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Sample records for infectado por vih

  1. Pincharse sin infectarse: estrategias para prevenir la infección por el VIH y el VHC entre usuarios de drogas inyectables

    PubMed Central

    MATEU-GELABERT, P.; FRIEDMAN, S.; SANDOVAL, M.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. Material y métodos Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. Resultados La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c) seguir sin

  2. Estimaciones de Prevalencia del VIH por Género y Grupo de Riesgo en Tijuana, México: 2006

    PubMed Central

    Iñiguez-Stevens, Esmeralda; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Hogg, Robert S.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Lozada, Remedios; Magis-Rodriguez, Carlos; Elder, John P.; Viani, Rolando M.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO Estimar la prevalencia del VIH en adultos de 15-49 años de edad en Tijuana, México - en la población general y en subgrupos de riesgo en el 2006. METODOS Se obtuvieron datos demográficos del censo Mexicano del 2005, y la prevalencia del VIH se obtuvo de la literatura. Se construyó un modelo de prevalencia del VIH para la población general y de acuerdo al género. El análisis de sensibilidad consistió en estimar errores estándar del promedio-ponderado de la prevalencia del VIH y tomar derivados parciales con respecto a cada parámetro. RESULTADOS La prevalencia del VIH es 0.54%(N = 4,347) (Rango: 0.22%–0.86%, (N = 1,750–6,944)). Esto sugiere que 0.85%(Rango: 0.39%–1.31%) de los hombres y 0.22%(Rango: 0.04%–0.40%) de las mujeres podrían ser VIH-positivos. Los hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), las trabajadoras sexuales usuarias de drogas inyectables (MTS-UDI), MTS-noUDI, mujeres UDI, y los hombres UDI contribuyeron las proporciones más elevadas de personas infectadas por el VIH. CONCLUSIONES El número de adultos VIH-positivos entre subgrupos de riesgo en la población de Tijuana es considerable, marcando la necesidad de enforcar las intervenciones de prevención en sus necesidades específicas. El presente modelo estima que hasta 1 en cada 116 adultos podrían ser VIH-positivos. PMID:19685824

  3. VIH-TAVIE.

    PubMed

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Richard, Lauralie; Côté, José

    2016-01-01

    The use of information and communication technologies for designing web-based nursing interventions is growing exponentially. Despite the interest devoted to such approaches, little is known about their foundational principles and the way they translate into virtual nursing practice to generate meaningful engagement with patients. VIH-TAVIETM is a virtual nursing intervention aiming to empower people living with HIV to help them in managing their antiretroviral therapy. Here we present VIH-TAVIETM relational model of engagement - its core components informed by interview data with patients and a virtual nurse: building a virtual presence founded on caring relational principles and values; creating a caring environment where patients feel safe, supported and respected; stimulating patients' engagement by offering supportive and tailored messages; transposing nursing communication skills into a virtual practice to build trust and reciprocal relationships. This study suggests that empowering connections can develop between a nurse and a patient within a caring virtual environment.

  4. TECNOLOGÍAS DE INFORMACIÓN Y COMUNICACIÓN PARA LA PREVENCIÓN Y CONTROL DE LA INFECCIÓN POR EL VIH Y OTRAS ITS*

    PubMed Central

    Curioso, Walter H.; Blas, Magaly M.; Kurth, Ann E.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    Avances tecnológicos innovadores como Internet, computadoras personales de bolsillo, teléfonos celulares y otros equipos son un arsenal en crecimiento en el esfuerzo de impedir y controlar el VIH y otras infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS). A pesar que existe una diversidad de tecnologías de información y comunicación en diferentes etapas de desarrollo para la prevención del VIH e ITS, la investigación en esta área se encuentra aún en crecimiento, y el impacto en la incidencia de enfermedad, las evaluaciones con diseños rigurosos y los estudios económicos todavía son muy limitados. Sin embargo, algunas de estas evidencias son prometedoras y poseen un gran potencial para su uso en nuestro medio. En este artículo hemos realizado una revisión sistemática de la literatura relacionada con el uso de la tecnología aplicada a la prevención y control del VIH e ITS. De ser usada apropiadamente, esta tecnología podría mejorar la vigilancia del VIH y otras ITS, diagnóstico, notificación de parejas, prevención, manejo clínico, y capacitación de profesionales de la salud. PMID:26339254

  5. FACTORES SOCIO-ESTRUCTURALES Y EL ESTIGMA HACIA EL VIH/SIDA: EXPERIENCIAS DE PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS CON VIH/SIDA AL ACCEDER SERVICIOS DE SALUD

    PubMed Central

    RIVERA-DIAZ, MARINILDA; VARAS-DIAZ, NELSON; REYES-ESTRADA, MARCOS; SURO, BEATRIZ; CORIANO, DORALIS

    2013-01-01

    RESUMEN El estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA continúa afectando la prestación de servicios de salud y el bienestar físico y mental de las personas con VIH/SIDA (PVS). Recientemente la literatura científica ha señalado la importancia de comprender las manifestaciones de estigma más allá de las interacciones individuales. Por tal razón, investigaciones recientes en y fuera de Puerto Rico enfatizan la importancia de entender cómo factores socio-estructurales (FSE) influyen en los procesos de estigmatización social. Con el propósito de examinar los FSE que influyen en las manifestaciones de estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA, realizamos y analizamos nueve grupos focales compuestos por hombres y mujeres en tratamiento para el VIH/SIDA que habían tenido experiencias estigmatizantes. Los participantes identificaron FSE relacionados a las manifestaciones de estigma, tales como el uso de viviendas especializadas, descentralización de los servicios de salud y el desarrollo de protocolos administrativos excluyentes en los servicios de salud. Los resultados demuestran la importancia de considerar los FSE en el desarrollo e implementación de intervenciones dirigidas a la población. PMID:24639599

  6. PREVENCION DE VIH PARA MUJERES HISPANAS DE 50 AÑOS Y MÁS

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, N.; Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L.; Kaelber, L.; Peragallo, N.; Yaya, Alexandra O.

    2012-01-01

    Introducción Las mujeres Hispanas de 50 años y más (MHC) son una minoría en Estados Unidos que está a elevado riesgo de adquirir VIH y son el grupo menos estudiado en lo que respecta a salud, características sociales y de comportamiento sexual. Objetivo Investigar los factores que incrementan el riesgo de VIH en las MHC con el propósito de desarrollar o adaptar una intervención apropiada para la “edad y la cultura "de este grupo de mujeres. Metodología Estudio descriptivo de corte transversal con una muestra de 50 MHC, sexualmente activas y que residían en Miami, Florida, Estados Unidos. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado administrado por entrevistadores entrenados y bilingües (inglés/español). Las participantes fueron reclutadas en diferentes lugares en el Sur de Florida. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó estadística descriptiva, tanto medidas de tendencia central como medidas de dispersión. Resultados La edad promedio de las MHC fue de 55,7 ± 6 años (rango 50–76 años). Todas las MHC estaban en la menopausia. Prevención del VIH Las MHC reportaron niveles medios de conocimientos sobre VIH y comunicación con la pareja. En la muestra se reportó la presencia de síntomas depresivos, violencia en la pareja, actitudes negativas hacia las personas viviendo con VIH y baja percepción de riesgo de adquirir VIH. Las MHC mencionaron necesidades de aprendizaje en tópicos relacionados con prevención de VIH y cambios de la edad. Conclusión Las MHC están a riesgo de adquirir VIH y tienen necesidades especiales en términos de educación sobre prevención de VIH. PMID:25242862

  7. Lactancia Materna y VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Valeria Cortés, F.; Jaime Pérez, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Rosina Cianelli, A.; Báltica Cabieses, V.

    2009-01-01

    Resumen VIH/SIDA es una pandemia que afecta a hombres, mujeres y niños, pero que presenta una tendencia hacia la feminización, afectando especialmente a mujeres jóvenes. Su consecuencia es el aumento de la transmisión vertical, durante el embarazo, parto o lactancia materna. Este estudio bibliográfico describe la relación entre VIH/SIDA y lactancia materna, explicitando factores que influyen en la elección de la modalidad de alimentación de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA. Se describen causas de morbimortalidad infantil asociada y recomendaciones internacionales de lactancia en mujeres con VIH/SIDA. En un mundo globalizado con constantes migraciones poblacionales, estos resultados representan un llamado de atención para profesionales de salud quienes deben considerar factores sociales que influenciarán la toma de decisión de madres viviendo con VIH/SIDA al escoger la modalidad de lactancia. No sólo basta conocer el riesgo de transmisión vertical, sino que se debe tomar conciencia de aquellos factores dinámicos y específicos de cada comunidad. PMID:20046815

  8. ESTIGMA Y VIH/SIDA ENTRE PADRES/MADRES Y ADOLESCENTES PUERTORRIQUEÑOS/AS

    PubMed Central

    Pérez, Grace Rosado; Reyes, Glendalys Rivera; Villanueva, Victoria Larrieux; Torres, Gilliam J. Torres; Díaz, Elba Betancourt; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Villaruel, Antonia

    2016-01-01

    La comunicación entre padres/madres y adolescentes sobre el tema de la sexualidad es importante para el desarrollo de la salud de personas jóvenes. Dicha comunicación puede verse negativamente impactada por actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el tema del VIH/SIDA. El objetivo de este estudio fue identificar actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA entre padres/madres y adolescentes puertorriqueños/as. Este esfuerzo es parte del Proyecto Cuídalos, dirigido a probar una intervención en formato electrónico que busca aumentar la comunicación sobre sexualidad y salud entre padres/madres y adolescentes mediante un diseño experimental con 458 diadas de padres/madres y adolescentes de 13 a 17 años. Para propósitos de este artículo reportamos estadísticas descriptivas sobre estigma hacia el VIH/SIDA con la información recopilada en la medición basal. Tanto adultos/as como adolescentes mostraron actitudes estigmatizantes hacia el VIH/SIDA. A la luz de los resultados es necesario continuar desarrollando intervenciones para la reducción de estigma en esta población. Los/as padres/madres pueden ser un recurso invaluable para reducir el estigma en los/as jóvenes, y prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo e infecciones. PMID:27099649

  9. [Design and evaluation of DAVIH VIH-2].

    PubMed

    Martín Alfonso, Dayamí; Silva Cabrera, Eladio; Pérez Guevara, María T; Díaz Herrera, Dervel F; Romero Martínez, Kenia; Díaz Torres, Héctor M; Lubián Caballero, Ana L; Ruiz Gutiérrez, Nancy; Ortiz Losada, Eva

    2007-01-01

    The results of the design and evaluation of DAVIH VIH-2 diagnosing system, an indirect Elisa for screening of HIV-2 antibodies, which uses a HIV-2 glycoprotein gp36 synthetic peptide in its solid phase, were exposed. In the system evaluation using WHO reference panels, 100% sensitivity, 99,81% specificity, 99,81% efficacy and very good concordance level (kappa = 0.978) were attained. Serum samples of 959 individuals with undetermined or negative results to the HIV-1 antibodies confirmation (DAVIH blot) were evaluated by the DAVIH VIH-2 system. Twenty four samples were reactive, six of which had confirmed HIV-2 antibodies. These results allowed recommending the introduction of this diagnostic kit in the HIV infection diagnosing algorithm in Cuba.

  10. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1991-07-01

    Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.

  11. INTERVENCIÓN EDUCATIVA EFECTIVA EN VIH PARA MUJERES

    PubMed Central

    Miner, Sarah; Poupin, Lauren; Bernales, Margarita; Ferrer, Lilian; Cianelli, Rosina

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN En Chile se estima que aproximadamente 38 mil personas viven con el Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana [VIH]. En el año 2001, 1.092 mujeres chilenas vivían con VIH, actualmente se cree que hay más de 7.600 mujeres con el virus. Frente a estas cifras surge la necesidad de crear estrategias de prevención dirigidas a mujeres chilenas. Objetivo analizar los estudios ya realizados en la prevención de VIH para determinar qué aspectos se deben incluir en programas exitosos de prevención de VIH en mujeres. Diseño y Método se realizó una revisión de la literatura utilizando la base de datos Proquest, CINAHL, Pubmed y Scielo. Los límites comprendieron: textos completos, de los últimos 10 años, de acceso gratuito y escrito en español o inglés. Se seleccionaron 15 artículos para la revisión. Resultados todos los artículos comprenden la evaluación del efecto de una intervención sobre conocimiento y conductas relacionadas con VIH/SIDA. Catorce muestran resultados significativos en cambios positivos de conducta o conocimientos relacionados con la prevención de VIH. Conclusiones los programas de prevención de VIH en mujeres pueden ser efectivos para lograr cambios de conducta y de conocimiento. Las intervenciones exitosas son aquellas basadas en teorías o modelos de prevención y en cambios de conductas, todas adaptadas a la cultura de la población estudiada. PMID:27667897

  12. 78 FR 15804 - Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH), Rolla, MO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Waiver of Aeronautical Land-Use Assurance: Rolla National Airport (VIH... airport property at the Rolla National Airport (VIH) from aeronautical use to non-aeronautical for revenue... Airport (VIH) is proposing the release of one parcel, of 10 acres, more or less from aeronautical to...

  13. Estrategia innovadora enfocada en parejas del mismo sexo para disminuir la infección del VIH en hombres Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Omar; Wu, Elwin; Sandfort, Theo; Shultz, Andrew Z.; Capote, Jonathan; Chávez, Silvia; Moya, Eva; Dodge, Brian; Morales, Gabriel; Porras, Antonio; Ovejero, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    Resumen El VIH es un problema de salud importante dentro de la comunidad latina de los Estados Unidos. Gracias a los esfuerzos de prevención, los niveles de contagio entre los latinos se han mantenido estables por más de una década. Sin embargo, esta población sigue siendo afectada a niveles muy altos, en particular entre hombres que tienen sexo con hombres (HSH), de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español. Existen varios factores que contribuyen a la transmisión del VIH entre esta población, como son: el uso de drogas; la violencia dentro de la pareja; la presencia de infecciones de transmisión sexual; relaciones sexuales sin protección, dentro y fuera de la pareja; el evadir la búsqueda de recursos (prueba y tratamiento adecuado) por temor a ser discriminado o por su estatus migratorio; la escasez de recursos económicos o estado de pobreza y los patrones relacionados a la migración. En particular, Investigaciones Epidemiológicas de Comportamientos han determinado: cómo algunas dinámicas en parejas están directamente asociadas a los comportamientos sexuales de riesgos. En consecuencia, es necesaria mayor investigación para identificar esas dinámicas, y a su vez, realizar intervenciones dirigidas a la reducción de conductas de riesgo enfocadas en parejas de hombres del mismo sexo. En este escrito, se describe la importancia del uso de las relaciones de pareja como estrategia en la reducción de la trasmisión del VIH/SIDA en HSH de origen latino y que hablan principalmente el idioma español en los Estados Unidos. PMID:25580466

  14. Higher-dimensional Bianchi type-VIh cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz-Petzold, D.

    1985-09-01

    The higher-dimensional perfect fluid equations of a generalization of the (1 + 3)-dimensional Bianchi type-VIh space-time are discussed. Bianchi type-V and Bianchi type-III space-times are also included as special cases. It is shown that the Chodos-Detweiler (1980) mechanism of cosmological dimensional-reduction is possible in these cases.

  15. Las dificultades de sentir: el rol de las emociones en la estigmatización del VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    MARZÁN-RODRÍGUEZ, Melissa; VARAS-DÍAZ, Nelson

    2009-01-01

    Resumen El Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) han sido motivo de estigmatización para las personas que viven con ellos. Esta estigmatización se ha estudiado consecuentemente desde la perspectiva de opiniones de agentes estigmatizantes. Estas opiniones han obviado sistemáticamente el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización. Llevamos a cabo este estudio con el propósito de identificar el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización de las personas que viven con el virus (PVVS) por parte de profesionales de la salud. Para lograr este objetivo utilizamos un diseño exploratorio y cualitativo en el cual utilizamos la técnica de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de las siguientes especialidades: psicología, trabajo social, medicina y enfermería. Los resultados reflejaron la existencia de emociones asociadas al VIH/SIDA tales como pena, lástima, compasión, asco, fobia y miedo entre los/as profesionales y estudiantes que participaron. Las personas participantes evidenciaron la necesidad de controlar sus emociones al interactuar con PVVS. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de explorar aquellos factores que mediatizan las emociones, tales como el contexto social en que se manifiestan y ante quiénes se revelan, para lograr entender a cabalidad el estigma que rodea al VIH/SIDA. PMID:20212916

  16. Immunochemical and immunocytochemical studies of the crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH).

    PubMed

    Meusy, J J; Martin, G; Soyez, D; van Deijnen, J E; Gallo, J M

    1987-09-01

    Immunochemical investigations, using dot immunobinding assay (DIA) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and immunocytochemical studies reveal the following new information about crustacean vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH): (1) The structure of VIH is sufficiently different from that of the other sinus gland neuropeptides to allow a selective recognition of VIH by polyclonal antibodies. (2) From immunochemical criteria, VIH does not seem strictly species specific. The antisera raised against VIH of Homarus americanus cross-react with sinus gland extracts of Palaemonetes varians, Palaemon serratus, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, Carcinus maenas, and Porcellio dilatatus. (3) In the sinus gland of H. americanus, VIH immunoreactivity is localized mainly in electron-dense granules of medium size (110-185 nm in diameter) while, in P. dilatatus, the labeling is mostly on the largest granules (200-270 nm in diameter).

  17. Conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados a la prevención del VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas

    PubMed Central

    Villegas Rodríguez, Natalia; Ferrer Lagunas, Lilian Marcela; Cianelli Acosta, Rosina; Miner, Sarah; Lara Campos, Loreto; Peragallo, Nilda

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Objetivo Evaluar la relación existente entre conocimientos y autoeficacia asociados al VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Estudio correlacional, que utiliza la medición basal del estudio “Testeando una intervención en VIH y SIDA en mujeres chilenas”, realizada entre 2006 y 2008, que tiene una muestra de 496 mujeres entre 18 y 49 años residentes en dos comunas de Santiago de Chile. Las participantes respondieron un cuestionario estructurado aplicado por entrevistadoras entrenadas. Este cuestionario incluyó preguntas sobre datos sociodemográficos, escala de conocimientos de conductas de riesgo y autoeficacia, entre otros. Resultados Edad promedio de 32.3±9.1 años, 72.2% vive con su pareja y 42.7% poseen educación media completa. La puntuación media de los conocimientos de la infección por el VIH fue de 8.9±2.5, mientras que para las tres escalas empleadas para medir autoeficacia fueron: “Normas de los pares” =9.8±3.6, “Intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” =12.2±3.6 y “Self Efficacy Form”=20.2±4.7. Los conocimientos tuvieron una correlación positiva débil con la “intención de reducir conductas de riesgo” (r=0.19; p<0.0001) y con la escala “Self Efficacy Form” (r=0.34; p<0.0001), pero no se relacionaron con las “normas de los pares en cuanto a relaciones sexuales seguras” (r=0.13; p=0.78). Conclusión Existe una débil correlación positiva entre el nivel de conocimientos sobre el VIH/SIDA y la autoeficacia en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. PMID:25284914

  18. Genetic Algorithms and Nucleation in VIH-AIDS transition.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barranon, Armando

    2003-03-01

    VIH to AIDS transition has been modeled via a genetic algorithm that uses boom-boom principle and where population evolution is simulated with a cellular automaton based on SIR model. VIH to AIDS transition is signed by nucleation of infected cells and low probability of infection are obtained for different mutation rates in agreement with clinical results. A power law is obtained with a critical exponent close to the critical exponent of cubic, spherical percolation, colossal magnetic resonance, Ising Model and liquid-gas phase transition in heavy ion collisions. Computations were carried out at UAM-A Supercomputing Lab and author acknowledges financial support from Division of CBI at UAM-A.

  19. Uso de Sustancias en Mujeres con Desventaja Social: Riesgo para el Contagio de VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Cianelli, R.; Ferrer, L; Bernales, M.; Miner, S.; Irarrázabal, L.; Molina, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Antecedentes La caracterización epidemiológica en Chile apunta a feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización de la epidemia del VIH, lo que implica un mayor riesgo para las mujeres en desventaja social. Si a esto se suma la utilización de sustancias, la vulnerabilidad de este grupo frente al VIH/SIDA aumenta. Objetivo Describir el uso de sustancias en mujeres con desventaja social e identificar factores de riesgo de contagio de VIH, asociados a este consumo. Material y Método 52 mujeres fueron entrevistadas como parte del proyecto “Testeando una intervención en prevención de VIH/SIDA en mujeres chilenas” GRANT # RO1 TW 006977. Se describen variables sociodemográficas y de consumo de sustancias a través de estadísticas descriptivas y se analiza la relación entre variables a través de pruebas de correlación. Resultados Los resultados indican un perfil sociodemográfico que sitúa a las mujeres en situación de vulnerabilidad frente al contagio de VIH/SIDA, con alto índice de uso de sustancias que acentúa el riesgo. Conclusiones Los hallazgos apuntan a la necesidad de considerar intervenciones que se enfoquen en la prevención de VIH en mujeres, abordando los riesgos asociados al consumo de sustancias. PMID:21197380

  20. Percepción de competencia y adiestramiento profesional especializado relativos al VIH/SIDA en estudiantes y profesionales de la salud: el estigma como un indicador de necesidad

    PubMed Central

    RODRÍGUEZ, Yarimar ROSA; DÍAZ, Nelson VARAS

    2009-01-01

    El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud. PMID:20011236

  1. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2009-03-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period.

  2. Microbicidas Metodo de Prevencion en VIH/SIDA Controlado por Mujeres

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz, Cindy; Torres, Viviana; Cianelli, Rosina; Ferrer, Lilian

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS continues to expand throughout the world, and in recent times has had a severe impact on the number of women living with HIV. Access to methods of prevention for HIV/AIDS around the world is limited and for many women may not be feasible. Examples of such methods are sexual abstinence, which though recognized as an effective method of prevention is difficult for many women to achieve. Mutual fidelity is another option, but many women cannot control the sexual behavior of their partners. Finally, the male condom continues to be an available method of HIV prevention for sexually active people. However, in many places, gender inequality, social norms, and economic disparities severely limit women's capacity to negotiate the use of a condom with their partner. For this reason, an urgent need exists to develop a product for the prevention of HIV/AIDS that can be handled by women. Microbicides, products that can reduce HIV risk when applied intravaginally, hold promise for stopping the advance of HIV/AIDS, especially when considering that women can make their own decisions about whether to use them when other methods of prevention are not available. The objective of the current literature review was to understand the scientific advances related to microbicides in the prevention of HIV/AIDS in women through the analysis of available literature in this area. Interest in this topic emerged from the need to contribute to women's health and HIV/AIDS prevention. To achieve this review's objective, a search was carried out in multiple databases, including OVID, PUBMED, PROQUEST, and CINAHL, as well as published materials from organizations related to this area such as UNAIDS and CONASIDA, and literature available from the Internet. Upon completion of the literature review, it was concluded that microbicides are an effective method for preventing HIV/AIDS for women as well as their partners. Although they have a high level of acceptance among the female population, the majority of microbicides are still in clinical studies, requiring further evaluation for their safe use in humans. There are 3 microbicides in the final phases of clinical studies that will soon be available on the market. One of these was found to be 60% effective in protecting against the transmission of HIV and was used by women in 50% of their sexual activity, which resulted in avoiding approximately 2.5 million new HIV infections in men, women, and children over a 3-year period. PMID:28111528

  3. Cloning of precursors for two MIH/VIH-related peptides in the prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.

    PubMed

    Yang, W J; Rao, K R

    2001-11-30

    Two cDNA clones (634 and 1366 bp) encoding MIH/VIH (molt-inhibiting hormone/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone)-related peptides were isolated and sequenced from a Macrobrachium rosenbergii eyestalk ganglia cDNA library. The clones contain a 360 and 339 bp open-reading frame, and their conceptually translated peptides consist of a 41 and 34 amino acid signal peptide, respectively, and a 78 amino acid residue mature peptide hormone. The amino acid sequences of the peptides exhibit higher identities with other known MIHs and VIH (44-69%) than with CHHs (28-33%). This is the first report describing the cloning and sequencing of two MIH/VIH-related peptides in a single crustacean species. Transcription of these mRNAs was detected in the eyestalk ganglia, but not in the thoracic ganglia, hepatopancreas, gut, gill, heart, or muscle.

  4. Educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH: un diagnóstico para América Latina y el Caribe

    PubMed Central

    DeMaria, Lisa M.; Galárraga, Omar; Campero, Lourdes; Walker, Dilys M.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Objetivo Mostrar, a través de un diagnóstico en América Latina y el Caribe, el panorama legislativo y curricular sobre sexualidad y prevención contra el virus de inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) en el ámbito escolar, contrastándolo con los comportamientos sexuales reportados en encuestas demográficas y de salud. Métodos En mayo de 2008 se realizó, con el apoyo del Fondo de Población de las Naciones Unidas (UNFPA), una encuesta a informantes clave en 34 países de la Región. El cuestionario autoaplicado solicitó información sustantiva de agentes de las diferentes partes interesadas, como ministerios de educación y de salud, sobre los programas de prevención contra el VIH/Sida que se están aplicando en las escuelas. Resultados Respondieron a la encuesta 27 países que representan 95,5% de la población objetivo (6 a 18 años de edad). La mayoría de los países informó tener al menos un libro de texto o un capítulo específico para enseñar los temas de educación sobre sexualidad y prevención del VIH. En la escuela secundaria se cubren la mayor parte de los temas pertinentes relevantes para la educación sobre sexualidad, pero no todos. Por ejemplo, el problema de la discriminación por orientación o preferencia sexual no se incluye en los programas escolares. Conclusiones El material educativo sobre sexualidad debe ser revisado y actualizado periódicamente de modo que refleje los avances en los temas y en la forma de tratar los contenidos. En cada país el currículo debe abordar el tema del respeto a la diversidad sobre orientación, preferencia e identidad sexuales, y en particular el manejo apropiado de la educación para prevenir infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS) en hombres que tienen sexo con hombres. Los esfuerzos de evaluación de la efectividad de los programas deben contemplar desenlaces tales como marcadores biológicos (incidencia y prevalencia de ITS y embarazo) y no únicamente indicadores de conocimiento y

  5. Imparting small vorticity to a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batakis, Nikos A.

    1981-04-01

    We present and briefly discuss a Bianchi type-VIh empty spacetime. The field equations have been solved after being linearized with respect to a parameter which imparts vorticity to the model. The limit of zero vorticity is an already known solution.

  6. Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi Type VIh universes with stiff perfect fluid and radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.

    1995-03-01

    Families of inhomogeneous models filled with a stiff perfect fluid and radiation have been derived in which there is no flow of total momentum. The models are generalizations of those of Bianchi Type VIh and are discussed for some particular forms of the arbitrary functions appearing in them.

  7. Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) is predominantly expressed in the brain and negatively regulates hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ting; Zhang, Lv-Ping; Wong, Nai-Kei; Zhong, Ming; Ren, Chun-Hua; Hu, Chao-Qun

    2014-03-01

    Ovarian maturation in crustaceans is temporally orchestrated by two processes: oogenesis and vitellogenesis. The peptide hormone vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean reproduction known, critically modulates crustacean ovarian maturation by suppressing vitellogenin (VTG) synthesis. In this study, cDNA encoding VIH was cloned from the eyestalk of Pacific white shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, a highly significant commercial culture species. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that L. vannamei VIH (lvVIH) can be classified as a member of the type II crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family. Northern blot and RT-PCR results reveal that both the brain and eyestalk were the major sources for lvVIH mRNA expression. In in vitro experiments on primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, it was confirmed that some endogenous inhibitory factors existed in L. vannamei hemolymph, brain, and eyestalk that suppressed hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression. Purified recombinant lvVIH protein was effective in inhibiting VTG mRNA expression in both in vitro primary hepatopancreatic cell culture and in vivo injection experiments. Injection of recombinant VIH could also reverse ovarian growth induced by eyestalk ablation. Furthermore, unilateral eyestalk ablation reduced the mRNA level of lvVIH in the brain but not in the remaining contralateral eyestalk. Our study, as a whole, provides new insights on VIH regulation of shrimp reproduction: 1) the brain and eyestalk are both important sites of VIH expression and therefore possible coregulators of hepatopancreatic VTG mRNA expression and 2) eyestalk ablation could increase hepatopancreatic VTG expression by transcriptionally abolishing eyestalk-derived VIH and diminishing brain-derived VIH.

  8. Comunicación de pareja y VIH en mujeres en desventaja social

    PubMed Central

    Rosina Cianelli, A.; Lilian Ferrer, L.; Margarita Bernales, S.; Natalia Villegas, R.

    2009-01-01

    Introducción La epidemia de VIH y SIDA se ha diseminado rápidamente a nivel mundial tendiendo a la feminización, pauperización y heterosexualización. La comunicación de pareja en torno el VIH es descrita como uno de los factores protectores en la adquisición de esta enfermedad, favoreciendo la adopción de conductas sexuales seguras tales como la negociación de pareja y la utilización de preservativo, consideróndose como un pilar fundamental en la incorporación de medidas de autocuidado en la sexualidad femenina. Objetivo Determinar el nivel de comunicación de pareja en torno al VIH en mujeres chilenas en desventaja social. Metodología Cuatrocientas noventa y seis mujeres contestaron la entrevista inicial de la investigación “Testing an HIV/AIDS Prevention Intervention for Chilean Women” (RO1 TW 006977 PI Cianelli). Se utilizó la escala “Health protective sexual communication scale (HPC)” (0–10 puntos). Se realizó un análisis descriptivo utilizando el programa SPSS 16.0. Resultados El promedio del nivel de comunicación de pareja fue de 3,26 ± 2,7 puntos con la pareja principal, de 2,52 ± 2,48 puntos con una segunda pareja y de 0 puntos con una tercera pareja. Los temas de menor comunicación entre las parejas fueron el uso de preservativo y la realización del test para VIH antes de tener relaciones sexuales. Conclusión Las mujeres de la muestra presentan bajos niveles de comunicación de pareja en relación a VIH con todas sus parejas sexuales. Son necesarias estrategias que potencien este tópico dentro de las intervenciones de prevención de VIH y SIDA de manera de fortalecer la adopción de conductas de autocuidado en torno al tema. PMID:19936328

  9. Structural prediction and analysis of VIH-related peptides from selected crustacean species.

    PubMed

    Nagaraju, Ganji Purna Chandra; Kumari, Nunna Siva; Prasad, Ganji Lakshmi Vara; Rajitha, Balney; Meenu, Madan; Rao, Manam Sreenivasa; Naik, Bannoth Reddya

    2009-08-17

    The tentative elucidation of the 3D-structure of vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH) peptides is conversely underprivileged by difficulties in gaining enough peptide or protein, diffracting crystals, and numerous extra technical aspects. As a result, no structural information is available for VIH peptide sequences registered in the Genbank. In this situation, it is not surprising that predictive methods have achieved great interest. Here, in this study the molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) of the kuruma prawn (Marsupenaeus japonicus) is used, to predict the structure of four VIHrelated peptides in the crustacean species. The high similarity of the 3D-structures and the calculated physiochemical characteristics of these peptides suggest a common fold for the entire family.

  10. Late-time behaviour of the tilted Bianchi type VIh models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hervik, S.; van den Hoogen, R. J.; Lim, W. C.; Coley, A. A.

    2007-08-01

    We study tilted perfect fluid cosmological models with a constant equation of state parameter in spatially homogeneous models of Bianchi type VIh using dynamical systems methods and numerical experimentation, with an emphasis on their future asymptotic evolution. We determine all of the equilibrium points of the type VIh state space (which correspond to exact self-similar solutions of the Einstein equations, some of which are new), and their stability is investigated. We find that there are vacuum plane-wave solutions that act as future attractors. In the parameter space, a 'loophole' is shown to exist in which there are no stable equilibrium points. We then show that a Hopf-bifurcation can occur resulting in a stable closed orbit (which we refer to as the Mussel attractor) corresponding to points both inside the loophole and points just outside the loophole; in the former case the closed curves act as late-time attractors while in the latter case these attracting curves will co-exist with attracting equilibrium points. In the special Bianchi type III case, centre manifold theory is required to determine the future attractors. Comprehensive numerical experiments are carried out to complement and confirm the analytical results presented. We note that the Bianchi type VIh case is of particular interest in that it contains many different subcases which exhibit many of the different possible future asymptotic behaviours of Bianchi cosmological models.

  11. Bianchi type-VIh string cloud cosmological models with bulk viscosity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sunil K.; Behera, Dipanjali

    2010-11-01

    String cloud cosmological models are studied using spatially homogeneous and anisotropic Bianchi type VIh metric in the frame work of general relativity. The field equations are solved for massive string cloud in presence of bulk viscosity. A general linear equation of state of the cosmic string tension density with the proper energy density of the universe is considered. The physical and kinematical properties of the models have been discussed in detail and the limits of the anisotropic parameter responsible for different phases of the universe are explored.

  12. Equilibrium points of the tilted perfect fluid Bianchi VIh state space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apostolopoulos, Pantelis S.

    2005-05-01

    We present the full set of evolution equations for the spatially homogeneous cosmologies of type VIh filled with a tilted perfect fluid and we provide the corresponding equilibrium points of the resulting dynamical state space. It is found that only when the group parameter satisfies h > -1 a self-similar solution exists. In particular we show that for h > -{1/9} there exists a self-similar equilibrium point provided that γ ∈ ({2(3+sqrt{-h})/5+3sqrt{-h}},{3/2}) whereas for h < -{frac 19} the state parameter belongs to the interval γ ∈(1,{2(3+sqrt{-h})/5+3sqrt{-h}}). This family of new exact self-similar solutions belongs to the subclass nαα = 0 having non-zero vorticity. In both cases the equilibrium points have a six-dimensional stable manifold and may act as future attractors at least for the models satisfying nαα = 0. Also we give the exact form of the self-similar metrics in terms of the state and group parameter. As an illustrative example we provide the explicit form of the corresponding self-similar radiation model (γ = {frac 43}), parametrised by the group parameter h. Finally we show that there are no tilted self-similar models of type III and irrotational models of type VIh.

  13. Regulando la Enfermedad a través de la Definición y la Restricción: Profesionales de la Salud Hablan sobre el VIH/SIDA1

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2009-01-01

    Resumen Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la población protegiendo el bien común. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este último papel, está más ligado al control social de la población que a una preocupación altruista hacia la misma. A través de esta supervisión y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptación social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protagónico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, útil vs. inútil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez más vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su función está plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este propósito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un análisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que según las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona “normal” o funcional bajo los estándares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por vía legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud

  14. A note on tilted Bianchi type VIh models: the type III bifurcation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, A. A.; Hervik, S.

    2008-10-01

    In this note we complete the analysis of Hervik, van den Hoogen, Lim and Coley (2007 Class. Quantum Grav. 24 3859) of the late-time behaviour of tilted perfect fluid Bianchi type III models. We consider models with dust, and perfect fluids stiffer than dust, and eludicate the late-time behaviour by studying the centre manifold which dominates the behaviour of the model at late times. In the dust case, this centre manifold is three-dimensional and can be considered a double bifurcation as the two parameters (h and γ) of the type VIh model are varied. We therefore complete the analysis of the late-time behaviour of tilted ever-expanding Bianchi models of types I VIII.

  15. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE.

    PubMed

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Avila, María Mercedes

    2010-12-01

    A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH.

  16. Accouchées avec statut sérologique VIH inconnu à Lubumbashi, RD Congo: proportion et déterminants

    PubMed Central

    Nkoy, Albert Mwembo-Tambwe A; Kayamba, Prosper Kalenga Muenze; Donnen, Philippe; Mukalenge, Faustin Chenge; Humblet, Perrine; Dramaix, Michèle; Buekens, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Beaucoup d'enfants vivant avec le VIH ont été infectés par leurs mères. Pour prévenir la transmission verticale les femmes doivent d'abord connaître leur statut sérologique VIH.L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer la proportion de statut VIH inconnu à la naissance et d'identifier les facteurs associés. Méthodes C'est une étude transversale réalisée dans 10 structures sanitaires de Lubumbashi de Juin à Septembre 2010. La taille de l’échantillon était de 602 accouchées. Les statistiques descriptives usuelles et la régression logistique ont été utilisées. Résultats Parmi les accouchées, 52,5% ignoraient leur statut sérologique. Parmi elles, 62,9% accepteraient de faire le test VIH à la maternité. La proportion des femmes avec un statut sérologique VIH inconnu était significativement plus élevée chez celles qui n'avaient pas suivi de CPN (Odds Ratio ajusté (ORa) = 5,8; Intervalle de Confiance (IC) 95%: 1,7-19,8); chez celles qui avaient un bas niveau d'instruction (ORa = 1,5; IC 95%: 1,1-2,1) et chez celles qui ne savaient pas que la transmission verticale du VIH pouvaient se faire au moment de l'accouchement (ORa = 1,5; IC 95%: 1,0-2,4). Conclusion La proportion de femmes qui accouchent sans connaître leur statut sérologique au VIH est encore importante, malgré le fait que le dépistage du VIH soit proposé lors des CPN. Dans les zones à haute séroprévalence de VIH, aucune femme ne devrait accoucher sans être dépistée au VIH. Ce serait une opportunité manquée. PMID:22891083

  17. Maladie de Kaposi à localisation broncho-pulmonaire révélant une infection VIH

    PubMed Central

    Sebbar, Amal; Zaghba, Nahid; Benjelloun, Hanane; Bakhatar, Abdelaziz; Yassine, Najiba

    2015-01-01

    La maladie de Kaposi (MK) associée au VIH, forme dite épidémique, a été décrite la 1ère fois en 1981 par Hymmes. C'est l'affection maligne la plus fréquente au cours du SIDA. La MK est à l'origine de 10% des atteintes pleuropulmonaires au cours de l'infection par le VIH et 40% des pneumopathies en cas de MK cutanéomuqueuse. Les localisations pulmonaires occupent la deuxième place des atteintes viscérales après la forme digestive. Le diagnostic repose sur des arguments épidémiologiques, cliniques, radiologiques, biologiques, endoscopiques et histologiques. Nous rapportons un cas de MK broncho-pulmonaire compliquant une infection VIH chez un patient présentant une maladie de Kaposi cutanée de découverte fortuite au cours de l'atteinte pulmonaire. Le diagnostic a été retenu après avoir éliminé les maladies opportunistes à tropisme pulmonaire. Le Kaposi pulmonaire constitue l'atteinte la plus grave de la MK-sida et la survie après le diagnostic est courte malgré les thérapeutiques agressives. PMID:26958142

  18. Barreras y Facilitadores en el Reclutamiento y la Retención de Parejas Heterosexuales en Intervenciones Preventivas en VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L.; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2012-01-01

    Compendio El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes. PMID:23264700

  19. VIH2 Regulates the Synthesis of Inositol Pyrophosphate InsP8 and Jasmonate-Dependent Defenses in Arabidopsis[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Laha, Debabrata; Johnen, Philipp; Azevedo, Cristina; Dynowski, Marek; Weiß, Michael; Capolicchio, Samanta; Mao, Haibin; Iven, Tim; Steenbergen, Merel; Freyer, Marc; Gaugler, Philipp; de Campos, Marília K.F.; Zheng, Ning; Feussner, Ivo; Jessen, Henning J.; Van Wees, Saskia C.M.; Saiardi, Adolfo; Schaaf, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    Diphosphorylated inositol polyphosphates, also referred to as inositol pyrophosphates, are important signaling molecules that regulate critical cellular activities in many eukaryotic organisms, such as membrane trafficking, telomere maintenance, ribosome biogenesis, and apoptosis. In mammals and fungi, two distinct classes of inositol phosphate kinases mediate biosynthesis of inositol pyrophosphates: Kcs1/IP6K- and Vip1/PPIP5K-like proteins. Here, we report that PPIP5K homologs are widely distributed in plants and that Arabidopsis thaliana VIH1 and VIH2 are functional PPIP5K enzymes. We show a specific induction of inositol pyrophosphate InsP8 by jasmonate and demonstrate that steady state and jasmonate-induced pools of InsP8 in Arabidopsis seedlings depend on VIH2. We identify a role of VIH2 in regulating jasmonate perception and plant defenses against herbivorous insects and necrotrophic fungi. In silico docking experiments and radioligand binding-based reconstitution assays show high-affinity binding of inositol pyrophosphates to the F-box protein COI1-JAZ jasmonate coreceptor complex and suggest that coincidence detection of jasmonate and InsP8 by COI1-JAZ is a critical component in jasmonate-regulated defenses. PMID:25901085

  20. EXPERIENCIAS RELACIONADAS A UNA INTERVENCIÓN PARA REDUCIR EL ESTIGMA RELACIONADO AL VIH/SIDA ENTRE ESTUDIANTES DE MEDICINA EN PUERTO RICO

    PubMed Central

    Cintrón-Bou, Francheska; Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Neilands, Torsten B.

    2016-01-01

    Existe estigma relacionado al VIH. A las personas con VIH/SIDA-PCVS se les viola sus derechos y obstaculiza su bienestar mental/físico. Profesionales de la salud-PS son fuente de apoyo primordial, sin embargo estos/as le estigmatizan. Es útil adiestrar a PS en relación al estigma social. Implantamos la intervención para reducir el estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA con 507 estudiantes de medicina. Resultó ser una intervención efectiva, hubo reducción en los niveles de estigma a partir de nuestra intervención y diferencias significativas con el grupo control (p≤.05). Generar espacios de adiestramiento para atender el estigma relacionado al VIH/SIDA es pertinente para la psicología comunitaria porque colaboramos en la reducción de actitudes estigmatizantes que afectan adversamente la prevención de nuevas infecciones, la adherencia al tratamiento antirretroviral y la calidad de vida. PMID:27829690

  1. Desarrollo de la Escala sobre el Estigma Relacionado con el VIH/SIDA para Profesionales de la Salud mediante el uso de métodos mixtos123

    PubMed Central

    Varas-Díaz, Nelson; Neilands, Torsten B.; Guilamo-Ramos, Vincent; Cintrón Bou, Francheska N.

    2009-01-01

    El estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA continúa siendo un obstáculo para la prevención primaria y secundaria del VIH. Las consecuencias para las personas que viven con la enfermedad han sido muy documentadas y continúan siendo una gran preocupación para las personas que proveen servicios de salud y para aquellas que investigan el tema. Estas consecuencias son preocupantes cuando el estigma emana de profesionales de la salud porque se puede limitar el acceso a los servicios. Uno de los principales obstáculos para la investigación del estigma relacionado con el VIH en Puerto Rico es la falta de instrumentos cuantitativos para evaluar las manifestaciones del estigma entre profesionales de la salud. El objetivo principal de este estudio fue desarrollar y probar las propiedades psicométricas de una escala sobre el estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA culturalmente apropiada para personas que proveen servicios de salud puertorriqueñas y desarrollar una versión corta de la escala que pudiera usarse en escenarios clínicos con tiempo limitado. El instrumento desarrollado estuvo basado en evidencia cualitativa recopilada entre profesionales y estudiantes de profesiones de la salud puertorriqueños/as (n=80) y administrado a una muestra de 421 profesionales de la salud en adiestramiento. La escala contenía 12 dimensiones del estigma relacionado con el VIH/SIDA. El análisis cuantitativo corroboró 11 de ellas, teniendo como resultado un instrumento con validez y confiabilidad satisfactoria. Estas dimensiones, a su vez, fueron subcomponentes de un factor de estigma general superior. PMID:20333258

  2. Silence et divulgation dans des familles d’adolescents vivant avec le VIH depuis la naissance : une exploration qualitative

    PubMed Central

    Proulx-Boucher, Karène; Blais, Martin; Fernet, Mylène; Richard, Marie-Ève; Otis, Joanne; Josy Lévy, Joseph; Samson, Johanne; Lapointe, Normand; Morin, Guylaine; Thériault, Jocelyne; Trottier, Germain

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIF : Les études ciblant les enfants nés avec le VIH se sont principalement intéressées à la période précédant l’annonce du diagnostic à l’enfant. L’objectif de cette étude est d’explorer les dynamiques de communication intrafamiliale suivant l’annonce du diagnostic. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Vingt-neuf jeunes (de dix à 18 ans) vivant avec le VIH depuis la naissance ont accordé des entrevues individuelles semi-dirigées portant sur : 1) le dévoilement du statut sérologique, 2) leurs relations familiales et 3) l’éducation sexuelle en milieu familial. Les témoignages ont fait l’objet d’une analyse de contenu. RÉSULTATS : Les jeunes ont appris en moyenne à l’âge de 11 ans leur diagnostic VIH+. La dynamique qui s’installe après cette annonce apparaît régie par le silence : les échanges qui s’ensuivent portent en majorité sur des questions relatives à la médication et à la prévention d’une transmission sexuelle du virus. Ce silence préserverait l’équilibre familial en occupant trois fonctions : protéger la mère d’un sentiment de culpabilité à l’égard de la transmission, assurer l’harmonie familiale, se sentir normal face aux autres. Le diagnostic de l’adolescent n’est généralement pas révélé à la famille élargie, préservant ainsi leur intégration au sein de la famille en les protégeant du rejet, de la trahison et du jugement. EXPOSÉ : Les fonctions du silence et du secret occupent une place stabilisatrice importante au sein de la famille. Toutefois, elles contribuent à isoler les adolescents d’une forme de soutien affectif dont ils ont pourtant besoin. Des pistes d’intervention sont suggérées. PMID:22851894

  3. Infection par le VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein en Guinée (Afrique de l'Ouest)

    PubMed Central

    Traore, Bangaly; Diane, Solomana; Sow, Mamadou Saliou; Keita, Mamady; Conde, Mamoudou; Traore, Fodé Amara; Kourouma, Tidiane

    2015-01-01

    L'objectif était de déterminer la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patientes atteintes de cancer du sein et de comparer les caractéristiques anatomocliques et thérapeutiques de ces cancers du sein par rapports aux patientes non infectées par le VIH. Il s'agissait d'une étude rétrospective et analytique comparant les dossiers de patientes atteintes de cancers du sein histologiquement confirmés, infectées ou non par le VIH à l'unité de chirurgie oncologique de Donka, CHU de Conakry, de 2007 à 2012. Nous avons colligé 278 patientes présentant un cancer du sein dont 14 (5,0%) infectées par le VIH et 264 (95,0%) non infectées par le VIH. Les différences observées entre ces deux groupes de patientes étaient respectivement: âge médian (36,8 vs 49,0 ans), la ménopause (21,4% vs 53,4%), le nombre des patientes traitées (50,0% contre 77,1%) et la survenue de décès (78,6% vs 50,8%). Aucune différence n'a été notée dans la présentation clinique, histologique et le retard de consultation. Dans notre étude, la prévalence de l'infection à VIH chez les patients atteints de cancer du sein est élevée. L’âge jeune des patients, la faible accessibilité au traitement et la mortalité élevée doivent être confirmés par une étude sur un échantillon plus large. PMID:26523196

  4. PREVENCIÓN DEL VIH/SIDA EN LOS CIRCUITOS DE LEVANTE HSH: UNA ASIGNATURA PENDIENTE1

    PubMed Central

    Barreda, Victoria; Carballo-Dieguez, Alex; Marone, Rubén; Balán, Iván; Pando, María Ángeles; Ávila, María Mercedes

    2011-01-01

    Resumen A partir de un relevamiento de tipo etnográfico, se describen lugares de encuentro de HSH en la Ciudad de Buenos Aires y sus prácticas sexuales. El reconocimiento de tales espacios, así como las características que asumen en ellos los encuentros sexuales entre los HSH, plantean obstáculos específicos en la adopción de comportamientos preventivos y, asimismo, generan nuevos desafíos para las actividades de prevención. Se plantean las dificultades y debates conceptuales que la misma categoría presenta, y sus consecuencias en el abordaje preventivo y teórico-metodológico para las ciencias sociales. Además, se proponen nuevos interrogantes acerca de los alcances y las limitaciones del modelo preventivo del VIH/Sida para HSH. PMID:21874154

  5. Choriorétinite extensive bilatérale révélant une infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH)

    PubMed Central

    El Yamouni, Oubaida; Tzili, Nazih; El Hassan, Abdallah; Slassi, Nadia; El Khaoua, Mahfoud; Jebbar, Zakaria; Berraho, Amina

    2014-01-01

    Au cours de l'infection par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine(VIH), Les atteintes oculaires sont polymorphes, pouvant compromettre le pronostic fonctionnel. Nous rapportons l'observation d'un patient présentant une choriorétinite infectieuse sévère révélant une infection par le VIH. Patient âgé de 35 ans avec antécédent de tuberculose pulmonaire en 2007, consulte pour BAV bilatérale progressive depuis 6 mois. Une acuité visuelle à compte les doigts au niveau de l'oeil droit et à mouvement des doigts au niveau de l'oeil gauche, avec présence de foyers choriorétiniens diffus visualisés au fond d'oeil et à l'angiographie. Les sérologies VIH, toxoplasmose et CMV sont positives. Le patient a été mis sous traitement anti-toxoplasmose (Sulfadiazine et pyriméthamine) et anti-CMV (Ganciclovir per os). L’évolution sous traitement a été marquée par une régression de la hyalite avec la persistance des foyers choriorétiniens évolutifs et une acuité visuelle réduite à perception lumineuse. PMID:25709723

  6. Prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes infectées par le VIH à Parakou au Bénin

    PubMed Central

    Dovonou, Comlan Albert; Amidou, Salimanou Ariyoh; Kpangon, Amadohoué Arsène; Traoré, Yacoubou Adam; Godjedo, Togbemabou Primous Martial; Satondji, Assongba Joseph; Wachinou, Ablo Prudence; Issa-Djibril, Fatioulaye Mahamadi; Fourn, Léonard; Zannou, Djimon Marcel; Gandaho, Prosper

    2015-01-01

    Introduction La co-infection avec l'hépatite B est l'un des défis majeurs de la prise en charge du VIH depuis l'amélioration de l'accès aux antirétroviraux en Afrique. La présente étude visait à estimer la prévalence de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH à Parakou et décrire les facteurs associés. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale menée de Mai 2011 à Juin 2012 dans le service de Médecine du CHU de Parakou. Ont été inclus tous les adultes séropositifs au VIH vus en consultation ou hospitalisés. Les données ont été collectées par interviews et dépouillement de dossiers médicaux. L'antigène HBs a été recherché par un test rapide et l'ALAT a été dosé. L'analyse des données a été faite avec le logiciel EpiInfo 3.5.1. Les proportions ont été comparées grâce au test de Chi-deux ou au test de Fisher au seuil de significativité de 5%. Un modèle de régression logistique multivariable a permis d'expliquer la prévalence de l'hépatite B. Résultats Sur les 744 sujets inclus on a dénombré 555 femmes. L’âge moyen était de 35,5 + 10,1 ans. La prévalence de l'hépatite B a été estimée à 16,9% (IC95: 14,3%-19,9%). Cette prévalence était plus élevée chez les sujets originaires du Borgou/Alibori et ceux au stade 4 de l'OMS. Conclusion La prévalence de la co-infection VIH/VHB au CHU Parakou est élevée. Le dispositif national de prise en charge et de prévention de l'hépatite B chez les personnes séropositives au VIH doit être renforcé. PMID:26097629

  7. Les campagnes communautaires de promotion du depistage VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest : perceptions des usagers au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Desclaux, Alice; Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Somé, Jean-François; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla

    2014-01-01

    Résumé La politique actuelle de lutte contre le sida qui repose sur l’extension de l’accès aux traitements et à la prévention exige qu’une proportion élevée de la population connaisse son statut en matière de VIH. Pour cela, l’OMS a proposé le développement de stratégies communautaires délivrant le dépistage et le conseil au-delà des services de soins, comme le test à domicile ou les campagnes de sensibilisation et dépistage de grande envergure, appliqués en Afrique australe et de l’Est. Pour définir les stratégies pertinentes dans des régions de basse prévalence comme l’Afrique de l’Ouest, les expériences communautaires de promotion du dépistage doivent y être évaluées. Cet article présente une évaluation des campagnes au Burkina Faso du point de vue des usagers. Dans le cadre d’un projet sur les pratiques et l’éthique du dépistage dans quatre pays africains (MATCH), une enquête qualitative spécifique a été menée pendant la campagne de 2008, auprès de personnes ayant fait le test pendant la campagne, ayant fait le test hors campagne ou n’ayant pas fait le test. Les appréciations sont globalement très favorables aux campagnes, notamment à cause de l’information dispensée, l’accessibilité des sites, la gratuité du test, la qualité des services et l’effet d’entrainement. Les limites ou critiques sont essentiellement liées à l’affluence ou à la crainte de ne pas être soutenu en cas de résultat positif. La démarche de recours au test ne fait plus l’objet de suspicion, au moins pendant la campagne. Cette « normalisation » du recours au test et la mobilisation collective facilitent des pratiques en groupe, ce qui peut rendre difficile de garder son statut VIH secret. L’évaluation des campagnes par les usagers les présente comme une opportunité pour accéder facilement au test et pour communiquer à ce sujet dans divers espaces sociaux à partir des informations délivrées sur le VIH

  8. Causes de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre tunisien

    PubMed Central

    Chelli, Jihène; Bellazreg, Foued; Aouem, Abir; Hattab, Zouhour; Mesmia, Hèla; Lasfar, Nadia Ben; Hachfi, Wissem; Masmoudi, Tasnim; Chakroun, Mohamed; Letaief, Amel

    2016-01-01

    La trithérapie antirétrovirale a contribué à une baisse considérable de la mortalité liée au VIH. Les causes de décès sont dominées par les infections opportunistes dans les pays en voie de développement et par les maladies cardiovasculaires et les cancers dans les pays développés. L’objectif était de déterminer les causes et les facteurs de risque de décès des patients infectés par le VIH dans le Centre Tunisien. Une étude transversale auprès des patients infectés par le VIH âgés de plus de 15 ans suivis à Sousse et à Monastir entre 2000 et 2014. Le décès était considéré lié au VIH si la cause était un évènement classant SIDA ou s’il était la conséquence d’une infection opportuniste d’étiologie indéterminée avec des CD4 < 50/mm3, non lié au VIH si la cause n’était pas un évènement classant SIDA, et de cause inconnue si aucune information n’était disponible. Deux cents treize patients, 130 hommes (61%) et 83 femmes (39%), d’âge moyen 40±11 ans ont été inclus. Cinquante quatre patients sont décédés, avec une mortalité de 5,4/100 patients-années. La mortalité annuelle a baissé de 5,8% en 2000-2003 à 2,3% en 2012-2014. La survie était de 72% à 5 ans et de 67% à 10 ans. Les décès étaient liés au VIH dans 70,4% des cas. Les causes de décès les plus fréquentes étaient la pneumocystose pulmonaire et la cryptococcose neuroméningée dans 6 cas (11%) chacune. Les facteurs de risque de décès étaient les antécédents d’infections opportunistes, la durée de la trithérapie antirétrovirale < 12 mois et le tabagisme. Le renforcement du dépistage, l’initiation précoce de la trithérapie antirétrovirale, et la lutte contre le tabagisme sont nécessaires afin de réduire la mortalité chez les patients infectés par le VIH en Tunisie. PMID:28292068

  9. Le domaine des co-infections et des maladies concomitantes du Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des IRSC : lignes directrices canadiennes pour la prise en charge et le traitement de la co-infection par le VIH et l’hépatite C chez les adultes

    PubMed Central

    Hull, Mark; Giguère, Pierre; Klein, Marina; Shafran, Stephen; Tseng, Alice; Côté, Pierre; Poliquin, Marc; Cooper, Curtis

    2014-01-01

    HISTORIQUE : De 20 % à 30 % des Canadiens qui vivent avec le VIH sont co-infectés par le virus de l’hépatite C (VHC), lequel est responsable d’une morbidité et d’une mortalité importantes. La prise en charge du VIH et du VHC est plus complexe en raison de l’évolution accélérée de la maladie hépatique, du choix et des critères d’initiation de la thérapie antirétrovirale et du traitement anti-VHC, de la prise en charge de la santé mentale et des toxicomanies, des obstacles socioéconomiques et des interactions entre les nouvelles thérapies antivirales à action directe du VHC et les antirétroviraux OBJECTIF : Élaborer des normes nationales de prise en charge des adultes co-infectés par le VHC et le VIH dans le contexte canadien. MÉTHODOLOGIE : Le Réseau canadien pour les essais VIH des Instituts de recherche en santé du Canada a réuni un groupe d’experts possédant des compétences cliniques en co-infection par le VIH et le VHC pour réviser les publications à jour ainsi que les lignes directrices et les protocoles en place. Après une vaste sollicitation afin d’obtenir des points de vue, le groupe de travail a approuvé des recommandations consensuelles, qu’il a caractérisées au moyen d’une échelle de qualité des preuves fondée sur la classe (bienfaits par rapport aux préjudices) et sur la catégorie (degré de certitude). RÉSULTATS : Toutes les personnes co-infectées par le VIH et le VHC devraient subir une évaluation en vue de recevoir un traitement du VHC. Les personnes qui ne sont pas en mesure d’entreprendre un traitement du VHC devraient être soignées pour le VIH afin de ralentir l’évolution de la maladie hépatique. La norme de traitement du VHC de génotype 1 est un régime comprenant de l’interféron pégylé et de la ribavirine dosée en fonction du poids, associés à un inhibiteur de la protéase du VHC. Pour les génotypes 2 ou 3, une bithérapie classique est recommandée pendant 24 semaines s

  10. Facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Abessolo, Stéphanie Abo'o; Angwafo, Fru; Muna, Walinjom

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer les facteurs de risque de l'infection par le VIH dans le district de santé de Meyomessala (Région du Sud) au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique qui s'est déroulée de Février à Mai 2011. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats L’échantillon était constitué de 315 participants dont 181 (57,46%) hommes et 134 (42,54%) femmes. L’âge moyen était de 24,5±8ans (extrême: 15-45ans). Quarante personnes (40) étaient séropositifs, soit une prévalence de l'infection par le VIH de 12,7%. Cette prévalence augmentait significativement (p = 0) avec le nombre de partenaires occasionnels au cours des douze derniers mois, allant de 2,7% chez ceux n'ayant eu aucun partenaire occasionnel à 21,25% chez ceux ayant plus de trois partenaires occasionnels (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; P = 0,03). le fait d’être âgé entre 20 et 24 ans (RC = 4,88; IC = 1,74-13,67; p = 0), avoir plus de trois partenaires sexuels au cours des douze derniers mois (RC = 9,72; IC = 1,27-74,14; p = 0,03), avoir les rapports sexuels avec les prostitués (RC = 2,86; IC = 1,42-5,76; p = 0), avoir eu le chlamydia (RC = 3,00; IC = 1,07-8,39; p = 0,04), avoir eu la syphilis (RC = 3,35; IC = 1,57-7,14; p = 0), avoir des avantages sociaux lors du premier rapport sexuel (RC = 2,57; IC = 1,03-6,43; p = 0,04) constituaient des potentiels facteurs de risque du VIH. Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de sensibilisation au risque d'infection par le VIH et les maladies sexuellement transmissibles dans le district de santé de Meyomessala PMID:25419299

  11. Profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Viche, Lade; Noubom, Michel

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer le profil épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH/SIDA au cours d'une campagne de sensibilisation à Yaoundé au Cameroun. Méthodes Après avoir obtenu le consentement éclairé des participants, le dépistage de l'infection par le VIH a été effectué selon l'algorithme de dépistage en série de l'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé (OMS). En outre, un questionnaire socio-comportemental a été proposé à chaque participant. Résultats Au total, 911 personnes ont été dépistées. La prévalence de l'infection par le VIH était de 2.6%. Elle était 3 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes (RC = 3.22, IC (1.26 - 8.18). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de plus de 45 ans (p = 0.01), les personnes sans emploi (p < 0.001) et les veufs/veuves (p = 0.02). Plus de 80% des participants trouvaient le test de dépistage nécessaire et 76,2% l'avaient déjà effectué au moins une fois auparavant. Il s'agissait principalement de femmes (p = 0.02), d'étudiants (p < 0.001) et des personnes âgées de 25 à 34 ans (p < 0.001). Les personnes séropositives avaient moins tendance à retirer leur résultat (p = 0.01). Conclusion Il apparait urgent d'intensifier les campagnes de dépistage de l'infection par le VIH en ciblant davantage des groupes particuliers tels que les élèves, les personnes âgées et les veufs/veuves, tout en recherchant les facteurs pouvant favoriser la propagation de l'infection dans ces groupes. PMID:24255725

  12. Acceptabilité du test VIH proposé aux nourrissons dans les services pédiatriques, en Côte d'Ivoire, Significations pour la couverture du diagnostic pédiatrique

    PubMed Central

    Oga, Maxime; Brou, Hermann; Dago-Akribi, Hortense; Coffie, Patrick; Amani-Bossé, Clarisse; Ékouévi, Didier; Yapo, Vincent; Menan, Hervé; Ndondoki, Camille; Timité-Konan, M.; Leroy, Valériane

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Problème: Le dépistage VIH chez les enfants a rarement été au centre des préoccupations des chercheurs. Quand le dépistage pédiatrique a retenu l'attention, cela a été pour éclairer seulement sur les performances diagnostiques en ignorant même que le test pédiatrique comme bien d'autres peut s'accepter ou se refuser. Cet article met au cœur de son analyse les raisons qui peuvent expliquer qu'on accepte ou qu'on refuse de faire dépister son enfant. Objectif: Etudier chez les parents, les mères, les facteurs explicatifs de l'acceptabilité du test VIH des nourrissons de moins de six mois. Méthodes: Entretien semi-directif à passages répétés avec les parents de nourrissons de moins de six mois dans les formations sanitaires pour la pesée/vaccination et les consultations pédiatriques avec proposition systématique d'un test VIH pour leur nourrisson. Résultats: Nous retenons que la réalisation effective du test pédiatrique du VIH chez le nourrisson repose sur trois éléments. Primo, le personnel de santé par son discours (qui dénote de ses connaissances et perceptions même sur l'infection) orienté vers les mères influence leur acceptation ou non du test. Secundo, la mère qui par ses connaissances et perceptions même sur le VIH, dont le statut particulier, l'impression de bien-être chez elle et son enfant influence toute réalisation du test pédiatrique VIH. Tertio, l'environnement conjugal de la mère, particulièrement caractérisé par les rapports au sein du couple, sur la facilité de parler du test VIH et sa réalisation chez les deux parents ou chez la mère seulement sont autant de facteurs qui influencent la réalisation effective du dépistage du VIH chez l'enfant. Le principe préventif du VIH, et le désir de faire tester l'enfant ne suffisent pas à eux seuls pour aboutir à sa réalisation effective, selon certaines mères confrontées au refus du conjoint. A l'opposé, les autres mères refusant la r

  13. Distribution épidémiologique de l'infection à VIH chez les femmes enceintes dans les dix régions du Cameroun et implications stratégiques pour les programmes de prévention

    PubMed Central

    Billong, Serge-Clotaire; Fokam, Joseph; Billong, Edson-Joan; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Essi, Marie-Josée; Fodjo, Raoul; Sosso, Samuel-Martin; Gomba, Armelle; Mosoko-Jembia, Joseph; Loni-Ekali, Gabriel; Colizzi, Vittorio; Bissek, Anne-Cécile Zoung-Kani; Monebenimp, Francisca; Nfetam, Jean-Bosco Elat

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le Cameroun se situe dans un contexte d’épidémie généralisée du VIH. La sous-population des femmes enceintes, facilement accessible au sein de la population générale, représente une cible probante pour mener la surveillance du VIH et estimer l’évolution épidémiologique. L'objectif de notre étude était d’évaluer la distribution épidémiologique du VIH chez les femmes enceintes. Méthodes Étude transversale menée en 2012 chez 6521 femmes enceintes (49,3% âgées de 15-24 ans) en première consultation prénatale (CPN1) dans 60 sites des 10 régions Camerounaises. L'algorithme en série a été utilisé pour le sérodiagnostic du VIH. Résultats La prévalence du VIH était de 7,8% (508/6521), avec une différence non significative (p = 0,297) entre milieu rural (7,4%) et milieu urbain (8,1%). En zone rurale, cette prévalence variait de 0,7% à l'Extrême-Nord à 11,8% au Sud. Cependant, en zone urbaine elle variait de 4% à l'Ouest à 11,1% au Sud-Ouest. Suivant l’âge, la prévalence était plus élevée (11,3%) chez les femmes de 35-39 ans. Suivant le niveau de scolarisation, la prévalence du VIH était plus faible (4,4%) chez celles non-scolarisées, et plus élevée (9,3%) chez celles ayant un niveau primaire. Selon la profession, l'infection était plus élevée chez les coiffeuses (15,5%), secrétaires (14,8%), commerçantes (12,9%) et institutrices/enseignantes (10,8%). Conclusion La prévalence du VIH reste élevée chez les femmes enceintes au Cameroun, sans distinction entre milieux rural et urbain. Les stratégies de prévention devraient s'orienter préférentiellement chez les femmes enceintes âgées, celles du niveau d'instruction primaire, et celles du secteur des petites et moyennes entreprises. PMID:26090037

  14. Etude de facteurs de risque de la transmission du VIH de la mère à l'enfant dans la stratégie « option A » à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Ngwej, Dieudonné Tshikwej; Mukuku, Olivier; Mudekereza, Rachel; Karaj, Eugénie; Odimba, Etienne Bwana Fwamba; Luboya, Oscar Numbi; Kakoma, Jean-Baptiste Sakatolo; Wembonyama, Stanis Okitotshio

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection à VIH chez la femme enceinte a pour principal risque la contamination du nouveau-né. L'objectif est de déterminer le taux de transmission du VIH de la mère à l'enfant (TME) dans la ville de Lubumbashi et en évaluer les facteurs de risque. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude prospective transversale à visée analytique de 157 accouchées séropositives au VIH et de leurs enfants dans 12 structures sanitaires de Lubumbashi (RDCongo) du 1er octobre 2012 au 31 décembre 2013. Les paramètres sociodémographiques, cliniques et les données relatives aux activités de PTME du VIH ont été étudiés. Les statistiques usuelles ont été utilisées pour analyser les résultats. Le seuil de significativité a été fixé à une valeur de p < 0,05. Résultats Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH était de 12,7% (20/157). Il n'y avait pas d'association significative entre les caractéristiques sociodémographiques maternelles telles que l’âge, la parité, le niveau d’étude, la profession et l’état-civil et la TME (p>0,05). La transmission verticale du VIH était significativement associée aux facteurs suivants: le stade clinique 3 de l'OMS (OR=5,18 (1,5-18,1)), la présence d'infection opportuniste (OR=8,7 (2,7-27,8)), le dépistage lors de l'accouchement (OR=6,3 (1,0-39,0)) ou au cours de l'allaitement (OR=7,1 (1,1-76,7)), au taux de CD4 maternel <350/mm3 (OR=2,9 (1,1-7,7)), l'absence de thérapie antirétrovirale chez la mère (OR=19,9 (4,8-81,9)), la naissance avant terme (OR=4,7 (1,4-16,0)), la rupture prématurée de membranes (OR=45,0 (7,4-454,6)), le faible poids de naissance (OR=5,6 (1,9-16,7)), la notion de réanimation néonatale (OR=12,4 (3,8-40,1)), la non administration de la névirapine à la naissance (OR=26,4 (7,6-92,3)) et l'alimentation mixte (OR=12,6 (1,3-115,9)). Le sexe du nourrisson et le mode d'accouchement n’étaient pas non plus associés à la transmission verticale du VIH (p>0,05). Conclusion Le taux

  15. Portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, POR-006 SKID D storage plan

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1997-09-04

    This document provides a storage plan for portable exhausters POR-004 SKID B, POR-005 SKID C, AND POR-006 SKID D. The exhausters will be stored until they are needed by the TWRS (Tank Waste Remediation Systems) Saltwell Pumping Program. The storage plan provides criteria for portable exhauster storage, periodic inspections during storage, and retrieval from storage.

  16. Séroprévalence et facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Keou, Francois-Xavier; Nkala, Isabelle Vanessa Monthe; Kalla, Ginette Claude Mireille; Nguefack-Tsague, Georges; Kamga, Hortense Gonsu; Noubom, Michel; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Sosso, Maurice Aurelien

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer la séroprévalence et les facteurs associés au VIH et aux hépatites virales B et C dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive et analytique réalisée de février 2012 à Juin 2012 dans la ville de Bafoussam au Cameroun. Pour cette étude, nous avons obtenu une clairance éthique. Résultats Au total, 982 personnes ont été dépistées pour le VIH et les hépatites virales B et C. Les femmes représentaient 56,3% des personnes dépistées. La tranche d’âge la plus représentée était celle des 20 à 24 ans. L’âge médian était de 34,5 ans. Les prévalences du VIH, de l'AgHBs, et de l'Ac anti HCV étaient respectivement de 6,0%, 4,1%, et 0,4%. La prévalence du VIH était 2 fois plus élevée parmi les femmes que les hommes avec 8,1% contre 3,5% (p=0,01). Les prévalences les plus élevées ont été observées chez les personnes de 30 à 34 ans, 40 à 44 ans avec 15,0% et 11,5% (p=0,01), les personnes sans emploi avec 11,1% (p<0,001) et les personnes en union libre avec 17,9% (p=0,000). La prévalence du VIH n’était pas directement liée aux comportements et pratiques sexuels de la population de l’étude. On enregistrait une prévalence élevée de 29,3% chez les individus ayant déclaré avoir au moins une infection sexuellement transmissible (p=0,000). Conclusion Il apparait urgent de mettre en place des stratégies de prévention contre le VIH, les hépatites virales et les facteurs associés au Cameroun. PMID:26113899

  17. Etat nutritionnel des enfants âgés de 6 à 59 mois infectés par le VIH mais non traités aux ARV à Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Kanyenze, Faustin Ngoy; Wembonyama, Cecile Watu; Mutomb, Florence Mujing A; Mupoya, Kalombo; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo–Tambwe A; Mwenze, Prosper Kalenga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'infection par le VIH provoque et/ou aggrave les déficits nutritionnels de l'enfant. Ce travail avait pour objectif d'analyser l’état nutritionnel des enfants infectés par le VIH à Lubumbashi. Méthodes Une étude transversale portant sur 83 enfants âgés de 6 à 60 mois s'est déroulée de mai 2010 à mai 2011 dans trois(3) centres de prise en charge des Personnes Vivant avec le VIH(PVV), notamment le Centre d'Excellence(CE) de l'hôpital Sendwe, le Centre Amo-Congo de la Kenya et le Centre de Référence de la Kenya. Les statistiques descriptives usuelles ont été utilisées. Résultats La prévalence de la malnutrition globale était de 60,2% (n = 50) dont 8,4% de malnutrition sévère. Le poids moyen était de 11,6±4,1 kg avec un minimum de 5 kg et un maximum de 22 kg. Le taux d'hémoglobine moyen était d'environ 9,8± 2,0 g/dl avec une prévalence globale de l'anémie (hémoglobine < 11g/dl) à 69,9%. L’émaciation concernait 20,5% des enfants et 8,4% avaient un retard de croissance. Le retard de croissance (p = 0,007), l'insuffisance pondérale (p = 0,002) et l’émaciation (p = 0,046) étaient associés de façon significative à l’état avancé de l'infection à VIH. La survenue de l'anémie n’était pas associée au déficit nutritionnel (p = 0,6). Conclusion Ces résultats révèlent que l'infection à VIH modifie l’état nutritionnel des enfants à Lubumbashi avec 60,2% de malnutrition globale et 8,4% de retard de croissance. Les enfants au stade avancé de l'infection à VIH en sont plus affectés. PMID:25574336

  18. Incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court

    PubMed Central

    Mapoure, Yacouba Njankouo; Nkongni, Ines Nepetsoun; Luma, Henry Namme; Ngahane, Bertrand Hugo Mbtachou; Barla, Esther; Ngwane, Samuel; Mouelle, Albert Soné; Njamnshi, Alfred Kongnyu

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Avec l'introduction de la trithérapie dans les années 1996, la morbidité et la mortalité liées à l'infection par le VIH a nettement diminué. Concomitamment avec ce succès clinique, plusieurs changements métaboliques incluant diabète, hypertension artérielle, dyslipidémie et lipodystrophie ont été observés, ceux-ci étant des pourvoyeurs d'accidents vasculaires cérébraux. L'objectif de ce travail était de déterminer l'incidence des accidents vasculaires cérébraux chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral au long court. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude de cohorte rétrospective, menée dans le Centre de Traitement Agrée de l'Hôpital Général de Douala (HGD), avec un recueil des données sur 10 ans allant de Mai 2001 à avril 2010, portant sur les patients VIH positifs adultes sous traitement antirétroviral depuis au moins 6 mois. Les patients étaient suivis selon le protocole national de prise en charge du Cameroun. La survenue d'un AVC a été déterminée par la méthode Kaplan-Meyer tandis que les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC ont été recherché par le test de Khi-2. Le seuil de signification statistique était fixé à 0,05. Résultats 307 patients étaient inclus dont 62,4% de sexe féminin, et l’âge moyen était de 40,1 ± 9,9 ans. L'incidence des AVC était de 1,7% sur 72 mois de suivi sans différence significative entre les femmes et les hommes (P= 0,76). Le taux d'incidence calculé était de 0,3 pour 100 personnes années. Dans 85,7% des cas il s'agissait d'un AVC ischémique. Le délai moyen de survenue d'un AVC était de 33,4 mois. Les facteurs associés à la survenue d'un AVC étaient: les patients ayant initié leur traitement au stade III et IV de l'OMS et le taux de CD4 > 100/mm3 à l'initiation du traitement antirétroviral. Conclusion L'incidence des AVC chez les patients VIH positifs sous traitement antirétroviral est similaire à celle rapportée ant

  19. Tuberculose pulmonaire à Brazzaville en hospitalisation pneumologique: impact du diagnostic tardif à l’infection au VIH sur les anomalies radiographiques

    PubMed Central

    Bemba, Esthel Lee Presley; Bopaka, Régis Gothard; Moyikoua, Régis; Ossibi-Ibara, Rolland; Ebenga-Somboko, Norela Bibiane; Toungou, Syn Nerval; Matondot, Paunel God’hervé; Ossale-Abacka, Boris Kevin; Okemba-Okombi, Franck Hardain; Mboussa, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    L’objectif de notre étude était de décrire les différents aspects radiographiques de la tuberculose pulmonaire selon le degré de l’immunodépression chez les patients VIH. Nous rapportons une étude rétrospective de 80 patients VIH positif non traités présentant une tuberculose pulmonaire, hospitalisés dans le service de Pneumo-phtisiologie de Brazzaville de Janvier 2013 à Janvier 2014. Notre échantillon était composé de 44 femmes (55%) et 36 hommes (45%) soit un sex ratio de 0,81. La moyenne d’âge était de 37,5±9,17ans, la moyenne du Taux de CD4 était de 153,13±86,6cell/mm3. La microscopie des expectorations à la recherche des bacilles acido-alcoolo-résistants était positive dans 75% des cas chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4>200cell/ mm3. Les adénopathies médiastinales, les atteintes moyennes, inferieures du champ pulmonaire et la miliaire étaient plus fréquentes chez les patients ayant un taux de lymphocytes T CD4< 200cell/ mm3. L’immunodépression sévère est significativement associée à la présentation radiographique atypique de la tuberculose. PMID:27800112

  20. Les aspects des frottis cervico-vaginaux chez les femmes vivants avec le VIH suivies à Thiès/Sénégal et association avec le degré d'immunodépression

    PubMed Central

    Bammo, Mariama; Dioussé, Pauline; Thiam, Marietou; Diop, Madoky Maguatte; Berthe, Adama; Faye, Flugence Abdou; Diallo, Thierno Abdoul Aziz; Sarr, Fatou Seck; Dione, Haby; Toure, Papa Souleymane; Diop, Bernard Marcel; Ka, Mamadou Mortalla

    2015-01-01

    De nombreuses études ont démontré que les femmes infectées par le VIH ont un risque accru de survenue de néoplasies cervicales intra épithéliales. L'association entre les deux affections étant bidirectionnelle, l'objectif était de décrire les anomalies cervicales chez les femmes séropositives au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), de rechercher des facteurs associés et de proposer des recommandations en termes de suivi de ces femmes. Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale, multicentrique recensant l'ensemble des frottis cervico-vaginaux (FCV) et des colposcopies des patientes infectées par le VIH entre 2012 et 2014 dans les services de dermatologie de Thiès et de Mbour. Les données étaient recueillies et analysées par le logiciel EPI Info 2012 version 3.5.4. Les tests statistiques ont été effectués avec un seuil de significativité p <0,05. Etaient inclus 125 patientes. L’âge moyen était de 38,98 ± 10.2 ans [20-77]. Il n'y avait aucun signe d'appels dans 82.4%. Le FCV était normal dans 32.8%, inflammatoire dans 44.8%. Les anomalies cytologiques concernaient 22,4% dont, ASC-H (suspicion de lésions de haut grade: 2.4%), LSIL (lésions de bas grade: 8.8%), HSIL (lésions de haut grade: 4%). Leur majorité (60.7%) avaient un taux de CD4 < 500 et étaient au stade 3 de l'OMS dans 64.3%; la biopsie montrait une dysplasie sévère chez 37.5% des patientes ayant pu réaliser cet examen. Deux patientes ont bénéficié d'un traitement curatif notamment l'exérèse chirurgicale. La survenue de dysplasies cervicales même précoces semble être associée à un stade avancé de l'infection VIH. Un dépistage et un traitement précoces sont absolument nécessaires. PMID:26834915

  1. Prévalence, facteurs associés et prédisposant au syndrome métabolique chez les personnes vivants avec le VIH sous traitement antirétroviral à Porto-Novo en 2014

    PubMed Central

    Adébayo, Alassani; Albert, Dovonou Comlan; Ericie, Sossou; Angelo, Attinsounon Cossi; Jules, Gninkoun; Armand, Wanvoegbe; Séraphin, Ahoui; Léopold, Codjo; Gabriel, Ade

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le syndrome métabolique est associé aux maladies cardiovasculaires. L'infection au VIH est devenue aujourd'hui une maladie chronique. L'objectif de cette étude est de déterminer la prévalence, les facteurs associés et prédisposant au syndrome métabolique chez les patients infectés par le VIH sous traitement antirétroviral. Méthodes Il s'est agi d'une étude transversale, descriptive et analytique. La population d’étude est constituée des patients vivant avec le VIH sous antirétroviral suivis au Centre Hospitalier Universitaire de l'Ouémé-Plateau. Le syndrome métabolique a été défini selon les critères de la Fédération Internationale du Diabète. Résultats La population était constituée de 244 patients. La prévalence du syndrome métabolique était de 18,03% avec une prédominance féminine (74,6%). La moyenne d’âge était de 40,7 ± 9,71 ans. Les facteurs associés au syndrome métabolique étaient le sexe féminin, la sédentarité, l'antécédent d'HTA, le surpoids, l'apport énergétique élevé, l'apport lipidique élevé, la consommation d'alcool, la consommation de tabac et l'hypercholestérolémie. Les facteurs prédisposant au syndrome métabolique étaient la présence de l'HTA, le tour de taille élevé, l'hyperglycémie, l'hypocholestérolémie HDL et l'hypertriglycéridémie. Conclusion Le syndrome métabolique est fréquent chez les patients infectés par le VIH sous traitement antirétroviral. Une prévention prenant en compte les facteurs associés et prédisposant s'avère nécessaire. PMID:26966492

  2. Recent Advances in HNC’s Context Vector Information Retrieval Technology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-05-01

    infectados 14 20 0.360 portadoras 5 5 0.358 deficiencia 8 10 0.351 vih 10 18 0.343 adquirida 26 28 0.340 infection 12 22 0.337 aids "patients 12...0.607 portadores 16 31 0.528 immunodeficiency 6 6 0.514 infectadas 18 21 0.504 hiv 18 49 0.496 vih 10 18 0.489 aids 86 578 0.481 infectados 14...34 Table 2 shows the stem tree for the tie-word "AIDS". In Spanish, AIDS has the acronym " SIDA " which stands for sindrome inmuno deficiencia

  3. Evaluation du traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif, sur la transmission de l'infection de la mère à l'enfant: cas du Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Soubeiga, Serge Theophile; Compaore, Rebecca; Djigma, Florencia; Zagre, Nicaise; Assengone, Elsa; Traore, Lassina; Diarra, Birama; Bisseye, Cyrille; Ouermi, Djeneba; Sagna, Tani; Karou, Simplice; Pietra, Virginio; Simpore, Jacques

    2015-01-01

    Introduction L'infection au VIH chez les nouveau-nés par leur mère peut être réduite grâce à des programmes de prévention de transmission mère-enfant du VIH (PTME). L'objectif dans cette étude était d’évaluer le traitement antirétroviral chez les femmes enceintes VIH-1 positif sur la transmission mère-enfant de l'infection au Centre Médical Saint Camille de Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Méthodes Des échantillons de spot de sang total ont été collectés chez 160 enfants âgés de 6 semaines, nés de mères VIH-1 positif et chez 40 enfants âgés de 2 à 13 mois provenant d'orphelinats et dont les mères étaient inconnues. Ces échantillons ont été testés avec le kit Abbott Real Time HIV-1 Qualitative. Un questionnaire a permis de connaitre les âges et les fonctions des femmes enceintes. Résultats Les femmes enceintes avaient un âge moyen global de 29,50±5,19 ans. Au total, 50,5% (101/200) ont été mises sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP et 29,5% (59/200) étaient sous prophylaxie (AZT/3TC). Le taux de transmission verticale du VIH-1 était de 0,0% (0/160) (p < 0,001) chez les enfants dont les mères étaient sous combinaison AZT/3TC/NVP ou sous prophylaxie AZT/3TC et de 15,0% (6/40) chez les enfants orphelins qui n’étaient pas inclus dans le protocole de la PTME. Conclusion Selon les résultats, le protocole de la PTME est efficace et réduit très significativement le risque de transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l'enfant. De plus, le dépistage par PCR, des enfants orphelins infectés verticalement par le VIH, permet leur prise en charge thérapeutique précoce. PMID:26301003

  4. Diagnostic moléculaire du Cytomégalovirus (CMV), de l’herpès virus humain de type 6 (HHV6) et d’Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) par PCR en temps réel chez les femmes enceintes VIH séropositives et séronégatives à Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ouedraogo, Alice Rogomenoma; Kabre, Madeleine; Bisseye, Cyrille; Zohoncon, Théodora Mahoukèdè; Asshi, Maleki; Soubeiga, Serge Théophile; Diarra, Birama; Traore, Lassina; Djigma, Florencia Wendkuuni; Ouermi, Djénéba; Pietra, Virginio; Barro, Nicolas; Simpore, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Les herpès virus EBV, CMV et HHV-6 sont des virus qui évoluent sous le modèle pandémique et sont responsables d’infections congénitales pouvant provoquer des séquelles graves chez les nouveau-nés. L’objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les prévalences de CMV, EBV et HHV-6 chez les femmes enceintes VIH(+) et VIH(-) à Ouagadougou. Méthodes Dans cette étude 200 échantillons de plasma sanguin de femmes enceintes dont 100 femmes VIH(+) et 100 femmes VIH(-) ont été diagnostiqués par PCR multiplex en temps réel pour les trois infections (EBV, CMV et HHV-6). Résultats Sur l’ensemble des 200 échantillons analysés, 18 (9,0%) étaient positifs à au moins un des trois virus, 12 (6,0%) étaient positifs au EBV, 13 (6,5%) au CMV et 12 (6,0%) positifs au HHV-6. Parmi les 18 cas d’infections, nous avons trouvé 10 cas (55,6%) de coïnfections dont 90,0% (9/10) d’infection multiple EBV/CMV/HHV6 et 10,0% de coinfection EBV/HHV6. Le taux d’infection HHVs était plus élevé chez les femmes VIH(-) que celles VIH(+) (12,0% versus 6,0%). Parmi les VIH(+), la PCR a révélé 7,1% (soit 6/85) d’infection HHVs chez celles qui n’étaient pas sous ARV contre 0% chez celles sous ARV. Conclusion Les herpès virus sont fréquents chez les femmes enceintes au Burkina Faso et pourraient constituer une menace chez ces dernières à cause des complications et des risques d’infection pour le nouveau-né. PMID:27800078

  5. Séroprévalence du virus de l'herpès humain-8 chez des patients VIH positif à l'hôpital général de Yaoundé – Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Jacky, Njiki Bikoï; Paul, Ndom; Lilian, Mupang; Sylvie, Agokeng Demanou

    2015-01-01

    L'épidémiologie de l'infection par le virus herpès humain de type 8 (HHV8) associée à celle à VIH, reste encore méconnue au Cameroun, bien que le pays soit considéré comme une zone endémique pour ces deux virus. L'objectif de ce travail était de ressortir le profil de la séroprévalence du HHV8 au sein de notre population d'étude. 57 personnes ont été recrutées à l'Hôpital Général de Yaoundé et suivies sur une durée 12 mois. Des anticorps IgG anti-HHV8 ont été déterminés par ELISA. Des paramètres autres, tels que l'âge, le sexe, le stade des maladies (SK et VIH/SIDA), le protocole ARV, ainsi que les taux de CD4 ont été utilisés pour déterminer les variables associées à la séropositivité au HHV8. Cette association a été évaluée par le test khi carré. La séroprévalence du HHV8 était de 90% dans notre population en début d'étude et de 74% douze mois plus tard, une séroprévalence qui restait élevée quelque soit le profil clinique, la tranche d'âge, le sexe ou le taux de CD4+ de l'individu. Aucune variable de l'étude n'était significativement associée à la séropositivité du HHV8. Le virus HHV8 semblait circuler au sein de notre population d'étude. Cependant l'on constate, douze mois plus tard, l'absence de manifestations cliniques du SK chez les patients VIH+ positifs, malgré des titres très élevés en IgG anti-HHV8. PMID:26090027

  6. Evaluation des indicateurs d’alerte précoce de la résistance du VIH aux ARV en Côte d’Ivoire en 2011

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Kouadio Jean; Damey, Néto Florence; Konan, Diby Jean Paul; Aka, Joseph; Aka-Konan, Sandrine; Ani, Alex; Bonle, Marguerite Te; Kouassi, Dinard

    2016-01-01

    Introduction En 2001, l'Organisation des Nations Unies recommandait de rendre disponible les médicaments antirétroviraux dans les pays à ressources limitées. Cependant, l'utilisation de ces médicaments à grande échelle s'accompagne du développement de résistance du virus. En Côte d'Ivoire, plusieurs sites prescrivent les antirétroviraux. Cette étude avait pour objectif d'évaluer les facteurs programmatiques associés à un risque élevé d'émergence de résistance du VIH aux antirétroviraux. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une cohorte rétrospective sur 20 sites de prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH. La population d'étude était constituée des personnes ayant initié leur traitement antirétroviral sur les sites en 2008-2009. L'estimation de la taille de l'échantillon a été faite à partir de la stratégie d'échantillonnage de l'OMS. Résultats Sur 20 sites, 98% des prescriptions initiales étaient conformes aux directives nationales et 20% des sites avaient 100% de prescriptions conformes. Au total, 33% des patients étaient perdus de vue au cours des 12 premiers mois de traitement antirétroviral et 20% des sites avaient moins de 20% de perdus de vue. A 12 mois, 51% des patients demeuraient sous traitement de première intention approprié et 11% des sites ont atteint le seuil d'au moins 70% de patients sous traitement de première intention approprié. Un seul site n'a pas connu de rupture d'antirétroviraux sur les 12 mois. Conclusion Des insuffisances relevées dans la prise en charge des personnes vivant avec le VIH traduisent l'existence d'un risque important de résistance du virus aux antirétroviraux en 2008-2009. Pour minimiser ce risque les pratiques de prescription devraient être améliorées, un système de recherche des absents aux rendez-vous devrait être mis en place et la disponibilité constante des antirétroviraux devraient être assurée. PMID:28250876

  7. Les campagnes de dépistage du VIH, une stratégie efficace pour l’accès universel à la prévention et au traitement ? L’expérience du Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Somé, J.F.; Desclaux, A.; Ky-Zerbo, O.; Lougué, M.; Kéré, S.; Obermeyer, C.; Simaga, F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectifs l’augmentation du taux de personnes qui connaissent leur statut VIH est un impératif, notamment en Afrique subsaharienne, ce qui impose d’évaluer les stratégies utilisées pour accroître la fréquentation des services de dépistage. Cet article vise à faire le bilan de la pertinence, de la faisabilité et de l’efficacité des campagnes nationales de dépistagemenées entre 2006 et 2010 au Burkina Faso. Méthodologie une analyse de toutes les données de fréquentation du conseil dépistage sur cette période a été faite, couplée à des entretiens avec les principaux acteurs intervenant dans le dépistage. Résultats les résultats montrent que les huit campagnes de dépistage organisées sur la période ont permis à 487 727 personnes de faire leur test VIH. Ce nombre représente 50 % du nombre total de personnes ayant fait leur test et contribue à hauteur de 24,6 % au dépistage des personnes séropositives identifiées au cours de cette période. Les campagnes ont touché des populations difficiles à atteindre (en particulier les jeunes), à un coût moindre. Conclusions cette stratégie est donc pertinente pour identifier les personnes VIH+. Son intérêt pour la prévention, important selon les soignants et au vu des populations jeunes qui y participent, devrait être mesuré par des études complémentaires. Les campagnes sont efficaces et coût-efficaces même dans un pays de niveau de prévalence faible. Ces résultats soulignent l’intérêt de la synergie entre les associations et les services de santé dans l’offre de services de conseil et dépistage. PMID:24681563

  8. Etude de l'anémie chez les enfants séropositifs au VIH naïfs au traitement antirétroviral à Lubumbashi, République Démocratique du Congo

    PubMed Central

    Mwadianvita, Costa Kazadi; Ilunga, Eric Kasamba; Djouma, Jackson; Wembonyama, Cecile Watu; Mutomb, Florence Mujing A; Ekwalanga, Michel Balaka; Kabongo, Joe; Mundongo, Henri; Mupoya, Kalombo; Wembonyama, Stanis; Kalenga Mwenze, Prosper; Nkoy, Albert Mwembo-Tambwe A

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Beaucoup d'enfants infectés par le VIH arrivent à la consultation dans un état d'anémie. Notre objectif était d’évaluer la prévalence et le typage de l'anémie chez ces enfants. Méthodes C'est une étude transversale réalisée dans 3 centres de prise en charge des Personnes Vivant avec le VIH à Lubumbashi de Mai 2010 à Mai 2011. La population d’étude était de 152 enfants, âgés de 6 à 180 mois, naïfs au traitement antirétroviral. Les statistiques descriptives usuelles ont été utilisées. Résultats La prévalence globale de l'anémie (définie comme l'hémoglobine < 11g/dl) était de 69,1% (n=105) et 11,4% avaient une anémie sévère (Hg < 7,0 g/dl). Parmi eux, 16% ont été transfusés au moins 1 fois. L'anémie sévère était positivement associée au stade clinique de la maladie (p=0,02). L'anémie microcytaire était majoritaire dans les deux tranches d’âge. Elle était plus hypochrome chez les enfants en âge préscolaire soit 9,5% et plus normochrome en âge scolaire soit 15,2%. L'anémie normocytaire était plus normochrome dans les deux tranches d’âge soit 12,4% en âge préscolaire et 6,7% en âge scolaire. L'anémie macrocytaire était rare. Conclusion Environ sept enfants sur dix, âgés de moins de 15 ans infectés par le VIH naïfs au traitement antirétroviral dans notre milieu sont anémiques. L'anémie est corrélée à la sévérité de la maladie. Il est important d'associer une prise en charge nutritionnelle et corriger l'anémie avant une trithérapie antirétrovirale. PMID:25018796

  9. [Patients'adherence-related beliefs about medicines prescribed for long-term conditions in HIV patients].

    PubMed

    Haro Márquez, Carmen; Cantudo Cuenca, Maria Rosa; Almeida González, Carmen Victoria; Morillo Verdugo, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    Objetivo: Determinar a adherencia y las creencias hacia la medicacion para patologias cronicas concomitantemente prescrita al TAR en pacientes infectados por el VIH, asi como determinar si existen diferencias significativas en las creencias entre los pacientes adherentes y no adherentes al los tratamientos concomitantes al TAR. Método: Estudio transversal llevado a cabo durante mayo y julio 2014 en pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral y uno o mas medicamentos para patologias cronicas. Se recogieron variables sociodemograficas: edad, sexo, educacion, situacion laboral, si vivia solo; clinicas: modo de transmision de la infeccion, carga viral plasmatica, T-CD4, estadio; y farmacoterapeuticas: tipo de tratamiento antirretroviral, comedicacion y adherencia a esta mediante el cuestionario Morisky. Se midieron las creencias hacia dicha comedicacion mediante el Beliefs about Medicines Questionnare (BMQ), que incluye dos escalas, necesidad y preocupacion. Los datos se analizaron con SPSSR 20.0. Se aplico la prueba t de Student. La fiabilidad del cuestionario se estimo mediante el alfa de Cronbach. Resultados: Se incluyeron 126 pacientes (80.4% hombres, 49}8.3 anos). El numero de medicamentos concomitantes fue 2.9}2.0. Se clasifico como no adherente al 54.0%. El 63.5% tenia sida, que se identifico como una variable independiente predictora de no adherencia. Las diferencias en la escala de preocupacion entre los pacientes no adherentes y adherentes fue estadisticamente significativa (14.6}5.7 vs. 12.1}6.1; p=0.019), mientras que en aquellas relativas a la necesidad no hubo diferencias (17.3}5.6 vs. 18.8}4.4; p=0.188). La fiabilidad del BMQ-especifico, asi como de las escalas de necesidad y preocupacion, fue buena (0.724, 0.794, 0.785, respectivamente). Conclusiones: Los pacientes VIH positivos con otras patologias cronicas no adherentes presentan creencias negativas relacionadas con la preocupacion en cuanto a la comedicacion.

  10. Évolution des conditions d’initiation du traitement antirétroviral des patients infectés par le VIH en Afrique de l’Ouest

    PubMed Central

    Bashi, J.; Balestre, E.; Messou, E.; Maiga, M.; Coffie, P.A.; Zannou, D.M.; Ba-Gomis, O.; Traore, H.A.; Eholie, S.; Minga, A.; Sow, P.S.; Bissagnene, E.; Dabis, F.; Ekouevi, D.K.

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Étudier entre 1996 et 2006, l’évolution des schémas thérapeutiques et du profil clinique et immunologique des patients infectés par le VIH au début du traitement antirétroviral (TARV) en Afrique de l’Ouest. Cadre et méthode Les données issues de 12 centres cliniques adultes (IeDEA West Africa réseau collaboratif de prise en charge de l’infection à VIH) de cinq pays (Bénin, Cote d’Ivoire, Sénégal, Gambie, Mali) ont été mises en commun et analysées. Les patients âgés de 16 ans et plus dont le sexe, la date de naissance et la date d’initiation du TARV étaient connus ont été inclus dans cette étude. Résultats Quatorze mille quatre-cent-quatre-vingt-seize patients avaient débuté un TARV entre 1996–2006 avec 55 % des patients l’ayant débuté entre 2005–2006. La proportion de femmes était de 46 % en 1996–2000 et de 63 % en 2005–2006. L’âge médian à la mise sous traitement était constant: 35 ans chez les femmes et 40 ans chez les hommes. La proportion de patients qui ont débuté le TARV avec un taux de CD4 inférieur à 200 cellules/µl était de 54 % en 1996–2000 et de 64 % en 2005–2006. Les combinaisons thérapeutiques les plus prescrites étaient: AZT/3TC (ou d4T/DDI)/IDV (27 %) en 1996–2000; d4T (ou AZT)/3TC/EFV (59 %) en 2003–2004; et d4T/3TC/NVP (49 %) en 2005–2006. Les traitements de première ligne recommandés par l’OMS étaient débutés dans 83 % de cas en 2005–2006. Conclusion De nouvelles approches pour débuter un TARV plus précocement doivent être développées pour améliorer la survie des patients sous TARV. PMID:20045273

  11. [Injecting without getting infected: injectors' strategies to prevent HIV and HCV.

    PubMed

    Mateu-Gelabert, P; Friedman, S; Sandoval, M

    2007-10-01

    OBJETIVO: Desde principios de los noventa, en la ciudad de Nueva York se han implementado con éxito programas para reducir la incidencia del virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) y, en menor medida, del virus de la hepatitis C (VHC). A pesar de ello, aproximadamente el 70% de los usuario de drogas inyectables (UDI) están infectados por el VHC. Queremos investigar cómo el 30% restante se las ha arreglado para no infectarse. El Staying safe (nombre original del estudio) explora los comportamientos y mecanismos que ayudan a evitar la infección por el VHC y el VIH a largo plazo. MATERIAL Y M#ENTITYSTARTX000E9;TODOS: Hemos utilizado el concepto de «desviación positiva» aplicado en otros campos de salud pública. Estudiamos las estrategias, prácticas y tácticas de prevención de aquellos UDI que, viviendo en contextos de alta prevalencia, se mantienen sin infectar por VIH y el VHC, a pesar de haberse inyectado heroína durante años. Los resultados preliminares presentados en este artículo incluyen el análisis de las entrevistas realizadas a 25 UDI (17 doble negativos, 3 doble positivos y 5 con infección por el VHC y sin infección por el VIH). Se usaron entrevistas semiestructuradas que exploraban con detalle la historia de vida de los sujetos, incluyendo su consumo de drogas, redes sociales, contacto con instituciones, relaciones sexuales y estrategias de protección y vigilancia. RESULTADOS: La intencionalidad es importante para no infectarse, especialmente durante períodos de involución (períodos donde hay un deterioro económico y/o social que llevan al que se inyecta a situaciones de mayor riesgo). Presentamos tres dimensiones independientes de intencionalidad que conllevan comportamientos que pueden ayudar a prevenir la infección: a) evitar «el mono» (síntomas de abstención) asegurando el acceso a la droga; b) «llevarlo bien» para no convertirse en un junkie y así evitar la «muerte social» y la falta de acceso a los recursos, y c

  12. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System

    PubMed Central

    Gorasia, Dhana G.; Veith, Paul D.; Hanssen, Eric G.; Glew, Michelle D.; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C.

    2016-01-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32–36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component. PMID:27509186

  13. Structural Insights into the PorK and PorN Components of the Porphyromonas gingivalis Type IX Secretion System.

    PubMed

    Gorasia, Dhana G; Veith, Paul D; Hanssen, Eric G; Glew, Michelle D; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Nakayama, Koji; Reynolds, Eric C

    2016-08-01

    The type IX secretion system (T9SS) has been recently discovered and is specific to Bacteroidetes species. Porphyromonas gingivalis, a keystone pathogen for periodontitis, utilizes the T9SS to transport many proteins including the gingipain virulence factors across the outer membrane and attach them to the cell surface via a sortase-like mechanism. At least 11 proteins have been identified as components of the T9SS including PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN and PorP, however the precise roles of most of these proteins have not been elucidated and the structural organization of these components is unknown. In this study, we purified PorK and PorN complexes from P. gingivalis and using electron microscopy we have shown that PorN and the PorK lipoprotein interact to form a 50 nm diameter ring-shaped structure containing approximately 32-36 subunits of each protein. The formation of these rings was dependent on both PorK and PorN, but was independent of PorL, PorM and PorP. PorL and PorM were found to form a separate stable complex. PorK and PorN were protected from proteinase K cleavage when present in undisrupted cells, but were rapidly degraded when the cells were lysed, which together with bioinformatic analyses suggests that these proteins are exposed in the periplasm and anchored to the outer membrane via the PorK lipid. Chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry analyses confirmed the interaction between PorK and PorN and further revealed that they interact with the PG0189 outer membrane protein. Furthermore, we established that PorN was required for the stable expression of PorK, PorL and PorM. Collectively, these results suggest that the ring-shaped PorK/N complex may form part of the secretion channel of the T9SS. This is the first report showing the structural organization of any T9SS component.

  14. Échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH en suivi de routine dans un contexte à ressources limitées au Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Penda, Calixte Ida; Bebey, Francine Same; Mangamba, Danielle Kedy; Moukoko, Else Carole Eboumbou; Ngwa, Victoria; Makouet, Nicaise; Bissek, Anne-Cécile; Minkemdefo, Blaise Dupont; Tetanye, Ekoe; Ndombo, Paul Koki

    2013-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif de cette étude était de déterminer les facteurs associés aux échecs thérapeutiques chez les enfants infectés par le VIH à l'Hôpital Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes Une étude transversale rétrospective a été menée sur une période de 5 mois en 2010, recrutant 222 enfants âgés de 1 à 18 ans et sous TARV depuis au moins 24 semaines. Les données sociodémographiques, cliniques, biologiques et de l'observance thérapeutique des patients ont été collectés à partir des dossiers des patients, et analysées avec le logiciel SPSS (version 16). Résultats 39 (17,6%) des enfants étaient en échec thérapeutique (délai moyen de survenue 26,8 mois) et 73,4% d'entre eux sont passés en seconde ligne. Les garçons avaient en moyenne un risque 5 fois plus élevé de faire un échec thérapeutique que les filles (OR=3,9; p=0,035). 94,4% des enfants suivis avaient un faible taux de CD4 à l'initiation (‘ 25%) associé au risque élevé d’échec thérapeutique (OR=5,2; p=0,007). Les enfants issus de famille monoparentale représentaient près de la moitié des cas d’échecs thérapeutiques. Sur 39 cas en échec thérapeutique, 41% des enfants étaient des orphelins. Parmi les enfants sous TARV, 46% prenaient leur trithérapie sous forme de médicaments séparés parmi lesquels 52,1% étaient en échec thérapeutique. Conclusion Les échecs thérapeutiques et le passage en seconde ligne dépendaient du contexte familial des enfants, de leur statut immunologique à l'initiation du traitement, de leur sexe et de la forme galénique du TARV. PMID:24171063

  15. [Review of enteral drugs administration for viral diseases: HIV, HBV and HCV].

    PubMed

    Arenas Villafranca, José Javier; Nieto Guindo, Miriam; Romero Domínguez, Rocío; Tortajada Goitia, Begoña; Faus Felipe, Vicente

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: Las características demográficas de los pacientes infectados por VIH han cambiado en los últimos años y las co-infecciones por virus de la hepatitis B y C son muy comunes en estos pacientes. Debido al aumento de supervivencia, a menudo estos pacientes presentan patologías o tienen que ser sometidos a intervenciones quirúrgicas que imposibilitan o dificultan la ingesta siendo necesaria la utilización de la vía enteral para la administración de fármacos. De entre los factores que influyen en el fracaso terapéutico destacan falta de adherencia, la falta de concentraciones adecuadas en sangre por malabsorción o interacciones y los errores de dosificación. Por ello se pretende elaborar una guía con recomendaciones de administración por vía enteral de los medicamentos antivirales. Material y métodos: Se revisaron las fichas técnicas de los medicamentos utilizados en VIH, VHB o VHC. Se llevó a cabo una búsqueda en las bases de datos Pubmed® y Micromedex®, se contactó con los fabricantes y se revisó otra literatura al respecto. Resultados: Los resultados se detallan en la Tabla 1. Discusión: A veces, la mera suspensión del comprimido triturado en agua no basta y esta práctica hace que muchos fármacos vean alterada su biodisponibilidad con la consiguiente modificación del efecto terapéutico. Actualmente no existe suficiente evidencia que apoye las prácticas de triturado y suspensión de los fármacos expuestos en este estudio, y consideramos que deberían llevarse a cabo más estudios para determinar la biodisponibilidad de formulaciones diferentes a las convencionales, especialmente de los medicamentos de reciente comercialización.

  16. The PorX Response Regulator of the Porphyromonas gingivalis PorXY Two-Component System Does Not Directly Regulate the Type IX Secretion Genes but Binds the PorL Subunit

    PubMed Central

    Vincent, Maxence S.; Durand, Eric; Cascales, Eric

    2016-01-01

    The Type IX secretion system (T9SS) is a versatile multi-protein complex restricted to bacteria of the Bacteriodetes phylum and responsible for the secretion or cell surface exposition of diverse proteins that participate to S-layer formation, gliding motility or pathogenesis. The T9SS is poorly characterized but a number of proteins involved in the assembly of the secretion apparatus in the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis have been identified based on genome substractive analyses. Among these proteins, PorY, and PorX encode typical two-component system (TCS) sensor and CheY-like response regulator respectively. Although the porX and porY genes do not localize at the same genetic locus, it has been proposed that PorXY form a bona fide TCS. Deletion of porX in P. gingivalis causes a slight decrease of the expression of a number of other T9SS genes, including sov, porT, porP, porK, porL, porM, porN, and porY. Here, we show that PorX and the soluble cytoplasmic domain of PorY interact. Using electrophoretic mobility shift, DNA-protein co-purification and heterologous host expression assays, we demonstrate that PorX does not bind T9SS gene promoters and does not directly regulate expression of the T9SS genes. Finally, we show that PorX interacts with the cytoplasmic domain of PorL, a component of the T9SS membrane core complex and propose that the CheY-like PorX protein might be involved in the dynamics of the T9SS. PMID:27630829

  17. System design description for portable 1,000 CFM exhauster Skids POR-007/Skid E and POR-008/Skid F

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, O.D.

    1998-07-25

    The primary purpose of the two 1,000 CFM Exhauster Skids, POR-007-SKID E and POR-008-SKID F, is to provide backup to the waste tank primary ventilation systems for tanks 241-C-106 and 241-AY-102, and the AY-102 annulus in the event of a failure during the sluicing of tank 241-C-106 and subsequent transfer of sluiced waste to 241-AY-102. This redundancy is required since both of the tank ventilation systems have been declared as Safety Class systems.

  18. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    PubMed

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas; Dautin, Nathalie

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated.

  19. Click-chemistry approach to study mycoloylated proteins: Evidence for PorB and PorC porins mycoloylation in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Issa, Hanane; Huc-Claustre, Emilie; Reddad, Thamila; Bonadé Bottino, Nolwenn; Tropis, Maryelle; Houssin, Christine; Daffé, Mamadou; Bayan, Nicolas

    2017-01-01

    Protein mycoloylation is a recently identified, new form of protein acylation. This post-translational modification consists in the covalent attachment of mycolic acids residues to serine. Mycolic acids are long chain, α-branched, β-hydroxylated fatty acids that are exclusively found in the cell envelope of Corynebacteriales, a bacterial order that includes important genera such as Mycobacterium, Nocardia or Corynebacterium. So far, only 3 mycoloylated proteins have been identified: PorA, PorH and ProtX from C. glutamicum. Whereas the identity and function of ProtX is unknown, PorH and PorA associate to form a membrane channel, the activity of which is dependent upon PorA mycoloylation. However, the exact role of mycoloylation and the generality of this phenomenon are still unknown. In particular, the identity of other mycoloylated proteins, if any, needs to be determined together with establishing whether such modification occurs in Corynebacteriales genera other than Corynebacterium. Here, we tested whether a metabolic labeling and click-chemistry approach could be used to detect mycoloylated proteins. Using a fatty acid alkyne analogue, we could indeed label PorA, PorH and ProtX and determine ProtX mycoloylation site. Importantly, we also show that two other porins from C. glutamicum, PorB and PorC are mycoloylated. PMID:28199365

  20. Por La Vida intervention model for cancer prevention in Latinas.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Senn, K L; Kaplan, R M; McNicholas, L; Campo, M C; Roppe, B

    1995-01-01

    Our goal was to describe the development and implementation of an intervention on cancer prevention for Latinas in San Diego, Calif. Thirty-six lay community workers ("consejeras") were recruited and trained to conduct educational group sessions. Each consejera recruited approximately 14 peers from the community to participate in the program (total number = 512). Half of the consejeras were randomly assigned to a control group, in which they participated in an equally engaging program entitled "Community Living Skills." Implementation of the intervention was assessed by qualitative and quantitative methods. Preintervention and postintervention self-report information was obtained from project participants on access to health care services, cancer knowledge, preventive measures, and previous cancer-screening examinations. Base-line data suggest that lack of knowledge, costs of cancer-screening tests, and the lack of a regular health care provider are the major obstacles against obtaining cancer-screening tests. Predisposing factors, such as fear and embarrassment, also constitute barriers to getting regular cervical cancer screening. Preliminary analysis indicates that the Por La Vida intervention increases use of cancer-screening tests in comparison to a community living skills control group. Universal access to health care would remove some of the major financial barriers to cancer screening. The Por La Vida program attempts to overcome the substantial barriers by reaching out to low-income Latinas and by providing information regarding the availability, acceptability, and preventive nature of cancer-screening tests.

  1. Compton imaging with the PorGamRays spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judson, D. S.; Boston, A. J.; Coleman-Smith, P. J.; Cullen, D. M.; Hardie, A.; Harkness, L. J.; Jones, L. L.; Jones, M.; Lazarus, I.; Nolan, P. J.; Pucknell, V.; Rigby, S. V.; Seller, P.; Scraggs, D. P.; Simpson, J.; Slee, M.; Sweeney, A.; PorGamRays Collaboration

    2011-10-01

    The PorGamRays project aims to develop a portable gamma-ray detection system with both spectroscopic and imaging capabilities. The system is designed around a stack of thin Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) detectors. The imaging capability utilises the Compton camera principle. Each detector is segmented into 100 pixels which are read out through custom designed Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASICs). This device has potential applications in the security, decommissioning and medical fields. This work focuses on the near-field imaging performance of a lab-based demonstrator consisting of two pixelated CZT detectors, each of which is bonded to a NUCAM II ASIC. Measurements have been made with point 133Ba and 57Co sources located ˜35 mm from the surface of the scattering detector. Position resolution of ˜20 mm FWHM in the x and y planes is demonstrated.

  2. Facteurs associés à la non observance thérapeutique des sujets adultes infectés par le VIH sous antirétroviraux dans un hôpital de référence à Douala

    PubMed Central

    Essomba, Emmanuel Noel; Adiogo, Dieudonné; Koum, Danielle Christiane Kedy; Amang, Baudouin; Lehman, Leopold Gustave; Coppieters, Yves

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Le succès du traitement antirétroviral repose sur l'observance. Elle est nécessaire pour réduire la mortalité, diminuer le risque de résistance et restaurer l'immunité. Cette étude a pour but d'identifier et analyser les différents facteurs associés à la non observance thérapeutique des patients infectés par le VIH sous traitement antirétroviraux à l'hôpital de référence Laquintinie de Douala. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale et analytique effectuée de mars à juin 2014. La non observance est mesurée à travers les déclarations du patient et sur consultation des registres de renouvellement des ordonnances. Etaient non observant, ceux ayant consommé moins de 95% de médicaments et ceux ne s’étant pas présentés pour le renouvellement de l'ordonnance. L'analyse bivariée et le modèle de régression logistique ont été utilisés pour la détermination des facteurs associés à la non observance. Résultats Au total, 524 patients ont été enrôlés dans l’étude;l’âge moyen était de 43,0 ± 10,7 ans et le sexe ratio H/F de 0,54. De ces patients, 49,0% étaient non observant, majoritairement des femmes (61,9%). Les principales raisons avancées de la non observance sont: l'oubli (32,9%), la rupture de médicaments (14,0%), les occupations (12,8%). Les personnes veuves(IC 95% OR= 1,31-5,22, p= 0,006), la consommation des excitants (IC 95%, OR= 2,30-6,90, p= 0,0001) et la présence d'infection opportuniste (IC 95%, OR= 1,41-17,54, p= 0,01) ont fortement été associés à la non observance. Conclusion Le taux d'observance était faible, lié à plusieurs facteurs. Des mesures sont nécessaires pour résoudre ce problème, y compris des stratégies tendant à l'amélioration du soutien psycho-social, et la limitation des ruptures de stock de médicaments. La recherche qualitative est souhaitée pour comprendre les raisons de la non observance afin de mettre au point des interventions fondées sur des donn

  3. Etude des facteurs liés à l'observance au traitement antirétroviral chez les patients suivis à l'Unité de Prise En Charge du VIH/SIDA de l'Hôpital de District de Dschang, Cameroun

    PubMed Central

    Mbopi-Kéou, François-Xavier; Dempouo Djomassi, Lucienne; Monebenimp, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Etudier les facteurs liés à l'observance au traitement antirétroviral chez les patients adultes suivis à l'Unité de Prise en Charge du VIH/SIDA (UPEC) de l'hôpital de District de Dschang. Méthodes Dans une étude descriptive transversale conduite à l'hôpital de District de Dschang, l'observance a été évaluée sur la base des déclarations des patients et sur la régularité du renouvellement de leurs ordonnances (observance calculée). Résultats Parmi les 389 patients répondant à nos critères d'inclusion, 356 ont été interrogés. La durée moyenne du suivi était de 27 mois. La moyenne d’âge était égale à 41 ans et le sexe ratio 2,46 en faveur du sexe féminin. Le statut sérologique était découvert pour 60,56% des patients à l'occasion d'un épisode maladif. Le niveau d'observance déclarée était significativement plus élevé que le niveau global de l'observance calculée (80,2% vs 51,5%, p<10−5). Les deux principales barrières à l'observance étaient l'oubli et le travail. Les patients référés dans cette UPEC étaient moins bien observants (p<10−4). L'observance au traitement antirétroviral était d'autant meilleure quand le taux de CD4 en début de traitement était élevé (p= 0,01) et que la durée du traitement était prolongée (p=0,00). Conclusion La discordance observée entre les résultats des deux méthodes utilisées pour estimer l'observance, tout en soulévant les contraintes liées à l’évaluation de l'observance thérapeutique, souligne l'importance des méthodes biologiques. Les facteurs individuels se sont avérés être les principales raisons de non-observance. Enfin, un accent devrait être mis sur les consultations d’éducation thérapeutique et le suivi psycho-social des patients sous traitement antirétroviral dans cette UPEC. PMID:22937195

  4. Gliding motility and Por secretion system genes are widespread among members of the phylum bacteroidetes.

    PubMed

    McBride, Mark J; Zhu, Yongtao

    2013-01-01

    The phylum Bacteroidetes is large and diverse, with rapid gliding motility and the ability to digest macromolecules associated with many genera and species. Recently, a novel protein secretion system, the Por secretion system (PorSS), was identified in two members of the phylum, the gliding bacterium Flavobacterium johnsoniae and the nonmotile oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis. The components of the PorSS are not similar in sequence to those of other well-studied bacterial secretion systems. The F. johnsoniae PorSS genes are a subset of the gliding motility genes, suggesting a role for the secretion system in motility. The F. johnsoniae PorSS is needed for assembly of the gliding motility apparatus and for secretion of a chitinase, and the P. gingivalis PorSS is involved in secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors. Comparative analysis of 37 genomes of members of the phylum Bacteroidetes revealed the widespread occurrence of gliding motility genes and PorSS genes. Genes associated with other bacterial protein secretion systems were less common. The results suggest that gliding motility is more common than previously reported. Microscopic observations confirmed that organisms previously described as nonmotile, including Croceibacter atlanticus, "Gramella forsetii," Paludibacter propionicigenes, Riemerella anatipestifer, and Robiginitalea biformata, exhibit gliding motility. Three genes (gldA, gldF, and gldG) that encode an apparent ATP-binding cassette transporter required for F. johnsoniae gliding were absent from two related gliding bacteria, suggesting that the transporter may not be central to gliding motility.

  5. [Giant gastric ulcer by cytomegalovirus in infection VIH/SIDA].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Pereyra, Julia; Morales, Domingo; Díaz, Ramiro; Yoza, Max; Frisancho, Oscar

    2008-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection is an important cause of morbidity in immunosupressed patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). In this paper we present a 43 years old man with renal failure under hemodialysis, several blood transfusions because of anemia and three months of disease characterized by epigastric pain, specially at nights, ameliorated with antacid drugs. Other symptoms were early satisfy, vomits and weigh loss (18Kg). At clinical exam, the patient was pallid, presented adenopathies at cervical and inguinal regions and had a pain at epigastric region in profound touch palpation. The most important exams were HB: 10mg/dl, CMV: 83.5, leukocytes 7000, lymphocytes: 1715, erythrocyte sedimentation rate 49mm/h, the venon test (-), and Giardia lamblia trophozoites in stools. The studies demonstrated the patient was seropositive for HIV and the tests for IgG CMV and IgG Herpes virus resulted seropositives too. At endoscopy the esophagus mucosa was covered by a white plaque which suggests candida infection. In the stomach, over the body gastric, we found a big and deep ulcerated lesion (45 x 41mm), with defined rims and white fund. Biopsy from the edges of the gastric ulcer had the characteristic CMV intranuclear and intracytoplasmic inclusions; we confirmed the diagnosis by immunohystochemistry. The patient receives ganciclovir an then HAART and is getting well.

  6. An investigation of exploitation versus exploration in GBEA optimization of PORS 15 and 16 Problems

    SciTech Connect

    Koch, Kaelynn

    2012-01-01

    It was hypothesized that the variations in time to solution are driven by the competing mechanisms of exploration and exploitation.This thesis explores this hypothesis by examining two contrasting problems that embody the hypothesized tradeoff between exploration and exploitation. Plus one recall store (PORS) is an optimization problem based on the idea of a simple calculator with four buttons: plus, one, store, and recall. Integer addition and store are classified as operations, and one and memory recall are classified as terminals. The goal is to arrange a fixed number of keystrokes in a way that maximizes the numerical result. PORS 15 (15 keystrokes) represents the subset of difficult PORS problems and PORS 16 (16 keystrokes) represents the subset of PORS problems that are easiest to optimize. The goal of this work is to examine the tradeoff between exploitation and exploration in graph based evolutionary algorithm (GBEA) optimization. To do this, computational experiments are used to examine how solutions evolve in PORS 15 and 16 problems when solved using GBEAs. The experiment is comprised of three components; the graphs and the population, the evolutionary algorithm rule set, and the example problems. The complete, hypercube, and cycle graphs were used for this experiment. A fixed population size was used.

  7. Crystallographic analysis of Neisseria meningitidis PorB extracellular loops potentially implicated in TLR2 recognition

    PubMed Central

    Kattner, Christof; Toussi, Deana; Zaucha, Jan; Wetzler, Lee M.; Rüppel, Nadine; Zachariae, Ulrich; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2014-01-01

    Among all Neisseriae species, N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are the only human pathogens, causative agents of bacterial meningitis and gonorrhoea, respectively. PorB, a pan-Neisseriae trimeric porin that mediates diffusive transport of essential molecules across the bacterial outer membrane, is also known to activate host innate immunity via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated signaling. The molecular mechanism of PorB binding to TLR2 is not known, but it has been hypothesized that electrostatic interactions contribute to ligand/receptor binding. Strain-specific sequence variability in the surface-exposed loops of PorB which are potentially implicated in TLR2 binding, may explain the difference in TLR2-mediated cell activation in vitro by PorB homologs from the commensal N. lactamica and the pathogen N. meningitidis. Here, we report a comparative structural analysis of PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup B strain 8765 (63% sequence homology with PorB from N. meningitidis serogroup W135) and a mutant in which amino acid substitutions in the extracellular loop 7 lead to significantly reduced TLR2-dependent activity in vitro. We observe that this mutation both alters the loop conformation and causes dramatic changes of electrostatic surface charge, both of which may affect TLR2 recognition and signalling. PMID:24361688

  8. Por Secretion System-Dependent Secretion and Glycosylation of Porphyromonas gingivalis Hemin-Binding Protein 35

    PubMed Central

    Shoji, Mikio; Sato, Keiko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Kondo, Yoshio; Narita, Yuka; Kadowaki, Tomoko; Naito, Mariko; Nakayama, Koji

    2011-01-01

    The anaerobic Gram-negative bacterium Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in severe forms of periodontal disease and refractory periapical perodontitis. We have recently found that P. gingivalis has a novel secretion system named the Por secretion system (PorSS), which is responsible for secretion of major extracellular proteinases, Arg-gingipains (Rgps) and Lys-gingipain. These proteinases contain conserved C-terminal domains (CTDs) in their C-termini. Hemin-binding protein 35 (HBP35), which is one of the outer membrane proteins of P. gingivalis and contributes to its haem utilization, also contains a CTD, suggesting that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS. In this study, immunoblot analysis of P. gingivalis mutants deficient in the PorSS or in the biosynthesis of anionic polysaccharide-lipopolysaccharide (A-LPS) revealed that HBP35 is translocated to the cell surface via the PorSS and is glycosylated with A-LPS. From deletion analysis with a GFP-CTD[HBP35] green fluorescent protein fusion, the C-terminal 22 amino acid residues of CTD[HBP35] were found to be required for cell surface translocation and glycosylation. The GFP-CTD fusion study also revealed that the CTDs of CPG70, peptidylarginine deiminase, P27 and RgpB play roles in PorSS-dependent translocation and glycosylation. However, CTD-region peptides were not found in samples of glycosylated HBP35 protein by peptide map fingerprinting analysis, and antibodies against CTD-regions peptides did not react with glycosylated HBP35 protein. These results suggest both that the CTD region functions as a recognition signal for the PorSS and that glycosylation of CTD proteins occurs after removal of the CTD region. Rabbits were used for making antisera against bacterial proteins in this study. PMID:21731719

  9. Molecular characterisation of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) isolates from different outbreaks in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Rivera-Benítez, J F; Blomström, A-L; Ramliden, M; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Ramírez-Mendoza, H; Berg, M

    2016-02-01

    Since the report of the initial outbreak of Porcine rubulavirus (PorPV) infection in pigs, only one full-length genome from 1984 (PorPV-LPMV/1984) has been characterised. To investigate the overall genetic variation, full-length gene nucleotide sequences of current PorPV isolates were obtained from different clinical cases of infected swine. Genome organisation and sequence analysis of the encoded proteins (NP, P, F, M, HN and L) revealed high sequence conservation of the NP protein and the expression of the P and V proteins in all PorPV isolates. The V protein of one isolate displayed a mutation that has been implicated to antagonise the antiviral immune responses of the host. The M protein indicated a variation in a short region that could affect the electrostatic charge and the interaction with the membrane. One PorPV isolate recovered from the lungs showed a mutation at the cleavage site (HRKKR) of the F protein that could represent an important factor to determine the tissue tropism and pathogenicity of this virus. The HN protein showed high sequence identity through the years (up to 2013). Additionally, a number of sequence motifs of very high amino acid conservation among the PorPV isolates important for polymerase activity of the L protein have been identified. In summary, genetic comparisons and phylogenetic analyses indicated that three different genetic variants of PorPV are currently spreading within the swine population, and a new generation of circulating virus with different characteristics has begun to emerge.

  10. In silico studies of outer membrane of Neisseria meningitidis por a: its expression and immunogenic properties.

    PubMed

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis.

  11. In Silico Studies of Outer Membrane of Neisseria Meningitidis Por A: Its Expression and Immunogenic Properties

    PubMed Central

    Behrouzi, Ava; Bouzari, Saeid; Siadat, Seyed Davar; Irani, Shiva

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is a major causative agent of bacterial septicemia and meningitis in humans. Currently, there are no vaccines to prevent disease caused by strains of N.meningitidis serogroup B. The Class 1 Outer Membrane Protein (OMP) has been named porA which is a cation selective transmembrane protein of 45 KDa that forms trimeric pore in the meningococcal outer membrane. PorA from serogroup B N. meningitidis was cloned into prokaryotic expression vector pBAD-gIIIA. Recombinant protein was expressed with arabinose and affinity purified by Ni-NTA agarose, SDS-PAGE and western blotting were performed for protein determination and verification. BALB/c mice were immunized subcutaneously with purified rPorA together with alum adjuvant. Serum antibody responses to serogroups B N.meningitidis were determined by ELISA. Serum IgG response significantly increased in the group immunized with rPorA together with alum adjuvant in comparison with control groups. These results suggest that rPorA can be a potential vaccine candidate for serogroup B N.meningitidis. PMID:25317403

  12. PorA Represents the Major Cell Wall Channel of the Gram-Positive Bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum

    PubMed Central

    Costa-Riu, Noelia; Burkovski, Andreas; Krämer, Reinhard; Benz, Roland

    2003-01-01

    The cell wall of the gram-positive bacterium Corynebacterium glutamicum contains a channel (porin) for the passage of hydrophilic solutes. The channel-forming polypeptide PorA is a 45-amino-acid acidic polypeptide with an excess of four negatively charged amino acids, which is encoded by the 138-bp gene porA. porA was deleted from the chromosome of C.glutamicum wild-type strain ATCC 13032 to obtain mutant ATCC 13032ΔporA. Southern blot analysis demonstrated that porA was deleted. Lipid bilayer experiments revealed that PorA was not present in the cell wall of the mutant strain. Searches within the known chromosome of C. glutamicum by using National Center for Biotechnology Information BLAST and reverse transcription-PCR showed that no other PorA-like protein is encoded on the chromosome or is expressed in the deletion strain. The porA deletion strain exhibited slower growth and longer growth times than the C. glutamicum wild-type strain. Experiments with different antibiotics revealed that the susceptibility of the mutant strain was much lower than that of the wild-type C. glutamicum strain. The results presented here suggest that PorA represents a major hydrophilic pathway through the cell wall and that C. glutamicum contains cell wall channels which are not related to PorA. PMID:12896997

  13. Oral administration of recombinant Neisseria meningitidis PorA genetically fused to H. pylori HpaA antigen increases antibody levels in mouse serum, suggesting that PorA behaves as a putative adjuvant

    PubMed Central

    Vasquez, Abel E; Manzo, Ricardo A; Soto, Daniel A; Barrientos, Magaly J; Maldonado, Aurora E; Mosqueira, Macarena; Avila, Anastasia; Touma, Jorge; Bruce, Elsa; Harris, Paul R; Venegas, Alejandro

    2015-01-01

    The Neisseria meningitidis outer membrane protein PorA from a Chilean strain was purified as a recombinant protein. PorA mixed with AbISCO induced bactericidal antibodies against N. meningitidis in mice. When PorA was fused to the Helicobacter pylori HpaA antigen gene, the specific response against H. pylori protein increased. Splenocytes from PorA-immunized mice were stimulated with PorA, and an increase in the secretion of IL-4 was observed compared with that of IFN-γ. Moreover, in an immunoglobulin sub-typing analysis, a substantially higher IgG1 level was found compared with IgG2a levels, suggesting a Th2-type immune response. This study revealed a peculiar behavior of the purified recombinant PorA protein per se in the absence of AbISCO as an adjuvant. Therefore, the resistance of PorA to proteolytic enzymes, such as those in the gastrointestinal tract, was analyzed, because this is an important feature for an oral protein adjuvant. Finally, we found that PorA fused to the H. pylori HpaA antigen, when expressed in Lactococcus lactis and administered orally, could enhance the antibody response against the HpaA antigen approximately 3 fold. These observations strongly suggest that PorA behaves as an effective oral adjuvant. PMID:25750999

  14. Variation in the Neisseria lactamica porin, and its relationship to meningococcal PorB.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Julia S; Callaghan, Martin J; Derrick, Jeremy P; Maiden, Martin C J

    2008-05-01

    One potential vaccine strategy in the fight against meningococcal disease involves the exploitation of outer-membrane components of Neisseria lactamica, a commensal bacterium closely related to the meningococcus, Neisseria meningitidis. Although N. lactamica shares many surface structures with the meningococcus, little is known about the antigenic diversity of this commensal bacterium or the antigenic relationships between N. lactamica and N. meningitidis. Here, the N. lactamica porin protein (Por) was examined and compared to the related PorB antigens of N. meningitidis, to investigate potential involvement in anti-meningococcal immunity. Relationships among porin sequences were determined using distance-based methods and F(ST), and maximum-likelihood analyses were used to compare the selection pressures acting on the encoded proteins. These analyses demonstrated that the N. lactamica porin was less diverse than meningococcal PorB and although it was subject to positive selection, this was not as strong as the positive selection pressures acting on the meningococcal porin. In addition, the N. lactamica porin gene sequences and the protein sequences of the loop regions predicted to be exposed to the human immune system were dissimilar to the corresponding sequences in the meningococcus. This suggests that N. lactamica Por, contrary to previous suggestions, may have limited involvement in the development of natural immunity to meningococcal disease and might not be effective as a meningococcal vaccine component.

  15. Detección y estudio mediante Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser de radicales libres formados por Disociación Multifotónica Infrarroja

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, M.; Díaz, L.; Torresano, J. A.; Rubio, L.; Samoudi, B.

    Una de las principales aplicaciones actuales de los procesos de disociación multifotónica inducidos por radiación láser infrarroja (DMI) es la producción de radiales libres, con el fin de estudiar sus propiedades cinéticas y espectroscópicas. La disociación de moléculas poliatómicas en el IR con láseres de CO2 tiene lugar desde la superficie de energía molecular mas baja y conduce generalmente a la formación de fragmentos en el estado electrónico fundamental, con diversos grados de excitación vibracional. En el Grupo de Procesos Multifotónicos del Instituto de Estructura de la Materia del C.S.I.C. hemos puesto a punto la técnica de Fluorescencia Inducida por Láser (LIF) para la detección y análisis en tiempo real de los fragmentos producidos en la DMI inducida mediante uno o dos campos láseres de diferentes longitudes de onda. Objetivos de nuestro trabajo han sido el estudio de los canales de disociación mayoritarios y de las especies transitoria producidas, así como de la distribución de energía interna con que éstas son generadas. En particular hemos detectado mediante LIF las especies: C2, CF, CH, SiH2, CF2, CH2, SiHCl, y CF3 a partir de la disociación de, entre otras, las siguientes moléculas: C2H3Br, C3F6, C4H8Si, C2H5ClSi y CH5ClSi. En este trabajo presentamos algunos de los resultados obtenidos mediante el estudio por LIF de estos radicales: estudio temporal de la señal LIF obtenida con determinación de tiempos de vida, espectros de excitación y fluorescencia, temperaturas vibracionales de formación, variación de la intensidad LIF con el tiempo de retraso entre los láseres de disociación y prueba, etc.

  16. Methodology for obtaining stakeholder assessments of obesity policy options in the PorGrow project.

    PubMed

    Stirling, A; Lobstein, T; Millstone, E

    2007-05-01

    The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project (PorGrow) study provided a unique opportunity to develop a large-scale application of a semi-quantitative technique for exploring interviewees' views on options to tackle obesity, using multi-criteria mapping. This 'heuristic' approach utilizes the advantages of a structured interviews framework by predefining a set of options for appraisal, while leaving interviewees free to select their own criteria for making their judgements. Additional information can be gleaned from the interview transcripts and related materials to set the appraisals in their policy context, and allowing interviewees to express their views on the options presented and their own appraisals. The PorGrow study team agreed a predefined set of 20 options for appraisal, and interviewed sets of stakeholders representing more than 20 aspects of policy development in each of the nine participating countries. The details of the methodology adopted are set out in this paper.

  17. Improved purification of native meningococcal porin PorB and studies on its structure/function.

    PubMed

    Massari, Paola; King, Carol A; MacLeod, Heather; Wetzler, Lee M

    2005-12-01

    The outer membrane protein PorB of Neisseria meningitidis is a pore-forming protein which has various effects on eukaryotic cells. It has been shown to (1) up-regulate the surface expression of the co-stimulatory molecule CD86 and of MHC class II (which are TLR2/MyD88 dependent and related to the porin's immune-potentiating ability), (2) be involved in prevention of apoptosis by modulating the mitochondrial membrane potential, and (3) form pores in eukaryotic cells. As an outer membrane protein, its native trimeric form isolation is complicated by its insoluble nature, requiring the presence of detergent throughout the whole procedure, and by its tight association with other outer membrane components, such as neisserial LOS or lipoproteins. In this study, an improved chromatographic purification method to obtain an homogeneous product free of endotoxin and lipoprotein is described, without loss of any of the above-mentioned properties of the porin. Furthermore, we have investigated the requirement of the native trimeric structure for the porin's activity. Inactivation of functional PorB trimers into non-functional monomers was achieved by incubation on ice. Thus, routine long- and medium-term storage at low temperature may be a cause of porin inactivation.

  18. Diagnóstico diferencial en la encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor NMDA

    PubMed Central

    González-Valcárcel, J.; Rosenfeld, M.R.; Dalmau, J.

    2011-01-01

    Resumen Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA (NMDAR) suele desarrollarse como un síndrome característico de evolución multifásica y diagnóstico diferencial amplio. Pacientes Presentamos a 2 pacientes diagnosticadas de encefalitis por anticuerpos NMDAR con un cuadro clínico típico, pero que inicialmente señaló otras etiologías. Discusión La afectación frecuente de pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas prominentes indica frecuentemente otras consideraciones diagnósticas; las más frecuentes son las encefalitis virales, los procesos psiquiátricos y el síndrome neuroléptico maligno. Varios síndromes previamente definidos de manera parcial o descriptiva en adultos y pacientes pediátricos probablemente eran casos de encefalitis anti-NMDAR. Conclusiones La encefalitis anti-NMDAR debe considerarse en pacientes jóvenes con manifestaciones psiquiátricas subagudas, movimientos anormales y alteraciones autonómicas. La caracterización clínica e inmunológica de esta enfermedad ha llevado a la identificación de nuevos anticuerpos que afectan a procesos de memoria, aprendizaje, conducta y psicosis. PMID:20964986

  19. Effect of SPM-based cleaning POR on EUV mask performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Jaehyuck; Lee, Han-shin; Yoon, Jinsang; Shimomura, Takeya; Friz, Alex; Montgomery, Cecilia; Ma, Andy; Goodwin, Frank; Kang, Daehyuk; Chung, Paul; Shin, Inkyun; Cho, H.

    2011-11-01

    EUV masks include many different layers of various materials rarely used in optical masks, and each layer of material has a particular role in enhancing the performance of EUV lithography. Therefore, it is crucial to understand how the mask quality and patterning performance can change during mask fabrication, EUV exposure, maintenance cleaning, shipping, or storage. The fact that a pellicle is not used to protect the mask surface in EUV lithography suggests that EUV masks may have to undergo more cleaning cycles during their lifetime. More frequent cleaning, combined with the adoption of new materials for EUV masks, necessitates that mask manufacturers closely examine the performance change of EUV masks during cleaning process. We have investigated EUV mask quality and patterning performance during 30 cycles of Samsung's EUV mask SPM-based cleaning and 20 cycles of SEMATECH ADT exposure. We have observed that the quality and patterning performance of EUV masks does not significantly change during these processes except mask pattern CD change. To resolve this issue, we have developed an acid-free cleaning POR and substantially improved EUV mask film loss compared to the SPM-based cleaning POR.

  20. Multiple active site residues are important for photochemical efficiency in the light-activated enzyme protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR).

    PubMed

    Menon, Binuraj R K; Hardman, Samantha J O; Scrutton, Nigel S; Heyes, Derren J

    2016-08-01

    Protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR) catalyzes the light-driven reduction of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), an essential, regulatory step in chlorophyll biosynthesis. The unique requirement of the enzyme for light has provided the opportunity to investigate how light energy can be harnessed to power biological catalysis and enzyme dynamics. Excited state interactions between the Pchlide molecule and the protein are known to drive the subsequent reaction chemistry. However, the structural features of POR and active site residues that are important for photochemistry and catalysis are currently unknown, because there is no crystal structure for POR. Here, we have used static and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements of a number of active site variants to study the role of a number of residues, which are located in the proposed NADPH/Pchlide binding site based on previous homology models, in the reaction mechanism of POR. Our findings, which are interpreted in the context of a new improved structural model, have identified several residues that are predicted to interact with the coenzyme or substrate. Several of the POR variants have a profound effect on the photochemistry, suggesting that multiple residues are important in stabilizing the excited state required for catalysis. Our work offers insight into how the POR active site geometry is finely tuned by multiple active site residues to support enzyme-mediated photochemistry and reduction of Pchlide, both of which are crucial to the existence of life on Earth.

  1. Intermitência alfvênica gerada por caos na atmosfera solar e no vento solar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rempel, E. L.; Chian, A. C.-L.; Macau, E. E. N.; Rosa, R. R.

    2003-08-01

    Dados medidos no vento solar rápido proveniente dos buracos coronais revelam que os plasmas no meio interplanetário são dominados por flutuações Alfvênicas, caracterizadas por uma alta correlação entre as variações do campo magnético e da velocidade do plasma. As flutuações exibem muitas características esperadas em turbulência magneto-hidrodinâmica totalmente desenvolvida, tais como intermitência e espectros contínuos. Contudo, os mecanismos responsáveis pela evolução de turbulência Alfvênica intermitente não são completamente compreendidos. Neste trabalho a teoria de caos é usada para explicar como sistemas Alfvênicos, modelados pela equação Schrödinger não-linear derivativa e pela equação Kuramoto-Sivashinsky, podem se tornar fortemente caóticos à medida em que parâmetros do plasma são variados. Pequenas perturbações no parâmetro de dissipação podem fazer com que o sistema mude bruscamente de um regime periódico, ou fracamente caótico, para um regime fortemente caótico. As séries temporais das flutuações do campo magnético nos regimes fortemente caóticos exibem comportamento intermitente, em que fases laminares ou fracamente caóticas são interrompidas por fortes estouros caóticos. É mostrado que o regime fortemente caótico é atingido quando as soluções periódicas ou fracamente caóticas globalmente estáveis interagem com soluções do sistema que são fortemente caóticas, mas globalmente instáveis. Estas soluções globalmente instáveis são conjuntos caóticos não-atrativos conhecidos como selas caóticas, e são responsáveis pelos fortes estouros nos regimes intermitentes. Selas caóticas têm sido detectadas experimentalmente em uma grande variedade de sistemas, sendo provável que elas desempenhem um papel importante na turbulência intermitente observada em plasmas espaciais.

  2. Reconstrução tridimensional de arcos magnéticos por tomografia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simões, P. J. A.; Costa, J. E. R.

    2003-08-01

    Uma explosão solar é uma variação súbita do brilho que ocorre nas regiões ativas da atmosfera solar. Estas regiões são constituídas por um plasma magnetizado com intensa indução magnética e em cenários bem complexos como visto recentemente através de experimentos embarcados em satélites operando instrumentos em raios X moles e ultra-violeta distante. A energia magnética, que pode ser armazenada por um período de horas até dias em configurações magnéticas estressadas, é subitamente lançada na atmosfera solar e transferida para partículas como elétrons, prótons e núcleos pesados, que são acelerados e/ou aquecidos, produzindo radiação eletromagnética. A proposta final deste projeto é determinar as características espaciais de alta resolução da emissão e polarização girossincrotrônica de explosões solares em ambientes complexos de campos magnéticos. Os recentes resultados da emissão difusa em EUV apresentado pelos satélites TRACE e SOHO dos arcos magnéticos conectando as diferentes polaridades magnéticas sobre as regiões ativas possibilitam novas abordagens sobre o papel do campo magnético na emissão em rádio. Nesta etapa apresentamos os resultados da reconstrução da geometria tridimensional das linhas de força destes arcos utilizando técnicas tomográficas, a partir de imagens de alta resolução espacial obtidas pelo instrumento EIT (Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope), além da modelagem das induções magnéticas por um campo dipolar e as densidades de partículas aceleradas. Utilizamos para a reconstrução geométrica, imagens tomadas em vários ângulos dos arcos devido à rotacão solar. Com estes resultados, daremos continuidade ao projeto, com os cálculos da transferência radiativa nos modos ordinário e extraordinário de propagação da radiação girossincrotrônica de explosões solares.

  3. Geometry sensing through POR1 regulates Rac1 activity controlling early osteoblast differentiation in response to nanofiber diameter.

    PubMed

    Higgins, A M; Banik, B L; Brown, J L

    2015-02-01

    Bone grafting procedures in the United States rely heavily upon autografts and allografts, which are donor-dependent, cause donor site pain, and can transmit disease. Synthetic bone grafts can reduce these risks; however, synthetics lack the bone differentiating (osteoinductive) abilities of auto- and allografts. Achieving innate osteoinductive properties of synthetics through surface modifications is currently under investigation. This study focuses on nanofibers, with emphasis on how fiber diameter and the potential curvature sensor POR1 affect the activation of the signaling molecules Rac1 and Arf1, and leading to expression of alkaline phosphatase (ALP), an osteoinductive marker. Diameters of 0.1, 0.3, and 1.0 μm were compared against a flat control. The highest level of Rac1 activation was achieved on the smallest fibers (0.1 μm), a trend that was lost in POR1 knockdowns. This supports the hypothesis that on small nanofibers, POR1 favorably binds to highly curved cell membranes, which allows Rac1 to subsequently dissociate and activate. When the curvature is insufficient to bind POR1, POR1 binds to inactive Rac1 and competitively inhibits its activation. Arf1 activation followed an opposite trend, with the largest nanofibers exhibiting the highest activity. This trend reinforces the known interaction between Rac1 and Arf1 through the GIT-PIX complex, an Arf1 GAP and Rac1 GEF, respectively. Large, (1.0 μm), nanofibers demonstrated the highest ALP activity, indicating that ALP expression is inversely dependent on Rac1 activation. Knockdown of POR1 resulted in increased ALP activity across the substrates but without regard to the curvature sensing trend seen previously. Thus, POR1 senses curvature and increases Rac1 activity, which negatively regulates bone differentiation.

  4. Using the PORS Problems to Examine Evolutionary Optimization of Multiscale Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Reinhart, Zachary; Molian, Vaelan; Bryden, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Nearly all systems of practical interest are composed of parts assembled across multiple scales. For example, an agrodynamic system is composed of flora and fauna on one scale; soil types, slope, and water runoff on another scale; and management practice and yield on another scale. Or consider an advanced coal-fired power plant: combustion and pollutant formation occurs on one scale, the plant components on another scale, and the overall performance of the power system is measured on another. In spite of this, there are few practical tools for the optimization of multiscale systems. This paper examines multiscale optimization of systems composed of discrete elements using the plus-one-recall-store (PORS) problem as a test case or study problem for multiscale systems. From this study, it is found that by recognizing the constraints and patterns present in discrete multiscale systems, the solution time can be significantly reduced and much more complex problems can be optimized.

  5. Les neuropathies liées au VIH/SIDA: une étude clinique chez les patients infectés par le VIH au Centre d'Excellence VIH/SIDA de l'Université de Lubumbashi

    PubMed Central

    Kabongo, Joe Katabwa; Kaputu-Kalala-Malu, Célestin; Luboya, Oscar; Mutombo, Valerien; Ntambwe, Abel; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Mukendi, Kavulu Mayamba

    2015-01-01

    Introduction En vue d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients souffrant de neuropathie (NP) associées à l'infection HIV, nous avons essayé de déterminer le profil clinique des personnes souffrant de NP au cours du suivi thérapeutique de leur infection HIV. Méthodes Il s'agit d'une étude transversale (n= 101) menée au centre d'excellence depuis 1 an. Notre analyse est essentiellement clinique. Par un examen clinique minutieux, nous avons recherché tous les symptômes et signes cliniques des NP. Subjectivement, les douleurs dominent le tableau. Pour affiner leur diagnostic, nous avons utilisé l’échelle DN4 (Diagnostic des douleurs neuropathiques) et l’échelle EVA (Evaluation de la gravité des douleurs). Nous avons ensuite analysé nos données en fonction de certains autres facteurs épidémiologiques tels que le taux des CD4, le traitement anti-HIV etc. Résultats Les 101 patients représentent 3,12% de la cohorte générale; 53,3% des patients présentent une abolition des réflexes ostéotendineux des membres inférieurs; 77,89% présentent une hypoesthésie thermo algique en chaussette et en gants; 25% ont présenté une amyotrophie des membres inférieurs; 76,5% ont été soumis à un traitement antirétroviral contenant la stavudine; 11,7% ont pris la didanosine (DDI) et Abacavir (ABC). 84% ont une moyenne de CD4 de 292 cel/mm3. Conclusion La NP altère la qualité de vie de nos patients et diminue l'adhérence au traitement antirétroviral. Plusieurs facteurs sont incriminés dans la survenue de la NP, l'effet direct des antirétroviraux, l'effet inflammatoire dysimmunitaire, l'effet infectieux lié aux infections opportunistes. D'autres facteurs seront recherchés et analysés ultérieurement. PMID:26185582

  6. [HIV screening through rapid testing to pregnant women in the Family Medicine Unit 171].

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Hernández, Gustavo; Uriostegui-Espíritu, Lizbeth Carlota; Delgado-Quiñones, Edna Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la cobertura de detección del VIH en nuestro país mediante la prueba rápida se ha incrementado, al pasar de un 8.2 % en el 2006 a un 59.8 % en el 2012; sin embargo, aún sigue siendo deficiente. El objetivo es determinar la prevalencia de detección de VIH mediante la prueba rápida a mujeres embarazadas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio transversal descriptivo con muestreo no probabilístico que incluyó mujeres embarazadas de cualquier edad que acudieron a control de embarazo en la Unidad de Medicina Familiar 171 del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. Se aplicó como instrumento la revisión del expediente clínico para recabar información sobre la prueba rápida. Se calculó una muestra de 85 pacientes y se realizó el análisis estadístico descriptivo. Resultados: se revisaron 85 expedientes de pacientes en control por embarazo. La prueba rápida (PR) para detección de anticuerpos contra el VIH se le aplicó a 79 pacientes (93 %). En nueve (10 %), no se encontró reporte del resultado en el expediente. En seis pacientes del total de la muestra (7 %) no se solicitó o realizó la PR. El resultado de todas las pruebas rápidas reportadas fue negativo a VIH. Conclusiones: existe un incremento en la cobertura de pruebas rápidas de detección de VIH en embarazadas; sin embargo, no reportarla y no solicitarla siguen siendo problemas frecuentes en la detección oportuna de infección por VIH en embarazadas.

  7. jPOR: An ImageJ macro to quantify total optical porosity from blue-stained thin sections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grove, Clayton; Jerram, Dougal A.

    2011-11-01

    A fast and effective method has been developed to measure total optical porosity (TOP) of blue resin-impregnated thin sections. This utilises a macro file (jPOR.txt) for ImageJ, which can be used on digital photomicrographs of thin sections. The method requires no specialised scientific equipment and can be run entirely using free to download software. Digital images are acquired from blue resin-impregnated thin sections using a conventional film scanner in the present study, though the technique can be applied to any high resolution colour digital acquired by different means (e.g., flat bed scanning, digital capture). Images are preprocessed using a newly developed custom 8-bit palette and analysed for porosity in ImageJ using the simple to use jPOR macro. Our method rapidly calculates TOP for batches of images with or without the option of user adjustment. Results are compared with conventional methods (e.g., to point counting), and tested with several users to estimate any user variability. jPOR provided comparable results to more time-consuming point counting, but with significantly less "counting error" and less interoperator variability than published point counting studies. The jPOR macro has been integrated into a macro tool set that can be configured to be run on ImageJ start up.

  8. [Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD, students at Budapest and Prague Faculties of Medicine].

    PubMed

    Mydlík, M; Derzsiová, K

    2010-11-01

    Professor Frantisek Por MD and Professor Robert Klopstock MD were contemporaries, both born in 1899, one in Zvolen, the other in Dombovar, at the time of Austro-Hungarian Monarchy. Prof. Por attended the Faculty of Medicine in Budapest from 1918 to 1920, and Prof. Klopstock studied at the same place between 1917 and 1919. From 1920 until graduation on 6th February 1926, Prof. Por continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague. Prof. Klopstock had to interrupt his studies in Budapest due to pulmonary tuberculosis; he received treatment at Tatranske Matliare where he befriended Franz Kafka. Later, upon Kafka's encouragement, he changed institutions and continued his studies at the German Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague, where he graduated the first great go. It is very likely that, during their studies in Budapest and Prague, both professors met repeatedly, even though their life paths later separated. Following his graduation, Prof. Por practiced as an internist in Prague, later in Slovakia, and from 1945 in Kosice. In 1961, he was awarded the title of university professor of internal medicine at the Faculty of Medicine, Pavol Jozef Safarik University in Kosice, where he practiced until his death in 1980. Prof. Klopstock continued his studies in Kiel and Berlin. After his graduation in 1933, he practiced in Berlin as a surgeon and in 1938 left for USA. In 1962, he was awarded the title of university professor of pulmonary surgery in NewYork, where he died in 1972.

  9. Unidas por la Vida (United for Life): implementing a culturally-tailored, community-based, family-oriented lifestyle intervention.

    PubMed

    Sorkin, Dara H; Biegler, Kelly A; Peyreda, Margarita; Kilgore, David; Dow, Emily; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Unidas por la Vida, a behavioral weight-loss program, was developed for use among low-income, Mexican-American women with diabetes and their overweight/obese adult daughters. The program leverages community resources in a partnership between primary care and community-based organizations. This paper describes the program's implementation, lessons learned, and implications for sustainability.

  10. Global Microlending in Education Reform: Enseñá Por Argentina and the Neoliberalization of the Grassroots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friedrich, Daniel S.

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the workings and underlying assumptions behind Enseñá por Argentina (Teach for Argentina), one specific program that takes part in the larger and expanding network of Teach for All, by thinking about the ways in which a global push for redefining teaching and teacher education encounters local characteristics and histories,…

  11. Inversor Resonante de Tres Elementos L-LC con Caracteristica Cortocircuitable para Aplicaciones de Calentamiento por Induccion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espi Huerta, Jose Miguel

    Los generadores de calentamiento por induccion son puentes inversores con carga resonante, cuya mision es basicamente crear una corriente sinusoidal de gran amplitud sobre la "bobina de caldeo", que forma parte del tanque resonante. En el interior de esta bobina se introduce la pieza que se desea calentar. EI campo magnetico creado induce corrientes superficiales (corrientes de Foucault) sobre la pieza, que producen su calentamiento. Los tanques resonantes (tambien llamados osciladores) utilizados en la actualidad son el resonante serie y el resonante paralelo. Aunque ya desde hace algun tiempo se vienen construyendo generadores de alta potencia basados en estos dos osciladores, el exito nunca ha. sido completo en ninguno de los dos casos. Tal y como se explica en la introduccion de esta memoria, los puentes inversores utilizados deben operar sobre una carga inductiva (corriente retrasada) para evitar el fenomeno de la recuperacion inversa de sus diodos y la consiguiente ruptura de los transistores. De la restriccion topologica anterior se deduce que el generador paralelo debe conmutar a frecuencias inferiores a la resonancia, y el serie a frecuencias superiores. A esta restriccion topologica hay que unir otra que es exclusiva del calentamiento por induccion: La corriente por la bobina de caldeo debe ser sinusoidal. De no ser asi, resultaria imposible disponer toda la potencia de calentamiento sobre la pieza en el espesor requerido por la aplicacion. Como consecuencia, los inversores no pueden operar por debajo de la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador, pues en ese caso se amplifican los armonicos de orden superior de la tension/corriente de entrada situados sobre la resonancia, con la consiguiente distorsion de la corriente de salida. La conjuncion de las dos restricciones anteriores obligan al inversor paralelo a funcionar a la frecuencia de resonancia del oscilador. Esto imposibilita un control por variacion de frecuencia, regulandose la potencia desde la

  12. The amino acid sequence of Neisseria lactamica PorB surface-exposed loops influences Toll-like receptor 2-dependent cell activation.

    PubMed

    Toussi, Deana N; Carraway, Margaretha; Wetzler, Lee M; Lewis, Lisa A; Liu, Xiuping; Massari, Paola

    2012-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play a major role in host mucosal and systemic defense mechanisms by recognizing a diverse array of conserved pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). TLR2, with TLR1 and TLR6, recognizes structurally diverse bacterial products such as lipidated factors (lipoproteins and peptidoglycans) and nonlipidated proteins, i.e., bacterial porins. PorB is a pan-neisserial porin expressed regardless of organisms' pathogenicity. However, commensal Neisseria lactamica organisms and purified N. lactamica PorB (published elsewhere as Nlac PorB) induce TLR2-dependent proinflammatory responses of lower magnitude than N. meningitidis organisms and N. meningitidis PorB (published elsewhere as Nme PorB). Both PorB types bind to TLR2 in vitro but with different apparent specificities. The structural and molecular details of PorB-TLR2 interaction are only beginning to be unraveled and may be due to electrostatic attraction. PorB molecules have significant strain-specific sequence variability within surface-exposed regions (loops) putatively involved in TLR2 interaction. By constructing chimeric recombinant PorB loop mutants in which surface-exposed loop residues have been switched between N. lactamica PorB and N. meningitidis PorB, we identified residues in loop 5 and loop 7 that influence TLR2-dependent cell activation using HEK cells and BEAS-2B cells. These loops are not uniquely responsible for PorB interaction with TLR2, but NF-κB and MAP kinases signaling downstream of TLR2 recognition are likely influenced by a hypothetical "TLR2-binding signature" within the sequence of PorB surface-exposed loops. Consistent with the effect of purified PorB in vitro, a chimeric N. meningitidis strain expressing N. lactamica PorB induces lower levels of interleukin 8 (IL-8) secretion than wild-type N. meningitidis, suggesting a role for PorB in induction of host cell activation by whole bacteria.

  13. Encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA: experiencia con seis pacientes pediátricos. Potencial eficacia del metotrexato

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Oro, Antonio; Abud-Mendoza, Carlos; Quezada-Corona, Arturo; Dalmau, Josep; Campos-Guevara, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Introducción La encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de N-metil-D-aspartato (NMDA) es una entidad cada vez más diagnosticada en edad pediátrica. A diferencia de los adultos, en muchos casos no se asocia a tumores y las manifestaciones iniciales en niños más frecuentes son crisis convulsivas y trastornos del movimiento, mientras que en los adultos predominan las alteraciones psiquiátricas. Casos clínicos Presentamos seis casos pediátricos confirmados con anticuerpos contra la subunidad NR1 del receptor de NMDA en suero y líquido cefalorraquídeo. Cinco de los casos comenzaron con crisis convulsivas como manifestación clínica inicial antes de desarrollar el cuadro clásico de esta entidad. En todos los casos se utilizaron esteroides como primera línea de tratamiento, con los que sólo se observó control de las manifestaciones en uno, por lo que el resto de los pacientes requirió inmunomoduladores de segunda línea. Todos los pacientes recibieron metotrexato como tratamiento inmunomodulador para evitar recaídas y la evolución fue a la mejoría en todos ellos. Conclusiones En nuestra serie de pacientes con encefalitis por anticuerpos contra el receptor de NMDA, ninguno se asoció a tumores. Todos los casos recibieron metotrexato por lo menos durante un año, no observamos eventos adversos clínicos ni por laboratorio, ni hubo secuelas neurológicas ni recaídas durante el tratamiento. Aunque es una serie pequeña y es deseable incrementar el número y tiempo de evolución, consideramos el metotrexato una excelente alternativa como tratamiento inmunomodulador para esta patología. PMID:24150952

  14. Prevalencia y tamizaje del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad en Costa Rica

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Nicholas T.; Schuler, Jovita; Monge, Silvia; McGough, James J.; Chavira, Denise; Bagnarello, Monica; Herrera, Luis Diego; Mathews, Carol A.

    2015-01-01

    Resumen La investigación tuvo como propósito estimar la prevalencia del Trastorno por Déficit de Atención con Hiperactividad (TDAH) en Costa Rica y determinar si la versión en español del cuestionario Swanson Nolan and Pelham Scale IV (SNAP-IV) es un instrumento de tamizaje útil en una población de niños y niñas escolares costarricenses. El instrumento fue entregado a padres y maestros de 425 niños entre 5 y 13 años de edad (promedio = 8.8). Todos fueron evaluados con el instrumento Swanson, Kotkin, Agler, M-Flynn and Pelham Scale (SKAMP). Su diagnóstico fue confirmado con una entrevista clínica. La sensibilidad y la especificidad del SNAP-IV fueron evaluadas como predictores de criterios de diagnóstico según el DSM-IV. La prevalencia puntual en la muestra del TDAH fue del 5%. El tamizaje más preciso lo hizo el SNAP-IV completado por el maestro en un corte de 20%, con una sensibilidad de 96% y una especificidad de un 82%. La sensibilidad de los instrumentos completados por los padres fue más baja que aquella de los maestros. El SNAP-IV completado por las maestras con un corte aislando el 20% de los mayores puntajes categorizó correctamente a un 87% de los sujetos. PMID:22432094

  15. Racism in digital era: Development and initial validation of the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS v1.0).

    PubMed

    Keum, Brian TaeHyuk; Miller, Matthew J

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Perceived Online Racism Scale (PORS) to assess perceived online racist interpersonal interactions and exposure to online racist content among people of color. Items were developed through a multistage process involving a comprehensive literature review, focus-groups, qualitative data collection, and survey of online racism experiences. Based on a sample of 1,023 racial minority participants, exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a 30-item bifactor model accounted by the general factor and the following 3 specific factors: (a) personal experience of racial cyber-aggression, (b) vicarious exposure to racial cyber-aggression, and (c) online-mediated exposure to racist reality. The PORS demonstrated measurement invariance across racial/ethnic groups in our sample. Internal reliability estimates for the total and subscale scores of the PORS were above .88 and the 4-week test-retest reliability was adequate. Limitations and future directions for research are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record

  16. Chlorophyll Synthesis in a Deetiolated (det340) Mutant of Arabidopsis without NADPH-Protochlorophyllide (PChlide) Oxidoreductase (POR) A and Photoactive PChlide-F655.

    PubMed Central

    Lebedev, N.; Van Cleve, B.; Armstrong, G.; Apel, K.

    1995-01-01

    Chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis in Arabidopsis is controlled by two light-dependent NADPH-protochlorophyllide (PChlide) oxidoreductases (PORs), one (POR A) that is active transiently in etiolated seedlings at the beginning of illumination and another (POR B) that also operates in green plants. The function of these two enzymes during the light-induced greening of dark-grown seedlings has been studied in the wild type and a deetiolated (det340) mutant of Arabidopsis. One of the consequences of the det mutation is that POR A is constitutively down-regulated, and therefore, synthesis of the POR A enzyme is shut off. When grown in the dark, the det340 mutant lacks POR A and the photoactive PChlide-F655 species but maintains the second PChlide reductase, POR B. Previously, photoactive PChlide-F655 has often been considered to be the only PChlide form that leads to Chl formation. Despite its deficiency in POR A and photoactive PChlide-F655, the det340 mutant is able to green when placed in the light. Chl accumulation, however, proceeds abnormally. At the beginning of illumination, seedlings of det340 mutants are extremely susceptible to photooxidative damage and accumulate Chl only at extremely low light intensities. They form core complexes of photosystems I and II but are almost completely devoid of light-harvesting structures. The results of this study demonstrate that in addition to the route of Chl synthesis that has been studied extensively in illuminated dark-grown wild-type plants, a second branch of Chl synthesis exists that is driven by POR B and does not require POR A. PMID:12242369

  17. The PorB porin from commensal Neisseria lactamica induces Th1 and Th2 immune responses to ovalbumin in mice and is a potential immune adjuvant.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiuping; Wetzler, Lee M; Massari, Paola

    2008-02-06

    Porins from pathogenic Neisseriae are among several bacterial products with immune adjuvant activity. Neisseria meningitidis (Nme) PorB, has been shown to induce immune cells activation in a TLR2-dependent manner and acts as a vaccine immune adjuvant. The PorB porin from Neisseria lactamica (Nlac), a common nasopharyngeal commensal, shares significant structural and functional similarities with Nme PorB. In this work we ask whether the immune adjuvant ability of porins from pathogenic Neisserial strains is a characteristic shared with porins from non-pathogenic Neisserial species or whether it is unique for bacterial products derived from microorganisms capable of inducing inflammation and disease. We evaluated the potential immune adjuvant effect of Nlac PorB in mice using ovalbumin (OVA) as a prototype antigen. Immunization with Nlac PorB/OVA induced high OVA-specific IgG and IgM titers compared to OVA alone, similar to other adjuvants such as Nme PorB and alum. High titers of IgG1 and IgG2b were detected as well as production of IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 and INF-gamma in response to Nlac PorB, consistent with induction of both a Th1-type and a Th2-type immune response. OVA-specific proliferation was also determined in splenocytes from Nlac PorB/OVA-immunized mice. In addition, B cell activation in vitro and cytokine production in response to Nlac PorB was found to be mediated by TLR2, in a similar manner to Nme PorB.

  18. CYP2C9*2 allele increases risk for hypoglycemia in POR*1/*1 type 2 diabetic patients treated with sulfonylureas.

    PubMed

    Ragia, G; Tavridou, A; Elens, L; Van Schaik, R H N; Manolopoulos, V G

    2014-01-01

    It is previously shown that carriers of the defective allele CYP2C9*3 that leads to impaired sulfonylurea metabolism are at increased sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk due to diminished drug metabolism, whereas no effect of CYP2C9*2 allele was found. Recently, a polymorphism in P450 oxidoreductase (POR) gene, assigned as POR*28 allele, was associated with increased CYP2C9 activity. The aim of this study was to assess i) the effect of POR*28 allele on sulfonylurea-induced hypoglycemia risk and ii) the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with hypoglycemia risk in non-carriers of POR*28 allele. The study group consisted of 176 patients with diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) treated with sulfonylureas, of whom 92 patients had experienced at least one drug-associated hypoglycemic event (cases), while 84 had never experienced a hypoglycemic event (controls). POR*28 allele was detected by use of real-time TaqMan PCR. POR*28 allele was not associated with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. In POR*1/*1 patients, CYP2C9*1/*2 genotype was more common in cases than in controls (32.7 vs. 14.3%, p=0.041). In a model adjusted for age, BMI, duration of T2DM and renal function, and POR*1/*1 entered as a selection variable, CYP2C9*2 allele increased the hypoglycemia risk in response to sulfonylurea (odds ratio: 3.218, p=0.031). In conclusion, our results suggest that POR*28 allele is masking the association of CYP2C9*2 allele with sulfonyl-urea-induced hypoglycemia. Therefore, POR*28 allele is an important source of CYP2C9 activity variability and combined with CYP2C9 gene poly-morphisms may explain individual variability in the effect of sulfonylureas.

  19. Perspectivas para mejorar la salud sexual de las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala

    PubMed Central

    Alonzo, Jorge; Mann, Lilli; Simán, Florence; Sun, Christina J.; Andrade, Mario; Villatoro, Guillermo; Rhodes, Scott D.

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Las minorías sexuales y de identidad de género en Guatemala son afectadas de manera desproporcionada por el VIH y otras infecciones transmitidas sexualmente (ITS). Sin embargo, poco se sabe de los factores que contribuyen al riesgo de infección en estas minorías. Investigadores de Estados Unidos y Guatemala quisimos informarnos sobre las necesidades de salud sexual e identificar características de programas de prevención de VIH/ITS para estas minorías. Llevamos a cabo 8 grupos focales con hombres gay, bisexuales y personas transgénero y entrevistas en profundidad con líderes comunitarios. Utilizamos el Método Comparativo Constante para analizar las transcripciones. Identificamos 24 factores que influyen en la salud sexual y 16 características de programas para reducir el riesgo de VIH/ITS en estas poblaciones. La identificación de factores de conductas sexuales de riesgo y de características de programas potencialmente efectivos ofrece gran potencial para desarrollar intervenciones que contribuyan a reducir el riesgo de infección por VIH/ITS en estas minorías en Guatemala. PMID:27494000

  20. Flavobacterium johnsoniae PorV is required for secretion of a subset of proteins targeted to the type IX secretion system.

    PubMed

    Kharade, Sampada S; McBride, Mark J

    2015-01-01

    Flavobacterium johnsoniae exhibits gliding motility and digests many polysaccharides, including chitin. A novel protein secretion system, the type IX secretion system (T9SS), is required for gliding and chitin utilization. The T9SS secretes the cell surface motility adhesins SprB and RemA and the chitinase ChiA. Proteins involved in secretion by the T9SS include GldK, GldL, GldM, GldN, SprA, SprE, and SprT. Porphyromonas gingivalis has orthologs for each of these that are required for secretion of gingipain protease virulence factors by its T9SS. P. gingivalis porU and porV have also been linked to T9SS-mediated secretion, and F. johnsoniae has orthologs of these. Mutations in F. johnsoniae porU and porV were constructed to determine if they function in secretion. Cells of a porV deletion mutant were deficient in chitin utilization and failed to secrete ChiA. They were also deficient in secretion of the motility adhesin RemA but retained the ability to secrete SprB. SprB is involved in gliding motility and is needed for formation of spreading colonies on agar, and the porV mutant exhibited gliding motility and formed spreading colonies. However, the porV mutant was partially deficient in attachment to glass, apparently because of the absence of RemA and other adhesins on the cell surface. The porV mutant also appeared to be deficient in secretion of numerous other proteins that have carboxy-terminal domains associated with targeting to the T9SS. PorU was not required for secretion of ChiA, RemA, or SprB, indicating that it does not play an essential role in the F. johnsoniae T9SS.

  1. [Visceral leishmaniasis in an HIV positive patient].

    PubMed

    Rossiere-Echazarreta, Natalia Lorena; Rodríguez-Campos, Esther Alicia; Morales-Esponda, Mario; Domínguez-Moreno, Rogelio; Cruz-Ortiz, Margarita; Rodríguez-Guzmán, Leoncio Miguel

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: la leishmaniasis visceral o kala azar es la presentación clínica más grave. En México, es una enfermedad rara por lo que su diagnóstico es tardío y generalmente culmina en la muerte del paciente. Se describe a un paciente VIH positivo que desarrolló leishmaniasis visceral. El objetivo es explicar sus características fisiopatológicas y de su tratamiento. Caso clínico: hombre de 45 años de edad, quien ingresó al hospital por cuadro crónico de diarrea sanguinolenta, distensión abdominal, dolor tipo cólico, pérdida de peso y fiebre. A la exploración física se identificó paciente febril con dolor en fosa iliaca derecha y hepatoesplenomegalia. La prueba ELISA para VIH resultó positiva y el ultrasonido hizo evidente una tumoración en ciego, por lo que se realizó biopsia. El informe histopatológico indicó que se trataba de leishmaniasis. Conclusiones: en los pacientes con leishmaniasis e infección por VIH existe pobre respuesta al tratamiento y la mortalidad es alta, causada por la menor respuesta inmune del huésped. En la literatura especializada se sugiere el tratamiento establecido para la infección por VIH combinado con miltefosine y anfotericina B liposomal para la leishmaniasis.

  2. Structural and functional probing of PorZ, an essential bacterial surface component of the type-IX secretion system of human oral-microbiomic Porphyromonas gingivalis.

    PubMed Central

    Lasica, Anna M.; Goulas, Theodoros; Mizgalska, Danuta; Zhou, Xiaoyan; de Diego, Iñaki; Ksiazek, Mirosław; Madej, Mariusz; Guo, Yonghua; Guevara, Tibisay; Nowak, Magdalena; Potempa, Barbara; Goel, Apoorv; Sztukowska, Maryta; Prabhakar, Apurva T.; Bzowska, Monika; Widziolek, Magdalena; Thøgersen, Ida B.; Enghild, Jan J.; Simonian, Mary; Kulczyk, Arkadiusz W.; Nguyen, Ky-Anh; Potempa, Jan; Gomis-Rüth, F. Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis is a member of the human oral microbiome abundant in dysbiosis and implicated in the pathogenesis of periodontal (gum) disease. It employs a newly described type-IX secretion system (T9SS) for secretion of virulence factors. Cargo proteins destined for secretion through T9SS carry a recognition signal in the conserved C-terminal domain (CTD), which is removed by sortase PorU during translocation. Here, we identified a novel component of T9SS, PorZ, which is essential for surface exposure of PorU and posttranslational modification of T9SS cargo proteins. These include maturation of enzyme precursors, CTD removal and attachment of anionic lipopolysaccharide for anchorage in the outer membrane. The crystal structure of PorZ revealed two β-propeller domains and a C-terminal β-sandwich domain, which conforms to the canonical CTD architecture. We further documented that PorZ is itself transported to the cell surface via T9SS as a full-length protein with its CTD intact, independently of the presence or activity of PorU. Taken together, our results shed light on the architecture and possible function of a novel component of the T9SS. Knowledge of how T9SS operates will contribute to our understanding of protein secretion as part of host-microbiome interactions by dysbiotic members of the human oral cavity. PMID:27883039

  3. Influence of Various Polymorphic Variants of Cytochrome P450 Oxidoreductase (POR) on Drug Metabolic Activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6

    PubMed Central

    Naranmandura, Hua; Zeng, Su; Chen, Shu Qing

    2012-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR) is known as the sole electron donor in the metabolism of drugs by cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in human. However, little is known about the effect of polymorphic variants of POR on drug metabolic activities of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6. In order to better understand the mechanism of the activity of CYPs affected by polymorphic variants of POR, six full-length mutants of POR (e.g., Y181D, A287P, K49N, A115V, S244C and G413S) were designed and then co-expressed with CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in the baculovirus-Sf9 insect cells to determine their kinetic parameters. Surprisingly, both mutants, Y181D and A287P in POR completely inhibited the CYP3A4 activity with testosterone, while the catalytic activity of CYP2B6 with bupropion was reduced to approximately ∼70% of wild-type activity by Y181D and A287P mutations. In addition, the mutant K49N of POR increased the CLint (Vmax/Km) of CYP3A4 up to more than 31% of wild-type, while it reduced the catalytic efficiency of CYP2B6 to 74% of wild-type. Moreover, CLint values of CYP3A4-POR (A115V, G413S) were increased up to 36% and 65% of wild-type respectively. However, there were no appreciable effects observed by the remaining two mutants of POR (i.e., A115V and G413S) on activities of CYP2B6. In conclusion, the extent to which the catalytic activities of CYP were altered did not only depend on the specific POR mutations but also on the isoforms of different CYP redox partners. Thereby, we proposed that the POR-mutant patients should be carefully monitored for the activity of CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 on the prescribed medication. PMID:22719896

  4. Análise dos Conceitos Astronômicos Apresentados por Professores de Algumas Escolas Estaduais Brasileiras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voelzke, Marcos Rincon; Gonzaga, Edson Pereira

    2011-12-01

    A razão para o desenvolvimento deste trabalho baseia-se no fato de que muitos professores da Educação Básica (EB) não lidam com conceitos relacionados à astronomia, e quando o fazem eles simplesmente seguem livros didáticos que podem conter erros conceituais. Como é de conhecimento geral a astronomia é um dos conteúdos a serem ensinados na EB fazendo parte dos Parâmetros Curriculares Nacionais e das Propostas Curriculares do Estado de São Paulo, mas é um fato, que vários pesquisadores apontam, a existência de muitos problemas no ensino da astronomia. Com o propósito de minimizar algumas dessas deficiências foi realizado um trabalho de pesquisa com a utilização de questionários pré e pós pesquisa, para tanto foi desenvolvido um Curso de Extensão Universitária para professores da Diretoria de Ensino Regional (DE) que abrange Mauá, Ribeirão Pires e Rio Grande da Serra (no Estado de São Paulo) com os seguintes objetivos: levantar concepções alternativas; subsidiar os professores por meio de palestras, debates e workshops, e verificar o sucesso da aprendizagem após o curso, adotando-se como referência, para a análise dos resultados, os dicionários de Língua Portuguesa (FERREIRA, 2004) e Enciclopédico de Astronomia e Astronáutica (MOURĀO, 1995). Portanto, dezesseis questões foram aplicadas antes e após o curso, assim pode-se verificar após a pesquisa que 100,0% dos professores sabiam os nomes das fases da Lua, 97,0% entenderam que o Sistema Solar é composto por oito planetas, 78,1% foram capazes de explicar como ocorre um eclipse lunar, um eclipse solar e um solstício, 72,7% sabiam como explicar a ocorrência das estações do ano; 64,5% explicaram corretamente a ocorrência do equinócio, 89,7% foram capazes de definir adequadamente o termo cometa; 63,6% definiram asteróide, 54,5% meteoro, 58,1% galáxia, e 42,4% planeta. Os resultados obtidos indicam uma aprendizagem significativa por parte dos participantes.

  5. "Estudio tribologico de aceros para moldes. Aplicacion al moldeo por inyeccion de polibutilentereftalato reforzado con fibra de vidrio"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez Mateo, Isidoro Jose

    Mould materials for injection moulding of polymers and polymer-matrix composites represent a relevant industrial economic sector due to the large quantity of pieces and components processed. The material selection for mould manufacturing, its composition and heat treatment, the hardening procedures and machining and finishing processes determine the service performance and life of the mould. In the first part of the present study, the relationship between the hardness and microstructure and the wear resistance of mould steels from large blocks has been studied by pin-on-disc tests, studying the main wear mechanisms. In order to determine the surface damage on mould steels under real injection conditions, different commercial steels have been studied by measuring the variation of surface roughness with the number of injected pieces with different reinforcement percentages and different mould geometries, by using optical profilometry and scanning electron microscopy techniques. It was important to determine the variation of surface roughness of the moulded pieces with the number of injection operations. The materials used were polybutyleneterephthalate pure and reinforced with either 20% or 50% glass fibre. For the different mould designs, the evolution of the glass fibre orientation with injection flow has been determined by image analysis and related to roughness changes and surface damage, both of the composite parts and of the mould steel surface. Finally, the abrasion resistance of the composite parts has been studied by scratch tests as a function of the number of injected parts and of the scratch direction with respect to injection flow and glass fibre orientation. Los materiales para moldes de inyeccion de polimeros y materiales compuestos representan un sector economicamente muy relevante debido al gran aumento del numero de componentes fabricados a partir de materiales polimericos obtenidos mediante moldeo por inyeccion. La seleccion del material para la

  6. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray analysis of the C-terminal fragment of PorM, a subunit of the Porphyromonas gingivalis type IX secretion system

    PubMed Central

    Stathopulos, Julien; Cambillau, Christian; Cascales, Eric; Roussel, Alain; Leone, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    PorM is a membrane protein involved in the assembly of the type IX secretion system (T9SS) from Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major bacterial pathogen responsible for periodontal disease in humans. The periplasmic domain of PorM was overexpressed in Escherichia coli and purified. A fragment of the purified protein was obtained by limited proteolysis. Crystals of this fragment belonged to the tetragonal space group P43212. Native and MAD data sets were recorded to 2.85 and 3.1 Å resolution, respectively, using synchrotron radiation. PMID:25615973

  7. [Crusted scabies in HIV/AIDS infected patients. Report of 15 cases].

    PubMed

    Tirado-Sánchez, Andrés; Bonifaz, Alexandro; Montes de Oca-Sánchez, Griselda; Araiza-Santibañez, Javier; Ponce-Olivera, Rosa María

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: la sarna costrosa (Noruega) es una enfermedad rara que se presenta en pacientes con un sistema inmunológico comprometido, como los pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA. Reportamos 15 casos de sarna costrosa en pacientes con infección por VIH/SIDA tratados exitosamente con ivermectina oral. Casos clínicos: la media de edad de los pacientes fue de 43.7 ± 8.06 y el diagnóstico se hizo en una mediana de cinco meses. Todos los pacientes tenían diagnóstico de infección por VIH/SIDA en tratamiento con terapia antirretroviral. Los pacientes fueron tratados con dosis repetidas de ivermectina oral con diferentes esquemas; tuvieron una buena tolerancia y el tratamiento fue eficaz, pues hubo una resolución completa y sin recidiva. Conclusiones: la ivermectina es el tratamiento de elección de la sarna costrosa. Es un medicamento tolerable y accesible para el paciente. Los pacientes inmunosuprimidos son los que presentan más riesgo de contraerla; resaltamos la importancia del raspado de las lesiones para hacer un diagnóstico correcto y temprano.

  8. Community-based education in nutrition and cancer: the Por La Vida Cuidándome curriculum.

    PubMed

    Navarro, A M; Rock, C L; McNicholas, L J; Senn, K L; Moreno, C

    2000-01-01

    The Por La Vida (PLV) intervention model relies on community lay health advisors trained to conduct education sessions among members of their existing social networks. PLV Cuidándome was funded by the NCI to develop, implement, and evaluate the PLV model with respect to nutrition and cancer prevention, as well as early detection of breast and cervical cancers. The target population is the Latino community, for which substantial barriers to health care access exist. This article presents the curriculum that guides the sessions and describes its development, which was based on semi-structured interviews with Latina lay-health community workers to explore relevant attitudes and behaviors. Also key to the process was the work of the educational materials committee, whose members offered community representation as well as expertise in nutritional sciences, educational technologies, and community-based health promotion interventions and research. The 12-session curriculum's goal was to increase both the variety and the quality of fruits and/or vegetables consumed. It included information about consumption of fiber and fat in the importance of balance between energy intake and physical activity. The program has been well received. An ongoing study examines how it enhances nutrition and cancer prevention.

  9. El proceso hacia la integracion de la equidad por genero al curriculo.(The Process of the Integration of Gender Equity in the Curriculum.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivera-Bermudez, Carmen D.

    "El Proyecto Colaborativo de Equidad por Genero en la Educacion," or the Collaborative Project for Gender Equity in Education, was undertaken in Puerto Rico between 1990 and 1992 to study how to facilitate the integration of gender equity themes in the curriculum through the direct action of participating teachers. A study examined the…

  10. P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H functionalization of biaryl derivatives to synthesize chiral phosphorous ligands.

    PubMed

    Hu, Rong-Bin; Wang, Hong-Li; Zhang, Hong-Yu; Zhang, Heng; Ma, Yan-Na; Yang, Shang-Dong

    2014-01-01

    Chiral phosphorus ligands have been widely used in transition metal-catalyzed asymmetric reactions. Herein, we report a new synthesis approach of chiral biaryls containing a phosphorus moiety using P(O)R2-directed Pd-catalyzed C-H activation; the functionalized products are produced with good enantioselectivity.

  11. Adjuvant effects elicited by novel oligosaccharide variants of detoxified meningococcal lipopolysaccharides on Neisseria meningitidis recombinant PorA protein: a comparison in mice.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Ojas H; Norheim, Gunnstein; Hoe, J Claire; Rollier, Christine S; Nagaputra, Jerry C; Makepeace, Katherine; Saleem, Muhammad; Chan, Hannah; Ferguson, David J P; Jones, Claire; Sadarangani, Manish; Hood, Derek W; Feavers, Ian; Derrick, Jeremy P; Pollard, Andrew J; Moxon, E Richard

    2014-01-01

    Neisseria meningitidis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has adjuvant properties that can be exploited to assist vaccine immunogenicity. The modified penta-acylated LPS retains the adjuvant properties of hexa-acylated LPS but has a reduced toxicity profile. In this study we investigated whether two modified glycoform structures (LgtE and IcsB) of detoxified penta-acylated LPS exhibited differential adjuvant properties when formulated as native outer membrane vesicles (nOMVs) as compared to the previously described LgtB variant. Detoxified penta-acylated LPS was obtained by disruption of the lpxL1 gene (LpxL1 LPS), and three different glycoforms were obtained by disruption of the lgtB, lgtE or icsB genes respectively. Mice (mus musculus) were immunized with a recombinant PorA P1.7-2,4 (rPorA) protein co-administered with different nOMVs (containing a different PorA serosubtype P1.7,16), each of which expressed one of the three penta-acylated LPS glycoforms. All nOMVs induced IgG responses against the rPorA, but the nOMVs containing the penta-acylated LgtB-LpxL1 LPS glycoform induced significantly greater bactericidal activity compared to the other nOMVs or when the adjuvant was Alhydrogel. Compared to LgtE or IcsB LPS glycoforms, these data support the use of nOMVs containing detoxified, modified LgtB-LpxL1 LPS as a potential adjuvant for future meningococcal protein vaccines.

  12. Astronomy in the Classroom: Why? (Spanish Title: Astronomía en la Clase: ¿Por Qué?) Astronomia na Sala de Aula: Por Quê?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daros Gama, Leandro; Bagdonas Henrique, Alexandre

    2010-07-01

    There are many discussions about the relevance of the topics covered in classes. One subject in particular is the focus of this essay: astronomy. In what sense and to what extent it would be worth to teach it in science or other kind of classes? In this paper we discuss some aspects of the advantages of dealing with this area of knowledge in schools, taking into account the epistemological and axiological dimensions of astronomy, in light of the vision of science as an intelligent dialogue with the world (Bachelard), in addition to the "problematization" knowledge of Paulo Freire. We propose that in fact the Astronomy does not need to be seen as just a new set of contents to be taught, but appears as a set of motivational contents for historical-philosophical discussions, and permit the discussion of concepts of other disciplines. Numerosas discusiones se están llevando a cabo acerca de la pertinencia de los temas tradicionalmente tratados en las clases. Uno de los temas, en particular, es el foco de este ensayo: la astronomía. ¿En qué sentido y en qué medida sería conveniente tratarla en clase, ya sea en clases de ciencias naturales, específicamente en las de astronomía o asignaturas afines? Elaboramos en este artículo algunos aspectos de las ventajas de tratar esta área del conocimiento en las escuelas, teniendo en cuenta las dimensiones epistemológica y axiológica de la astronomía, a la luz de la visión de la ciencia como un diálogo inteligente con el mundo (Bachelard), además de la propuesta del conocimiento "problematizador" de Paulo Freire. Proponemos que en realidad la astronomía no tiene por qué ser vista sólo como un nuevo conjunto de contenidos que se enseñan, sino que aparece como un conjunto de temas de motivación para el debate histórico-filosófico y para permitir la discusión de los conceptos típicos de otras disciplinas. Muitas discussões vêm acontecendo sobre a relevância dos temas abordados em sala de aula. Um tema, em

  13. Obtención de la curva de luz en la ocultación de 35 Sgr por Júpiter el 6 de marzo de 1996

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paolantonio, S.; Duffard, R.; Carranza, G.

    La ocultación de la estrella de quinta magnitud 35 Sgr por Júpiter, se produjo el 6 de Marzo de 1996 a las 13 hs. TU. El objetivo era medir el cambio del flujo de la estrella en el ingreso y egreso por el limbo del planeta. Con estos datos se pueden determinar parámetros físicos del planeta (radio, eccentricidad) y de su atmósfera (escala de altura, temperatura, densidad, presión) Para lograr ésto se programó la cámara CCD TH 7896 1024 x 1025 instalada en el telescopio de 1.54 m de Bosque Alegre con el objetivo de lograr 2 imágenes por segundo. De esta forma se obtuvieron 2100 imágenes de la inmersión y otras tantas de la emersión. Hubo que tener grandes precauciones para evitar la saturación del CCD ya que la observación se realizó de día. En este momento las imágenes se encuentran en el Department of Planetary Sciences, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, para su reducción.

  14. HIV/AIDS Indicators for Clinical Care Quality Assessment: Relevance and Utility Assessed by Health Professionals.

    PubMed

    Catumbela, Emanuel Castro Cassoco; Santos, Cristina; Freitas, Alberto; Costa, Carlos; Sarmento, António; Costa Pereira, Altamiro

    2016-06-01

    Introdução: Após a realização de uma revisão sistemática sobre indicadores de qualidade para avaliar os cuidados clínicos prestados a doentes com infecção VIH/ SIDA, procuramos avaliar a relevância e utilidade clínica prática desses indicadores, do ponto de vista dos médicos especialistas em doenças infecciosas, incluindo VIH/ SIDA. Material e Métodos: Este é um estudo observacional, transversal, em que foram selecionados, por conveniência, os médicos que trabalham em um Departamento de Doenças Infecciosas de um hospital central, para responder a dois questionários, com um conjunto básico de indicadores, selecionando aqueles mais relevantes e úteis para a avaliação dos cuidados clínicos para avaliação do atendimento clínico prestado aos doentes com infeção por VIH/SIDA. A escala do tipo Likert foi utilizada para classificar os indicadores. Resultados: Onze dos treze médicos preencheram os dois questionários. A partir da lista inicial de 53 indicadores de qualidade, 21 foram identificados como os mais relevantes e úteis para avaliar os cuidados clínicos prestados a doentes com infeção por VIH/SIDA. A consistência interna para a relevância clínica, em cada domínio de indicadores foi quanto à relevância clínica – sinais clínicos (p = 0,971), terapêutica (p = 0,900), prognóstico (p = 0,820) e diagnóstico (p = 0,733) e quanto à utilidade prática – diagnóstico (p = 0,934), sinais clínicos (p = 0,964), exames laboratoriais (p = 0,947), terapêutica (p = 0,583) e prognóstico (p = 0,368). Discussão: No processo de avaliação da relevância clínica e utilidade prática dos indicadores de qualidade de cuidados prestados a doentes com infeção por VIH/SIDA, descobrimos que a maioria dos médicos concorda que os indicadores dos domínios de diagnóstico, sinais e sintomas clínicos são os mais importantes para avaliar a qualidade dos cuidados clínicos prestados a doentes com infeção por VIH/SIDA. Conclusão: Este

  15. A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorrhyncha) from coffee shrubs and poró and laurel trees in shaded coffee plantations, in Turrialba, Costa Rica.

    PubMed

    Rojas, L; Godoy, C; Hanson, P; Hilje, L

    2001-01-01

    A survey of homopteran species (Auchenorryncha) was conducted in coffee plantations with no shade (C), and in those with shade of either poró (Erythrina poeppigiana) (CP) or poró plus laurel (Cordia alliodora) (CPL), in Turrialba, Costa Rica. A total of 130 species in ten families were collected, dominated by Cicadellidae (82 species). Species richness was highest in the CP system (88), followed by CPL (74) and C systems (60). Five most common species for all systems were Fusigonalia lativittata, Hebralebra nicaraguensis, Neocoelidia sp., Oliarus sp. and Clastoptera sp. Diversification of the coffee agroecosystem favors some species while limiting others, and have no effect on the majority of species. Thus, only F. lativittata, Neocoelidia sp. and Scaphytopius ca. latidens were well represented in all systems, but were more abundant in coffee shrubs. Additionally, the following were the dominant species in each system: Graphocephala sp. 1 (C), F. lativittata (CP) and H. nicaraguensis (CPL). Four species abundant on laurel trees, including H. nicaraguensis, appeared almost exclusively on these tree species. Species similarity was highest on the CP and CPL systems (51% of the species in common), followed by the C and CP (39%) and the C and CPL systems (38%). These findings show that even disturbed systems can harbor many insect species, so that they deserve attention from conservation advocates and biologists.

  16. A Fast Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction Method for Sensitive and Specific Detection of the Neisseria gonorrhoeae porA Pseudogene

    PubMed Central

    Hjelmevoll, Stig Ove; Olsen, Merethe Elise; Sollid, Johanna U. Ericson; Haaheim, Håkon; Unemo, Magnus; Skogen, Vegard

    2006-01-01

    Ever since the advent of molecular methods, the diagnostics of Neisseria gonorrhoeae has been troubled by false negative and false positive results compared with culture. Commensal Neisseria species and Neisseria meningitidis are closely related to N. gonorrhoeae and may cross-react when using molecular tests comprising too-low specificity. We have devised a real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), including an internal amplification control, that targets the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene. DNA was automatically isolated on a BioRobot M48. Our subsequent PCR method amplified all of the different N. gonorrhoeae international reference strains (n = 34) and N. gonorrhoeae clinical isolates (n = 176) but not isolates of the 13 different nongonococcal Neisseria species (n = 68) that we tested. Furthermore, a panel of gram-negative bacterial (n = 18), gram-positive bacterial (n = 23), fungal (n = 1), and viral (n = 4) as well as human DNA did not amplify. The limit of detection was determined to be less than 7.5 genome equivalents/PCR reaction. In conclusion, the N. gonorrhoeae porA pseudogene real-time PCR developed in the present study is highly sensitive, specific, robust, rapid and reproducible, making it suitable for diagnosis of N. gonorrhoeae infection. PMID:17065426

  17. [Clinical and bacteriological profiles of the urinary infections associated the VIH/AIDS in hospital area of Bamako, Mali].

    PubMed

    Dao, S; Oumar, A A; Dembele, J P; Noutache, J L; Fongoro, S; Maiga, I; Bougoudogo, F

    2007-01-01

    The syndrome of immunodepression is the bed of multiple infections of which urinary infections. The goal of this study was to determine the aspects clinical and bacteriological urinary infections during the AIDS with the service of the infectious diseases of the hospital of the Point G of February 1, 2003 to June 30 2005. The diagnosis of the urinary infection was retained on the basis of bacteria number > or =10(4) bacteriury and or leucocytes count > or =10(5)/mm3. The prevalence of the urinary infection was estimated at 8.85%. The principal clinical aspects were a symptomatic pyelonephritis 73.5%, the leucocytiury 11.8%, the cystitis 8.8%, and acute prostatitis 5.9%. Escherichia coli was the most frequent bacterium (46.7%). The sensitivity of the germs was 91.7% with the aminosides, 90.9% with the fluoroquinolones, from 63.6 to 80% respectively with the cephalosporines of first and second generation. Resistance to ampicilline, chloramphenicol and sulfamides was about 72 and 80%. The systematic research of the urinary infection is necessary during the AIDS and the antibiotherapy of choice in first intention in absence of etiologic possibility of diagnosis should be the aminosides and or the fluoroquinolones.

  18. Desarrollo de una intervención grupal para la prevención del VIH en parejas heterosexuales.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Escabí Montalvo, Aracelis; Del Carmen Cabrera Aponte, María

    2010-01-01

    HIV preventive efforts with heterosexual couples are almost nonexistent. We designed a group intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model with the aim of increasing male condom use and promoting the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex alternative. We carried out a pilot study with four couples to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention and the aspects of content and format that needed to be modified. Findings reflect that participants were very satisfied with the intervention and they found it entertaining and innovative. They were very comfortable with its format, as well as with the activities. The findings confirm the feasibility of this intervention and the need to direct preventive efforts to this population.

  19. Desarrollo de una intervención grupal para la prevención del VIH en parejas heterosexuales1

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Jiménez, David; Escabí Montalvo, Aracelis; del Carmen Cabrera Aponte, María

    2012-01-01

    HIV preventive efforts with heterosexual couples are almost nonexistent. We designed a group intervention based on the Information-Motivation-Behavioral Skills model with the aim of increasing male condom use and promoting the practice of mutual masturbation as a safer sex alternative. We carried out a pilot study with four couples to evaluate the feasibility of the intervention and the aspects of content and format that needed to be modified. Findings reflect that participants were very satisfied with the intervention and they found it entertaining and innovative. They were very comfortable with its format, as well as with the activities. The findings confirm the feasibility of this intervention and the need to direct preventive efforts to this population. PMID:23847716

  20. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo para infecciones del tracto urinario de inicio en la comunidad causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Blanco, Victor M.; Maya, Juan J.; Correa, Adriana; Perenguez, Marcela; Muñoz, Juan S.; Motoa, Gabriel; Pallares, Christian J.; Rosso, Fernando; Matta, Lorena; Celis, Yamile; Garzon, Martha; Villegas, y María V.

    2016-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción Las infecciones del tracto urinario (ITU) son frecuentes en la comunidad. Sin embargo, la información de aislamientos resistentes en este contexto es limitada en Latinoamérica. Este estudio tiene como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y los factores de riesgo asociados con ITU de inicio en la comunidad (ITU-IC) causadas por Escherichia coli productor de betalactamasas de espectro extendido (BLEE) en Colombia. Materiales y métodos Entre agosto y diciembre de 2011 se realizó un estudio de casos y controles en 3 instituciones de salud de tercer nivel en Colombia. Se invitó a participar a todos los pacientes admitidos a urgencias con diagnóstico probable de ITU-IC, y se les pidió una muestra de orina. En los aislamien-tos de E. coli se realizaron pruebas confirmatorias para BLEE, susceptibilidad antibiótica, caracterización molecular (PCR en tiempo real para genes bla, repetitive element palindromic PCR [rep-PCR], multilocus sequence typing [MLST] y factores de virulencia por PCR). Se obtuvo información clínica y epidemiológica, y posteriormente se realizó el análisis estadístico. Resultados De los 2.124 pacientes seleccionados, 629 tuvieron un urocultivo positivo, en 431 de estos se aisló E. coli, 54 fueron positivos para BLEE y 29 correspondieron a CTX-M-15. La mayoría de los aislamientos de E. coli productor de BLEE fueron sensibles a ertapenem, fosfomicina y amikacina. La ITU complicada se asoció fuertemente con infecciones por E. coli productor de BLEE (OR = 3,89; IC 95%: 1,10–13,89; p = 0,03). E. coli productor de CTX-M-15 mostró 10 electroferotipos diferentes; de estos, el 65% correspondieron al ST131. La mayoría de estos aislamientos tuvieron 8 de los 9 factores de virulencia analizados. Discusión E. coli portador del gen blaCTX-M-15 asociado al ST131 sigue siendo frecuente en Colombia. La presencia de ITU-IC complicada aumenta el riesgo de tener E. coli productor de BLEE, lo cual debe tenerse en cuenta para ofrecer

  1. PubMed

    Rodríguez, Yarimar Rosa; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2008-01-01

    El proceso de estigmatización asume una devaluación de la persona debido a una característica o marca que haya sido identificada socialmente y que permita que se le describa como diferente. Desde que se desató la epidemia del VIH/SIDA, vivir con la enfermedad ha sido señalado de manera social como una marca estigmatizante. Las manifestaciones de dicha estigmatización se han documentado entre profesionales de la salud. Este estigma puede afectar los servicios de salud que las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA reciben de estos profesionales. Los objetivos de esta investigación fueron explorar: 1) la percepción que tienen estudiantes y profesionales de la salud sobre su nivel de competencia para ofrecer servicios a personas que viven con VIH/SIDA, 2) las opiniones de éstos sobre el tipo de adiestramiento profesional recibido y la necesidad del mismo, y 3) la manifestación de actitudes estigmatizantes como indicadores de necesidad de adiestramiento profesional. La muestra total del estudio estuvo compuesta por 80 de diversas profesiones de la salud. Los resultados reflejan que algunos/as de los/as participantes han recibido formación en VIH pero ésta no ha sido suficiente para contrarrestar las nociones estigmatizantes. Discutimos las implicaciones de los resultados para investigaciones futuras y el desarrollo de intervenciones con vías de minimizar las nociones estigmatizantes en los escenarios de salud.

  2. Feasibility and effectiveness of two community-based HIV testing models in rural Swaziland

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Lucy Anne; Jobanputra, Kiran; Rusike, Lorraine; Mazibuko, Sikhathele; Okello, Velephi; Kerschberger, Bernhard; Jouquet, Guillaume; Cyr, Joanne; Teck, Roger

    2015-01-01

    ) en zonas rurales de Suazilandia. Métodos Las estrategias utilizadas fueron la de APV en instalaciones clínicas móviles (APVM) y el APV realizado en el hogar (APVBH). Se obtuvo información sobre la edad, el sexo, la realización de pruebas anteriores y resultados de VIH de los informes rutinarios de APV. A una serie consecutiva de individuos que habían dado positivo en la prueba de VIH se les siguió durante 6 meses a partir del día de la prueba, con el fin de evaluar la conexión posterior a los cuidados y tratamiento adecuados. Resultados Se evaluaron 9,060 personas: 2,034 mediante APVM y 7,026 mediante APVBH. A una mayor proporción de niños y adolescentes (<20 años) se les realizó la prueba mediante APVBH que mediante APVM (57% vs. 17%; p<0.001). El APVM llegó a una mayor proporción de hombres adultos que el APVBH (42% vs. 39%; p=0.015). De 398 individuos VIH positivos, solo 135 (34%) estaban recibiendo atención y cuidados para el VIH después de 6 meses. De 42 individuos elegibles para Terapia Antirretroviral, 22 (52%) comenzaron el tratamiento dentro de los 6 meses siguientes a la prueba. La vinculación a los cuidados y atención para VIH posterior a la prueba era menor entre aquellos que habían dado previamente positivo y aquellos con edades entre 20-40 años. El APVBH era un 50% más barato (US$11 por persona a la que se le realizó la prueba, $797 por individuo recibiendo cuidados para VIH) que el APVM ($24 y $1698, respectivamente). Conclusión En este emplazamiento con una alta prevalencia de VIH, un programa de prueba para el VIH basado en la comunidad alcanzó un alto nivel de aceptación de la prueba, y parece ser una manera efectiva y económicamente asumible de animar a un gran número de personas a conocer su estatus de VIH (en particular población actualmente poco alcanzada como los hombres y personas jóvenes). Sin embargo, para que el APV comunitario tenga un impacto sobre la mortalidad y la incidencia, es necesario implementar

  3. Concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as de biologia y futuros maestros/as de Ciencia de escuela secundaria sobre la teoria de evolucion biologica por seleccion natural

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morales Ramos, Egda M.

    La teoria de evolucion biologica (TEB) por seleccion natural es uno de los conceptos unificadores mas importantes del curriculo de Biologia. En Puerto Rico se han hecho pocas investigaciones que abunden sobre las concepciones y concepciones alternativas (CA) que tienen los estudiantes universitarios/as de Biologia y los maestros/as de Ciencia del nivel secundario sobre esta teoria. La politica publica educativa actual establece mediante documentos normativos como los Estandares de contenido y Expectativas de grado del Programa de Ciencias [Puerto Rico Core Standards] la ensenanza de esta teoria. Sin embargo, no se encontraron preguntas sobre la seleccion natural en los ejercicios de practica provistos por el Departamento de Educacion para las pruebas estandarizadas lo cual puede influir para que no se ensene adecuadamente. Las preguntas de investigacion fueron 1. ¿Cuales son las concepciones y concepciones alternativas de estudiantes universitarios/as y de los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB? 2. ¿Cuales conceptos que seleccionan los estudiantes universitarios/as y los futuros maestros y maestras de Ciencia sobre la TEB coinciden con lo aceptado como valido por la comunidad cientifica? y 3. ¿Como comparan las respuestas de la prueba original. v. Entendiendo el cambio biologico que mide concepciones y CA sobre la TEB por seleccion natural, con las de la traducida al idioma espanol? Se utilizo el metodo cuantitativo con un diseno de investigacion transversal por encuesta. La tecnica principal para recopilar los datos fue una prueba con doce items, que formo parte de un instrumento para el cual se recopilaron diversas fuentes de evidencia acerca de su validez. Las muestras estuvieron formadas por 69 estudiantes de Ciencias Naturales y por 16 estudiantes futuros maestros y maestras del nivel secundario de la UPR-RP. Se utilizaron estadisticas descriptivas, analisis de Ji cuadrado y se calcularon los coeficientes alfa de Cronbach y de Spearman

  4. Relación masa-radio para estrellas enanas blancas y la interpretación de recientes mediciones hechas por Hipparcos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panei, J. A.; Althaus, L. G.; Benvenuto, O. G.

    Recientes mediciones de la masa y el radio hechas por Hipparcos de las estrellas enanas blancas 40 Eri B y Procyon B (Shipman, H. & Provencal, J. - ApJ. 1998, 494, 759), sugieren un núcleo compuesto de hierro para dichas estrellas, en lugar de carbono y oxígeno como predice la teoría standard de evolución estelar. Para interpretar estas observaciones, presentamos aquí, relaciones masa-radio para configuraciones degeneradas a temperatura finita para distintas composiciones químicas centrales. Para tal fin hemos calculado secuencias evolutivas de enanas blancas utilizando el código de evolución estelar, desarrollado en el Observatorio de La Plata. Dicho código resuelve las ecuaciones de estructura y evolución estelar mediante la técnica de relajación de Henyey, y esta basado en una descripción física muy detallada y actualizada.

  5. Bifurcación de las soluciones de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas Be: formación de líneas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curé, M.; Rial, D.; Cidale, L.; Venero, R.

    Se ha estudiado la topología de la ecuación hidrodinámica no-lineal que describe el perfil de velocidades de vientos impulsados por radiación en estrellas tempranas. Al aplicar este modelo a estrellas Be se encuentra que existen dos tipos De soluciones: la estándar, que describe el viento polar, y una nueva, que describe un viento más denso y lento y que explicaría el disco que se encuentra alrededor de estos objetos. Existe una región de transición en donde ambas soluciones coexisten (bifurcación}). Ambas soluciones satisfacen en esta región las mismas condiciones de borde. Para estas dos soluciones se han obtenido los perfiles de líneas de hidrógeno del visible y del IR, resolviendo el transporte de radiación en el ``comoving frame". Para la solución estándar, se obtienen perfiles con componentes en emisión, mientras que para la nueva solución se obtienen perfiles en absorción. Se comparan cualitativamente los resultados con las observaciones.

  6. Weight of ABCB1 and POR genes on oral tacrolimus exposure in CYP3A5 nonexpressor pediatric patients with stable kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Almeida-Paulo, G N; Dapía García, I; Lubomirov, R; Borobia, A M; Alonso-Sánchez, N L; Espinosa, L; Carcas-Sansuán, A J

    2017-01-17

    Tacrolimus (TAC) is highly effective for the prevention of acute organ rejection. However, its clinical use may be challenging due to its large interindividual pharmacokinetic variability, which can be partially explained by genetic variations in TAC-metabolizing enzymes and transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic and clinical factors on TAC pharmacokinetic variability in 21 stable pediatric renal transplant patients. This study was nested in a previous Prograf to Advagraf conversion clinical trial. CYP3A5, ABCB1 and two POR genotypes were assessed by real-time PCR. The impact on TAC pharmacokinetics of individual genetic variants on CYP3A5 nonexpressors was evaluated by genetic score. Explicative models for TAC AUC0-24h, Cmax and Cmin after Advagraf were developed by linear regression. The built genetic scores explain 13.7 and 26.5% of the total AUC0-24h and Cmin total variability, respectively. Patients genetic information should be considered to monitorizate and predict TAC exposure.The Pharmacogenomics Journal advance online publication, 17 January 2017; doi:10.1038/tpj.2016.93.

  7. IgE Reactivity of Blue Swimmer Crab (Portunus pelagicus) Tropomyosin, Por p 1, and Other Allergens; Cross-Reactivity with Black Tiger Prawn and Effects of Heating

    PubMed Central

    Varese, Nirupama; Zubrinich, Celia; Lopata, Andreas L.; O'Hehir, Robyn E.; Rolland, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Shellfish allergy is a major cause of food-induced anaphylaxis, but the allergens are not well characterized. This study examined the effects of heating on blue swimmer crab (Portunus pelagicus) allergens in comparison with those of black tiger prawn (Penaeus monodon) by testing reactivity with shellfish-allergic subjects' serum IgE. Cooked extracts of both species showed markedly increased IgE reactivity by ELISA and immunoblotting, and clinical relevance of IgE reactivity was confirmed by basophil activation tests. Inhibition IgE ELISA and immunoblotting demonstrated cross-reactivity between the crab and prawn extracts, predominantly due to tropomyosin, but crab-specific IgE-reactivity was also observed. The major blue swimmer crab allergen tropomyosin, Por p 1, was cloned and sequenced, showing strong homology with tropomyosin of other crustacean species but also sequence variation within known and predicted linear IgE epitopes. These findings will advance more reliable diagnosis and management of potentially severe food allergy due to crustaceans. PMID:23840718

  8. Fuentes de variabilidad en el diagnóstico de gastritis atrófica multifocal asociada con la infección por Helicobacter pylori1

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Luis Eduardo; Bravo, Juan Carlos; Realpe, José Luis; Zarama, Guillermo; Piazuelo, MarÍa Blanca; Correa, Pelayo

    2014-01-01

    RESUMEN Introducción El mapeo de las diferentes regiones del estómago y el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica disponibles para evaluación histopatológica son fuentes importantes de variación en el momento de clasificar y hacer la gradación de la gastritis crónica. Objetivos Estimar la sensibilidad del número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica necesarios para establecer los diagnósticos de gastritis atrófica con metaplasia intestinal (MI), displasia y estado de infección por Helicobacter pylori. Además evaluar la variabilidad intra-observador en la clasificación de estas lesiones precursoras del cáncer gástrico. Materiales y métodos En una cohorte de 6 años de seguimiento se evaluaron 1,958 procedimientos de endoscopia realizados por dos gastroenterólogos. En cada procedimiento y de cada participante se obtuvieron 5 biopsias de mucosa gástrica que representaban antro, incisura angularis y cuerpo. Un único patólogo hizo la interpretación histológica de las 5 biopsias y proporcionó un diagnóstico definitivo global que se utilizó como patrón de referencia. Cada fragmento de mucosa gástrica examinado condujo a un diagnóstico individual para cada biopsia que se comparó con el patrón de referencia. La variabilidad intra-observador se evaluó en 127 personas que corresponden a una muestra aleatoria de 20% del total de endoscopias hechas a los 72 meses de seguimiento. Resultados La sensibilidad del diagnóstico de MI y displasia gástrica aumentó de manera significativa con el número de fragmentos de mucosa gástrica evaluados El sitio anatómico de mayor sensibilidad para el diagnóstico de MI y displasia fue la incisura angularis. Para descubrir H. pylori se logró alta sensibilidad con el estudio de un solo fragmento de mucosa gástrica (95.9%) y fue independiente del sitio de obtención de la biopsia. El acuerdo intra-observador para el diagnóstico de gastritis crónica fue 86.1% con valor kappa de 0.79 IC 95% (0.76-0.85). Las

  9. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes.

    PubMed

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu(4)NHSO(5)), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu(4)NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols=CH(3)OH, C(2)H(5)OH, i-C(3)H(7)OH, t-C(4)H(9)OH) in CH(2)Cl(2), were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) Mn(III)(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C(4)H(9)OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO(5)(-) to O(2) and HSO(4)(-), through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  10. A UV-vis study of the effects of alcohols on formation and stability of Mn(por)(O)(OAc) complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohajer, Daryoush; Jahanbani, Maryam

    2012-06-01

    Interactions of three different (acetato) (tetraarylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(por) with tetra-n-butylammonium hydrogen monopersulfate (n-Bu4NHSO5), in the presence of excess tetra-n-butylammonium acetate (n-Bu4NOAc) and in the absence or presence of various alcohols (alcohols = CH3OH, C2H5OH, i-C3H7OH, t-C4H9OH) in CH2Cl2, were monitored by their UV-vis spectral changes, under identical conditions, at room temperature. (Acetato) (tetrakispentafluorophenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpfpp)(OAc) and (acetato) (tetramesitylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tmp)(OAc) produced their corresponding high valent Mn(tpfpp)(O)(OAc) and Mn(tmp)(O)(OAc) both in the absence or presence of alcohols. Whereas, (acetato) (tetraphenylporphyrinato) manganese (III) MnIII(tpp)(OAc) only generated Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) in the presence of less bulky alcohols. In the absence of alcohols or in the presence of t-C4H9OH, the UV-vis spectra displayed a very weak sign of formation of Mn(tpp)(O)(OAc) complex. It was observed that alcohols generally increased the rate of formation of Mn-oxo species in accordance with their acidity or hydrogen bonding strength, and enhanced the stability of Mn-oxo complexes, as their size increases. Attempts are made to explain these effects. A mechanistic scheme is also suggested for the decomposition of HSO5- to O2 and HSO4-, through the formation and dimerization of Mn-oxo species.

  11. Influence of pharmacotherapy complexity on compliance with the therapeutic objectives for HIV+ patients on antiretroviral treatment concomitant with therapy for dyslipidemia. INCOFAR Project.

    PubMed

    Jiménez Galán, Rocío; Montes Escalante, Ines María; Morillo Verdugo, Ramón

    2016-03-01

    Objetivos: Analizar la relación entre complejidad farmacoterapéutica y cumplimiento de los objetivos terapéuticos en pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral activo y concomitante para la dislipemia. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo. Se seleccionaron pacientes con VIH en tratamiento antirretroviral estable durante los últimos 6 meses y tratamiento para la dislipemia entre enero-diciembre de 2013. Se calculó el índice de complejidad a través de la herramienta desarrollada por Mc Donald et al. Otras variables analizadas fueron: edad; sexo; factor de riesgo de adquisición del VIH; consumo de tabaco, alcohol y drogas; alteraciones psiquiátricas; adherencia al TAR y a fármacos hipolipemiantes y parámetros clínicos (carga viral VIH, recuento de CD4, niveles plasmáticos de colesterol total, LDL, HDL, y triglicéridos). Para determinar factores predictivos asociados con el cumplimiento de los objetivos terapéuticos se realizó un análisis univariante mediante regresión logística y, posteriormente, un análisis multivariante. Resultados: Se incluyeron 89 pacientes. El 56,8% cumplieron los objetivos terapéuticos para la dislipemia. El índice de complejidad fue significativamente mayor (p = 0,02) en pacientes que no alcanzaron los valores objetivo (mediana de 51,8 vs 38,9). La adherencia al tratamiento hipolipemiante fue relacionada de forma significativa con el cumplimiento de los objetivos terapéuticos establecidos para el tratamiento de la dislipemia. El 67,0% cumplieron los objetivos para el TAR, sin embargo el índice de complejidad no fue significativamente mayor (p = 0,06) en los pacientes que no cumplían objetivos. Conclusiones: La complejidad farmacoterapéutica constituye un factor clave en la consecución de los objetivos de salud en pacientes VIH+ que reciben tratamiento para la dislipemia.

  12. PubMed

    Marzán-Rodríguez, Melissa; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2006-01-01

    El Virus de Inmunodeficiencia Humana (VIH) y el Síndrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) han sido motivo de estigmatización para las personas que viven con ellos. Esta estigmatización se ha estudiado consecuentemente desde la perspectiva de opiniones de agentes estigmatizantes. Estas opiniones han obviado sistemáticamente el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización. Llevamos a cabo este estudio con el propósito de identificar el rol de las emociones en el proceso de estigmatización de las personas que viven con el virus (PVVS) por parte de profesionales de la salud. Para lograr este objetivo utilizamos un diseño exploratorio y cualitativo en el cual utilizamos la técnica de entrevistas semiestructuradas a profundidad. La muestra estuvo compuesta por 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de las siguientes especialidades: psicología, trabajo social, medicina y enfermería. Los resultados reflejaron la existencia de emociones asociadas al VIH/SIDA tales como pena, lástima, compasión, asco, fobia y miedo entre los/as profesionales y estudiantes que participaron. Las personas participantes evidenciaron la necesidad de controlar sus emociones al interactuar con PVVS. Los resultados apuntan a la necesidad de explorar aquellos factores que mediatizan las emociones, tales como el contexto social en que se manifiestan y ante quiénes se revelan, para lograr entender a cabalidad el estigma que rodea al VIH/SIDA.

  13. Estudio teórico de la desorción de Na y K de SiO2 estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domínguez Ariza, D.; López, N.; Illas, F.; Pacchioni, G.; Madey, T. E.

    Se ha estudiado el mecanismo de generación de sodio y potasio atómico a partir de muestras de SiO2 utilizando cálculos basados tanto en la teoría del funcional de la densidad como en métodos post-Hartree Fock, así como en el método de cluster para modelar el sólido. Como consecuencia del estudio se han propuesto distintos caminos posibles para la desorción, estimulada por la acción de fotones o electrones, de sodio y potasio desde el óxido de silicio, proporcionando por lo tanto una explicación a la atmósfera tenue de sodio y potasio de La Luna.

  14. Long-term RNA persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) after an outbreak of a natural infection: the detection of viral mRNA in sentinel pigs suggests viral transmission.

    PubMed

    Cuevas-Romero, S; Hernández-Baumgarten, E; Kennedy, S; Hernández-Jáuregui, P; Berg, M; Moreno-López, J

    2014-08-08

    The persistence of porcine rubulavirus (PorPV-LPMV) in five pigs that had survived an outbreak of a natural infection was determined. After the resolution of the outbreak, each animal was housed in an isolation pen together with one sentinel pig. Approximately every 2 months thereafter one group of animals was euthanized and tissue samples taken for virological and serological analysis. Infectious virus was not isolated from any samples; antibodies to PorPV-LPMV were detected in convalescent pigs by virus neutralisation test and blocking ELISA but not in sentinel pigs. PorPV-LPMV mRNA of the nucleoprotein (NP) and phosphoprotein (P) genes was detected by a nested polymerase chain reaction (nPCR) in samples of trigeminal and optic nerves, cervical spinal cord, tonsils, salivary gland, lung and pancreas from convalescent pigs. mRNA was also detected in the midbrain, corpus callosum, or olfactory bulb in four out of five pigs by nRT-PCR, this result was confirmed by the sequencing of a 260bp PCR product of P gene region. The highest average viral copies/μg of total RNA occurred in the olfactory bulb and pancreas tissues of convalescent pigs and midbrain, tonsil and pancreas of sentinel pigs housed with the convalescent pigs. Satellitosis and gliosis of the midbrain, olfactory bulb, corpus callosum, medulla oblongata or choroid plexus were microscopically observed in four convalescent pigs. The control pig remained negative in all tests. The results indicate that PorPV-LPMV mRNA persists and induces a durable humoral immune response in pigs that have recovered from a natural infection. After a possible reactivation of the virus, it was transmitted to sentinel pigs in contact with the convalescent pigs.

  15. [Incidence and risk factors associated with nosocomial infection in pediatric heart surgery].

    PubMed

    Duarte-Raya, Fidencia; Baeza-Zarco, Fabiola Janet

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: las infecciones nosocomiales son responsables de una elevada tasa de morbilidad y mortalidad en el paciente pediátrico sometido a cirugía cardiaca. Nuestro objetivo fue determinar la incidencia y los factores de riesgo de las infecciones nosocomiales. Métodos: estudio clínico descriptivo, prospectivo, en un hospital de tercer nivel durante un año. Se calculó: la tasa de incidencia, incidencia acumulada y por dispositivos utilizados. Se aplicó el programa EPIDAT 2004 versión 3.1 OPS para la obtención de Chi cuadrada con corrección de Yates para obtener p con una confianza del 95 %, alfa de 0.05 con un grado de libertad, se estimó odds ratio (OR). Se llevó a cabo la identificación de microorganismos, su sensibilidad y resistencia a los antibióticos. Resultados: se calcularon las tasas de: incidencia, incidencia acumulada, mortalidad, letalidad de infectados de y no infectados. Las neumonías con el 44.4 %, asociada a ventilación mecánica 74 %, sonda nasogástrica 100 %. Los microorganismos más frecuentemente aislados: Acinetobacter baumanni, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis y Pseudomonas aeruginosa con elevada resistencia a los antibióticos. Conclusiones: los pacientes pediátricos sometidos a cardiocirugía tienen riesgo elevado de infección, los de cardiopatías cianógenas tienen 5 veces más el riesgo. Se observa una asociación estadística significativa con infección el uso de sonda nasogástrica y cánula orotraqueal, el riesgo aumenta a mayor estancia hospitalaria. Los pacientes infectados tienen 4 veces más el riesgo de muerte.

  16. [Pure neural leprosy. Diagnostic aspects of a clinical case].

    PubMed

    Pardal-Fernandez, J M; Ezsol-Lendvai, S; Rodriguez-Vazquez, M; Agudo-Mena, J L; Godes-Medrano, B

    2016-09-16

    Introduccion. La lepra es una enfermedad infecciosa causada por la bacteria Mycobacterium leprae. Presenta especial avidez por la piel y los troncos nerviosos, y, de hecho, ambos se afectan en la mayor parte de los infectados. Se trasmite por exposicion con enfermos y en ocasiones por reactivacion. Una posibilidad inhabitual es la lepra neural pura, caracterizada por neuropatia, pero sin lesiones en la piel. Se describe un paciente con lepra neural pura y se revisan los aspectos diagnosticos. Caso clinico. Varon de 40 años, inmigrante, diagnosticado y tratado de lepra 20 años antes. Acudio por parestesias y disestesias dolorosas en las manos y las piernas sin lesiones en la piel. Se demostro mononeuritis multiple aguda con principal afectacion de cubitales. La enfermedad, tipificada como tuberculoide paucibacilar, se trato y en pocas semanas la mejoria fue evidente. Conclusiones. En este caso de lepra neural pura por reactivacion, el diagnostico temprano permitio un rapido tratamiento. Es recomendable la evaluacion de la neuropatia integrada con criterios clinicos, electrofisiologicos y ecograficos. De este modo se consigue una alta sensibilidad y especialmente una precocidad en el diagnostico y la instauracion del tratamiento, y por consecuencia una mejor recuperacion funcional.

  17. Comparación de resultados del método de clasificación de órbitas por análisis de frecuencias con el método de exponentes de Lyapunov

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpintero, D. D.; Muzzio, J. C.; Wachlin, F. C.

    Hemos realizado extensas comparaciones del método de análisis de frecuencias con el de exponentes de Lyapunov. El primero resulta claramente superior por las siguientes razones: 1) permite distinguir distintos tipos de órbitas y no sólo si son regulares o caóticas 2) es mucho más veloz requiriendo mucho menos tiempo de cómputo. La concordancia de resultados es, en general, buena y se discuten algunas discrepancias.

  18. La inserción en el mercado laboral de los inmigrantes latinos en España y en los Estados Unidos: Diferencias por país de origen y estatus legal

    PubMed Central

    Connor, Phillip; Massey, Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Resumen Este artículo compara los resultados económicos entre los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España y Estados Unidos. Detectamos un efecto de selección por el que la mayoría de los inmigrantes latinoamericanos en España proceden de Sudamérica de un entorno de clases medias, mientras la mayoría de los inmigrantes que van a los Estados Unidos son centroamericanos de clase baja. Este efecto de selección explica las diferencias transnacionales en la probabilidad de empleo, logro ocupacional y salarios obtenidos. A pesar de las diferencias en los orígenes y las características de los latinoamericanos en ambos países, los factores demográficos, humanos y de capital social parecen operar de forma similar en ambos países; y cuando los modelos se estiman separadamente por estatus legal, descubrimos que los efectos se acentúan más entre los inmigrantes irregulares cuando se los compara con los regulares, especialmente en Estados Unidos. PMID:24532857

  19. Aquisição fonológica do português brasileiro por crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e surdas usuárias de implante coclear

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Carina Rebello; Finger, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumo O presente estudo investiga a aquisição fonológica do Português Brasileiro (PB) por 24 crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais, com acesso irrestrito à Língua Brasileira de Sinais (Libras), e por 6 crianças surdas que utilizam implante coclear (IC), com acesso restrito ou irrestrito à Libras. Para a avaliação do sistema fonológico das crianças em PB, foi utilizada a Parte A, Prova de Nomeação, do ABFW – Teste de Linguagem Infantil (ANDRADE et al. 2004). Os resultados revelaram que as crianças ouvintes bilíngues bimodais e a criança surda usuária de IC com acesso irrestrito à Libras apresentaram processo de aquisição fonológica esperada (normal) para a sua faixa etária. Considera-se que a aquisição precoce e o acesso irrestrito à Libras podem ter sido determinantes para o desempenho dessas crianças no teste oral utilizado. PMID:25506105

  20. Etnografía acelerada para transformar normas sociales sobre género y sexualidad en hombres puertorriqueños heterosexuales1,2

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Torres, Blanca; Rivera-Ortiz, Rafael J.; Mendoza, Sigrid

    2014-01-01

    Resumen La construcción de roles de género dominantes contribuyen al riesgo de contraer VIH, y por tal razón se ha urgido a que se integren las normas sociales relativas al género en las intervenciones preventivas del VIH. Este estudio pretende adaptar y desarrollar una intervención que facilite la transformación de normas sociales del género y de prácticas sexuales en hombres puertorriqueños. La intervención propone transformar normas sociales relacionadas al género y sexualidad en barras comunitarias utilizando el modelo de líderes de opinión. Luego de ser elegidos/as, los/as líderes de opinión diseminan mensajes integrando la importancia de relaciones equitativas entre parejas para la prevención del VIH. La primera fase de esta intervención es discutida en este artículo, la cual incluye un proceso de etnografía acelerada para identificar los escenarios comunitarios en los que podemos desarrollar esta intervención y permitirnos entender la cultura de las barras comunitarias. A partir de las observaciones etnográficas, pudimos: desarrollar un protocolo de seguridad para realizar las observaciones, desarrollar un perfil de la cultura de las barras, elegir las barras a participar en las dos condiciones del estudio y adaptar los instrumentos de la intervención para que respondieran a la particularidad de los/as participantes. PMID:25530828

  1. The Understanding of Astronomy Concepts by Students from Basic Education of a Public School. (Spanish Title: El Entendimiento de Conceptos de Aastronmía Por Los Alumnos de Educación Básica en Una Escuela Pública.) O Entendimento de Conceitos de Astronomia Por Alunos da Educação Básica: O Caso de Uma Escola Pública Brasileira

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iria Machado, Daniel; dos Santos, Carlos

    2011-07-01

    We present the results obtained in a research on the comprehension of basic astronomical concepts, in which 561 students from fifth grade middle school to third grade high school of a public school of the city of Foz do Iguaçu (Brazil) took part. A test with 20 multiple-choice questions was applied to indentify the most common conceptions expressed by the students. This test was elaborated based on the literature about misconceptions and covered the following topics: the day-night cycle; the time zones; the seasons of the year; the phases of the Moon; the movement of the Moon; the apparent movement of the Sun in the celestial sphere; the eclipses; the dimensions and distances in the Universe; the brightness of the stars and its observation from Earth. Though a small progress was verified in the proportion of scientifically acceptable answers when comparing the eighth grade of middle school to the fifth, and the third grade of high school to the first, there was an overall predominance of alternative conceptions regarding most of the explored subjects, which persisted up to the last year of secondary school. The comparison to data found in this research made in other socio-cultural contexts revealed, in many aspects, similar notions and difficulties revealed by the students. Se presentan los resultados de una investigación sobre la comprensión de conceptos astronómicos básicos, en la cual participaron 561 estudiantes que cursaban entre el quinto grado de la enseñanza primaria y el tercer año de la enseñanza secundaria de una escuela pública de la ciudad de Foz do Iguaçu (Brasil). Se utilizó un test de 20 preguntas de opción múltiple para identificar las concepciones más comunes expresadas por los estudiantes. Este instrumento de recolección de datos se desarrolló en base a la literatura sobre las concepciones alternativas y trató los siguientes temas: el ciclo día-noche, los husos horarios, las estaciones del año, las fases de la Luna, el

  2. Trends in HIV testing, prevalence among first-time testers, and incidence in most-at-risk populations in Spain: the EPI-VIH Study, 2000 to 2009.

    PubMed

    Diez, M; Bleda, M J; Varela, J R; Ordonana, J; Azpiri, M A; Vall, M; Santos, C; Viloria, L; de Armas, C; Urena, J M; Trullen, J; Pueyo, I; Martinez, B; Puerta, T; Vera, M; Sanz, I; Junquera, M L; Landa, M C; Martinez, E; Camara, M M; Belda, J; Bru, F J; Diaz, A

    2014-11-27

    During 2000 to 2009, data on people undergoing HIV testing and on those newly diagnosed with HIV were collected in a network of 20 Spanish clinics specialising in sexually transmitted infections and/or HIV testing and counselling. The number of tests performed, overall and disaggregated by different variables, was obtained. HIV prevalence among first-time testers and HIV incidence among repeat testers were calculated. To evaluate trends, joinpoint regression models were fitted. In total, 236,939 HIV tests were performed for 165,745 individuals. Overall HIV prevalence among persons seeking HIV testing was 2.5% (95% CI: 2.4 to 2.6). Prevalence was highest in male sex workers who had sex with other men (19.0% (95% CI: 16.7 to 21.4)) and was lowest in female sex workers (0.8% (95% CI: 0.7 to 0.9)). Significant trends in prevalence were observed in men who have sex with men (MSM) (increasing) and heterosexual individuals (decreasing). The incidence analysis included 30,679 persons, 64,104 person-years (py) of follow-up and 642 seroconversions. The overall incidence rate (IR) was 1.0/100 py (95% CI: 0.9/100 to 1.1/100). Incidence was significantly higher in men and transgender females than in women (1.8/100 py (95% CI: 1.6 to 1.9), 1.2/100 py (95% CI: 0.5 to 2.8) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively) and increased with age until 35–39 years. IRs in MSM and people who inject drugs were significantly greater than in heterosexual individuals (2.5/100 py (95% CI: 2.3 to 2.7), 1.6/100 py (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2) and 0.1/100 py (95% CI: 0.09 to 0.2) respectively), and an upward trend was observed in MSM. Our results call for HIV prevention to be reinforced in MSM and transgender women in Spain.

  3. Género y Prácticas Sexuales: Su Rol en la Prevención del VIH/SIDA

    PubMed Central

    del Carmen Cabrera-Aponte, María; Pérez-Jiménez, David; Serrano-García, Irma; Varas-Díaz, Nelson

    2012-01-01

    The study of stereotypes about feminine sexuality contributes to the understanding of the increase of HIV/AIDS cases through sexual transmission among heterosexual women. We administered a self-report questionnaire to 105 heterosexual women to explore stereotypes of feminine sexuality as well as their sexual behaviors. Seventy percent of the participants practiced vaginal penetration with their partners in the last three months and, of these, 67% never used condoms. Most women did not practice non-penetrative behaviors such as masturbation. Traditional stereotypes of feminine sexuality were present among participants, although some questioning of these was also present. Women did not perceive themselves at risk for HIV/AIDS infection. This suggests the need to examine changes in stereotypes as well as in risky sexual behaviors in the design of preventive interventions. PMID:25264431

  4. Análisis de costo-beneficio: prevención del VIH/sida en migrantes en Centroamérica

    PubMed Central

    Alarid-Escudero, Fernando; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Fernández, Bertha; Galárraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective To quantify the costs and benefits of three HIV prevention interventions in migrants in Central America: voluntary counseling and testing, treatment of sexually transmitted infections, and condom distribution. Materials and methods The methods were: a) identification and quantification of costs; b) quantification of benefits, defined as the potential savings in antiretroviral treatment of HIV cases prevented; and c) estimation of the cost-benefit ratio. Results The model estimated that 9, 21 and 8 cases of HIV were prevented by voluntary counseling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and condom distribution per 10 000 migrants, respectively. In Panama, condom distribution and treatment for sexually transmitted infections had a return of US$131/USD and US$69.8/USD. Returns in El Salvador were US$2.0/USD and US$42.3/USD in voluntary counseling and testing and condom distribution, respectively. Conclusion The potential savings on prevention have a large variation between countries. Nevertheless, the cost-benefit estimates suggest that the HIV prevention programs in Central America can potentially result in monetary savings in the long run. PMID:23918053

  5. One-step purification and porin transport activity of the major outer membrane proteins P2 from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis.

    PubMed

    Kattner, Christof; Pfennig, Sabrina; Massari, Paola; Tanabe, Mikio

    2015-03-01

    Bacterial porins are major outer membrane proteins that function as essential solute transporters between the bacteria and the extracellular environment. Structural features of porins are also recognized by eukaryotic cell receptors involved in innate and adaptive immunity. To better investigate the function of porins, proper refolding is necessary following purification from inclusion bodies [1, 2]. Using a single-step size exclusion chromatographic method, we have purified three major porins from pathogenic bacteria, the OmpP2 (P2) from Haemophilus influenzae, FomA from Fusobacterium nucleatum and PorB from Neisseria meningitidis, at high yield and report their unique solute transport activity with size exclusion limit. Furthermore, we have optimized their purification method and achieved improvement of their thermostability for facilitating functional and structural analyses.

  6. Chlamydia trachomatis clinical isolates identified as tetracycline resistant do not exhibit resistance in vitro: whole-genome sequencing reveals a mutation in porB but no evidence for tetracycline resistance genes.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, C E; Seth-Smith, H M B; Van Der Pol, B; Harris, S R; Thomson, N R; Cutcliffe, L T; Clarke, I N

    2013-04-01

    Chlamydia trachomatis is the most common bacterial sexually transmitted infection worldwide and the leading cause of preventable blindness in developing countries. Tetracycline is commonly the drug of choice for treating C. trachomatis infections, but cases of antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates have previously been reported. Here, we used antibiotic resistance assays and whole-genome sequencing to interrogate the hypothesis that two clinical isolates (IU824 and IU888) have acquired mechanisms of antibiotic resistance. Immunofluorescence staining was used to identify C. trachomatis inclusions in cell cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline; however, only antibiotic-free control cultures yielded the strong fluorescence associated with the presence of chlamydial inclusions. Infectivity was lost upon passage of harvested cultures grown in the presence of tetracycline into antibiotic-free medium, so we conclude that these isolates were phenotypically sensitive to tetracycline. Comparisons of the genome and plasmid sequences for the two isolates with tetracycline-sensitive strains did not identify regions of low sequence identity that could accommodate horizontally acquired resistance genes, and the tetracycline binding region of the 16S rRNA gene was identical to that of the sensitive control strains. The porB gene of strain IU824, however, was found to contain a premature stop codon not previously identified, which is noteworthy but unlikely to be related to tetracycline resistance. In conclusion, we found no evidence of tetracycline resistance in the two strains investigated, and it seems most likely that the small, aberrant inclusions previously identified resulted from the high chlamydial load used in the original antibiotic resistance assays.

  7. Characterization of invasive Neisseria meningitidis from Atlantic Canada, 2009 to 2013: With special reference to the nonpolysaccharide vaccine targets (PorA, factor H binding protein, Neisseria heparin-binding antigen and Neisseria adhesin A)

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Raymond SW; Law, Dennis KS; Gad, Rita R; Mailman, Tim; German, Gregory; Needle, Robert

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Serogroup B Neisseria meningitidis (MenB) has always been a major cause of invasive meningococcal disease (IMD) in Canada. With the successful implementation of a meningitis C conjugate vaccine, the majority of IMD in Canada is now caused by MenB. OBJECTIVE: To investigate IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada from 2009 to 2013. Data were analyzed to determine the potential coverage of the newly licensed MenB vaccine. METHODS: Serogroup, serotype and serosubtype antigens were determined from IMD case isolates. Clonal analysis was performed using multilocus sequence typing. The protein-based vaccine antigen genes were sequenced and the predicted peptides were investigated. RESULTS: The majority of the IMD isolates were MenB (82.5%, 33 of 40) and, in particular, sequence type (ST)-154 B:4:P1.4 was responsible for 47.5% (19 of 40) of all IMD case isolates in Atlantic Canada. Isolates of this clone expressed the PorA antigen P1.4 and possessed the nhba genes encoding for Neisseria heparin-binding antigen peptide 2, which together matched exactly with two of the four components of the new four-component meningococcal B vaccine. Nineteen MenB isolates had two antigenic matches, another five MenB and one meningitis Y isolate had one antigenic match. This provided 75.8% (25 of 33) potential coverage for MenB, or a 62.5% (25 of 40) overall potential coverage for IMD. CONCLUSION: From 2009 to 2013, IMD in Atlantic Canada was mainly caused by MenB and, in particular, the B:4:P1.4 ST-154 clone, which accounted for 47.5% of all IMD case isolates. The new four-component meningococcal B vaccine appeared to offer adequate coverage against MenB in Atlantic Canada. PMID:26744586

  8. Criptococosis cutánea primaria en paciente inmunocompetente.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Osorio, Igor; García-Rodiño, Sara; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Marta; Labandeira, Javier; Suárez-Peñaranda, José Manuel; Sánchez-Aguilar, MDolores; Vázquez-Veiga, Hugo

    2016-05-15

    La criptococosis cutánea es una micosis propia de pacientes inmunodeprimidos, sobre todo aquellos con infección por el virusde la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH). Sin embargo, existen casos infrecuentes de criptococosis cutánea en pacientes inmunocompetentes, que suelen simular otras dermatosis, lo que retrasa su diagnóstico y tratamiento. Presentamos el caso de un varón pluripatológico de 79 años, con úlceras dolorosas en dorso de mano derecha que no respondían a tratamientos tópicos. A través del estudio histopatológico y micológico se alcanzó el diagnóstico de criptococosis cutánea primaria, lográndose la remisión de las lesiones tras 6 meses de tratamiento con fluconazol.

  9. Eficacia de la detección sistemática de la gripe en las fronteras en los viajeros que llegan por vía aérea*

    PubMed Central

    Priest, Patricia C.; Jennings, Lance C.; Duncan, Alasdair R.; Brunton, Cheryl R.; Baker, Michael G.

    2015-01-01

    Objetivos. Se midieron los síntomas y la prevalencia de la gripe (también llamada influenza), así como la eficacia del mecanismo de detección sistemática basado en los síntomas y la temperatura para diagnosticar la gripe en viajeros internacionales que llegaban por vía aérea. Métodos. El presente estudio transversal recopiló datos de viajeros que llegaron al aeropuerto internacional de Christchurch (Nueva Zelandia) en el invierno del 2008 mediante un cuestionario de salud, medición de la temperatura y toma de muestras de las vías respiratorias. Resultados. De los viajeros, 15 976 (68%) entregaron los formularios completos. De ellos, 17% notificaron al menos un síntoma de gripe; los síntomas más comunes fueron rinorrea o congestión nasal (10%) y tos (8%). Se tomaron muestras de las vías respiratorias de 3 769 viajeros. La prevalencia estimada de la gripe fue de 1,1% (4% en las personas sintomáticas, 0,2% en las asintomáticas). La sensibilidad de los criterios de detección varió de 84% para “cualquier síntoma” a 3% para la fiebre de 37,8 °C o mayor. El valor predictivo positivo fue bajo para todos los criterios. Conclusiones. El método de detección sistemática en las fronteras mediante la autonotificación de síntomas y la toma de la temperatura presenta limitaciones para impedir que una gripe pandémica entre en un país. Basarse en criterios como “cualquier síntoma” o la tos haría que se investigara a varias personas no infectadas, mientras que algunas personas infectadas pasarían inadvertidas. Si se usaran criterios más específicos como la fiebre, la mayoría de las personas infectadas entrarían en el país a pesar del mecanismo de detección.

  10. PubMed

    Rivera, Souhail Malavé; Díaz, Nelson Varas

    2006-01-01

    Las profesiones de la salud tienen un papel social dual. Por un lado, velan por el mantenimiento de la salud de la población protegiendo el bien común. Por el otro, dictaminan las formas saludables, y por lo tanto socialmente apropiadas, de ser, actuar y pensar. Este último papel, está más ligado al control social de la población que a una preocupación altruista hacia la misma. A través de esta supervisión y control, se construyen los sujetos a los cuales todos/as debemos aspirar a ser para gozar de aceptación social. Los/as profesionales de la salud han jugado un rol protagónico en dicho proceso, siendo los agentes que delimitan y definen lo que es enfermo vs. saludable, útil vs. inútil, apropiado vs. inapropiado. En el caso de la epidemia del VIH, este esfuerzo se ha hecho cada vez más vigente ya que estos/as profesionales juegan un papel importante en el tratamiento de las personas que viven con VIH/SIDA (PVVS). Sin embargo, su función está plasmada de definiciones que sirven para criminalizar a las PVVS. El objetivo de este estudio fue explorar la manera en que una muestra de profesionales de la salud en Puerto Rico construyen a las PVVS. Con este propósito, entrevistamos 80 profesionales de la salud y estudiantes de estas profesiones. Estas entrevistas fueron grabadas, transcritas y sometidas a un análisis de discurso. Los resultados reflejaron que según las personas participantes: 1) la PVVS no es una persona "normal" o funcional bajo los estándares sociales debido a que su salud no se los permite, 2) representa una carga para la sociedad incluyendo familiares, amigos/as, el mundo del trabajo, e incluso para el gobierno, 3) debe ser vigilada porque representa un riesgo para la persona seronegativa que es descrita como saludable y productiva, y 4) necesita que su salud y conducta sexual sean controladas por vía legal y/o por las personas que representan las instituciones sociales, como lo son los/as profesionales de la salud. En este art

  11. [The seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in patients with tuberculosis at the National Hospital of Niamey, Niger (1990-1991)].

    PubMed

    Ousseini, H; Kim, D S; Adamou, A

    1995-01-01

    This study has been planned in order to determinate the frequency of the infection by VIH among the 394 new tuberculous, for a period extended from July 1990 to July 1991 at the section of pneumophtisiology in the National Hospital of Niamey. The number of seropositives is 7.6%. The two types of viruses, i.e. VIH1 and VIH2, and the double infection by VIH1 + VIH2 types exist in the tuberculous patients. The VIH1 is most frequently found in the subjects of age group 20-39 years, who are almost emigrants. Inspite of the actual weak sero-prevalency among the tuberculous patients, the authors claim that a sero-epidemiological sequential survey of tuberculosis in Niamey can be a relatively easy method for measuring the variations of sero-prevalency of AIDS in Niger.

  12. Persistence to single-tablet regimen versus less-drug regimen in treatment experienced HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Galán, Rocio; Cantudo Cuenca, Maria-Rosa; Robustillo-Cortés, María Aguas; Borrego Izquierdo, Y; Almeida-Gonzalez, Carmen Victoria; Morillo-Verdugo, Ramón

    2016-06-01

    Objetivos: Analizar y comparar la persistencia entre las estrategias basadas en Single-Tablet Regimen (STR) y Less Drug Regimen (LDR) en pacientes VIH+. El objetivo secundario del estudio fue determinar factores predictores de persistencia. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional retrospectivo que incluyo los siguientes criterios: pacientes VIH+ con tratamiento antirretroviral (TAR) con un regimen basado en STR o LDR. Se recogieron variables demograficas, factores de riesgo de adquisicion, consumo de drogas, presencia de algun trastorno psiquiatrico y coinfeccion por el virus de la hepatitis B o C. Para comparar la persistencia entre ambas estrategias se realizo un analisis de supervivencia de Kaplan-Meir y se aplico el metodo de log-rank. Se realizo un analisis de regresion de Cox para identificar los factores predictores de persistencia. Resultados: Se incluyeron 244 pacientes, 176 con STR y 68 con LDR. El 34,1% (n = 60) de los pacientes que recibieron un regimen STR abandonaron y en el LDR el 19,1% (n = 13). Los efectos adversos fueron la principal causa de abandono del tratamiento en los pacientes que recibieron STR y el fallo virologico en el regimen LDR. La persistencia de las estrategias STR y LDR fue similar, no encontrandose diferencias estadisticamente significativas entre ambas. El consumo de drogas fue el unico factor predictivo asociado con una menor persistencia (HR = 2,59; p = 0,005). Conclusiones: La persistencia entre los regimenes STR y LDR fue similar, no detectandose diferencias significativas entre ambos. El consumo de drogas fue el unico factor independiente asociado con una menor persistencia del tratamiento antirretroviral.

  13. [Quality healthcare and pharmaceutical care practice indicators to HIV+ patient].

    PubMed

    Martín Conde, Ma T; Monte Boquet, E; Morillo Verdugo, R

    2013-01-01

    Objetivo: Identificar y promover mejoras en la calidad de la atención sanitaria que reciben los pacientes VIH y SIDA en las Unidades Clínicas de los hospitales en nuestro país, incluyéndose y reforzando la perspectiva de Atención Farmacéutica (AF). Metodología: Para llevar a cabo el proyecto, durante el periodo Enero-Junio de 2012 se definieron las siguientes fases de trabajo. Primero, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica y lectura critica relacionada con la patología VIH-SIDA y criterios de calidad. A continuación, se llevó a cabo una fase de investigación cualitativa presencial con los expertos participantes. La primera se llevó a cabo mediante dos técnicas: el grupo nominal y una variante de grupos de discusión. La aplicación de las técnicas estuvo apoyada por un soporte informático que permitió la codificación y valoración jerarquizada de las propuestas mediante un sistema automatizado de votaciones. La última fase del proyecto consistió en una reunión presencial, donde se perfilaron los objetivos de la primera reunión y se puso en común todo el trabajo que los subgrupos de trabajo habían elaborado para consensuar los contenidos. De la primera selección de ideas, el equipo de investigación trabajó y priorizó aquellos elementos que describen y dan respuesta a los objetivos planteados. Concretamente, la correcta definición de los indicadores de calidad y de seguridad en el ámbito de la farmacia hospitalaria, elaborándose una ficha que describía cada aspecto a tener en cuenta para la posterior medición del indicador. Por último, se elaboró un plan de actuaciones para mejorar la práctica clínica, sintetizada según su nivel de prioridad. Resultados: A través de la metodología del proyecto, los expertos identificaron los criterios de calidad en el procedimiento de AF al paciente. Las principales barreras definidas fueron: presión asistencial, Sistemas de gestión de personal, Seguridad y desconocimiento de la

  14. [In Process Citation].

    PubMed

    Bissigo Pereira, Fernanda; Miraglia, Fernanda; Barbosa Schmitz, Caroline; Oliveira da Silva, Carmem Lúcia; Ramos Lazzarotto, Alexandre

    2016-02-16

    Objetivo: identificar la ingestión alimentaria de macro y micronutrientes en adolescentes viviendo con VIH/sida que usan terapia anti-retroviral y compararlos a las Dietary Reference Intakes.Metodología: estudio transversal realizado con adolescentes de ambos sexos con VIH/sida, en el que se evaluó la composición dietética de macro y micronutrientes a través del recordatorio alimentario de 24h.Resultados: 39 adolescentes con una edad promedio de 15 años, un 51,3% del sexo masculino. Los participantes consumieron menos calorías totales en la dieta, fibra total (g/d), vitaminas liposolubles (A, D, E, K), vitamina B5 (mg/d), vitamina B9 (mg/d), vitamina C (mg/d), calcio (mg/d), fósforo (mg/d), potasio (mg/d) y magnesio (mg/d) que lo recomendado. Los porcentajes de ingestión por debajo de lo recomendado representaron el 79,5% para las calorías, el 82,1% para la fibra total, el 89,7% para la vitamina A, el 100% para la vitamina D, el 87,2% para la vitamina E, el 100% para la vitamina K, el 71,8% para la vitamina B5, el 82,1% para la vitamina B9, el 76,9% para la vitamina C, el 92,3% para el calcio, el 61,5% para el fósforo, el 97,4% para el potasio y el 76,9% para el magnesio. Los participantes consumían más carbohidratos (g), proteínas (g), vitaminas B2 (mg/d), B3 (mg/d), B8 (mg/d) y sodio (g/d) de lo recomendado, representando porcentajes por encima de la ingestión del 92,3% para los hidratos de carbono, del 64,1% para las proteínas y la vitamina B2, del 56,4% para la vitamina B3, del 82,1% para la vitamina B8 y del 59% para el sodio. Los demás nutrientes estaban dentro de lo recomendado por las DRIs.Conclusión: el consumo alimentario fue inadecuado en comparación con lo recomendado por las Directrices Internacionales de Nutrición.

  15. Head Start Service Guide for Children and Families with HIV or AIDS = Guia de Servicios para Ninos con V.I.H. Positivo y con Sindrome de Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (S.I.D.A.) y sus Familias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico Commonwealth Office of Children's Services and Community Development, Old San Juan.

    This document provides guidelines and procedures, in Spanish and English, for Head Start teachers in taking care of children with AIDS, or children who are HIV positive, and their families. The goal of the guide is to maximize participation of infected children in the Head Start program. The guide presents activities in three main stages:…

  16. [Evolution of residual risk for HIV, HCV and HBV, from 1999 to 2010, in blood donations of the Centro Hospitalar S. João, EPE, Porto, Portugal].

    PubMed

    Koch, Carmo; Araújo, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    Introdução/Objectivo: A monitorização do risco residual infeccioso pela transfusão, é importante pois permite avaliar a melhoria alcançada na segurança das dádivas de sangue e adoptar políticas adequadas de redução dos riscos. Este estudo calcula as estimativas da taxa de incidência e do risco residual infeccioso para as infecções pelo vírus da imunodeficiência humana (VIH), vírus da hepatite B (VHB) e vírus da hepatite C (VHC), entre 1999 e 2010. Os dados foram analisados em períodos de quatro anos (1999-2002, 2003-2006 e 2007-2010) e as estimativas foram comparadas com as obtidas previamente, para dádivas ocorridas entre 1991 e 1998.Material e Métodos: O estudo incluiu 209 640 colheitas de sangue, provenientes de 42 634 dadores regulares, voluntários e não remunerados. Para o cálculo do risco residual infeccioso, utilizamos o modelo matemático taxa de incidência-período de janela, descrito por Schreiber et al. Todas as dádivas foram rastreadas de acordo com a legislação portuguesa. Em Janeiro de 2001 foi implementado, em todas as dádivas de sangue, o teste de ácidos nucleicos em minipool, para o rastreio simultâneo de ácido ribonucleico (ARN) VIH-1 e VHC (Cobas Amplicor Ampliscreen-Roche©) o qual foi substituído, em Janeiro de 2007, pelo rastreio simultâneo de ácido desoxirribonucleico VHB e de ácido ribonucleico VHC e VIH-1/VIH-2, em minipool (Cobas TaqScreen MPX Test-Roche©).Resultados: O risco residual infeccioso de uma dádiva em período de janela é muito reduzido e tem diminuído ao longo dos anos. Após a implementação de teste de ácidos nucleicos em minipool para os três vírus, a probabilidade de colhermos uma dádiva infecciosa e não detectada pelos testes de rastreio foi de 1/1,67 milhões de dádivas para o vírus da imunodeficiência humana, de 1/3,33 milhões para o vírus da hepatite C e de 1/526 000 para o vírus da hepatite B.Conclusões: Durante os 12 anos em estudo verificamos uma diminuição do

  17. Dynamics of vitellogenin and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone levels in adult and subadult whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei: relation to molting and eyestalk ablation.

    PubMed

    Kang, Bong Jung; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Shinji, Junpei; Bae, Sun-Hye; Wilder, Marcy N

    2014-01-01

    Levels of vitellogenin (VG) and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei, were measured by time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay in relation to the molting cycle and ovarian maturation induced by eyestalk ablation. During the molt cycle, VG mRNA expression levels and VG concentrations showed similar patterns of fluctuation. VG levels increased significantly at early intermolt (stage C0) in adults, but not in subadults. Unilateral and bilateral eyestalk ablation increased VG levels in adults, whereas only bilateral eyestalk ablation affected subadults. VIH levels showed contrasting patterns between adults and subadults. In adults, levels were high in late postmolt adults (stage B) and then low thereafter, whereas they increased from postmolt (stage A) to intermolt (stage C0) in subadults and remained high. Unilateral eyestalk ablation increased VIH levels 10 days following ablation in adults, after which levels decreased at 20 days. VIH levels decreased from 10 to 20 days after bilateral ablation. Both unilateral and bilateral ablation led to increased VIH levels in subadults. Eyestalk ablation induced ovarian maturation, but did not reduce VIH concentrations in the hemolymph. This phenomenon was perhaps due to other crustacean hyperglycemic hormone peptides having cross-reactivity with VIH antibodies. This is the first report to quantify concentrations of VG and VIH together in L. vannamei hemolymph, and to examine their relative dynamics.

  18. [1990 epidemiology of AIDS and risk of transmission to the dentist].

    PubMed

    Sentilhes, C

    1991-01-01

    All epidemiological inquiries and all studies on VIH transmissibility allow to precise transmission risks among different population groups. For the dental practitioner, as for the other medical and paramedical staffs, these risks are weak. VIH is certainly one of the less contaminant agent, in term of nosocomial infection.

  19. 77 FR 19747 - Proposed Cancelation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Office of the Secretary Proposed Cancelation of the Air Taxi Authority Of VIH Cougar Helicopters, Inc... cause why it should not issue an order finding that VIH Cougar Helicopters, Inc. is not a U.S....

  20. Evaluation of Veda, Inc. , central receiver solar collection system concept

    SciTech Connect

    Ator, J.

    1981-08-01

    The Unified Heliostat Array (UHA) is a geometrical heliostat field layout with rows of mirrors placed at various levels on terraces. The Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) is a toroidal segment mirror mounted on an equatorial mount. These two concepts are evaluated to assess the credibility of the optical designs and the validity of UHA and VIH performance estimates, to determine what the distinctive features embodied in UHA AND VIH concepts offer that more conventional central receiver technologies do not, and to determine where the UHA and VIH concepts might be most applicable in DOE's Solar Thermal Program. The UHA area efficiency, flux density distribution, and beam safety are evaluated, and the feasibility of using a secondary mirror and the potential for special applications are assessed. The optical design, equatorial mount, and manufacturability of the VIH are evaluated. (LEW)

  1. [Safety in the clinical practice of the triple therapy with telaprevir in chronic hepatitis C].

    PubMed

    Sangrador Pelluz, C; Maiques Llácer, F J; Soler Company, E

    2013-01-01

    Objetivos: Estudiar la seguridad de la triple terapia con telaprevir y el momento de aparición de las RAM en el tratamiento de la hepatitis C. Método: Estudio observacional retrospectivo (Enero 2012- Junio 2013) de los pacientes con VHC genotipo 1 que hubieran finalizado las 12 semanas de triple terapia con telaprevir. Se recogieron las variables necesarias para caracterizar a los pacientes, y aquellas referentes al tratamiento recibido. La clasificación de las RAM se realizó según criterios de la División del SIDA versión 1.0. Resultados: Se incluyeron 88 pacientes (78% hombres), 75% pacientes cirróticos. El 40,9% estaba coinfectado con VIH. Las principales RAM (incidencia > 40%) incluyendo todos los grados: toxicidad hematológica, cansancio, hiperuricemia, hiperbilirrubinemia y prurito. Las RAM graves (incidencia > 15%): trombocitopenia, anemia y neutropenia. El 3,4% presentó toxicodermia grave. El 51,1% requirió ajuste de dosis de ribavirina, 13,6% transfusiones de sangre, y 28,4% eritropoyetina exógena. El 8% requirió ingreso hospitalario motivado por la toxicidad del tratamiento. El tratamiento fue suspendido por toxicidad en el 6,8% de los pacientes: 3 por toxicodermia grave, 2 por toxicidad hematológica grave, y 1 por emesis grave. La trombocitopenia y la hiperbilirrubinemia se registraron de manera temprana en su mayor grado de toxicidad, mientras que el resto de RAM presentaron periodos de progresión más prolongados. Conclusiones: El estudio señala un perfil de toxicidad superior al descrito en los ensayos clínicos, principalmente en cuanto a toxicidad hematológica, y permite predecir un rango de tiempo de mayor probabilidad de aparición de las RAM.

  2. Por los Ninos (For the Children): Education of Undocumented Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Elena R.; Team, Linda B.

    Published as a special project of Texas IMPACT and the Texas Conference of Churches, this booklet outlines legal aspects of the education of undocumented children, lists moral and practical reasons for educating them, provides reasons for changing the Texas law which prohibits use of state funds for education of children who are not legally…

  3. La busqueda textual por computadora (Textual Search by Computer)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davison, Ned J.

    1977-01-01

    Describes the use of the computer program EDIT for textual searches to locate a certain programmed word or word root. In the examples explained here, the vocabulary search is performed on poetry and allows examination of the metaphorical and conceptual poetic atmosphere achieved through word use. (Text is in Spanish.) (CHK)

  4. Decade of Venezuela’s President Hugo Chavez, Por Ahora

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-04-01

    controversial expansion of control was seen with Venezuela’s state-owned oil company Petroleos de Venezuela S.A. ( PDVSA ), which, to this day has been...grew in response corruption reports related to the siphoning off money from PDVSA . In 2002, pro-Hugo Chavez groups, ‘Chavistas,’ engaged in...protest.16 Within a few days, the counter-coup facilitated Chavez’s return to power but problems remained. PDVSA witnessed a devastating strike

  5. Reframing HIV care: putting people at the centre of antiretroviral delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duncombe, Chris; Rosenblum, Scott; Hellmann, Nicholas; Holmes, Charles; Wilkinson, Lynne; Biot, Marc; Bygrave, Helen; Hoos, David; Garnett, Geoff

    2015-01-01

    érisée par quatre éléments de délivrance: (1) les types de services délivrés, (2) l’emplacement de la délivrance des services, (3) Les prestataires des services de santé et (4) la fréquence des services de santé. La façon dont ces éléments sont développés dans un cadre de prestation de services peut varier selon les pays et les populations, l’intention étant d’améliorer les résultats d’acceptabilité et des soins. Le but d’obtenir plus de personnes sous traitement avant qu’ils ne tombent malades nécessitera des modèles innovateurs de prestation à la fois pour dépistage et pour les soins. Comme les programmes VIH étendent l’éligibilité au traitement, beaucoup de gens qui entrent dans les soins ne seront pas des “malades- mais des éléments sains de la société, actifs et productifs. Afin de tenir le cadre à l’échelle, il sera important de: (1) définir les individus qui peuvent être traités par un cadre alternatif de prestation, (2) renforcer les systèmes de santé qui soutiennent la décentralisation, l’intégration et le transfert des tâches; (3) rendre la chaîne d’approvisionnement plus robuste et (4) investir dans des systèmes de données pour le suivi des patients et pour le suivi et l’évaluation du programme. Los servicios de atención del VIH durante el inicio de la primera etapa de rápida expansión del tratamiento y cuidados del VIH estaban basados en modelos clínicos existentes, comunes en lugares con abundancia de recursos y poco diferenciados en cuanto a necesidades individuales. Aquí se propone un nuevo marco para el tratamiento basado en intensidades variables de cuidados, hecho a medida según las necesidades específicas de los diferentes grupos de individuos a lo largo del tratamiento. La intensidad del servicio se caracteriza por cuatro componentes de entrega: (1) tipología de los servicios ofrecidos, (2) lugar de entrega de los servicios, (3) proveedor de los servicios sanitarios, y (4

  6. Alcohol and drug use disorders, HIV status and drug resistance in a sample of Russian TB patients

    PubMed Central

    Fleming, M. F.; Krupitsky, E.; Tsoy, M.; Zvartau, E.; Brazhenko, N.; Jakubowiak, W.; E. McCaul, M.

    2006-01-01

    emploi d’une combinaison du cliché thoracique, de la bacilloscopie et des cultures d’expectoration. Chez 62% des patients, les critères DSM-IV pour utilisation courante d’alcool ou pour dépendance étaient présents. L’utilisation de drogues est inhabituelle: deux patients seulement ont signalé une utilisation récente de l’héroïne par voie intraveineuse. Il n’y avait qu’un seul cas d’infection VIH. Le score total moyen de la batterie d’évaluation des risques a été de 3,4. Il y avait de la dépression chez 60% de 1’échantillon, dont 17% étaient en dépression sévère. L’utilisation ou la dépendance à l’égard de l’alcool étaient associées avec une multiplication par huit de la résistance aux médicaments (OR 8,58 ; IC95% 2,09-35,32). Les patients atteints de rechute de TB ou de TB chronique sont plus susceptibles de répondre aux critérés d’abus ou de dépendance de l’alcool (OR 2,56; IC95% 1,0-6,54). CONCLUSION: Les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool sont fréquentes chez les patients traités pour TB active et sont associées à une morbidité significative. Des enquêtes complémentaires sont nécessaires pour examiner les relations entre les maladies liées à l’utilisation d’alcool et la résistance à l’égard des médicaments antituberculeux. MARCO DE REFERENCIA: El consumo de alcohol, la tuberculosis (TB) farmacorresistente y los comportamientos de riesgo para la infección por el virus de la inmunodeficiencia humana (VIH) constituyen una preocupación creciente en los pacientes con TB en la Fedéración de Rusia. MÉTODOS: Se llevó a cabo un estudio de prevalencia del consumo de alcohol y del comportamiento de riesgo para la infección por el VIH en una muestra de 200 adultos, hombres y mujeres, ingresados por TB en dos hospitales de San Petersburgo e Ivanovo en la Federación de Rusia. RESULTADOS: El 72% de los individuos fueron de sexo masculino. La media de la edad fue 41 años. El diagn

  7. [Syphilis: Prevalence in a Hospital in Lisbon].

    PubMed

    Lopes, Leonor; Ferro-Rodrigues, Rita; Llobet, Samuel; Lito, Luís; Borges-Costa, João

    2016-01-01

    Introdução: A sífilis é uma doença de transmissão sexual e vertical. A sua incidência está a aumentar na Europa, particularmente em Portugal. Material e Métodos: Estudo retrospetivo baseado na análise laboratorial de testes treponémicos positivos, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2013, no Hospital de Santa Maria. Foram incluídos doentes internados, da consulta externa, do hospital dia e da urgência. Procedeu-se a caraterização epidemiológica, classificação da doença e de fatores de risco associados. Resultados: Obteve-se uma amostra de 484 doentes, após exclusão de 51 por ausência de dados clínicos nos processos e de 45 por valores falsos positivos. Verificou-se predomínio do sexo masculino (75%) e idade média de 47 anos. A maioria (59%) tinha testes serológicos compatíveis com sífilis no passado e 3,7% encontrava-se em vigilância clínica. Diagnosticou-se sífilis primária em 13doentes, secundária em 71, latente precoce em 40, latente indeterminada em 49 e latente tardia em cinco. No grupo sífilis recente, 42% (n = 124) eram seropositivos para o VIH e 8% tiveram, em simultâneo, este diagnóstico. Discussão: Salienta-se a elevada prevalência da coinfeção pelo VIH nos doentes com sífilis recente, reforçando a importância de promover a utilização de medidas preventivas. Registaram-se 11% de formas clínicas tardias, que são de notificação obrigatória desde junho de 2014. Todos os testes serológicos para o diagnóstico de sífilis apresentam limitações, o que enfatiza a importância da correlação clínico-laboratorial. Conclusão: A sífilis continua a ser um problema de saúde pública pelo que é necessário estabelecer programas de educação, rastreio e follow-up para reduzir a sua prevalência e tornar mais eficiente o rastreio dos parceiros.

  8. Military Specification, Modules, Standard Electronic Memory Array, 128K Dynamic Random Access Module, Key Code JEJ

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    applicable. PSFC «= power supply filter capacitance. PSTA = power supply transient amplitude. Vic = input clamp diode voltage. Vih = input high...3.46 W (typical) 16 MIL-M-28787/432 6.3.1 Input pa ran eters. Signal Vic min (V) Vil max (V) Vih min (V) lil min (mA) lih max (mA...MEM ADRS B 1 -1.2 0.4 2.4 -1.2 0.04 0.2 75 17 MIL-M-28787/432 6.3.1 Input parameters - continued. Signal Vic min (V) Vil max (V) Vih

  9. Electrical Characterization of Microprocessor Memories.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-06-01

    output devices, but others will not, and the VIH levels can only be met by adding pull up resistors to the inputs. 2 PREFACE The test and evaluation...Temperature. The vendor has discontinued device 2114, and they will be replaced by this device. types of devices and verify the AC ViH requirements at...that would accommodate both suppliers. All functional and switching requirements met the worst case conditions, VIH at 2.0 Volts, and VIL at 0.8 Volts

  10. Collaborative activities and treatment outcomes in patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis in Viet Nam.

    PubMed

    Huyen, T T T; Nhung, N V; Shewade, H D; Hoa, N B; Harries, A D

    2016-03-21

    Contexte : Le programme national tuberculose (TB) au Viet Nam et à Ho Chi Minh ville (HCMC).Objectifs : Déterminer 1) au niveau national entre 2011 et 2013, la relation entre le test pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), l'utilisation des interventions TB-VIH et les mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB parmi les patients TB-VIH, et 2) à HCMC en 2013, les caractéristiques des patients associées à un mauvais résultat.Schéma : Une étude écologique revoyant les données nationales agrégées et une étude de cohorte rétrospective dans HCMC.Résultats : Au niveau national, le test VIH est passé de 58% à 68% chez les patients tuberculeux et le traitement antirétroviral (ART) est passé chez les patients TB-VIH de 54% à 63% entre 2011 et 2013. Les mauvais résultats du traitement chez les patients TB-VIH ont augmenté de 24% à 27%, largement à cause des transferts (de 5% à 9%) et des décès. Les régions du Nord et des Highlands ont montré une faible utilisation des interventions TB-VIH. A HCMC, 303 (27%) patients TB-VIH sur 1110 ont eu un mauvais résultat avec un risque plus élevé observé parmi ceux qui avaient déjà eu un traitement de TB, ceux dont le diagnostic de VIH précédait l'apparition de la TB et ceux qui n'avaient jamais bénéficié du traitement par cotrimoxazole et de l'ART.Conclusion : En dépit de meilleurs taux de tests VIH et d'interventions TB-VIH, près de 26% des patients TB-VIH ont de mauvais résultats du traitement de la TB. Les facteurs de prédiction d'un risque plus élevé de mauvais résultats doivent être pris en compte si le Viet Nam souhaite mettre fin à l'épidémie de TB d'ici 2030.

  11. Síndrome del Outlet Torácico: ¿Una Patología Siempre Quirúrgica? Análisis de una Serie de 31 Cirugías Realizadas por Vía Supraclavicular Serie clínica

    PubMed Central

    Socolovsky, Mariano; Di Masi, Gilda; Binaghi, Daniela; Campero, Álvaro; Páez, Miguel Domínguez; Dubrovsky, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Introducción: El síndrome de outlet torácico es una compresión del plexo braquial que suscita polémica. Se clasifica en Outlet Torácico Verdadero o neurogénico (OTV) y Outlet Torácico Disputado o no neurogénico (OTD). El primero presenta síntomas motores en la mano, mientras que el segundo sólo síntomas sensitivos en el miembro superior. El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar los resultados obtenidos en una serie de 31 cirugías. Métodos: Se analizaron las cirugías de nervios efectuadas entre 2003-2012, tomando los diagnósticos de outlet torácico cuyo período de seguimiento post-operatorio mínimo fuera de 6 meses. Se buscaron los siguientes datos: edad, sexo, presencia de síntomas sensitivos y/o motores, clasificación, resultado de los estudios neurofisiológicos y de imágenes, resultado de la cirugía, complicaciones post-operatorias y recidivas. Resultados: Se incluyeron 31 cirugías realizadas en 30 pacientes, 9 OTV (8 mujeres) de 24.3 años, y 21 con OTD (18 mujeres) de 37.4 años de edad en promedio. Un 90% presentaron alteraciones neurofisiológicas preoperatorias, y 66,6% imagenológicas. En el intraoperatorio, el 100% de los OTV presentó una alteración anatómica relacionada con la sintomatología, hecho observado sólo en el 36.7% de los OTD operados. El 87,5% de los OTV mejoraron sensitivamente, mientras que 77,7% mejoraron la atrofia. Por el contrario, 45.4% de los OTD mejoraron permanentemente, 36.3% no tuvieron cambios, 13.6% mejoraron transitoriamente y 4.5% (un caso) empeoró. Las complicaciones post-operatorias fueron más frecuentes aunque transitorias en el grupo de OTV (3 casos sobre 9 operados, 33.3%) que en los OTD (3 casos sobre 22, un 13.6%). Conclusión: El OTV suele mayormente mejorar luego de la cirugía, igual que el OTD aunque en una proporción mucho menor. Estos hallazgos coinciden con otros reportes recientes de esta patología. PMID:25165614

  12. Effects of oral nutritional support in hospitalized patients with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Pereira da Silva, Renata; Santos Borges de Araújo, Isis Lucilia; Coelho Cabral, Poliana; Pessoa de Araújo Burgos, Maria Goretti

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La aparición de terapias más eficaces para el tratamiento del Síndromes de la Inmunodeficiencia Adquirida (SIDA) redujo la morbi-mortandad y la desnutrición entre los pacientes infectados. Sin embargo, en los casos de desnutrición hospitalaria, son observados reducción de la ingestión alimentaria, mala absorción de nutrientes y alteraciones metabólicas inducidas por fiebre e infecciones. Objetivos: Evaluar el impacto del Suporte Nutricional Oral (SNO) en pacientes hospitalizados portadores de SIDA. Métodos: Se analizaron los siguientes parámetros: peso, índice de masa corporal (IMC), pliegue cutánea tricipital (PCT), circunferencia del brazo (CB), circunferencia muscular del brazo (CMB), albumina, hemoglobina, hematocrito y linfocitos totales séricos. Resultados: Mejora significativa en el peso, IMC, PCT, CB, albumina y linfocitos, tras 19,27 ± 7,45 días de SNO, sin mejora significativa en la CMB, hemoglobina y hematocrito. Conclusión: La intervención dietética con recomendación nutricional y uso de suplementos promovió mejora del estado nutricional de individuos desnutridos con SIDA, pero con aumento del tejido adiposo, sin impacto en la masa magra o anemia.

  13. A Comparison Between PSRK and GERG-2004 Equation of State for Simulation of Non-Isothermal Compressible Natural Gases Mixed with Hydrogen in Pipelines / Porównanie równań stanu opracowanych według metody PSRK oraz GERG-2004 wykorzystanych do symulacji zachowania ściśliwych mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach, w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uilhoorn, Frits E.

    2013-06-01

    In this work, the GERG-2004 equation of state based on a multi-fluid approximation explicit in the reduced Helmholtz energy is compared with the predictive Soave-Redlich-Kwong group contribution method. In the analysis, both equations of state are compared by simulating a non-isothermal transient flow of natural gas and mixed hydrogen-natural gas in pipelines. Besides the flow conditions also linepack-energy and energy consumption of the compressor station are computed. The gas flow is described by a set of partial differential equations resulting from the conservation of mass, momentum and energy. A pipeline section of the Yamal-Europe gas pipeline on Polish territory has been selected for the case study. W artykule dokonano porównania wyników uzyskanych przy wykorzystaniu równania stanu GERG- 2004 opartego na jawnym przybliżeniu wyników dla wielu cieczy w oparciu o zredukowaną energię Helmhotza oraz wyników uzyskanych w oparciu o metodę Soave-Redlich Kwonga. Obydwa równania stanu porównano poprzez przeprowadzenie symulacji stanów przejściowych przepływów gazu ziemnego oraz mieszanin gazu ziemnego i wodoru w rurociągach w warunkach przepływów nie-izotermicznych. Oprócz warunków przepływu, określono energię w napełnionym układzie oraz zużycie energii przez stację kompresora. Przepływ gazu opisano zbiorem równań różniczkowych cząstkowych, wyprowadzonych w oparciu o prawa zachowania masy, pędu i energii. Jako studium przypadku wybrano fragment rurociągu jamalskiego (Yamal- Europa) przebiegającego przez terytorium Polski.

  14. [Barriers and Facilitators in the Recruitment and Retention of Heterosexual Couples for Preventive Interventions.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Alberto L; Perez-Jimenez, David

    2010-01-01

    El Reclutamiento y la Retención (R&R) de participantes es fundamental para el éxito de estudios y para el desarrollo de intervenciones preventivas. El R&R de participantes determina la validez y efectividad de estos programas. En este trabajo examinamos algunos de los factores que facilitan y dificultan el R&R en los proyectos preventivos y ofrecemos algunas alternativas para mejorar los índices de R&R. Realizamos dos estudios, en el primero administramos el Instrumento de Informatión, Motivatión y Conductas-Español (IIMC-E) a un grupo de 26 parejas heterosexuales (52 participantes). En el segundo, entrevistamos a 5 parejas VIH discordantes (10 participantes). Encontramos que el 75% de los/las participantes indicó que su trabajo era una de las principales barreras que dificultan la asistencia a las actividades. Otras barreras son las responsabilidades laborales y familiares. Encontramos que la principal barrera fue el miedo a la revelación del estado serlógico. Los principales facilitadores del R&R son la coordinación adecuada y el seguimiento telefónico ofrecido por parte del personal del proyecto. Concluimos que en el desarrollo e implantación de programas de prevención el investigador/a debe tomar en cuenta la adaptación de aspectos logísticos como la disponibilidad y las necesidades particulares de los/las participantes.

  15. [Detection of cytomegalovirus by real-time PCR in HIV-positive plasm].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Tachiquín, Martha Eugenia; Gómez-Delgado, Alejandro; Valdez-Salazar, Hilda Alicia; Aguilera, Penélope

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCCIÓN: el citomegalovirus es responsable de infecciones persistentes, generalmente asintomáticas en personas sanas pero que en ausencia de una respuesta inmune efectiva puede causar enfermedad severa, por ello es muy importante su detección temprana en los individuos con trastornos de la inmunidad. El objetivo de esta investigación fue hacer un análisis del límite de detección, sensibilidad y concordancia de la reacción en cadena de la polimerasa (PCR) en punto final con los obtenidos con la PCR en tiempo real. MÉTODOS: se realizó un estudio transversal con 43 muestras de plasma humano positivas al virus de la inmunodeficiencia humano, provenientes de individuos de 18 o más años de edad, de uno u otro sexo. Todas las muestras tuvieron una carga viral-VIH mayor a 100 000 copias/mL. Para la PCR en punto final se empleó un método comercial para identificar UL54 (gen viral blanco) y para la PCR en tiempo real se amplificaron fragmentos de los genes UL54 (gen temprano) y UL83 (gen tardío) del citomegalovirus humano.

  16. New exact perfect fluid solutions of Einstein's equations. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uggla, Claes; Rosquist, Kjell

    1990-12-01

    A family of new spatially homogeneous Bianchi type VIh perfect fluid solutions of the Einstein equations is presented. The fluid flow is orthogonal to the spatially homogeneous hypersurfaces, and the pressure is proportional to the energy density.

  17. A Class of Homogeneous Scalar Tensor Cosmologies with a Radiation Fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazadjiev, Stoytcho S.

    We present a new class of exact homogeneous cosmological solutions with a radiation fluid for all scalar tensor theories. The solutions belong to Bianchi type VIh cosmologies. Explicit examples of nonsingular homogeneous scalar tensor cosmologies are also given.

  18. Overview on the sub-grouping of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone family.

    PubMed

    Lacombe, C; Grève, P; Martin, G

    1999-02-01

    The Crustacean hyperglycemic hormones (CHHs) are an ever extending family of crustacean hormones mainly involved in carbohydrate metabolism, molt and reproduction. In this paper, we drew together 32 available CHH sequences, and applied the techniques of multiple sequence alignment, motif searching and amino acid conservation analysis to the characterization of the molecules independently of their biological function. The analysis clearly showed that the proteins clustered into two groups (CHH and VIH). Amino acid conservation analysis also subdivided the VIH group into sequences involved in reproduction (RIH) or in molt (MIH). Motif searching identified five motifs in each group of mature hormones. Motifs A2 and A3 were conserved in all sequences while motifs A1 and A1' were specific of the CHH and VIH groups respectively. This approach demonstrated the S. gregaria ion transport peptides as true members of the CHH group. The two main groups, CHH and VIH, are also discussed in terms of functional homogeneity.

  19. Detection of the mRNA encoding vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone in neurosecretory cells of the X-organ in Homarus americanus by in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Laverdure, A M; Breuzet, M; Soyez, D; Becker, J

    1992-09-01

    Vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone (VIH)-mRNA in secretory cells of the eyestalk of Homarus americanus was detected by nonradioactive in situ hybridization (ISH) using two digoxigenin-tailed oligonucleotide probes deduced from the peptide sequence. Two distinct clusters of positive cells were observed in the medulla terminalis ganglionic X-organ (MGTX). Only one of them gave a strong immunoreaction after incubation with a specific polyclonal anti-VIH serum and corresponded to the conventionally described VIH producing cells. The significance of the cells reacting positively in ISH but not in immunocytochemistry (ICC) is discussed. Northern blot analysis using 32P-labeling confirms the specificity of the probes and indicates an approximate size of 2.5 kb for VIH mRNA.

  20. Quasistatic and Dynamic Growth of Microscale Spherical Voids (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    function of gro\\ VIh rate. Eq. (56) is solved numerically for specified material data. Results of crossover growlh rate, v·, and pressure, P’, are shown...At a pressure P < p’, (or v < v"), growth rate is lower for materials with high yield stress. Conversely. at a pressure P > p •. (or v > v·), gro\\ VIh

  1. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1981-01-01

    Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Heliostat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA was found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 10000 K to 20000 K range. These temperatures were shown to be achievable even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  2. L’évaluation et le traitement du nourrisson exposé au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    RÉSUMÉ Dans les pays industrialisés, des soins et un traitement sont offerts aux femmes enceintes et aux nourrissons, afin de faire chuter à 2 % ou moins le taux d’infection périnatale au virus d’immunodéficience humaine de type 1 (VIH-1). Le pédiatre joue un rôle de premier plan dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH-1 de la mère à l’enfant par le dépistage des nourrissons exposés au VIH dont l’infection au VIH de la mère n’a pas été diagnostiquée avant l’accouchement. Il prescrit une prophylaxie antirétrovirale à ces nourrissons, afin de réduire le risque d’acquisition de l’infection au VIH-1 et d’en éviter le plus possible la transmission par le lait maternel. De plus, le pédiatre peut soigner les nourrissons exposés au VIH-1 en les surveillant pour obtenir un dépistage précoce de l’infection au VIH-1 et évaluer les toxicités à court et à long terme de l’exposition aux antirétroviraux, assurer une chimioprophylaxie de la pneumonie à Pneumocystis et soutenir les familles qui vivent avec une infection au VIH-1, grâce à des conseils thérapeutiques aux parents ou aux soignants.

  3. Leadership and Innovation-Listening to and Learning From Young People in Burundi.

    PubMed

    Nininahazwe, Cédric; Alesi, Jacquelyne; Caswell, Georgina; Lumumba, Musah; Mellin, Julie; Ndayizeye, Nicholas-Monalisa; Orza, Luisa; Rahimi, Michaela; Westerhof, Nienke

    2017-02-01

    This commentary describes young people's leadership from the perspective of a youth-led organization in the Link Up project in Burundi, Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH. It describes processes that enable young people to guide, influence, deliver, and improve health service provision; the challenges faced by Réseau National des Jeunes vivant avec le VIH and how they are addressing these challenges.

  4. [HTLV-I infection in a high-risk group].

    PubMed

    Pujol, E; Ollero, M; Gimeno, A; Colchero, J; Alcoucer, R; Márquez, P

    1990-07-01

    The aim of this study is to detect the presence of HTLV-1 in a high-risk population in west Andalusia. We studied 267 samples of serum from 255 patients: 179 of these patients being intravenous drug-users, 14 had ADVP sexual partners, 16 were inhalation drug-users, 4 were hemophiliacs, 9 had other high-risk habits and 25 hematological patients afflicted with leukemia or lymphoma. All of them were tested for antibodies against HTLV-1 by means of an in vitro qualitative ELISA technique (ELISA Du Pont HTLV-1). The positive results were confirmed by the Western blot technique. Additionally, the p24 antigen and the antibodies against VIH-1 and VIH-2 (ENV/CORE) were analysed, except in the 25 hematological patients. We found 20 serum samples positive to HTLV-1 by ELISA (7.4%), but only 1 (0.3%) was confirmed by the Western blot technique. The prevalence of VIH-1 was 46%; 9% had p24 VIH antigen and 26% had false positive ELISA to VIH-2. We found a statistically significant relationship (p = 0.0005) between positive ELISA to HTLV-1 and antibodies against VIH. We conclude that HTLV-1 has penetrated into the high-risk population of west Andalusia , although not yet to a great degree, and point out the need for seric epidemiological surveillance to prevent the spread of the retrovirus in these groups.

  5. [Frequency of invasive fungal infections in a Mexican High-Specialty Hospital. Experience of 21 years].

    PubMed

    Méndez-Tovar, Luis Javier; Mejía-Mercado, Jessica Aline; Manzano-Gayosso, Patricia; Hernández-Hernández, Francisca; López-Martínez, Rubén; Silva-González, Israel

    2016-01-01

    Introducción: Factores como el cáncer, la infección por VIH, así como el uso de esteroides y antibióticos, incrementan el número de micosis invasivas (MI). Métodos: Para conocer la frecuencia y algunos aspectos epidemiológicos de las MI en un hospital del IMSS, se revisaron los casos probados diagnosticados en los últimos 21 años (1993-2013) en el Laboratorio de Micología Médica. Resultados: Se identificaron 472 casos, distribuidos en: 261 candidosis, 82 mucormicosis, 60 criptococosis, 43 aspergilosis y 16 histoplasmosis. La candidosis disminuyó de 74 casos en los primeros 6 años, a 48 en los cinco últimos. La localización principal fue pulmonar y el principal agente fue C. albicans. La criptococosis también disminuyó de 24 a 10 casos, principalmente fue causada por C. neoformans, aunque hubo dos casos de C. laurentii, uno de C. terreus y uno de C. unigutulatus. La mucormicosis se mantuvo constante, pero la aspergilosis se incrementó pasando de 2 casos en el primer periodo a 23 en el último. Conclusiones: Es importante que los hospitales de alta especialidad, cuenten con laboratorios de micología médica para realizar el diagnóstico de MI. Se sugiere crear un Centro Nacional de Referencia de Micosis donde se concentren los datos de estas infecciones y contribuya en la elaboración de planes de educación para la salud, prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento de las mismas.

  6. HIV-TB co-infection in children: associated factors and access to HIV services in Lagos, Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Daniel, O J; Adejumo, O A; Gidado, M; Abdur-Razzaq, H A; Jaiyesimi, E O

    2015-09-21

    Contexte : Le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et la tuberculose (TB) sont les causes majeures de décès dû à une maladie infectieuse dans le monde. L'Organisation Mondiale de la Santé estime que la prévalence du VIH parmi les enfants atteints de TB dans des pays à prévalence modérée à élevée va de 10% à 60%. Cette étude a eu pour but de déterminer l'accès aux services VIH pour les enfants coinfectés par TB-VIH.Méthodes : Une revue rétrospective des données d'enfants ayant eu un diagnostic de TB dans l'état de Lagos au Nigeria entre le 1(e) janvier 2012 et le 31 décembre 2013.Résultats : Un total de 1199 enfants âgés de 0 à 14 ans ont eu un diagnostic de TB. Parmi eux, 1095 (91,3%) ont eu un test VIH, dont 320 (29,2%) ont été positifs. Le ratio garçon/fille de coinfection TB-VIH a été de 1:0,9. Sur les 320 enfants coinfectés TB-VIH, 57 (17,8%), 86 (26,9%) et 186 (58,1%) respectivement avaient <1 an, 1–4 ans et 5–14 ans. Sur les 320 enfants coinfectés TB-VIH, 186 (58,1%) ont débuté le cotrimoxazole (CPT) tandis que 151 (47,2%) étaient sous traitement antirétroviral (ART). La mise sous ART n'a pas été significativement plus élevée dans les structures où les services TB-VIH se trouvaient au même endroit (P > 0,05).Conclusion : La mise sous CPT et ART a été faible. Il est nécessaire d'intensifier les efforts d'amélioration de l'accès aux services VIH à Lagos, Nigeria.

  7. See the World on the Internet: Tips for Parents of Young Readers--and "Surfers" = Vea el mundo por Internet: Ideas por padres de jovenes lectores y exploradores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moss, Jeanette

    Regardless of whether a parent has Internet access at home, it is essential that parents learn with their children and be aware of where their travels on the Internet are taking them. Many libraries have Internet workshops for parents or children or both. In the excitement of looking at sites, children may not even realize they are reading. Many…

  8. Factores que Influencian la Adquisición de Infecciones de Transmisión Sexual y VIH en Mujeres Jóvenes Chilenas que Participaron en la Intervención Online I-STIPI (Factors That Influence the Acquisition of Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV in Chilean Young Women Who Participated in the Online Intervention I-STIPI).

    PubMed

    Villegas, Natalia; Cianelli, Rosina; Santisteban, Daniel; Lara, Loreto; Vargas, Jessica

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this descriptive cross-sectional study was to investigate the following factors associated with sexually transmitted infections and human immunodeficiency virus prevention: (a) knowledge, (b) attitudes, (c) self-efficacy, (d) vulnerability, (e) risky behaviors, (f) preventive behaviors, and (g) internet use among 40 Chilean women between 18 and 24 years who participated in the pilot of an Internet based STI/HIV prevention intervention (I-STIPI). A structured questionnaire available in a secure website was used for data collection and it included questions related to STI and HIV prevention. The results of the study indicated that young women are at risk of acquiring STIs and HIV and have special needs for prevention. Familiarity and frequency of use of internet in this population can be used for STIs and HIV prevention.

  9. Viviremos! On the Road to Healthy Living: A Bilingual Curriculum on AIDS and HIV Prevention for Migrant Students (Grades 6-12) = El Camino Hacia la Salud: Un Programa de Estudio Bilingue sobre la Prevencion del SIDA y del VIH para Estudiantes Migrantes (Grados 6-12).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VAMOS (Villarreal Analytical Management and Organizational Services), San Marcos, TX.

    This curriculum provides the basic information everyone needs to avoid HIV infection, but was specifically designed for Latino farmworker students in grades 6-7. The student materials are written in Spanish and English and may be used with older student or young adults, or in English-as-a-second-language courses. An introduction provides…

  10. [Immunomodulatory role of dietary lipids in an immunosuppressed mouse model and infected with listeria monocytogenes].

    PubMed

    Cerón Rodríguez, José María; Puertollano Vacas, M Ángeles; Puertollano Vacas, M Elena; Alvarez de Cienfuegos López, Gerardo

    2014-10-01

    Introducción: La capacidad inmunomoduladora de los ácidos grasos de la dieta en situaciones de inmunosupresión puede diferir de acuerdo con el tipo de ácido graso presente. Objetivo: Analizar el efecto de diferentes tipos de dietas lipídicas, en la resistencia de animales inmunosuprimidos o no, frente a una infección experimental con Listeria monocytogenes. Métodos: Ratones Balb/c fueron divididos en cuatro grupos experimentales, según su tratamiento inmunosupresor: control (PBS), Ciclofosfamida (CPA), GK 1.5 y RB6-8C5. Cada grupo fue subdividido en cuatro subgrupos según la dieta lipídica utilizada: control con aceite de maíz 5% (BG); aceite de oliva 20% (AO); aceite de pescado 20% (AP) y aceite de girasol 20% (AG). Los animales se alimentaron durante un mes antes del tratamiento y posteriormente infectados con L. monocytogenes. Resultados: Mostramos incrementos en el número de bacterias viables en bazo e hígado, y bajos porcentajes de supervivencia en todos los grupos de ratones inmunosuprimidos y también en el grupo PBS alimentado con AP. Además, se observaron incrementos en la linfoproliferación, de bazos de ratones alimentados con AO y tratados con CPA. Discusión: La dieta AP, produce una disminución en la resistencia del hospedador en situaciones de inmunosupresión. Por el contrario, las dietas AO y AG muestran mayor eficacia en la eliminación de L. monocytogenes y mayores ventajas en animales inmunosuprimidos. El tratamiento con RB6-8C5, produce una reducción en la supervivencia de los ratones de los grupos estudiados, lo que induce a establecer que los granulocitos juegan un papel fundamental en el control de la infección.

  11. Impact of Chloroquine on Viral Load in Breast Milk

    PubMed Central

    Semrau, Katherine; Kuhn, Louise; Kasonde, Prisca; Sinkala, Moses; Kankasa, Chipepo; Shutes, Erin; Vwalika, Cheswa; Ghosh, Mrinal; Aldrovandi, Grace; Thea, Donald M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary The anti-malarial agent chloroquine has activity against HIV. We compared the effect of chloroquine (n = 18) to an anti-malarial agent without known anti-HIV-activity, sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (n = 12), on breast milk HIV RNA levels among HIV-infected breastfeeding women in Zambia. After adjusting for CD4 count and plasma viral load, chloroquine was associated with a trend towards lower levels of HIV RNA in breast milk compared with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (P 0.05). Higher breastmilk viral load was also observed among women receiving presumptive treatment = for symptomatic malaria compared with asymptomatic controls and among controls reporting fever in the prior week. Further research is needed to determine the potential role of chloroquine in prevention of HIV transmission through breastfeeding. Impacte de la chloroquine sur la charge virale dans le lait maternelle La chloroquine, agent antimalarique, a une activité contre le VIH. Nous avons comparé l’effet de la chloroquine à celui d’un autre agent antimalarique, la sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine, dont l’activité sur le VIH n’est pas connue, en mesurant les taux d’ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel de femmes allaitantes infectées par le VIH en Zambie. Après ajustement pour les taux de CD4 et la charge virale dans le plasma, la chloroquine comparée à la sulfadoxine pyrimethamine était associée à une tendance vers des teneurs plus bas en ARN de VIH dans le lait maternel (P = 0,05). Des charges virales plus élevées dans le lait maternel étaient aussi observées chez des femmes recevant un traitement présomptif pour des symptômes de malaria par rapport aux contrôles asymptomatiques et par rapport à des contrôles rapportant de la fièvre durant la première semaine. Des études supplémentaires sont nécessaires pour déterminer le rôle potentiel de la chloroquine dans la prévention de la transmission du VIH par l’allaitement maternel. mots clésVIH, malaria, allaitement maternel

  12. Are HIV-positive presumptive tuberculosis patients without tuberculosis getting the care they need in Zimbabwe?

    PubMed

    Dlodlo, R A; Hwalima, Z E; Sithole, S; Takarinda, K C; Tayler-Smith, K; Harries, A D

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Le centre de santé Emakhandeni, qui offre une prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) et du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) décentralisée et intégrée à Bulawayo, Zimbabwe.Objectifs : Comparer la prise en charge du VIH pour les patients présumés tuberculeux, avec et sans TB, enregistrés en 2013.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte basée sur les données de routine du programme.Résultats: Sur 422 patients présumés tuberculeux enregistrés, 26% étaient connus comme VIH positifs. Parmi les 315 patients restants, 255 (81%) ont eu un test VIH, dont 190 (75%) se sont avérés positifs. Parmi eux, 26% ont eu un diagnostic de TB et 71% n'ont pas été confirmés tuberculeux (les 3% restants n'ont eu aucun résultat de TB enregistré). Pour les 134 patients sans TB, les données d'éligibilité au traitement antirétroviral (ART) ont été notées chez 42 (31%) patients et 95% ont été éligibles à l'ART. La mise en œuvre du traitement préventif par cotrimoxazole (CPT) et l'ART a été notée pour respectivement 88% et 90% des patients VIH positifs avec TB, comparés à respectivement 40% et 38% des patients VIH positifs sans TB (P < 0,001).Conclusion : Les patients présumés TB mais non confirmés avaient un taux élevé de positivité au VIH et pour ceux dont les données étaient disponibles, la majorité était éligible à l'ART. Par contre, pour les patients VIH positifs sans une TB confirmée, le taux de mise en œuvre du traitement préventif par CPT et de l'ART a été médiocre. Une approche « tester et traiter » et de meilleurs liens entre les services pourraient sauver la vie de ces patients, surtout en Afrique australe où les taux de VIH et de TB sont très élevés.

  13. [Opinion of undergraduate health sciences students towards ethical issues related to HIV-positive persons in schools, workplaces and health centers].

    PubMed

    Apellaniz, Alfonso; Manzanaro, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    Objetivos: Conocer la opinión de estudiantes de carreras sanitarias de la Universidad del País Vasco (UPV/EHU) acerca de conflictos éticos relacionados con las personas VIH+ en centros docentes, de trabajo y sanitarios. Métodos: La población de interés eran estudiantes de Medicina, Odontología y Enfermería de la UPV/EHU en todos los cursos de dichas titulaciones. A los alumnos presentes en el aula en fecha escogida aleatoriamente en el curso académico 2002-2003, se les ofreció rellenar una encuesta en la que se recogía su opinión sobre situaciones conflictivas relacionadas con la presencia de personas seropositivas (VIH+) en lugares de trabajo y centros públicos. Las opciones de respuesta eran cerradas, sobre una escala de cinco grados de acuerdo desde “Totalmente en desacuerdo” hasta “Totalmente de acuerdo”, incluyendo también las opciones “No deseo opinar” y “No tengo opinión formada sobre el tema”. Resultados: Se obtuvieron un total de 529 cuestionarios cumplimentados. Un 69% de los encuestados se manifiesta en total desacuerdo con no admitir niños VIH+ en colegios, y un 77% con el despido de trabajadores seropositivos. Un 90% acepta que la dirección de un colegio conozca si un alumno es VIH+. Un 78% está de acuerdo en tener compañeros de clase VIH+. Los encuestados no aceptan limitaciones laborales a los trabajadores sanitarios VIH+. Un 60% está totalmente en desacuerdo con que los sanitarios puedan rechazar el tratamiento de un paciente VIH+. Un 69% está de acuerdo con la obligatoriedad de la prueba VIH a los trabajadores sanitarios, y un 55% con que éstos puedan conocer la situación VIH de los pacientes. Conclusiones: En general, nuestra muestra se manifiesta en contra de limitaciones sociales o laborales a personas.

  14. Interaction proteins of invertase and invertase inhibitor in cold-stored potato tubers suggested a protein complex underlying post-translational regulation of invertase.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Xun; Ou, Yongbin; Li, Meng; Zhang, Huiling; Song, Botao; Xie, Conghua

    2013-12-01

    The activity of vacuolar invertase (VI) is vital to potato cold-induced sweetening (CIS). A post-translational regulation of VI activity has been proposed which involves invertase inhibitor (VIH), but the mechanism for the interaction between VI and VIH has not been fully understood. To identify the potential partners of VI and VIH, two cDNA libraries were respectively constructed from CIS-resistant wild potato species Solanum berthaultii and CIS-sensitive potato cultivar AC035-01 for the yeast two-hybrid analysis. The StvacINV1 (one of the potato VIs) and StInvInh2B (one of the potato VIHs), previously identified to be associated with potato CIS, were used as baits to screen the two libraries. Through positive selection and sequencing, 27 potential target proteins of StvacINV1 and eight of StInvInh2B were clarified. The Kunitz-type protein inhibitors were captured by StvacINV1 in both libraries and the interaction between them was confirmed by bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay in tobacco cells, reinforcing a fundamental interaction between VI and VIH. Notably, a sucrose non-fermenting-1-related protein kinase 1 was captured by both the baits, suggesting that a protein complex could be necessary for fine turning of the invertase activity. The target proteins clarified in present research provide a route to elucidate the mechanism by which the VI activity can be subtly modulated.

  15. [Knowledge transfer for STI/HIV/AIDS prevention among adolescents].

    PubMed

    Olvera-Blanco, María Antonieta; Moreno-Monsiváis, María Guadalupe; De la Garza-Salinas, Laura Hermila

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: la transferencia del conocimiento es un proceso trascendental para la funcionalidad y mantenimiento de los programas de formación. El objetivo de este trabajo fue determinar cómo opera el proceso de transferencia del programa JUVENIMSS y los factores que se relacionan con la transferencia del conocimiento. Métodos: el diseño del estudio fue correlacional, participaron 122 profesionales de salud. Se utilizó la Escala de Medición de los Componentes de Implementación. Para el análisis de los datos se usó estadística descriptiva, índice global y de las subescalas del instrumento, prueba de bondad de ajuste de Kolmogorov-Smirnov y correlaciones. Resultados: el promedio de edad de los profesionales que participan en el programa fue 37 años (Desviación estándar = 10.5), predominó el sexo femenino (84 %), el 48 % fueron trabajadores sociales. La transferencia del conocimiento para la prevención de ITS/VIH/SIDA en adolescentes se correlacionó con apoyo administrativo, gestión del personal administrativo, liderazgo, entrenamiento, supervisión/asistencia técnica y evaluación del desempeño. Conclusiones: la transferencia del conocimiento mostró áreas de oportunidad que deben ser consideradas por los tomadores de decisiones para favorecer la implementación y el mantenimiento de los programas preventivos para prevenir conductas sexuales de riesgo en los adolescentes.

  16. Ensenando El Espanol por Medio de Accion (Teaching Spanish through Action).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Segal, Bertha

    A teaching guide containing 102 elementary to intermediate level Spanish lessons is presented. The lessons are based on the Total Physical Response technique of second language teaching. They follow the stages of first language acquisition: listening, speaking, and reading. Each of the ten units contains a list of new vocabulary words, individual…

  17. Master equipment list 500 CFM portable exhauster POR-005 skid C

    SciTech Connect

    KRISKOVICH, J.R.

    1999-07-08

    The Master Equipment List (MEL) lists all the major components of the 500 cfm exhauster PORO5. The purpose of this Master Equipment List is to provide basic information and references to other documents for the listed components.

  18. Teaching Probability for Conceptual Change (La Ensenanza de la Probabilidad por Cambio Conceptual).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castro, Cesar Saenz

    1998-01-01

    Presents a theoretical proposal of a methodology for the teaching of probability theory. Discusses the importance of the epistemological approach of Lakatos and the perspective of the conceptual change. Discusses research using a proposed didactic method with Spanish high school students (N=6). Concludes that significant differences on all…

  19. Producao d Dijatos por Dupla Troca de Pomeron Exclusiva no Experimento D0

    SciTech Connect

    Murilo Santana Rangel

    2008-01-01

    The first search for exclusive diffractive dijet production with invariant mass ≳ 100 GeV in Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron Collider is performed. The set of data used is the Run IIa, corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 30 pb-1 of p$\\bar{p}$ collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV taken with the D0 detector. At 95% CL, an upper limit for the ratio between the number of diffractive exclusive events and the number of non diffractive events is set to be 7.5 x 10-6, excluding two of the three models proposed to explain this production.

  20. Abuso sexual por parte de los empleados del colegio (Sexual Misconduct by School Employees). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goorian, Brad

    This digest in Spanish defines sexual misconduct and offers guidelines that school boards and administrators can initiate to protect students from unwanted sexual behavior. The law recognizes two types of sexual misconduct: quid pro quo, when a school employee grants a student a favor in exchange for sexual gratification, and hostile environment,…

  1. El Titulo IX y La Discriminacion por Sexo (Title IX and Sex Discrimination).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Office for Civil Rights (ED), Washington, DC.

    Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 protects people from discrimination based on sex in education programs or activities that receive Federal financial assistance. This brochure outlines the responsibilities of education programs and activities covered by Title IX, the responsibilities of the Office for Civil Rights (OCR) in enforcing…

  2. Renovando la Esperanza por una Educacion sin Exclusiones (Rekindling the Hope for an Education without Exclusion).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Revista Interamericana de Educacion de Adultos, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Articles in this issue, written in Spanish, focus on the following: current status and outlook of youth and adult education; opening statement of the 50th anniversary commemoration; regional framework for the education of youth and adults in Latin America and the Caribbean; interculturalism and the education of youth and adults; participation of…

  3. Pulsaciones excitadas por la quema de hidrógeno en enanas blancas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camisassa, M. E.; Córsico, A. H.; Althaus, L. G.

    2016-08-01

    Recent works show that low-mass white dwarfs derived from low-metallicity progenitors, in the absence of third dredge-up episodes during the asymptotic giant branch, are born with a hydrogen envelope thick enough to make stable hydrogen shell burning the most important energy source even at low luminosities. This extra source of energy delays the cooling times of these white dwarfs. Furthermore, in this type of stars some pulsational -modes could be excited by the epsilon mechanism due to the hydrogen shell burning. Motivated by these results, we decided to explore the pulsational properties of this type of stars, aimed at constraining hydrogen shell burning and the occurrence of third dredge-up during the AGB evolution of the progenitor stars. For this purpose, we have constructed nonadiabatic pulsation models of white dwarfs from low-metallicity progenitors with . Our calculations show that some modes are excited due to hydrogen shell burning.

  4. Home before You Know It = De regres en casa en un dos por tres.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vida Health Communications, Inc., Cambridge, MA.

    The arrival of a newborn requires a great deal of adjustment. Intended for new and expectant parents, this booklet and companion video provide practical advice and hands-on demonstrations of the essentials of mother and baby care, from birth to the first visit to the pediatrician. The first part of the booklet, which comes in both English- and…

  5. El Libro de la Escritura por Pinguino Tinto (The Writing Book, by Inky Penguin).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padgett, Ron

    Presented completely in Spanish and intended for elementary level students, this book offers 12 writing ideas and several suggestions on how students can make a book using their writing. Each writing idea is presented with a brief description (addressed to the student), several examples of student writing, and a blank page on which to write.…

  6. Looking for a Job: Step by Step = Buscando Trabajo: Paso por Paso.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Patricia

    This bilingual document provides guidelines and learning activities to assist migrant workers in looking for a job. The document covers the following areas: (1) a checklist providing an overview of job search skills; (2) developing a fact sheet of personal information; (3) listing good work qualities; (4) identifying references and securing…

  7. Evolución de una protuberancia observada por el HASTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luoni, M. L.; Francile, C.

    Prominence eruptions are one of the most spectacular manifestations of solar activity; in addition to flares and coronal mass ejections. Both filaments and prominences are chromospheric material suspended in the corona by the magnetic field. Hence their importance as tracers of field ejections. Some parts of their magnetic structure are not well understood; especially with regard to the loss of stability. On 06 December 2010 the H-Alpha Telescope for Argentina (HASTA) observed a prominence in the eastern solar limb including when part of it was ejected. In this paper the evolution of the filament is analyzed; its structure before and after the eruption; determining parameters that characterize it from HASTA data. FULL TEXT IN SPANISH

  8. Enfermedad diarreica aguda por Escherichia coli patógenas en Colombia

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Duarte, Oscar G.

    2014-01-01

    Resumen Las cepas de E. coli patógenas intestinales son causas importantes de la enfermedad diarreica aguda (EDA) en niños menores de 5 años en América Latina, África y Asia y están asociadas a alta mortalidad en niños en las comunidades más pobres de África y el Sudeste Asiático. Estudios sobre el papel de las E. coli patógenas intestinales en la EDA infantil en Colombia y otros países de América Latina son limitados debido a la carencia de ensayos para detección de estos patógenos en los laboratorios clínicos de centros de salud. Estudios recientes han reportado la detección de E. coli patógenas intestinales en Colombia, siendo la E. coli enterotoxigénica la cepa más frecuentemente asociada a diarrea en niños menores de 5 años. Otros patógenos detectados en estos pacientes incluyen las E. coli enteroagregativa, enteropatógena, productora de toxina Shiga, y de adherencia difusa. Con base en estudios que reportan la presencia de E. coli productora de toxina Shiga y E. coli enteroagregativa en carnes y vegetales en supermercados, se cree que productos alimentarios contaminados contribuyen a la transmisión de estos patógenos y a la infección del huésped susceptible. Más estudios son necesarios para evaluar los mecanismos de transmisión, el impacto en la epidemiologia de la EDA, y las pautas de manejo y prevención de estos patógenos que afectan la población pediátrica en Colombia. PMID:25491457

  9. PREJUICIO Y DISTANCIA SOCIAL HACIA PERSONAS HOMOSEXUALES POR PARTE DE JÓVENES UNIVERSITARIOS

    PubMed Central

    Fernández Rodríguez, María del C.; Squiabro, José Calderón

    2014-01-01

    Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal con el propósito de explorar actitudes de rechazo y distancia social hacia las personas gays y lesbianas (GL) en 565 universitarios. Se utilizó una escala para medir Prejuicio y otra escala para medir Distancia Social. Los participantes reflejaron niveles moderados de prejuicio y distancia social (DS) hacia las personas gays y lesbianas. Los varones (M=104.5, DT= 27.47) mostraron significativamente más prejuicio que las mujeres (M=98.8, DT= 23.41). Los hombres (M=22.7, DT= 7.00) mostraron significativamente mayor DS que las mujeres (M=21.1, DT= 5.41). Las personas que asisten con regularidad a la iglesia mostraron más prejuicio y DS que los que no asisten. Se analiza importancia de incluir el tema de la diversidad sexual a través del currículo para desmontar prejuicios hacia la comunidad homosexual. PMID:25606066

  10. The Escuela Moderna Movement of Francisco Ferrer: "Por la Verdad y la Justicia."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fidler, Geoffrey C.

    1985-01-01

    The educational theory and practice of the Escuela Modern (Modern School) movement of the Spanish educator Francisco Ferrer, born in 1850, are discussed. Two fundamental tendencies of the movement are child-centered education and education in didactic terms. (RM)

  11. Luchando por una educacion: A Qualitative Understanding of Undocumented Latina/o College Student Motivation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Navarro, Elvia Lorena

    2013-01-01

    The current qualitative study explored the factors and resources that motivate undocumented Latino/a college students to persist in higher education. Through the data obtained from the four qualitative open-ended survey questions, a content analysis revealed specific codes, themes, and subthemes addressing the factors and resources that motivate…

  12. Language and La Academia, If English Works, Por Que Se Emplea Espanol?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jonz, Jon G.

    1978-01-01

    The dynamics of Mexican American nationalism reflected in the publications of the Academia de la Nueva Raza and in a 1971 work by Ricardo Sanchez are examined in this article. The connection between language and ideology is discussed in the context of Chicano nationalist writing. (GC)

  13. Phantom of RAMSES (POR): A new Milgromian dynamicsN-body code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lüghausen, Fabian; Famaey, Benoit; Kroupa, Pavel

    2015-02-01

    Since its first formulation in 1983, Milgromian dynamics (MOND) has been very successful in predicting the gravitational potential of galaxies from the distribution of baryons alone, including general scaling relations and detailed rotation curves of large statistical samples of individual galaxies covering a large range of masses and sizes. Most predictions however rely on static models, and only a handful of N-body codes have been developed over the years to investigate the consequences of the Milgromian framework for the dynamics of complex evolving dynamical systems. In this work, we present a new Milgromian N-body code, which is a customized version of the RAMSES code (Teyssier 2002) and thus comes with all its features: it includes particles and gas dynamics, and importantly allows for high spatial resolution of complex systems due to the adaptive mesh refinement (AMR) technique. It further allows the direct comparison between Milgromian simulations and standard Newtonian simulations with dark matter particles. We provide basic tests of this customized code and demonstrate its performance by presenting N-body computations of dark-matter-free spherical equilibrium models as well as dark-matter-free disk galaxies in Milgromian dynamics.

  14. The PorGrow project: overall cross-national results, comparisons and implications.

    PubMed

    Millstone, E; Lobstein, T

    2007-05-01

    European policymakers need more information on policy responses to obesity that stakeholders judge effective and acceptable. The Policy Options for Responding to the Growing Challenge of Obesity Research Project gathered such intelligence by interviewing key stakeholder groups in nine countries. Interviews used an innovative multi-criteria mapping (MCM) methodology that gathers quantitative and qualitative information on the stakeholders' perceptions and judgements. Aggregating across all participants, a comprehensive portfolio of policy measures, integrated into a coherent programme, would be well-supported by broad coalitions of stakeholders. Those portfolios should include measures (i) to provide improved educations in schools and to the general adult population; (ii) measures to improve access to and incentives for physical activity; (iii) measures to improve information about both foods and physical activity and (iv) changes to the supply of and demand for foodstuffs. There was little support for fiscal measures and technological 'fixes'; they were judged ineffective and unacceptable. Significant differences were found across European regions, and across different stakeholder perspectives, but not across genders. There is a strong case for improved monitoring of body mass index levels, dietary habits and physical activity. An MCM study can effectively cover several countries, rather than being confined to just one, and generate both national and cross-national policy analyses and proposals.

  15. Changes on metabolic parameters induced by acute cannabinoid administration (CBD, THC) in a rat experimental model of nutritional vitamin A deficiency.

    PubMed

    El Amrani, Loubna; Porres, Jesús M; Merzouki, Abderrahmane; Louktibi, Abdelaziz; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La deficiencia en vitamina A está asociada a la malnutrición, malabsorción de este nutriente, metabolismo alterado de vitaminas por enfermedad hepática, o enfermedades crónicas debilitantes como VIH, cáncer o infección. La administración de cannabis ha sido descrita como una terapia eficaz en el tratamiento sintomático de determinadas manifestaciones de la deficiencia nutricional en vitamina A y de diversas enfermedades crónicas debilitantes. Objetivos: El objetivo de este trabajo era estudiar el efecto de la administración de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) y cannabidiol (CBD) sobre las concentraciones plasmáticas y hepáticas de retinol y sobre parámetros bioquímicos relacionados con el metabolismo glucídico y lipídico (colesterolemia, trigliceridemia, glucemia) en un modelo experimental de rata deficiente en vitamina A. Métodos: El modelo experimental de deficiencia en vitamina A se desarrolló durante un periodo experimental de 50 días en los que las ratas consumieron una dieta libre en vitamina A. La administración de tetrahidrocannabinol (THC) (10 mg/kg peso corporal) y cannabidiol (CBD) (5 mg/kg peso corporal) se llevo a cabo por vía intraperitoneal 2 horas antes del sacrificio de los animales al final del periodo experimental. Resultados: La deficiencia nutricional en vitamina A causó un descenso significativo en el contenido plasmático y hepático de retinol y en parámetros bioquímicos de metabolismo glucídico, lipídico y mineral. La administración intraperitoneal aguda de tetrahidrocannabinol y cannabidiol no mejoró los índices de estado nutricional de vitamina A en ratas deficientes o control. Sin embargo, tuvo un efecto significativo sobre parámetros bioquímicos específicos como la glucemia, colesterolemia y trigliceridemia. Conclusión: Bajo nuestras condiciones experimentales, el efecto de la administración de cannabinoides sobre determinadas manifestaciones de la deficiencia en vitamina A parece estar

  16. Bianchi Type VI1 Viscous Fluid Cosmological Model in Wesson´s Theory of Gravitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadekar, G. S.; Avachar, G. R.

    2007-03-01

    Field equations of a scale invariant theory of gravitation proposed by Wesson [1, 2] are obtained in the presence of viscous fluid with the aid of Bianchi type VIh space-time with the time dependent gauge function (Dirac gauge). It is found that Bianchi type VIh (h = 1) space-time with viscous fluid is feasible in this theory, whereas Bianchi type VIh (h = -1, 0) space-times are not feasible in this theory, even in the presence of viscosity. For the feasible case, by assuming a relation connecting viscosity and metric coefficient, we have obtained a nonsingular-radiating model. We have discussed some physical and kinematical properties of the models.

  17. Using WSD Techniques for Lexical Selection in Statistical Machine Translation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-07-01

    Vih b...YKVml ¨ { hWY-p ` ] bd© jrYK\\ b ] ` YKR c_b ]_t�hfmxtj b ^_YITB\\ihT|hWYLml¥h ` Y7T Vih \\!hTh b \\ih b pKTR ª\\!ws\\ihWY-q«hfm � TVi^ XZY...YQ\\ihWThWY mleh ` Y¢T Vih b ]?\\ihWTh b \\ih b p�TR ­�Y¡ t_¡ ­Ŗp ` T]r^43eY-w z "" 6587msY ` ]?Y-h<TR¤¡ z "" 95 TVfp-jµT]_^ ¨

  18. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-31

    The Unified Heliostat Array (UHA) was investigated as to cost and optical performance. Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Heliostat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA was found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 1000/sup 0/K to 2000/sup 0/K range. These temperatures were shown to be achievable even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  19. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia.

  20. Development and Testing of a Multiple Frequency Continuous Wave Radar for Target Detection and Classification

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    1 2’ VIH " 1 ’ 󈧏) (34) where is the modified Bessel function of zero order. Here is the conditional variance and is the conditional probability...10, the probability of detection is the area under the signal-plus-noise curve above the detection threshold co M vF (V 2+ A2)]10 ( vAPd= fnp~ju,( vIH ...Database Collection and Processing 7.1 Experimental Setup. Following the completion of the last radar hardware revision , an extensive database of radar

  1. Proof-of-Principle High Speed Electronic Imaging System. Phase 2.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-01

    Z𔃽H - X𔃽H TAN 0 ’H (49) Line rH = vIH - v2H (50) Line ell = hilH - h2H (51) Line JH hlH - h3H (52) Line k H VIH - V3H (53) Line gH = jH + H (54...Geometry, Revised Edition, Ginn and Co., 1956. 7. Wemer Frei Associates, Imagelab TM Model 100, Santa Monica, California 1986. 1 8. R.L. Kittyle, J.D

  2. [Perinatal HIV transmission prophylaxis in the Liege region].

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Y; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F

    1998-08-01

    In Liège, since February 1994, Protocole ACTG 076 has been followed for prevention of perinatal transmission of VIH. The pregnant women are treated by AZT during pregnancy and delivery. The newborn is also treated during 6 weeks. Following this treatment strategy, vertical transmission rate of VIH has dropped from 25.6% to 8.7%. The PCR is particulary promising for the early detection of infection in newborn, but definitive conclusion about infective status of the newborn can't be done during the first week of life. The potential role of intrapartum transmission is now under evaluation in the hope to establish the safest mode of delivery.

  3. [Pneumocystis Pneumonia in 107 HIV Infected Patients Admitted to the Department of Infectious Diseases at Santa Maria Hospital, Lisbon (2002 - 2013)].

    PubMed

    Grilo, Vilma; Pereira, Aida

    2016-10-01

    Introdução: A pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii é das doenças infecciosas oportunistas mais comuns em infectados por vírus da imunodeficiência humana, sendo, actualmente, em Portugal a infecção definidora de sida mais reportada. Os objectivos deste estudo foram, analisar as características de uma população co-infectada por vírus da imunodeficiência humana e pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii, comparando-a com as referências disponíveis, e avaliar comparativamente subpopulações de doentes, consoante o conhecimento prévio da infecção por vírus da imunodeficiência humana, o método de diagnóstico de pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii e o resultado na alta. Material e Métodos: Realizámos um estudo restrospectivo pela análise dos registos clínicos de 107 doentes internados no Serviço de Doenças Infecciosas do Hospital de Santa Maria, entre 1 de janeiro de 2002 e 31 de dezembro de 2013, com o diagnóstico de pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii e vírus da imunodeficiência humana. As características epidemiológicas e clínicas foram avaliadas, incluindo o estado imunitário, a carga vírica e a terapêutica instituída e foi realizado um estudo estatístico das variáveis.Resultados: Nesta população, os resultados demonstraram predomínio do sexo masculino (81,3%), idade entre 20 - 39 anos (59,2%), transmissão de vírus da imunodeficiência humana por via heterossexual (48,6%), e que 24,3% eram imigrantes. Apesar do conhecimento da infecção por vírus da imunodeficiência humana (62,6%), 76,2% destes doentes não apresentava seguimento médico sustentado. A contagem de linfócitos TCD4+ ≤ 200 células/mm3 (96,3%), carga vírica elevada e candidose orofaríngea (72%) foram os principais factores de risco para o desenvolvimento de pneumonia por Pneumocystis jirovecii, e os marcadores de gravidade, como a hipoxemia (78,5%) e a elevação da LDH (82,2%) não traduziram pior prognóstico. Apenas foi possível isolar

  4. [Permanence of last generation antiretroviral in daily clinical practice].

    PubMed

    Escudero Vilaplana, V; Plata Paniagua, S; Rodríguez González, C; Castillo Romera, I; Ais Larisgoitia, A; Sanjurjo Sáez, M

    2013-01-01

    Introducción: La permanencia es una medida útil del éxito de los tratamientos antirretrovirales de última generación (AUG): raltegravir, darunavir, etravirina y maraviroc. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue analizar la permanencia de los tratamientos antirretrovirales (TAR) que contenían al menos un AUG, y compararla con otros TAR utilizados en pacientes experimentados. Métodos: Estudio observacional, de casos y controles, de pacientes adultos externos cuyo TAR fue modificado entre 01/05/2008 y 01/09/2009. Los casos (pacientes con al menos un AUG) fueron emparejados (relación 1:1) con pacientes pretratados que cambiaron a un TAR sin AUG (controles). La variable principal fue la permanencia del TAR. El seguimiento se realizó desde la modificación del TAR hasta un año después del cierre del período de inclusión. Los resultados se ajustaron por las variables de confusión: CD4 y carga viral (CV) basales, infección VIH multirresistente y tiempo desde el primer TAR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 112 pacientes en cada grupo. El tiempo de permanencia del TAR fue 16,7 meses (casos) vs 16,8 meses (controles), sin encontrarse diferencias estadísticamente significativas ajustando por las variables de confusión. La toxicidad fue el principal motivo de discontinuación (53,3% en casos vs 45,2% en controles, p = 0,70). La media en la disminución del logaritmo de la CV fue 0,89 en los casos y 0,58 en los controles (p = 0,223). El incremento de CD4/microL fue 77 y 73 respectivamente (p = 0,480). Conclusión: La permanencia del TAR en los pacientes cuyo tratamiento contiene algún AUG es similar a la de los pacientes que no lo contienen.

  5. Inhomogeneous generalization of some Bianchi models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmeli, M.; Charach, Ch.

    1980-02-01

    Vacuum Bianchi models which can be transformed to the Einstein-Rosen metric are considered. The models are used in order to construct new inhomogeneous universes, which are generalizations of Bianchi cosmologies of types III, V and VIh. Recent generalizations of these Bianchi models, considered by Wainwright et al., are also discussed.

  6. Bianchi VI cosmological models representing perfect fluid and radiation with electric-type free gravitational fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, S. R.; Banerjee, S. K.

    1992-11-01

    A homogeneous Bianchi type VIh cosmological model filled with perfect fluid, null electromagnetic field and streaming neutrinos is obtained for which the free gravitational field is of the electric type. The barotropic equation of statep = (γ-1)ɛ is imposed in the particular case of Bianchi VI0 string models. Various physical and kinematical properties of the models are discussed.

  7. Bianchi class A models in Sàez-Ballester's theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Socorro, J.; Espinoza-García, Abraham

    2012-08-01

    We apply the Sàez-Ballester (SB) theory to Bianchi class A models, with a barotropic perfect fluid in a stiff matter epoch. We obtain exact classical solutions à la Hamilton for Bianchi type I, II and VIh=-1 models. We also find exact quantum solutions to all Bianchi Class A models employing a particular ansatz for the wave function of the universe.

  8. Theory and Practice for Large-Scale Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-09-01

    veirtices wit adjacent Let a be a poe r of 3. The *-mpl Movies vih,.aw just when they hae unit Haemming distance. Thu.s C(A) D(o) is defined inductively...performance levels or porn tht nal tol pe ce couled It the if it fails to meet the specification for some other reason. next gnationolysis tools andfli

  9. Validity Inferences under High-Stakes Conditions: A Response from Language Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kathryn; McNamara, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Those who work in second- and foreign-language testing often find Koretz's concern for validity inferences under high-stakes (VIHS) conditions both welcome and familiar. While the focus of the article is more narrowly on the potential for two instructional responses to test-based accountability, "reallocation" and "coaching,"…

  10. Quantifying the Kinetic Processes Associated with HIV Infection of Target Cells (AIDS).

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-02-11

    unsaturated assay, a plot of inverse infection (I/SFU, I National Center for Biotechnology Information, where SFU are syncytial-forming units) versus sCD4...34ecre place. For both studies, the method of \\iral stock prepara- incubsated .1t 1"( C vih gentle nilsing At houri’. intervs. the lo n eeto fifciu

  11. A cascade control approach for a class of biomedical systems.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Vargas, Moisés; Puebla, Hector

    2006-01-01

    An approach for the robust feedback control of a class of biomedical systems in chained form is presented. The control approach is based on modeling error compensation techniques and a recursive cascade scheme. Numerical simulations on three biomedical models of VIH-1, cancer and glucose systems are provided to illustrate our findings.

  12. Transformation in Russian and Soviet Military History: Proceedings of the Military History Symposium (12th) Held in Washington, D.C. on 1-3 October 1986

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    Meilinger arrived. Major Meilinger was supported in all facets of activity by the department’s Deputy Head, Lt. Col. Harry R. Borowski, who directed the...Sep 1979), pp 39-44, and "Podgotovka i vospolnenie poter ’ aviatsionnykh korpusov RVGK," VIh 2 (Feb 1980), pp 10-15. 14. For coverage of the other air

  13. Assessment of an outreach street-based HIV rapid testing programme as a strategy to promote early diagnosis: a comparison with two surveillance systems in Spain, 2008-2011.

    PubMed

    Belza, M J; Hoyos, J; Fernández-Balbuena, S; Diaz, A; Bravo, M J; de la Fuente, L

    2015-04-09

    We assess the added value of a multisite, street-based HIV rapid testing programme by comparing its results to pre-existing services and assessing its potential to reduce ongoing transmission. Between 2008 and 2011, 8,923 individuals underwent testing. We compare outcomes with those of a network of 20 sexually transmitted infections (STI)/HIV clinics (EPI-VIH) and the Spanish National HIV Surveillance System (SNHSS); evaluate whether good visibility prompts testing and assess whether it reaches under-tested populations. 89.2% of the new infections were in men who have sex with men (MSM) vs 78.0% in EPI-VIH and 56.0% in SNHSS. 83.6% of the MSM were linked to care and 20.9% had <350 CD4 HIV prevalence was substantially lower than in EPI-VIH. 56.5% of the HIV-positive MSM tested because they happened to see the programme, 18.4% were previously untested and 26.3% had their last test ≥2 years ago. The programme provided linkage to care and early diagnosis mainly to MSM but attendees presented a lower HIV prevalence than EPI-VIH. From a cost perspective it would benefit from being implemented in locations highly frequented by MSM. Conversely, its good visibility led to reduced periods of undiagnosed infection in a high proportion of MSM who were not testing with the recommended frequency.

  14. Neurosecretory Cell Types and Distribution in Unfed Female Hyalomma Dromedari (Acari: Ixodoidea: Ixodidae) Synganglion

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    of the cell in subtype VIh (Fig. 2). Type IX : In these oval celo, 2 subtypes are distinguished according to cell size and NSG distribution. The NSG...1977) : Neurosecretion in Ornithodoros savignyi (Audouin) (Ixodoidea : Arga- sidae ). The distribution of neurosecretory cells in the brain. J. Vet. Res

  15. HIV among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children Format: Select ...

  16. HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among People Aged 50 and Over Language: English ...

  17. HIV Transmission

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abroad Treatment Basic Statistics Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV/AIDS HIV Transmission Language: English Transmisión del VIH Recommend on ...

  18. HIV Among Asians

    MedlinePlus

    ... Prevention VIH En Español Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or city Follow HIV/AIDS CDC HIV CDC HIV/AIDS See RSS | ... Email Updates on HIV Syndicated Content Website Feedback HIV Among Asians Format: Select One File [143K] Recommend ...

  19. Integration of Theory and Research in Judgment and Decision Making.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-10-01

    McClelland vih > : Y Codes Dist S-cial Purposes and objectives our purpose was "to study a variety of independent approaches to the *analysis of human...Year 11: (1978-79) Three main steps toward integration were taken in this period: (a) the report written during the first year was reviewed, revised

  20. Breast Cancer in Context: New Tools and Paradigms for the Millennium

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-07-01

    therapeutic agents. Acknowledgments Received 8/29/2005; revised 11/12/2005; accepted 11/18/2005. Grant support: UCSF-IEAC; Cooperative...fibronectin in vih -o. Strahlenther Onkol 2002;178:709-14. 42. Rose11 R, Fossella F, Milas L. Molecular markers and targeted therapy with novel agents

  1. Building Unit Cohesion via the Videodisc Interpersonal Skills Training and Assessment (VISTA) Unit Training Program (VUTP)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-06-01

    maLai&l:. .• hire •.Dd roveseiet would be to spend more time iti training the leaders. Alt . vih they vere famillarize6 wh --h= --,_-rpa-nt and 25...and their correlations ( revised edition). blev York: The Free Press. Perkins, M. S, Slatr, J. A., Cerkins, X. N.i and Cook., W. A. (1983). I!pleenta

  2. Integrating tuberculosis and HIV services in rural Kenya: uptake and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Owiti, P; Zachariah, R; Bissell, K; Kumar, A M V; Diero, L; Carter, E J; Gardner, A

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Dix-sept structures de santé publique rurales dans l’ouest du Kenya qui ont introduit trois modèles de prise en charge intégrée de la tuberculose (TB) et du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH).Objectif : Evaluer l’utilisation et le moment du traitement préventif par cotrimoxazole (CPT) et du traitement antirétroviral (ART) ainsi que les résultats du traitement de la TB chez des patients tuberculeux infectés par le VIH pendant une période avant (mars–octobre 2010) et après (mars–octobre 2012) l’introduction de la prise en charge intégrée TB-VIH.Schéma : Etude de cohorte avant/après basée sur les données des programmes.Résultats : Sur 501 patients tuberculeux VIH positifs, 357 (71%) ont débuté le CPT et 178 (39%) l’ART pendant la période précédant l’introduction du traitement intégré TB-VIH. Après l’intégration des services, sur 323 patients infectés par le VIH, 316 (98%) ont reçu le CPT et 196 (61%) l’ART (P < 0,001). Le délai médian de mise en œuvre du CPT et de l’ART est passé de 7 à 3 jours et de 42 à 34 jours respectivement dans les phases pré- et post-intégration. Le taux global de succès du traitement de la TB n’a pas varié avec l’intégration ni avec le type de modèle mis en œuvre.Conclusions: L’intégration des services de TB et de VIH a accru le recours au CPT et à l’ART et réduit le délai de mise en route dans les structures de santé rurales. Il est nécessaire d’accélérer ces efforts.

  3. One-stop TB-HIV services evaluation in Rwanda: comparison of the 2001-2005 and 2006-2010 cohorts.

    PubMed

    Ndagijimana, A; Rugigana, E; Uwizeye, C B; Ntaganira, J

    2015-12-21

    Contexte : Une co-infection par la tuberculose (TB) et le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) reste fréquente au Rwanda. Depuis que des services TB-VIH à guichet unique ont été mis en œuvre afin de prendre en charge cette co-infection TB-VIH, leur fonctionnement et leur impact sur les résultats du traitement de la TB n'ont pas été évalués.Objectif : Evaluer les services TB-VIH à guichet unique du Rwanda, en comparant les résultats du traitement de la TB avant et après leur mise en œuvre, dans les districts de Kicukiro et Rulindo.Méthodes : Un étude descriptive rétrospective et un questionnaire quantitatif ont permis de connaître le fonctionnement du service TB-VIH à guichet unique ; des entretiens approfondis et des discussions en groupes focaux avec les prestataires de soins, les directeurs des structures et les patients co-infectés ont permis de connaître leur opinion à propos du fonctionnement.Résultats : Après la mise en œuvre des services TB-VIH à guichet unique, les 12 structures de santé visitées fonctionnaient selon les critères établis. Cependant, les résultats du traitement de la TB n'ont pas été significativement différents avant et après l'intervention. Les données qualitatives ont mis en évidence un effet positif de l'intervention sur la qualité de service, notamment sur la réduction du temps d'attente, et sur un meilleur respect des rendez-vous en réponse au bon fonctionnement du service.Conclusion : Les services TB-VIH à guichet unique ont amélioré la qualité des services dans les districts de Kicukiro et Rulindo. Cependant, le service doit être renforcé en termes de programme afin d'améliorer les résultats du traitement de la TB.

  4. High mortality in tuberculosis patients despite HIV interventions in Swaziland.

    PubMed

    Mchunu, G; van Griensven, J; Hinderaker, S G; Kizito, W; Sikhondze, W; Manzi, M; Dlamini, T; Harries, A D

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Toutes les structures de santé offrant une prise en charge de la tuberculose (TB) au Swaziland.Objectif : Décrire l'impact des interventions pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) sur les tendances des résultats du traitement de la TB en 2010–2013, au Swaziland. Décrire l'évolution de la notification des cas de TB, la couverture du test VIH, de le traitement antirétroviral (TAR) et du traitement préventif au cotrimoxazole (CPT) et la proportion de patients coinfectées par TB-VIH avec les mauvais résultats du traitement incluant la mortalité, les abandons et les échecs du traitement.Schéma : Etude descriptive rétrospective basée sur les données agrégées du programme national TB.Résultats : Entre 2010 et 2013, les notifications de cas de TB auSwaziland ont diminué de 40%, le test VIH a augmenté de 86% à 96%, la couverture du CPT a augmenté de 93% à 99% et la couverture du TAR parmi les patients tuberculeux est passée de 35% à 75%. Le taux de coinfection TB-VIH est resté autour de 70% et la proportion de cas de TB-VIH avec des résultats médiocres a diminué de 36% à 30% entre 2010 et 2013. La mortalité est restée élevée entre 14% et 16% pendant la période d'étude et les taux d'échec du traitement TB ont été stables dans le temps (<5%).Conclusion : En dépit d'une couverture élevée du CPT et du TAR parmi les patients TB-VIH, la mortalité est restée élevée. D'autres études sont nécessaires pour mieux définir les groupes de patients à haut risque, pour mieux comprendre les causes de décès et pour concevoir des interventions appropriées.

  5. Self-reported adherence to antiretroviral therapy in HIV+ population from Bata, Equatorial Guinea.

    PubMed

    Salmanton-García, Jon; Herrador, Zaida; Ruiz-Seco, Pilar; Nzang-Esono, Jesús; Bendomo, Veronica; Bashmakovic, Emma; Nseng-Nchama, Gloria; Benito, Agustín; Aparicio, Pilar

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a serious public health problem in Equatorial Guinea, with a prevalence of 6.2% among adults. the high-activity antiretroviral treatment (HAART) coverage data is 10 points below the overall estimate for Sub-Saharan Africa, and only 61% patients continue with HAART 12 months after it started. This study aims to assess HAART adherence and related factors in Litoral Province of Equatorial Guinea. In this cross-sectional study, socio-demographic and clinical data were collected at Regional Hospital of Bata, during June-July 2014. Adherence to treatment was assessed by using the Spanish version of CEAT-VIH. Bivariate and linear regression analyses were employed to assess HAART adherence-related factors. We interviewed 50 men (35.5%) and 91 women (64.5%), with a mean age of 47.7 ± 8.9 and 36.2 ± 11.2, respectively (p < .001). Overall, 55% patients had low or insufficient adherence. CEAT-VIH score varied by ethnic group (p = .005). There was a positive correlation between CEAT-VIH score and current CD4 T-cells count (p = .013). The Cronbach's α value was 0.52. To our knowledge, this is the first study to assess HAART adherence in Equatorial Guinea. Internal reliability for CEAT-VIH was low, nonetheless the positive correlation between the CEAT-VIH score and the immunological status of patients add value to our findings. Our results serve as baseline for future research and will also assist stakeholders in planning and undertaking contextual and evidence-based policy initiatives.

  6. [Lymphocytic alveolitis in the early stages of HIV infection: correlation with biological and prognostic factors].

    PubMed

    Quint, L; Autran, B; Guillon, J M; Parrot, A; Denis, M; Debre, P; Mayaud, C M; Akoun, G M

    1992-01-01

    Broncho-alveolar lavage was performed to assess the degree of pulmonary lymphocytic alveolitis in 32 asymptomatic patients who were infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (VIH). The patients were stages II and III of the CDC classification and the aim of the study was to determine the frequency, nature and prognostic role of the findings. 62.5% of the subjects (20/32) presented with a lymphocytic alveolitis which consisted predominantly of CD8 lymphocyte (64.3 +/- 3.5%), in the absence of an opportunistic infection or broncho-pulmonary tumours. Two sub-populations of alveolar CD8 were shown at comparable levels, a) sub-population CD8+D44+ (22.1 +/- 5%), in whom we showed the possession of cytotoxic activity in particular specific for VIH; b) sub-population CD8+CD57+ (19.6 +/- 3%) which we have shown to be capable in vitro of inhibiting the effector phase of cytotoxic activity of CD8+D44+ alveolar cells specific for VIH. In this group of 32 patients the occurrence of an alveolitis was not correlated with the usual prognostic factors of infection by VIH measured simultaneously with broncho-alveolar lavage (the level of CD4+ blood lymphocytes, and the beta 2-plasma microglobulins and the presence of p24 antigenaemia). In addition the level of CD4 lymphocytes supperior to 400/mm3 and of beta 2-microglobulins less then 3 mg/l whether a lymphocytic alveolitis was there or not confirmed the relatively poorly developed state of the VIH infection in these asymptomatic patients. Also the occurrence of a lymphocytic alveolitis did not seem to be linked to progression of the disease in the group of patients studied.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Que hay de nuevo acerca de la inmersion? Un Breve Recorrido por sus Fundamentos y por las Investigaciones Actuales (What's New in Immersion? A Brief Overview of Its Bases and Present-Day Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sierra, Josu

    This discussion briefly surveys the development of the immersion method of second language teaching, outlining the central program strategies and characteristics using Curtain's and Pesola's descriptions. An overview of recent research focuses on error correction and feedback studies as an example of pedagogical-methodological evolution in this…

  8. [Giant abscessed urachal cyst in adult. Case report].

    PubMed

    Ponce-Pérez, Luis Virgilio; Cárdenas-Lailson, Luis Eduardo; Domínguez-Muñoz, Guillermo; López-Díaz, Yazmín Araceli; Vera-Rodríguez, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    antecedentes: durante la gestación, el uraco representa la conexión entre la vejiga y el alantoides. Su infección se manifiesta, principalmente, en adultos jóvenes. La vía hematógena o linfática son las posibles rutas de trasmisión, aunque también puede ocurrir el origen umbilical o de vejiga. El quiste de uraco es raro en adultos y sólo puede observarse en 2%. Caso clínico: paciente masculino de 30 años, con antecedente de hepatopatía alcohólica, diabetes mellitus tipo 2, desnutrición crónica. Inició con aumento del volumen abdominal, dolor abdominal generalizado, tumor abdominal de 20 por 15 cm, móvil, de consistencia sólida, sin signos de irritación peritoneal.La tomografía computada mostró un tumor probablemente dependiente de la vejiga, de aspecto quístico. En la laparotomía exploradora se encontró un quiste de uraco infectado, que drenaba 3,000 cc de material purulento. Se realizó la resección parcial de la cara anterior y se conservó la posterior debido a la adherencia firme a las asas intestinales. La evolución postoperatoria fue satisfactoria. discusión: las alteraciones uracales son raras, con razón hombre:mujer de 2:1. Aunque un absceso uracal representa una infección confinada a un espacio cerrado, su tratamiento definitivo no debe ser la simple incisión y drenaje, debido a la posibilidad de degeneración maligna de los restos uracales. El tratamiento definitivo debe considerar la escisión completa del quiste, y del uraco, cuando la infección esté limitada. Conclusión: el quiste de uraco es una afección poco frecuente, que debe considerarse en el diagnóstico diferencial de apendicitis aguda, y tener en mente su tratamiento definitivo.

  9. Padres Trabajando por la Paz: a randomized trial of a parent education intervention to prevent violence among middle school children.

    PubMed

    Murray, N G; Kelder, S H; Parcel, G S; Frankowski, R; Orpinas, P

    1999-06-01

    This paper reports the results of a randomized trial to test the effectiveness of a theoretically derived intervention designed to increase parental monitoring among Hispanic parents of middle school students. Role model story newsletters developed through the process of Intervention Mapping were mailed to half of a subsample of parents whose children participated in Students for Peace, a comprehensive violence prevention program. The results indicated that parents in the experimental condition (N = 38) who had lower social norms for monitoring at baseline reported higher norms after the intervention than the parents in the control condition (N = 39) (P = 0.009). Children of parents in the experimental group reported slightly higher levels of monitoring at follow-up across baseline values, whereas control children who reported moderate to high levels of monitoring at pre-test reported lower levels at follow-up (P = 0.04). These newsletters are a population-based strategy for intervention with parents that show some promise for comprehensive school-based interventions for youth.

  10. Distribución superficial de impactos en Iapetus originada por el remanente de una colisión

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoppetti, F. A.; Leiva, A. M.; Briozzo, C. B.

    2015-08-01

    By means of Circular Restricted Three Body Problem Saturn--Iapetus, we analize potential impact distributions on the surface of Iapetus, originated from considering a low-energy population generated as remnants of a collisional event occurred in the past on the surface of this satellite. The results are analized in order to offer a new approach to explain the origin of the albedo dichotomy observed on Iapetus.

  11. Os Atores da Mobilizacao por Creches e Pre-Escolas Comunitarias (Mobilizing Agents for Nurseries and Infant Schools).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filgueiras, Cristina Almeida Cunha

    1995-01-01

    Discusses the role of community nurseries and preschools, within the context of Brazilian popular movements and social policy of the last 15 years. States that the experiences of these organizations reveal great complexity in terms of social, political, and pedagogic mobilization. Concludes that for all involved there are several levels of…

  12. Reconnaissance evaluation of Honduran geothermal sites. Una evaluacion por medio de reconocimiento de seis areas geotermicas en Honduras

    SciTech Connect

    Eppler, D.; Fakundiny, R.; Ritchie, A.

    1986-12-01

    Six geothermal spring sites were selected on the basis of preliminary investigations conducted in Honduras over the last decade and were evaluated in terms of their development potential. Of the six, the Platanares and San Ignacio sites have high base temperatures and high surface fluid discharge rates and appear to have the best potential for further development as sources of electrical power. A third site, Azacualpa, has a high enough base temperature and discharge rate to be considered as a back-up, but the logistical problems involved in geophysical surveys make it less attractive than the two primary sites. Of the remaining three sites, Pavana may be a source of direct-use heat for local agricultural processing. Sambo Creek and El Olivar have either severe logistical problems that would impede further investigation and development or base temperatures and flow rates that are too low to warrant detailed investigation at this time.

  13. La trama celeste: por qué educar en astronomía. Una oportunidad de aprendizajes múltiples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García, B.

    2016-08-01

    Astronomy education at all levels has been an issue addressed by the International Astronomical Union as part of its 2010--2020 plan. The content on astronomical topics are in the curriculum at primary and secondary levels worldwide. Being a cross-discipline, astronomy is also a science that allows to introduce students to the study of the nature in a non-confrontational way: no one is indifferent to their concepts and discoveries. The International Astronomical Union, through its Commission on Education and Development of Astronomy, has implemented, sponsored and carried out over the past five years two special programs, one about didactics of astronomy for teachers of middle level and another one for the transmission of astronomical topics for the disabled. In this presentation, achievements and impact of these programs are shared.

  14. Como ayudar a los padres a prevenir el envenenamiento por plomo (Helping Parents Prevent Lead Poisoning). ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binns, Helen J.; Ricks, Omar Benton

    Children are at greater risk than adults for lead poisoning because children absorb lead more readily than adults, and a small amount of lead in children's bodies can do a great deal of harm. This Spanish-language Digest summarizes some of the causes and effects of childhood lead poisoning and suggests some lead poisoning prevention strategies…

  15. Relationship between hepatic phenotype and changes in gene expression in cytochrome P450 reductase (POR) null mice

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Chamberlain, Mark; Vassieva, Olga; Henderson, Colin J.; Wolf, C. Roland

    2005-01-01

    Cytochrome P450 reductase is the unique electron donor for microsomal cytochrome P450s; these enzymes play a major role in the metabolism of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds. In mice with a liver-specific deletion of cytochrome P450 reductase, hepatic cytochrome P450 activity is ablated, with consequent changes in bile acid and lipid homoeostasis. In order to gain insights into the metabolic changes resulting from this phenotype, we have analysed changes in hepatic mRNA expression using microarray analysis and real-time PCR. In parallel with the perturbations in bile acid levels, changes in the expression of key enzymes involved in cholesterol and lipid homoeostasis were observed in hepatic cytochrome P450 reductase null mice. This was characterized by a reduced expression of Cyp7b1, and elevation of Cyp7a1 and Cyp8b1 expression. The levels of mRNAs for other cytochrome P450 genes, including Cyp2b10, Cyp2c29, Cyp3a11 and Cyp3a16, were increased, demonstrating that endogenous factors play a role in regulating the expression of these proteins and that the increases are due, at least in part, to altered levels of transcripts. In addition, levels of mRNAs encoding genes involved in glycolysis and lipid transport were also increased; the latter may provide an explanation for the increased hepatic lipid content observed in the hepatic null mice. Serum testosterone and oestradiol levels were lowered, accompanied by significantly decreased expression of Hsd3b2 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-2), Hsd3b5 (3β-hydroxy-Δ5-steroid dehydrogenase-5) and Hsd11b1 (11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1), key enzymes in steroid hormone metabolism. These microarray data provide important insights into the control of metabolic pathways by the cytochrome system. PMID:15717863

  16. Perfiles de densidad de galaxias 3-D y segregación por tipo espectral en grupos de galaxias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, E.; Zandivarez, A.; Merchán, M. E.; Muriel, H.

    We have analysed the distribution of galaxies in groups identified in the largest redshift surveys available: the final release of the 2dF Galaxy Our work comprises the study of the galaxy density profiles and the fraction of galaxies per spectral type as a function of the group-centric distance. We have calculated the projected galaxy density profiles of groups using composite samples in order to increase the statistical significance of the results and we infer the 3-D galaxy density profiles using a deprojection method similar to the developed by Allen & Fabian. Special cares have been taken in order to avoid possible biases in the group identification and the construction of the projected galaxy density profile estimator due to the irregular sky coverage of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. We have adopted a generalized King profile to fit the obtained projected density profiles and use them to construct mock clusters and obtain the 3-D density profiles per spectral type. From the 3-D galaxy density profile we have estimated the 3-D fraction of galaxies per spectral type. Comparing with the fraction of galaxies computed using the projected profiles we observe a similar behavior of the galaxy spectral type segregation as the obtained by Domínguez et al. for groups in the early data release of the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey. As expected, the trends obtained for the 3-D galaxy fractions show steeper slopes.

  17. Monitoreo óptico de eta-Carina durante el pasaje por el periastro en 2014.6

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Lajús, E.; Salerno, N. E.; Scalia, M. C.; Ramos, X. S.; Giudici, F. N.; Gamen, R. C.

    2015-08-01

    We present the H light curves resulting from the 2013 and 2014 observing seasons of Car as well as its spectral evolution, including the latest ``event'' occurred in mid-2014. The direct CCD observations were made with the telescope ``VS Niemela'' the Observatory of La Plata, and spectroscopic observations were made with the telescope ``J. Sahade'' of Casleo, Argentina.

  18. Evaluacion de que consister y por que se lleva acabo? (Evaluation: What Does it Consist of, and for What Purpose?).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin Independent School District, TX. Office of Research and Evaluation.

    A guide is presented for the evaluation of the bilingual programs in the Austin, Texas, Independent School District. The reasons for an evaluation and a definition of program objectives and evaluation instruments are given. The program components, objectives and evaluation instruments for each grade level (K-4) are listed. The components involved…

  19. En otras palabras: Perfeccionamiento del espanol por medio de la traduccion (In Other Words: Perfecting Spanish Language Skills through Translation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lunn, Patricia V.; Lunsford, Ernest J.

    This publication, written primarily in Spanish, is an activity book designed to teach Spanish through translation based on the theory that, in order to produce an acceptable translation, students must focus their attention on lexical and grammatical detail. The book combines incisive grammar explanations, relevant lexical information, and a wide…

  20. Individual attitudes and perceived social norms: Reports on HIV/AIDS-related stigma among service providers in China

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Liang, Li-Jung; Wu, Zunyou; Lin, Chunqing; Wen, Yi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined HIV/AIDS-related stigma among Chinese service providers by comparing their personal attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS with their perception of social norms related to people living with HIV/AIDS. We randomly selected three provincial hospitals, four city/prefecture hospitals, 10 county hospitals, 18 township health clinics, and 54 village clinics from Yunnan, China. Doctors and nurses were randomly sampled proportionally to the doctor-nurse ratio of each hospital or clinic. Lab technicians were over-sampled in order to include an adequate representation in the analysis. A total of 1,101 service providers participated in a voluntary, anonymous survey where demographic characteristics, individual attitude and perceived social norms toward people living with HIV/AIDS, discrimination intent at work, general prejudicial attitude and knowledge on HIV/AIDS were measured. A majority of the sample demonstrated a similarity between their personal views and what they thought most people in society believe. Multiple logistic regressions revealed that participants who were younger or reported personal contact with people living with HIV/AIDS were significantly more likely to report personal attitudes toward the population that were more liberal than their perceived social norms. Holding a more liberal personal attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS than perceived social norms was significantly and negatively related to the level of discrimination intent at work, perceived discrimination at interpersonal level and the level of general prejudicial attitude toward people living with HIV/AIDS. Results underscored the importance of understanding social norms and personal attitudes in studying HIV-related stigma and called for the incorporation of existing human capital into future HIV stigma reduction programs. Cette étude a examiné le VIH/SIDA lié à stigmatisation parmi les agences chinoises fournissant des soins en comparant leurs attitudes

  1. Development of a taxonomy for pharmaceutical interventions in HIV+ patients based on the CMO model.

    PubMed

    Morillo Verdugo, Ramón; Villarreal Arevalo, Andrea Lisbeth; Alvarez De Sotomayor, Maria; Robustillo Cortes, Maria de Las Aguas

    2016-11-01

    Objetivo: Consensuar una propuesta de intervenciones farmacéuticas y llevar a cabo su taxonomía de clasificación según el modelo de Atención Farmacéutica-CMO (Capacidad-Motivación- Oportunidad). Método: Estudio realizado entre marzo-mayo de 2016. Se definieron dos fases de desarrollo. Inicialmente, se realizó una revisión bibliográfica. A continuación, para consensuar las intervenciones seleccionadas y definir la taxonomía se utilizó metodología DELPHI-Rand-UCLA. Se seleccionaron 15 expertos, especialistas en Atención Farmacéutica al paciente VIH+. La selección se realizó explícitamente, siguiendo un protocolo para evitar sesgos. Se elaboró, inicialmente, una propuesta a partir de las intervenciones extraídas de la fase-1. Se clasificaron tentativamente según el Modelo-CMO en una categoría según su diseño y utilidad. Se plantearon tres preguntas a partir de la cuestión inicial: ¿Está de acuerdo con la clasificación propuesta? En caso negativo, se daba opción de recategorizar. Adicionalmente, se planteó qué importancia, prioridad e impacto en la consecución de objetivos farmacoterapéuticos le daría. Las intervenciones se clasificaron en función del grado de acuerdo. Una vez consensuadas, se realizó la taxonomía definitiva. Resultados: Se consideraron finalmente 18 artículos. La propuesta inicial incluyó 20 intervenciones farmacéuticas clasificadas siete en Capacidad, ocho en Motivación y cinco en Oportunidad. Las intervenciones consideradas de mayor importancia y prioridad fueron: revisión y validación, seguridad y adherencia. Las de mayor impacto fueron: revisión y validación, coordinación, adherencia y motivación. Por contra, las de menor puntuación en importancia fueron: planificación y coordinación social y, en impacto, coordinación social. Conclusiones: La taxonomía consensuada permitirá clasificar las intervenciones farmacéuticas realizadas con el nuevo modelo y, así, profundizar en la investigación y

  2. DUCHAS VAGINALES Y OTROS RIESGOS DE VAGINOSIS BACTERIANA

    PubMed Central

    Chávez, Natividad; Molina, Helfer; Sánchez, Jorge; Gelaye, Bizu; Sánchez, Sixto E.

    2010-01-01

    Vaginosis bacteriana (VB) es una infección caracterizada por el cambio en la microflora de la vagina, asociándose a resultados adversos del embarazo y a la adquisición de infecciones de transmisión sexual (ITS), incluyendo el VIH. En este estudio se buscó la asociación entre el uso de duchas vaginales y otros factores de riesgos con VB. Se usó un diseño observacional descriptivo transversal prospectivo, en 1,252 mujeres que asistieron al servicio de planificación familiar de tres hospitales nacionales (Dos de Mayo, Arzobispo Loayza, San Bartolomé) y el Instituto Materno Perinatal, durante el año 1997. Se utilizó un cuestionario estructurado donde se registraron variables socio demográficas y características del estilo de vida de las participantes. VB fue diagnosticada mediante el puntaje de Nugent. Se empleó análisis de regresión logística para calcular odds ratio (OR) e intervalos de confianza al 95%. La edad promedio de las participantes fue 25.1 ± 4,7 años, el 23.4% tenían más de 11 años de educación. La prevalencía de VB fue 20,1%. Las mujeres que practicaban duchas vaginales tuvieron 2.28 veces (OR = 2.28, IC 95% [1.0–5.0]) mayor probabilidad de tener VB comparado con aquellas que no lo practicaban. Tener dos o más parejas sexuales estuvo asociado con 2.0 veces (OR =2.0, IC 95% [1.2–3.5]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB comparado con aquellas que habían tenido solo una pareja sexual. Las participantes que iniciaron una relación sexual a una edad temprana tuvieron 1.4 veces (OR=1.4, IC 95% [1.0 –1.9]) mayor probabilidad de adquirir VB. El uso de duchas vaginales es un factor de riesgo de VB. Los programas destinados a la salud de la mujer deben abordar las repercusiones perjudiciales para la salud asociados con las duchas vaginales. PMID:21132048

  3. Adverse Neonatal Outcomes Among Women Living With HIV: A Population-Based Study.

    PubMed

    Macdonald, Erin M; Ng, Ryan; Bayoumi, Ahmed M; Raboud, Janet; Brophy, Jason; Masinde, Khatundi-Irene; Tharao, Wangari E; Yudin, Mark H; Loutfy, Mona R; Glazier, Richard H; Antoniou, Tony

    2015-04-01

    Contexte : Peu d’études en population générale ont décrit le risque d’issues néonatales indésirables chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH au Canada. Par conséquent, nous avons comparé les risques d’accouchement préterme (APT), de faible poids de naissance (FPN) et d’hypotrophie fœtale (HF) chez des Ontariennes de 18-49 ans vivant ou non avec le VIH. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une étude en population générale au moyen de données administratives sur la santé en Ontario. Des équations d’estimation généralisées comptant une fonction Logit ont été utilisées pour en venir à des rapports de cotes corrigés (RCc) et à des intervalles de confiance à 95 % en ce qui concerne l’association entre l’infection au VIH et des issues néonatales indésirables. Résultats : Entre 2002–2003 et 2010–2011, 1 113 874 naissances vivantes issues de grossesses monofœtales étaient disponibles aux fins de l’analyse, 615 (0,06 %) desquelles mettaient en jeu des femmes vivant avec le VIH. La proportion de naissances issues de grossesses monofœtales qui présentaient une HF (14,6 % vs 10,3 %; P < 0,001), un APT (14,6 % vs 6,3 %; P < 0,001) et un FPN (12,5 % vs 4,6 %; P < 0,001) était plus élevée chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. À la suite d’une correction multivariée, les risques d’APT (RCc, 1,76; IC à 95 %, 1,38 - 2,24), d’HF (RCc, 1,43; IC à 95 %, 1,12 - 1,81) et de FPN (RCc, 1,90; IC à 95 %, 1,47 - 2,45) étaient plus élevés chez les femmes vivant avec le VIH que chez les femmes n’étant pas infectées par ce dernier. Conclusion : Les femmes vivant avec le VIH sont exposées à des risques d’issues néonatales indésirables plus élevés que les femmes séronégatives pour le VIH. La tenue d’autres recherches s’avère requise pour que l’on puisse élaborer des interventions préconceptionnelles et prénatales qui pourraient att

  4. Integration of TB-HIV services at an ANC facility in Frances Baard District, Northern Cape, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Peters, J A; Heunis, C; Kigozi, G; Osoba, T; van der Walt, M

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Une offre de services intégrée de tuberculose et du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (TB-VIH)—en tant qu’élément des services de santé maternelle, notamment des consultations prénatales (ANC)—est largement recommandée. Cette étude a évalué la mise en œuvre d’une offre de services intégrée TB-VIH dans une unité hospitalière de CPN.Méthodes : Les dossiers d’un échantillon aléatoire de 308 femmes enceintes qui ont fréquenté le service ANC entre avril 2011 et février 2012 ont été revus. Les données ont été extraites à partir des registres ainsi que des dossiers des patients. Les résultats attendus comprenaient la proportion de femmes bénéficiant d’un conseil et test VIH (HCT), d’un comptage des CD4, d’un traitement antirétroviral (ART), d’un traitement préventif par cotrimoxazole (CPT), d’un dépistage de TB et d’un traitement préventif par isoniazide (IPT). L’analyse a mesuré les variations des caractéristiques des patients associées à l’offre de services.Résultats : Toutes les femmes ont bénéficié du HCT et 80% de celles ayant eu un test VIH positif ont eu un dépistage de TB. La majorité (85,9%) des femmes VIH-positives ont eu un comptage des CD4. Cependant, seulement 12,9% des femmes éligibles ont reçu une prophylaxie ART sur place ; seulement 35,7% ont été référées pour une mise en route de l’ART ; seulement 42.3% ont commencé l’IPT ; et aucune n’a reçu de CPT ni d’autres investigations relatives à la TB. Les femmes VIH négatives avaient 2,6 fois (IC95% 1,3–5,3) plus de chances de bénéficier d’un dépistage de TB que leurs homologues VIH positives.Conclusions: L’identification des femmes VIH positives et de celles suspectes de TB a été satisfaisante, mais la mise en œuvre des autres activités de collaboration TB-VIH a été insuffisante.

  5. Providing a gateway to prevention and care for the most at-risk populations in Bhutan: is this being achieved?

    PubMed

    Khandu, L; Zachariah, R; Van den Bergh, R; Wangchuk, D; Tshering, N; Wangmo, D; Ananthakrishnan, R; Dorji, T; Satyanarayana, S

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Deux centres indépendants de dépistage et conseil pour le VIH (HCT) au Bhoutan proposant leurs services à la population générale et ciblent les plus à risque (MARP).Objectifs : Evaluer la tendance des tests VIH, hépatite et syphilis dans la population générale et chez les MARP et déterminer si les caractéristiques sociodémographiques et les conduites à risque sont associées à la séropositivité pour le VIH, l'hépatite et la syphilis.Schéma : Etude transversale sur les dossiers des clients, de 2009 à 2012.Résultats :Sur 7894 clients, 3009 (38%) appartenaient à la population générale et 4885 (62%) aux MARP. Au cours des 4 années, les examens ont diminué pour la population générale tandis qu'ils augmentaient ou restaient stables pour les MARP. Sur 4885 MARP, la séropositivité était de 0,7% pour le VIH, 1,3% pour l'hépatite B et 1,2% pour la syphilis. Les professionnelles du sexe (risque relatif [RR] 4,4 ; P = 0,03) et les partenaires de personnes vivant avec le VIH (RR 25,9 ; P < 0,001) avaient davantage de risques d'être VIH positif. Les professionnelles du sexe aveint également un risque plus élevé d'être positives pour la syphilis (RR 9,1 ; P < 0,001).Conclusion : L'augmentation de l'utilisation des services de HCT par les MARP est un résultat bienvenu, mais la tendance relativement stationnaire demande l'introduction d'approches de stratégie avancées dans les communautés. La porte d'entrée critique offerte aux MARP est une « opportunité » d'accroitre le paquet de services actuels.

  6. Séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux sur les dons du sang au Centre de Transfusion Sanguine, Hôpital Militaire d’Instruction Mohammed V de Rabat

    PubMed Central

    Uwingabiye, Jean; Zahid, Hafidi; Unyendje, Loubet; Hadef, Rachid

    2016-01-01

    Le but de ce travail était de déterminer la prévalence du virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH), du virus de l’hépatite B (VHB) et C (VHC) sur les dons du sang collectés au Centre de transfusion sanguine(CTS) de l’hôpital militaire d’instruction Mohammed V entre 2010 et 2012. Etude rétrospective menée auprès des donneurs de sang militaires âgés de 18 à 50 ans avec prédominance masculine (95%). L’entretien médical pré-don constitue la première barrière de sélection des sujets à risque. Le dépistage biologique était réalisé par technique immuno-enzymatique en milieu liquide utilisant des anticorps et/ou des antigènes. L’ELISA (enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assay) combiné de quatrième génération pour VHC et VIH a été utilisé. La confirmation a été faite en réalisant la même technique en double au CTS et au laboratoire de virologie. Dans notre série de 25661 échantillons testés, la prévalence du VHB était 3,97‰ (n=102), celle de VHC était 2,45 ‰ (n=63), celle de VIH était 0,15 ‰ (n=4). Un seul cas de coïnfection (0,039 ‰) par le VHB et VHC a été noté, aucune association entre VIH-VHB, VIH-VHC ou VHB, VHC et VIH n’a été enregistrée. Les taux faibles de séroprévalence des marqueurs viraux de notre étude montrent l’amélioration des mesures préventives en ce qui concerne la sélection des donneurs et des tests de dépistage. Cette prévalence constatée incite à maintenir l’utilisation du réactif combiné qui est la seule alternative à la biologie moléculaire pour les pays en voie de développement. PMID:28292147

  7. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1980-11-01

    The array (UHA) is comprised of conventional two-axis heliostats mounted on a terraced south-facing wall of a single structure. The arrangement of heliostats on the array is chosen to eliminate or control the degree of inter-heliostat shading and blocking. The UHA was investigated as to cost and optical performance. Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Helistat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA is found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 1000 K to 2000 K range. These temperatures were shown to be achieve even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  8. Economic analysis of the unified heliostat array

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-11-07

    The Unified Heliostat Array (UHA) is comprised of conventional two-axis heliostats mounted on a terraced south-facing wall of a single structure. The arrangement of heliostats on the array is chosen to eliminate or control the degree of inter-heliostat shading and blocking. The UHA was investifated as to cost and optical performance. Two heliostats, the Veda Industrial Heliostat (VIH) and the Repowering Heliostat were investigated in conjunction with the UHA. The UHA was found to be a viable candidate for solar thermal central receiver applications. The UHA-VIH combination was shown to provide very high flux densities and to be suitable for high temperature applications in the 1000/sup 0/K to 2000/sup 0/K range. These temperatures were shown to be achievable even with very small (1 MWt) collector fields.

  9. Elastofibroma. A correlated light and electron microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Kindblom, L G; Spicer, S S

    1982-01-01

    Four cases of elastofibroma located in the subscapular region of 3 men aged 66, 74, and 83 years, and a woman 70 years old are reported. A correlated light and electron microscopic study including ultrastructural examination of Verhoeff's iron-hematoxylin (VIH)-stained sections was performed. Light microscopically, the elastofibromas were characterized by connective tissue built up by collagen fibers and sclerotic masses mingled with numerous fibers and globules of elastin material. In one micron thick Epon sections these elastin fibers often revealed a central axis surrounded by a mantle composed of periodic segments giving them a necklace-like appearance. The ultrastructural findings of these elastin structures, stained with VIH, and the appearance of the stroma cells and their relation to the elastin indicate that elastofibroma is a non-neoplastic reactive lesion in which elastin material is synthesized by the stromal cells and predominantly laid down around preexisting elastic fibers.

  10. [Current clinical aspects of AIDS].

    PubMed

    Clumeck, N

    1993-01-01

    Our knowledge of the natural history of VIH infection has considerably increased during the last years. We know now that clinical evolution will depend of host factors as well as of viral characteristics. Among the host factors, the early specific cytotoxic response to VIH components plays a major role. Phenotypic variation of the virus (syncytium inducer mutants) and viral load in the lymph node and in the circulating CD4 cells play also an important role. As far as antiviral therapeutic is concerned, at the moment we know that monotherapy with nucleosides analogues is probably of limited efficacy because of emergence of resistance. Future perspectives include combination of antivirals aimed to prevent emergence of resistance and to reduce toxicity.

  11. Human Engineering Principles Applied to a Laboratory Development Model: A Demonstration.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1979-05-22

    standards, and complete the lists by evaluating the designs against each criterion on the list. Revise the design if appropriate. 9. Establish operating...V3 = 2.4V VILCock or Date Input Threshold High VIH 2.0 V CC = VCOL -4.75V V Clock or Data Input Threshold Low VIL 0.8 V Iput Current Logical 1 Va...Clock In 80 MAZII III~ - -VCC= 5.25V, VIH = 2.4V Data In iIH 40 uA Wl,4t Current Logical 0 Vs. Clock IlL -500 -800 pA VCC = 5.25V, VIL = 0.4V Data In

  12. Management of pest mole crickets in Florida and Puerto Rico with a nematode and parasitic wasp

    SciTech Connect

    Leppla, N.C.; Frank, J.H.; Adjei, M.B.; Vicente, N.E.

    2007-03-15

    fueron liberados y establecidos en los 80s. Consecuentemente, la produccion comercial del nematodo fue iniciada, casi 70 billones fueron aplicados en 34 condados de la Florida, y se realizo un monitoreo para evaluar su establecimiento, dispersion e impacto sobre los grillotopos. Los gillotopos infectados dispersaron los nematodos rapidamente, tanto que despues de 6 meses estos parasitos estaban presentes en la mayoria de los insectos atrapados en los pastos experimentales. Tres anos despues, las poblaciones de los grillotopos fueron reducidas a niveles aceptables y los campos de pasto 'bahia' se recuperaron. El nematodo fue liberado para la primera vez en Puerto Rico durante del 2001 y ha persistido; la avispa fue introducida al final de los 30s. La distribucion geografica de la avispa se esta extendiendo en la Florida y Puerto Rico por medio de la siembra de parcelas de Spermacoce verticillata, una flor silvestre indigena a Puerto Rico y distribuida ampliamente en el sur de la Florida. Los campos de pasto, las operaciones comerciales de cesped, los campos de golf, los paisajes y las fincas de hortalizas en la Florida y Puerto Rico se estan beneficiando del control biologico de los grillotopos invasores. (author)

  13. Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza

    1999-08-01

    Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.

  14. Homogeneous Universes in Extended Inflation II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guzmán, Enrique

    1997-04-01

    It is shown that the scalar field π of the Brans-Dicke theory in the Bianchi TypeVIo-VIh-VIIh-VIII and IX models has the same form that in the isotropic Robertson-Walker case. It is shown that the Universe will be isotropized very fast, permitting so that the approximation of an Universe Robertson-Walker isotropic to be a good approach in the early Universe.

  15. Women Connected to at Risk Indian Men Who Have Sex with Men: An Unexplored Network.

    PubMed

    Satyanarayan, Sammita; Kapur, Abhinav; Azhar, Sameena; Yeldandi, Vijay; Schneider, John A

    2015-06-01

    Little is known about the women connected to Indian MSM and their impact on HIV risk. We surveyed 240 Indian MSM, who identified their social networks (n = 7,092). Women (n = 1,321) comprised 16.7 % of the network, with 94.7 % representing non-sexual connections. MSM were classified as having low, moderate, or high female network proportion. MSM with moderate female network proportion (8-24 % total network) had significantly lowered odds of HIV seropositivity (AOR = 0.24, 95 % CI = 0.1-0.6). This suggests moderate proportions of female connections could mediate HIV risk. HIV prevention interventions in India could consider the greater involvement of women among their target audiences. Se sabe poco sobre las mujeres conectadas a HSH en India y su impacto en el riesgo de VIH. Se encuestó a 240 HSH indios, quienes identificaron sus redes sociales (n = 7,092). Las mujeres (n = 1,321) formaron al 16.7 % de la red, del cual el 94.7 % representa conexiones no sexuales. Los HSH se clasificaron como baja, moderada o alta proporción de red femenina. HSH con proporción moderada de red femenina (8-24 % del red total) tuvieron un riesgo significativamente reducido de seropositividad de VIH (AOR = 0,24; IC 95 % = 0,1-0,6). Esto sugiere que tener una proporción moderada de contactos femeninos podría atenuar el riesgo de VIH. Las intervenciones de prevención del VIH en India podrían considerar una mayor participación de las mujeres en su público objetivo.

  16. [Primary gastric lymphoma in an HIV positive patient].

    PubMed

    Sebastián, J J; Fuentes, J; García, S; Uribarrena, R; Yus, C; Boldova, I

    1995-10-01

    We report the case of a young male patient, VIH (+), who was admitted in our hospital with severe epigastric pain. Endoscopical and histological diagnosis was primary gastric non-Hodgkin lymphoma without Helicobacter pylori. The patient was treated with chemotherapy by CHOP scheme (6 cycles), with high clinical improvement and endoscopical and histological regression of the lesion. We comment some features of this peculiar association.

  17. Proceedings of the Annual Major Range and Test Facility Base (MRTFB) environmental Workshop (4th) Held in Alexandria, Virginia on 26-28 April 1994

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-07-01

    Copy 0of 37 Copts$ | AD-A285 779 SIDA DOCUMENT D- 1537 I PROCEEDLNGS OF THE FOURTH ANNUAL MAJOR RANGE AND TEST FACILITY BASE (MRTFB...DEFENSE ANALYSES 񓜩 N. Beauregard Street, Alexandria, Virginia 22311-1772 SIDA Log No. HU 94-45640 * III i DEFINITIONS IDA publishes the follewing...woodpecker. The RCW is a good indicator of ecosystem health in VIH -36 I I the longleaf pine ecosystem. This survey identified Eglin as having the fourth

  18. Department of Defense In-House RDT and E Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-30

    J >• OC HI 4 4 M tu oc u u H H UJ » •■ VIH H O O Z Ul 4 UJ Ul — -»Z Z Z 4 4 4 U -I 2 > > • *« • UJ...DEVELOPMENT TEST II METEOROLOGICAL DATA SOUNDING SYSTEM AN/UMw-7 PRODUCT IMPROVEMENT TEST REVISION 5t FADAC CANNON PROGRAM ...FUNCTIONS/EUUlPMtNT

  19. Experimental Study of Electronic States at Interfaces.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    AE h (h )COR ELLU VIH E E V AOTOIh EDSOImhhA E - EEonmonsoE EhhhhEhh EhhhoshEEEEshE Inn 190 ~uM -~11H1 IM~ *22 -us - II 1.1 ’I-huh .25 16III...Center. Cornell UniversiY. Ithaca. New York 14853 (Received 6 August 1984-, revised manuscript received 4 March 1985) Under certain circumstances the

  20. Borehole X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS): User’s Manual, Software Description, and Performance Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-12-01

    interface. The computer to which the DP4 interfaces must contain software to communicate via the serial port (USB or RS-232). The current revision of the...SCA7 8 SCA5 12 GND GATE and BUFFER_SEL inputs: VIL (logic low): -0.5 to + 0.7V VIH (logic high): +2.4 to +5.5V Inputs: SN74LVC2G14, Vcc=3.3V

  1. U.S. Security Assistance and Regional Balance of Power: Greece and Turkey, a Case Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    the developing crisis between the Soviet Union and Turkey reached its climax when the Soviet Union demanded that Turkey revise the Montreux...the island, and U.S. intervention vih averting a Greek-Turkish war. Since that time, both Greek and Turkish defense policies for the first time in...pursuing an unambiguous agenda of territorial revisionism . Turkey’s continuous provocations in the Aegean that resulted in the Imia crisis of 1996

  2. Static Aeroelastic Analysis of Flexible Wings via NASTRAN, Part I.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    revisions to the sequence would broaden its capabilities and applicability. 28 * Bibliography *1. NASA SP-222(04). The NASTRAN User’s Manual (Level 17.0...hi hi bi vih ih ihih ih i N re" c 1 16 1- ~ ~ ~ P a iihhhiiihhhiiihh IQ 33 333 in3 3 3 - hih62 -’a6 Kd 24 0W 00 0 ft6 40 19 49 W . 14 a a A 1 4 4

  3. Atmospheric Dust and Aerosol Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-04-01

    of Air Programs Publ. No.AP-26 ( Revised 1970), United States Environmental Protect ion Aqency, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. Whiteman, C.D...48q (4r 3548 H 3425 -/001 f55 295 292 272 309 j 1920 4425 950 h,61) 2 r0 -q (. 0 4475 67 h6tj in 32 Vih 40 2’)J K 4525 3/5 60 ’’) I17 IS 1r J44 74

  4. [Nutritional care protocol proposal for patients living with HIV without antiretroviral therapy, treated at the center of diagnostic references of San Martín de Quillota Hospital, Chile].

    PubMed

    Videla Muñoz, Madeleine Andrea; Leiva Martínez, Tamara Denisse; Valenzuela Avendaño, Carina

    2014-11-18

    Introducción: La atención nutricional para pacientes con VIH en Chile constituye un desafío para la Salud Pública al no existir directrices ministeriales que garanticen una atención nutricional estandarizada y oportuna, que contribuya a mejorar la inmunidad y retardar la falla inmunológica desde un enfoque preventivo. Objetivo: Diseñar una propuesta de protocolo de atención nutricional para optimizar el manejo nutricional en un grupo de pacientes viviendo con VIH. Metodología: El diseño contempló un diagnóstico inicial (caracterización de pacientes y de la consulta nutricional en un servicio público secundario de salud) para identificar las necesidades locales, lo que se complementó con antecedentes bibliográficos. Se validó el contenido del protocolo mediante opinión de expertos, utilizando un cuestionario likert que evaluaba tres variables: formato, plan del protocolo de atención nutricional y calidad de contenido. Resultados: La propuesta de protocolo consta de flujogramas de atención, procedimientos de la atención nutricional y material educativo. En la validación participaron cinco expertos, según los cuales se debe asignar más tiempo para la atención de los pacientes, considerar la integración del equipo multidisciplinario en los flujogramas y a corto plazo se debe evaluar la confiabilidad y aplicabilidad del protocolo. Discusión: Esta propuesta es el primer documento orientado al manejo nutricional ambulatorio de pacientes con VIH desde las primeras etapas de la enfermedad en Chile. Es necesario realizar estudios que midan el impacto de la intervención nutricional en pacientes con VIH sin terapia antirretroviral.

  5. Coinfection pulmonaire par pneumocystis jirovecii et pseudomonas aeruginosa au cours du SIDA: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Mamoudou, Savadogo; Bellaud, Guillaume; Ana, Canestri; Gilles, Pialoux

    2015-01-01

    Rapporter deux cas cliniques de coinfections pulmonaires par Pneumocystis jirovecii et par Pseudomonas aeruginosa chez des patients vivant avec le VIH. Les deux patients étaient âgés respectivement de 32 ans et 46 ans. Un patient a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Yalgado Ouédraogo de Ouagadougou au Burkina Faso et l'autre a été pris en charge à l'hôpital Ténon de Paris, en France. Les deux souffraient de pneumopathie confirmée à la radiographie et à la tomodensitométrie. L'un des patients était sévèrement immuno déprimé, contrairement à l'autre. L'examen bactériologique dans les crachats avait permis d'isoler Pseudomonas aeruginosa et Pneumocystis jirovecii chez les deux patients. Sous traitement, l’évolution a été favorable. Les coinfections morbides sont relativement fréquentes chez les patients vivant avec le VIH. Devant une symptomatologie respiratoire du sujet vivant avec le VIH, il faut savoir rechercher en plus du Bacille de Koch, Pneumocystis jirovecii et Pseudomonas aeruginosa par un lavage broncho alvéolaire. PMID:26516396

  6. Turbulent Boundary Layer Measurements on the Boattail Section of a Yawed, Spinning Projectile Shape at Mach 3.0

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-11-01

    in CO • J • o o r- in m ci » II II II o I UJ ►- a. a UJ o x o:»’<-*’*i-«-ivjmoo»-«Wh-’Hno’inon’^oo>coa>CT’<M x( vih -o(nma)o«(»i*inh...ioooi/iCT’eoo>(Vii/i—«i—«o(vjo>(vi( vih -^-r~iJicoai \\ ro r^ ^ m in coo (vj(n»o eo»^mco<*ir*»^in(^(o»oio o rn m ^* -* ^ jinLninini/isO^o^tr^i^cocDroa’Oo...D-oo-Hf-inno-*!!) ujo-»inh-o>’-<*(vjh->to»in(vio*in(vio,<o-’^( vih -’^(vj oooooor-<^H(vj(vj(^-*’*in^*r^eD<DO>oc)r-<rt(vj(vj v

  7. Lack of bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine and to isocapnic dry air hyperventilation in heart/lung and double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology. The Paris-Sud Lung Transplant Group.

    PubMed

    Herve, P; Picard, N; Le Roy Ladurie, M; Silbert, D; Cerrina, J; Le Roy Ladurie, F; Chapelier, A; Dartevelle, P; Simonneau, G; Parquin, F

    1992-06-01

    To investigate whether survivors of heart/lung and double-lung transplantations have normal or increased nonspecific bronchial responsiveness, nine heart/lung and four double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology underwent methacholine challenge and voluntary isocapnic dry air hyperventilation (VIH) in a randomized order at a mean time of 14.8 +/- 12.1 months after surgery. Transplant recipients were compared with 10 normal subjects and 11 patients with mild asthma. Asthmatic patients had a mean provocative concentration of methacholine inducing a 20% fall (PC20) in FEV1 of 3.4 +/- 3.6 mg/ml (SD). Seventy seven percent of the transplant recipients and 70% of the normal subjects had PC20 superior to 32 mg/ml. The percentage fall from baseline FEV1 after VIH was 12.6 +/- 10.4% in asthmatic patients as compared with 1.9 +/- 2.9% in transplant recipients (p = 0.002) and 0.45 +/- 1.2% in normal subjects (p = 0.001). The decrease in FEV1 after VIH was similar in transplant recipients and normal subjects (p = 0.14). These results show that heart/lung or double-lung transplant recipients with normal lung histology have a normal response to nonspecific bronchial stimulation.

  8. [The seroprevalence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) in the Touaregs and Peuls Bororo in Niger].

    PubMed

    Ousseini, H; Meynard, D; Soumana Adamou, H

    1995-01-01

    A seroepidemiological study of endemic treponematosis (bejel) in Niger allows us to realise an anonymous non correlated screening of VIH infection in Nomads: Touaregs of Tchirozerine (Agadez), Peuls Boro of Bermo (Maradi). On the 424 Touaregs screened only one was seropositive to VIH2 infection confirmed with Western blot that means 0.23% of seroprevalency comparable to that 0.50% found in the general population. The seroprevalency of trepronematosis (VDRL + TPHA+) is 7% in the range of 5 to 15 years old (80%), period which corresponds to the transmission of Bejel. Moreover this population don't travel to the seaborder countries. Concerning the 213 of the Peuls Bororo screened we had only 3 undetermined reactions to Western blot 1 and 2, despite the high seroprevalence of the treponematosis (VDRL+ TPHA+): 22% mostly in the subjects of more than 15 years old (89.36%) which is the sexual intercourse and exodus period to the seaborder countries, where 66% of our VIH patients are infected.

  9. Immunological failure of first-line and switch to second-line antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons in Tanzania: analysis of routinely collected national data

    PubMed Central

    Vanobberghen, Fiona M; Kilama, Bonita; Wringe, Alison; Ramadhani, Angela; Zaba, Basia; Mmbando, Donan; Todd, Jim

    2015-01-01

    benefits of increased coverage. Objectifs Les taux d’échec du traitement de 1ère ligne et les passages au traitement de 2nde ligne sont des indicateurs clés pour les programmes nationaux VIH. Nous avons évalué l’échec immunologique du traitement selon les critères de l’OMS dans le programme national VIH tanzanien. Méthodes Nous avons inclus les adultes entreprenant une thérapie de 1ère ligne entre 2004 et 2011 avec une numération des CD4 prétraitement disponible et un suivi ≥6 mois. Nous avons évalué les rapports en dessous du risque pour l’échec immunologique du traitement et le passage subséquent à la thérapie de 2nde ligne, en utilisant les méthodes de risques concurrents pour tenir compte des décès. Résultats Sur 121.308 adultes, 7% ont connu un échec immunologique du traitement et 2% sont décédés sans observation d’échec immunologique du traitement, sur une médiane de 1,7 ans. La probabilité cumulée d’échec immunologique du traitement sur six ans était de 19,0% (IC95%: 18,5 à 19,7) et 5,1% (4,8 à 5,4) de décès. Les prédicteurs d’échecs immunologiques du traitement comprenaient: l'instauration précoce du traitement (p <0,001), l'initiation dans les établissements de niveau inférieur (SHR = 2,23 [2,03 à 2,45] pour les dispensaires versus les hôpitaux), le sexe masculin (1,27 [1,19 à 1,33]) et l'initiation du traitement à des taux de CD4 faibles ou élevés (par exemple, 1,78 [1,65 à 1,92] et 5,33 [4,65 à 6,10] pour des taux <50 et ≥500 versus des taux compris entre 200 et 349 cellules/mm3, respectivement). Sur 7.382 participants à l'analyse sur le moment du changement de traitement, 6% ont changé de traitement et 5% sont décédés avant le changement. Quatre ans après l’échec immunologique du traitement, la probabilité cumulative du changement de traitement était de 7,3% (6,6 à 8,0) et de 6,8% (6,0 à 7,6) pour les décès. Ceux qui ont connu un échec immunologique dans les dispensaires, les

  10. [Status of the structure, process and outcoms of pharmaceutical care to HIV patient in Spain. Origen study].

    PubMed

    Morillo-Verdugo, R; Jiménez-Galán, R; Ibarra Barrueta, O; Martín Conde, M; Margusino Framinan, L; Illaro Uranga, A

    2014-04-01

    Objetivos: Describir la estructura, proceso y resultados con la que se lleva a cabo la actividad asistencial, docente e investigadora en torno a la Atención Farmacéutica (AF) al paciente VIH en los hospitales españoles. Material y métodos: Estudio observacional, transversal, pragmático y multicéntrico realizado entre Noviembre 2011-Febrero 2012. Participaron servicios de farmacia de hospitales españoles que dispensaran medicación antirretroviral para pacientes VIH. El cuestionario presentaba 41 preguntas estructuradas en 9 bloques: tipo de hospital y persona que realiza la encuesta, estructura y recursos disponibles, actividad asistencial, intervenciones, comunicación con el resto del equipo multidisciplinar, adherencia, registros y calidad, gestión y farmacoeconomía y docencia e investigación. Se realizó un análisis descriptivo y se aplicó la prueba de fisher, Chi cuadrado o regresión logística para analizar la existencia de relaciones estadísticamente significativas. Resultados: 86 hospitales cumplimentaron la encuesta. En el 93%, la consulta de AF era compartida con el resto de patologías. El 27,9% proporcionaba AF continuada a todos los pacientes. El 57,5% determinaban la adherencia periódicamente o en casos de sospecha de mala adhesión. El 20% de los hospitales docentes tenían un programa que permitía un alto nivel de formación en AF al paciente VIH. El 52,3% de los hospitales no habían publicado artículos científicos relacionados con el VIH. Conclusiones: La AF al paciente VIH+ en España debe adaptarse a un nuevo escenario donde se han de considerar aspectos como la cronicidad, la pluripatología, la incorporación de nuevas tecnologías y la necesidad de estratificación de los pacientes para hacerla más eficiente.

  11. Retention and HIV seroconversion among drug users on methadone maintenance treatment in Yunnan, China.

    PubMed

    Chang, Y-P; Duo, L; Kumar, A M V; Achanta, S; Xue, H-M; Satyanarayana, S; Ananthakrishnan, R; Srivastava, S; Qi, W; Hu, S-Y

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : Treize centres de traitement par méthadone (MMT) dans le Yunnan, la province la plus touchée par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) en Chine.Objectifs : Déterminer, parmi les participants VIH négatifs, la proportion de perdus de vue (ceux qui ont manqué l'examen de suivi à 6 mois), les facteurs associés à cet abandon du suivi, le taux de séroconversion VIH et les facteurs associés.Schéma : Etude prospective de cohorte d'octobre 2008 à avril 2011. Tous les participants ont rempli un questionnaire structuré prétesté afin d'identifier ces facteurs et on leur a proposé un test VIH tous les 6 mois. L'analyse des données a été réalisée à l'aide du test χ(2) et de la régression logarithmique binomiale.Résultats : Sur 1146 patients, 541 (47%) ont été perdus de vue en 2 ans et demi. Les facteurs associé à cet abandon comprenaient : <6 mois de séjour préalable dans un centre MMT, localisation peu pratique du centre et dose moyenne de méthadone ⩽60 mg/jour avec un risque relatif (RR) ajusté de 1,4 (IC95% 1,2–1,5), 1,2 (IC95% 1,0–1,4) et 1,1 (IC95% 1,0–1,3), respectivement. Le taux global de séroconversion était de 6,6% personnes-années (IC95% 3,7–11). Le fait de ne pas vivre avec un partenaire contribuait à un taux plus élevé de VIH avec un RR ajusté de 3,6 (IC95% 1,0–12,8).Conclusion : Le taux de rétention des participants à un traitement en centre MMT au Yunnan n'était pas satisfaisant. Une prestation de services décentralisée au niveau communautaire avec observation directe du traitement serait plus pratique et pourrait améliorer cette rétention.

  12. Antiretroviral treatment among co-infected tuberculosis patients in integrated and non-integrated facilities.

    PubMed

    Ledibane, T D; Motlhanke, S C; Rose, A; Kruger, W H; Ledibane, N R T; Claassens, M M

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : L'Afrique du Sud est au deuxième rang dans le monde de la « syndémie » tuberculose/virus d'immunodéficience humaine (TB-VIH) : en 2011, le taux de coïnfection TB-VIH a été estimé à 65%. L'intégration des services de soins de la TB et du VIH a été mise en œuvre pour augmenter la mise sous traitement antirétroviral (ART) chez les patients éligibles.Objectif : Evaluer si les structures intégrant TB et VIH comparées aux structures non-intégrées ont un meilleur taux de prise d'ART parmi les patients éligibles.Méthodes : Etude transversale utilisant les données de routine des programmes TB de janvier à décembre 2010. L'éligibilité à l'ART a été définie comme un comptage de CD4+ <350 cellules/μl.Résultats : Respectivement 2761 (86,8%) et 3611 (84,7%) patients ont été éligibles pour l'ART dans les structures intégrées et non-intégrées (P < 0,001). La proportion de patients mis sous ART dans des structures intégrées comparées aux structures non-intégrées n'a pas été significativement différente (35,9% contre 37,1%; P = 0,340); par contre, la différence a été significative pour les patients de statut VIH inconnu (31,8% contre 24,5%; P < 0,001) et de comptage de CD4+ inconnu (40,9% contre 30,4%; P < 0,001).Conclusion : L'intégration des services de TB et VIH dans le Free State (2009–2010) n'a pas été associée à une amélioration de la prise de l'ART. Les raisons n'en sont pas très claires. Par contre, il est préoccupant de constater la proportion élevée de statut VIH inconnu et d'absence de résultats de comptage des CD4+, surtout dans les structures intégrées, et la faible proportion de patients sous ART, qui témoigne d'une mise en œuvre médiocre de l'intégration.

  13. The effects of the porous buffer layer and doping with dysprosium on internal stresses in the GaInP:Dy/por-GaAs/GaAs(100) heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seredin, P. V.; Gordienko, N. N.; Glotov, A. V.; Zhurbina, I. A.; Domashevskaya, E. P.; Arsent'ev, I. N. Shishkov, M. V.

    2009-08-15

    In structures with a porous buffer layer, residual internal stresses caused by a mismatch between the crystal-lattice parameters of the epitaxial GaInP alloy and the GaAs substrate are redistributed to the porous layer that acts as a buffer and is conducive to disappearance of internal stresses. Doping of the epitaxial layer with dysprosium exerts a similar effect on the internal stresses in the film-substrate structure.

  14. Communicating with Mexican Americans: Por Su Buena Salud = Communicando Con Mexico Americanos: For Their Good Health. Proceedings of the Conference (Houston, TX, September 13-14, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Thomas J., Ed.; And Others

    The conference focused on the role of the Mexican American's cultural language, tradition, life style, health practices, and media utilization in the design of effective health education and information programs. Representing various local, state, and national health, education, and media organizations, the 108 participants attended sessions on…

  15. Unanswered Questions in Colombia's Foreign Language Education Policy (Preguntas por responder en la política educativa de lenguas extranjeras en Colombia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonilla Carvajal, Camilo Andrés; Tejada-Sánchez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    Following the trend of much of the Western, non-English speaking world, Colombia has tirelessly strived for spreading English education in an effort to augment economic benefits. This paper aims at providing a critical account of foreign language education policy in Colombia, with special attention to English. It outlines the impact of its…

  16. Ameiridae Boeck and Argestidae Por revisited, with establishment of Parameiropsidae, a new family of Harpacticoida (Crustacea, Copepoda) from deep-sea sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corgosinho, P. H. C.; Martínez Arbizu, P.

    2010-09-01

    Four new species of Parameiropsis are described from Angola and Guinea Basins and the Arctic Laptev Sea. The male of Parameiropsis poseidonicus sp. n. differs from that of P. neptuni sp. n. and P. senckenbergi sp. n. in antennule segmentation, length of the proximal aesthetasc, length of the outermost seta of the antennary endopod, degree of reduction of the mouthparts, relative length of the inner spine of the basis of thoracopod 1, shape of the furca and body length. The female of P. amphitriteae sp. n. differs from previously described females of other species in the smaller exopod and endpod of thoracopod 1, reduced armature of thoracopods 1-6, length of the outer setae of exopods and endopods of thoracopods 2-4, and mandible exopod weakly developed and fused to the basis. Parameiropsis is redefined by the following autapomorphies: presence of aesthetasc on 3rd segment of female antennule; antenna strong, with endopod curved upwardly, and shape of the outermost (strongly ornamented) spine; triangular labrum; elongated corpus mandibularis, gnathobasis very long; basis of mandibular palp unarmed; elongated maxillule, with long and flexible setae on praecoxal arthrite; basis of the maxilla with strongly modified claw. To discuss the phylogenetic position of Parameiropsis, we revaluated the subfamilies of Ameiridae (viz. Ameirinae and Stenocopiinae) and the family Argestidae. Anoplosomella and Malacopsyllus revealed to be not closely related to Ameiridae and are transferred to Argestidae, sharing with other members of this family the morphology of the mandible gnathobasis, armature of maxilla and armature and length of the first segment of the antennule. Argestoides prehensilis does not show any of the characters that we consider autapomorphic for Argestidae. Instead, it shows many characters in common with several Ameiridae species. Parameiropsis does not have any character that could justify its inclusion within Ameiridae or even within Podogennonta. It also cannot be included satisfactorily within Argestidae nor Exanechentera. Therefore, we here propose a new family for Parameiropsis, with unclear relationships within Harpacticoida. After these taxonomic rearrangements, Ameiridae and Argestidae are considered monophyletic based on certain maxilla characters that we consider autapomorphic for each group. A key to the identification of the known species of Parameiropsis is added at the end.

  17. Diseño, Construcción Y Desarrollo De Un Sistema Limitado Por Difracción Para Telescopios Terrestres: Fastcam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez Lopez, Roberto

    2013-02-01

    This work describes the concept, design, development, evolution and application of the FastCam instrument. FastCam is an image photometer for astronomy with image capture in a high-frequency range and diraction limited, in order to apply the Lucky Imaging technique to medium- and large-sized ( 1.5 to 4 m) telescopes. The Lucky Imaging technique allows, for ground-based telescopes, to achieve the resolution limit for astronomical images under suitable conditions. This work describes the atmospheric problems and the active and adaptive optics techniques to solve them, as well as the Lucky Imaging fundamentals. A description of the considerations to the project development and design parameters is performed. Then, the optical design and dierent adaptations to several telescopes will be revised. In a next step, some of the scientic results obtained thanks to this project are shown, both in position astronomy and complex structures in globular cluster and binary systems. Dierent designs arising from the basic idea and the instruments now in development that are expanding the system's capabilities and the technique are explained. Some other possible applications to other elds in which the image sharpness is necessary despite uctuations or instabilities of the observing system will be also pointed out: ophthalmology, video-control, etc.

  18. Un Programa de Espanol para Colegio Universitario: Esfuerzos por Lograr una Mejor Articulacion (A Spanish Program for Colleges and Universities: Efforts to Improve Articulation).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Latoja, Luis E.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a three-year plan for colleges and universities in which the Spanish program attempts to increase its course offerings and improve articulation within the institution. The program is designed to put into practice the goals of a regional collaborative project on articulation of which the university is an integral part. (six references)…

  19. "¿Por qué leemos esto en la clase de español?": The Politics of Teaching Literature in Spanglish

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Postma, Regan L.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses what is at stake in teaching works written in "Spanglish" in Spanish departments and what teaching such works might mean for students and the scholarly community at large. This article primarily comes out of the author's experiences teaching "Spanglish" works in Spanish courses at a major research…

  20. Library Safari: Tips for Parents of Young Readers and Explorers = De safari por la biblioteca: Consejos para padres de lectores y exploradores jovenes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clements, Aedin

    Visiting the library is a great way for parents to encourage their child's imagination and learning. It gives parents the opportunity to model good reading behavior and to show their child that they value books and reading. No matter how young the child is, a trip to the library can be an enjoyable outing for parents and their children. Most…

  1. Study of morphological characteristic of por-Si formed using metal-assisted chemical etching by BET-method and fractal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyko, Anton N.; Pyatilova, Olga V.; Kalmykov, Rustam M.; Gaev, Dahir S.; Timoshenkov, Sergei P.; Gavrilov, Sergei A.

    2016-12-01

    Study of new materials and composites based on porous silicon is of great interest for electronics and microelectronics industry. Functional characteristics of structured layers are closely associated with their morphology properties and treatment conditions correspondently. In this work a porous silicon layers formed by metal-assisted chemical etching (MACE) with the use of gas adsorption-desorption method, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and fractal geometry have been examined. Specific surface area given by multi-point BET method was about of 7 m2/g and 13 m2/g for n-Si and p-Si specimens correspondently. Surface fractal dimension Ds was estimated for p-type mesoporous silicon from BET results using Neimark's thermodynamic approach, the value is Ds=2.86. "Slit islands" Mandelbrot's algorithm was applied for analysis of SEM images and calculations of surface fractal dimension Ds, computation gives Ds = 2.52 for n-Si sample and Ds = 2.84 for p-Si sample. The study testified the fractal nature of porous layers formed by MACE and exhibits correlation between different methods of fractal dimension estimation. The results can be applied for improvement of methods of structured solids characterization.

  2. Realidades Suburbanas: Latinos en el Condado de Dakota. Una Investigacion Dirigida por HACER = Suburban Realities: Latinos in Dakota County. A Study Conducted by HACER.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HACER: Hispanic Advocacy and Community Empowerment through Research, Minneapolis, MN.

    A research project was conducted between April and December of 1998 to learn about the experiences of the sizable numbers of Latinos who live in Dakota County (Minnesota). This diverse group was studied through examining existing demographic information, conducting interviews with 45 Latino and Anglo individuals, and conducting several focus…

  3. Efectos de Campos Magnéticos en las Tasas de Consumo de Madera por Coptotermes formosanus, la Termita Subterránea de Formosa.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixty groups of 500 workers and 50 soldiers of Coptotermes formosanus were maintained in costume designed containers and fed with a piece of red oak wood (Quercus rubra). Twenty of these groups were exposed to permanent magnets with a flux of 800 G. Another 20 groups were exposed to a permanent mag...

  4. Comparacion de modelos de Educacion Sexual en el conocimiento y cambio de actitudes en practicas sexuales por alumnos de nivel superior en la region de Caguas, Puerto Rico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of the Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD). In addition, it provides activities to increase the self-esteem, the communication and the decision making. This investigation had the intention to compare the SETM and the HBM in the increase of knowledge and change of attitudes of high risk of propagation of the STD using a validated questionnaire (Agency of the United States for the International-USAID Development), named "Endesa 2007" and, adapted to Puerto Rico by the Dra.Marta Collazo to a sample of students between the 17 and 19 years of 2 state schools of San Lorenzo, as a pretest, and, selected by convenience. Then, a 10 hours training was administered to half of the students using the SETM to STD and condom use lessons. The other half of the students received additional lessons using the HBM. Finally, both groups took the questionnaire again as a posttest. The sample of students, in average, did not reach the knowledge and basic levels of attitudes towards the STD in the pretest. This reflected 2 possible implications on the SETM. In first place, that the way in which the STD is implemented as part of the Sexual Education curriculum is inefficient. Secondly, the possibility that the acquired information or attitudes does not have permanence. Culminated the questionnaire, the HBM increase the knowledge of the STD in 0.41 points (average) over the SETM. There was not a significant difference between both models, in attitudes, implying that both models are equally effective. The findings suggests that the HBM is more effective increasing the knowledge on the STD, but equally effective than the SETM in attitude change for the Puerto Rican youth.

  5. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men.

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Scott D; Leichliter, Jami S; Sun, Christina J; Bloom, Fred R

    2016-02-12

    Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005-2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men's social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States.

  6. The HoMBReS and HoMBReS Por un Cambio Interventions to Reduce HIV Disparities Among Immigrant Hispanic/Latino Men

    PubMed Central

    Rhodes, Scott D.; Leichliter, Jami S.; Sun, Christina J.; Bloom, Fred R.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Hispanics/Latinos in the United States are affected disproportionately by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs); however, few effective evidence-based prevention interventions for this population exist. This report describes the Hombres Manteniendo Bienestar y Relaciones Saludables (Men Maintaining Wellbeing and Healthy Relationships) (HoMBReS) intervention, which was developed by a community-based, participatory research partnership in North Carolina and initially implemented during 2005–2009. HoMBReS is an example of an effective intervention that uses lay health advisors (known as Navegantes [navigators]) in the context of existing social networks (i.e., recreational soccer teams) to promote consistent condom use and HIV and STD testing among Hispanic/Latino men. In 2012, HoMBReS was classified as a best-evidence community-level HIV prevention intervention (CDC. Compendium of evidence-based behavioral interventions and best practices for HIV prevention. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services, CDC; 2015). The intervention has been implemented elsewhere, enhanced, and further evaluated in longitudinal intervention and implementation studies. HoMBReS has been adapted for other populations, including men who have sex with men and transgender persons. Additional evaluation has found that Navegantes continue in their roles as health advisors, opinion leaders, and community advocates after study support ends. Hispanic/Latino men’s social networks can be leveraged to promote sexual health within the community by decreasing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanics/Latinos in the United States. PMID:26916740

  7. "Pig in a poke (gato por liebre)": the "mota" (Calophysus macropterus) fishery, molecular evidence of commercialization in Colombia and toxicological analyses.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Cristian; Cubillos, Juan Camilo; Gómez, Rigoberto; Trujillo, Fernando; Caballero, Susana

    2014-06-01

    Overfishing has affected the population abundance trends of many commercial fish species. In the Amazon, the fishery of a catfish commonly known as "mota" or "piracatinga" (Calophysus macropterus) has become an important economic activity in the region as this species has replaced a number of other overexploited great catfish species in the markets. Due to this high exploitation, ways in which to increase captures have been identified. One strategy is to use decomposing animal carcasses as bait. Such strategy has increased the hunting pressure on endangered species such as caimans and river dolphins. We investigated which catfish species are currently commercialized in Colombian fish markets using DNA barcoding, and measured mercury concentration in the tissues of fish molecularly identified as C. macropterus. We collected 86 fish samples in markets of four Colombian cities. Sixty-eight of these were identified molecularly as C.macropterus. The mercury concentration of 29 such samples was analyzed. Samples presented total Hg concentrations higher than the limit for human consumption established by the WHO (0.5 μg/g). These results are worrisome and suggest that (1) C. macropterus is a widely used fish species for human consumption in Colombia and (2) C. macropterus has high concentrations of total Hg, making its consumption a public health risk. Results presented here suggest that C. macropterus has replaced capaz in most Colombian markets. This fishery threatens wild species of river dolphins and caimans, and is also a public health risk given the high mercury levels we found in a subsample of these fishes.

  8. Comparacion de Modelos de Educacion Sexual en El Conocimiento y Cambio de Actitudes en Practicas Sexuales por Alumnos de Nivel Superior en La Region De Caguas, Puerto Rico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juan, Vallejo Ramos L.

    2012-01-01

    In opposition to the Sexual Education Traditional Model (SETM) that is used in the state schools of Puerto Rico, the Health Beliefs Model (HBM) appears. It facilitates a curricular design that improves the ability of the students to respond to the group pressure by means of attitudes that stimulate sexual conducts of smaller risk of propagation of…

  9. (2,3,7,8,12,13,17,18-Octa­ethyl­por­phin­ato)(trifluoro­methane­sulfonato)iron(III)

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Nan; Powell, Douglas R.; Richter-Addo, George B.

    2008-01-01

    The title compound, [Fe(CF3O3S)(C36H44N4)], is an iron(III) porphyrin complex with the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion as an axial ligand. The Fe atom is displaced by 0.219 (2) Å toward the trifluoro­methane­sulfonate anion from the 24-atom mean plane of the porphyrin, resulting in a distorted FeN4O square-based pyramidal geometry. One ethyl­ene group is disordered over two orientations in a 0.502 (6):0.498 (6) ratio. PMID:21580825

  10. The Department of Defense’s Transition of Program of Record (POR) Systems from Internet Protocol Version Four (IPv4) to Internet Protocol Version Six (IPv6)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-12-01

    Protocol IA Information Assurance IANA Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ICANN Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers ICE... ICANN ) is responsible for the global coordination of the Internet’s system of unique identifiers. Unique identifies include domain names like .org...or .museum, and country codes such as .UK .IE. Any new RIR shall, on recognition by ICANN receive an IPv6 allocation from the IANA. A RIR is

  11. Behavior Change and Health-Related Interventions for Heterosexual Risk Reduction Among Drug Users

    PubMed Central

    SEMAAN, SALAAM; JARLAIS, DON C. DES; MALOW, ROB

    2007-01-01

    Prevention of heterosexual transmission of HIV between and from drug users is important for controlling the local and global HIV heterosexual epidemic. Sex risk reduction interventions and health-related interventions are important for reducing the sex risk behaviors of drug users. Sex risk reduction interventions address individual-level, peer-level, and structural-level determinants of risk reduction. Health-related interventions include HIV counseling and testing, prevention and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, and delivery of highly active antiretroviral therapy. It is important to adapt effective interventions implemented in resource-rich countries to the realities of the resource-constrained settings and to address relevant contextual factors. RESUMEN Il est important de prévenir la transmission hétérosexuelle du VIH à partir des usagers de drogue pour contrôler l’épidémie hétérosexuelle locale et mondiale de VIH. Des interventions ciblant à la fois la réduction de risque sexuel et la santé des usagers de drogue sont nécessaires. Les interventions de réduction de risque sexuel prennent en compte le niveau individuel, le niveau des pairs et celui des déterminants structurels de la réduction des risques. Les interventions visant l’amélioration de la santé comprennent le conseil et le dépistage du VIH, la prévention et le traitement des infections sexuellement transmissibles et la prescription d’antirétroviraux. Il est important d’adapter les interventions efficaces mises en place dans les pays riches aux réalités des contextes de pays à ressources limitées et de tenir compte des facteurs contextuels pertinents. PMID:17002987

  12. Allier théorie et pratique dans la lutte contre la pandémie du Sida

    PubMed Central

    Zerbo, Roger

    2014-01-01

    Le premier cas d'infection par le VIH a été notifié en 1986 au Burkina Faso. L'ignorance qui entourait cette infection et l'absence de traitement curatif a amplifié ses conséquences sociales et économiques. La mise en œuvre des interventions communautaire est un enjeu majeur actuel qui recommande la compréhension des logiques sociales endogènes qui influencent les comportements individuels et collectifs. C'est en cela que l'implication des sciences sociales dans la lutte contre les maladies, en particulier le Sida constitue un enjeu, en termes de définition et d'identification de leur contribution. Dans notre propos, nous pouvons mettre en évidence trois niveaux de contribution des sciences sociales, notamment la sociologie, l'anthropologie, la psychologie et dans une certaine mesure le droit et l’économie, à la prévention du Sida et la prise en charge des personnes infectées par le VIH. Il faut noter que ces disciplines contribuent à la lutte contre le VIH d'une part, par des réflexions et des éléments d'analyses constructives, et d'autre part, l'aptitude des porteurs de ces disciplines est parfois sollicitée pour l'efficacité de la mise en œuvre des actions et l'organisation des systèmes de soins. PMID:25722761

  13. La stigmatisation des PVVIH en Afrique: analyse de ses formes et manifestations au Burkina Faso

    PubMed Central

    Ky-Zerbo, Odette; Desclaux, Alice; Asmar, Khalil El; Makhlouf-Obermeyer, Carla; Msellati, Philippe; Somé, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    Résumé Introduction l’impact négatif de la stigmatisation sur la prévention du VIH et la prise en charge a été documenté. La stigmatisation a été analysée au plan qualitatif au Burkina Faso, où la prévalence VIH est faible (1 %). Des mesures quantitatives sont encore nécessaires pour identifier les formes et manifestations majeures de la stigmatisation. Méthodologie dans le cadre de l’étude MATCH (Multi-country African Study on Testing and Counselling for HIV), une étude transversale a été conduite auprès de personnes ayant déjà fait le test VIH. Les personnes séropositives ont été interrogées sur les conséquences du résultat VIH+. Leur vécu de la stigmatisation a été évalué à travers 20 indicateurs de manifestations de la stigmatisation, regroupés en trois formes de stigmatisation/discrimination. Résultats au total 219 PVVIH ont été recrutées. L’autostigmatisation est la forme majeure de stigmatisation. Elle est estimée dans cette étude à 46 % comparativement à la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles évaluée à 40 % et la stigmatisation dans les services de santé qui est de 11 %. L’expérience de la stigmatisation dans les relations interpersonnelles est davantage rapportée par les PVVIH qui ont partagé leur résultat, celles qui ont un faible niveau de scolarisation, les veufs/veuves ou séparés, et les membres d’association. La stigmatisation dans les services de santé est rapportée plus souvent par les membres d’associations. Conclusion les programmes de prise en charge doivent, parallèlement à l’extension des antirétroviraux, intégrer un volet psychologique plus adapté aux besoins. Les activités d’appui psychosocial ciblant davantage l’individu doivent être développées, surtout au sein des associations. PMID:25291886

  14. Tilted string cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza

    1999-04-01

    Global symmetries of the string effective action are employed to generate tilted, homogeneous Bianchi type VIh string cosmologies from a previously known stiff perfect fluid solution to Einstein gravity. The dilaton field is not constant on the surfaces of homogeneity. The future asymptotic state of the models is interpreted as a plane wave and is itself an exact solution to the string equations of motion to all orders in the inverse string tension. An inhomogeneous generalization of the Bianchi type III model is also found.

  15. Exact anisotropic viscous fluid solutions of Einstein's equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goenner, H. F. M.; Kowalewski, F.

    1989-05-01

    A method for obtaining anisotropic, rotationless viscous fluid matter solutions of Bianchi type I and Segré type [1, 111] with the barotropic equation of state is presented. Solutions for which the anisotropy decreases exponentially or with a power law as well as solutions with average Hubble parameterH ˜t -1 are discussed. Also, a class of solutions with constant anisotropy and Bianchi type VIh is found. The dominant energy condition holds and the transport coefficients show the right sign.

  16. Cryoradiation sterilization—Contemporary state and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Talrose, V. L.; Trofimov, V. I.

    1995-02-01

    The new approach of radiation sterilization — cryoradiosterilization with programmed freezing — was developed for pharmaceutical solutions. Both scientific and technical problems are solved, the results are discussed. Programmed freezing of vials with the drug's solutions provides the high stability of soluted components with biological activity at sterilizing irradiation without significant change of sterilization doses. Physical, chemical, biological and pharmacological properties of a lot of drug solutions for injection satisfy official requirements after cryoradiation sterilization treatment. This method seems to be especially important for the protein systems which could be infected by dangerous viruses (VIH, hepatitis B): blood plasma, diagnostic sera, protein preparations manufactured from donor's blood, etc.

  17. Tuberculose de l’épaule masquée par une infection concomitante à enterobacter cloacae: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Gbané-Koné, Mariam; Koné, Samba; Ouali, Boubacar; Djaha, Kouassi Jean-Mermoz; Diomandé, Mohamed; Eti, Edmond; Touré, Stanislas André; Kouakou, N'zué Marcel

    2015-01-01

    La tuberculose de l’épaule est une localisation rare de même que l'arthrite septique à Enterobacter cloacae, les auteurs rapportent un cas d'ostéoarthrite de l’épaule à Bacille de Koch et à E. Cloacae chez une patiente de 36 ans avec un terrain particulier (drépanocytose SC et infection à VIH). Le diagnostic a été possible grâce aux prélèvements chirurgicaux effectués lors de l'arthrotomie PMID:26401203

  18. Thermal Model of Laser-Induced Eye Damage

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-10-08

    Measurement of the Choroidal Blood j Flow in the Rabbit Using 85-Krpton," Exp. Eye Res._ 16, pp 421- 425 (1973) 15. "Thermal Problems in Biotechnology ...QM VIH 8- 1. ALLLN ET AL LCL1PSt bNUkNS IN h’UMANS AN)LAf5,)kATORPY mL AS LIE MLNT IN H A fif.1 $* S A M-1.L 01 (Ay Y 6w 2a ALLLN LT AL HUL’m CT Iij

  19. Santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescentes de Bobo Dioulasso, Burkina Faso: place de la communication parents-adolescentes pour la réduction des risques

    PubMed Central

    Some, Donmozoun Télesphore; Some, Der Adolphe; Hien, Hervé; Diallo, Ramata; Zingue, Dézémon; Diallo, Ibrahim; Diagbouga, Serge; Dao, Blami

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Les adolescentes sont très vulnérables face aux Infections Sexuellement Transmissibles (IST) et au VIH/SIDA. Notre étude a pour objectifs d’explorer la qualité de la communication entre les adolescentes et leurs parents sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et de recueillir leurs suggestions pour l’amélioration de cette communication. Méthodes L’étude était transversale qualitative sur 2 mois. La population de l’étude était composée par des adolescentes de 13 à 17 ans et leurs parents habitant la ville de Bobo Dioulasso. Vingt (20) adolescentes scolarisées ont été tirés au sort dans trois établissements secondaires et 20 autres non scolarisées choisies de façon accidentelle dans la ville. Les informations ont été collectées à l’aide de 8 focus groups. Les discussions ont été enregistrées sur cassettes, retranscrites en verbatim, et analysées à l’aide du logiciel QSR NVIVO 2.0. Résultats Les adolescentes et leurs parents communiquent très peu ou pas sur les questions des IST/VIH/SIDA; l’auto-information par les paires ou les médias est la première source d’information. Pour les parents, l’information existe et est accessible aux adolescentes alors que pour ces dernières, leurs connaissances de ces maladies sont parfois erronées. L’abstinence, la fidélité et le dépistage volontaire comme moyen de prévention sont très peu évoqués par les adolescentes de même que par leurs parents. Conclusion La communication parents-adolescentes est insuffisante voire absente dans certains milieux. Il est urgent de conduire des actions auprès des adolescentes et leurs parents pour mieux les informer sur les IST/VIH/SIDA et améliorer la communication sur ces maladies. PMID:22655099

  20. L'atteinte osseuse dans le sarcome de Kaposi classique et agressif: à propos d'un cas

    PubMed Central

    Sbiyaa, Mouhcine; El Alaoui, Adil; El Bardai, Mohammed; Mezzani, Amine; Lahrach, Kamal; Marzouki, Amine; Boutayeb, Fawzi

    2016-01-01

    Le sarcome de Kaposi classique est une tumeur rare multifocale d'origine des cellules endothéliales vasculaires à caractère évolutif progressif et peu maligne. L'atteinte viscérale dans le sarcome de kaposi est parfois observée chez les patients VIH positif par contre la dissémination tumorale dans les ganglions lymphatiques viscérales dans le SK classique reste très rare. On rapporte un cas rare de sarcome de kaposi classique agressif de la main avec une évolution rapide et destructive. PMID:27347285

  1. [Synthesis of selected derivatives of 3H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-on and potential depressive action on OUN].

    PubMed

    Herold, F

    1992-01-01

    2-Methyl-4H-pyrido[2,3-d][1,3]oxazin-4-one (III) was reacted with amines IVa-j to give corresponding 2-methyl-3H-pyrido[2,3-d]pyrimidin-4-ones (Va-j) substituted at position 3. These reactions afforded non-cyclic by-products VIa', VIg', and VIh' which were converted into compounds Va, Vg and Vh by the action of POCl3. Structures of the newly obtained compounds have been confirmed by elemental analysis for C, H and N, and by IR and 1H NMR spectra.

  2. [Simultaneous association of tubercular meningitis and cryptococcal meningitis in an African with human immunodeficiency virus HIV positive serology. University Hospital Center of Bujumbura,Burundi].

    PubMed

    Niyongabo, T; Aubry, P

    1992-01-01

    The authors report a connection between a meningitis tuberculosis and a meningoencephalitis with cryptococcus in the case of an african VIH+. The diagnostic of a meningitis tuberculosis was retained on an indirect arguments, this of meningoencephalitis of direct arguments (antigen cryptococcus, cultivation on Sabouraud environment). The pulmonary tuberculosis and/or extrapulmonary tuberculosis is current in Central Africa during HIV infection, as well as the crytococcosis during AIDS. But, any observation on neuromeningitis strike of those two infections have been reported up to now.

  3. [HIV infection in tuberculosis patients in Madagascar. Situation in 1-93].

    PubMed

    Morvan, J M; Auregan, G; Rasamindrakotroka, A J; de Ravel, T; Roux, J F

    1994-01-01

    In Madagascar, the estimated incidence of tuberculosis is high (320 per 100,000) when human immunodeficiency virus (VIH) infection progress slowly. The authors have studied HIV seroprevalence in a group of tubercular patients and in two reference groups (general population and outpatients of the Clinical Biology Centre of Institut Pasteur). Circulation of HIV1 virus was observed with a low prevalence rate in all the 3 groups. There was no significant difference between tubercular patients and healthy population. Tubercular people ought to be a watch group for the epidemiological surveillance of HIV infection evolution in Madagascar.

  4. [Vaccination against the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    Girard, M; Pialoux, G

    1995-06-15

    Much progress has been made in recent years in the development of anti-VIH vaccines. Nearly 20 such vaccines have reached phase 1 clinical study in seronegative volunteers. The responses invoked by these vaccines are, however, mediocre, both in quality (lack of cross over neutralisation in isolated "wild" viruses) and in their levels and length of action. New formulations of vaccines are under study, but their development is long and difficult, and researchers are still disarmed by the problem of the variability of the virus. Several years of study, both clinical and fundamental, will be necessary before an effective vaccine against HIV-1 is available.

  5. [Candida laryngitis and HIV infection: description of 4 cases].

    PubMed

    Roig, P; Carrasco, R; Salavert, M; Navarro, V; Guix, J; Nieto, A; Bernacer, B

    1992-10-01

    Candidiasic laryngitis is a very rare Candida spp infection of mucosa, appearing typically in immunosuppressed patients, mainly in patients with neoplasia, and, recently, in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (VIH) infection. We present four cases of candidiasic laryngitis and HIV infection, as well as the clinical description and evolution of said cases after treatment with fluconazole. We review, as well, the cases published on the scientific literature. We maintain that in each HIV infected patient, with or without oral candidiasis, who shows dysphonia, candidiasic laryngitis should be ruled out.

  6. [Development of HIV 1 antigenemia during treatment with azidothymidine (AZT): follow-up of 90 patients for a year].

    PubMed

    Berlie, H C; Berlioux, J; Daguet, G L

    1989-06-01

    VIH 1 antigenaemia has a significant value in the follow-up of patients treated with AZT. This study of 90 patients (55 ARC - 35 AIDS), each receiving AZT for more than a year, 200 mg every 4 hours, demonstrates the prognosis value of antigenaemia at Day 0, as well as its therapeutic indication value. However, at term and under this treatment, the significance of this virological data has to be reconsidered. Various kinetic patterns are described according to the clinical status and the CD4+ cells count.

  7. Sex, drugs and prisons: HIV prevention strategies for over 190 000 clients in Ukraine.

    PubMed

    Denisiuk, O; Smyrnov, P; Kumar, A M V; Achanta, S; Boyko, K; Khogali, M; Naik, B; Zachariah, R

    2014-06-21

    Contexte : Cent quarante organisations non gouvernementales impliquées dans la mise en œuvre de programmes de prévention du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) pour des clients comprenant des utilisateurs de drogues injectables, des détenus, des travailleuses du sexe, des homosexuels masculins et des enfants des rues en Ukraine de 2010 à 2011.Objectif : Evaluer les facteurs associés au dépistage du VIH, à un second dépistage dans l'année qui suit et à une séroconversion parmi les clients enrôlés.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte par revue de dossiers.Résultats : Sur 192 487 clients, 42 109 (22%) ont eu un test VIH initial (22% étaient positifs). Parmi les clients négatifs au départ, 10 858 (27%) ont eu un deuxième test dans l'année, dont 317 (3%) se sont révélés VIH positifs. Les taux de dépistage initial et subséquent étaient plus faibles parmi les prisonniers (0,3%) et d'autres groupes comme les enfants des rues et les partenaires de groupes à risque (6%), ainsi que ceux qui n'avaient pas bénéficié de conseil ni de services comme la distribution de préservatifs et d'aiguilles. Les sujets qui n'avaient pas bénéficié de conseil étaient plus enclins à la séroconversion.Conclusions: Dans cette vaste cohorte de groupes à risque élevé d'Europe de l'Est, le taux de dépistage était faible et le taux de séroconversion élevé. Cette situation est préoccupante en termes de santé publique et met en doute la qualité d'ensemble du conseil et la manière dont il est adapté aux besoins spécifiques de divers groupes à risque. Il est urgent de réaliser des études qualitatives afin de comprendre les raisons du non dépistage et d'élaborer des interventions spécifiques des clients.

  8. Embankment Criteria and Performance Report, Missouri River, Fort Peck Lake, Montana. Volume II. Drawings.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    AND APARTMENT AE (~ REVISE RESRVOH TOIkt imoqooo 044 ’-" 14 ad~fw~w ~AAU ~4i~ * RAVEL TOE L Yoe ; AX. DEPTIRW $few -NE TYPICAL CROSS/ ~~-SECT ION OF DAM...CIli N N N LJ I> UU () u ~I - 6 0 0 -+ o4’ C. - z 00 > -~2 1~~~~ VCW *- oil-- La 4I (i~~bs S.oj *1iu i 9 I VIH 9-sn c ..-.. w ~ LkJo~ 0L 0 B )0

  9. Asynchronous Discrete Control of Continuous Processes.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-02-24

    Control, April, 1983. Currently under revision . (Abridged version presented at 22nd IEEE Conference on Decision and Control, December, 1983, San Antonio...TX) * 2) Kaliski, M.E., " Finitary Coders: The Interfaces in Finite-State Compensation Schemes, " submitted to IEEE under revision . 3) Kaliski, M.E...COP1854C ELE’M ’ CIC CHARACTERISTICS at TA’ -40 is 2::*C VDD~t 1±51%. 116= m, VIH =0.7 VDD ViL-osVDD CL-A100 p e ig %CHARACTERISTIC .14OM& OMC WS

  10. In-Situ Field Data Gathering Stations, San Francisco Bay-Delta, Salinity Intrusion with Navigation Channels. Appendices 1-11.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-03-18

    TEMPERATURE °C: SALINITY BOTTLE NUMBER: (leave blank) REMARKS (problems with equipment, etc.): 2-1 REVISED FORM--In use from February-July 1980 CORPS OF... REVISED FORM--In use CORPS OF ENGINEERS PROJECT DACW07-78-C-0049 from February - July SAN PABLO - CHIPPS ISLAND 1980 INITIAL DATA LOGGER CHECK SHEET...RED +IS+ 4VDC BLK -IS + 4.DC / ViH 𔃺.000 + .002 0, A- 2. Voltage Regulator RED +8.00 + .01VDC +gD6 BLK -8.00 + .01 . .- 3. Chopper YEL Fig A 18O

  11. Seasonal Sensitivity Analysis of the St. Mary’s River Loran-C Time Difference Grid,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-06-01

    variations and are subject to revision if better conductivity data becomes available. 3.3.3 Comparison With Observed Variations Subsequent to collecting...POSITION ERROR (ft) WAYPOINT MXY IIZ un SEPT 1977 FINTER SEPT 1977 WINTER SEPT 1977 VIh "rER A 850 855 998 1081 699 764 B 534 540 434 468 329 358 C 347...and Rhoads, F.J., "A VLF Effective Ground Conductivity Map of Canada and Greenland with Revisions Derived from Propagation Data," Naval Research

  12. Reference Manual, Background Materials for the CONUS Volumes,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-25

    Occa- sionally, the code name and detonation date of an unannounced test is declassified which permits its listing in subsequent revisions to this...a a a I- ak a a ar aix a a a a .1 a, aA IA. 0i mi 0i Vi V. Ci h 0i (A vi Vih . V)l Li hI h hi~~~~~a ;, ;, :oa W. 3 3 3 3 3 1 3 .- a a - - 0 0- 0- - - a

  13. Atmospheric Transmittance/Radiance: Computer Code LOWTRAN 5

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-02-21

    completely revised from the earlier versions of the LOWTrAN code, Previous versions of LOWTJAN used the same model for aerosol composition and size...IKMAK,NLL,HFI VIH 110 1,IFINO,NL,IKLO tNIH 120 COMMON /140811/ 7(𔃾),F(7,3’d,T(7,!4),WH(?,34),NO(71,4) HEM 130 1 ,SEASNI2?kVULCN(r)),VSB(9),117(15),HMIX...1460 2PROFILE,OX, IONEXIINCTTON) HIM l’,70 ENC HIM 1400 159 Table Al. ’Listing of Fortran Code LOWTTIAN 5 (Cont.) SU5ROUTINI: PPROF HE;R In C REVISED

  14. Strategic Defense Initiative Demonstration/Validation Program Environmental Assessment. Space-Based Surveillance and Tracking System (SSTS),

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-08-01

    Environmental consequences of facility operation vill be addressed in an ongoing revision of an existing environmental assessment ("Formal Environmental...to be in compliance with the revised base master plan (4). 3-4 " " " " "" " " " • ’, .. . ". " " ’," ’, ", .,-," ’,i , ,",. Visual Resources Impacts...8217; %A Tee phone ,onvers,ior wi Anne a Ienningi R Norris. Lieuotena n C.loel Vandenberg Ai: F-tre Rase. /alifornia 1i Ma I", Telephone conversa’in vih

  15. Evaluation of Electrical Test Conditions in MIL-M-38510 Slash Sheets.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    figures. Table 22 lists the revision and amendment of each slash sheet used for this study. Table 23 lists each of the items identified and their...Number Type Revision Number Through 5400 001 04 B 3 28 jun 17( 5474 002 05 E 4 2) Jul 19> 54164 009 03 C 5 7 ,Iul 1978 54H74 022 03 B I 1 Oct 1q79...truth table testing can give information about dynamic VIH and VIL and also can assure that the devices change state according to the truth table. The

  16. Fatigue Sensor Evaluation Program Laboratory Test Report.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    Evaluation Program", Work Statement, Cessna Report 31HE-6918-213, Addendum H, Revision J, 2 June 1972. 1.2 BACKGROUND The A-37 Aircraft Structural...34 ’: « •IIIS ......... li : « rtrtintr : •* M» c f M i H ::::::;:• ;:« ...j . .... ..:. •f’ ::.::::: ^::|:::: n» VH ft;; ** ViH ! * 1 - •• •-•• ; i...Program", Work Statement, Cessna Report 318E-6918-213, Addendum H, Revision J, 2 June 1972. 2. Micro-Measurements Product Bulletin PB-103-2, dated 1973

  17. A Parametric Survey of Hydrofoil Strut Flutter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-06-01

    CM VIH •H "V. u o u M 01 CM J VJ VH tfl u ■»>» a u *^, 4J y c >U 3 d 01 at 0) » T3 4J UH a MH IM o Ŕ to o a> 4J 0) * X O 4) c a c c •rl i o c 1...establish general stability rules, and additional data could well indicate a downward revision . The destabilizing influence of cavitation can be much

  18. Cost/Schedule Uncertainty Analysis of the XM1/Alternative Armament Programs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-04-01

    impact of updated information, a revised risk analysis was prepared. This report represents our current penetrator/shell metal parts risk analysis...CO a BO a a OJ O p. <o M M a a OJ VIH •3 •H M u o •iH •H •rl OJ ^ •H H H U iH •H tO at CO CL, P-, c_> CO CO CO cd hJ to Q Q H

  19. Test uptake and case detection of syphilis, HIV, and hepatitis C among women undergoing prenatal screening in British Columbia, 2007 to 2011.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Margot; Money, Deborah M; Alvarez, Maria; Buxton, Jane A; Krajden, Mel; Lester, Richard T; Ogilvie, Gina; Gilbert, Mark

    2014-06-01

    Objectif : La mesure dans laquelle les tests de dépistage de la rubéole, de la syphilis, du VIH et de l’hépatite C (VHC) ont été utilisés et les tendances en ce qui concerne la détection de cas de ces maladies ont été comparées, entre 2007 et 2011, chez les cohortes de femmes faisant l’objet d’un dépistage prénatal en Colombie-Britannique. L’analyse a mis en jeu le croisement de données de surveillance et de laboratoire centralisées à l’échelle provinciale, afin de déterminer la mesure dans laquelle les tests de dépistage prénatal ont été utilisés et de comparer le taux d’infections nouvellement diagnostiquées au taux d’infections prévalentes. Méthodes : Nous avons inclus les prélèvements prénataux, issus de Britanno-colombiennes âgées de 16 à 45 ans, qui ont été soumis au cours de la période allant de 2007 à 2011. Les dossiers de laboratoire ont été liés aux systèmes de surveillance provinciaux en vue d’identifier les cas maternels confirmés de syphilis et de VIH. La présence d’un statut de séropositivité préalable a été établie, pour ce qui est du VIH et du VHC, en ce qui concerne les cas préalablement confirmés ayant été identifiés à partir des dossiers de laboratoire. Nous avons déterminé les taux d’infections au VIH et au VHC nouvellement identifiées au moment du dépistage prénatal (nouveaux diagnostics par 100 000 par année). La prévalence du VIH et du VHC équivalait à la somme de tous les diagnostics, tant nouveaux que préalables (prévalence par 100 000 par année). Résultats : Chez 233 203 femmes, 96,9 % ont fait l’objet d’un dépistage visant la rubéole, 93,3 % ont fait l’objet d’un dépistage visant la syphilis, 93,8 % ont fait l’objet d’un dépistage visant le VIH et 21,5 % ont fait l’objet d’un dépistage visant le VHC. Entre 2007 et 2011, les taux globaux de nouveaux diagnostics ont été de 15,4, de 5,1 et de 82,8 cas par 100 000

  20. Involvement of second messengers in the signaling pathway of vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone and their effects on vitellogenin mRNA expression in the whiteleg shrimp, Litopenaeus vannamei.

    PubMed

    Bae, Sun-Hye; Okutsu, Tomoyuki; Tsutsui, Naoaki; Kang, Bong Jung; Chen, Hsiang-Yin; Wilder, Marcy N

    2017-01-03

    We incubated fragments of Litopenaeus vannamei ovary to investigate second messengers involved in the regulation of vitellogenin (vg) mRNA levels. The use of 100nM recombinant vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH) (corresponding to recombinant L. vannamei sinus gland peptide-G: rLiv-SGP-G) significantly reduced vg mRNA expression in sub-adults after 8h incubation to less than 20% of the control. The concentration of intracellular cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) increased 3.2-fold relative to the control after 2h incubation with rLiv-SGP-G. However, it reached levels 18-fold relative to the control after 0.5h incubation with rLiv-SGP-G where 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) was also added. Moreover, vg mRNA expression was significantly reduced to less than 50% of the control after 24h incubation with 1μM A23187 (a calcium ionophore). Thus, rLiv-SGP-G and calcium ionophore reduced vg mRNA expression in in vitro-cultured ovary, and cGMP may be involved in the signaling pathway of VIH. Overall, the above results suggest that vg mRNA expression might be inhibited in vitro by increasing intracellular cGMP and Ca(2+) in L. vannamei ovary.

  1. Timing of antiretroviral therapy and TB treatment outcomes in patients with TB-HIV in Myanmar.

    PubMed

    Thi, A M; Shewade, H D; Kyaw, N T T; Oo, M M; Aung, T K; Aung, S T; Oo, H N; Win, T; Harries, A D

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Programme intégré de prise en charge du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), Mandalay, Myanmar.Objectifs : Chez les patients atteints de tuberculose (TB) et VIH enrôlés entre 2011 et 2014, déterminer la date du début du traitement antirétroviral (TAR) en relation avec le traitement antituberculeux (ATT) et son association avec le résultat d'ATT.Schéma : Etude rétrospective de cohorte.Résultats : Sur 1708 patients TB-VIH, 1565 (92%) ont débuté l'ATT en premier et 143 (8%) ont commencé le TAR en premier. Le résultat du traitement a été manquant pour 226 patients qui n'ont pas été inclus. Chez les patients ayant débuté l'ATT en premier, le délai médian de mise en route du TAR a été de 8,6 semaines. L'initiation du TAR a été retardée d'un délai médian de 8 semaines chez 830 (53%) patients. Parmi ces patients, 7% ont eu un résultat médiocre, avec une anémie qui a constitué un facteur de risque indépendant. Chez les patients ayant débuté le TAR en premier, le délai médian de mise en route de l'ATT a été de 21,6 semaines. L'ATT a été initié au cours des 3 mois chez 56 (39%) patients. Le traitement a échoué chez 12% des patients et chez 20% de ceux qui ont débuté l'ATT dans les 3 mois. Les patients ayant des CD4 <100/mm(3) ont eu un risque quatre fois plus élevé d'échec.Conclusions: La chronologie du TAR en rapport avec l'ATT n'a pas été un facteur de risque indépendant d'échec du traitement. Un dépistage extensif de la TB avec des tests de diagnostic rapides et sensibles chez les personnes infectées par le VIH et un suivi étroit de l'anémie et de l'immunosuppression sont recommandés afin d'améliorer encore le résultat du traitement de TB parmi les patients TB-VIH.

  2. About to Graduate from High School? Consider Career Education Opportunities. EdSource Student/Parent Guide = Estas por graduarte de la escuela preparatoria? Considera oportunidades para seguir tu educacion de carrera. EdSource guia de estudiantes y padres

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Getting a sound education is important to a student's ability to make a good living in a field they will enjoy. For many students graduating from high school, that includes high quality career technical (or vocational) education tailored to a specific job. In California, such programs are available in a wide range of fields, from healthcare to the…

  3. VISIÓN GENERAL DE LA EVALUACIÓN DEL RIESGO EN SALUD INFANTIL EMPLEANDO UN ENFOQUE POR ETAPAS DE DESARROLLO (American translation is: Overview of a Life Stage Approach to Children's Health Risk Assessment)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Discussing the challenges associated with estimating and interpreting toxicant exposures and health risks from biomonitoring data. This extended abstract was translated in Spanish and published in Acta Toxicologica Argentina.

  4. Ingestion Reiterada de Cuerpos Extranos. Forma Inusual de Presentacion del Sindrome de Munchausen por Poderes (Reiterated Ingestion of Foreign Bodies. Unusual Form of Presentation of Munchausen Syndrome by Proxy).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terreros, I. Gomez de; And Others

    1996-01-01

    An unusual case of Munchausen syndrome by proxy is reported. A mother with a psychiatric record of behavior disorders and family dysfunction perpetrated the ingestion of foreign bodies (for example, earrings, a screw, sewing needles) on a 10-month-old infant with a history of prematurity, repeated visits to emergency rooms, and nonjustified…

  5. Vistazos Intimos De Puebla; Una Compilacion De Informes Individuales Preparados Por Los Participantes Del Instituto De Verano (NDEA) (Close-ups on Puebla; A Compilation of Individual Reports Prepared by the Participants of the NDEA Summer Institute).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichita State Univ., KS.

    The individual and committee reports on the sociology of Puebla, Mexico, which are collected here, were written by participants in an NDEA Summer Institute program of the University of Wichita, Kansas. The underlying motives of the program, described in the preface, were to provide participants with real language experience and a chance to…

  6. Guiandose por la Intrincada Senda de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para Padres y Maestros. Tercera Edicion. (Negotiating the Special Education Maze: A Guide for Parents & Teachers. Third Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Winifred; Chitwood, Stephen; Hayden, Deidre

    Designed to assist Spanish-speaking parents and teachers in understanding special education procedures, this book describes the process for obtaining school services for children with disabilities. An introduction reviews six major provisions of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) that relate to children's rights to a free,…

  7. Fields without Borders: An Anthology of Documentary Writing and Photography by Student Action with Farmworkers' Interns = Campos sin Fronteras: Una Antologia de Obras Escritas y Fotografia por Estudiantes Internos de Accion Estudiantil con Trabajadores Agricolas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manly, Libby, Ed.; Okie, Alejandra, Ed.; Wiggins, Melinda, Ed.

    In this booklet, essays and poems, presented both in English and in Spanish, portray the feelings, conditions, and economic plight of migrant and seasonal farmworkers in North and South Carolina, often in their own words. A preface describes Student Action with Farmworkers summer internships in which college students spend 10 weeks working with…

  8. The Latinas' Guide to the Information Superhighway: A Bilingual Guide for Latinas by Latinas = Guia para Mujeres Latinas sobre la Supercarretera de la Informacion: Una Guia Bilingue para Latinas por medio de Latinas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MANA, A National Latina Organization, Washington, DC.

    This guide to the Internet is designed to give Latinas basic information on computers and the information superhighway. Written in both Spanish and English, the guide begins by defining the Internet and making some suggestions about acquiring access to a computer. Among the topics discussed are how to choose an Internet service provider, how to…

  9. John Tracy Clinic: Programa de Ensenanza por Correspondencia para Los Padres de Ninos Sordo-Ciegos de Edad Preescolar (John Tracy Clinic Correspondence Learning Program for Parents of Preschool Deaf-Blind Children).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thielman, Virginia B.; And Others

    Written in Spanish, the document contains a correspondence learning program for parents of deaf blind preschoolers. An introductory section gives preliminary instructions, an introduction to sign language, and a list of resources for deaf blind children. Twelve lessons follow with information on: the parent's role in teaching the child, visual…

  10. Engaging Foreign Language Learners in a Web 2.0-Mediated Collaborative Learning Process (Inclusión de estudiantes de lenguas extranjeras en procesos colaborativos de aprendizaje mediados por la web 2.0)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cote Parra, Gabriel Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this action research was to explore the types of interactions that foreign language learners experience while using a wiki as a supporting tool for a face-to-face research course. This design allowed me to play a dual role: first, I studied my own classroom setting and students. Second, I implemented a pedagogical intervention based…

  11. Dermatitis causada por Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) en la región costera del Estado del Delta del Amacuro, Venezuela [Dermatitis caused by Hylesia metabus (Lepidoptera: Hemileucidae) in the costal region of the state of Delta Amacuro, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Acosta, A; Rubiano, H; Reyes, M; Fernández, C T

    1998-01-01

    2 cases of acute dermatitis caused by butterfly Hylesia metabus in an area that so far has not been considered as endemic for this species were presented. The dermatitis observed in these individuals may be described as very circumscribed, pruriginous, erythematous generalized protruding papules that may be compared with urticaria, and with a variable degree oedema. Monomorphic eruption consisting in small hard papules crowned by a little vesicle was also present. The lesions of these 2 patients evolved with intensely pruriginous papules for a week and after that they healed without dermatological sequelae.

  12. Less and Less for More and More. Economic Organization Booklet 1. Teacher's Edition=Menos y menos por mas y mas. Organizacion economica libro 1. Manual para El Maestro.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Univ., Los Angeles. National Dissemination and Assessment Center.

    The booklet is part of a grade 10-12 social studies series produced for bilingual education. The series consists of six major thematic modules, with four to five booklets in each. The interdisciplinary modules are based on major ideas and are designed to help students understand some major human problems and make sound, responsive decisions to…

  13. Por Que Mami No Puede Cambiar una Goma? Tercer Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental. (Why Can't Mommy Change a Flat Tire? Third Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide for teachers, in English and Spanish, examines the role parents play in the socialization of sex roles. A pre-test and post test are included to measure the user's awareness of sexual stereotyping. Five object lessons cover the following topics: (1) stereotypes which exist prior to a baby's birth; (2) behavioral standards on which…

  14. Proyecto de Ley por el Cual se Dicta el Estatuto General de Educacion y Pliego de Modificaciones Propuesto (Bill Establishing a General Statute for Education and Explanation of Proposed Modifications).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suarez Villa, Diego

    This document contains the 1971 Colombian education bill and suggested bill modifications. The bill states educational objectives and establishes the structure of the national education system, the organization for educational administration, financing procedures, regulations for educational personnel, and the means for implementing the…

  15. Por Que Rosa No Es Valiente? Cuarto Modulo de una Serie para Maestros de Escuela Elemental (Why Isn't Rosie Brave? Fourth Module of a Series for Elementary School Teachers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molina, Carmen Eneida, Ed.; And Others

    This guide in English and Spanish provides teachers with methods for identifying textbook bias and stereotyping. A pre-test and post-test designed to measure awareness of textbook stereotypes are included. Four object lessons discuss the function of repetition, cumulative effect, omission, and distortion in reinforcing stereotypes, especially…

  16. Viajando por la Carretera de la Educacion Especial: Una Guia para los Padres para Tener un Viaje Feliz y Seguro (Traveling the Special Education Highway: A Parent's Guide to a Safe and Happy Journey).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Maria, Karen

    Designed for Spanish-speaking parents, this brochure, written in Spanish, uses a car-trip analogy to describe special education services for students with disabilities. It addresses: (1) child find; (2) initial evaluation and eligibility determination; (3) categories of students who receive special education services and related services; (4)…

  17. Demographic and management trends among HIV-positive pregnant women over 10 years at one Canadian urban hospital.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Daniela; Shah, Rajiv; Macgillivray, S Jay; Urquia, Marcelo; Yudin, Mark H

    2014-02-01

    Objectif : Nous ne disposons que de données limitées au sujet de l’évolution (au fur et à mesure que sont mises à jour les lignes directrices canadiennes et internationales) des tendances pour ce qui est de la prise en charge des grossesses séropositives pour le VIH au Canada. Nous avons analysé, sur une période de 10 ans, l’expérience d’un hôpital urbain canadien en ce qui concerne les tendances en matière de caractéristiques démographiques et de prise en charge des femmes enceintes séropositives pour le VIH. Méthodes : Nous avons mené une analyse rétrospective des dossiers de toutes les femmes enceintes séropositives pour le VIH ayant accouché dans cet hôpital entre mars 2000 et mars 2010. Les données liées aux caractéristiques démographiques, à la grossesse et à la période intrapartum ont été recueillies et analysées. Résultats : Au cours de la période d’étude, nous avons recensé 141 grossesses monofœtales chez des femmes séropositives pour le VIH. L’âge moyen au sein de cette cohorte était de 30,4 ans. Le nombre des femmes se présentant à cet hôpital a connu une hausse considérable avec le temps (P < 0,001), 63 % des cas étudiés ayant été pris en charge entre 2007 et 2010. La plupart des femmes étaient d’origine africaine et avaient récemment immigré au Canada. Nous avons constaté une tendance significative sur le plan statistique indiquant une hausse régulière du nombre de femmes d’origine afro-antillaise pendant la période d’étude (P = 0,03). Seulement 4 % des femmes ont signalé avoir consommé des drogues illicites pendant la grossesse alors en cours. Bien que la majorité des femmes aient présenté un diagnostic connu de VIH avant la grossesse, 30 d’entre elles (22,4 %) ont obtenu ce diagnostic à la suite d’un dépistage antepartum. La plupart des femmes faisaient preuve d’observance en ce qui concerne leur traitement antirétroviral hautement actif (94,3 %) et leurs

  18. Development of tuberculosis infection control guidelines in a pediatric HIV clinic in sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Carlucci, J G; Jin, L; Sanders, J E; Mohapi, E Q; Mandalakas, A M

    2015-03-21

    Contexte : Une consultation pour le virus de l’immunodéficience humaine (VIH) pédiatrique bien établie au Lesotho avec des mesures de lutte initialement dirigées en priorité contre les maladies à transmission sanguine. En accord avec les recommandations internationales, les services se sont élargis pour inclure la prise en charge des patients tuberculeux. L’élaboration de directives complètes de lutte contre les infections (IC), avec un accent particulier sur la tuberculose (TB), est devenue une priorité.Objectif : Fournir un modèle d’élaboration et de mise en œuvre de directives d’IC dans des structures de soins ambulatoires aux ressources limitées mais dans un contexte de prévalence élevée du VIH et de la TB.Activités : Un plan d’IC, qui inclut une guidance couvrant à la fois les mesures d’IC en général et les directives spécifiques à la TB, a été élaboré en intégrant les recommandations locales et internationales et en mettant l’accent sur l’importance des mesures administratives, du contrôle de l’environnement et des précautions spécifiques aux différentes maladies. Un comité interdisciplinaire a été établi afin de superviser sa mise en œuvre, son suivi et son évaluation.Discussion : L’élaboration et la mise en œuvre de directives d’IC dans un contexte de ressources limitées sont faisables et devraient être une priorité dans des zones de prévalence élevée de la TB et du VIH. L’éducation devrait être la pierre angulaire de tels projets. De nombreuses interventions peuvent être mises en œuvre avec une expertise et des ressources matérielles minimales. Le soutien administratif et l’investissement des institutions sont essentiels à la pérennité d’un programme efficace d’IC.

  19. Bringing care to the community: expanding access to health care in rural Malawi through mobile health clinics.

    PubMed

    Geoffroy, E; Harries, A D; Bissell, K; Schell, E; Bvumbwe, A; Tayler-Smith, K; Kizito, W

    2014-12-21

    Cadre : Le Mialawi soufre d'un manque chronique de personnel de santé, d'un lourd fardeau d'infection au virus de l'mmuodéficience humaine (VIH) et de paludisme avec une population surtout rurale. Des unités de santé mobiles (MHCs) pourraient fournir des soins de santé primaires aux adultes et aux enfants dans les zones d'accès difficile.Objectifs : Déterminer la faisabilité, le volume et les types de services fournis par trois MHCs de 2011 à 2013 dans le district de Mulanje, Malawi.Schéma : Etude rétrospective transversale.Résultats : Les MHCs ont effectué 309 492 consultations de soins de santé primaires et en 2013, les services ont fonctionné pendant 99% des jours prévus. En dépit d'une amélioration dans la fourniture des services, le total des consultations de patients a décliné au cours de la période d'étude. Le paludisme et les problèmes respiratoires et gastro-intestinaux constituaient 60% des consultations. Les femmes étaient significativement plus nombreuses (n = 11 543) que les hommes (n = 2481) à avoir un test VIH, mais les hommes étaient plus souvent VIH positifs (27%) que les femmes (14%). Le paludisme représentait 26 421 (35%) consultations pour les enfants de moins de 5 ans avec une augmentation significative en saison des pluies. La mise en œuvre des tests de diagnostic rapide a été associée à un déclin du nombre de patients traités pour paludisme. Les ruptures de stock d'antibiotiques dans les centres de santé du gouvernement étaient associés à une augmentation des consultations des MHC.Conclusion : Les MHC peuvent offrir en routine des soins de santé primaires aux adultes et aux enfants vivant dans les zones rurales du Malawi et compléter les structures fixes. Mais passer d'un rôle de complément à l'intégration au sein du système de santé du gouvernement reste un défi.

  20. Ending neglect: providing effective childhood tuberculosis training for health care workers in Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Adams, L V; Olotu, R; Talbot, E A; Cronin, B J; Christopher, R; Mkomwa, Z

    2014-12-21

    Contexte : Structures de soins de santé à Dar es Salam, Pwani et Arusha, Tanzanie.Objectif : Evaluer les connaissances et pratiques du personnel de santé (HCW) un an après une formation spécifique à la tuberculose de l'enfant (TB).Schéma : Grâce à une enquête standardisée, nous avons interviewé un échantillon de complaisance de HCW offrant des soins à la fois généraux et spécialisés à des enfants.Résultats : Nous avons interviewé 117 HCW dans des dispensaires de TB, des centres de santé maternelle et infantile, des dispensaires pour le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH), des consultations externes et des services de pédiatrie dans 12 établissements. Un total de 81 HCW (62% d'infirmières, 74% de cliniciens) a affirmé avoir bénéficié de la formation nationale relative à la TB de l'enfant. La majorité a répondu correctement aux questions relatives au diagnostic de la TB de l'enfant, à son traitement et à la prise en charge conjointe de la TB et du VIH, quels que soient les antécédents de formation. La plupart ont dit demander en routine des radiographies pulmonaires, un test VIH et une recherche de contacts tuberculeux lors de l'évaluation des enfants. Moins de la moitié des HCW a affirmé recueillir des crachats en routine pour une culture mycobactérienne ou réaliser un test cutané à la tuberculine. La prescription de thérapie préventive par isoniazide (IPT) a été faite trois fois plus souvent par des HCW formés que par ceux qui ne l'avaient pas été (P < 0,05).Conclusion : En général, les connaissances en matière de TB de l'enfant étaient élevées et les pratiques conformes aux directives nationales. L'étude a identifié des lacunes spécifiques en matière de diagnostic, de traitement et d'utilisation de l'IPT afin de mieux cibler les futures formations.

  1. Lorentzian three-metrics with degenerate Ricci tensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McManus, Des J.

    1995-03-01

    A classification of Lorentzian three-metrics whose Ricci tensor satisfies Rij=λ1gij+λ2vivj with λ1 and λ2(≠0) constant where vivi=κ(=0 or ±1) is given. An explicit coordinate representation is given for all the metrics that admit a G4 group as their maximal isometry group. Those metrics that admit a G3 as their maximal isometry group belong to either Bianchi class VI0, or VII0, or VIII, or IX when κ ≠ 0, and to either Bianchi class III, or IV, or VI0, VIh, or VIII when κ=0. An explicit coordinate representation is given for all the inhomogeneous solutions in the case κ ≠ 0.

  2. Effects of anisotropy and spatial curvature on the pre-big-bang scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clancy, Dominic; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza

    1998-08-01

    A class of exact, anisotropic cosmological solutions to the vacuum Brans-Dicke theory of gravity is considered within the context of the pre-big-bang scenario. Included in this class are the Bianchi type III, V and VIh models and the spatially isotropic, negatively curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. The effects of large anisotropy and spatial curvature are determined. In contrast with a negatively curved Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model, there exist regions of the parameter space in which the combined effects of curvature and anisotropy prevent the occurrence of inflation. When inflation is possible, the necessary and sufficient conditions for successful pre-big-bang inflation are more stringent than in the isotropic models. The initial state for these models is established and corresponds in general to a gravitational plane wave.

  3. Multiwavelength Observations of the Black Hole Candidate XTE J1550-564 during the 2000 Outburst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Raj K.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.

    2001-06-01

    We report optical, infrared, and X-ray light curves for the outburst, in 2000, of the black hole candidate XTE J1550-564. We find that the start of the outburst in the H and V bands precedes that seen in the Rossi X-Ray Timing Explorer All-Sky Monitor by 11.5+/-0.9 and 8.8+/-0.6 days, respectively; a similar delay has been observed in two other systems. About 50 days after the primary maxima in the VIH light curves, we find secondary maxima, most prominently in H. This secondary peak is absent in the X-ray light curve but coincides with a transition to the low/hard state. We suggest that this secondary peak may be due to nonthermal emission associated with the formation of a jet.

  4. Vanadium interactions in crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Backlund, D. J.; Gibbons, T. M.; Estreicher, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    The properties of interstitial vanadium (Vi) in Si and its interactions with the vacancy and the self-interstitial, as well as with hydrogen, are calculated using first-principles techniques. The stable configurations, gap levels, and binding energies agree well with the available experimental data. The nudged-elastic-band method is used to calculate the activation energies for diffusion of Vi in various charge states. They range from 1.46 (for Vi +) to 2.04 eV (for Vi -). The (trigonal) {Vi,H } pair has a binding energy of 1.15 eV, a donor level at Ec-0.61 eV , and possibly an acceptor level Ec-0.07 eV . Substitutional vanadium (Vs) can also trap H interstitials and form electrically active {Vs,H } and {Vs,H ,H } complexes.

  5. [Study of the transplacental transfer of interferon alfa-2a on the model of isolated perfused cotyledon].

    PubMed

    Dumas, J C; Giroux, M; Teixeira, M G; Puel, J; Waysbort, A; Berrebi, A; Houin, G; Grandjean, H

    1993-01-01

    Interferon can be used for VIH+ pregnant women, to decrease materno-fetal contamination. Added to maternal circulation, its behaviour was studied by human placental cotyledon ex vivo perfusion. Human recombinant IFN 2a and reference substance 3H2O were injected in intervillous chamber and their behaviours in venous fetal and maternal circulations was followed. At steady state, in fetal circulation 3H2O concentration was 37% of injected rate whereas no IFN transfer rate was observed. In both venous circulations IFN amounts were lower than injected ones 56% versus of 82% for water (p < 0.05). IFN didn't cross placental filter and disappeared partially during placental contact.

  6. Immunological relationships between neuropeptides from the sinus gland of the lobster Homarus americanus, with special references to the vitellogenesis inhibiting hormone and crustacean hyperglycemic hormone.

    PubMed

    Meusy, J J; Soyez, D

    1991-03-01

    Antisera raised in guinea pigs against four major neuropeptides purified from sinus glands of the lobster, Homarus americanus, were used to study the immunological relationships between several sinus gland peptides. On the basis of their behavior in ELISA and in absorption procedures, three groups of peptides are defined. Two groups may be related to the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH groups); the third one is composed of three immunologically identical peptides and, since one of these peptides was characterized in previous studies as a vitellogenesis inhibitor, is referred to as VIH group. This closely meets our present knowledge about the physiological effects and biochemical characteristics of these neuropeptides and gives immunological insights on the question of molecular polymorphism of lobster neurohormones.

  7. [Masculinization of prepubertal and pubertal females of Sphaeroma serratum Fabr., (Crustacea Isopoda Flabellifera) by implantation of an androgenic gland of pubertal male].

    PubMed

    Raimond, R; Juchault, P

    1983-04-01

    In Sphaeroma serratum, the differentiation of the male external sexual characteristics, as a result of an androgenic gland implant, proceeds more easily in females in vitellogenesis than in immature females. On the contrary, the transformation of the gonads is quicker and more obvious in immature females than in mature ones. This transformation which leads, in all cases, to an inversion of the ovary to a functional testicle able to produce spermatozoa, always occurs without any differentiation of an androgenic gland, contrary to what can be observed with Oniscoïds. The details of the external sexual differentiation of the grafted females can be related to the functioning of a protocerebral neurosecretory center having, as in males, an androinhibitory effect on the androgenic gland implant; the activity of this center, which seems to correspond to the center secreting VIH, would be particularly high with immature females and would become very low--or nonexistent--in females in vitellogenesis.

  8. [Generalized persistent lymphadenopathy syndrome in parenteral drug addicts. Lymph node biopsy study of 41 patients].

    PubMed

    Vera-Sempere, G; Vera-Sempere, F J; Guix-García, J

    1990-12-01

    Of a total of 41 VIH positive patients, parenteral drug addicts, with persistent generalized lymphadenopathy syndrome, we performed 43 lymph-node biopsies. In two sequential biopsies, 2 and 12 months respectively after the first biopsy, were carried-out. After a clinical follow-up (ranging between 4-28 months) 12 patients (24.3%) were qualified as SIDA cases according to CDC-1987 criteria. Lymph-node biopsy was of diagnostic or prognostic value in 16.27% and in 6.97% respectively. Upon comparing histological types and peripheral lymphocyte subsets it was demonstrated how the forms of major morphological deterioration tend to associate with a lower number of OKT4+ lymphocytes and a lower relation OKT4+/OKT8+.

  9. [Parasitic and viral marker detection in pregnant adolescents and their newborn infants at risk].

    PubMed

    Contreras, M C; Escaff, V; Salinas, P; Saavedra, T; Suárez, M

    1995-01-01

    We have investigated the prevalence of antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzzi, Hepatitis B virus, cytomegalovirus, rubella virus, and human immunodeficiency virus in 139 adolescent pregnant women and in their high risk newborn children. The methods employed were the Sabin and Feldman reaction, complement fixation reaction, ELISA, and xenodiagnostic 30.9% of the pregnant group were seropositive for T. gondii, both mothers and newborns were IgM-negative. Two mothers (1.4%) presented anti T. cruzii antibodies, and one newborn child had circulating parasites. Related to the virological studies, 93.5% of the population were anti CMV antibodies positive and all their newborns were IgM (-) 90.6% of the adolescents were rubella positive and one was seropositive to VIH. We conclude that the prevalence found in this group of adolescent pregnant women are not significantly different to the one reported for the general pregnant women population.

  10. [Meningitis caused by Candida albicans in a male patient infected by HIV and failure of treatment with amphotericin B].

    PubMed

    Salavert, M; Carrasco, R; Roig, P; Nieto, A; Cervelló, A; Navarro, V

    1991-10-01

    We report a case of Candida albicans meningitis in a male with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This finding has seldom been reported, both in this group of patients and in those with other causes of immunosuppression or other underlying diseases. We discuss the clinical presentation and the features of cerebrospinal fluid, which showed only a mild inflammatory reaction as found in other fungal meningitis (basically cryptococcal) in AIDS patients. Finally, we emphasize the ineffectiveness of amphotericin therapy to achieve a complete microbiological cure and to prevent the relapse of meningitis in this patient. We also stress the need to make an early diagnosis in cases of fungal meningitis in patients with VIH infection, so that appropriate therapy is begun as soon as possible.

  11. Eliminating mother-to-child HIV transmission in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Barron, Peter; Pillay, Yogan; Doherty, Tanya; Sherman, Gayle; Jackson, Debra; Bhardwaj, Sanjana; Robinson, Precious; Goga, Ameena

    2013-01-01

    Résumé PROBLÈME: L'Organisation mondiale de la Santé a élaboré des lignes directrices claires pour la prévention de la transmission mère-enfant (PTME) du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). S'assurer que tous les éléments du programme de PTME soient mis en œuvre de manière qualitative dans tous les établissements présente cependant des défis. APPROCHE: Bien que l'Afrique du Sud ait lancé son programme de PTME en 2002, plus tard que la plupart des autres pays, le soutien politique a augmenté depuis 2008. La recherche opérationnelle a reçu davantage d'attention, et les données objectives ont été utilisées plus efficacement. ENVIRONNEMENT LOCAL: En 2010, environ 30% de toutes les femmes enceintes en Afrique du Sud étaient séropositives, et la moitié de tous les décès d'enfants de moins de 5 ans étaient associée au virus. CHANGEMENTS SIGNIFICATIFS: Entre 2008 et 2011, la proportion estimée de nourrissons de moins de 2 mois exposés au VIH, ayant subi une réaction en chaîne par polymérase (PCR) de routine visant à détecter la transmission précoce du VIH, est passée de 36,6% à 70,4%. Le taux estimé de transmission du VIH a diminué, passant de 9,6% à 2,8%. Les enquêtes basées sur la population en 2010 et 2011 ont signalé des taux de transmission de 3,5% et 2,7%, respectivement. LEÇONS TIRÉES: Voici certaines actions essentielles pour améliorer les résultats du programme: assurer la mise en œuvre rapide des changements de politique de PTME sur le terrain, grâce à la formation et à la diffusion des lignes directrices; assurer une bonne coordination avec les partenaires techniques, comme les agences de santé internationales et locales et les organisations non gouvernementales; et utiliser les données et les indicateurs relatifs à tous les aspects du programme de PTME. Il est aussi utile de permettre au personnel soignant des établissements de soins de santé primaires d'initier un traitement antir

  12. Hyperinfection with Strongyloides stercoralis

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Cabello, Raúl; Villagroy Gómez, Javier; Hernández González, Mercedes; Romero Feregrino, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    Strongyloidiasis is caused by Strongyloides stercoralis, which commonly produces gastrointestinal problems. If immune systems are compromised, the nematode larvae may spread and produce Strongyloides hyperinfection. Diagnosis of strongyloidiasis is based on the observation of larvae in coproparasitological studies. We present a case of a 49-year-oldman, VIH, who developed Strongyloides hyperinfection, diagnosed postmortem. Our patient reached the dissemination stage, which resulted in severe damage to the stomach and intestine, perforation of the intestinal wall, as well as sepsis due to the dissemination of bacteria. The diagnosis is difficult because of the low larvae excretion in stools. It is usually performed by the microscopic examination of fresh and fixed enriched stool samples. Serology was reported to be useful for screening and follow-up after treatment. This case reaffirms that HIV immunosuppression favours the dissemination of S stercoralis larvae. Thus, a search for intestinal parasites should be considered in similar cases. PMID:23203176

  13. Statistical Techniques for Determining Officer Separation and Retirement Trends in the United States Air Force.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-12-01

    f 0 SUp m 0 a- *~ w u- SIDa 40 In. 6 la .11 goa, 0 1. a9- hi 41 ’aSmi us I- ’musB ImA at 4- 00 ma I )w t.. -~~u a. .5 C%5 - 44- 0 A ftt maImp u ’I...II l 10" to z Lo a -A in 4 0 a. _. ."-- * 0*0 me 0I a a-’- , . 4 qL a urn’ 0 6 fI IC S. 0 Vih 9 -0 j 0l’ hi NU 0 42 U# to 1t, ’um: o fa. N o -a W

  14. Virtual Nursing Intervention Adjunctive to Conventional Care: The Experience of Persons Living With HIV

    PubMed Central

    Rouleau, Geneviève; Ramirez-Garcia, Pilar; Bourbonnais, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Background Persons living with HIV (PLHIV) must adhere optimally to antiretroviral therapy (ART) on a daily basis and for their lifetime to maintain an undetectable viral load, allowing them to preserve their health. Taking advantage of the opportunity that information and communication technologies provide to broaden intervention modalities and intensify clinical follow-up, a virtual nursing intervention consisting of four interactive computer sessions was developed to empower PLHIV to manage their ART and symptoms optimally. Compared with other types of information and communication technologies-assisted interventions such as text messages, HIV Treatment, Virtual Nursing Assistance and Education (VIH-TAVIE) requires a certain degree of active engagement on the part of the user to develop and strengthen the self-management skills to optimize adherence. After the intervention’s impact on ART adherence was measured quantitatively, a qualitative study was undertaken to describe how users experience the intervention. Understanding how PLHIV perceive being assisted asynchronously by a virtual nurse was of particular interest. Objective The objective of the study was to explore and describe how PLHIV experience VIH-TAVIE, that is, receiving customized asynchronous accompaniment via a virtual nurse. Methods A qualitative study was conducted with 26 PLHIV (20 men, 6 women) who received all four VIH-TAVIE sessions. Participants had been diagnosed with HIV 14 years earlier on average and had been on ART for a mean period of 10 years. The sessions lasted 20-30 minutes each and were received two weeks apart. They are hosted by a virtual nurse who engages the user in a self-management skills-learning process for the purpose of treatment adherence. Semistructured interviews were conducted lasting 30-40 minutes to get participants to share their experience of the intervention through personal stories and what they thought and felt during their participation. Data were analyzed

  15. Sacroillite tuberculeuse: à propos de deux cas

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Ismaël; Zabsonré, Joëlle Tiendrébéogo; Kambou, Bénilde Marie Ange Tiemtoré; Sondo, Apoline Kongnimissom; Sagna, Yempabou; Ouédraogo, Dieu-Donné

    2016-01-01

    La sacroiliite tuberculeuse est rare et de diagnostic difficile. Les auteurs rapportent deux cas. Il s'agissait dans le premier cas d'une patiente de 40 ans ayant une infection à VIH ; le diagnostic a été histologique après une biopsie chirurgicale. Le second cas a concerné un patient de 25 ans vivant en milieu carcéral chez qui le diagnostic a été établi sur la base des arguments cliniques, biologiques, radiologiques et l'efficacité du traitement ; l'intradermoréaction à la tuberculine était phlycténulaire. Le scanner a été indispensable au diagnostic lésionnel en montrant une érosion des berges et des abcès des parties molles. Le traitement a été médical et a fait appel aux antituberculeux. PMID:28292032

  16. Contrôle du marché informel à l’heure de la mondialisation des échanges. Le cas des antirétroviraux au Chili

    PubMed Central

    Brousselle, Astrid; Morales, Cristián

    2013-01-01

    Résumé Les nouveaux médicaments pour le VIH/sida ont créé des besoins d’accessibilité aux traitements que les gouvernements n’ont pas toujours réussi à couvrir. Il en résulte l’émergence d’un marché informel des ARV. Par l’analyse de la situation au Chili, nous traitons des différents créneaux d’approvisionnement, des conséquences de l’existence d’un tel marché, ainsi que des moyens envisageables pour réduire les effets indésirables. Les aspects tant microéconomiques que macroéconomiques concernant le marché et l’accessibilité aux médicaments sont abordés. PMID:23997580

  17. HandiVIH—A population-based survey to understand the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV and other sexual and reproductive health problems in Cameroon: protocol and methodological considerations

    PubMed Central

    De Beaudrap, Pierre; Pasquier, Estelle; Tchoumkeu, Alice; Touko, Adonis; Essomba, Frida; Brus, Aude; Desgrées du Loû, Annabel; Aderemi, Toyin Janet; Hanass-Hancock, Jill; Eide, Arne Henning; Mont, Daniel; Mac-Seing, Muriel; Beninguisse, Gervais

    2016-01-01

    Introduction In resource-limited countries, people with disabilities seem to be particularly vulnerable to HIV infection due to barriers to accessing information and services, frequent exposure to sexual violence and social exclusion. However, they have often been left behind in the HIV response, probably because of the lack of reliable epidemiological data measuring this vulnerability. Multiple challenges in conducting good quality epidemiological surveys on people with disabilities require innovative methods to better understand the link between disability and HIV. This paper describes how the design and methods of the HandiVIH study were adapted to document the vulnerability of people with disabilities to HIV, and to compare their situation with that of people without disabilities. Methods and analysis The HandiVIH project aims to combine quantitative and qualitative data. The quantitative component is a cross-sectional survey with a control group conducted in Yaoundé (Cameroon). A two-phase random sampling is used (1) to screen people with disabilities from the general population using the Washington Group questionnaire and, (2) to create a matched control group. An HIV test is proposed to each study participant. Additionally, a questionnaire including a life-event interview is used to collect data on respondents’ life-course history of social isolation, employment, sexual partnership, HIV risk factors and fertility. Before the cross-sectional survey, a qualitative exploratory study was implemented to identify challenges in conducting the survey and possible solutions. Information on people with disabilities begging in the streets and members of disabled people's organisations is collected separately. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the two ethical committees. Special attention has been paid on how to adapt the consenting process to persons with intellectual disabilities. The methodological considerations discussed in this paper may

  18. Self-perception of knowledge and adherence reflecting the effectiveness of antiretroviral therapy

    PubMed Central

    Dagli-Hernandez, Carolina; Lucchetta, Rosa Camila; de Nadai, Tales Rubens; Galduróz, José Carlos Fernandez; Mastroianni, Patricia de Carvalho

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To evaluate which indirect method for assessing adherence best reflects highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) effectiveness and the factors related to adherence. Method This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 2012 at a reference center of the state of São Paulo. Self-report (simplified medication adherence questionnaire [SMAQ]) and drug refill parameters were compared to the viral load (clinical parameter of the effectiveness of pharmacotherapy [EP]) to evaluate the EP. The “Cuestionario para la Evaluación de la Adhesión al Tratamiento Antiretroviral” (CEAT-VIH) was used to evaluate factors related to adherence and the EP and, complementarily, patient self-perception of adherence was compared to the clinical parameter of the EP. Results Seventy-five patients were interviewed, 60 of whom were considered as adherent from the clinical parameter of the EP and ten were considered as adherent from all parameters. Patient self-perception about adherence was the instrument that best reflected the EP when compared to the standardized self-report questionnaire (SMAQ) and drug refill parameter. The level of education and the level of knowledge on HAART were positively correlated to the EP. Forgetfulness, alcohol use, and lack of knowledge about the medications were the factors most frequently reported as a cause of nonadherence. Conclusion A new parameter of patient self-perception of adherence, which is a noninvasive, inexpensive instrument, could be applied and assessed as easily as self-report (SMAQ) during monthly drug refill, since it allows monitoring adherence through pharmaceutical assistance. Therefore, patient adherence to HAART could be evaluated using self-perception (CEAT-VIH) and the viral load test. PMID:27695297

  19. Obstáculos a la adherencia y retención en los sistemas de salud público y privado según pacientes y personal de salud

    PubMed Central

    Arístegui, Inés; Dorigo, Analía; Bofill, Lina; Bordatto, Alejandra; Lucas, Mar; Cabanillas, Graciela Fernández; Sued, Omar; Cahn, Pedro; Cassetti, Isabel; Weiss, Stephen; Jones., Deborah

    2016-01-01

    Resumen Introducción el Programa Nacional de Sida garantiza el acceso universal a los antirretrovirales, aun así las personas que reciben medicamentos a través del sistema público no logran obtener una carga viral indetectable en la misma proporción que los pacientes del sistema privado. Este estudio cualitativo tiene como objeto identificar los factores asociados a la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención de VIH de los sistemas de salud público y privado de Buenos Aires, según las percepciones de pacientes y del personal de salud. Métodos se registraron datos cualitativos de 12 entrevistas semi-estructuradas a informantes clave y 4 grupos focales de pacientes y personal de salud tanto del sistema público como privado. Se codificaron y analizaron temas predeterminados sobre adherencia, utilizando el software QRS Nvivo9® de análisis de datos cualitativos. Resultados pacientes y personal de salud de ambos sistemas coinciden en la importancia del estigma asociado al VIH, la relación médicopaciente, la comunicación entre ambos y la división de responsabilidades en relación al tratamiento como aspectos fundamentales para la adherencia y retención en la cascada de atención. Se observan diferencias entre los sistemas en la forma en que algunos de estos aspectos actúan. Las barreras estructurales se presentan como principales obstáculos del sistema público. Discusión se resalta la necesidad de intervenciones focalizadas en la díada médico-paciente que considere las particularidades de cada sistema de atención para facilitar el compromiso del paciente en la adherencia. PMID:26878024

  20. Guidelines for the care of pregnant women living with HIV and interventions to reduce perinatal transmission: executive summary.

    PubMed

    Money, Deborah; Tulloch, Karen; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Caddy, Sheila; Yudin, Mark H; Allen, Victoria; Bouchard, Celine; Boucher, Marc; Boucoiran, Isabelle; Caddy, Sheila; Castillo, Eliana; Gottlieb, Heather; Kennedy, V Logan; Money, Deborah; Murphy, Kellie; Ogilvie, Gina; Paquet, Caroline; van Schalkwyk, Julie

    2014-08-01

    Objectif : La présente directive clinique passe en revue les données probantes traitant des soins à offrir aux femmes enceintes vivant avec le VIH et de la prévention de la transmission périnatale du VIH. Les soins prénataux à offrir dans le cadre de grossesses compliquées par une infection par le VIH devraient comprendre un suivi mené par une équipe multidisciplinaire comptant des spécialistes du domaine. Issues : Parmi les issues évaluées, on trouve l’effet du VIH sur l’issue de la grossesse, ainsi que l’efficacité et l’innocuité du traitement antirétroviral, et celles d’autres mesures visant à atténuer le risque de transmission verticale. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed et The Cochrane Library en 2012 et en 2013 au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « HIV », « anti-retroviral agents », « pregnancy », « delivery ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « HIV », « pregnancy », « antiretroviral agents », « vertical transmission », « perinatal transmission ») appropriés. Les résultats ont été restreints aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles rédigés en anglais ou en français. Aucune restriction n’a été imposée en matière de date. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la directive clinique jusqu’en juin 2013. La littérature grise (non publiée) a été identifiée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans les sites Web d’organismes s’intéressant à l’évaluation des technologies dans le domaine de la santé et d’organismes connexes, dans des collections de directives cliniques, dans des registres d’essais cliniques et auprès de sociétés de spécialité médicale nationales et internationales. Valeurs : La qualité des résultats est évaluée au moyen des

  1. Mild Wind Series, Minute Steak Event

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-11-20

    AD-A286 599 _C *POR-6546’ IWT-65461 MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK EVENT PROJECT OFFICERS REPORT TECHNICAL DIRECTORS SUMMARY REPORT flELECTL...POR-6546 (2) POR-2039 (2) POR-6300 (2) POR-2725 (2) POR-6337 (2) POR-3000 (2) WT-561 (2) WT-601 (2) POR-6546 (WT-6546) MILD WIND SERIES MINUTE STEAK ...PAGE IS INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK. r lit ! ABSTRACT MINUTE STEAK was a Department of Defense Vertical Line of Sight (LOS) undergound It was detonated

  2. Por que no dejar a los estudiantes con habilidad superior comenzar la escuela en enero? Estudio de la Compactaction del Curriculum. Monografia Investigativa 94401 (Why Not Let High Ability Students Start School in January? The Curriculum Compacting Study. Research Monograph 94401).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sally M.; And Others

    This report presents an executive summary, in Spanish, of a study which examined the effects of curriculum compacting, a curriculum modification technique for gifted and talented students. The study involved approximately 436 elementary teachers and 783 students in 27 school districts throughout the United States. The study was designed to…

  3. Selection and processing of the spatial enhanced multispectral Landsat TM images - comparison between the results from merged and source data. (Polish Title: Selekcja i przetwarzanie wzmocnionych przestrzennie obrazów wielospektralnych Landsat TM - porównanie wyników opartych o dane scalone i dane zródłowe)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirowski, T.; Szczaciuk, G.

    2013-12-01

    The paper presents results of merging lower-resolution spectral data (Landsat, 30m) with panchromatic images of higher spatial resolution (IRS 5.8m). During the first stage of the research, thirty methods of merging satellite data (including their variants) have been tested. The first assessment was based on statistical measures covering spectral distortion and spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The second assessment was based on the color composite factors essential for photo interpretation. Comparing both obtained ranks of methods revealed substantial differences in their assessed spectral distortion. On the other hand, there appeared similarities in the obtained values for the spatial enhancement of pansharpened images. The reasons of such discrepancies were defined. The research allowed appointing the HPF (High Pass Filter) and LCM (Local Correlation Modeling) methods as the best according to the tested factors. In the second part of the research, the applicability of the selected methods was tested. Information content of color composites was analyzed as well as tresholding and band ratioing. In the tests there were used images fused through five merging methods: HPF, LCM, IHS (Intensity, Hue, Saturation), PCA (Principal Components Analysis) and WMK (based on band ratioing and having specific photo interpretation features). The findings of the research suggest that none of the merging algorithms provide universal solution. Depending on the data processing technique used, the best results are based on images obtained from various integration methods. It means that the method ranks do not correspond with method applicability. Methods appointed as the best ones obtain poor results in some tests and methods which came low in the rank received high rank in some tests. If this conclusion becomes confirmed, it might be necessary to revise the assessment methods of merged images.

  4. Comparison of point clouds derived from aerial image matching with data from airborne laser scanning. (Polish Title: Porównanie wóaściwości chmury punktów wygenerowanej metodą dopasowania obrazów zdjęć lotniczych z danymi z lotniczego skanowania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominik, W.

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the properties of point clouds derived from aerial image matching and to compare them with point clouds from airborne laser scanning. A set of aerial images acquired in years 2010-2013 over the city of Elblag were used for the analysis. Images were acquired with the use of three digital cameras: DMC II 230, DMC I and DigiCAM60 with a GSD varying from 4.5 cm to 15 cm. Eight sets of images that were used in the study were acquired at different stages of the growing season - from March to December. Two LiDAR point clouds were used for the comparison - one with a density of 1.3 p/m2 and a second with a density of 10 p/m2. Based on the input images point clouds were created with the use of the semi-global matching method. The properties of the obtained point clouds were analyzed in three ways: - by the comparison of the vertical accuracy of point clouds with reference to a terrain profile surveyed on bare ground with GPS-RTK method - by visual assessment of point cloud profiles generated both from SGM and LiDAR point clouds - by visual assessment of a digital surface model generated from a SGM point cloud with reference to a digital surface model generated from a LiDAR point cloud. The conducted studies allowed a number of observations about the quality of SGM point clouds to be formulated with respect to different factors. The main factors having influence on the quality of SGM point clouds are GSD and base/height ratio. The essential problem related to SGM point clouds are areas covered with vegetation where SGM point clouds are visibly worse in terms of both accuracy and the representation of terrain surface. It is difficult to expect that in these areas SGM point clouds could replace LiDAR point clouds. This leads to a general conclusion that SGM point clouds are less reliable, more unpredictable and are dependent on more factors than LiDAR point clouds. Nevertheless, SGM point clouds generated with appropriate parameters can have better accuracy than LiDAR point clouds and present more detailed information about the terrain surface.

  5. The Impact of Regional Differences on Elementary School Teachers' Attitudes towards Their Students' Use of Code Switching in a South Texas School District (El impacto de las diferencias regionales en las actitudes de docentes de primaria respecto a la alternancia de códigos por parte de los estudiantes en un distrito escolar del sur de Texas)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nava Gómez, Guadalupe Nancy; García, Hilda

    2012-01-01

    This study focused on investigating whether the teachers' geographical distribution influences their attitudes towards their students' use of code switching. The study was guided by the following research question: Are there differences between teachers' opinions of the north elementary schools and teachers' opinions of the south elementary…

  6. Talking, Singing, Rhyming: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Hablar, cantar, recitar: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  7. Exploring with Technology: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Exploremos con tecnologia: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides computer literacy…

  8. Reading with Children: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = La lectura con los ninos: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  9. Words All around Us: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Palabras y palabras a nuestro alrededor: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  10. Measurement of the branching ratio for the doubly cabibbo suppressed decay D++ K-K+K+; Medida da razao de ramificacao do Decaimento D++ K-K+K+ duplamente suprimido por cabibbo

    SciTech Connect

    Silva Carvalho, Hendly da

    1997-07-01

    In this thesis, we performed a study for the decay modes D++ K-K+K+ and D+s+ K-K+K+, using the data collected by the E791, a hadroproduction of charm experiment at Fermilab. The D++ K-K+K+ decay is doubly Cabibbo suppressed while the D+s+ K-K+K+ decay is singly Cabibbo suppressed. We found 11.6 +- 3.9 events in the D+ mass region and 8.9 +- 3.3 in the D+s mass region. The D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio is measured to be (3.7 +- 1.3 +- 0.6) x 10-4 while the D++ K-K+K+ branching ratio relative to D+s+ K-K+K+ is measured to be (4.2 +- 1.5 +- 0.6) x 10-2.

  11. Modèle numérique de terrain comme outil pour contrôler et mesurer l'érosion de ravinsModelos digitales de elevación como un instrumento para seguir y medir erosión por cárcavas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betts, Harley D.; DeRose, Ronald C.

    This paper describes the use of Digital Elevation Models (DEMs), constructed from sequential aerial photographs, as a tool for measuring gully erosion in a geomorphologically unstable environment. The technique is applied to a case study that examines erosion in 26 gullies in two study areas in the upper Waipaoa catchment, eastern North Island, New Zealand. Changes over two consecutive time periods, ranging in length from 14.0 years to 33.2 years, were studied at each site, drawing on available historical aerial photography. Several key aspects of the method used are described and discussed in detail, and recommendations are made for future application of DEMs for assessment of landscape change. DEM-measured gully degradation rates are directly proportional to the square root of the gully area.From this relationship it should be possible to rapidly estimate gully erosion at a catchment scale on the basis of gully areas alone. DEM-based measurement techniques, together with appropriate consideration for the sensitivity of the method, have significant cost and efficiency advantages over manual approaches to erosion measurements.

  12. A Visit to the Library: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Una visita a la biblioteca: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides suggestions for parents…

  13. Los Hispanos: Problemas y Oportunidades. Resumen de la Actual Situacion Demografica, Economica, Social y Politica de los Hispanos en los Estados Unidos y de las Iniciativas Tomadas por la Fundacion Ford Para Hacer Frente a las Necesidades de esta Poblacion en Aumento y Determinar sus Efectos Sobre la Sociedad Estadounidense. Documento de Trabajo de la Fundacion Ford, No. 436.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford Foundation, New York, NY.

    The Hispanic population's growing impact on American society has caused the Ford Foundation to explore new Foundation initiatives. The 1980 census revealed 14.6 million Hispanics: 60% Mexican American; 14% Puerto Rican; 6% Cuban, and 20% Other. The Hispanic population in the United States is growing and is characterized by diversity; rapid growth…

  14. For a Child, Life is a Creative Adventure: Supporting Development and Learning through Art, Music, Movement, and Dialogue. A Guide for Parents and Professionals. = Para los ninos, la vida es una aventura creativa: Como estimular el desarrollo y el aprendizaje por medio de las artes visuales, la musica, el movimiento y el dialogo. Guia para padres de familia y profesionales.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Elena

    Recognizing that creativity facilitates children's learning and development, the Head Start Program Performance Standards require Head Start programs to include opportunities for creative self-expression. This guide with accompanying videotape, both in English- and Spanish- language versions, encourages and assists adults to support children's…

  15. Palabras del Secretario de Educacion Publica en la reunion anual de directores de education federal e inspectores generales en los estados que se rigen por el calendario "A". (Address by the Minister of Education at the Annual Meeting of Directors of Federal Education and Inspectors General in Calendar "A" States).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yanez, Agustin

    This document is an English-language abstract (approximately 1,500 words) of a speech by the Mexican Minister of Education at an annual educators meeting. The Minister dealt with the administration and quality of education, the role of the directors and the duties towards them of the inspectors, and the main features of the reform of national…

  16. Mitigation of Disagreement in Peer Review among L2 Learners and Native Speakers in a College Writing Class (Mitigación del Impacto de las Opiniones de Desacuerdo en el Proceso de Revisión por Pares entre Estudiantes de una Segunda Lengua y Hablantes Nativos en una Clase de Escritura a Nivel Universitario)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christoffersen, Katherine O'Donnell

    2015-01-01

    Peer review is now a commonplace practice in process-oriented writing instruction. A crucial aspect of peer review is assessing another classmate's work, which encompasses the act of disagreement. Given its prevalence in the classroom, it is necessary to analyze how L2 learners mitigate disagreement in the context of peer review with other L2…

  17. Art and Writing: Activities for Families with Children Ages 3 to 5 [Presented by]"Between the Lions[R]" = Arte y escritura: Actividades para familias con ninos de 3 a 5 anos [presentado por]"Between the Lions[R]."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WGBH-TV, Boston, MA.

    "Between the Lions" is a Public Broadcasting System program promoting literacy for children ages 4 through 7 years combining state-of-the-art puppetry, animation, live action, and music to achieve its mission of helping young children learn to read. This guide, in English- and Spanish-language versions, provides literacy activities for…

  18. Lo que los educadores necesitan saber sobre...El agrupamiento por habilidad [y] La compactacion del curriculum [y] Los alumnos dotados y el aprendizaje cooperativo [y] La actividad tutoral. Guias practica (What Educators Need To Know about...Ability Grouping [and] Curriculum Compacting [and] Gifted Students and Cooperative Learning [and] Mentoring. Practitioners' Guides).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegle, Del, Ed.

    These four pamphlets in Spanish offer guidelines supported by theory-driven quality research that is problem-based, practice-relevant, and consumer-oriented. Each pamphlet has a section summarizing research from the literature or topic notes as well as implications for the classroom. The first guide offers principles for teachers concerning the…

  19. Evaluation de la qualité de modèles numériques de terrain dérivés par interférométrieEvaluación de la calidad de modelos digitales de elevación derivados por interferometría

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gens, Rüdiger

    One of the most important uses of SAR interferometry is in the generation of digital elevation models (DEMs). However, a standard procedure for quality estimation of DEMs does not exist. This paper proposes a method of quality estimation using an adapted Monte Carlo simulation, which has the advantage that it could be used in areas where appropriate reference DEMs are not available. This paper also addresses interferometric processing, with special emphasis on the influence of the input parameters. Practical implementation of the proposed technique is shown on a data set from Lower Saxony in Germany. The error map generated, which is a measure of the quality of the DEM, is also presented. For further analysis of the critical aspects of quality, a reference DEM has also been used.

  20. Análise de Associação por Todo o Genoma para Identificar Locos Relacionados ao Lucro Líquido, à Vida Produtiva e ao Escore de Células Somáticas na raça Jersey1

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A genome scan was conducted in the US Jersey population to identify QTL affecting net merit, productive life, and somatic cell score. Data used at this study were DHI records from the national database of the Animal Improvement Programs Laboratory, USDA (Beltsville, MD). DNA was acquired for 2,380 a...

  1. Análisis clínico y epidemiológico de los accidentes por mordeduras de serpientes del género Bothrops en Venezuela [A clinical and epidemiological analysis of accidental bites by snakes of the genus Bothrops in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Acosta, A; Uzcategui, W; Azuaje, R; Aguilar, I; Girón, M E

    2000-01-01

    Clinical register of 60 patients bitten by Bothrops snake who assisted at Leopoldo Manrique Hospital and the Institute of Tropical Medicine (HLM-IMT) in Caracas during 1996-1997 were analysed. The accident was more frequent in males (45/75%). In 32 cases (53.3%) the snake was classified and 26 were Bothrops lanceolatus, 4 Bothrops venezuelensis and 2 Bothrops atrox. Anatomic regions more frequent bitten were superior members (40/66.6%): hands (36/60%), forearm (2/3.3%), elbow (1/1.6%) and arm (1/1.6%). On inferior members (20/33.3%): legs (6/10%), feet (10/16.7%), ankle (2/3.3%), and the hip (2:3.3%). The most frequent clinical manifestations in moderate and severe cases (33 patient) were pain (100%), oedema (98%), ecchymosis (76%), blisters (20%), necrosis (12%), abscess (6%) bleeding (19%), heart failure (1/1.6%), renal failure (1/1.6%). The blood clotting was evaluated in 60 (100%) cases and it was altered in 33 (55%) patients. No deaths were recorded.

  2. [HIV infection and non-AIDS-defining malignancies: an outpatient clinic experience].

    PubMed

    Fevereiro, Maria do Carmo

    2014-01-01

    Introdução: Os doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana têm um risco elevado de desenvolver diferentes tipos de Neoplasias. Com a introdução da terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, e consequente aumento da sobrevida, assistimos a uma mudança do espectro das patologias relacionadas com a infecção, nomeadamente das doenças Oncológicas, com aumento das Neoplasias Não Definidoras em deterimento das Definidoras de SIDA.Material e Métodos: Caracterização dos doentes com infecção Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e diagnóstico de Neoplasias Não Definidoras acompanhados ao longo de 16 anos na Consulta de Medicina/Imunodeficiência do Hospital de São José, através da consulta dos processos clínicos e avaliação retrospectiva dos aspectos demográficos, epidemiológicos, clínico-laboratoriais, tratamento e sobrevida.Resultados: Nos 1 042 doentes avaliados, foram identificados 34 casos de Neoplasias Não Definidoras, principalmente em homens (78%) e com idade mediana de 55 anos. As neoplasias mais frequentes foram: pulmão (20,6%), bexiga (17,6%), próstata (8,8%) e canal anal (5,9%), sendo o tempo médio entre o diagnóstico da infecção pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana e da Neoplasias Não Definidoras de 6,8 ± 4 anos. Na altura do diagnóstico da Neoplasias Não Definidoras a maioria dos doentes (78,8%) estava sob terapêutica anti-retroviral de alta potência, em média desde há 5,7 ± 3 anos, encontrando-se imunovirologicamente controlada. No total verificaram-se 45,5% óbitos, sobretudo em doentes com Neoplasia do pulmão (20%).Conclusão: Perante o risco de desenvolvimento de Neoplasias Não Definidoras nos doentes infectados pelo Vírus da Imunodeficiência Humana, torna-se fundamental o investimento em estratégias de prevenção, promoção de cessação tabágica e vacinação, bem como aplicação de protocolos de rastreio ajustados a esta população.

  3. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J.; Rhodes, Ryan G.; Nakayama, Koji

    2009-01-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum. PMID:19966289

  4. A protein secretion system linked to bacteroidete gliding motility and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sato, Keiko; Naito, Mariko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Hirakawa, Hideki; Shoji, Mikio; McBride, Mark J; Rhodes, Ryan G; Nakayama, Koji

    2010-01-05

    Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes strong proteases called gingipains that are implicated in periodontal pathogenesis. Protein secretion systems common to other Gram-negative bacteria are lacking in P. gingivalis, but several proteins, including PorT, have been linked to gingipain secretion. Comparative genome analysis and genetic experiments revealed 11 additional proteins involved in gingipain secretion. Six of these (PorK, PorL, PorM, PorN, PorW, and Sov) were similar in sequence to Flavobacterium johnsoniae gliding motility proteins, and two others (PorX and PorY) were putative two-component system regulatory proteins. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that porK, porL, porM, porN, porP, porT, and sov were down-regulated in P. gingivalis porX and porY mutants. Disruption of the F. johnsoniae porT ortholog resulted in defects in motility, chitinase secretion, and translocation of a gliding motility protein, SprB adhesin, to the cell surface, providing a link between a unique protein translocation system and a motility apparatus in members of the Bacteroidetes phylum.

  5. Multidrug-resistant tuberculosis in Belarus: the size of the problem and associated risk factors.

    PubMed

    Skrahina, Alena; Hurevich, Henadz; Zalutskaya, Aksana; Sahalchyk, Evgeni; Astrauko, Andrei; Hoffner, Sven; Rusovich, Valiantsin; Dadu, Andrei; de Colombani, Pierpaolo; Dara, Masoud; van Gemert, Wayne; Zignol, Matteo

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Évaluer le problème de la tuberculose multirésistante (TB-MR) sur le territoire biélorusse et explorer les facteurs de risque associés. MÉTHODES: Au cours d'une enquête nationale menée en 2010-2011, 1420 cas de tuberculose (TB) ont été dépistés et 934 cas nouveaux ainsi que 410 cas précédemment traités ont été jugés conformes aux critères d'inclusion. Des isolats de Mycobacterium tuberculosis provenant de chaque patient admissible ont été testés pour leur sensibilité envers les médicaments antituberculeux. Des informations sociocomportementales ont été recueillies lors d'entretiens basés sur un questionnaire structuré. RÉSULTATS: La TB-MR a été détectée dans respectivement 32,3% et 75,6% des cas nouveaux et des cas traités antérieurement, et 11,9% des 612 patients porteurs de la TB-MR présentaient une forme de tuberculose ultrarésistante (TB-UR). Un historique de traitement antérieur pour la TB représentait le principal facteur de risque indépendant pour la TB-MR (rapport des cotes, RC: 6,1; intervalle de confiance à 95%, IC: 4,8 à 7,7). Les autres facteurs de risque indépendants comprenaient l'infection par le virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) (RC: 2,2; IC à 95%: 1,4 à 3,5), l’âge <35 ans (RC: 1,4 ; IC à 95%: 1,0 à 1,8), un historique d'emprisonnement (RC: 1,5; IC à 95%: 1,1 à 2,0), une invalidité suffisante pour empêcher le travail (RC: 1,9 ; IC à 95%: 1,2 à 3,0), l’alcoolisme (RC: 1,3; IC à 95%: 1,0 à 1,8) et le tabagisme (RC: 1,5; IC à 95%: 1,1 à 2,0). CONCLUSION: La TB-MR est très fréquente chez les patients atteints de tuberculose en Bélarus. Les nombreux facteurs de risque identifiés pour la TB-MR et la convergence entre l’épidémie de TB-MR et l'infection par le VIH exigent non seulement de renforcer la collaboration entre les programmes antituberculeux et de lutte contre le VIH, mais aussi la mise en œuvre de mesures innovantes pour accélérer la d

  6. Differential Regulation of Duplicate Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductases in the Diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    PubMed Central

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Cattolico, Rose Ann

    2016-01-01

    Background Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. Results For cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μE m−2 s−1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μE m−2 s−1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μE m−2 s−1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown. Conclusion Given the sensitivity of diatom por1/POR1 to real-time light cues and adherence of por2/POR2 regulation to

  7. Effect of cotrimoxazole prophylaxis on malaria occurrence in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral therapy in sub-Saharan Africa*

    PubMed Central

    Kasirye, R; Baisley, K; Munderi, P; Grosskurth, H

    2015-01-01

    Objective To systematically review the evidence on the effect of cotrimoxazole (CTX) on malaria in HIV-positive individuals on antiretroviral therapy (ART). Methods Web of Science, PubMed and MEDLINE, EMBASE, Global Health and Cochrane Library databases were searched using terms for malaria, HIV and CTX. Studies meeting the inclusion criteria were reviewed and assessed for bias and confounding. Results Six studies (in Uganda, Kenya, Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe) had relevant data on the effect of CTX on malaria in patients on ART: four were observational cohort studies (OCS) and two were randomised controlled trials (RCTs); two were in children and one in women only. Samples sizes ranged from 265 to 2200 patients. Four studies compared patients on ART and CTX with patients on ART alone; 2 (RCTs) found a significant increase in smear-positive malaria on ART alone: (IRR 32.5 CI = 8.6–275.0 and HR 2.2 CI = 1.5–3.3) and 2 (OCS) reported fewer parasitaemia episodes on CTX and ART (OR 0.85 CI = 0.65–1.11 and 3.6% vs. 2.4% of samples P = 0.14). One OCS found a 76% (95% CI = 63–84%) vs. 83% (95% CI = 74–89%) reduction in malaria incidence in children on CTX and ART vs. on CTX only, when both were compared with HIV-negative children. The other reported a 64% reduction in malaria incidence after adding ART to CTX (RR = 0.36, 95% CI = 0.18–0.74). The 2 RCTs were unblinded. Only one study reported adherence to CTX and ART, and only two controlled for baseline CD4 count. Conclusion Few studies have investigated the effect of CTX on malaria in patients on ART. Their findings suggest that CTX is protective against malaria even among patients on ART. Objectif Analyser systématiquement les données sur l'effet du cotrimoxazole (CTX) sur le paludisme chez les personnes VIH positives sous traitement antirétroviral (ART). Méthodes Web of Science, PubMed et Medline, Embase, Global Health et les bases de données de Cochrane Library ont été recherchés en

  8. Examining adherence among challenging patients in public and private HIV care in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Deborah; Cook, Ryan; Cecchini, Diego; Sued, Omar; Bofill, Lina; Weiss, Stephen; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Lopez, Maria R; Spence, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Treatment engagement, retention and adherence to care are required for optimal HIV outcomes. Yet, patients may fall below the treatment recommendations for achieving undetectable viral load or not be retained in care. This study examined the most challenging patients in Buenos Aires, Argentina, those non-adherent to HIV care. Men (n = 61) and women (n = 59) prescribed antiretrovirals (ARVs) and non-adherent to treatment in the prior 3 to 6 months were enrolled and assessed regarding adherence, knowledge, motivation and attitudes regarding treatment. Private clinic patients had lower viral load and higher self-reported adherence than public clinic patients. Motivations to be adherent and positive beliefs regarding ARVs were associated with increased adherence in public clinic participants. Increased self-efficacy was associated with increased adherence among participants from both clinics. Results support patient and provider interventions that strengthen the characteristics supporting adherence, engagement and retention in public and private clinic settings. Resumen El compromiso, la retención en el cuidado y adherencia al tratamiento son esenciales para el manejo óptimo del paciente con VIH. Sin embargo, muchos pacientes con VIH no siguen las el tratamiento para lograr tener una carga viral indetectable, o no permanecen bajo cuidado médico. Este estudio examina los pacientes más difíciles de retener en el cuidado médico en Buenos Aires, Argentina. Hombres (n = 61) y mujeres (n = 59) a los que se les habían recetado antiretrovirales pero seguían el tratamiento en los últimos 3 - 6 meses participaron en el estudio. Adherencia, conocimiento, motivación y actitudes frente al tratamiento fueron evaluados. Los pacientes en la clínica privada tenían menor carga viral y mejor adherencia que los de la clínica pública. Motivación y pensamientos positivos con respecto a antiretrovirales estaban asociados con mejor adherencia en los pacientes de la clínica p

  9. Caracterisitiques des patients tuberculeux à l'ouest cameroun: 2000-2009

    PubMed Central

    Noubom, Michel; Nembot, Fabrice Djouma; Donfack, Hubert; Mfin, Patrick Stéphane Kouomboua; Tchasse, Floriane

    2013-01-01

    Introduction La tuberculose (TB) reste de nos jours un problème majeur de santé publique dans les pays en voie de développement. Elle devient de plus en plus importante à cause de l'infection au VIH. Cette étude avait pour but de caractériser les patients admis dans le plus grand Centre de Diagnostic et de Traitement de la Tuberculose (CDT) de l'Ouest Cameroun entre 2000 et 2009. Méthodes Les patients de 15 ans et plus admis au CDT de Baleng durant la période allant du 1er janvier 2000 au 31 décembre 2009 ont été inclus. Les données ont étés collectées grâce à une grille pré conçue. Le calcul des fréquences, moyennes et les comparaisons de groupes ont été faites pour ressortir les caractéristiques des participants. Résultats 2556 patients ont été inclus dans l’étude. 64,8% étaient de sexe masculin et l’âge médian étaient de 33ans. 2141 (83,7%) de patients présentaient une TPM+, 319 (12,5%) une TPM- et 96 (3,8%) une TEP. 64,7% des patients résidaient hors du district de santé d'implantation du CDT. 79,16% de patients tuberculeux ont fait le test de dépistage du VIH et la séroprévalence chez ceux testés était de 26,06%. Les différentes évolutions en fin de période de suivi de chaque patient ont été les suivantes: évolution favorable (guéri et traitement terminé) 1954(76,6%); perdus de vue 231(9,0%); décès 230(9,0%); transféré 92(3,6%); échec 49(1,9%). Conclusion Une proportion considérable de patients résident loin du CDT ce qui augmenterait le perdus de vue et les transferts pendant le traitement. En plus vulgariser les autres CDT de la région, il est nécessaire de renforcer le système de transfert pour éviter les perdus de vue entre deux CDT. PMID:24570799

  10. Reasons for the low bacteriological coverage of tuberculosis reported in Mpumalanga Province, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Mngomezulu, N; Cameron, D; Olorunju, S; Luthuli, T; Dunbar, R; Naidoo, P

    2015-06-21

    Contexte : Hôpitaux publics et centres de santé primaire de la province de Mpumalanga en Afrique du Sud.Objectif : Déterminer si le défaut de respecter les directives de diagnostic de la tuberculose (TB) (c'est-à-dire soumettre des crachats à la microscopie de frottis) a contribué à la faible couverture bactériologique rapportée en 2008.Méthodes : Nous avons revu les dossiers cliniques des nouveaux cas de TB pulmonaire dans 30 de 118 structures sélectionnées au hasard qui ont atteint la couverture bacteriologique visée de 80% et 30 de 87 structures qui ne l'ont pas atteinte. Les données des cas suivis dans les hôpitaux et les dispensaires ont été résumées sur des formulaires, saisies en informatique et comparées aux données du registre électronique de la TB (ETR). Nous avons évalué l'âge, le sexe, l'infection au virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et le type de structure en tant que facteurs de confusion de l'enregistrement des frottis.Résultats : L'âge, le sexe et l'infection VIH n'ont pas influencé l'enregistrement des frottis. Dans les hôpitaux, 61,8% des cas de TB pulmonaire ont eu des résultats de frottis de crachats dans leurs dossiers cliniques comparés à 93,6% dans les dispensaires (P < 0,001). Sur les 711 cas (30,3%) qui n'avaient pas de résultats de frottis dans le ETR, 342 (48,1%) avaient des résultats de frottis dans leurs dossiers cliniques.Conclusion : La faible couverture bactériologique constatée est due à la fois à des pratiques cliniques médiocres (surtout dans les hôpitaux) et à une maintenance insuffisante des dossiers. Ces deux problèmes doivent être résolus afin d'améliorer la prise en charge des patients et la gestion du programme.

  11. Infection control in households of drug-resistant tuberculosis patients co-infected with HIV in Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Albuquerque, T; Isaakidis, P; Das, M; Saranchuk, P; Andries, A; Misquita, D P; Khan, S; Dubois, S; Peskett, C; Browne, M

    2014-03-21

    Contexte : A Mumbai, population 21 millions, on voit une épidémie de plus en plus reconnue de tuberculose pharmacorésistante (TB-DR).Objectif : Décrire les mesures de lutte contre l'infection (IC) pour la TB mises en place dans les foyers de patients DR-TB coinfectés par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) dans le cadre d'un programme de Médecins Sans Frontières à Mumbai.Méthodes : L'évaluation des mesures de lutte a été réalisée dans les foyers des patients entre mai 2012 et mars 2013. Un outil d'évaluation simplifié a permis d'évaluer le risque de transmission de la TB et de guider les interventions. Les mesures de protection administratives, environnementales et personnelles ont été adaptées aux besoins de chaque patient.Résultats : Ces évaluations ont été réalisées dans 29 foyers. Les mesures mises en œuvre incluaient l'éducation sanitaire, le couchage séparé des patients, une amélioration de la ventilation naturelle par l'ouverture des fenêtres et l'enlèvement des rideaux et autres obstacles à la circulation de l'air, l'installation de ventilateurs et d'extracteurs d'air et la fourniture de masques chirurgicaux pour une durée limitée. Les interventions environnementales ont été réalisées dans 22 maisons.Conclusions: Les mesures IC pour la TB pourraient constituer un élément bénéfique d'un programme intégré de soins de la TB et du VIH dans les foyers et les communautés. Bien qu'il s'agisse d'un défi particulier dans les bidonvilles, des mesures faisables, abordables et acceptables peuvent être mis en œuvre dans ce contexte grâce à des outils simplifiés et standardisés. Des mesures appropriées à domicile peuvent contribuer à éviter de nouveaux cas, surtout dans les foyers des patients qui ont moins de chances de guérison.

  12. JPRS Report, West Europe.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-09

    finding its market in Jor- dan, Morocco, and Argentina . Outside of theBasque Country, he stresses Instalaza (Zaragoza), specializing in the Latin...30 por 100 J 3por100(Lf) fc 1por100(L$) (20) 4. £Cree qua las mujeres deben ir (2") SI ........... 36 poKlDO V No .......... 67 por 100

  13. Effect of dietary porphyran from the red alga, Porphyra yezoensis, on glucose metabolism in diabetic KK-Ay mice.

    PubMed

    Kitano, Yuki; Murazumi, Koki; Duan, Jingjing; Kurose, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Shunichi; Sugawara, Tatsuya; Hirata, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Porphyran (POR) from the red alga Porphyra yezoensis is a water soluble dietary fiber. In this study, we investigated the effect of dietary POR on glucose metabolism in KK-Ay mice (a model for type 2 diabetes). Mice were divided into 4 groups and fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (control), POR, POR Arg or POR K. After 3 wk of feeding, plasma insulin levels and the calculated homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index were significantly lower in the POR group than in the control group. Compared with the control group, plasma adiponectin levels were significantly increased in the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups. These results suggest that dietary POR should improve glucose metabolism in diabetes via up-regulation of adiponectin levels. In addition, the amount of propionic acid in the cecum of the POR group was significantly higher than in the control group and the profile of bacterial flora was changed by dietary POR. In the cecum of the POR, POR Arg and POR K groups, Bacteroides was significantly increased and Clostridium coccoides was significantly decreased compared with in the control group. The effects of dietary POR on the hindgut environment might contribute to the improvement of glucose metabolism.

  14. Gallium arsenide pilot line for high performance components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    The Gallium Arsenide Pilot Line for High Performance Components (Pilot Line III) is to develop a facility for the fabrication of GaAs logic and memory chips. The first thirty months of this contract are now complete, and this report covers the period from March 27 through September 24, 1989. Similar to the PT-2M SRAM function for memories, the six logic circuits of PT-2L and PT-2M have served their functions as stepping stones toward the custom, standard cell, and cell array logic circuits. All but one of these circuits was right first time; the remaining circuit had a layout error due to a bug in the design rule checker that has since been fixed. The working devices all function over the full temperature range from -55 to 125 C. They all comfortably meet the 200 MHz requirement. They do not solidly conform to the required input and output voltage levels, particularly Vih. It is known that these circuits were designed with the older design models and that they came from an era where the DFET thresholds were often not on target.

  15. Pressure Study of Photoluminescence in GaN/InGaN/ AlGaN Quantum Wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perlin, Piotr; Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.; Wisniewski, P.; Osinski, M.; Eliseev, P. G.

    1997-03-01

    We have studied the photoluminescence (PL) from two commercial high brightness single quantum well light emitting diodes (Nichia Chem. Industs.) with In_xGa_1-x N (x=0.45 and 0.2) as the active layers under hydrostatic pressures up to 7 GPa. These diodes are the best existing light emitters at short wavelengths, having the emission wavelengths of 430 nm and 530 nm depending on the content of indium in the 30 Åthick quantum wells. Although these devices show a remarkable quality and efficiency (luminosity as high as 12 cd), the mechanism of recombination remains obscure. We discovered that the pressure coefficient for each of the observed PL peaks is dramatically (2-3 times) lower than that of the energy gap of its InGaN active layer. These observations, in conjunction with the fact that the observed emission occurs below the energy gap of the quantum well material, and also considering the anomalous temperature behavior of the emission (peak energy increasing with temperature) suggest the involvement of localized states and exclude a simple band-to-band recombination picture. These localized states may be tentatively attributed to the presence of band tails in the gap which stem from composition fluctuations in the InGaN alloy. vih>(figures)

  16. A dynamical systems approach to the tilted Bianchi models of solvable type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coley, Alan; Hervik, Sigbjørn

    2005-02-01

    We use a dynamical systems approach to analyse the tilting spatially homogeneous Bianchi models of solvable type (e.g., types VIh and VIIh) with a perfect fluid and a linear barotropic γ-law equation of state. In particular, we study the late-time behaviour of tilted Bianchi models, with an emphasis on the existence of equilibrium points and their stability properties. We briefly discuss the tilting Bianchi type V models and the late-time asymptotic behaviour of irrotational Bianchi type VII0 models. We prove the important result that for non-inflationary Bianchi type VIIh models vacuum plane-wave solutions are the only future attracting equilibrium points in the Bianchi type VIIh invariant set. We then investigate the dynamics close to the plane-wave solutions in more detail, and discover some new features that arise in the dynamical behaviour of Bianchi cosmologies with the inclusion of tilt. We point out that in a tiny open set of parameter space in the type IV model (the loophole) there exist closed curves which act as attracting limit cycles. More interestingly, in the Bianchi type VIIh models there is a bifurcation in which a set of equilibrium points turns into closed orbits. There is a region in which both sets of closed curves coexist, and it appears that for the type VIIh models in this region the solution curves approach a compact surface which is topologically a torus.

  17. Perils of Neglecting Lattice Relaxation in the Pressure Dependence of Deep Luminescence Bands in Wide Gap Semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.

    1998-03-01

    Deep defect states are often assumed to be insensitive to pressure because of their localized atomic-like character. In apparent conflict with this, experiments on widegap II-VI materials find that the pressure shifts of many 'midgap' photoluminescence (PL) bands associated with large-lattice-relaxation defects are more rapid than the shift of the bandgap(B. Weinstein, T. Ritter, et. al., Phys. Stat. Sol. (b) 198), 167 (1996). To study this, we measured the effects of pressure on the PL and PL-excitation (PLE) bands arising from the Zn-vacancy (V_Zn) and the P_Se deep acceptor centers in ZnSe. Using the observed pressure variation of the Stokes shifts and the established 1 atm. configuration coordinate (CC) models( D.Y. Jeon, H.P Gislason, G.D. Watkins, Phys. Rev. B 48), 7872 (1993), we were able to infer quantitative CC-diagrams at any pressure. Our results show that the pressure dependence of the lattice relaxation contributes a substantial fraction (several meV/kbar) to the overall shift of the PL-bands, and, hence, must be included. For the case of the V_Zn, simple calculations of the Jahn-Teller splitting using dangling-bond orbitals support this conclusion. vih/March98/>figures

  18. Asymptotic dynamics of the exceptional Bianchi cosmologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hewitt, C. G.; Horwood, J. T.; Wainwright, J.

    2003-05-01

    In this paper we give, for the first time, a qualitative description of the asymptotic dynamics of a class of non-tilted spatially homogeneous (SH) cosmologies, the so-called exceptional Bianchi cosmologies, which are of Bianchi type VI$_{-1/9}$. This class is of interest for two reasons. Firstly, it is generic within the class of non-tilted SH cosmologies, being of the same generality as the models of Bianchi types VIII and IX. Secondly, it is the SH limit of a generic class of spatially inhomogeneous $G_{2}$ cosmologies. Using the orthonormal frame formalism and Hubble-normalized variables, we show that the exceptional Bianchi cosmologies differ from the non-exceptional Bianchi cosmologies of type VI$_{h}$ in two significant ways. Firstly, the models exhibit an oscillatory approach to the initial singularity and hence are not asymptotically self-similar. Secondly, at late times, although the models are asymptotically self-similar, the future attractor for the vacuum-dominated models is the so-called Robinson-Trautman SH model instead of the vacuum SH plane wave models.

  19. Effects of Pressure on Optically Active Deep Levels in Phosphorus Doped ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinstein, B. A.; Iota, V.

    1998-03-01

    We report high pressure photoluminescence (PL) and PL-excitation (PLE) studies at 8K of the 'midgap' emission in P-doped ZnSe using a diamond-cell with He medium. The dominant emission at low pressure is due to donor-acceptor-pair (DAP) transitions between shallow donors and deep trigonally relaxed P_Se acceptors.(J. Davies, et al., J. Luminescence 18/19, 322 (1979)) Its PL and PLE peaks shift by 8.2meV/kbar and 5.9meV/kbar, respectively -- Stokes shift decreasing with pressure. At 35kbar a new PL band, shifting to lower energy (-5.4meV/kbar), emerges from above the absorption edge, and concurrently the original DAP PL quenches. This shows that a resonant level, a deep donor or possibly a P_Se antibonding state,(R. Watts, et al., Phys. Rev. B3), 404 (1971) crosses the conduction edge into the gap. A third PL band is seen only with internse UV excitation. It occurs initially as a high energy shoulder of the original DAP peak, but shifts more rapidly upward (9.4meV/kbar) until it crosses the edge and quenches at 40kbar. We discuss candidates for this band, including donor-P_Se complexes, and we compare our results to similar work on the Zn vacancy in ZnSe. vih/March98/>(figures)

  20. Research Proposal Quarterly Status Report January - March 1989 (AFOSR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    t, m.jo 0 - ɘw o wo 0 0% Hj W > 6.4 4a4 LA. U .C04b 06 0 0 . 4A J6 0 1 CL w~ V c01.’ 4c C 4 0 L.44 .0 d) 4) 06 - .C UV 4.L 0 b- 06 E G CL L. 39 4...0. GD a VU C C z~ CD 0) a,0 C . - V -0) ’i- .C a, 4U 3 01v V0 a, (D G C" GD 4- CCL~ - 0 0 . o - - A CL 4- -0 mA U kv EU GD .0 .0 C w 4- ( 0 C VIh 0...CA1) 0 = 01 91 S. to 0 t U - 06 -4- C 0 0 L. 0.. vi W f ’ 3 E 0 G 4 . 06 C- e- toD C . U C D 01 S. - E .. -W -* 4 0 V UW ~~t. #A. 0A &m 0 U . I ) C ’ W

  1. The CASTLES Imaging Survey of Gravitational Lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, C. Y.; Falco, E. E.; Lehar, J.; Impey, C. D.; Kochanek, C. S.; McLeod, B. A.; Rix, H.-W.

    1997-12-01

    The CASTLES survey (Cfa-Arizona-(H)ST-Lens-Survey) is imaging most known small-separation gravitational lenses (or lens candidates), using the NICMOS camera (mostly H-band) and the WFPC2 (V and I band) on HST. To date nearly half of the IR imaging survey has been completed. The main goals are: (1) to search for lens galaxies where none have been directly detected so far; (2) obtain photometric redshift estimates (VIH) for the lenses where no spectroscopic redshifts exist; (3) study and model the lens galaxies in detail, in part to study the mass distribution within them, in part to identify ``simple" systems that may permit accurate time delay estimates for H_0; (3) measure the M/L evolution of the sample of lens galaxies with look-back time (to z ~ 1); (4) determine directly which fraction of sources are lensed by ellipticals vs. spirals. We will present the survey specifications and the images obtained so far.

  2. Cryogenic temperature dependence of the voltage transfer characteristics of CMOS inverters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, M. J.

    1988-08-01

    The voltage transfer characteristics of CMOS inverters have been studied in detail as a function of temperature between 77 and 300 K and supply voltages between 2 and 20 V. The logic levels, maximum gain, unity gain points, noise margins and other parameters, such as ( VH - VL), all showed a marked improvement as the temperature was lowered. In particular, for one inverter with a supply of 5 V, the maximum gain increased from 57 to 105, ( VIH - VIL) decreased from 0.50 to 0.28 V and ( VH - VL) increased from 4.46 to 4.75 V on decreasing the temperature from 300 to 77 K. For all the inverters, these and other parameters showed a smooth monotonic improvement as the temperature was lowered. These and the other results obtained can be qualitatively explained as due to an increase in the absolute values in the threshold voltages of the PMOS and NMOS transistors and to an increase in the carrier mobility as the temperature was lowered.

  3. The Inclination of the Soft X-Ray Transient A0620-00 and the Mass of its Black Hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantrell, Andrew G.; Bailyn, Charles D.; Orosz, Jerome A.; McClintock, Jeffrey E.; Remillard, Ronald A.; Froning, Cynthia S.; Neilsen, Joseph; Gelino, Dawn M.; Gou, Lijun

    2010-02-01

    We analyze photometry of the soft X-ray transient A0620 - 00 spanning nearly 30 years, including previously published and previously unpublished data. Previous attempts to determine the inclination of A0620 using subsets of these data have yielded a wide range of measured values of i. Differences in the measured value of i have been due to changes in the shape of the light curve and uncertainty regarding the contamination from the disk. We give a new technique for estimating the disk fraction and find that disk light is significant in all light curves, even in the infrared. We also find that all changes in the shape and normalization of the light curve originate in a variable disk component. After accounting for this disk component, we find that all the data, including light curves of significantly different shapes, point to a consistent value of i. Combining results from many separate data sets, we find i = 51fdg0 ± 0fdg9, implying M = 6.6 ± 0.25 M sun. Using our dynamical model and zero-disk stellar VIH magnitudes, we find d = 1.06 ± 0.12 kpc. Understanding the disk origin of nonellipsoidal variability may assist with making reliable determinations of i in other systems, and the fluctuations in disk light may provide a new observational tool for understanding the three-dimensional structure of the accretion disk.

  4. Investigation of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors for logic application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Jung-Hui

    2014-01-01

    DC performance of InP/InGaAs metamorphic co-integrated complementary doping-channel field-effect transistors (DCFETs) grown on a low-cost GaAs substrate is first demonstrated. In the complementary DCFETs, the n-channel device was fabricated on the InxGa1-xP metamorphic linearly graded buffer layer and the p-channel field-effect transistor was stacked on the top of the n-channel device. Particularly, the saturation voltage of the n-channel device is substantially reduced to decrease the VOL and VIH values attributed that two-dimensional electron gas is formed and could be modulated in the n-InGaAs channel. Experimentally, a maximum extrinsic transconductance of 215 (17) mS/mm and a maximum saturation current density of 43 (-27) mA/mm are obtained in the n-channel (p-channel) device. Furthermore, the noise margins NMH and NML are up to 0.842 and 0.330 V at a supply voltage of 1.5 V in the complementary logic inverter application.

  5. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed Central

    Spicer, S. S.; Brissie, R. M.; Thompson, N. T.

    1975-01-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers. Images Figs 6-7 Fig 8 Fig 9 Fig 10 Fig 11 Fig 12 Fig 13 Fig 14 Fig 15 Fig 16 Fig 17 Fig 18 Fig 19 Fig 20 Fig 21 Fig 22 Fig 23 Fig 24 Fig 25 Fig 26 Fig 27 Fig 1 Fig 2 Figs 3-5 Fig 28 Fig 29 Fig 30 Fig 31 Fig 32 Fig 33 PMID:49149

  6. [Management of sexually transmitted diseases by the syndrome approach and voluntary HIV screening in a specialized dispensary in Antananarivo (Madagascar)].

    PubMed

    Gleize, L; Randriamanga, R; Ratsimbazafy, N; Rakotonandrasana, S; Durand, P; Le Bot, F

    2000-01-01

    In 1994, Médecins du Monde opened a free health centre specialized in STD/AIDS in an ill-favored district of Antananarivo, the Malagasy capital of Madagascar. Besides the medical treatment of Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STD) and AIDS, the centre is responsible for the Information, Education and Communication activities (IEC) within and without the centre towards the residents of the 67 hectares district and the high-risk populations (prostitutes, truck-drivers and transvestites). The project aimed at both preventing the spreading of the VIH infection and reducing the incidence of STD. As the Ministry of Health directed, a syndromic method was applied since 1997 regarding STD. Results for 1998 showed the predominance of the association Neisseria gonorrhae-Chlamydiae among the consultants of both sexes. Negative results from 1,218 HIV serological tests carried out seemed confirm the low prevalence of the HIV infection in Madagascar. Yet, the percentage of positive syphilis serology among the tested consultants was lower than that mentioned in previous surveys. Finally, it appears that the syndromic method is of high interest for the countries with limited laboratory capacities.

  7. Coût clinique des retards dans le changement de traitement

    PubMed Central

    Walmsley, Sharon

    2007-01-01

    La prise en charge des patients séropositifs pour le VIH ayant déjà reçu un traitement continue de s’améliorer et d’évoluer. Les nouvelles lignes directrices semblent indiquer que l’objectif du traitement devrait être une suppression virologique maximale. La meilleure façon d’y parvenir consiste à utiliser une combinaison d’agents auxquels le virus sera le plus vraisemblablement sensible et, si possible, des agents appartenant à une nouvelle classe thérapeutique. Les cas discutés démontrent comment l’utilisation d’un schéma thérapeutique puissant à titre de traitement de sauvetage peut avoir de bons résultats virologiques, immunologiques et cliniques. Toutefois, si le traitement de sauvetage retenu n’est pas assez puissant pour atteindre ces objectifs, la durabilité de la réponse est limitée. Ce qu’il faut retenir ici, c’est que ces stratégies devraient reposer sur la puissance du schéma thérapeutique et qu’il ne faut pas retarder l’instauration des agents en cas d’échec d’une stratégie.

  8. [Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and AIDS. Response to cytarabine].

    PubMed

    Hervas Laguna, M J; Nieto Rodríguez, J A; Geijo Martínez, M P; Ruiz Ribo, M D; Borregón, S

    1994-05-01

    PML affects 4% of patients with AIDS and there is no effective treatment. Five cases of PML-AIDS have been described, showing clinical and radiological improvement after treatment with C-ara. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman, addict to heroin, her clinical record including VIH infection, pneumonia by P. carinii, milliary tuberculosis, infection by virus B and C and treatment with AZT and tuberculostatics since January, 1992. In May, she began to develop a cerebellar syndrome. Images obtained with nuclear magnetic resonance were typical of PML. Subsequently, treatment with C-ara (2 mg/kg/day IV during 5 days each 4-6 weeks) was begun. From the third month of treatment on, the patient showed a clinical improvement and as of the sixth month, the affected areas of white substance were reduced in size. In addition, CD4 improved. Although in this patient a positive effect was observed after treatment with C-area, it should be verified in a controlled clinical trial.

  9. [Comparative study of pneumococcal bacteremia in patients with and without HIV infection].

    PubMed

    Roca, V; Pérez-Cecilia, E; Santillana, T; Romero, J; Picazo, J J

    1993-01-01

    A retrospective study of bacteriemias due to S. pneumoniae in adults is performed, from all the cases observed in our hospital during the 1989-1990 period. We compare the clinical characteristics of the disease depending if the affected patients were infected or not by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In the considered period bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae has been diagnosed in 12 patients with HIV infection and 29 without it. Ten of the twelve patients with HIV infection (83.3%) were in Stage IV (CDC) of the disease, staying the rest in a less developed phase of the disease. Age was significantly higher in non-HIV patients (p < 0.001) and a high percentage of patients in this group (75%) showed some disease considered as predisposing to bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae. When a respiratory foci was present, VIH positive individuals showed more frequently bilateral radiologic infiltrates and less frequently pleural effusion. Leucocyte count when diagnosis was done were significantly higher in non-HIV group. Sensibility of isolated S. pneumoniae was similar in the two groups, being the immediate mortality related with bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae higher in the non-HIV group. In our center 29.3% of bacteriemias due to S. pneumoniae are diagnosed in patients with HIV infection. This disease in itself could constitute an added risk factor in the development of bacteriemia due to S. pneumoniae.

  10. The variable fine structure of elastin visualized with Verhoeff's iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    Brissie, R M; Spicer, S S; Thompson, N T

    1975-01-01

    Verhoeff's iron hematoxylin (VIH) followed by lead citrate (LC) applied to epoxy thin sections stained the dense component of elastic fibers heavily and the peripheral microfibrillar component lightly in guinea pig trachea and mouse testis fixed with a glutaraldehyde-osmium tetroxide sequence. This method stained large fimbriated fibers beneath tracheal epithelium, small fibers and stacked aggregates thereof in the deep lamina propria, cartilage and adventitia of the trachea and large stacked fibers in the fibroelastic band of the trachea. Fibers of the fetus differed from those of the adult, especially in the subepithelial elastic lamina of the trachea. Elastic fibers were intimately associated with fibroblasts and particularly slender fibroblast processes in tracheal stroma and with chondrocytes in tracheal cartilage. Fibroblasts associated with elastic fibers in the tracheal subepithelial lamina propria were often closely bordered by eosinophils, mast cells, or monocytes. Occasional mast cells extended slender processes around elastic fibers in the subepithelial lamina propria. In mouse testis and in many regions of the trachea, small elastic fibers were identified which were below the limits of resolution for the light microscope and were not apparent at the ultrastructural level in routinely stained thin sections.

  11. HIV-1: absence of infection in subjects with indeterminate western blot.

    PubMed

    Migali, E; Mariotti, D; Lovari, A; Tenani, T; Imperiali, P; Ozzola, G

    1993-01-01

    The search for specific antibodies against the Human Immunodeficiency Virus type-1 (Ab anti HIV 1), using an immunoenzymatic test and a subsequent confirmation test (Western Blot-WB) in patients who were previously positive or borderline at the first test, singled out from about 12500 tested subjects, fifteen patients with indeterminate WB (WBi) for the presence of an abnormal band. The presence of p24 was predominant in those WBi (about 50%); generally p24 was the only band found. In all serum samples with WBi, the viral antigen p24 (Ag p24) was absent. In 3 subjects with WBi, after at least six months from the first test, not only did the same pattern persist but also the search for VIH-1 DNA sequence using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) gave a negative result. According to our experience and the literature on the subject, we suggest that patients with low risk of infection and whose WBi does not modify with time have a remote possibility of being infected by HIV.

  12. Crustacean neuropeptides: structures, functions and comparative aspects.

    PubMed

    Keller, R

    1992-05-15

    In this article, an attempt is made to review the presently known, completely identified crustacean neuropeptides with regard to structure, function and distribution. Probably the most important progress has been made in the elucidation of a novel family of large peptides from the X-organ-sinus gland system which includes crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH), putative molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH) and vitellogenesis (= gonad)-inhibiting hormone (VIH). These peptides have so far only been found in crustaceans. Renewed interest in the neurohemal pericardial organs has led to the identification of a number of cardioactive/myotropic neuropeptides, some of them unique to crustaceans. Important contributions have been made by immunocytochemical mapping of peptidergic neurons in the nervous system, which has provided evidence for a multiple role of several neuropeptides as neurohormones on the one hand and as local transmitters or modulators on the other. This has been corroborated by physiological studies. The long-known chromatophore-regulating hormones, red pigment concentrating hormone (RPCH) and pigment-dispending hormone (PDH), have been placed in a broader perspective by the demonstration of an additional role as local neuromodulators. The scope of crustacean neuropeptide research has thus been broadened considerably during the last years.

  13. [Antigens of the human immunodeficiency virus in serum of high risk people in the city of Monterrey].

    PubMed

    Salinas Carmona, M C; Flores de Castañeda, M S; Garza Elizondo, M A; Pérez Rivera, L I

    1989-01-01

    One hundred forty human sera distributed in 2 groups were analyzed. In group I, 50 serum samples from healthy individuals that did not belong to the high-risk acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) population were included. In group II, there were 90 individuals, most of whom were apparently healthy but were at high risk of getting AIDS through their life styles or by transfusion. Of the 90 persons, 5 had a clinical picture of AIDS. All sera were analyzed by the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the anti VIH antibodies. The positive cases were confirmed by the Western blot assay. In all samples the presence of the human immune deficiency virus antigens was sought. The results showed that the 50 healthy individuals (control group) were negative for both HIV antigens and antibodies. Of the 90 sera for the high-risk group, 50 were negative for antibodies, and 2 of them (4%) were positive for HIV antigens. Forty sera were positive for anti HIV antibody and among them, 5 patients were diagnosed as AIDS, and showed positive for antigen and antibody. The other 35 patients were all positive for HIV antibody and in 8 of them HIV antigen was also present.

  14. Variability of dermal elastin visualized ultrastructurally with iron hematoxylin.

    PubMed

    Spicer, S S; Brissie, R M; Thompson, N T

    1975-06-01

    The Verhoeff iron hematoxylin-lead citrate (VIH-LC) method demonstrated vertical elastic fibers that were often composed only of microfibrillar component extending into the epidermal basement membrane in human skin. These fibers connected with a network of trabeculae composed of microfibrils and elastin fibrils in varying proportions. The large elastic fibers in the deep two thirds of the dermis consited mainly of compact bundles of small elstin fibrils in infants and of solid elastin cores with a fimbriated periphery in adults; Dermis of a 6-month-old fetus contained very few small elastic fibrils except around blood vessels. Skin of an elderly subject revealed exteme proliferation of unusual reticulated elastic fibers in various areas and disclosed abnormal nodules of elastin or collagen fibrils in finely particulate matter. Small elastin fibrils, abundant microfibrils, and intermixed individual collagen fibrils comprised an adventitial collar between sweat glands and fibroblasts. Elastin fibrils were absent from this collar in the fetus and increased with the subject's age. A permanganate-high iron diamine sequence appeared to impart density to the microfibrillar component of elastic fibers.

  15. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    SciTech Connect

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; Cattolico, Rose Ann; Ianora, Adrianna

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability. As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in

  16. Differential regulation of duplicate light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases in the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum

    DOE PAGES

    Hunsperger, Heather M.; Ford, Christopher J.; Miller, James S.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Diatoms (Bacilliariophyceae) encode two light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductases (POR1 and POR2) that catalyze the penultimate step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in the light. Algae live in dynamic environments whose changing light levels induce photoacclimative metabolic shifts, including altered cellular chlorophyll levels. We hypothesized that the two POR proteins may be differentially adaptive under varying light conditions. Using the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum as a test system, differences in POR protein abundance and por gene expression were examined when this organism was grown on an alternating light:dark cycles at different irradiances; exposed to continuous light; and challenged by a significant decrease in light availability.more » As a result, for cultures maintained on a 12h light: 12h dark photoperiod at 200μEm–2 s–1 (200L/D), both por genes were up-regulated during the light and down-regulated in the dark, though por1 transcript abundance rose and fell earlier than that of por2. Little concordance occurred between por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance. In contrast, por2 mRNA and POR2 protein abundances followed similar diurnal patterns. When 200L/D P. tricornutum cultures were transferred to continuous light (200L/L), the diurnal regulatory pattern of por1 mRNA abundance but not of por2 was disrupted, and POR1 but not POR2 protein abundance dropped steeply. Under 1200μEm–2 s–1 (1200L/D), both por1 mRNA and POR1 protein abundance displayed diurnal oscillations. A compromised diel por2 mRNA response under 1200L/D did not impact the oscillation in POR2 abundance. When cells grown at 1200L/D were then shifted to 50μEm–2 s–1 (50L/D), por1 and por2 mRNA levels decreased swiftly but briefly upon light reduction. Thereafter, POR1 but not POR2 protein levels rose significantly in response to this light stepdown.« less

  17. Modulation of Energy Transfer into Sequential Electron Transfer upon Axial Coordination of Tetrathiafulvalene in an Aluminum(III) Porphyrin-Free-Base Porphyrin Dyad.

    PubMed

    Poddutoori, Prashanth K; Bregles, Lucas P; Lim, Gary N; Boland, Patricia; Kerr, Russ G; D'Souza, Francis

    2015-09-08

    Axially assembled aluminum(III) porphyrin based dyads and triads have been constructed to investigate the factors that govern the energy and electron transfer processes in a perpendicular direction to the porphyrin plane. In the aluminum(III) porphyrin-free-base porphyrin (AlPor-Ph-H2Por) dyad, the AlPor occupies the basal plane, while the free-base porphyrin (H2Por) with electron withdrawing groups resides in the axial position through a benzoate spacer. The NMR, UV-visible absorption, and steady-state fluorescence studies confirm that the coordination of pyridine appended tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivative (TTF-py or TTF-Ph-py) to the dyad in noncoordinating solvents afford vertically arranged supramolecular self-assembled triads (TTF-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por and TTF-Ph-py→AlPor-Ph-H2Por). Time-resolved studies revealed that the AlPor in dyad and triads undergoes photoinduced energy and/or electron transfer processes. Interestingly, the energy and electron donating/accepting nature of AlPor can be modulated by changing the solvent polarity or by stimulating a new competing process using a TTF molecule. In modest polar solvents (dichloromethane and o-dichlorobenzene), excitation of AlPor leads singlet-singlet energy transfer from the excited singlet state of AlPor ((1)AlPor*) to H2Por with a moderate rate constant (k(EnT)) of 1.78 × 10(8) s(-1). In contrast, excitation of AlPor in the triad results in ultrafast electron transfer from TTF to (1)AlPor* with a rate constant (k(ET)) of 8.33 × 10(9)-1.25 × 10(10) s(-1), which outcompetes the energy transfer from (1)AlPor* to H2Por and yields the primary radical pair TTF(+•)-AlPor(-•)-H2Por. A subsequent electron shift to H2Por generates a spatially well-separated TTF(+•)-AlPor-H2Por(-•) radical pair.

  18. Monóxido de carbono

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    La mayoria de los accidentes causados por envenenamiento por monoxido de carbono (CO) se producen en los hogares y estan relacionados a nuestras actividades diarias como cocinar y usar la calefaccion.

  19. Isolation of porphyran-degrading marine microorganisms from the surface of red alga, Porphyra yezoensis.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Takashi; Tsuge, Keisuke; Sumi, Toshihisa; Yoshiki, Masahiro; Tsuruta, Yumi; Abe, Shin-ichi; Nishino, Shiduo; Sanematsu, Seigo; Koganemaru, Kazuyoshi

    2006-04-01

    Marine microorganisms degrading porphyran (POR) were found on the surface of thalli of Porphyra yezoensis. Fifteen crude microorganism groups softened and liquefied the surface of agar-rich plate medium. Among these, 11 microorganism groups degraded porphyran that consisted of sulfated polysaccharide in Porphyra yezoensis. Following isolation, 7 POR-degradable microorganisms were isolated from the 11 POR-degradable microorganism groups.

  20. 78 FR 27954 - Frontseating Service Valves From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-13

    ... DunAn did not have reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, we preliminarily determine... potential shipments made by DunAn during the POR; CBP did not provide any evidence that contradicts DunAn's... determine that DunAn did not have any reviewable transactions during the POR. In addition, the...

  1. Autonomous Vehicle Panel 2011 Pacific Operations Science and Technology Conference

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-16

    Transportable Robot System (MTRS) POR Multi- Mission Unmanned Ground Vehicle (MM- UGV) CDD Husky Mounted Detection System (HMDS) POR...Battlefield Extraction Assist Robot (BEAR) Initiative Squad Multi- purpose Equipment Transport (SMET) CDD Exoskeleton (XOS) CDD Autonomous Mobility...Appliqué System (AMAS) CDD M160 Light Flail POR 3 CPD To be released Ground Robotics Capability Sets (photos are notional representations

  2. Light-Dependent Protochlorophyllide Oxidoreductase: Phylogeny, Regulation, and Catalytic Properties.

    PubMed

    Gabruk, Michal; Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata

    2015-09-01

    This Current Topic focuses on light-dependent protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR, EC 1.3.1.33). POR catalyzes the penultimate reaction of chlorophyll biosynthesis, i.e., the light-triggered reduction of protochlorophyllide to chlorophyllide. In this reaction, the chlorin ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed, which is crucial for photosynthesis. POR is one of very few enzymes that are driven by light; however, it is unique in the need for its substrate to absorb photons to induce the conformational changes in the enzyme, which are required for its catalytic activation. Moreover, the enzyme is also involved in the negative feedback of the chlorophyll biosynthesis pathway and controls chlorophyll content via its light-dependent activity. Even though it has been almost 70 years since the first isolation of active POR complexes, our knowledge of them has markedly advanced in recent years. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge of POR, including the phylogenetic roots of POR, the mechanisms of the regulation of POR genes expression, the regulation of POR activity, the import of POR into plastids, the role of POR in PLB formation, and the molecular mechanism of protochlorophyllide reduction by POR. To the best of our knowledge, no previous review has compiled such a broad set of recent findings about POR.

  3. Documentation and treatment outcomes of smear-negative and extra-pulmonary tuberculosis in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Tesgaye, F; Defar, A; Beyene, T; Shafi, O; Klinkenberg, E; Howe, R

    2014-12-21

    Cadre : La tuberculose (TB) extra-pulmonaire et la TB à frottis négatif constituent deux tiers des cas déclarés en Ethiopie, mais les rapports de routine ne précisent pas les résultats du traitement ni les facteurs sous-jacents associés.Objectif : Evaluer les résultats du traitement et les facteurs de risque associés à la TB extra-pulmonaire et à frottis négatif par comparaison avec les cas à frottis positif.Schéma : Revue des dossiers de tous les cas enregistrés dans 14 structures de santé publiques et privées sélectionnées au hasard à Addis Abeba pendant une période d'une année.Résultats : Les proportions de TB à frottis négatif et extra-pulmonaire étaient indépendantes du statut à l'égard du virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH) et n'étaient pas distribuées de façon égale dans les différentes structures. La TB extra-pulmonaire était surreprésentée dans le secteur privé et la TB à frottis négatif se trouvait plutôt dans les centres de santé que dans les hôpitaux. Les résultats rapportés par les centres de santé étaient plus favorables que ceux des hôpitaux ; aucune différence n'a été observée entre les structures publiques et privées. Seulement 54% des dossiers de TB étaient complets ; il y avait une corrélation entre le manque d'informations et des résultats défavorables. Un âge plus jeune était associé à un résultat favorable, mais le sexe et le statut VIH ne l'étaient pas.Conclusion : La distribution inégale de la TB à frottis négatif et extra-pulmonaire dans les différentes institutions justifie une nouvelle étude et pourrait révéler d'importantes perspectives en matière de diagnostic et de soins de ces patients. Le caractère incomplet des dossiers des patients tuberculeux pourrait être un facteur sous-estimé contribuant aux résultats défavorables.

  4. [Nutritional status of the persons living with HIV/AIDS; its relationship with T CD4+ cells counts].

    PubMed

    Linares Guerra, Elisa Maritza; Santana Porbén, Sergio; Carrillo Fornés, Olimpia; León Sánchez, Maria Amparo; Sanabria Negrín, José Guillermo; Acosta Núñez, Nadia; Pla Cruz, Alina; Coniell Linares, Emilia

    2013-11-01

    Justificación. La desnutrición puede presentarse en las personas con VIH/sida (PVIH/sida), y asociarse con deterioro del sistema inmune. Objetivo. Evaluar la asociación entre el estado nutricional de la PVIH/sida y el conteo de las células T CD4+. Diseño del estudio. Observacional, analítico y transversal. Métodos. El estado nutricional de 217 PVIH/sida domiciliados en la provincia Pinar del Río, Cuba (Hombres: 72.4%; Edad en el momento del diagnóstico del VIH/sida: < 30 años: 62.2%; Conteos CD4+ < 350 células.mm-3: 32,2%; Terapia antirretroviral: 33.2%) se estableció indistintamente mediante el Índice de Masa Corporal (IMC), la Evaluación Subjetiva Global (ESG) y el algoritmo de Chang. Se evaluó la asociación entre el estado nutricional y el conteo de CD4+ mediante las correspondientes razones de disparidades (OR), estimadas indistintamente de las razones de los productos cruzados de la tabla 2 x 2 de contingencia, o de los coeficientes del modelo de regresión logística. Resultados. La frecuencia de desnutrición fue dependiente del método de evaluación nutricional: IMC: 3.7%; Algoritmo de Chang: 8.8%; ESG: 10.6%; respectivamente. El estado nutricional se asoció débilmente con los conteos CD4+: IMC: ORTablaContingencia = 3.69 (p > 0.05); Algoritmo de Chang: ORTablaContingencia = 2.55 (p = 0.047); y ESG: ORTablaContingencia = 1.72 (p > 0.05); respectivamente. Ajustada la serie de datos según la terapia antirretroviral (TARV), la asociación entre los CD4+ y el estado nutricional fue como sigue: IMC: ORRegresiónLogística = 0.367 (p = 0.083); Algoritmo de Chang: ORRegresiónLogística = 2.604 (p = 0.050); y ESG: ORRegresiónLogística = 1.714 (p = 0.232); respectivamente. Conclusiones. La instauración de la TARV modifica apreciablemente la asociación que pudiera existir entre el sistema inmune y el estado nutricional. La disminución en los conteos de CD4+ en una PVIH/sida se asocia débilmente con el deterioro de los indicadores

  5. Setting research priorities for adolescent sexual and reproductive health in low- and middle-income countries.

    PubMed

    Hindin, Michelle J; Christiansen, Charlotte Sigurdson; Ferguson, B Jane

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Établir un processus, sous la direction d'experts, visant à identifier les priorités de la recherche en matière de santé sexuelle et reproductive chez l’adolescent dans les pays à revenu faible et moyen. MÉTHODES: Les auteurs ont modifié la méthode d'établissement des priorités de l'Initiative pour la recherche en santé et nutrition infantiles (CHNRI) afin d'obtenir la contribution de près de 300 chercheurs, gestionnaires de programmes de santé et donateurs, de formation et d'expérience très diverses, et provenant de toutes les régions géographiques. Dans le cadre d'un processus en trois phases, ils ont demandé à ces experts de: (i) classer les domaines de résultats par ordre d'importance, (ii) formuler des questions de recherche au sein de chaque domaine, et (iii) classer les questions formulées. RÉSULTATS: Sept domaines de la santé sexuelle et reproductive des adolescents ont été identifiés comme importants: (i) la santé maternelle; (ii) la contraception; (iii) la violence sexiste; (iv) le traitement et les soins des patients infectés par le virus de l'immunodéficience humaine (VIH); (v) l'avortement; (vi) l'intégration de la planification familiale et des services liés au VIH et (vii) les infections sexuellement transmissibles. Les experts ont généré de 30 à 40 questions de recherche dans chaque domaine. Pour déterminer le caractère prioritaire de ces questions, ils ont appliqué cinq critères: clarté, capacité de réponse, impact, mise en œuvre et pertinence en termes d'équité. Les classements se basaient sur les scores moyens généraux, dérivés de la moyenne des scores pour les critères individuels. Les experts étaient entièrement d'accord sur l'importance relative des questions dans chaque domaine. CONCLUSION: Les questions de recherche sur la prévalence des maladies qui affectent les adolescents cèdent la place à des questions de recherche sur l'intensification des

  6. Integrating antiretroviral therapy into antenatal care and maternal and child health settings: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Suthar, Amitabh B; Hoos, David; Beqiri, Alba; Lorenz-Dehne, Karl; McClure, Craig; Duncombe, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Résumé OBJECTIF: Déterminer si l'intégration de la thérapie antirétrovirale (TAR) dans les établissements de soins prénataux (ESP) et de santé maternelle et infantile (SMI) pourrait améliorer les résultats du programme et la santé du patient. MÉTHODES: Les auteurs ont systématiquement recherché via PubMed, Embase, African Index Medicus et LILACS des essais contrôlés randomisés, des études de cohorte prospectives et des études de cohorte rétrospectives comparant les résultats des cliniques ESP ou SMI ayant ou n'ayant pas intégré la TAR. Les résultats pris en compte comprenaient la couverture, la participation et la rétention de la TAR, ainsi que la mortalité et la transmission du virus d'immunodéficience humaine (VIH). RÉSULTATS: Quatre études répondaient aux critères d'inclusion. Toutes ont été menées dans des cliniques ESP. Une participation accrue des femmes enceintes à la TAR a été observée dans les cliniques ESP qui l’avaient intégrée (risque relatif, RR: 2,09; intervalle de confiance IC à 95%: 1,78 à 2,46; I: 15%). Une couverture plus importante de la TAR a également été notée dans ces cliniques (RR: 1,37; IC à 95%: 1,05 à 1,79; I: 83%). Les analyses de sensibilité ont révélé une tendance à la prévalence nationale de l'infection par le VIH pour expliquer l'hétérogénéité de la taille de l'effet de l'intégration de la TAR sur sa couverture (P = 0,13). La rétention de la TAR était similaire dans les cliniques ESP avec ou sans intégration de la TAR. CONCLUSION: Bien que peu de données aient été disponibles, l'intégration de la TAR dans les cliniques ESP semblait entraîner une augmentation des taux de participation et de couverture de la TAR. Les taux de rétention de la TAR restent semblables à ceux qui sont observés dans les modèles de référence.

  7. État de santé des nouveaux réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario

    PubMed Central

    Redditt, Vanessa J.; Janakiram, Praseedha; Graziano, Daniela; Rashid, Meb

    2015-01-01

    Résumé Objectif Déterminer la prévalence de certaines maladies infectieuses parmi les patients nouvellement réfugiés et la présence ou non d’une variation en fonction de facteurs démographiques clés. Conception Revue rétrospective de dossiers. Contexte Clinique de soins primaires pour patients réfugiés à Toronto, en Ontario. Participants Au total, 1063 patients réfugiés inscrits à la clinique entre décembre 2011 à juin 2014. Principaux paramètres à l’étude Données démographiques (âge, sexe et pays de naissance); prévalence de VIH, d’hépatite B, d’hépatite C, d’infections à strongyloïdes, à schistosomes, à parasite intestinal, de gonorrhée, de chlamydia et de syphilis; et immunité contre la varicelle. Résultats L’âge médian des patients était de 29 ans et 56 % étaient de sexe féminin. Les réfugiés étaient nés dans 87 pays différents. Environ 33 % des patients étaient originaires d’Afrique, 28 % d’Europe, 14 % de la région de la Méditerranée orientale, 14 % d’Asie et 8 % des Amériques (à l’exception de 4 % nés au Canada ou aux États-Unis). Le taux global de VIH était de 2 %. La prévalence d’hépatite B était de 4 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (12 %, p < 0,001). L’immunité contre l’hépatite B était de 39 %, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Asie (64 %, p < 0,001) et les enfants de moins de 5 ans (68 %, p < 0,001). Le taux d’hépatite C se situait à moins de 1 %. Une infection à strongyloïdes a été dépistée chez 3 % des patients testés, ce taux étant supérieur parmi les réfugiés originaires d’Afrique (6 %, p = 0,003). Une infection à schistosomes a été dépistée chez 15 % des patients africains. Des parasites intestinaux ont été observés chez 16 % des patients ayant soumis un échantillon de selles. Environ 8 % des patients n’étaient pas immunisés contre la varicelle, ce taux étant sup

  8. Pressure-Photoluminescence Study of the Zn Vacancy and Donor Zn-Vacancy Complexes in ZnSe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iota, V.; Weinstein, B. A.

    1997-03-01

    We report photoluminescence (PL) results to 65kbar (at 8K) on n-type electron irradiated ZnSe containing high densities of isolated Zn vacancies (V_Zn) and donor-V_Zn complexes (A-centers).^1 Isotropic pressure is applied using a diamond-anvil cell with He medium, and laser excitations above and below the ZnSe bandgap (2.82eV) are employed. The 1 atm. spectra exhibit excitonic lines, shallow donor-acceptor pair (DAP) peaks, and two broad bands due to DAP transitions between shallow donors and deep acceptor states at A-centers (2.07eV) or V_Zn (1.72eV). At all pressures, these broad bands are prominent only for sub-gap excitation, which results in: i) A-center PL at energies above the laser line, and ii) strong enhancement of the first LO-replica in the shallow DAP series compared to 3.41eV UV excitation. This suggests that sub-gap excitation produces long-lived metastable acceptor states. The broad PL bands shift to higher energy with pressure faster than the ZnSe direct gap, indicating that compression causes the A-center and V_Zn deep acceptor levels to approach the hole continuum. This behavior is similar to that found by our group for P and As deep acceptor levels in ZnSe, supporting the view that deep substitutional defects often resemble the limiting case of a vacancy. ^1D. Y. Jeon, H. P. Gislason, G. D. Watkins Phys. Rev. B 48, 7872 (1993); we thank G. D. Watkins for providing the samples. vih>(figures)

  9. 30 Doradus: The Low-Mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zinnecker, H.; Brandl, B.; Brandner, W.; Moneti, A.; Hunter, D.

    We have obtained HST/NICMOS H-band images of the central 1'x1' field around the R136 starburst cluster in the 30 Doradus HII region, in an attempt to reveal the presence (or absence) of a low-mass stellar population (M < 1 Mo). We will discuss the fascinating prospect of 30 Dor/R136 being a proto-globular cluster and a template starburst unit. At the time of writing, we are still working to determine which method and photometry package is best suited to our 0.15" NICMOS images, which are characterised by extreme crowding in the cluster center and a peculiar and slightly undersampled NICMOS PSF. The main difficulty with the PSF is identifying the many "dots" that appear outside the Airy ring as PSF features and not as faint stars. Prelimininary analysis suggests that the H-band luminosity function rises at least until H = 20 (2 Mo). We have detected numerous stars with 20.0 < H < 22.5 (the latter corresponding to 0.4 Mo) beyond about 7" from the cluster centre, but we have not yet determined the completeness in that magnitude range, and we are not yet in a position to make a statement about the shape of the H-band luminosity function there. We have combined our infrared data with the optical WFPC2 images of Hunter et al. (1995) to produce a VIH 3-colour image of the central 30" x 30" area. The result clearly shows unexpected patches of extinction, with one patch only about 5" from the cluster core.

  10. Long-term outcomes of oral rehabilitation with dental implants in HIV-positive patients: A retrospective case series

    PubMed Central

    Gay-Escoda, Cosme; Pérez-Álvarez, Débora; Camps-Font, Octavi

    2016-01-01

    Background The existing information on oral rehabilitations with dental implants in VIH-positive patients is scarce and of poor quality. Moreover, no long-term follow-up studies are available. Hence, the aims of this study were to describe the long-term survival and success rates of dental implants in a group of HIV-positive patients and to identify the most common postoperative complications, including peri-implant diseases. Material and Methods A retrospective case series of HIV-positive subjects treated with dental implants at the School of Dentistry of the University of Barcelona (Spain) was studied. Several clinical parameters were registered, including CD4 cell count, viral load and surgical complications. Additionally, the patients were assessed for implant survival and success rates and for the prevalence of peri-implant diseases. A descriptive statistical analysis of the data was performed. Results Nine participants (57 implants) were included. The patients’ median age was 42 years (IQR=13.5 years). The implant survival and success rates were 98.3% and 68.4%, respectively, with a mean follow-up of 77.5 months (SD=16.1 months). The patient-based prevalence of peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis were 22.2% and 44.4% respectively at the last appointment. Patients that attended regular periodontal maintenance visits had significantly less mean bone loss than non-compliant patients (1.3 mm and 3.9 mm respectively). Conclusions Oral rehabilitation with dental implants in HIV-positive patients seems to provide satisfactory results. In order to reduce the considerably high prevalence of peri-implant diseases, strict maintenance programmes must be implemented. Key words:HIV infection, dental implants, oral implantology, complications, peri-implantitis, peri-implant diseases. PMID:26946205

  11. Genetic diversity of newcastle disease virus in wild birds and pigeons in West Africa.

    PubMed

    Snoeck, Chantal J; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T; Owoade, Ademola A; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R; Ottosson, Ulf; Muller, Claude P

    2013-12-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region.

  12. Estimated Numbers of Men and Women Infected with HIV/AIDS in Tijuana, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Strathdee, Steffanie A.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bravo-García, Enrique; Gayet, Cecilia; Patterson, Thomas L.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.; Hogg, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    Tijuana, Mexico, just south of San Diego, California, is located by the busiest land border crossing in the world. Although UNAIDS considers Mexico to be a country of “low prevalence, high risk,” recent surveillance data among sentinel populations in Tijuana suggests HIV prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of men and women aged 15 to 49 years infected with HIV in Tijuana. Gender and age-specific estimates of the Tijuana population were obtained from the 2000 Mexican census. Population and HIV prevalence estimates for at-risk groups were obtained from published reports, community based studies, and data from the Centro Nacional para la Prevención y Control del VIH/SIDA (CENSIDA). Age-specific fertility rates for Mexico were used to derive the number of low and high-risk pregnant women. Numbers of HIV-positive men and women were estimated for each at-risk group and then aggregated. A high growth scenario based on current HIV prevalence and a conservative, low growth estimate were determined. A total of 686,600 men and women in Tijuana were aged 15 to 49 years at the time of the 2000 census. Considering both scenarios, the number of infected persons ranged from 1,803 to 5,472 (HIV prevalence: 0.26 to 0.80%). The majority of these persons were men (>70%). The largest number of infected persons were MSM (N = 1,146 to 3,300) and IDUs (N = 147 to 650). Our data suggest that up to one in every 125 persons aged 15–49 years in Tijuana is HIV-infected. Interventions to reduce ongoing spread of HIV are urgently needed. PMID:16736378

  13. Genetic Diversity of Newcastle Disease Virus in Wild Birds and Pigeons in West Africa

    PubMed Central

    Snoeck, Chantal J.; Adeyanju, Adeniyi T.; Owoade, Ademola A.; Couacy-Hymann, Emmanuel; Alkali, Bello R.; Ottosson, Ulf

    2013-01-01

    In West and Central Africa, virulent Newcastle disease virus (NDV) strains of the recently identified genotypes XIV, XVII, and XVIII are enzootic in poultry, representing a considerable threat to the sector. The increasing number of reports of virulent strains in wild birds at least in other parts of the world raised the question of a potential role of wild birds in the spread of virulent NDV in sub-Saharan Africa as well. We investigated 1,723 asymptomatic birds sampled at live-bird markets and sites important for wild-bird conservation in Nigeria and 19 sick or dead wild birds in Côte d'Ivoire for NDV class I and II. Typical avirulent wild-type genotype I strains were found in wild waterfowl in wetlands in northeastern Nigeria. They were unrelated to vaccine strains, and the involvement of inter- or intracontinental migratory birds in their circulation in the region is suggested. Phylogenetic analyses also revealed that genotype VI strains found in pigeons, including some putative new subgenotype VIh and VIi strains, were introduced on multiple separate occasions in Nigeria. A single virulent genotype XVIII strain was found in a dead wild bird in Côte d'Ivoire, probably as a result of spillover from sick poultry. In conclusion, screening of wild birds and pigeons for NDV revealed the presence a variety of virulent and avirulent strains in West Africa but did not provide strong evidence that wild birds play an important role in the spread of virulent strains in the region. PMID:24123735

  14. Réactions immunoallergiques graves aux antibacillaires: à propos de 10 cas

    PubMed Central

    Alami, Sabah El Machichi; Hammi, Sanae; Bourkadi, Jamal Eddine

    2014-01-01

    L'hypersensibilité aux antituberculeux est l'un des effets secondaires imprévisibles qui apparait chez 4 à 5 % de la population exposée et s’élève à 25% chez les sujets VIH positifs. Dans notre étude parmi 39 patients ayant présenté des réactions immunoallergiques, 10 avaient des formes graves. Le délai moyen d'apparition des signes était de 23 jours. Les réactions immunoallergiques observées étaient 5 cas de toxidermie généralisée fébrile, un cas de Dress syndrome, un cas de neutropénie, un cas de pancitopénie et 2 cas de thrombopénie. Tous nos patients avaient bien évolué cliniquement et bactériologiquement après l'adoption d'un régime thérapeutique excluant le ou les médicaments incriminés. En pratique, si l'effet indésirable imputé à un antituberculeux est grave, il est impératif de l'arrêter, de traiter l'incident et d'associer une autre molécule chez certains cas. Notre étude a montré une fréquence significative des complications graves probablement sous-estimée, surtout dans les pays fortement touchés par l'infection HIV.

  15. Estimated numbers of men and women infected with HIV/AIDS in Tijuana, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Brouwer, Kimberly C; Strathdee, Steffanie A; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Bravo-García, Enrique; Gayet, Cecilia; Patterson, Thomas L; Bertozzi, Stefano M; Hogg, Robert S

    2006-03-01

    Tijuana, Mexico, just south of San Diego, California, is located by the busiest land border crossing in the world. Although UNAIDS considers Mexico to be a country of "low prevalence, high risk," recent surveillance data among sentinel populations in Tijuana suggests HIV prevalence is increasing. The aim of this study was to estimate the number of men and women aged 15 to 49 years infected with HIV in Tijuana. Gender and age-specific estimates of the Tijuana population were obtained from the 2000 Mexican census. Population and HIV prevalence estimates for at-risk groups were obtained from published reports, community based studies, and data from the Centro Nacional para la Prevención y Control del VIH/SIDA (CENSIDA). Age-specific fertility rates for Mexico were used to derive the number of low and high-risk pregnant women. Numbers of HIV-positive men and women were estimated for each at-risk group and then aggregated. A high growth scenario based on current HIV prevalence and a conservative, low growth estimate were determined. A total of 686,600 men and women in Tijuana were aged 15 to 49 years at the time of the 2000 census. Considering both scenarios, the number of infected persons ranged from 1,803 to 5,472 (HIV prevalence: 0.26 to 0.80%). The majority of these persons were men (>70%). The largest number of infected persons were MSM (N = 1,146 to 3,300) and IDUs (N = 147 to 650). Our data suggest that up to one in every 125 persons aged 15-49 years in Tijuana is HIV-infected. Interventions to reduce ongoing spread of HIV are urgently needed.

  16. Observations of metals in the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium and comparison to the EAGLE simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Monica L.; Schaye, Joop; Crain, Robert A.; Theuns, Tom; Wendt, Martin

    2016-11-01

    We study the z ≈ 3.5 intergalactic medium (IGM) by comparing new, high-quality absorption spectra of eight QSOs with = 3.75, to virtual observations of the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) cosmological hydrodynamical simulations. We employ the pixel optical depth method and uncover strong correlations between various combinations of H I, C III, C IV, Si III, Si IV, and O VI. We find good agreement between many of the simulated and observed correlations, including τ_{O VI}(τ_{H I}). However, the observed median optical depths for the τ_{C IV}}(τ_{H I}) and τ_{Si IV}(τ_{H I}) relations are higher than those measured from the mock spectra. The discrepancy increases from up to ≈0.1 dex at τ_{H I}=1 to ≈1 dex at τ_{H I}=10^2, where we are likely probing dense regions at small galactocentric distances. As possible solutions, we invoke (a) models of ionizing radiation softened above 4 Ryd to account for delayed completion of He II reionization; (b) simulations run at higher resolution; (c) the inclusion of additional line broadening due to unresolved turbulence; and (d) increased elemental abundances; however, none of these factors can fully explain the observed differences. Enhanced photoionization of H I by local sources, which was not modelled, could offer a solution. However, the much better agreement with the observed O VI(H I) relation, which we find probes a hot and likely collisionally ionized gas phase, indicates that the simulations are not in tension with the hot phase of the IGM, and suggests that the simulated outflows may entrain insufficient cool gas.

  17. Analysis of Postsurgical Health-Related Quality of Life and Quality of Voice of Patients With Laryngeal Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jie; Wu, Jieli; Lv, Kexing; Li, Kaichun; Wu, Jianhui; Wen, Yihui; Li, Xiaoling; Tang, Haocheng; Jiang, Aiyun; Wang, Zhangfeng; Wen, Weiping; Lei, Wenbin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract This study aims to analyze the postsurgical health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and quality of voice (QOV) of patients with laryngeal carcinoma with an expectation of improving the treatment and HRQOL of these patients. Based on the collection of information of patients with laryngeal carcinoma regarding clinical characteristics (age, TNM stage, with or without laryngeal preservation and/or neck dissection, with or without postoperative irradiation and/or chemotherapy, etc.), QOV using Voice Handicap Index (VIH) scale and HRQOL using EORTC QLQ-C30 and EORTCQLQ-H&N35 scales, the differences of postsurgical HRQOL related to their clinical characteristics were analyzed using univariate nonparametric tests, the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were analyzed using regression analyses (generalized linear models) and the correlation between QOV and HRQOL analyzed using spearman correlation analysis. A total of 92 patients were enrolled in this study, on whom the use of EORTC QLQ-C30, EORTC QLQ-H&N35 and VHI scales revealed that: the differences of HRQOL were significant among patients with different ages, TNM stages, and treatment modalities; the main factors impacting the postsurgical HRQOL were pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth; and QOV was significantly correlated with HRQOL. For the patients with laryngeal carcinoma included in our study, the quality of life after open surgeries were impacted by many factors predominated by pain, speech disorder, and dry mouth. It is suggested that doctors in China do more efforts on the patients’ postoperative pain and xerostomia management and speech rehabilitation with the hope of improving the patients’ quality of life. PMID:26735538

  18. [Evaluation of the antiradical protector effect of multifermented milk serum with reiterated dosage in rats].

    PubMed

    Stella, V; Postaire, E

    1995-01-01

    Epidemiological and experimental studies suggest that dietary milk products may exert an inhibitory effect on the development of several types of tumors. Some recent experiments in rodents indicate that the antitumor activity of the dairy product is in the protein fraction and more specifically in the whey protein component of milk. It has been demonstrated that whey protein diets result in increased glutathione (GSH) concentration in a number of tissues, and that some of the beneficial effects of whey protein intake are abrogated by inhibition of GSH synthesis. Whey protein is particularly rich in substrates for GSH synthesis. It has been suggested that whey protein may be exerting its effect on carcinogenesis and VIH infection by enhancing GSH concentration. Lactoferrin, one of the proteins contained in whey has aise been studied in this way. It has been suggested that lactoferrin binding may play an important role in maintaining, optimal mononuclear phagocyte function, thus protecting adjacent tissue against phagocyte derived radicals. Moreover it has been demonstrated by one of us that the level of plasma lactoferrin were decreased in HIV-1 infected patients in relation to the progression of the disease. The aim of the present study is to evaluate in rat the reactive oxygen species, scavenger activities (ROSSA) of red blood cells (RBCs) with a multifermented whey (SK 344), by repeated doses during 16 days. This study has permitted to demonstrate in vivo that the SK 344 has an excellent ROSSA corresponding to a limitation of the lipoperoxidation of RBCs membranes by singlet oxygen and nitric oxide. We can conclude that whey protein, lactoferrin and multifermented whey are good candidates as dietary inhibitors of the oxidative stress and should be considered as potential medicinal foods in various pathologies as HIV infection and cancer.

  19. Effect of postural stress on left ventricular performance using the continuous-wave Doppler technique.

    PubMed

    Brown, R A; McCormick, K A; Vaitkevicius, P V; Fleg, J L

    1991-09-01

    To evaluate the effect of postural shifts on continuous-wave Doppler indices of left ventricular performance in normal man, we recorded Doppler signals suprasternally in 69 healthy volunteers, ranging in age from 20 to 86 years, in the supine position and 2 min after assumption of sitting and standing postures. All indices decreased progressively with increasing orthostasis: peak acceleration (PKA): 15.6 +/- 4.5 m/s2 to 14.0 +/- 4.0 m/s2 to 13.6 +/- 4.6 m/s2; peak velocity (PKV): 0.64 +/- 0.18 m/s to 0.58 +/- 0.17 m/s to 0.56 +/- 0.17 m/s; stroke distance (SD): 11.4 +/- 3.7 cm to 9.8 +/- 3.4 cm to 8.0 +/- 2.8 cm; SD x heart rate (VIH): 717 +/- 272 cm to 655 +/- 268 cm to 572 +/- 217 cm, from supine to sitting to standing, respectively (p less than 0.001). In contrast heart rate increased modestly from 62.4 +/- 10.0 bpm supine, to 66.9 +/- 12.4 bpm sitting, to 71.3 +/- 9.9 bpm standing (p less than .001). Similar postural changes in Doppler variables were seen in all three age groups (20 to 44 years; 45 to 64 years; and 65 to 86 years). Thus, orthostasis in normal subjects is accompanied by a reduction in all continuous-wave Doppler indices of left ventricular performance, regardless of age.

  20. The CHH-superfamily of multifunctional peptide hormones controlling crustacean metabolism, osmoregulation, moulting, and reproduction.

    PubMed

    Webster, Simon George; Keller, Rainer; Dircksen, Heinrich

    2012-01-15

    Apart from providing an up-to-date review of the literature, considerable emphasis was placed in this article on the historical development of the field of "crustacean eyestalk hormones". A role of the neurosecretory eyestalk structures of crustaceans in endocrine regulation was recognized about 80 years ago, but it took another half a century until the first peptide hormones were identified. Following the identification of crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone (CHH) and moult-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a large number of homologous peptides have been identified to this date. They comprise a family of multifunctional peptides which can be divided, according to sequences and precursor structure, into two subfamilies, type-I and -II. Recent results on peptide sequences, structure of genes and precursors are described here. The best studied biological activities include metabolic control, moulting, gonad maturation, ionic and osmotic regulation and methyl farnesoate synthesis in mandibular glands. Accordingly, the names CHH, MIH, and GIH/VIH (gonad/vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone), MOIH (mandibular organ-inhibiting hormone) were coined. The identification of ITP (ion transport peptide) in insects showed, for the first time, that CHH-family peptides are not restricted to crustaceans, and data mining has recently inferred their occurrence in other ecdysozoan clades as well. The long-held tenet of exclusive association with the eyestalk X-organ-sinus gland tract has been challenged by the finding of several extra nervous system sites of expression of CHH-family peptides. Concerning mode of action and the question of target tissues, second messenger mechanisms are discussed, as well as binding sites and receptors. Future challenges are highlighted.

  1. [Detecting high risk pregnancy].

    PubMed

    Doret, Muriel; Gaucherand, Pascal

    2009-12-20

    Antenatal care is aiming to reduce maternal land foetal mortality and morbidity. Maternal and foetal mortality can be due to different causes. Their knowledge allows identifying pregnancy (high risk pregnancy) with factors associated with an increased risk for maternal and/or foetal mortality and serious morbidity. Identification of high risk pregnancies and initiation of appropriate treatment and/or surveillance should improve maternal and/or foetal outcome. New risk factors are continuously described thanks to improvement in antenatal care and development in biology and cytopathology, increasing complexity in identifying high risk pregnancies. Level of risk can change all over the pregnancy. Ideally, it should be evaluated prior to the pregnancy and at each antenatal visit. Clinical examination is able to screen for intra-uterin growth restriction, pre-eclampsia, threatened for preterm labour; ultrasounds help in the diagnosis of foetal morphological anomalies, foetal chromosomal anomalies, placenta praevia and abnormal foetal growth; biological exams are used to screen for pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes, trisomy 21 (for which screening method just changed), rhesus immunisation, seroconversion for toxoplasmosis or rubeola, unknown infectious disease (syphilis, hepatitis B, VIH). During pregnancy, most of the preventive strategies have to be initiated during the first trimester or even before conception. Prevention for neural-tube defects, neonatal hypocalcemia and listeriosis should be performed for all women. On the opposite, some measures are concerning only women with risk factors such as prevention for toxoplasmosis, rhesus immunization (which recently changed), tobacco complications and pre-eclampsia and intra-uterine growth factor restriction.

  2. The high-ion content and kinematics of low-redshift Lyman limit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Fox, Andrew J.; Tumlinson, Jason; Bordoloi, Rongmon; Lehner, Nicolas; Howk, J. Christopher; Tripp, Todd M.; Katz, Neal; Prochaska, J. Xavier; Werk, Jessica K.; Oppenheimer, Benjamin D.; Davé, Romeel

    2013-12-01

    We study the high-ion content and kinematics of the circumgalactic medium around low-redshift galaxies using a sample of 23 Lyman limit systems (LLSs) at 0.08 < z < 0.93 observed with the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope. In Lehner et al., we recently showed that low-z LLSs have a bimodal metallicity distribution. Here we extend that analysis to search for differences between the high-ion and kinematic properties of the metal-poor and metal-rich branches. We find that metal-rich LLSs tend to show higher O VI columns and broader O VI profiles than metal-poor LLSs. The total H I line width (Δv {sub 90} statistic) in LLSs is not correlated with metallicity, indicating that the H I kinematics alone cannot be used to distinguish inflow from outflow and gas recycling. Among the 17 LLSs with O VI detections, all but two show evidence of kinematic sub-structure, in the form of O VI-H I centroid offsets, multiple components, or both. Using various scenarios for how the metallicities in the high-ion and low-ion phases of each LLS compare, we constrain the ionized hydrogen column in the O VI phase to lie in the range log N(H II) ∼ 17.6-20. The O VI phase of LLSs is a substantial baryon reservoir, with M(high-ion) ∼ 10{sup 8.5-10.9} (r/150 kpc){sup 2} M {sub ☉}, similar to the mass in the low-ion phase. Accounting for the O VI phase approximately doubles the contribution of low-z LLSs to the cosmic baryon budget.

  3. Differential regulation of hepatopancreatic vitellogenin (VTG) gene expression by two putative molt-inhibiting hormones (MIH1/2) in Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei).

    PubMed

    Luo, Xing; Chen, Ting; Zhong, Ming; Jiang, Xiao; Zhang, Lvping; Ren, Chunhua; Hu, Chaoqun

    2015-06-01

    Molt-inhibiting hormone (MIH), a peptide member of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH) family, is commonly considered as a negative regulator during the molt cycle in crustaceans. Phylogenetic analysis of CHH family peptides in penaeidae shrimps suggested that there is no significant differentiation between MIH and vitellogenesis-inhibiting hormone (VIH, another peptide member of CHH family), by far the most potent negative regulator of crustacean vitellogenesis known. Thus, MIH may also play a role in regulating vitellogenesis. In this study, two previously reported putative MIHs (LivMIH1 and LivMIH2) in the Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) were expressed in Escherichia coli, purified by immobilized metal ion affinity chromatography (IMAC) and further confirmed by western blot. Regulation of vitellogenin (VTG) mRNA expression by recombinant LivMIH1 and LivMIH2 challenge was performed by both in vitro hepatopancreatic primary cells culture and in vivo injection approaches. In in vitro primary culture of shrimp hepatopancreatic cells, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 administration could improve the mRNA expression of VTG. In in vivo injection experiments, similarly, only LivMIH2 but not LivMIH1 could stimulate hepatopancreatic VTG gene expression and induce ovary maturation. Our study may provide evidence for one isoform of MIH (MIH2 in L. vannamei) may serve as one of the mediators of the physiological progress of molting and vitellogenesis. Our study may also give new insight in CHH family peptides regulating reproduction in crustaceans, in particular penaeidae shrimps.

  4. The Trojan war dated by two solar eclipses.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriksson, Goran

    The Trojan War was very significant for the ancient Greeks and they dated historical events according to the number of years after the fall of Troy. However, there was already in antiquity no consensus as to the exact date of the war when compared with different epochs. Even after the modern discovery of the ancient city, there has been disagreement among different excavators as to which layer corresponds to the city mentioned in the Iliad attributed to Homer. In this paper an attempt is made to identify the strange obscuration of the sun that occurred during the final battle of the Iliad as a total solar eclipse close to the southern border of the zone of totality. There exists only one solar eclipse that corresponds to the description in the text and this is the total solar eclipse of June 11, in 1312 BC. When I first presented this date in 1986, there was a difference of about 60 years compared with the most common archaeological dating at that time. My date is now fully supported by the latest results from the German-American excavation that identifies the fall of Homer's Troy with the destruction of the archaeological layer Troy VIh, dated to about 1300 BC. Further independent support is provided by another solar eclipse that dates the reign of the Hittite king Muwatalli II. This king wrote a letter to king Alaksandu in Wilusa, identified as the Hittite name for Ilios, the most frequently used name for Troy in the Iliad. Alexander was another name for Paris who abducted Helen, the crime that resulted in the war. Muwatalli II was king 1315-1297 BC, according to the chronology for the Hittite Kingdom based on a solar eclipse in 1335 BC, during the tenth year of King Mursili II (1345- 1315 BC), the father of Muwatalli II.

  5. Transcriptome and Peptidome Characterisation of the Main Neuropeptides and Peptidic Hormones of a Euphausiid: The Ice Krill, Euphausia crystallorophias

    PubMed Central

    Toullec, Jean-Yves; Corre, Erwan; Bernay, Benoît; Thorne, Michael A. S.; Cascella, Kévin; Ollivaux, Céline; Henry, Joël; Clark, Melody S.

    2013-01-01

    Background The Ice krill, Euphausia crystallorophias is one of the species at the base of the Southern Ocean food chain. Given their significant contribution to the biomass of the Southern Ocean, it is vitally important to gain a better understanding of their physiology and, in particular, anticipate their responses to climate change effects in the warming seas around Antarctica. Methodology/Principal Findings Illumina sequencing was used to produce a transcriptome of the ice krill. Analysis of the assembled contigs via two different methods, produced 36 new pre-pro-peptides, coding for 61 neuropeptides or peptide hormones belonging to the following families: Allatostatins (A, B et C), Bursicon (α and β), Crustacean Hyperglycemic Hormones (CHH and MIH/VIHs), Crustacean Cardioactive Peptide (CCAP), Corazonin, Diuretic Hormones (DH), the Eclosion Hormone (EH), Neuroparsin, Neuropeptide F (NPF), small Neuropeptide F (sNPF), Pigment Dispersing Hormone (PDH), Red Pigment Concentrating Hormone (RPCH) and finally Tachykinin. LC/MS/MS proteomics was also carried out on eyestalk extracts, which are the major site of neuropeptide synthesis in decapod crustaceans. Results confirmed the presence of six neuropeptides and six precursor-related peptides previously identified in the transcriptome analyses. Conclusions This study represents the first comprehensive analysis of neuropeptide hormones in a Eucarida non-decapod Malacostraca, several of which are described for the first time in a non-decapod crustacean. Additionally, there is a potential expansion of PDH and Neuropeptide F family members, which may reflect certain life history traits such as circadian rhythms associated with diurnal migrations and also the confirmation via mass spectrometry of several novel pre-pro-peptides, of unknown function. Knowledge of these essential hormones provides a vital framework for understanding the physiological response of this key Southern Ocean species to climate change and provides

  6. Altered heme catabolism by heme oxygenase-1 caused by mutations in human NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, Amit V.; Flueck, Christa E.; Mullis, Primus E.

    2010-09-24

    Research highlights: {yields} Mutations in POR identified from patients lead to reduced HO-1 activities. {yields} POR mutation Y181D affecting FMN binding results in total loss of HO-1 activity. {yields} POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F, lost 50-70% activity. {yields} Mutations in FAD binding domain, R457H, Y459H and V492E lost all HO-1 activity. {yields} POR polymorphisms P228L, R316W, G413S, A503V and G504R have normal activity. -- Abstract: Human heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) carries out heme catabolism supported by electrons supplied from the NADPH through NADPH P450 reductase (POR, CPR). Previously we have shown that mutations in human POR cause a rare form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia. In this study, we have evaluated the effects of mutations in POR on HO-1 activity. We used purified preparations of wild type and mutant human POR and in vitro reconstitution with purified HO-1 to measure heme degradation in a coupled assay using biliverdin reductase. Here we show that mutations in POR found in patients may reduce HO-1 activity, potentially influencing heme catabolism in individuals carrying mutant POR alleles. POR mutants Y181D, A457H, Y459H, V492E and R616X had total loss of HO-1 activity, while POR mutations A287P, C569Y and V608F lost 50-70% activity. The POR variants P228L, R316W and G413S, A503V and G504R identified as polymorphs had close to WT activity. Loss of HO-1 activity may result in increased oxidative neurotoxicity, anemia, growth retardation and iron deposition. Further examination of patients affected with POR deficiency will be required to assess the metabolic effects of reduced HO-1 activity in affected individuals.

  7. RNAi based simultaneous silencing of all forms of light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase genes result in the accumulation of protochlorophyllide in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum).

    PubMed

    Talaat, Neveen B

    2013-10-01

    Conversion of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide) into chlorophyllide (Chlide), a key step in chlorophyll biosynthesis, is mediated by a light-dependent NADPH:protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase (POR). POR exists in multiple isoforms that share high degree of homology. RNAi-mediated gene silencing approach was used to suppress the expression of POR genes in order to study its role in the Chls biosynthesis in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.). The transgenic plants were devoid of chlorophyll pigments and resembled albino plants. Northern blot analysis confirmed the degradation of POR transcripts into 21-23 bp fragments. Pigment analysis showed the accumulation of various intermediate compounds of Chl biosynthesis pathway including Pchlide. However, no trace of chlorophyll was observed. As compared to wild type, POR-silenced plants accumulated larger (60%) amounts of Pchlide from its endogenous substrate. When leaf discs of WT and POR-silenced plants were treated with exogenous ALA both WT and POR-silenced plants accumulated large amounts of tetrapyrrolic intermediates demonstrating that Pchlide biosynthesis potential was not suppressed in POR-silenced plants. Upon illumination, WT plants photo-transformed large amounts of Pchlide to Chlide. However, POR-silenced plants almost completely failed to do so. Results demonstrate that the antisense approaches to drop expression of individual POR isoforms have provided valuable insights into the role of distinct PORs during greening. Moreover, data illustrate that the POR is the only enzyme that can convert the Pchlide to Chlide and there is no alternate enzyme that can substitute the POR in higher plants. Thus, this investigation describes ideal mechanism for the silencing of POR isozymes in tobacco.

  8. A two-component system regulates gene expression of the type IX secretion component proteins via an ECF sigma factor

    PubMed Central

    Kadowaki, Tomoko; Yukitake, Hideharu; Naito, Mariko; Sato, Keiko; Kikuchi, Yuichiro; Kondo, Yoshio; Shoji, Mikio; Nakayama, Koji

    2016-01-01

    The periodontopathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis secretes potent pathogenic proteases, gingipains, via the type IX secretion system (T9SS). This system comprises at least 11 components; however, the regulatory mechanism of their expression has not yet been elucidated. Here, we found that the PorY (PGN_2001)-PorX (PGN_1019)-SigP (PGN_0274) cascade is involved in the regulation of T9SS. Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) analysis revealed a direct interaction between a recombinant PorY (rPorY) and a recombinant PorX (rPorX). rPorY autophosphorylated and transferred a phosphoryl group to rPorX in the presence of Mn2+. These results demonstrate that PorX and PorY act as a response regulator and a histidine kinase, respectively, of a two component system (TCS), although they are separately encoded on the chromosome. T9SS component-encoding genes were down-regulated in a mutant deficient in a putative extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factor, PGN_0274 (SigP), similar to the porX mutant. Electrophoretic gel shift assays showed that rSigP bound to the putative promoter regions of T9SS component-encoding genes. The SigP protein was lacking in the porX mutant. Co-immunoprecipitation and SPR analysis revealed the direct interaction between SigP and PorX. Together, these results indicate that the PorXY TCS regulates T9SS-mediated protein secretion via the SigP ECF sigma factor. PMID:26996145

  9. P450 oxidoreductase deficiency - a new form of congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Flück, Christa E; Pandey, Amit V; Huang, Ningwu; Agrawal, Vishal; Miller, Walter L

    2008-01-01

    Patients with adrenal insufficiency, genital anomalies and bony malformations resembling the Antley- Bixler syndrome (a craniosynostosis syndrome), are likely to have P450 oxidoreductase (POR) deficiency. Since our first report in 2004, about 26 recessive POR mutations have been identified in 50 patients. POR is the obligate electron donor to all microsomal (type II) P450 enzymes, including the steroidogenic enzymes CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1. POR deficiency may cause disordered sexual development manifested as genital undervirilization in 46,XY newborns as well as overvirilization in those who are 46,XX. This may be explained by impaired aromatization of fetal androgens which may also lead to maternal virilization and low urinary estriol levels during pregnancy. A role for the alternate 'backdoor' pathway of androgen biosynthesis, leading to dihydrotestosterone production bypassing androstenedione and testosterone, has been suggested in POR deficiency but remains unclear. POR variants may play an important role in drug metabolism, as most drugs are metabolized by hepatic microsomal P450 enzymes. However, functional assays studying the effects of specific POR mutations on steroidogenesis showed that several POR variants impaired CYP17A1, CYP21A2 and CYP19A1 activities to different degrees, indicating that each POR variant must be studied separately for each potential target P450 enzyme. Thus, the impact of POR mutations on drug metabolism by hepatic P450s requires further investigation.

  10. Efficient anti-tumor effect of photodynamic treatment with polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer encapsulating hydrophobic porphyrin derivative.

    PubMed

    Ogawara, Ken-ichi; Shiraishi, Taro; Araki, Tomoya; Watanabe, Taka-ichi; Ono, Tsutomu; Higaki, Kazutaka

    2016-01-20

    To develop potent and safer formulation of photosensitizer for cancer photodynamic therapy (PDT), we tried to formulate hydrophobic porphyrin derivative, photoprotoporphyrin IX dimethyl ester (PppIX-DME), into polymeric nanoparticles composed of polyethylene glycol and polylactic acid block copolymer (PN-Por). The mean particle size of PN-Por prepared was around 80nm and the zeta potential was determined to be weakly negative. In vitro phototoxicity study for PN-Por clearly indicated the significant phototoxicity of PN-Por for three types of tumor cells tested (Colon-26 carcinoma (C26), B16BL6 melanoma and Lewis lung cancer cells) in the PppIX-DME concentration-dependent fashion. Furthermore, it was suggested that the release of PppIX-DME from PN-Por would gradually occur to provide the sustained release of PppIX-DME. In vivo pharmacokinetics of PN-Por after intravenous administration was evaluated in C26 tumor-bearing mice, and PN-Por exhibited low affinity to the liver and spleen and was therefore retained in the blood circulation for a long time, leading to the efficient tumor disposition of PN-Por. Furthermore, significant and highly effective anti-tumor effect was confirmed in C26 tumor-bearing mice with the local light irradiation onto C26 tumor tissues after PN-Por injection. These findings indicate the potency of PN-Por for the development of more efficient PDT-based cancer treatments.

  11. Perceptions of risks to children's health from indoor air pollution and an investigation of respiratory illness symptoms from indoor heating with a woodburning stove

    SciTech Connect

    Osborne, J.S. III

    1986-01-01

    This study explores perceptions of risks to health (POR), risk taking behavior (RTB), and associated illness from the perspectives of medical anthropology and epidemiology. Specific objectives included investigation of the following: (1) general POR: (2) POR from indoor air pollution (IAP) and parental usage of IAP sources; (3) the relationship between POR and RTB; factors affecting POR and RTB; (4) the construction of risk domains; (5) sources of intracultural variation in POR, RTB, and the partitioning of risk domains; (6) patterns of indoor heating in central Michigan; and (7) respiratory illness symptoms (RIS) in children from exposure to indoor heating with a woodburning stove (WBS). POR and RTB were investigated in random and ethnographic samples, RIS in a random sample with an internal comparison group, and indoor heating in a random sample. Interview schedules were developed for each phase of inquiry. The instrument used to investigate POR and RTB includes both qualitative and quantitative scales for POR assessment. Findings of this study provide an ethnography of risk, an inferential analysis of POR/RTB, and a preliminary assessment of risks of RIS from heating with WBS.

  12. Patterns of coral disease across the Hawaiian Archipelago: Relating disease to environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Aeby, G.S.; Williams, G.J.; Franklin, E.C.; Kenyon, J.; Cox, E.F.; Coles, S.; Work, T.M.

    2011-01-01

    In Hawaii, coral reefs occur across a gradient of biological (host abundance), climatic (sea surface temperature anomalies) and anthropogenic conditions from the human-impacted reefs of the main Hawaiian Islands (MHI) to the pristine reefs of the northwestern Hawaiian Islands (NWHI). Coral disease surveys were conducted at 142 sites from across the Archipelago and disease patterns examined. Twelve diseases were recorded from three coral genera (Porites, Montipora, Acropora) with Porites having the highest prevalence. Porites growth anomalies (PorGAs) were significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the MHI and Porites trematodiasis (PorTrm) was significantly more prevalent within and indicative of reefs in the NWHI. Porites tissue loss syndrome (PorTLS) was also important in driving regional differences but that relationship was less clear. These results highlight the importance of understanding disease ecology when interpreting patterns of disease occurrence. PorTrm is caused by a parasitic flatworm that utilizes multiple hosts during its life cycle (fish, mollusk and coral). All three hosts must be present for the disease to occur and higher host abundance leads to higher disease prevalence. Thus, a high prevalence of PorTrm on Hawaiian reefs would be an indicator of a healthy coral reef ecosystem. In contrast, the high occurrence of PorGAs within the MHI suggests that PorGAs are related, directly or indirectly, to some environmental co-factor associated with increased human population sizes. Focusing on the three indicator diseases (PorGAs, PorTrm, PorTLS) we used statistical modeling to examine the underlying associations between disease prevalence and 14 different predictor variables (biotic and abiotic). All three diseases showed positive associations with host abundance and negative associations with thermal stress. The association with human population density differed among disease states with PorGAs showing a positive and PorTrm showing

  13. 77 FR 58512 - Corrosion-Resistant Carbon Steel Flat Products From the Republic of Korea: Preliminary Results of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... resulting benefit by POSCO's total free on board (f.o.b.) sales. See 19 CFR 351.525(b)(3). On this basis, we... attributable to the POR by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we determine a net... of exemptions by Dongbu's total f.o.b. sales for the POR. On this basis, we preliminarily...

  14. 75 FR 12206 - Certain Frozen Warmwater Shrimp From the Socialist Republic of Vietnam: Preliminary Results...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-15

    ... pink shrimp (Penaeus notialis), southern rough shrimp (Trachypenaeus curvirostris), southern white... available, contemporaneous with the POR and exclusive of taxes and duties.\\11\\ As a general matter,...

  15. ESHRE consensus on the definition of 'poor response' to ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization: the Bologna criteria.

    PubMed

    Ferraretti, A P; La Marca, A; Fauser, B C J M; Tarlatzis, B; Nargund, G; Gianaroli, L

    2011-07-01

    The definition presented here represents the first realistic attempt by the scientific community to standardize the definition of poor ovarian response (POR) in a simple and reproducible manner. POR to ovarian stimulation usually indicates a reduction in follicular response, resulting in a reduced number of retrieved oocytes. It has been recognized that, in order to define the poor response in IVF, at least two of the following three features must be present: (i) advanced maternal age or any other risk factor for POR; (ii) a previous POR; and (iii) an abnormal ovarian reserve test (ORT). Two episodes of POR after maximal stimulation are sufficient to define a patient as poor responder in the absence of advanced maternal age or abnormal ORT. By definition, the term POR refers to the ovarian response, and therefore, one stimulated cycle is considered essential for the diagnosis of POR. However, patients of advanced age with an abnormal ORT may be classified as poor responders since both advanced age and an abnormal ORT may indicate reduced ovarian reserve and act as a surrogate of ovarian stimulation cycle outcome. In this case, the patients should be more properly defined as 'expected poor responder'. If this definition of POR is uniformly adapted as the 'minimal' criteria needed to select patients for future clinical trials, more homogeneous populations will be tested for any new protocols. Finally, by reducing bias caused by spurious POR definitions, it will be possible to compare results and to draw reliable conclusions.

  16. Characterisation and immune responses to meningococcal recombinant porin complexes incorporated into liposomes.

    PubMed

    Sánchez, Sandra; Abel, Ana; Marzoa, Juan; Gorringe, Andrew; Criado, Teresa; Ferreirós, Carlos M

    2009-08-27

    We have analysed the structure of meningococcal outer membrane complexes and found that the main complexes are formed by different combinations of PorA and/or PorB molecules, associated to other proteins such as RmpM. In view of the growing knowledge of the importance of conformational epitopes in the immune responses to many pathogens, our aim in this study was to analyse the interactions of PorA and PorB by reconstitution of both recombinant porins into liposomes and determine the relevance of these interactions for the immune response. Recombinant PorA and PorB incorporated into liposomes associate forming complexes that are homomeric when only one of the porins is present, but heteromeric when both neisserial porins are present, mimicking those found previously in native outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). Association of PorA and PorB to form heterocomplexes modifies the immunogenicity of at least PorB, allowing the production of antibodies that recognise conformational epitopes, and produces new epitopes that react with a 50 kDa outer membrane protein not yet identified.

  17. [Financial expenses incurred by herniated disk in health professionals].

    PubMed

    Zonana-Nacach, Abraham; Moreno-Cazares, Marco Cesar; Gómez-Naranjo, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Antecedentes: las incapacidades prolongadas no sólo tienen un alto costo económico sino también repercusiones en la productividad debido a la ausencia del trabajador. Objetivo: evaluar el costo del subsidio pagado por el Instituto Mexicano Seguro Social (IMSS) a los trabajadores que incapacita por hernia de disco. Material y métodos: estudio observacional, descriptivo, transversal y retrospectivo efectuado con trabajadores del IMSS a quienes se incapacita para no laborar por más de 14 días. El estudio se efectuó mediante la revisión de los registros asentados entre 2009-2011 de 1,070 trabajadores con incapacidad prolongada de los que 48 tuvieron diagnóstico de hernia de disco. Se cuantificaron los días totales de incapacidad, días subsidiados por incapacidad versus los días sugeridos por el consejero médico de incapacidades. Resultados: de los 48 pacientes con hernias de disco, 54% fueron cervicales y 65% recibieron tratamiento uirúrgico. Los días totales promedio de incapacidad por hernias de disco fueron 125 ± 84 y 24 (50%), respectivamente. De las que rebasaron las recomendadas por el consejero médico, 6 (26%) fueron por concordancia diagnóstica, 12 (52%) por diferimiento en el diagnóstico y 5 (22%) por dolor residual. El costo de las incapacidades laborales originadas por hernias de disco que rebasaron las sugeridas por el consejero médico fue de 683,026 pesos en comparación con 367,081 pesos que no rebasaron la recomendación de éste. Después de 12 meses de seguimiento, 9 casos (18.8%) seguían con incapacidad y 2 (4%) tuvieron pensión por invalidez. Conclusiones: el costo en subsidio por incapacidades a pacientes con hernia de disco se duplicó principalmente por diferimiento en el diagnóstico.

  18. Epidémiologie et étiologies des insuffisances cardiaques à Lomé

    PubMed Central

    Pio, Machihudé; Afassinou, Yaovi; Pessinaba, Soulemane; Baragou, Soodougoua; N'djao, Jacques; Atta, Borgatia; Ehlan, Efadzi; Damorou, Findibé; Goeh-Akué, Edem

    2014-01-01

    Introduction L'objectif est de déterminer la fréquence et les principales étiologies des insuffisances cardiaques (IC) en milieu cardiologique à Lomé. Méthodes Il s'agissait d'une étude transversale réalisée de janvier 2010 au Janvier 2012 dans le service de cardiologie du CHU Sylvanus Olympio de Lomé. Elle a porté sur 297 dossiers des patients hospitalisés pour IC. L’échodoppler cardiaque était indispensable pour l'inclusion du dossier dans l’étude. Résultats L'IC représentait 25,6% des hospitalisations. L’âge moyen des patients était de 52,2 ± 16,7 ans avec un sex ratio à 0,93. Le tableau clinique était celui d'une IC globale (67%), IC gauche (31,3%) et IC droite (1,7%). La fraction d’éjection du ventricule gauche (FEVG) moyenne était de 0,4 ± 0,17 (extrêmes 0,07 et 0,88). Les diagnostics lésionnels des IC étaient les cardiomyopathies dilatées (60%), l'IC à FEVG conservée (11,4%), les valvulopathies (11,8%). Les étiologies étaient l'hypertension artérielle (HTA) (43,1%), les coronaropathies (19,2%), la cardiomyopathie du péripartum (11,8%), les valvulopathies (11,8%), la cardiothyréose (3%), le c'ur pulmonaire chronique (2,7%), les cardiopathies congénitales (2,7%), l'alcoolisme chronique (2%), le VIH (3,4%) et idiopathique (5,9%). Conclusion L'IC est fréquente à Lomé et touche les sujets jeunes. Les lésions sont sévères et avancées sous forme de cardiomyopathies dilatées. PMID:25419310

  19. Mixed impact of Xpert(®) MTB/RIF on tuberculosis diagnosis in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Auld, S C; Moore, B K; Kyle, R P; Eng, B; Nong, K; Pevzner, E S; Eam, K K; Eang, M T; Killam, W P

    2016-06-21

    Contexte : Sites du Programme National contre la Tuberculose (TB) dans le nord-ouest du Cambodge.Objectif : Evaluer l'impact du Xpert(®) MTB/RIF dans des sites où il est réalisé sur place (POC) comparés aux autres sites sur le diagnostic des personnes vivant avec le VIH (PVVIH) et ayant des symptômes de TB ainsi que des patients présumées de TB multirésistante (MDR).Schéma : Cohorte d'observation de patients bénéficiant d'une évaluation diagnostique de routine pour la TB après le lancement de l'Xpert.Résultats : Entre octobre 2011 et juin 2013, 431/822 (52%) PVVIH ayant des symptômes de TB et 240/493 (49%) patients avec suspicion de TB-MDR ont eu un test Xpert. L'Xpert a été réalisé plus souvent lorsqu'il était disponible en POC. Une plus faible proportion de PVVIH a eu un diagnostic de TB dans les sites POC que dans les sites non-POC ; cependant, dans les sites POC, une proportion plus élevée des patients ayant eu un diagnostic de TB a eu une bactériologie positive. L'accord entre l'Xpert et les autres tests (par exemple la microscopie de frottis ou la culture) a été médiocre. Dans l'ensemble, l'évaluation des patients présumées de TB-MDR a augmenté après le lancement de l'Xpert, mais parmi les patients ayant eu une pharmacorésistance confirmée par test de pharmacosensibilité, seulement 46% ont eu une résistance à la rifampicine qui aurait été identifiée par Xpert.Conclusion : Même si l'utilisation de l'Xpert a été faible, l'Xpert pourrait avoir contribué à une augmentation de l'évaluation des suspicions de TB-MDR et à un déclin du traitement empirique des PVVIH quand il est disponible sur place.

  20. Prise en charge diagnostique et thérapeutique de la tuberculose ganglionnaire en Tunisie

    PubMed Central

    Ben Brahim, Hajer; Kooli, Ikbel; Aouam, Abir; Toumi, Adnene; Loussaief, Chawki; Koubaa, Jamel; Chakroun, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    La tuberculose ganglionnaire est la localisation extra-pulmonaire la plus fréquente de la tuberculose. Nous nous proposons dans ce travail d’étudier les modalités diagnostiques, thérapeutiques et évolutives de cette localisation. Il s'agit d'une étude rétrospective portant sur 100 cas de tuberculose ganglionnaire. L’âge moyen était de 35 ± 15 ans (15-85 ans). Aucun malade n’était VIH positif. L'aire cervicale était la plus touchée (93 cas). L'intradermo-réaction à la tuberculine était positive dans 76/91 cas (83,5%). L'examen bactériologique des prélèvements au niveau des ganglions atteints avait mis en évidence des bacilles acido-alcoolo-résistants à l'examen direct dans 2/31 cas (6,4%) et la culture avait isolé Mycobacteruim tuberculosis dans 1/31 cas (3,2%). La cytoponction ganglionnaire (FNAC) était évocatrice de tuberculose dans 35/42 cas (83,3%). La biopsie ganglionnaire était réalisée dans 69 cas et avait permis de retenir le diagnostic de tuberculose dans tous les cas. La FNAC, comparativement à la biopsie, avait permis de raccourcir significativement le délai de la prise en charge (15,1 vs 22,8 jours; p=0,001) et la durée d'hospitalisation (17,3 vs 24,6; p=0,004). La durée moyenne du traitement antituberculeux était de 9,8 ± 4,6 mois (7 à 44 mois). Le traitement chirurgical initial avait raccourci significativement la durée du traitement médical. Il n'avait pas d'impact sur le taux de guérison. Nous avons noté 10 cas de réponse paradoxale aux antituberculeux, quatre cas de résistance clinique et une rechute dans deux cas. La tuberculose ganglionnaire pose un problème diagnostique et thérapeutique. La microbiologie est d'un faible apport. La FNAC est un moyen diagnostique très utiles dans les pays endémiques et à faibles ressources. Un traitement médical seul permet d’éviter les inconvénients de la chirurgie. PMID:25829976