silva, Maisa; Araújo, Márcio Sobreira Silva; de Carvalho, Andréa Teixeira; Pedrosa, Maria Lúcia; Carneiro, Cláudia Martins; Tafuri, Washington Luiz; Martins-Filho, Olindo Assis; Elói-Santos, Silvana Maria

    2011-08-01

    Desferrioxamine (DFO) is a potent iron chelator that is also known to modulate inflammation and act as an efficient antioxidant under normal conditions and under oxidative stress. Many in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of DFO in the treatment of viral, bacterial and protozoan infections. DFO is known to reduce the intensity of Trypanosoma cruzi infections in mice even during a course of therapy that is not effective in maintaining anaemia or low iron levels. To further clarify these findings, we investigated the action of DFO on mouse T. cruzi infection outcomes and the direct impact of DFO on parasites. Infected animals treated with DFO (5 mg/animal/day) for 35 days, beginning 14 days prior to infection, presented lower parasitemia and lower cumulative mortality rate. No significant effect was observed on iron metabolism markers, erythrograms, leukograms or lymphocyte subsets. In the rapid method for testing in vivo T. cruzi susceptibility, DFO also induced lower parasitemia. In regard to its direct impact on parasites, DFO slightly inhibited the growth of amastigotes and trypomastigotes in fibroblast culture. Trypan blue staining showed no effects of DFO on parasite viability, and only minor apoptosis in trypomastigotes was observed. Nevertheless, a clear decrease in parasite mobility was detected. In conclusion, the beneficial actions of DFO on mice T. cruzi infection seem to be independent of host iron metabolism and free of significant haematological side effects. Through direct action on the parasite, DFO has more effective trypanostatic than trypanocidal properties.

  20. Risk factors associated with Trypanosoma cruzi exposure in domestic dogs from a rural community in Panama

    PubMed Central

    Saldaña, Azael; Calzada, José E; Pineda, Vanessa; Perea, Milixa; Rigg, Chystrie; González, Kadir; Santamaria, Ana Maria; Gottdenker, Nicole L; Chaves, Luis F

    2015-01-01

    Chagas disease, caused by Trypanosoma cruzi infection, is a zoonosis of humans, wild and domestic mammals, including dogs. In Panama, the main T. cruzi vector is hodnius pallescens, a triatomine bug whose main natural habitat is the royal palm, Attalea butyracea. In this paper, we present results from three T. cruzi serological tests (immunochromatographic dipstick, indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA) performed in 51 dogs from 24 houses in Trinidad de Las Minas, western Panama. We found that nine dogs were seropositive (17.6% prevalence). Dogs were 1.6 times more likely to become T. cruzi seropositive with each year of age and 11.6 times if royal palms where present in the peridomiciliary area of the dog's household or its two nearest neighbours. Mouse-baited-adhesive traps were employed to evaluate 12 peridomestic royal palms. All palms were found infested with R. pallescens with an average of 25.50 triatomines captured per palm. Of 35 adult bugs analysed, 88.6% showed protozoa flagellates in their intestinal contents. In addition, dogs were five times more likely to be infected by the presence of an additional domestic animal species in the dog's peridomiciliary environment. Our results suggest that interventions focused on royal palms might reduce the exposure to T. cruzi infection. PMID:26560985