Matey, Elizabeth J; Tokoro, Masaharu; Mizuno, Tetsushi; Matsumura, Takahiro; Nagamoto, Takehiro; Bi, Xiuqiong; Oyombra, Jane A; Sang, Willie K; Songok, Elijah M; Ichimura, Hiroshi
A cross-sectional molecular epidemiological study of Giardia intestinalis infection was conducted among asymptomatic Kenyan children with (n = 123) and without (n = 111) HIV infection. G. intestinalis assemblage B infection was positively correlated with HIV infection [HIV (+), 18.7% vs. HIV (-), 11.7%; P = 0.013], whereas assemblage A infection was not [HIV (+), 4.1% vs. HIV (-), 6.3%; P = 0.510]. Thus, HIV infection is a risk factor for G. intestinalis assemblage B infection but not for assemblage A infection.
PAVLINAC, PB; JOHN-STEWART, GC; NAULIKHA, JM; ONCHIRI, FM; DENNO, DM; ODUNDO, EA; SINGA, BO; RICHARDSON, BA; WALSON, JL
Objective HIV-infection is an established risk for diarrheal severity, less is known about specific enteric pathogens associated with HIV status. We determined associations of selected enteric pathogens with HIV-infection and HIV-exposure among Kenyan children. Design Cross-sectional study among 6 months to 15 year olds presenting to two Western Kenya District hospitals with acute diarrhea between 2011–2013. Methods Stool was tested using standard bacterial culture and microscopy for ova and parasites. HIV testing was obtained on children and mothers. Enteric pathogen prevalence was compared between HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and between HIV-exposed uninfected (HEU) and HIV-unexposed. Unadjusted and adjusted prevalence ratios (PR) for selected pathogens by HIV-status were estimated using relative risk (RR) regression and P-values. Age, site, income, household crowding, water source/treatment, anthropometrics, cotrimoxazole use, and breastfeeding history were accounted for in multivariable models. Results Among 1,076 children, median age was 22 months (interquartile range: 11–42), 56 (5.2%) were HIV-infected, and 10.3%(105/1020) of HIV-uninfected children were HIV-exposed. The following organisms were most frequently isolated from stool: enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (13.3%), Giardia spp. (11.1%) Campylobacter (6.3%), enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (EPEC) (6.1%) and Cryptosporidium spp. (3.7%). Accounting for age, HIV-infection was associated with EPEC infection (PR: 3.70, P=0.002) while HIV-exposure was associated with Cryptosporidium among HIV-uninfected children (PR: 2.81, P=0.005). Conclusion EPEC and Cryptosporidium infections were more common in HIV-infected and HIV-exposed children, respectively. This could explain the increased mortality attributed to these pathogens in other studies. Interventions targeting EPEC and Cryptosporidium may reduce morbidity and mortality in high HIV-prevalence settings. PMID:25028987
Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Thomas, Charles L.; Fiutem, Justin J.; Parraga, Isabel M.; Mungai, Peter L.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Mutuku, Francis; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.
Background To date, there has been no standardized approach to the assessment of aerobic fitness among children who harbor parasites. In quantifying the disability associated with individual or multiple chronic infections, accurate measures of physical fitness are important metrics. This is because exercise intolerance, as seen with anemia and many other chronic disorders, reflects the body's inability to maintain adequate oxygen supply (VO2 max) to the motor tissues, which is frequently linked to reduced quality-of-life in terms of physical and job performance. The objective of our study was to examine the associations between polyparasitism, anemia, and reduced fitness in a high risk Kenyan population using novel implementation of the 20-meter shuttle run test (20mSRT), a well-standardized, low-technology physical fitness test. Methodology/Principal Findings Four villages in coastal Kenya were surveyed during 2009–2010. Children 5–18 years were tested for infection with Schistosoma haematobium (Sh), malaria, filaria, and geohelminth infections by standard methods. After anthropometric and hemoglobin testing, fitness was assessed with the 20 mSRT. The 20 mSRT proved easy to perform, requiring only minimal staff training. Parasitology revealed high prevalence of single and multiple parasitic infections in all villages, with Sh being the most common (25–62%). Anemia prevalence was 45–58%. Using multiply-adjusted linear modeling that accounted for household clustering, decreased aerobic capacity was significantly associated with anemia, stunting, and wasting, with some gender differences. Conclusions/Significance The 20 mSRT, which has excellent correlation with VO2, is a highly feasible fitness test for low-resource settings. Our results indicate impaired fitness is common in areas endemic for parasites, where, at least in part, low fitness scores are likely to result from anemia and stunting associated with chronic infection. The 20 mSRT should be used as a
It was the last day of Philosophy 492, the author's college course dedicated to teaching the principles and strategies of philosophy for children (p4c) Hawai'i. Months before she joined the Philosophy 492 class, she was asked to join Emerging Humanity as a volunteer in a project that focused on enhancing the classroom environments at the…
Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Parraga, Isabel M.; Thomas, Charles L.; Mungai, Peter L.; Mutuku, Francis; Muchiri, Eric M.; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.
We measured prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, Wuchereria bancrofti, Plasmodium falciparum, hookworm, and other geohelminths among school-aged children in four endemic villages in Kwale County, Kenya and explored the relationship between multiparasite burden, undernutrition, and anemia. In 2009–2010 surveys, cross-sectional data were obtained for 2,030 children 5–18 years old. Infections were most prevalent for S. haematobium (25–62%), hookworm (11–28%), and falciparum malaria (8–24%). Over one-half of children were anemic, with high rates of acute and chronic malnutrition. Associations with infection status showed significant age and sex differences. For boys, young age, low socioeconomic standing (SES), S. haematobium, and/or malaria infections were associated with greater odds of anemia, wasting, and/or stunting; for girls, heavy S. haematobium infection and age were the significant cofactors for anemia, whereas low SES and older age were linked to stunting. The broad overlap of infection-related causes for anemia and malnutrition and the high frequency of polyparasitic infections suggest that there will be significant advantages to integrated parasite control in this area. PMID:23324217
Liljander, Anne; Bejon, Philip; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Kai, Oscar; Ogada, Edna; Peshu, Norbert; Marsh, Kevin; Färnert, Anna
Background Protective immunity to malaria is acquired after repeated infections in endemic areas. Asymptomatic multiclonal P. falciparum infections are common and may predict host protection. Here, we have investigated the effect of clearing asymptomatic infections on the risk of clinical malaria. Methods Malaria episodes were continuously monitored in 405 children (1–6 years) in an area of moderate transmission, coastal Kenya. Blood samples collected on four occasions were assessed by genotyping the polymorphic P. falciparum merozoite surface protein 2 using fluorescent PCR and capillary electrophoresis. Following the second survey, asymptomatic infections were cleared with a full course of dihydroartemisinin. Results Children who were parasite negative by PCR had a lower risk of subsequent malaria regardless of whether treatment had been given. Children with ≥2 clones had a reduced risk of febrile malaria compared with 1 clone after clearance of asymptomatic infections, but not if asymptomatic infections were not cleared. Multiclonal infection was associated with an increased risk of re-infection after drug treatment. However, among the children who were re-infected, multiclonal infections were associated with a shift from clinical malaria to asymptomatic parasitaemia. Conclusion The number of clones was associated with exposure as well as blood stage immunity. These effects were distinguished by clearing asymptomatic infection with anti-malarials. Exposure to multiple P. falciparum infections is associated with protective immunity, but there appears to be an additional effect in untreated multiclonal infections that offsets this protective effect. PMID:21383984
Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M.; Myers, Sonya S.
This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an…
Kithakye, Mumbe; Morris, Amanda Sheffield; Terranova, Andrew M; Myers, Sonya S
This study examined pre- and postconflict data from 84 children, ages 3-7 years, living in Kibera, Kenya, during the December 2007 political conflict. Results indicate that children's disaster experiences (home destruction, death of a parent, parent and child harm) are associated with adjustment difficulties and that emotion regulation is an important protective factor postdisaster. Specifically, severity of the disaster experience was associated with increased aggression and decreased prosocial behavior. Emotion regulation was associated with less aggression and more prosocial behavior postconflict. Findings are discussed in the context of a developmental, systems-oriented perspective of the impact of disasters on child adjustment.
Morelen, Diana; Zeman, Janice; Perry-Parrish, Carisa; Anderson, Ellen
This research examined national, regional, developmental, and gender differences in children's reported management of anger and sadness. Participants (8-15 years) were 103 Ghanaian children from a village setting, 142 Ghanaian children from a middle-class urban context, 106 Kenyan children from an impoverished urban context, and 170 children from…
Bustinduy, Amaya L.; Sutherland, Laura J.; Chang-Cojulun, Alicia; Malhotra, Indu; DuVall, Adam S.; Fairley, Jessica K.; Mungai, Peter L.; Muchiri, Eric M.; Mutuku, Francis M.; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H.
In a study of children having polyparasitic infections in a Schistosoma haematobium–endemic area, we examined the hypothesis that S. haematobium–positive children, compared with S. haematobium–negative children (anti-soluble worm antigen preparation [SWAP] negative and egg negative) have increased systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and decreased down-regulatory IL-10. A total of 804 children, 2–19 years of age, were surveyed between July and December 2009 and tested for S. haematobium, Plasmodium falciparum, filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were compared for S. haematobium–positive and S. haematobium–negative children, adjusting for malaria, filaria, and hookworm co-infections, and for nutritional status, age group, sex, and geographic location. IL-10 was significantly elevated among children infected with S. haematobium, showing bimodal peaks in 7–8 and 13–14 years age groups. IL-10 was also higher among children who were acutely malnourished, whereas IL-10 levels were lower in the presence of S. haematobium–filaria co-infection. After adjustment for co-factors, IL-6 was significantly elevated among children of 5–6 years and among those with P. falciparum infection. Lower levels of IL-6 were found in malaria–hookworm co-infection. High levels of TNF-α were found in children aged 11–12 years regardless of infection status. In addition, village of residence was a strong predictor of IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels. In adolescent children infected with S. haematobium, there is an associated elevation in circulating IL-10 that may reduce the risk of later morbidity. Although we did not find a direct link between S. haematobium infection and circulating pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α levels, future T-cell stimulation studies may provide more conclusive linkages between infection and cytokine responses in settings that
Bustinduy, Amaya L; Sutherland, Laura J; Chang-Cojulun, Alicia; Malhotra, Indu; DuVall, Adam S; Fairley, Jessica K; Mungai, Peter L; Muchiri, Eric M; Mutuku, Francis M; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H
In a study of children having polyparasitic infections in a Schistosoma haematobium-endemic area, we examined the hypothesis that S. haematobium-positive children, compared with S. haematobium-negative children (anti-soluble worm antigen preparation [SWAP] negative and egg negative) have increased systemic production of pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-6, tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-α) and decreased down-regulatory IL-10. A total of 804 children, 2-19 years of age, were surveyed between July and December 2009 and tested for S. haematobium, Plasmodium falciparum, filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminth infections. Plasma levels of IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-10 were compared for S. haematobium-positive and S. haematobium-negative children, adjusting for malaria, filaria, and hookworm co-infections, and for nutritional status, age group, sex, and geographic location. IL-10 was significantly elevated among children infected with S. haematobium, showing bimodal peaks in 7-8 and 13-14 years age groups. IL-10 was also higher among children who were acutely malnourished, whereas IL-10 levels were lower in the presence of S. haematobium-filaria co-infection. After adjustment for co-factors, IL-6 was significantly elevated among children of 5-6 years and among those with P. falciparum infection. Lower levels of IL-6 were found in malaria-hookworm co-infection. High levels of TNF-α were found in children aged 11-12 years regardless of infection status. In addition, village of residence was a strong predictor of IL-6 and IL-10 plasma levels. In adolescent children infected with S. haematobium, there is an associated elevation in circulating IL-10 that may reduce the risk of later morbidity. Although we did not find a direct link between S. haematobium infection and circulating pro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-α levels, future T-cell stimulation studies may provide more conclusive linkages between infection and cytokine responses in settings that are endemic for
Mamah, Daniel; Owoso, Akinkunle; Mbwayo, Anne W.; Mutiso, Victoria N.; Muriungi, Susan K.; Khasakhala, Lincoln I.; Barch, Deanna M.; Ndetei, David M.
Psychotic-like experiences (PLEs) have been observed worldwide in both adults and children outside the context of a clinical disorder. In the current study, we investigate the prevalence and patterns of PLEs among children and adolescents in Kenya. Among 1,971 students from primary and secondary schools around Nairobi (aged 8-19), 22.1 % reported…
Hodgson, Susanne H.; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E.; Milne, Kathryn H.; Elias, Sean C.; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A.; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J.; Longley, Rhea J.; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A.; Osier, Faith H.; Hoffman, Stephen L.; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V. S.; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J.
Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan
Hodgson, Susanne H; Llewellyn, David; Silk, Sarah E; Milne, Kathryn H; Elias, Sean C; Miura, Kazutoyo; Kamuyu, Gathoni; Juma, Elizabeth A; Magiri, Charles; Muia, Alfred; Jin, Jing; Spencer, Alexandra J; Longley, Rhea J; Mercier, Thomas; Decosterd, Laurent; Long, Carole A; Osier, Faith H; Hoffman, Stephen L; Ogutu, Bernhards; Hill, Adrian V S; Marsh, Kevin; Draper, Simon J
Background: The timing of infection is closely determined in controlled human malaria infection (CHMI) studies, and as such they provide a unique opportunity to dissect changes in immunological responses before and after a single infection. The first Kenyan Challenge Study (KCS) (Pan African Clinical Trial Registry: PACTR20121100033272) was performed in 2013 with the aim of establishing the CHMI model in Kenya. This study used aseptic, cryopreserved, attenuated Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites administered by needle and syringe (PfSPZ Challenge) and was the first to evaluate parasite dynamics post-CHMI in individuals with varying degrees of prior exposure to malaria. Methods: We describe detailed serological and functional immunological responses pre- and post-CHMI for participants in the KCS and compare these with those from malaria-naïve UK volunteers who also underwent CHMI (VAC049) (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01465048) using PfSPZ Challenge. We assessed antibody responses to three key blood-stage merozoite antigens [merozoite surface protein 1 (MSP1), apical membrane protein 1 (AMA1), and reticulocyte-binding protein homolog 5 (RH5)] and functional activity using two candidate measures of anti-merozoite immunity; the growth inhibition activity (GIA) assay and the antibody-dependent respiratory burst activity (ADRB) assay. Results:Clear serological differences were observed pre- and post-CHMI by ELISA between malaria-naïve UK volunteers in VAC049, and Kenyan volunteers who had prior malaria exposure. Antibodies to AMA1 and schizont extract correlated with parasite multiplication rate (PMR) post-CHMI in KCS. Serum from volunteer 110 in KCS, who demonstrated a dramatically reduced PMR in vivo, had no in vitro GIA prior to CHMI but the highest level of ADRB activity. A significant difference in ADRB activity was seen between KCS volunteers with minimal and definite prior exposure to malaria and significant increases were seen in ADRB activity post-CHMI in Kenyan
Mutuiri, Shem P. M.; Kutima, Helen L.; Munyao, James K.; Nyamache, Anthony Kebira; Wanjiru, Irene
Previous studies have reported that two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the RANTES gene promoter region, -403G/A and -28C/G, are associated with a slower rate of decline in CD4+ T cell count. In addition, as a ligand of the major HIV coreceptor CCR5, it is known to block HIV-CCR5 interactions in the course of the HIV infection cycle. This study was carried out with the aim of determining the occurrence of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) -403G > A and -28C > G in the promoter region of RANTES, in a subset of the Kenyan population. Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood monocular cells and used to amplify the RANTES gene region. Restriction fragment length polymorphism was used to determine the genotypes of the RANTES gene. Out of 100 HIV infected individuals, 19% had G1 genotypes (403G/G, 28C/G), 30% (403A/A, 28C/C), and 50% (403G/A, 28C/C), while in healthy blood donors 13% had G4 (403G/A, 28C/C) genotypes, 22% (403A/A, 28C/C), and 54% (403G/A, 28C/C). HIV negative blood donors (54%) had higher risk of alteration to risk of HIV transmission compared to those who were HIV infected (50%). However, the risk to transmission and distribution differences was not significant (P = 0.092). The study showed that RANTES polymorphisms -403 and -28 alleles do exist in the Kenyan population. PMID:27821902
Ng'asike, John Teria
This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that…
Quigley, M. A.; Armstrong Schellenberg, J. R.; Snow, R. W.
The verbal autopsy (VA) questionnaire is a widely used method for collecting information on cause-specific mortality where the medical certification of deaths in childhood is incomplete. This paper discusses review by physicians and expert algorithms as approaches to ascribing cause of deaths from the VA questionnaire and proposes an alternative, data-derived approach. In this validation study, the relatives of 295 children who had died in hospital were interviewed using a VA questionnaire. The children were assigned causes of death using data-derived algorithms obtained under logistic regression and using expert algorithms. For most causes of death, the data-derived algorithms and expert algorithms yielded similar levels of diagnostic accuracy. However, a data-derived algorithm for malaria gave a sensitivity of 71% (95% Cl: 58-84%), which was significantly higher than the sensitivity of 47% obtained under an expert algorithm. The need for exploring this and other ways in which the VA technique can be improved are discussed. The implications of less-than-perfect sensitivity and specificity are explored using numerical examples. Misclassification bias should be taken into consideration when planning and evaluating epidemiological studies. PMID:8706229
Ngwiri, Thomas; Were, Fred; Predieri, Barbara; Ngugi, Paul; Iughetti, Lorenzo
Background. Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is the most common endocrine disorder in children and adolescents worldwide. While data about prevalence, treatment, and complications are recorded in many countries, few data exist for Sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study was to determine the degree of control in patients with T1DM aged 1–19 years over a 6-month period in 3 outpatient Kenyan clinics. It also sought to determine how control was influenced by parameters of patient and treatment. Methods. Eighty-two children and adolescents with T1DM were included in the study. Clinical history regarding duration of illness, type and dose of insulin, and recent symptoms of hypoglycemia/hyperglycemia were recorded. Glycaemia, HbA1c, and ketonuria were tested. HbA1c of 8.0% and below was defined as the cut-off for acceptable control. Results. The median HbA1c for the study population was 11.1% (range: 6.3–18.8). Overall, only 28% of patients had reasonable glycemic control as defined in this study. 72% therefore had poor control. It was also found that age above 12 years was significantly associated with poor control. Conclusions. African children and with T1DM are poorly controlled particularly in adolescents. Our data strongly support the necessity of Kenya children to receive more aggressive management and follow-up. PMID:26494998
Rautanen, Anna; Pirinen, Matti; Mills, Tara C; Rockett, Kirk A; Strange, Amy; Ndungu, Anne W; Naranbhai, Vivek; Gilchrist, James J; Bellenguez, Céline; Freeman, Colin; Band, Gavin; Bumpstead, Suzannah J; Edkins, Sarah; Giannoulatou, Eleni; Gray, Emma; Dronov, Serge; Hunt, Sarah E; Langford, Cordelia; Pearson, Richard D; Su, Zhan; Vukcevic, Damjan; Macharia, Alex W; Uyoga, Sophie; Ndila, Carolyne; Mturi, Neema; Njuguna, Patricia; Mohammed, Shebe; Berkley, James A; Mwangi, Isaiah; Mwarumba, Salim; Kitsao, Barnes S; Lowe, Brett S; Morpeth, Susan C; Khandwalla, Iqbal; Blackwell, Jenefer M; Bramon, Elvira; Brown, Matthew A; Casas, Juan P; Corvin, Aiden; Duncanson, Audrey; Jankowski, Janusz; Markus, Hugh S; Mathew, Christopher G; Palmer, Colin N A; Plomin, Robert; Sawcer, Stephen J; Trembath, Richard C; Viswanathan, Ananth C; Wood, Nicholas W; Deloukas, Panos; Peltonen, Leena; Williams, Thomas N; Scott, J Anthony G; Chapman, Stephen J; Donnelly, Peter; Hill, Adrian V S; Spencer, Chris C A
Bacteremia (bacterial bloodstream infection) is a major cause of illness and death in sub-Saharan Africa but little is known about the role of human genetics in susceptibility. We conducted a genome-wide association study of bacteremia susceptibility in more than 5,000 Kenyan children as part of the Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium 2 (WTCCC2). Both the blood-culture-proven bacteremia case subjects and healthy infants as controls were recruited from Kilifi, on the east coast of Kenya. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common cause of bacteremia in Kilifi and was thus the focus of this study. We identified an association between polymorphisms in a long intergenic non-coding RNA (lincRNA) gene (AC011288.2) and pneumococcal bacteremia and replicated the results in the same population (p combined = 1.69 × 10(-9); OR = 2.47, 95% CI = 1.84-3.31). The susceptibility allele is African specific, derived rather than ancestral, and occurs at low frequency (2.7% in control subjects and 6.4% in case subjects). Our further studies showed AC011288.2 expression only in neutrophils, a cell type that is known to play a major role in pneumococcal clearance. Identification of this novel association will further focus research on the role of lincRNAs in human infectious disease.
Ferguson, Elaine; Chege, Peter; Kimiywe, Judith; Wiesmann, Doris; Hotz, Christine
Poor quality infant and young child (IYC) diets contribute to chronic under-nutrition. To design effective IYC nutrition interventions, an understanding of the extent to which realistic food-based strategies can improve dietary adequacy is required. We collected 24-h dietary recalls from children 6-23 months of age (n = 401) in two rural agro-ecological zones of Kenya to assess the nutrient adequacy of their diets. Linear programming analysis (LPA) was used to identify realistic food-based recommendations (FBRs) and to determine the extent to which they could ensure intake adequacy for 12 nutrients. Mean nutrient densities of the IYC diets were below the desired level for four to nine of the 10 nutrients analysed, depending on the age group. Mean dietary diversity scores ranged from 2.1 ± 1.0 among children 6-8 months old in Kitui County to 3.7 ± 1.1 food groups among children 12-23 months old in Vihiga County. LPA confirmed that dietary adequacy for iron, zinc and calcium will be difficult to ensure using only local foods as consumed. FBRs for breastfed children that promote the daily consumption of cows'/goats' milk (added to porridges), fortified cereals, green leafy vegetables, legumes, and meat, fish or eggs, 3-5 times per week can ensure dietary adequacy for nine and seven of 12 nutrients for children 6-11 and 12-23 months old, respectively. For these rural Kenyan children, even though dietary adequacy could be improved via realistic changes in habitual food consumption practices, alternative interventions are needed to ensure dietary adequacy at the population level.
Reynaldi, Arnold; Schlub, Timothy E; Chelimo, Kiprotich; Sumba, Peter Odada; Piriou, Erwan; Ogolla, Sidney; Moormann, Ann M; Rochford, Rosemary; Davenport, Miles P
Endemic Burkitt lymphoma is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and Plasmodium falciparum coinfection, although how P. falciparum exposure affects the dynamics of EBV infection is unclear. We have used a modeling approach to study EBV infection kinetics in a longitudinal cohort of children living in regions of high and low malaria transmission in Kenya. Residence in an area of high malaria transmission was associated with a higher rate of EBV expansion during primary EBV infection in infants and during subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection, as well as with longer episodes of EBV DNA detection and shorter intervals between subsequent episodes of EBV DNA detection. In addition, we found that concurrent P. falciparum parasitemia also increases the likelihood of the first and subsequent peaks of EBV in peripheral blood. This suggests that P. falciparum infection is associated with increased EBV growth and contributes to endemic Burkitt lymphoma pathogenesis.
... another cause for runny noses and wheezing in young children. Because more women of childbearing age are ... the head grows, drainage problems get better. If young children are having too many ear infections, they ...
Ngoi, Carolyne N.; Siqueira, Juliana; Li, Linlin; Deng, Xutao; Mugo, Peter; Graham, Susan M.; Price, Matt A.; Sanders, Eduard J.
Viral nucleic acids present in the plasma of 498 Kenyan adults with unexplained fever were characterized by metagenomics analysis of 51 sample pools. The highest to lowest fraction of plasma pools was positive for parvovirus B19 (75 %), pegivirus C (GBV-C) (67 %), alpha anellovirus (59 %), gamma anellovirus (55 %), beta anellovirus (41 %), dengue virus genotype 2 (DENV-2) (16 %), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (6 %), human herpesvirus 6 (6 %), HBV (4 %), rotavirus (4 %), hepatitis B virus (4 %), rhinovirus C (2 %), Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV; 2 %) and Kadipiro virus (2 %). Ranking by overall percentage of viral reads yielded similar results. Characterization of viral nucleic acids in the plasma of a febrile East African population showed a high frequency of parvovirus B19 and DENV infections and detected a reovirus (Kadipiro virus) previously reported only in Asian Culex mosquitoes, providing a baseline to compare with future virome studies to detect emerging viruses in this region. PMID:27902331
Background Childhood overweight/obesity and inadequate physical activity burden Western countries, and now, pose a growing threat to the health of children in low and middle income countries. Behavioural transitions toward more sedentary lifestyles coupled with increased consumption of high calorie foods has resulted in rising proportions of overweight/obesity and decreasing levels of physical activity in school-aged children. The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and to investigate factors associated with overweight/obesity and physical activity in Kenyan children aged 9 to 11 years. Methods Body composition and physical activity measures of participating children were accomplished by anthropometric assessment, accelerometry, and administration of questionnaires related to diet and lifestyle, and the school and neighbourhood environments. Data collection was conducted in the city of Nairobi as part of a larger International Study of Childhood Obesity, Lifestyle and Environment. Results A total of 563 participants (46.5% boys, 53.5% girls) were included in the analyses. Of these, 3.7% were underweight, 14.4% were overweight, and 6.4% were obese based on WHO cut-points. Mean daily sedentary time was 398 minutes, time spent in light physical activity was 463 minutes, and time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity was 36 minutes based on activity cut-points developed by Treuth et al. Only 12.6% of participating children were meeting the recommendation of ≥ 60 minutes of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, and 45.7% of participants used active transportation to/from school. Increasing parental education level, total annual household income, and attending a private rather than public school were associated positively with being overweight/obese and negatively with meeting physical activity guidelines. Conclusions This study provided the evidence for an existing prevalence of childhood overweight/obesity in Nairobi
Ng'asike, John Teria
This dissertation discusses the findings of an ethnographic exploratory study of Turkana nomadic pastoralist children's sociocultural practices of their everyday lifestyles and science curriculum and instruction in Kenyan early childhood curriculum. The study uses the findings from Turkana elders to challenge the dominant society in Kenya that draws from Western education ideology to unfairly criticize Turkana traditional nomadic cultural practices as resistant to modern education. Yet Turkana people have to rely on the cultural knowledge of their environment for survival. In addition, the community lives in abject poverty caused by the harsh desert environment which has contributed to parents' struggle to support their children's education. Cultural knowledge of Turkana people has received support in research demonstrating the role cultural lifestyles such as nomadic pastoralism play as important survival strategy that enable people to adapt to the harsh desert environment to ensure the survival of their livestock critical for their food security. The study documented ways in which the Kenya national education curriculum, reflecting Western assumptions about education, often alienates and marginalises nomadic children, in its failure to capture their cultural Indigenous knowledge epistemologies. The research investigated the relationships between Turkana children's sociocultural practices of pastoralist lifestyles and the national science curriculum taught in local preschools and first grade science classrooms in Kenya and the extent to which Turkana children's everyday life cultural practices inform science instruction in early childhood grades. Multiple ethnographic methods such as participant and naturalistic observation, focus group interviews, analysis of documents, archival materials, and cultural artifacts were used to explore classrooms instruction and Indigenous sociocultural practices of the Turkana nomads. The findings from the elders' narratives
From 1974 to 1994, 2,033 specimens from children were submitted for cultures for anaerobic bacteria. Eighty-three Veillonella spp. were recovered from 83 children (4%). Most Veillonella species were recovered from abscesses, aspiration pneumonias, burns, bites, and sinuses. The infections were polymicrobial in 79 (95%) patients, but in 4 (5%) patients, Veillonella species were recovered in pure culture. The predisposing conditions associated with the recovery of these organisms were previous surgery, malignancy, steroid therapy, foreign body, and immunodeficiency. These data illustrate that Veillonella spp. are found infrequently in children, mostly in association with mixed infections, and are recovered mixed with mouth and bowel flora. PMID:8727920
Sasi, P; English, M; Berkley, J; Lowe, B; Shebe, M; Mwakesi, R; Kokwaro, G
Metabolic acidosis is associated with most severe malaria deaths in African children, and most deaths occur before maximum antimalarial action is achieved. Thus, specific acidosis treatment may reduce mortality. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood and no specific interventions have been developed. A detailed characterisation of this acidosis is critical in treatment development. We used the traditional and Stewart's approach to characterise acidosis in consecutive paediatric admissions for malaria and other acute non-surgical conditions to Kilifi District Hospital in Kenya. The overall acidosis prevalence was 21%. Gastroenteritis had the highest prevalence (61%). Both the mean albumin-corrected anion gap and the strong ion gap were high (>13 mmol/l and >0 mmol/l, respectively) in malaria, gastroenteritis, lower respiratory tract infection and malnutrition. Presence of salicylate in plasma was not associated with acidosis but was associated with signs of severe illness (odds ratio 2.11, 95% CI 1.1-4.2). In malaria, mean (95% CI) strong ion gap was 15 (14-7) mmol/l, and lactate, creatinine and inorganic phosphorous explained only approximately 40% of the variability in base excess (adjusted R2 = 0.397). Acidosis may be more common than previously recognised amongst paediatric admissions in Africa and is characterised by the presence of currently unidentified strong anions. In malaria, lactate and ketones, but not salicylate, are associated with acidosis. However, unidentified anions may be more important.
Agweyu, Ambrose; Gathara, David; Oliwa, Jacquie; Muinga, Naomi; Edwards, Tansy; Allen, Elizabeth; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; English, Mike; Aweyo, Florence; Awuonda, Bernard; Chabi, Martin; Isika, Newton; Kariuki, Mary; Kuria, Magdalene; Mandi, Polycarp; Masibo, Leah; Massawa, Thaddeus; Mogoa, Wycliffe; Mutai, Beatrice; Muriithi, Gatwiri; Ng'arng'ar, Samuel; Nyamai, Rachel; Okello, Dorothy; Oywer, Wilson; Wanjala, Lordin
Background. There are concerns that the evidence from studies showing noninferiority of oral amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin for severe pneumonia may not be generalizable to high-mortality settings. Methods. An open-label, multicenter, randomized controlled noninferiority trial was conducted at 6 Kenyan hospitals. Eligible children aged 2–59 months were randomized to receive amoxicillin or benzyl penicillin and followed up for the primary outcome of treatment failure at 48 hours. A noninferiority margin of risk difference between amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin groups was prespecified at 7%. Results. We recruited 527 children, including 302 (57.3%) with comorbidity. Treatment failure was observed in 20 of 260 (7.7%) and 21 of 261 (8.0%) of patients in the amoxicillin and benzyl penicillin arms, respectively (risk difference, −0.3% [95% confidence interval, −5.0% to 4.3%]) in per-protocol analyses. These findings were supported by the results of intention-to-treat analyses. Treatment failure by day 5 postenrollment was 11.4% and 11.0% and rising to 13.5% and 16.8% by day 14 in the amoxicillin vs benzyl penicillin groups, respectively. The most frequent cause of cumulative treatment failure at day 14 was clinical deterioration within 48 hours of enrollment (33/59 [55.9%]). Four patients died (overall mortality 0.8%) during the study, 3 of whom were allocated to the benzyl penicillin group. The presence of wheeze was independently associated with less frequent treatment failure. Conclusions. Our findings confirm noninferiority of amoxicillin to benzyl penicillin, provide estimates of risk of treatment failure in Kenya, and offer important additional evidence for policy making in sub-Saharan Africa. Clinical Trial Registration. NCT01399723. PMID:25550349
Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas
Community-based surveys of iron deficiency (ID) require simple, accurate methods that can be used in remote areas. The objective of this study was to assess iron status in rural Kenya using "field-friendly" methods for capillary blood, including an improved dried blood spot assay for transferrin receptor (TfR). A single finger stick was used to obtain capillary blood from 275 school-age children. Whole blood was applied directly to filter paper, dried, and later analyzed for TfR, as well as C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein that serves as a general marker of inflammation. Capillary blood was also used to measure hemoglobin (Hb) concentration and the ratio of zinc protoporphyrin to heme (ZPP:H). The Hb concentration alone provides the lowest estimate of the prevalence of ID (8.0%). Because ZPP:H is reported to be elevated in the presence of inflammation, we constructed a preliminary diagnostic model based on elevated ZPP:H and normal CRP level, estimating the prevalence of ID at 25.9%. When TfR is added to a multiple criteria model (elevated ZPP:H in the absence of elevated CRP and/or elevated TfR level) the prevalence of ID is estimated to be 31.2%. This study demonstrates the diagnostic utility of combining TfR with other indexes of iron status, enabling the detection of ID in both the presence and absence of infection. Furthermore, this study is the first field application of TfR blood-spot methods, and it demonstrates their feasibility in remote field settings.
Gikonyo, Caroline; Kamuya, Dorcas; Mbete, Bibi; Njuguna, Patricia; Olotu, Ally; Bejon, Philip; Marsh, Vicki; Molyneux, Sassy
Internationally, calls for feedback of findings to be made an 'ethical imperative' or mandatory have been met with both strong support and opposition. Challenges include differences in issues by type of study and context, disentangling between aggregate and individual study results, and inadequate empirical evidence on which to draw. In this paper we present data from observations and interviews with key stakeholders involved in feeding back aggregate study findings for two Phase II malaria vaccine trials among children under the age of 5 years old on the Kenyan Coast. In our setting, feeding back of aggregate findings was an appreciated set of activities. The inclusion of individual results was important from the point of view of both participants and researchers, to reassure participants of trial safety, and to ensure that positive results were not over-interpreted and that individual level issues around blinding and control were clarified. Feedback sessions also offered an opportunity to re-evaluate and re-negotiate trial relationships and benefits, with potentially important implications for perceptions of and involvement in follow-up work for the trials and in future research. We found that feedback of findings is a complex but key step in a continuing set of social interactions between community members and research staff (particularly field staff who work at the interface with communities), and among community members themselves; a step which needs careful planning from the outset. We agree with others that individual and aggregate results need to be considered separately, and that for individual results, both the nature and value of the information, and the context, including social relationships, need to be taken into account.
Kimulwo, Maureen J; Okendo, Javan; Aman, Rashid A; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Kokwaro, Gilbert O; Ochieng, Dorothy J; Muigai, Anne W T; Oloo, Florence A; Ochieng, Washingtone
Treatment failure is a key challenge in the management of HIV-1 infection. We conducted a mixed-model survey of plasma nevirapine (NVP) concentrations (cNVP) and viral load in order to examine associations with treatment and adherence outcomes among Kenyan patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood plasma was collected at 1, 4 and 24 hours post-ART dosing from 58 subjects receiving NVP-containing ART and used to determine cNVP and viral load (VL). Median duration of treatment was 42 (range, 12-156) months, and 25 (43.1%) of the patients had virologic failure (VF). cNVP was significantly lower for VF than non- VF at 1hr (mean, 2,111ng/ml vs. 3,432ng/ml, p = 0.003) and at 4hr (mean 1,625ng/ml vs. 3,999ng/ml, p = 0.001) but not at 24hr post-ART dosing. Up to 53.4%, 24.1% and 22.4% of the subjects had good, fair and poor adherence respectively. cNVP levels peaked and were > = 3μg.ml at 4 hours in a majority of patients with good adherence and those without VF. Using a threshold of 3μg/ml for optimal therapeutic nevirapine level, 74% (43/58), 65.5% (38/58) and 86% (50/58) of all patients had sub-therapeutic cNVP at 1, 4 and 24 hours respectively. cNVP at 4 hours was associated with adherence (p = 0.05) and virologic VF (p = 0.002) in a chi-square test. These mean cNVP levels differed significantly in non-parametric tests between adherence categories at 1hr (p = 0.005) and 4hrs (p = 0.01) and between ART regimen categories at 1hr (p = 0.004) and 4hrs (p<0.0001). Moreover, cNVP levels correlated inversely with VL (p< = 0.006) and positively with adherence behavior. In multivariate tests, increased early peak NVP (cNVP4) was independently predictive of lower VL (p = 0.002), while delayed high NVP peak (cNVP24) was consistent with increased VL (p = 0.033). These data strongly assert the need to integrate plasma concentrations of NVP and that of other ART drugs into routine ART management of HIV-1 patients.
Kimulwo, Maureen J.; Okendo, Javan; Aman, Rashid A.; Ogutu, Bernhards R.; Kokwaro, Gilbert O.; Ochieng, Dorothy J.; Muigai, Anne W. T.; Oloo, Florence A.
Treatment failure is a key challenge in the management of HIV-1 infection. We conducted a mixed-model survey of plasma nevirapine (NVP) concentrations (cNVP) and viral load in order to examine associations with treatment and adherence outcomes among Kenyan patients on prolonged antiretroviral therapy (ART). Blood plasma was collected at 1, 4 and 24 hours post-ART dosing from 58 subjects receiving NVP-containing ART and used to determine cNVP and viral load (VL). Median duration of treatment was 42 (range, 12–156) months, and 25 (43.1%) of the patients had virologic failure (VF). cNVP was significantly lower for VF than non- VF at 1hr (mean, 2,111ng/ml vs. 3,432ng/ml, p = 0.003) and at 4hr (mean 1,625ng/ml vs. 3,999ng/ml, p = 0.001) but not at 24hr post-ART dosing. Up to 53.4%, 24.1% and 22.4% of the subjects had good, fair and poor adherence respectively. cNVP levels peaked and were > = 3μg.ml at 4 hours in a majority of patients with good adherence and those without VF. Using a threshold of 3μg/ml for optimal therapeutic nevirapine level, 74% (43/58), 65.5% (38/58) and 86% (50/58) of all patients had sub-therapeutic cNVP at 1, 4 and 24 hours respectively. cNVP at 4 hours was associated with adherence (p = 0.05) and virologic VF (p = 0.002) in a chi-square test. These mean cNVP levels differed significantly in non-parametric tests between adherence categories at 1hr (p = 0.005) and 4hrs (p = 0.01) and between ART regimen categories at 1hr (p = 0.004) and 4hrs (p<0.0001). Moreover, cNVP levels correlated inversely with VL (p< = 0.006) and positively with adherence behavior. In multivariate tests, increased early peak NVP (cNVP4) was independently predictive of lower VL (p = 0.002), while delayed high NVP peak (cNVP24) was consistent with increased VL (p = 0.033). These data strongly assert the need to integrate plasma concentrations of NVP and that of other ART drugs into routine ART management of HIV-1 patients. PMID:28235021
Chohan, Bhavna H; Tapia, Kenneth; Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Khasimwa, Brian; Ngayo, Musa; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Wamalwa, Dalton; Overbaugh, Julie; John-Stewart, Grace
Nevirapine (NVP) resistance occurs frequently in infants following NVP use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens. However, among previously NVP-unexposed infants treated with NVP-antiretroviral therapy (ART), the development and impact of NVP resistance have not been well characterized. In a prospective clinical trial providing early ART to HIV-infected infants <5 months of age in Kenya (OPH03 study), we followed NVP-unexposed infants who initiated NVP-ART for 12 months. Viral loads were assessed and resistance determined using a population-based genotypic resistance assay. Of 99 infants screened, 33 had no prior NVP exposure, 22 of whom were initiated on NVP-ART. Among 19 infants with follow-up, seven (37%) infants developed resistance: one at 3 months and six at 6 months after ART initiation. The cumulative probability of NVP resistance was 5.9% at 3 months and 43.5% at 6 months. Baseline HIV RNA levels (p=0.7) and other characteristics were not associated with developing resistance. Post-ART, higher virus levels at visits preceding the detection of resistance were significantly associated with increased detection of resistance (p=0.004). Virus levels after 6 and 12 months of ART were significantly higher in infants with resistance than those without (p=0.007, p=0.030, respectively). Among infants without previous NVP exposure, development of NVP resistance was frequent and was associated with virologic failure during the first year of ART. Earlier development of NVP resistance in infants than in adults initiating NVP-ART may be due to longer viremia following ART or inadequate NVP levels resulting from NVP lead-in dosing. The development of NVP resistance may, in part, explain the superiority of protease inhibitor-based ART in infants.
Chohan, Bhavna H.; Tapia, Kenneth; Benki-Nugent, Sarah; Khasimwa, Brian; Ngayo, Musa; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth; Wamalwa, Dalton; Overbaugh, Julie
Abstract Nevirapine (NVP) resistance occurs frequently in infants following NVP use in prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) regimens. However, among previously NVP-unexposed infants treated with NVP-antiretroviral therapy (ART), the development and impact of NVP resistance have not been well characterized. In a prospective clinical trial providing early ART to HIV-infected infants<5 months of age in Kenya (OPH03 study), we followed NVP-unexposed infants who initiated NVP-ART for 12 months. Viral loads were assessed and resistance determined using a population-based genotypic resistance assay. Of 99 infants screened, 33 had no prior NVP exposure, 22 of whom were initiated on NVP-ART. Among 19 infants with follow-up, seven (37%) infants developed resistance: one at 3 months and six at 6 months after ART initiation. The cumulative probability of NVP resistance was 5.9% at 3 months and 43.5% at 6 months. Baseline HIV RNA levels (p=0.7) and other characteristics were not associated with developing resistance. Post-ART, higher virus levels at visits preceding the detection of resistance were significantly associated with increased detection of resistance (p=0.004). Virus levels after 6 and 12 months of ART were significantly higher in infants with resistance than those without (p=0.007, p=0.030, respectively). Among infants without previous NVP exposure, development of NVP resistance was frequent and was associated with virologic failure during the first year of ART. Earlier development of NVP resistance in infants than in adults initiating NVP-ART may be due to longer viremia following ART or inadequate NVP levels resulting from NVP lead-in dosing. The development of NVP resistance may, in part, explain the superiority of protease inhibitor-based ART in infants. PMID:25819584
Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J
• On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence
Mönkemüller, K E; Wilcox, C M
Gastrointestinal infections in children are a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Children living in developing countries are particularly susceptible to infectious diarrhea because of poor standards of hygiene and sanitation. Although the magnitude of diarrheal illnesses in developed countries is less, costly hospital admissions are still frequent. The causal agent of infectious diarrhea is most frequently related to age, geographical location, lifestyle habits, use of antibiotics, associated medical conditions, social circumstances, and degree of immune competence. In this article we present some of the most important articles published in the field during the last year. The role of Helicobacter pylori in the pathogenesis of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease has been shown in adults and children. Information about the natural history of H. pylori, symptomatology, and diagnostic therapeutic approaches for children are being generated constantly; we discuss some of the most relevant information in this review.
Iuliano, A. Danielle; Weidle, Paul J.; Brooks, John T.; Masaba, Rose; Girde, Sonali; Ndivo, Richard; Ogindo, Paul; Omolo, Paul; Zeh, Clement; Thomas, Timothy K.
Background Absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) are lower in East African adults. To assess the impact of lower ANCs, we reviewed data from HIV-infected Kenyan women receiving antiretroviral therapy antepartum and postpartum. Methods The Kisumu Breastfeeding Study (KiBS) participants received an antiretroviral regimen from 34 weeks’ gestation through 6 months postpartum. Measured ANCs and subsequent illnesses were reviewed. Adverse events (AEs) potentially attributable to neutropenia were identified, and ANCs were graded using the 2004 Division of AIDS table for Grading the Severity of AEs. Results Among 478 women with ≥ 1 postpartum ANC measured, 298 (62.1%) women met criteria for an AE (<1.3 × 109 cells/L). Of those, 38 (12.5%) women experienced a nonlife-threatening illness potentially attributable to neutropenia. Conclusion More than half of KiBS women met criteria for neutropenia. The mild clinical experience of most participants with low ANCs supports that these values might be typical for this population and may not result in adverse clinical sequelae. PMID:24080477
Ndombi, Eric M; Budambula, Valentine; Webale, Mark K; Musumba, Francis O; Wesongah, Jesca O; Mibei, Erick; Ahmed, Aabid A; Lihana, Raphael; Were, Tom
Adiponectin is an important marker of anthropometric profiles of adipose tissue. However, association of adiponectin and adiposity in HIV mono- and co-infected and hepatitis (HCV) injection drug users (IDUs) has not been elucidated. Therefore, the relationship of total adiponectin levels with anthropometric indices of adiposity was examined in HIV mono-infected (anti-retroviral treatment, ART-naive, n=16 and -experienced, n=34); HCV mono-infected, n=36; HIV and HCV co-infected (ART-naive, n=5 and -experienced, n=13); uninfected, n=19 IDUs; and healthy controls, n=16 from coastal Kenya. Anthropometric indices of adiposity were recorded and total circulating adiponectin levels were measured in serum samples using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Adiponectin levels differed significantly amongst the study groups (P<0.0001). Post-hoc analyses revealed decreased levels in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs in comparison to uninfected IDUs (P<0.05) and healthy controls (P<0.05). However, adiponectin levels were elevated in HCV mono-infected IDUs relative to HIV mono-infected ART-naive (P<0.001) and -experienced (P<0.001) as well as HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive (P<0.05) IDUs. Furthermore, adiponectin correlated with weight (ρ=0.687; P=0.003) and BMI (ρ=0.598; P=0.014) in HIV mono-infected ART-naive IDUs; waist circumference (ρ=−0.626; P<0.0001), hip (ρ=−0.561; P=0.001) circumference, and bust-to-waist ratio (ρ=0.561; P=0.001) in HIV mono-infected ART-experienced IDUs; waist girth (ρ=0.375; P=0.024) in HCV mono-infected IDUs; and waist-to-hip ratio (ρ=−0.872; P=0.048) in HIV and HCV co-infected ART-naive IDUs. Altogether, these results suggest suppression of adiponectin production in treatment-naive HIV mono-infected IDUs and that circulating adiponectin is a useful surrogate marker of altered adiposity in treatment-naive and -experienced HIV and HCV mono- and co-infected IDUs. PMID:26306727
Lellig, E; Apfelbeck, M; Straub, J; Karl, A; Tritschler, S; Stief, C G; Riccabona, M
Urinary tract infections (UTI) are the most common bacterial infections in children. The symptoms are not very specific and range from abdominal pain, poor feeding to nocturnal urinary incontinence. The technique of collecting urine plays an important role for securing the diagnosis. The best way to obtain urine in non-toilet-trained children is catheterization or suprapubic bladder aspiration. In toilet-trained children midstream urine is an acceptable alternative after cleaning the foreskin or labia. In the case of an infection a prompt empirical antibiotic therapy is necessary to reduce the risk of parenchymal scarring of the kidneys. There are different approaches to diagnose vesicoureteral reflux in different countries. The commonly used standard approach in Germany is voiding cystourethrography. In the case of reflux dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy should be performed additionally to exclude renal scarring (bottom-up approach).
Laxdal, Oliver E.; Robertson, H. E.; Braaten, Virgil; Walker, W. Alan
During a seven-month period from November 1960 to May 1961, 181 infants and children, hospitalized because of acute respiratory infections, were studied intensively to determine the responsible etiologic agents. Forty-two per cent of the illnesses in this group appeared to be caused by bacterial agents, either primary or secondary to virus. Parainfluenza viruses were identified as causes of laryngotracheobronchitis in nearly 50% of the cases. Adenoviruses were also found to be important pathogens, particularly as causes of pneumonia in infants. The over-all infection rate attributed to adenoviruses was 11.6%. An epidemic due to Influenza B virus affected approximately 40% of children in this city just following the hospital study. This study was conducted as the first step in a long-term project undertaken at the Regina General Hospital to determine the effectiveness of vaccines in the prevention and treatment of respiratory infections in children. PMID:20327546
Necesankova, Michaela; Vychodilova, Leona; Albrechtova, Katerina; Kennedy, Lorna J; Hlavac, Jan; Sedlak, Kamil; Modry, David; Janova, Eva; Vyskocil, Mirko; Horin, Petr
The purpose of this study was to seek associations between immunity-related molecular markers and endemic infections in a model population of African village dogs from Northern Kenya with no veterinary care and no selective breeding. A population of village dogs from Northern Kenya composed of three sub-populations from three different areas (84, 50 and 55 dogs) was studied. Canine distemper virus (CDV), Hepatozoon canis, Microfilariae (Acantocheilonema dracunculoides, Acantocheilonema reconditum) and Neospora caninum were the pathogens studied. The presence of antibodies (CDV, Neospora), light microscopy (Hepatozoon) and diagnostic PCR (Microfilariae) were the methods used for diagnosing infection. Genes involved in innate immune mechanisms, NOS3, IL6, TLR1, TLR2, TLR4, TLR7, TLR9, LY96, MYD88, and three major histocompatibility genes class II genes were selected as candidates. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers were detected by Sanger sequencing, next generation sequencing and PCR-RFLP. The Fisher´s exact test for additive and non-additive models was used for association analyses. Three SNPs within the MYD88 gene and one TLR4 SNP marker were associated with more than one infection. Combined genotypes and further markers identified by next generation sequencing confirmed associations observed for individual genes. The genes associated with infection and their combinations in specific genotypes match well our knowledge on their biological role and on the role of the relevant biological pathways, respectively. Associations with multiple infections observed between the MYD88 and TLR4 genes suggest their involvement in the mechanisms of anti-infectious defenses in dogs.
Sirivichayakul, C; Radomyos, P; Praevanit, R; Pojjaroen-Anant, C; Wisetsing, P
Stool examination was performed on 2,083 Thai children from orphanages and primary schools. Hymenolepis nana infection was found only in children from orphanages with a prevalence of 13.12 per cent. Males had a statistically significant higher prevalence of infection than females. Most infected children were asymptomatic. In symptomatic infected children, the symptoms were mild and non-specific such as pruritus ani, abdominal pain, diarrhea, anorexia, headache, and dizziness. Praziquantel in a single oral dose of 25 mg/kg body weight was effective and well tolerated in Hymenolepis nana infected Thai children.
Abubakar, Amina; Kariuki, Symon M; Tumaini, Judith Dzombo; Gona, Joseph; Katana, Khamis; Owen, Jacqueline A Phillips; Newton, Charles R
Childhood epilepsy is common in Africa. However, there are little data on the developmental and behavioral problems experienced by children living with epilepsy, especially qualitative data that capture community perceptions of the challenges faced by these children. Identifying these perceptions using qualitative approaches is important not only to help design appropriate interventions but also to help adapt behavioral tools that are culturally appropriate. We documented the description of these problems as perceived by parents and teachers of children with or without epilepsy. The study involved 70 participants. Data were collected using in-depth interviews and focus group discussions and were analyzed using NVIVO to identify major themes. Our analysis identified four major areas that are perceived to be adversely affected among children with epilepsy. These included internalizing and externalizing problems such as aggression, temper tantrums, and excessive crying. Additionally, developmental delay, especially cognitive deficits and academic underachievement, was also identified as a major problematic area. There is a need to supplement these findings with quantitative estimates and to develop psychosocial and educational interventions to rehabilitate children with epilepsy who have these difficulties.
Children with neurological impairments are prone to develop serious infection with anaerobic bacteria. The most common anaerobic infections are decubitus ulcers; gastrostomy site wound infections; pulmonary infections (aspiration pneumonia, lung abscesses, and tracheitis); and chronic suppurative otitis media. The unique microbiology of each of…
Ravindran, O. S.; Rani, Mrudula P.; Priya, G.
Background and Objectives: Children infected with HIV are at risk for significant neurological and neuropsychological problems. This study is aimed at identifying cognitive deficits in HIV-infected children and to compare them with equal number of normal controls. Materials and Methods: Twenty children with HIV infection who are currently on antiretroviral therapy were recruited. They were assessed for their intelligence using Malin's Intelligence Scale for Indian Children and also evaluated for their cognitive abilities with a comprehensive neuropsychological battery. They were matched with equal number of normal controls. Results: HIV-infected children have shown substantial impairments in the domains of attention, language, verbal learning and memory, visuomotor functions, fine motor performance, and executive functions. Conclusion: HIV-infected children have average intelligence, but they performed poorly on several neuropsychological measures. PMID:25035547
Opi, D H; Uyoga, S; Orori, E N; Williams, T N; Rowe, J A
Both the invasion of red blood cells (RBCs) by Plasmodium falciparum parasites and the sequestration of parasite-infected RBCs in the microvasculature are mediated in part by complement receptor one (CR1). RBC surface CR1 level can vary between individuals by more than 20-fold and may be associated with the risk of severe malaria. The factors that influence RBC CR1 level variation are poorly understood, particularly in African populations. We studied 3535 child residents of a malaria-endemic region of coastal Kenya and report, for the first time, that the CR1 Knops blood group alleles Sl2 and McCb, and homozygous HbSS are positively associated with RBC CR1 level. Sickle cell trait and ABO blood group did not influence RBC CR1 level. We also confirm the previous observation that α+thalassaemia is associated with reduced RBC CR1 level, possibly due to small RBC volume, and that age-related changes in RBC CR1 expression occur throughout childhood. RBC CR1 level in malaria-endemic African populations is a complex phenotype influenced by multiple factors that should be taken into account in the design and interpretation of future studies on CR1 and malaria susceptibility. PMID:26844958
Doern, Christopher D; Richardson, Susan E
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review.
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) are a common occurrence in children. The management and laboratory diagnosis of these infections pose unique challenges that are not encountered in adults. Important factors, such as specimen collection, urinalysis interpretation, culture thresholds, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing, require special consideration in children and will be discussed in detail in the following review. PMID:27053673
Sty, J.R.; Wells, R.G.; Starshak, R.J.; Schroeder, B.A.
Infection is the most common disease of the urinary tract in children, and various imaging techniques have been used to verify its presence and location. On retrospective analysis, 50 consecutive children with documented upper urinary tract infection had abnormal findings on renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate. The infection involved the renal poles only in 38 and the poles plus other renal cortical areas in eight. Four had abnormalities that spared the poles. Renal sonograms were abnormal in 32 of 50 children. Excretory urograms were abnormal in six of 23 children in whom they were obtained. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 34 of 40 children in whom voiding cystourethrography was performed. These data show the high sensitivity of renal cortical scintigraphy with 99mTc-glucoheptonate in documenting upper urinary tract infection. The location of the abnormalities detected suggests that renal infections spread via an ascending mode and implies that intrarenal reflux is a major contributing factor.
Pavlinac, Patricia B; Naulikha, Jaqueline M; Chaba, Linda; Kimani, Naomi; Sangaré, Laura R; Yuhas, Krista; Singa, Benson O; John-Stewart, Grace; Walson, Judd L
Among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults and children in Africa, diarrheal disease remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality. We evaluated the effectiveness of provision and home-based reinforcement of a point-of-use water filtration device to reduce diarrhea among 361 HIV-infected adults in western Kenya by comparing prevalence of self-reported diarrhea before and after these interventions. After provision of the filter, 8.7% of participants reported diarrhea compared with 17.2% in the 3 months before filter provision (odds ratio [OR] = 0.39, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] = 0.23-0.66, P < 0.001). The association was similar among 231 participants who were already taking daily cotrimoxazole prophylaxis before being given a filter (OR = 0.47, 95% CI = 0.25-0.88, P = 0.019). Educational reinforcement was also associated with a modest reduction in self-reported diarrhea (OR = 0.50, 95% CI = 0.20-0.99, P = 0.047). Provision and reinforcement of water filters may confer significant benefit in reducing diarrhea among HIV-infected persons, even when cotrimoxazole prophylaxis is already being used.
... end of the penis in boys and in front of the vagina in girls. Front view of the urinary tract Side view of ... some children are more prone to getting coughs, colds, or ear infections. Who gets UTIs? Any child ...
Kihara, Jimmy H; Njagi, Eliud N M; Kenya, Eucharia U; Mwanje, Marium T; Odek, Adel E; van Dam, Govert; Kahama, Anthony I; Ouma, John H
Schistosoma haematobium soluble egg antigen (SEA) secreted in urine can be assayed to determine egg tissue load and hence morbidity in infected individuals. A cohort of 158 infected children aged 4-18 years was followed-up for 33 days pre and post treatment with a single dose of praziquantel. There was a significant difference in the prevalence of S. haematobium between males and females (P < 0.05). There were also significant differences in egg counts between age group < or = 5 years compared with 6-8 years, 9-11 years and 12-14 years, and age group > or = 15 years compared with 6-8 years, 9-11 years and 12-14 years (P < 0.05). Comparison of SEA among age groups indicated a significant difference between age group < or = 5 years compared with 9-11 years, 12-14 years and > or = 15 years, and age group > or = 15 years compared with 9-11 years and 12-14 years (P < 0.05). There was a statistically significant correlation between levels of SEA and egg output (r2=0.961, P=0.010). These results are useful in the development of a SEA-based dipstick assay for field diagnosis of urinary schistosomiasis.
García, Coralith; DuPont, Herbert L.; Long, Kurt Z.; Santos, Jose I.; Ko, GwangPyo
Sixty-three children in periurban Mexico City were examined for the occurrence of asymptomatic norovirus (NoV) infection from June to August 1998. NoV was detected in 48 of 161 stool specimens (29.8%), with 31 children (49.2%) having at least one positive stool. Asymptomatic NoV infection occurred commonly during summertime in a Mexican pediatric population. PMID:16891526
Albonico, M; Chwaya, H M; Montresor, A; Stolfzfus, R J; Tielsch, J M; Alawi, K S; Savioli, L
Intestinal helminths, schistosomiasis and malaria have been recognised for decades to be major public health problems in Zanzibar, Tanzania. During the evaluation of the impact of the Zanzibar Helminth Control Programme, baseline parasitological data on 3,605 school children were collected in Pemba Island. Prevalence of intestinal helminth infections was 72%, 94% and 96% for Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and hookworm, respectively. Thirty one percent of children tested positive for haematuria, a reliable indicator of urinary schistosomiasis in the study area. Malaria parasites were found in 61% of children. Hookworm infections and haematuria were more prevalent in boys. Sixty seven percent of the children were infected with all the three helminths, and 28% harboured double infection. No association was found between intestinal helminths and schistosomiasis or malaria. Children living in rural areas were more heavily infected with hookworms, schistosomiasis and malaria compared to children in towns. Results from this study provided relevant information for designing a "plan of action" for the integrated control of filariasis, intestinal helminths, malaria and schistosomiasis in Zanzibar.
Soriano, J M; Domènech, G; Martínez, M C; Mañes, J; Soriano, F
Literatures on intestinal parasitic infections in Saharawi children were scarce and distributed in non parasitological journals. This was the first article that specifically highlighted on the prevalence of these infections in 270 Saharawi children aged from 6 to 12 years hosted in Spain. Six different intestinal parasites were identified in this study and 78, 46, 40, 24, 13 and 5 were positive for Giardia lamblia (29%), Entamoeba coli (17%), Blastocystis hominis (15%), Endolimax nana (9%), Hymenolepis nana (5%) and Enterobius vermicularis (2%), respectively. Mixed intestinal parasitic infections were seen in 12 (4.4%) studied children. Six (2.2%) double infections for G. lamblia and B. hominis were seen in these children while in four (1.5%) had G. lamblia and H. nana. Triple intestinal parasitic infections of G. lamblia, B. hominis and H. nana were observed in two (0.7%) of the children studied. In the other hand, about 14.8% of the studied children had a mild anaemia and 15.5 and 16.6% had iron deficiency and eosinophilia, respectively.
Macharia-Mutie, Catherine W; Moretti, Diego; Van den Briel, Natalie; Omusundi, Agnes M; Mwangi, Alice M; Kok, Frans J; Zimmermann, Michael B; Brouwer, Inge D
Few studies have evaluated the impact of fortification with iron-rich foods such as amaranth grain and multi-micronutrient powder (MNP) containing low doses of highly bioavailable iron to control iron deficiency anemia (IDA) in children. We assessed the efficacy of maize porridge enriched with amaranth grain or MNP to reduce IDA in Kenyan preschool children. In a 16-wk intervention trial, children (n = 279; 12-59 mo) were randomly assigned to: unrefined maize porridge (control; 4.1 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 5:1); unrefined maize (30%) and amaranth grain (70%) porridge (amaranth group; 23 mg of iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 3:1); or unrefined maize porridge with MNP (MNP group; 6.6 mg iron/meal; phytate:iron molar ratio 2.6:1; 2.5 mg iron as NaFeEDTA). Primary outcomes were anemia and iron status with treatment effects estimated relative to control. At baseline, 38% were anemic and 30% iron deficient. Consumption of MNP reduced the prevalence of anemia [-46% (95% CI: -67, -12)], iron deficiency [-70% (95% CI: -89, -16)], and IDA [-75% (95% CI: -92, -20)]. The soluble transferrin receptor [-10% (95% CI: -16, -4)] concentration was lower, whereas the hemoglobin (Hb) [2.7 g/L (95% CI: 0.4, 5.1)] and plasma ferritin [40% (95% CI: 10, 95)] concentrations increased in the MNP group. There was no significant change in Hb or iron status in the amaranth group. Consumption of maize porridge fortified with low-dose, highly bioavailable iron MNP can reduce the prevalence of IDA in preschool children. In contrast, fortification with amaranth grain did not improve iron status despite a large increase in iron intake, likely due to high ratio of phytic acid:iron in the meal.
This is a summary of the 1st Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare (AMPATH) Oncology Institute research grant writing workshop organized in collaboration with the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) and held in Kisumu, Kenya from January 16th to 18th, 2013. The goal of this meeting was to mentor future Kenyan scientists and prioritize research topics that would lead to improved cancer care and survival for the citizens of Kenya. PMID:24099090
Lebel, Ehud; Rudensky, Bernard; Karasik, Michael; Itzchaki, Menachem; Schlesinger, Yechiel
Kingella kingae is a beta-hemolytic gram-negative bacillus. It was first described in the 1960's by EO King and has been reported as a cause of osteo-articular pediatric infections since the early 1980's. We performed a retrospective review of all pediatric cases of invasive K. kingae infection between 1997 and 2002, in order to define the incidence, clinical presentation and outcome of invasive K. kingae infections in a pediatric population. During the study period, a total of 24 pediatric patients with K. kingae infection were identified. There were 15 blood culture isolates of K. kingae, out of a total of 1151 (1.3%) positive blood cultures, and 9 synovial fluid culture isolates out of a total of 76 (11.8%) positive synovial fluids. Fifteen patients had osteo-articular infections and 9 had primary bacteremia without osteo-articular infection. Outcome was favorable in all cases and only in 2 patients with knee joint infection was surgical intervention performed, by means of formal knee arthrotomy. All patients recovered uneventfully, in 7 cases without any intervention and in the others with intravenous or oral antibiotic. In conclusion, invasive K. kingae infection is not uncommon in Israel. It usually has a mild course and thus is not always detected and treated. As K. kingae grows best in blood culture broth, blood and joint fluid should always be inoculated into blood culture bottles in suspected cases. This bacterium is highly sensitive to betalactame antibiotics and infection resolves quickly with antibiotic treatment. Surgical intervention for osteo-articular infection is seldom indicated.
Anim-Baidoo, Isaac; Narh, Charles Akugbey; Oddei, Dora; Brown, Charles Addoquaye; Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel; Bandoh, Betty; Sampane-Donkor, Eric; Armah, George; Adjei, Andrew Anthony; Adjei, David Nana; Ayeh-Kumi, Patrick Ferdinand; Gyan, Ben Adu
Introduction Though giardiasis is an important public health problem in Ghana, several aspects of its epidemiology, particularly the molecular epidemiology has not been investigated adequately. This could be a major hindrance to effective surveillance and control of giardiasis in the country. The study was carried out to determine the prevalence, risk factors and genotypes of Giardia lamblia infecting children at a paediatric hospital in Ghana. Methods A total of 485 patients including 365 diarrhoea and 120 non-diarrhoea children were enrolled into the study. Stool samples were collected and analysed for parasite presence using microscopy, ELISA and PCR. Positive samples were subsequently characterized into assemblages by PCR-RFLP, and further confirmed with sequencing of the glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh) gene. Epidemiological data on demographic, clinical and behavioral features of the study subjects were also collected. Results Prevalence of G. lamblia infections in diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea children were 5.8% and 5% respectively (P>0.5). Sequence data confirmed Giardia lamblia assemblage B as the predominant genotype in both diarrhoea and non-diarrhoea cases. There was no significant association of G. lamblia infection with any of the epidemiological variables investigated. Conclusion Our findings suggest that assemblage B could be the predominant genotype causing giardiasis in children. Increased public health education focusing on good sanitary practices, particularly among mothers and children, could decrease the risk of G. lamblia infection. PMID:27800072
Pini, N C; Resa, A; del Jesús Laime, G; Lecot, G; Ksiazek, T G; Levis, S; Enria, D A
Clinical hantavirus infection was diagnosed in five Argentine children ages 5 to 11 years by immunoglobulin M (IgM)- capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using Sin Nombre virus (SNV) antigens. Death in three of the children was associated with absence of detectable IgG to SNV antigens. An additional two cases in healthy children were studied: one, a breast-fed 15-month-old whose mother died of suspected hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) 8 months previously, had hantavirus IgG (> 1:6400); a second, whose mother survived HPS during month three of pregnancy, apparently had maternal antibodies no longer detectable 1 year after birth.
Atypical bacteria responsible for infections in children are mainly Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. Atypical pneumonia is a frequent disease in children. Until recently, the outcome was thought to be rather benign and antibiotherapy to have only a minor impact on the prognosis. Recent studies have demonstrated that M. pneumoniae and C. pneumoniae were involved in a variety of infections, including acute upper airway disease, otitis and pharyngitis under five. Antibiotherapy was proven able to decrease the rate of complications and recurrence, notably episodes of wheezing and exacerbations of asthma. Atypical bacteria infections may be severe in immunocompromised children and children with underlying disease such as sickle cell anaemia. Whenever bacteriological documentation is lacking, one of the critical issues in choosing an antibiotic is to consider its activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, especially in lower respiratory tract infections. The main available molecules are reviewed and discussed, with a special emphasis on ketolides, a newer family of molecules active on both atypical bacteria and S. pneumoniae.
Crocker, Allen C.
The special developmental needs of young children with congenital HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection require evaluation, training, therapy, and other supports. Such services should be guided by developmentalists in a child study center in close alliance with medical, educational, and community service providers. Concerns about the…
Moscicki, Anna-Barbara; Puga, Ana; Farhat, Sepideh; Ma, Yifei
Although human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are common in HIV-infected adults, little is known about children. Our objective was to examine the prevalence of and risks for HPV of the oral mucosal and external genital areas in nonsexually active (NSA) perinatally (P) HIV+ children and compare with HIV-exposed but uninfected (HEU) children. A convenience sample attending a pediatric clinic were enrolled. Samples for HPV were obtained from the oral and anogenital areas and tested for one of 37 HPV types. The mean age of the 48 PHIV+ children was 14.3±3.9 years vs. 6.2±4.8 for the 52 HEU (p<0.001). Of the 23 PHIV+ girls, 30.4% had anogenital and 17% had oral HPV, and of the 27 HEU girls, 2 (7.4%) anogenital and 0 had oral HPV. Of the boys, 4/23 (17.4%) and 1/25 (4%) PHIV+ had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively, and 3/24 (12.5%) and 1/25 (4%) HEU had anogenital and oral HPV, respectively. Rates of HPV did not differ by age among the PHIV+, whereas older HEU were more likely to have HPV than younger HEU (p=0.07). This large age gap precluded statistical comparison by HIV status. The presence of HPV in NSA PHIV+ children may have implications regarding HPV vaccination efficacy.
Tylka, Joanna C.; McCrory, Michael C.; Gertz, Shira J.; Custer, Jason W.; Spaeder, Michael C.
Purpose. To investigate the impact of severe respiratory adenoviral infection on morbidity and case fatality in immunocompromised children. Methods. Combined retrospective-prospective cohort study of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) in four children's hospitals with severe adenoviral respiratory infection and an immunocompromised state between August 2009 and October 2013. We performed a secondary case control analysis, matching our cohort 1 : 1 by age and severity of illness score with immunocompetent patients also with severe respiratory adenoviral infection. Results. Nineteen immunocompromised patients were included in our analysis. Eleven patients (58%) did not survive to hospital discharge. Case fatality was associated with cause of immunocompromised state (p = 0.015), multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p = 0.001), requirement of renal replacement therapy (p = 0.01), ICU admission severity of illness score (p = 0.011), and treatment with cidofovir (p = 0.005). Immunocompromised patients were more likely than matched controls to have multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (p = 0.01), require renal replacement therapy (p = 0.02), and not survive to hospital discharge (p = 0.004). One year after infection, 43% of immunocompromised survivors required chronic mechanical ventilator support. Conclusions. There is substantial case fatality as well as short- and long-term morbidity associated with severe adenoviral respiratory infection in immunocompromised children. PMID:27242924
Koskas, M; Levy, C; Romain, O; Schlemmer, C; Béchet, S; Bonacorsi, S; Bidet, Ph; Cohen, R
Perineal diseases in children are usually caused by group A streptococcus (GAS). If the natural course of untreated cases is not known, it is well known that symptoms do not resolve spontaneously and can persist often for many months, until appropriate diagnosis and effective treatment are instituted. Furthermore, failures and recurrences after penicillin treatment are frequent. From 2009 to 2014, 165 perineal infections (median age: 48 months, extremes: 0.4-139) were enrolled by 15 pediatricians: 4 balanitis, 29 vulvo-vaginal diseases and 132 perianal infections. Painful defecation, anal fissures and macroscopic blood in stools were significantly more frequent in GAS perianal infections than negative GAS infections (p<0.01). The performance of GAS-rapid antigen test compared to the GAS culture was : sensitivity 97 % [CI 95 %: 89-100 %], specificity 76 % [CI 95 %: 66-84 %], negative predictive value 97 % [CI 95 %: 91-100 %], positive predictive value 71 % [CI 95 %: 60-80 %].
Cengiz, A Bülent; Kara, Ateş; Kanra, Güler; Seçmeer, Gülten; Ceyhan, Mehmet; Ozen, Metehan
A retrospective review was conducted on 132 patients aged between two and 15 years with cervical lymphadenitis and/or with abscess formation to determine the epidemiologic and clinical presentation of these infections. The most common locations were the upper anterior cervical space (43.2%) and the submandibular space (27.3%). The duration of symptoms ranged from 12 hours to 20 days. Results of the pus cultures were available in 31 patients (23.5%). Of these, 16 cultures (51.6%) were positive. The isolated organisms were Staphylococcus aureus (50%), Staphylococcus epidermidis (31.3%), group A beta-hemolytic streptococcus (12.5%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (6.3%) and Escherichia coli (6.3%). One of the specimens yielded mixed organisms (Staphylococcus epidermidis and Streptococcus pneumoniae). Penicillin resistance was documented in six (37.5%) of the 16 gram-positive bacteria isolated from the pus culture. Both throat and blood cultures were available in all 132 patients. Seven throat cultures (5.3%) were positive for group A beta hemolytic streptococci, whereas five blood cultures (3.8%) were reported to have bacterial growth. Sixty-seven patients (50.8%) were treated with ampicillin-sulbactam, 53 patients (40.1%) with ampicillin-sulbactam and ornidazole and 12 patients (9.1%) with ceftriaxone parenterally. The mean duration of hospital stay related to the infection was 7.30 +/- 3.89 days (range, 2-28 days). The mean period for downsizing of the cervical mass by half was 4.05 +/- 2.05 days, and the recovery period (total antibiotic usage period) was 13.72 +/- 5.33 days. All of the patients had an uneventful recovery without complications. Results of both throat and blood cultures were not predictive for etiologic agents in our study group. Since ultrasonographic evaluation of each patient has limited additional benefits in clinical management, it must be reserved for selected cases to document abscess formation.
Faden, Howard S
Streptococcus intermedius is a viridans Streptococcus belonging to the Anginosus group. In the past 7 years, it has been associated with abscesses in 48 children, 40% of whom had complicated and/or life-threatening illness. It was the sole pathogen in 35 cases. Seventy-five percent of the infections occurred in winter and spring. None occurred in infants younger than 1 year.
Spinal infections are uncommon but significant causes of morbidity and hospitalization in the paediatric population. These infections encompass a broad range of conditions, from discitis to osteomyelitis and spinal epidural and intramedullary abscesses. Paediatric spinal infections can be caused by a range of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic agents. Ultrastructural differences of the vertebrae and associated structures result in distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis of spinal infections in children compared to adults. The non-specific nature of symptoms produced by them can cause considerable diagnostic delays. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging can facilitate early identification of the disease, and distinguish it from other spinal pathologies. The association of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains from some of the cases appears worrisome; as is the increasing incidence of Kingella kingae infections causing spinal infections. Rest and immobilization are the general treatment, and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is warranted to ensure optimal clinical outcome. Most patients generally have a good prognosis; however, early identification and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is essential to achieve the best therapeutic response.
Yang, Tsung-Yen; Lu, Chun-Yi; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Chen, Rong-Tsung; Ho, Yu-Huai; Yang, Shun-Cheng; Lee, Ping-Ing; Chen, Jong-Min; Lee, Chin-Yun; Huang, Li-Min
Parainfluenza viruses are major pathogens causing respiratory illness, manifesting from mild upper respiratory tract infection to bronchiolitis and pneumonia. This retrospective study aimed at providing clinical and epidemiologic data addressing the parainfluenza virus infection in Taiwan. A total of 39 patients were enrolled in this study from March 1999 to December 2000. Infants and young children were the major susceptible population, with 87.2% of them younger than 3 years. No seasonal trend was noted for parainfluenza type 1 and type 2 infections. One clustering of parainfluenza virus type 3 infections occurred in late spring of 2000 based on collected results. Parainfluenza type 1 viral isolates accounted for all of the cases of croup. Most isolates of parainfluenza virus type 3 were associated with upper and/or lower respiratory tract infections. A substantial proportion of the patients had skin involvement; the identification of one case of possible parainfluenza virus-related erythema multiforme is particularly interesting, especially because the chances of a causal relation between viral infection and skin symptoms are formerly thought to be slight. The identification of parainfluenza virus in illnesses classically considered to be due to other viruses is intriguing and may have important implications in the management of childhood illness clinically.
Immunogenicity, Impact on Carriage and Reactogenicity of 10-Valent Pneumococcal Non-Typeable Haemophilus influenzae Protein D Conjugate Vaccine in Kenyan Children Aged 1–4 Years: A Randomized Controlled Trial
Hammitt, Laura L.; Ojal, John; Bashraheil, Mahfudh; Morpeth, Susan C.; Karani, Angela; Habib, Ahsan; Borys, Dorota; Goldblatt, David; Scott, J. Anthony G
Background The impact on carriage and optimal schedule for primary vaccination of older children with 10-valent pneumococcal non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae protein-D conjugate vaccine (PHiD-CV) are unknown. Methods 600 Kenyan children aged 12–59 months were vaccinated at days 0, 60 and 180 in a double-blind randomized controlled trial according to the following vaccine sequence: Group A: PHiD-CV, PHiD-CV, diphtheria/tetanus/acellular pertussis vaccine (DTaP); Group B: PHiD-CV, DTaP, PHiD-CV; Group C: hepatitis A vaccine (HAV), DTaP, HAV. Nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae was measured at five timepoints. In 375 subjects, serotype-specific responses were measured by 22F-inhibition ELISA and opsonophagocytic killing assays (OPA) one month after vaccination. Results Following one dose of PHiD-CV, >90% of recipients developed IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to serotypes 1, 4, 5, 7F, 9V and 18C and OPA≥8 to serotypes 4, 7F, 9V, 18C, 23F. After a second dose >90% of recipients had IgG≥0.35 µg/mL to all vaccine serotypes and OPA≥8 to all vaccine serotypes except 1 and 6B. At day 180, carriage of vaccine-type pneumococci was 21% in recipients of two doses of PHiD-CV (Group A) compared to 31% in controls (p = 0.04). Fever after dose 1 was reported by 41% of PHiD-CV recipients compared to 26% of HAV recipients (p<0.001). Other local and systemic adverse experiences were similar between groups. Conclusions Vaccination of children aged 12–59 months with two doses of PHiD-CV two to six months apart was immunogenic, reduced vaccine-type pneumococcal carriage and was well-tolerated. Administration of PHiD-CV would be expected to provide effective protection against vaccine-type disease. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01028326 PMID:24465570
Masese, Linnet; Baeten, Jared M.; Richardson, Barbra A.; Bukusi, Elizabeth; John-Stewart, Grace; Graham, Susan M.; Shafi, Juma; Kiarie, James; Overbaugh, Julie; McClelland, R. Scott
OBJECTIVE To understand temporal trends in the contribution of different genital tract infections to HIV incidence over 20 years of follow-up in a cohort of high-risk women. DESIGN Prospective cohort study. METHODS We performed monthly evaluations for HIV, vaginal yeast, bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, non-specific cervicitis, herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2), genital ulcer disease (GUD) and genital warts. We used Cox regression to evaluate the association between STIs and HIV acquisition over 4 time periods (1993–1997, 1998–2002, 2003–2007, 2008–2012). Models were adjusted for age, workplace, sexual risk behavior, hormonal contraceptive use, and other STIs. The resulting hazard ratios were used to calculate population attributable risk percent (PAR%). RESULTS Between 1993 and 2012, 1,964 women contributed 6,135 person-years of follow-up. The overall PAR% for each infection was: prevalent HSV-2 (48.3%), incident HSV-2 (4.5%), BV (15.1%), intermediate microbiota (7.5%), vaginal yeast (6.4%), T. vaginalis (1.1%), N. gonorrhoeae (0.9%), non-specific cervicitis (0.7%), GUD (0.8%), and genital warts (−0.2%). Across the four time periods, the PAR% for prevalent HSV-2 (40.4%, 61.8%, 58.4%, 48.3%) and BV (17.1%, 19.5%, 14.7%, 17.1%), remained relatively high and had no significant trend for change over time. The PAR% for trichomoniasis, gonorrhea, GUD and genital warts remained <3% across the four periods. CONCLUSIONS Bacterial vaginosis and HSV-2 have consistently been the largest contributors to HIV acquisition risk in the Mombasa Cohort over the past 20 years. Interventions that prevent these conditions would benefit women’s health, and could reduce their risk of becoming infected with HIV. PMID:26125141
Mweri, Jefwa G.
In Kenya, the only official document that deals with the use of mother tongue (MT) in Schools is the 1967 Gachathi report. The report has clear-cut guidance and policy regarding MT use by the hearing children. However, for deaf children, no such policy exists; therefore, the use of the deaf child's MT (Kenyan Sign Language (KSL)) in schools for…
Edwards, Nick J.; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H.; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K.; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B.; Ewer, Katie
Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio,0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016). PMID:25947165
Ogwang, Caroline; Kimani, Domtila; Edwards, Nick J; Roberts, Rachel; Mwacharo, Jedidah; Bowyer, Georgina; Bliss, Carly; Hodgson, Susanne H; Njuguna, Patricia; Viebig, Nicola K; Nicosia, Alfredo; Gitau, Evelyn; Douglas, Sandy; Illingworth, Joe; Marsh, Kevin; Lawrie, Alison; Imoukhuede, Egeruan B; Ewer, Katie; Urban, Britta C; S Hill, Adrian V; Bejon, Philip
Protective immunity to the liver stage of the malaria parasite can be conferred by vaccine-induced T cells, but no subunit vaccination approach based on cellular immunity has shown efficacy in field studies. We randomly allocated 121 healthy adult male volunteers in Kilifi, Kenya, to vaccination with the recombinant viral vectors chimpanzee adenovirus 63 (ChAd63) and modified vaccinia Ankara (MVA), both encoding the malaria peptide sequence ME-TRAP (the multiple epitope string and thrombospondin-related adhesion protein), or to vaccination with rabies vaccine as a control. We gave antimalarials to clear parasitemia and conducted PCR (polymerase chain reaction) analysis on blood samples three times a week to identify infection with the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. On Cox regression, vaccination reduced the risk of infection by 67% [95% confidence interval (CI), 33 to 83%; P = 0.002] during 8 weeks of monitoring. T cell responses to TRAP peptides 21 to 30 were significantly associated with protection (hazard ratio, 0.24; 95% CI, 0.08 to 0.75; P = 0.016).
Gona, Joseph K.; Rimba, Kenneth; Mapenzi, Rachel; Kihara, Michael
Objective To explore parents’ and professionals’ perceived causes and treatment of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) on the Kenyan Coast. Methods In-depth interviews and focus group discussions using guiding questions were utilized in data collection. One hundred and three participants, who included parents of children with ASD, special needs teachers, clinicians, and social workers from diverse cultural background, participated in this study. The interviews and focus groups were recorded, transcribed verbatim and then translated to English. Themes were generated using content analysis. Results Preternatural causes were mentioned and included evil spirits, witchcraft, and curses. Biomedical causes comprised infections, drug abuse, birth complications, malnutrition, and genetic related problems. Treatment varied from traditional and spiritual healing to modern treatment in health facilities, and included consultations with traditional healers, offering prayers to God, and visits to hospitals. Conclusions The results suggest that regardless of cultural backgrounds, people on the Kenyan Coast have similar views on perceived causes and treatment of ASD. These findings provide valuable conceptual understanding for professionals when planning and implementing community based rehabilitation interventions targeting children with ASD within a local context. PMID:26267668
Yoon, In-Kyu; Srikiatkhachorn, Anon; Hermann, Laura; Buddhari, Darunee; Scott, Thomas W.; Jarman, Richard G.; Aldstadt, Jared; Nisalak, Ananda; Thammapalo, Suwich; Bhoomiboonchoo, Piraya; Mammen, Mammen P.; Green, Sharone; Gibbons, Robert V.; Endy, Timothy P.; Rothman, Alan L.
A four-year longitudinal cohort and geographic cluster study in rural Thailand was conducted to characterize the clinical spectrum of dengue virus (DENV) infection. Symptomatic DENV infections in the cohort were detected by active school absence–based surveillance that triggered cluster investigations around ill cohort children. Data from 189 cohort children with symptomatic DENV infection and 126 contact children in the clusters with DENV infection were analyzed. Of infected contacts, only 19% were asymptomatic; 81% were symptomatic, but only 65.9% reported fever. Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever history. Mild infections identified by cluster investigations account for a major proportion of all DENV infections. These findings are relevant for disease burden assessments, transmission modeling, and determination of vaccine impact. PMID:24127167
Lewin, Linda C
Pediatric nurse practitioners may be called on to conduct an assessment for sexual abuse of a young child. Depending on the type of sexual contact, a decision may have to be made to obtain cultures for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Recognizing the symptoms of STIs in preadolescent children, along with having knowledge of the modes of transmission, diagnostics, and treatment, are part of the clinical decision. The impact of STI in preadolescent children has physical and emotional consequences for the child and family, along with legal consequences for an accused perpetrator. Knowledge about types of sexual contact that necessitate STI cultures, incubation periods, and symptomatology is essential. Accurate techniques and appropriate selection of culture materials are necessary. Proper positioning of the child for obtaining cultures can decrease the potential for discomfort during the examination. Gonorrhea, Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus virus, syphilis, Trichomonas vaginalis, hepatitis B, and HIV are reviewed.
Andersen, Richard D.
The nature of chronic infections in developmentally disabled children is reviewed, along with appropriate management strategies for care providers and implications for other children. Discussed are herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, hepatitis B virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. (Author/JDD)
Chiotos, Kathleen; Han, Jennifer H.; Tamma, Pranita D.
Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an emerging global public health threat. Infections due to CRE are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Few therapeutic options are available for treatment of these infections, and optimal antibiotic treatment regimens are unclear. Along with the rapidly increasing prevalence of CRE in the United States and worldwide, several studies have described the epidemiology of CRE in the adult population. While CRE is now also reported sporadically in children, there is a significant lack of data on the epidemiology, risk factors, treatment, and outcomes in this population. This article provides a comprehensive review of what is known to date about CRE, including clinical and molecular epidemiology, microbiologic diagnosis, antibiotic treatment options, and outcomes. In particular, this review will focus on the available data on CRE in the pediatric population. PMID:26711126
Gamble, J G; Rinsky, L A
Kingella kingae is a gram-negative occasional, but normal, inhabitant of the nasopharynx. We present two new cases of this infection that occurred in previously healthy children, and compare and contrast them to other cases reported in the literature. K. kingae osteomyelitis generally has an insidious, subacute onset, whereas septic arthritis has an acute presentation. To date, all strains of K. kingae have been sensitive to penicillin, and no residual damage has been reported following osteomyelitis or septic arthritis, except that residual disk space narrowing did occur after K. kingae discitis.
Leber, Amy L.
The detection and diagnosis of Clostridium difficile infection in pediatric populations have some unique considerations in comparison to testing in adults. The testing methodologies, including toxigenic culture, cell cytotoxicity, antigen detection, and, more recently, molecular testing, are the same in all age groups. However, limited data exist on the specific performance characteristics in children. In this review, we focus on the challenges of testing in pediatric populations and assess the available data on test performance in these populations. Additionally, a review of the existing guidance for testing is provided. PMID:26912759
Odongo, George; Davidson, Roseanna
The philosophy of inclusive education aims at enabling all children to learn in the regular education classrooms. It is widely believed that the successful implementation of any inclusive policy is largely influenced by teachers being positive about the expectations. Grounded in Positioning Theory, this study was conducted to examine the attitude,…
English, Mike; Berkley, James; Mwangi, Isiah; Mohammed, Shebbe; Ahmed, Maimuna; Osier, Faith; Muturi, Neema; Ogutu, Bernhards; Marsh, Kevin; Newton, Charles R. J. C.
OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether the outpatient, syndrome-based approach of the Integrated Management of Childhood Illness (IMCI) protocol could be extended to the inpatient arena to give clear and simple minimum standards of care for poorly resourced facilities. METHODS: A prospective, one-year admission cohort retrospectively compared hypothetical performance of syndrome-based management with paediatrician-defined final diagnosis. Admission syndrome definitions were based on local adaptations to the IMCI protocol that encompassed 20 clinical features, measurement of oxygen saturation, and malaria microscopy. FINDINGS: After 315 children with clinically obvious diagnoses (e.g. sickle cell disease and burns) were excluded, 3705 admission episodes were studied. Of these, 2334 (63%) met criteria for at least one severe syndrome (mortality 8% vs <1% for "non-severe" cases), and half of these had features of two or more severe syndromes. No cases of measles were seen. Syndrome-based treatment would have been appropriate (sensitivity >95%) for severe pneumonia, severe malaria, and diarrhoea with severe dehydration, and probably for severe malnutrition (sensitivity 71%). Syndrome-directed treatment suggested the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics in 75/133 (56% sensitivity) children with bacteraemic and 63/71 (89% sensitivity) children with meningitis. CONCLUSIONS: Twenty clinical features, oxygen saturation measurements, and results of malaria blood slides could be used for inpatient, syndrome-based management of acute paediatric admissions. The addition of microscopy of the cerebrospinal fluid and haemoglobin measurements would improve syndrome-directed treatment considerably. This approach might rationalize admission policy and standardize inpatient paediatric care in resource-poor countries, although the clinical detection of bacteraemia remains a problem. PMID:12764512
du Preez, Martella; Conroy, Ronan M; Ligondo, Sophie; Hennessy, James; Elmore-Meegan, Michael; Soita, Allan; McGuigan, Kevin G
We report the results of a randomized controlled intervention study (September 2007 to March 2009) investigating the effect of solar disinfection (SODIS) of drinking water on the incidence of dysentery, nondysentery diarrhea, and anthropometric measurements of height and weight among children of age 6 months to 5 years living in peri-urban and rural communities in Nakuru, Kenya. We compared 555 children in 404 households using SODIS with 534 children in 361 households with no intervention. Dysentery was recorded using a pictorial diary. Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for both number of days and episodes of dysentery and nondysentery diarrhea were significantly (P < 0.001) reduced by use of solar disinfection: dysentery days IRR = 0.56 (95% CI 0.40 to 0.79); dysentery episodes IRR = 0.55 (95% CI 0.42 to 0.73); nondysentery days IRR = 0.70 (95% CI 0.59 to 0.84); nondysentery episodes IRR = 0.73 (95% CI 0.63 to 0.84). Anthropometry measurements of weight and height showed median height-for-age was significantly increased in those on SODIS, corresponding to an average of 0.8 cm over a 1-year period over the group as a whole (95% CI 0.7 to 1.6 cm, P = 0.031). Median weight-for-age was higher in those on SODIS, corresponding to a 0.23 kg difference in weight over the same period; however, the confidence interval spanned zero and the effect fell short of statistical significance (95% CI -0.02 to 0.47 kg, P = 0.068). SODIS and control households did not differ in the microbial quality of their untreated household water over the follow-up period (P = 0.119), but E. coli concentrations in SODIS bottles were significantly lower than those in storage containers over all follow-up visits (P < 0.001). This is the first trial to show evidence of the effect of SODIS on childhood anthropometry, compared with children in the control group and should alleviate concerns expressed by some commentators that the lower rates of dysentery associated with SODIS are the product of biased
Withers, Mark R; McKinney, Denise; Ogutu, Bernhards R; Waitumbi, John N; Milman, Jessica B; Apollo, Odika J; Allen, Otieno G; Tucker, Kathryn; Soisson, Lorraine A; Diggs, Carter; Leach, Amanda; Wittes, Janet; Dubovsky, Filip; Stewart, V. Ann; Remich, Shon A; Cohen, Joe; Ballou, W. Ripley; Holland, Carolyn A; Lyon, Jeffrey A; Angov, Evelina; Stoute, José A; Martin, Samuel K; Heppner, D. Gray
Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the safety, reactogenicity, and immunogenicity of an investigational malaria vaccine. Design: This was an age-stratified phase Ib, double-blind, randomized, controlled, dose-escalation trial. Children were recruited into one of three cohorts (dosage groups) and randomized in 2:1 fashion to receive either the test product or a comparator. Setting: The study was conducted in a rural population in Kombewa Division, western Kenya. Participants: Subjects were 135 children, aged 12–47 mo. Interventions: Subjects received 10, 25, or 50 μg of falciparum malaria protein 1 (FMP1) formulated in 100, 250, and 500 μL, respectively, of AS02A, or they received a comparator (Imovax® rabies vaccine). Outcome Measures: We performed safety and reactogenicity parameters and assessment of adverse events during solicited (7 d) and unsolicited (30 d) periods after each vaccination. Serious adverse events were monitored for 6 mo after the last vaccination. Results: Both vaccines were safe and well tolerated. FMP1/AS02A recipients experienced significantly more pain and injection-site swelling with a dose-effect relationship. Systemic reactogenicity was low at all dose levels. Hemoglobin levels remained stable and similar across arms. Baseline geometric mean titers were comparable in all groups. Anti-FMP1 antibody titers increased in a dose-dependent manner in subjects receiving FMP1/AS02A; no increase in anti-FMP1 titers occurred in subjects who received the comparator. By study end, subjects who received either 25 or 50 μg of FMP1 had similar antibody levels, which remained significantly higher than that of those who received the comparator or 10 μg of FMP1. A longitudinal mixed effects model showed a statistically significant effect of dosage level on immune response (F3,1047 = 10.78, or F3, 995 = 11.22, p < 0.001); however, the comparison of 25 μg and 50 μg recipients indicated no significant difference (F1,1047 = 0.05; p = 0.82). Conclusions
Sood, M; Joshi, S; Akobeng, A; Mitchell, J; Thomas, A
Aims: To compare the height, weight, and body mass index (BMI) of children presenting with dyspeptic symptoms and Helicobacter pylori infection, to those with dyspepsia but without the infection. Methods: A retrospective chart review of 257 children was performed. 13C urea breath test was performed to detect H pylori infection; weight and height were recorded and BMI was calculated. Weight, height, and BMI SD scores were determined using the 1990 UK normative data. The Index of Multiple Deprivation 2004 (IMD 2004) scores, which measure deprivation at small area level, were calculated from the patients' postcodes. Results: Ninety seven of the 257 children were H pylori positive. The mean age at diagnosis and presenting symptoms of H pylori positive and negative patients were similar. The mean IMD 2004 scores for children with H pylori infection were significantly higher compared to H pylori negative patients, suggesting that children with the infection came from relatively more deprived areas. The mean weight and height SD score were significantly lower for children with H pylori infection compared to those without. However, this difference was no longer significant after adjusting for socioeconomic deprivation and ethnic differences between the groups. Conclusion: Children with dyspepsia and H pylori infection were shorter and lighter than patients with similar symptoms but no infection. The differences in anthropometry may be due to socioeconomic and ethnic factors rather than H pylori infection. PMID:15956048
Hall, Caroline Breese; Weinberg, Geoffrey A.; Iwane, Marika K.; Blumkin, Aaron K.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Staat, Mary A.; Auinger, Peggy; Griffin, Marie R.; Poehling, Katherine A.; Erdman, Dean; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Szilagyi, Peter
Background The primary role of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in causing infant hospitalizations is well recognized, but the total burden of RSV infection among young children remains poorly defined. Methods We conducted prospective, population-based surveillance of acute respiratory infections among children under 5 years of age in three U.S. counties. We enrolled hospitalized children from 2000 through 2004 and children presenting as outpatients in emergency departments and pediatric offices from 2002 through 2004. RSV was detected by culture and reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Clinical information was obtained from parents and medical records. We calculated population-based rates of hospitalization associated with RSV infection and estimated the rates of RSV-associated outpatient visits. Results Among 5067 children enrolled in the study, 919 (18%) had RSV infections. Overall, RSV was associated with 20% of hospitalizations, 18% of emergency department visits, and 15% of office visits for acute respiratory infections from November through April. Average annual hospitalization rates were 17 per 1000 children under 6 months of age and 3 per 1000 children under 5 years of age. Most of the children had no coexisting illnesses. Only prematurity and a young age were independent risk factors for hospitalization. Estimated rates of RSV-associated office visits among children under 5 years of age were three times those in emergency departments. Outpatients had moderately severe RSV-associated illness, but few of the illnesses (3%) were diagnosed as being caused by RSV. Conclusions RSV infection is associated with substantial morbidity in U.S. children in both inpatient and outpatient settings. Most children with RSV infection were previously healthy, suggesting that control strategies targeting only high-risk children will have a limited effect on the total disease burden of RSV infection. PMID:19196675
Hall, Christopher S.
Children with hemophilia and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection are not a transmission risk to other children, and they can help enact best practices for school attendance by other such children. The article examines the National Hemophilia Foundation's work to promote appropriate inclusion of students with hemophilia and HIV in all…
Levy, Michael Z.; Kawai, Vivian; Bowman, Natalie M.; Waller, Lance A.; Cabrera, Lilia; Pinedo-Cancino, Viviana V.; Seitz, Amy E.; Steurer, Frank J.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan G.; Cordova-Benzaquen, Eleazar; Maguire, James H.; Gilman, Robert H.; Bern, Caryn
Background Millions of people are infected with Trypanosoma cruzi, the causative agent of Chagas disease in Latin America. Anti-trypanosomal drug therapy can cure infected individuals, but treatment efficacy is highest early in infection. Vector control campaigns disrupt transmission of T. cruzi, but without timely diagnosis, children infected prior to vector control often miss the window of opportunity for effective chemotherapy. Methods and Findings We performed a serological survey in children 2–18 years old living in a peri-urban community of Arequipa, Peru, and linked the results to entomologic, spatial and census data gathered during a vector control campaign. 23 of 433 (5.3% [95% CI 3.4–7.9]) children were confirmed seropositive for T. cruzi infection by two methods. Spatial analysis revealed that households with infected children were very tightly clustered within looser clusters of households with parasite-infected vectors. Bayesian hierarchical mixed models, which controlled for clustering of infection, showed that a child's risk of being seropositive increased by 20% per year of age and 4% per vector captured within the child's house. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) plots of best-fit models suggest that more than 83% of infected children could be identified while testing only 22% of eligible children. Conclusions We found evidence of spatially-focal vector-borne T. cruzi transmission in peri-urban Arequipa. Ongoing vector control campaigns, in addition to preventing further parasite transmission, facilitate the collection of data essential to identifying children at high risk of T. cruzi infection. Targeted screening strategies could make integration of diagnosis and treatment of children into Chagas disease control programs feasible in lower-resource settings. PMID:18160979
Gray, Peter B
Male variation in testosterone (T) levels may, in part, reflect a differential behavioral allocation to mating and parenting effort. This research tests whether demographic indicators of pair bonding and parenting were associated with salivary T levels among Kenyan Swahili men. Men in the sample were either unmarried (N = 17), monogamously married (N = 57), or polygynously married (N = 14), and between ages 29-52. In contrast with earlier findings among North American men, monogamously married men did not have lower T levels than unmarried men. However, among all married men, men with younger genetic children tended to have marginally lower T levels. Polygynously married men, all of whom had two wives, had higher T levels than all other Swahili men. Possible explanations of higher T levels among polygynously married men are explored.
Oyedeji, Olusola Adetunji; Gbolahan, Olalere Omoyosola; Abe, Elizabeth Oluwatoyin; Agelebe, Efeturi
Introduction Oral diseases in the HIV infected children though commonly encountered are under researched and often overlooked by physicians in developing countries. The aim of this study is to document the types and frequency of oral lesions in HIV infected children and examine the effects of management with HAART on their rates. Methods A cross sectional study designed to identify the oral lesions in consecutive HIV infected children and their distribution at a Paediatric Anti-retroviral clinic. Information on oral disease and clinical features of the subjects were obtained by history and clinical examination and laboratory investigations by the pediatricians and dental surgeons. Results The 58 children studied consisted of 34 boys and 24 girls with their ages ranging from 3 months to 13 years. Thirty seven (63.8%) of the 58 children had oral diseases. Enamel hypoplasia, candidiasis, caries, angular chelitis, and herpes labialis were the most common oral lesions found in the patients. Oral soft tissue lesions were less frequently encountered among children on HAART. Statistical significance was recorded among those infected with candidiasis. More than 60% of the children diagnosed with oral disease had no knowledge of the state of their oral health before the study. Conclusion Oral diseases are very common amongst the children studied. Awareness of oral disease among the children and their caregivers is low. Administration of HAART may have a preventive effect on the development of oral soft tissue disease. There is a need to integrate dental care into the paediatric HIV care programs. PMID:26161210
The article reviews issues of diagnosis and treatment of children with HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection. A spectrum of clinical signs is correlated with serological results. The intense central nervous system involvement typically present in childhood cases is examined. (DB)
Tamma, Pranita D.; Sandora, Thomas J.
The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) in children has increased over the past decade. In recent years, new and intriguing data on pediatric CDI have emerged. Community-onset infections are increasingly recognized, even in children who have not previously received antibiotics. A hypervirulent strain is responsible for up to 20% of pediatric CDI cases. Unique risk factors for CDI in children have been identified. Advances in diagnostic testing strategies, including the use of nucleic acid amplification tests, have raised new questions about the optimal approach to diagnosing CDI in children. Novel therapeutic options are available for adult patients with CDI, raising questions about the use of these agents in children. Updated recommendations about infection prevention and control measures are now available. We summarize these recent developments in pediatric CDI in this review and also highlight remaining knowledge gaps that should be addressed in future research efforts. PMID:23687578
Zuckerman, Richard; Manji, Karim; Matee, Mecky; Naburi, Helga; Bisimba, Jema; Martinez, Raquel; Wieland-Alter, Wendy; Kim, Faith; von Reyn, C Fordham; Palumbo, Paul
Herpes simplex virus (HSV) oral shedding has not been studied among HIV-positive children in Africa. We sought to evaluate longitudinal oral HSV reactivation in HIV-positive and -negative children. Twenty HIV-positive antiretroviral-naive and 10 HIV-negative children aged 3-12 years in Tanzania were followed prospectively for 14 days. Oral swabs were collected daily and submitted for HSV DNA PCR analysis. Clinical data were collected via chart review and daily diaries. HSV DNA was detected in 10 (50%) of HIV-positive and 4 (40%) of HIV-negative children. Children who shed HSV had virus detected in a median of 21.4% of samples; shedding was intermittent. Median CD4 count among HIV-infected children was 667 cells/µL in those with positive HSV DNA and 886 cells/µL in those who were negative (p = 0.6). Of the HIV-positive children reporting prior sores, five (83%) had positive HSV swabs, whereas the one HIV-negative child with prior sores did not have a PCR-positive swab. HSV is detected frequently in children with and without HIV. HIV-infected children reporting oral sores have a high rate of HSV detection. Given the proven strong interactions between HIV and HSV, further study of co-infection with these viruses is warranted in children.
Tereschenko, S Yu; Olkhovskiy, I A
The epidemiological studies testify an extremely high prevalence of chronic infection of children with Helicobacter pylori in Russia. The affection consists from 50% to 80% depending on region and age of examined children. The currently in force recommendations "Maastricht IV" concerning diagnostic and treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection adult patients are applied not in its fullness to children adolescent population. At the same time recently published joint conciliatory document of the European and North American associations of pediatric gastroenterologists is oriented to populations with low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori infection and particular profile of drug resistance. Hence, an urgent need exists to develop modern local algorithm concerning diagnostic, treatment and control of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection among children and adolescents in Russia. The review presents analysis of admissibility of application in Russia's conditions of the international conciliatory documents concerning diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection in children. The data from conciliatory document of the European (ESPGHAN) and North American (NASPGHAN) associations of pediatric gastroenterologists, particular orginal research studies and one's own clinical experience were used. The advantages and shortcomings of actual methods of laboratory diagnostic of Helicobacter pylori infection are discussed. The approaches to application of particular diagnostic methods are considered. The enhanced indications to detection of infection and implementation of eradication therapy are proposed.
Biswas, Dipankar; Yadav, Kaushal; Borkakoty, Biswajyoti; Mahanta, Jagadish
We describe the prevalence of human metapneumovirus infection in children visiting outpatient department with symptoms of respiratory illness in rural areas of Dibrugarh District of Assam. Human metapneumovirus was observed in 7.2% (20/276) of children aged =5 years with detection of genotypes A2b and B2.
Kelmanson, Igor A.
Background: Recurrent respiratory infections (RRI) are among most common diseases in school-aged children. Little is known about possible associations between RRI and children psychological well-being. Aim: To study possible associations between RRI in junior school pupils and their emotional/behavioural characteristics. Methods: The RRI group…
Lorrot, M; Haas, H; Hentgen, V; Van Den Abbeele, T; Bonacorsi, S; Doit, C; Cohen, R; Grimprel, E
Neck infections in children are categorized as peritonsillar infections, latero and retroparapharyngeal infections. The clinical features and severity of these infections vary according to different pædiatric age groups, in relation to the location of the infection. In France, the antimicrobial therapy should consider meticillin sensitive S. aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes and anerobic bacteria. Empiric initial antimicrobial therapy consists in high doses of parenteral amoxicillin-clavulanate (150 mg/kg d. in 3-4 doses) during a few days then changed to oral amoxicillin-clavulanate (80 mg/kg/d). The total course of therapy should be 10 to 14 days.
Bucardo, Filemón; Carlsson, Beatrice; Nordgren, Johan; Larson, Göran; Blandon, Patricia; Vilchez, Samuel
We describe the genetic diversity of sapovirus (SaV) in children in Nicaragua and investigate the role of host genetic factors and susceptibility to SaV infections. Our results indicate that neither ABO blood group, Lewis phenotype, nor secretor status affects susceptibility to SaV infection in Nicaragua. PMID:23092588
One hundred children with urinary tract infections were fully investigated radiologically. More than half showed abnormalities of the urinary tract. It is concluded that full investigation of the urinary tract is justifiable at any age; it should be carried out in boys at the first infection, and in girls at the latest after the second infection, or if treatment did not produce the expected cure. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 3Fig. 4Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8 PMID:5412561
only 65.9% reported fever . Symptom-based case definitions were unreliable for diagnosis. Symptomatic infections in contacts were milder with lower DENV...RNA levels than the cohort. Infections in contacts with fever history were more likely to have detectable DENV RNA than infections without fever ...during June–November each year.19,20 An acute-phase blood sample was drawn from cohort children who were absent from school and reported a fever in
Roberts, Kathleen Johnston
The purpose of this exploratory study was to examine, from the perspectives of both HIV-infected children and such children's primary guardians, the barriers children face in adhering to combination antiretroviral therapies. Nine HIV-infected young children and 14 guardians of HIV-positive children were interviewed about what the children's lives…
Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M; Heffron, Renee
HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions.
Pintye, Jillian; Ngure, Kenneth; Curran, Kathryn; Vusha, Sophie; Mugo, Nelly; Celum, Connie; Baeten, Jared M.
Abstract HIV-serodiscordant couples often choose to attempt pregnancy despite their HIV transmission risk. Optimizing delivery of HIV risk reduction strategies during peri-conception periods (i.e., safer conception) requires understanding how HIV-serodiscordant couples approach fertility decisions. We conducted 36 in-depth individual interviews with male and female partners of Kenyan heterosexual HIV-serodiscordant couples who recently conceived. Transcripts were analyzed by gender and HIV serostatus using open coding. Matrices were used to identify patterns and emerging themes. Most participants expressed acceptance of being in an HIV-serodiscordant couple and affirmed their resilience to live with serodiscordance and achieve their fertility goals. Overall, while the goal for childbearing was unchanged, conception became an urgent desire so that both partners could experience childrearing together while the HIV-infected partner was still healthy. Children also add value to the relationship, and multiple children were a commonly expressed desire. Couples' desires dominated those of individual partners in fertility decision-making, but male preferences were more influential when the individual desires differed. Values and preferences of the couple as a unit may mediate fertility decision-making in HIV-discordant couples. Thus, it is important that safer conception programs include both partners when appropriate and consider the relationship context during risk reduction counseling and when recommending risk reduction interventions. PMID:26301703
Mammas, Ioannis N; Sourvinos, George; Spandidos, Demetrios A
Human papilloma viruses (HPV) are common pathogens associated with a wide range of cutaneous and mucosal infections in childhood. Different HPV types can cause common warts, genital warts, low-grade as well as high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions. Anogenital warts represent an issue with legal and clinical implications and evaluation of children for the possibility of sexual abuse should be considered in all cases. Recurrent respiratory papillomatosis has also been associated with HPV infection in a variety of studies. The recently introduced HPV vaccination is expected to prevent HPV-related cervical cancer in adulthood; however, HPV infection will continue to affect children.
Lasser, Jon; Fite, Kathleen; Wadende, Akinyi P.
This article reviews the traditional and evolving constructions of fatherhood in Kenyan society, with an emphasis on fatherhood's impact on child development outcomes. Western influence and increased access to technology have changed the role of the Kenyan father, and in turn affected his role in the family. Special attention is given to…
Lacour, M; Duarte, M; Beutler, A; Auckenthaler, R; Suter, S
By the description of two cases of osteoarticular infections due to Kingella kingae in two young children we wish to draw the attention of clinicians to invasive infections due to this micro-organism. Since its biological characterization in 1976, K. kingae has been increasingly reported as a human pathogen. Most common presentations are endocarditis, bacteraemia, septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and spondylodiscitis. Interestingly, osteorticular involvement is largely predominant in previously healthy children. From the literature, we reviewed 51 cases of K. kingae bone and joint infections, representing 23 cases of septic arthritis, 17 of osteomyelitis and 11 spondylodiscitis. Of the cases 88% occurred in children below 5 years of age and in all cases only one bone or joint was involved. An underlying disorder could be found in only 4 patients. Since these infections have a favourable outcome with intravenous antibiotic treatment, proper isolation and identification of K. kingae is essential.
Cagigi, Alberto; Cotugno, Nicola; Giaquinto, Carlo; Nicolosi, Luciana; Bernardi, Stefania; Rossi, Paolo; Douagi, Iyadh; Palma, Paolo
Current evidence on routine immunization of HIV-1 infected children point out the need for a special vaccine schedule in this population. However, optimal strategies for identifying individuals susceptible to infections, and then offering them sustained protection through appropriate immunization schedule, both in terms of timing and number of vaccine doses, still remain to be elucidated. Understanding the degree of immune recovery after HAART initiation is important in guiding administration of routine vaccination in HIV-1 infected children. Although quantitative measures (e.g., CD4+ T-cell counts and immunoglobulin levels) are frequently performed to evaluate immune parameters, these measures do not fully mirror functional immune recovery. Here, we will review the status of single mandatory and recommended vaccines for HIV-1 infected children in relation to immune recovery after HAART initiation with the aim of identifying new means to help design personalized vaccine schedules for this population. PMID:22906931
Sejdini, A; Mahmud, R; Lim, Y A L; Mahdy, M; Sejdini, F; Gjoni, V; Xhaferraj, K; Kasmi, G
Although intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) among children remain a global issue, the current information on such infections in Albanian children is very limited. A cross-sectional study of the IPI in 321 children living in the Albanian counties of Tirana (152) and Elbasan (169) was therefore conducted in 2008, with a pre-tested standard questionnaire employed to gather the relevant personal and clinical data. Using formalin–ether concentration and permanent stains, stool samples were examined microscopically for the ova, cysts and oocysts of any parasites. The overall prevalence of IPI was 19% (61 of 321), with protozoan infections (11·5%) apparently more common than infections with soil-transmitted helminths (STH; 8·1%). Giardia duodenalis was the parasite most frequently detected (10·9%), followed by hookworm (5·6%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1·9%), Trichuris trichiura (0·6%), Cryptosporidium (0·3%) and Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (0·3%). The results of a univariate analysis indicated that the children from Tirana county were significantly more likely to be found infected with STH compared with the children from Elbasan county (12·5% v. 4·1%; P = 0·006). Children sampled in the community were also more likely to be found STH-positive than the children sampled as they attended hospitals and health clinics (10·5% v. 6·0%) but this difference did not reach statistical significance. The children found STH-positive were five times more likely to be suffering from diarrhoea than the other children checked in clinical settings (P = 0·004) and were also more likely to be suffering from abdominal pain (P = 0·054) and/or diminished appetite (P = 0·016). PMID:21801503
Intensified chemotherapy and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation result in severe and prolonged granulocytopenia with an increased risk of invasive fungal infections. The major fungal species that cause serious infections in cancer patients are Candida species and Aspergillus species. The main features of Candida infection in this context are oropharyngeal candidiasis and Candida esophagitis, chronic disseminated candidiasis, also known as hepatosplenic candidiasis, and candidemia. Aspergillus can cause severe lung infection but also sinusal or CNS infection. Because invasive fungal infections are severe and often life-threatening, preventive and empirical managements have become standard practice. An increasing number of antifungal drugs is now available, notably lipid formulations of amphotericin B (liposomal amphotericin B), new azoles with broad spectrum of activity and echinocandin.
John, Christopher; Asquith, Heidi; Wren, Tom; Mercuri, Stephanie; Brownlow, Sian
The Kenyan Village Medical Education Program is a student-led global health initiative that seeks to improve health outcomes in rural Kenya through culturally appropriate health education. The month-long program, which is organised by the Melbourne University Health Initiative (Australia), is conducted each January in southern rural Kenya. Significance for public health The Kenyan Village Medical Education (KVME) Program is a student-led global health initiative that involves exploring well-established strategies for the prevention of disease through workshops that are conducted in southern rural Kenya. These workshops are tailored to the unique needs and circumstances of rural Kenyan communities, and are delivered to community leaders, as well as to adults and children within the wider community. Aside from the KVME Program’s emphasis on reducing the burden of preventable disease through health education, the positive impact of the KVME Program on the Program’s student volunteers also deserves consideration. Throughout the month-long KVME Program, student volunteers are presented with opportunities to develop their understanding of cultural competency, the social and economic determinants of health, as well as the unique challenges associated with working in resource-poor communities. Importantly, the KVME Program also represents an avenue through which global health leadership can be fostered amongst student volunteers. PMID:27190974
El Feghaly, Rana E; Stauber, Jennifer L; Tarr, Phillip I; Haslam, David B
Clostridium difficile infections in children are increasing. In this cohort study, we enrolled 62 children with diarrhea and C difficile. We performed polymerase chain reaction assays to detect viral agents of gastroenteritis and quantify C difficile burden. Fifteen (24%) children diagnosed as having C difficile infection had a concomitant viral co-infection. These patients tended to be younger and had a higher C difficile bacterial burden than children with no viral co-infections (median difference = 565,957 cfu/mL; P = 0.011), but were clinically indistinguishable. The contribution of viral co-infection to C difficile disease in children warrants future investigation.
Hrapcak, Susan; Kuper, Hannah; Bartlett, Peter; Devendra, Akash; Makawa, Atupele; Kim, Maria; Kazembe, Peter; Ahmed, Saeed
Introduction With improved access to antiretroviral therapy (ART), HIV infection is becoming a chronic illness. Preliminary data suggest that HIV-infected children have a higher risk of disabilities, including hearing impairment, although data are sparse. This study aimed to estimate the prevalence and types of hearing loss in HIV-infected children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey of 380 HIV-infected children aged 4–14 years attending ART clinic in Lilongwe between December 2013-March 2014. Data was collected through pediatric quality of life and sociodemographic questionnaires, electronic medical record review, and detailed audiologic testing. Hearing loss was defined as >20 decibels hearing level (dBHL) in either ear. Predictors of hearing loss were explored by regression analysis generating age- and sex-adjusted odds ratios. Children with significant hearing loss were fitted with hearing aids. Results Of 380 patients, 24% had hearing loss: 82% conductive, 14% sensorineural, and 4% mixed. Twenty-one patients (23% of those with hearing loss) were referred for hearing aid fitting. There was a higher prevalence of hearing loss in children with history of frequent ear infections (OR 7.4, 4.2–13.0) and ear drainage (OR 6.4, 3.6–11.6). Hearing loss was linked to history of WHO Stage 3 (OR 2.4, 1.2–4.5) or Stage 4 (OR 6.4, 2.7–15.2) and history of malnutrition (OR 2.1, 1.3–3.5), but not to duration of ART or CD4. Only 40% of caregivers accurately perceived their child’s hearing loss. Children with hearing impairment were less likely to attend school and had poorer emotional (p = 0.02) and school functioning (p = 0.04). Conclusions There is an urgent need for improved screening tools, identification and treatment of hearing problems in HIV-infected children, as hearing loss was common in this group and affected school functioning and quality of life. Clear strategies were identified for prevention and treatment, since most
Jones, Liz; MacLure, Maggie; Holmes, Rachel; MacRae, Christina
This paper considers young children's (aged 3-5 years) relations with objects, and in particular objects that are brought from home to school. We begin by considering the place of objects within early years classrooms and their relationship to children's education before considering why some objects are often separated from their owners on entry…
Gjørup, I E; Skinhøj, P; Böttiger, B; Plesner, A-M
Hepatitis B continues to be a worldwide threat to human health, especially if infection occurs in childhood. Universal vaccination is recommended by WHO, but has not been implemented in the Scandinavian countries, Holland and UK, because of a low incidence rate. However, clinically overt infections are rare in childhood. We therefore performed a nation wide serosurvey for HBV markers in 2428 children aged primarily 6-16 years from 16 primary schools in Denmark. Anti-HBc was found in altogether 20 children (0.8%), 12 of whom were among 144 immigrant children (8.3%) compared to 8 (0.4%) in those born in Denmark. Three of the children, all immigrants, were HBsAg positive indicating chronic infection. At school level no relation of anti-HBc in Danish born children was found to schools with high number of immigrant children or schools with HBsAg positive children indicating a low risk of Hepatitis B transmission in this setting. The results do not support implementation of general vaccination, but stress the need for HBV screening in immigrants as it provides a mean for immunization of close contacts at risk and information on prevention.
Esposito, Susanna; Principi, Nicola
Influenza is a common disease affecting many children each year. In a number of cases, particularly in children <2 years old and in those with severe chronic underlying disease, influenza can be complicated by lower respiratory tract infections, acute otitis media, rhinosinusitis, febrile seizures, dehydration or encephalopathy. Oseltamivir is the influenza virus drug that is most commonly studied in children for both the treatment and prevention of influenza. To avoid the risk that children with mild influenza or patients suffering from different viral infections receive oseltamivir, oseltamivir treatment should be recommended only in severe influenza cases, especially if confirmed by reliable laboratory tests. However, therapy must be initiated considering the risk of complications and the presence of severe clinical manifestations at age- and weight-appropriate doses. Because the vaccine remains the best option for preventing influenza and its complications, prophylaxis using oseltamivir should only be considered in select patients.
Seo, Young Eun
Background Although adenovirus (ADV) infection occurs steadily all year round in Korea and the identification of respiratory viral coinfections has been increasing following the introduction of multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction tests, the clinical impact of viral coinfection in children with ADV infection has rarely been reported. Materials and Methods Medical records of children diagnosed with ADV infection were retrospectively reviewed. The enrolled children were divided into two groups based on the identified respiratory viruses: ADV group and coinfection group. Clinical and laboratory parameters were compared between the two groups. Results In total, 105 children (60 males and 45 females) with a median age of 29 months (range: 0-131 months) diagnosed with an ADV infection were enrolled. Fever (99.0%) was by far the most frequent symptom, followed by respiratory (82.9%), and gastrointestinal (22.9%) symptoms. Upper and lower respiratory tract infections were diagnosed in 56 (53.3%), and 32 (30.5%) children, respectively. Five (4.8%) children received oxygen therapy, and no child died due to ADV infection. Coinfection was diagnosed in 32 (30.5%) children, with rhinovirus (46.9%), and respiratory syncytial virus (21.9%) being the most frequent. The proportions of children younger than 24 months (P <0.001), with underlying medical conditions (P = 0.020), and diagnosed with lower respiratory tract infection (P = 0.011) were significantly higher in the coinfection group than in the ADV group. In a multivariate analysis, only the younger age was significantly associated with coinfection (P <0.001). Although more children in the coinfection group received oxygen therapy (P = 0.029), the duration of fever and hospitalization was not significantly different between the two groups. Conclusion Respiratory viral coinfection with ADV occurred more frequently in children younger than 24 months of age compared with children aged 24 months or older. Respiratory
Dien Bard, Jennifer
Identification of bloodstream infections is among the most critical tasks performed by the clinical microbiology laboratory. While the criteria for achieving an adequate blood culture specimen in adults have been well described, there is much more ambiguity in pediatric populations. This minireview focuses on the available pediatric literature pertaining to the collection of an optimal blood culture specimen, including timing, volume, and bottle selection, as well as rapid diagnostic approaches and their role in the management of pediatric bloodstream infections. PMID:26818669
Nabutola, W.; Scheer, S.
Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national
Keywords: natural disasters; man-made disasters; terrorist attacks; land slides; disaster policies and legislations; fire; earthquakes; hurricanes; soil erosion; disaster research policy; Preamble: "Risk does not begin and end on the floor of the New York Stock Exchange. The vastness of the subject matter is daunting. Risk touches on the most profound aspects of psychology, mathematics, statistics and history. The literature is monumental; each day's headlines bring many new items of interest. But I know we are not unique, everywhere in the world risks abound." "AGAINST THE GODS the remarkable story of risk" by Peter L. Bernstein, 1998 The real challenge is what can we, as a nation do to avert, prevent them, or in the unfortunate event that they occur, how can we mitigate their impact on the economy? Introductory remarks: Disaster in Kenya, as indeed anywhere else, is not one of those happenings we can wish away. It can strike anywhere any time. Some of it is man-made but most of it is natural. The natural are sometimes induced by man in one way or another. For example, when we harvest trees without replacing them, this diminishes the forest cover and can lead to soil erosion, whose advanced form is land slides. Either way disasters in their different forms and sizes present challenges to the way we live our lives or not, perhaps, even how we die. Disasters in our country have reached crisis stage. ‘In Chinese language, crisis means danger, but it also means opportunity' Les Brown, motivational speaker in "the power of a larger vision" Why I am interested Whereas Kenya experiences man made and natural disasters, there are more sinister challenges of the man-made variety. These loom on the horizon and, from time to time raise their ugly heads, taking many Kenyan lives in their wake, and property destroyed. These are post election violence and terrorist attacks, both related to politics, internal and external. In January 2008, soon after presidential and national
Ndunda, Beth; Langat, Moses K; Midiwo, Jacob O; Omosa, Leonidah K
Kenyan Croton sylvaticus Hochst. ex Krauss gave four clerodane diterpenoids, the new ent-3,13E-clerodadiene-15-formate (1), the known 15-acetoxy-ent-3,13E-clerodadiene (2), ent-3,13E-clerodadien-15-ol (3) and hardwickiic acid (4), two known halimane diterpenoids, penduliflaworosin (5) and crotohalimaneic acid (6) and one labdane diterpenoid, labda-13E-ene-8a,15-diol (7). The compounds, when tested for their anti-microbial activities against Bacillus subtilis, Xanthomonas campestris and Candida albicans, were found to be inactive.
Silva, Hagamenon R; Tavares-Neto, José; Bina, José Carlos; Meyer, Roberto
The purposes of this investigation were to identify the frequency and risk factors of leptospiral infection among children aged between 2 and 15 years in Salvador, Bahia, household contacts of patients (index-cases) hospitalized at Couto Maia Hospital due to Leptospira interrogans (ELISA IgM positive). Among 148 household contacts from 25 selected index-cases, clinical and epidemiological data were collected and ELISA IGM and IgG were performed in paired sera (between 20 days) from 73 (49.3%). This diagnostic method divided the 73 household contacts into three groups: group A (acute or recent leptospiral infection), 30 (41.1%) children, group B (not- infected ) 34 (46.6%) and group C, (past infection) nine (12.3%) children. In group A five (16.7%) had cold syndrome simile. No statistically significant difference was found between groups A and B for sex, race, age and presence of pet dog. However, in group A there was a statistically significant predominance (p < 0.05%) of: contact with natural water courses; index-case sibling aged under fifteen years; female sex and over 9 years old; and principally lack of appropiate trash disposal in the residential area. In conclusion, leptospiral infection in children (from 2 to 15 years of age) in Salvador is underestimated, because it is asymptomatic or presents as a cold syndrome simile.
We describe the case of a three-week-old female, who presented with fever and swelling of the left thigh. Initial examination revealed signs of infection in both hips, which was confirmed at surgery. However, as the child did not recover despite relevant antibiotics, a full body MRI was performed, revealing multiple abscesses, some of which had to be managed surgically. We emphasize the benefit of MRI as part of the preoperative assessment of multifocal musculoskeletal infections in children.
Griese, M; Walda, M; Meuser, M; Reinhardt, D
A group of 130 children presenting with frequent respiratory tract infections was examined for serum levels of IgG-subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4 using radial immunodiffusion according to Mancini. Additionally a control group of 175 children not prone to infections was investigated. Both, low and high levels compared to controls were observed for IgG3 and IgG4. 11.5% of the children with frequent airway infections had IgG3 values below 2 SD below the mean for age compared to 2.8% in the control group (p less than 0.01). Likewise a low IgG4 level was observed more frequently in children prone to airway infections (9.8% versus 2.8% in control; p less than 0.05). IgG4 was undetectable (level less than 3.4 mg/dl) in 5 of the 175 control children. Despite an accumulation of low or undetectable IgG3 or IgG4 levels in children with frequent respiratory tract infections, no correlation between low IgG subclass-levels and the degree of the individual disease could be detected. Based on this lack of a simple causal relationship between frequent respiratory tract infections and the finding of low or undetectable IgG-subclass levels, an immunoglobulin replacement therapy has to be considered with reserve.
Heller Rouassant, Solange
Prevalence of infection with hepatitis C virus (HCV) is lower in children than in adults. The detection rate of anti-HCV antibodies in Western countries is 0.1-0.4% among children and adolescents. Prevalence of serologic response is higher in risk groups. HCV infection in children is usually asymptomatic, most of them have variations in serum levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALA). The laboratory exams for children are the same as those for adults. Histological progression may be faster in children than in adults. In this age group, HCV infection is considered as a special category, in which case it's possible to maintain the patient in observation without antiviral therapy. However, some studies with monotherapy showed that a regime with 1.75-3 MU/m2 of interferon alpha during 6-12 months induces a sustained viral response in 33-56% of the children. Although ribavirin hasn't yet been accepted for pediatric use, there have been several clinical tests in small groups with oral doses of 15 mg/kg a day, combined with interferon, during 12 months. The results are good. Pegylated interferon alpha is not authorized for pediatric use.
Andersson, Lena; Preda, Iulian; Hahn-Zoric, Mirjana; Hanson, Lars A; Jodal, Ulf; Sixt, Rune; Barregard, Lars; Hansson, Sverker
The aim of this study was to test our hypothesis that the urinary excretion of C-reactive protein (CRP), alpha 1-microglobulin (A1M), retinol-binding protein (RBP) and Clara cell protein (CC16) is increased in children with urinary tract infection (UTI) and relates to renal damage as measured by acute dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scintigraphy. Fifty-two children <2 years of age with UTI were enrolled in the study, 44 of whom were febrile. The control group consisted of 23 patients with non-UTI infection and elevated serum CRP (s-CRP) levels. Thirty-six patients had abnormal DMSA uptake, classified as mild, moderate or severe damage (DMSA class 1, 2, 3, respectively). There was a significant association between DMSA class and the excretion of urinary RBP (u-RBP) and u-CC16. There was also a significant difference in u-CRP levels between children with UTI and control children with non-UTI infections, although u-CRP excretion was not significantly correlated to DMSA class. In conclusion, the urinary excretion of the low-molecular-weight proteins RBP and CC16 showed a strong association with uptake defects on renal DMSA scans. The urinary level of CRP seems to distinguish between children with UTI and other febrile conditions. A combination of these biomarkers may be useful in the clinical assessment of children with UTI.
Adeniji, Johnson A.; Olusola, Babatunde A.; Motayo, Babatunde O.; Akintunde, Grace B.
Abstract This study investigated measles infection in vaccinated and unvaccinated children presenting with fever and maculopapular rash during measles outbreaks in the southern and western states of Nigeria. Measles, an acute viral illness caused by a virus in the family Paramyxoviridae, is a vaccine-preventable disease. Measles outbreak is common in Nigeria, despite the national immunization program. Children presenting with symptoms of measles infection in general hospitals and health centers in the states of southern and western Nigeria were recruited for this study. Vaccination history, clinical details, and 5 mL of blood were obtained from the children. Their sera samples were screened for specific immunoglobulin M antibodies to measles virus. Of 234 children tested (124 [53.2%] female), 133 (56.8%) had previously been vaccinated against measles virus, while 93 (39.7%) had not been vaccinated. Vaccination information for eight children could not be retrieved. One hundred and forty-three (62.4%) had measles IgM antibodies. Of these, 79 (55.3%) had been vaccinated for measles, while 65 (44.7%) had not. Despite the ongoing vaccination program in Nigeria, a high number of children are still being infected with measles, despite their vaccination status. Therefore, there is need to identify the reason for the low level of vaccine protection. PMID:26102341
Valve infection - children; Staphylococcus aureus - endocarditis - children; Enterococcus - endocarditis- children; Streptococcus viridians - endocarditis - children; Candida - endocarditis - children; Bacterial endocarditis - children; Infective endocarditis - children; ...
Lello, Joanne; Knopp, Stefanie; Mohammed, Khalfan A; Khamis, I Simba; Utzinger, Jürg; Viney, Mark E
Co-infection is ubiquitous in people in the developing world but little is known regarding the potential for one parasite to act as a risk factor for another. Using generalized linear mixed modelling approaches applied to data from school-aged children from Zanzibar, Tanzania, we determined the strength of association between four focal infections (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm and self-reported fever, the latter used as a proxy for viral, bacterial or protozoal infections) and the prevalence or intensity of each of the helminth infections. We compared these potential co-infections with additional risk factors, specifically, host sex and age, socioeconomic status and physical environment, and determined what the relative contribution of each risk factor was. We found that the risk of infection with all four focal infections was strongly associated with at least one other infection, and that this was frequently dependent on the intensity of that other infection. In comparison, no other incorporated risk factor was associated with all focal infections. Successful control of infectious diseases requires identification of infection risk factors. This study demonstrates that co-infection is likely to be one of these principal risk factors and should therefore be given greater consideration when designing disease-control strategies. Future work should also incorporate other potential risk factors, including host genetics which were not available in this study and, ideally, assess the risks via experimental manipulation.
Cherry, James D.; Welliver, Robert C.
Although the hallmark of Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection is pneumonia, the organism is also responsible for a protean array of other symptoms. With an increased awareness of the board clinical spectrum of M. pneumoniae disease and the ready availability of the cold agglutinin and M. pneumoniae complement-fixation tests, interested clinicians will note additional clinical-mycoplasmal associations in their patients. PMID:782043
Texas Child Care, 2003
Asserts that child care workers must follow basic health and sanitary practices to minimize the chance of illness and promote good health. Highlights the following strategies: (1) monitoring staff health; (2) maintaining a healthy environment; (3) managing infections; and (4) reporting infectious illnesses. Specifically addresses pregnant staff,…
Sato, Y; Fukui, S; Kurusu, H; Kitazawa, I; Kuwamoto, R; Aoyagi, T
Salmonella typhimurium infection occurred in a children's zoo where 11 fowl and 85 mammals were kept. Initially, the guinea pigs were infected and transmitted the infection to the fowl and rabbits. These mammals responded to medication and cleared of the infection; however, the birds were judged to contain excreters despite four regimens of treatment with antibiotics. Cloacal swabs were taken from all the birds. One turkey was positive for Salmonella and was destroyed. Pooled fecal samples from the birds were again positive. All the birds were tested serologically, and two birds, a goose and a turkey, were positive with Salmonella pullorum-gallinarum antigen, which was assumed to be a cross reaction with S. typhimurium antigen. The two birds were destroyed and the goose yielded Salmonella. The infection was finally eradicated, and the serologic examination was considered to be the most useful procedure for detection of the excreters.
Marmor, Michael; And Others
Presents results of a serologic survey for antibodies to Toxocara canis (the common roundworm of dogs) in a sample of 4,652 New York City children. Discusses findings of a case-control study conducted to identify host and environmental risk factors for T. canis infection and to investigate its consequences. (KH)
Perazzo, Sofia; Soler-García, Ángel A; Hathout, Yetrib; Das, Jharna R; Ray, Patricio E
A significant number of children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) virus all over the world are at risk of developing renal diseases that could have a significant impact on their treatment and quality of life. It is necessary to identify children undergoing the early stages of these renal diseases, as well as the potential renal toxicity that could be caused by antiretroviral drugs, in order to prevent the development of cardiovascular complications and chronic renal failure. This article describes the most common renal diseases seen in HIV-infected children, as well as the value and limitations of the clinical markers that are currently being used to monitor their renal function and histological damage in a noninvasive manner. In addition, we discuss the progress made during the last 10 years in the discovery and validation of new renal biomarkers for HIV-infected children and young adults. Although significant progress has been made during the early phases of the biomarkers discovery, more work remains to be done to validate the new biomarkers in a large number of patients. The future looks promising, however, the new knowledge needs to be integrated and validated in the context of the clinical environment where these children are living.
Johnston, Jeffrey N; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Mason, Edward O; Hulten, Kristina G
Staphylococcus aureus infections in the Down syndrome (DS) population have not been well characterized. This study determined clinical and molecular characteristics of S. aureus infections in children with DS followed at Texas Children's Hospital (TCH), from 2001 to 2011. Patients were retrospectively identified from an ongoing S. aureus surveillance study. Medical records were reviewed. Isolates were characterized by antimicrobial susceptibility, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis patterns, and detection of PVL genes (pvl), mupA (high-level mupirocin resistance gene), smr (chlorhexidine resistance conferring gene), and Staphylococcal Chromosomal Cassette mec (SCCmec) type. Twenty-six patients with DS had a total of 34 S. aureus infections (8 recurrent); 61% were MRSA. DS patients represented 16.8 per 10,000 community onset S. aureus infections seen at TCH. Among 26 initial infections 17 were skin and soft tissue (SSTI), 7 were outer or middle ear and 2 were invasive infections. Seventeen patients were hospitalized. Thirteen (65%) of 20 available isolates were USA300, 14 were pvl+, 5 were mupA+, and 8 were smr+. Five of 8 (63%) recurrent infections were ear infections. All 4 recurrent ear isolates available for study were smr+, ciprofloxacin non-susceptible and treated with ciprofloxacin otic drops. S. aureus infections among patients with DS were similar in presentation to other patient groups, except for a greater proportion being associated with ear infections. Seventy percent of ear fluid isolates carried antiseptic and fluoroquinolone resistance genes. A study of a greater number of DS patients is warranted to further explore these findings.
Butel, J. S.; Arrington, A. S.; Wong, C.; Lednicky, J. A.; Finegold, M. J.
Recent studies have detected simian virus 40 (SV40) DNA in certain human tumors and normal tissues. The significance of human infections by SV40, which was first discovered as a contaminant of poliovirus vaccines used between 1955 and 1963, remains unknown. The occurrence of SV40 infections in unselected hospitalized children was evaluated. Polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analyses were done on archival tissue specimens from patients positive for SV40 neutralizing antibody. SV40 DNA was identified in samples from 4 of 20 children (1 Wilms' tumor, 3 transplanted kidney samples). Sequence variation among SV40 regulatory regions ruled out laboratory contamination of specimens. This study shows the presence of SV40 infections in pediatric patients born after 1982.
Bueno, Javier; Green, Michael; Kocoshis, Samuel; Furukawa, Hiroyuki; Ahu-Elmagd, Kareem; Yunis, Eduardo; Irish, William; Todo, Satoru; Reyes, Jorge; Starzl, Thomas E.
Sixteen episodes of cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease occurred in 10 of 41 children undergoing intestinal transplantation from 1990 to 1995. Stratification of CMV disease by donor (D)/recipient (R) serological status was as follows: 3 of 8, D+/R−; 3 of 9, D+/R+; 4 of 9, D−/R+; and 0 of 15, D−/R−. Treatment resulted in resolution of CMV disease in 93.3% of episodes. No deaths attributable to CMV disease occurred in this series. CMV in D+/R− children resulted in more extensive and persistent disease. However, patient and graft survival rates were similar in the different D/R subgroups and between children with and without CMV disease. Cumulative dose of steroid boluses (relative risk [RR]. 1.59; 95% confidence interval [CI]. 1.14–2.21) and history of steroid recycles (RR, 2.72; 95% CI, 1.21–6.13) were associated with CMV disease. These results suggest that although CMV-associated morbidity in pediatric intestinal transplant recipients was substantial, it was not associated with an increased rate of mortality or graft loss, even among high-risk D+/R− patients. PMID:9402361
Hassan, Sherif T. S.; Šudomová, Miroslava
For decades, treatment of infectious diseases has been a strong focus of interest, for both researchers and healthcare providers. Chronic infection with Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) has been reported to be associated with several diseases, such as ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma. Infection with H. pylori is generally acquired during childhood and can persist indefinitely, if not treated systematically. Unfortunately, although several strategies have shown high efficacy results, treatment of the H. pylori infection fails in about 25%–30% of infected children. One main reason for this is due to the extensive use of antibiotics, which has created antibiotic resistance, associated with other adverse effects as well. Therefore, it is crucial to find alternative strategies to combat this resistance, and increase treatment efficacy results. Probiotics, which are live microorganisms that are orally administrated, have been found to be a useful regimen in the treatment of the H. pylori infection in children. Their use as a dietary supplement alone, or in combination with antibiotics, resulted in reduced side effects and higher efficacy rates of the H. pylori infection in children. Some probiotics can be considered an adjunctive treatment, especially when eradication of the H. pylori infection fails during initial treatment, and to help reduce adverse effects. However, the evidence of the beneficial role of probiotics is limited due to the small number of clinical trials that have been conducted and heterogeneity across studies in strains and dosage. Additionally, no investigations have been carried out in asymptomatic children. Therefore, large well-conducted studies are needed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of probiotics as an adjuvant therapy of the H. pylori infection. PMID:27834907
Shell-Duncan, Bettina; McDade, Thomas
The purpose of this study was to examine the context of iron deficiency and feeding patterns of iron-rich foods among northern Kenyan school-aged children. A nutrition survey was conducted among 300 subjects in two Rendille communities, Korr and Karare. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of iron deficiency as it relates to parasitic infection, dietary intake, and sociodemographic factors, as well as cultural food proscriptions influencing child feeding. Sociodemographic and qualitative data on food beliefs and child-feeding practices were obtained from the primary caretaker of each subject. From pediatric subjects, 24-hour dietary recall data were obtained with the help of the primary caretaker, and capillary blood from a fingerstick was used to detect iron deficiency based on measures of hemoglobin, the zinc protoporphyrin-to-heme ratio, C-reactive protein, and transferrin receptor. With an overall prevalence of 31.2%, iron deficiency was found to be associated with dietary iron intakes constrained by diverse economic, cultural, and environmental factors among Rendille children. In Karare, where children's iron intake approached recommended levels, iron deficiency was found to be attributable to low bioavailability of iron (only 4.3% of total iron intake), rather than low dietary intake per se. By contrast, in Korr the average daily iron intake was estimated at only 65% of recommended allowances, indicating that iron deficiency was the outcome not merely of low bioavailability, but rather of overall inadequate iron intake. Sociodemographic analysis showed a significant interaction between sex and economic status, revealing that girls in economically sufficient households were 2.4 times as likely to have iron deficiency as boys. This difference in risk parallels culturally defined gender-based proscriptions for child feeding: girls are believed to benefit from "soft foods," including rice, maize porridge, and tea, whereas boys benefitfrom "hard foods
Blumenthal, D S; Schultz, M G
The most serious consequences of infection with the large roundworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, are complications requiring surgical intervention, particularly intestinal obstruction caused by a bolus of worms. A study was conducted to estimate the incidence of this complication among infected children in an area of the southeastern United States where ascariasis is endemic. A chart review at three rural Louisiana public hospitals revealed that 21 patients had been hospitalized with intestinal obstruction secondary to ascariasis over a 3-year period. The prevalence of ascariasis in three parishes (counties) served by these hospitals was calculated from the results of 2,360 stool examinations performed by the State Health Department and one hospital laboratory. The prevalence of ascariasis in 1- to 5-year-old children was similar to that in 6- to 12-year-olds and ranged from 8% to 28% in the three parishes. Prevalence rates were three times higher for blacks than for whites. It was found that most cases of intestinal obstruction occur in children in the 1- to 5-year age group and that this incidence approximates two such complications per 1,000 infected children per year.
Zhang, Jian; Yuan, Yan; Li, Peiling; Wang, Tuanjie; Gao, Jun; Yao, Jinhua; Li, Shujun
Objective: To study the pathogen distribution, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections among children with congenital heart disease. Methods: Three hundreds children with congenital heart disease admitted to our hospital to receive surgeries from February 2010 to February 2013 were selected. Results: A total of 120 children were tested as positive by sputum culture, with the infection rate of 40.0%. The top five most common pathogenic microorganisms included Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans. S. epidermidis, S. aureus and Enterococcus were highly resistant to penicillin, azithromycin and erythromycin, moderately susceptible to levofloxacin and cefazolin, and completely susceptible to vancomycin. Multivariate Logistic regression analysis showed that hospitalization stay length, combined use of antibiotics, systemic use of hormones, mechanical ventilation and catheter indwelling were the independent risk factors of postoperative nosocomial infections (P<0.05). Conclusion: Nosocomial infection, which was the most frequent postoperative complication of pediatric congenital heart disease, was predominantly induced by Gram-positive bacteria that were highly susceptible to cephalosporins and vancomycin. Particular attention should be paid to decrease relevant risk factors to improve the prognosis. PMID:24948978
Pongprot, Yupada; Sittiwangkul, Rekwan; Silvilairat, Suchaya; Sirisanthana, Virat
Cardiac complications contribute significantly to morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. There have been few reports of cardiac manifestations in HIV-infected children in developing countries. The aims of this study were to evaluate the clinical manifestations and echocardiographic findings in Thai children with HIV infection and determine the clinical predictors of left ventricular dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 27 infants infected with HIV perinatally who presented with cardiovascular problems at a tertiary care hospital between 1995 and 2000. The mean age at initial cardiac evaluation was 36 months (range 8-65). Signs and symptoms included dyspnoea in all cases, oedema in 12 (44%), finger clubbing in 11 (41%), cyanosis in 6 (22%) and S(3) gallop in 8 (30%). Echocardiographic abnormalities included pericardial effusion in 12 (44 %), right ventricular dilatation in 12 (44%), pulmonary hypertension in 11 (41%), diminished left ventricular fractional shortening in 10 (37%), left ventricular dilatation in 9 (33%) and combined ventricular dilatation in 2 (7%). Left ventricular dysfunction did not correlate with HIV CDC classification, age, nutritional status or clinical signs and symptoms.
Davies, Mark R.; Anampiu, Kirimi; Morpeth, Susan C.; Nyongesa, Sammy; Mwarumba, Salim; Smeesters, Pierre R.; Efstratiou, Androulla; Karugutu, Rosylene; Mturi, Neema; Williams, Thomas N.; Scott, J. Anthony G.; Kariuki, Samuel; Dougan, Gordon; Berkley, James A.
To determine the extent of group A Streptococcus (GAS) infections in sub-Saharan Africa and the serotypes that cause disease, we analyzed surveillance data for 64,741 hospital admissions in Kilifi, Kenya, during 1998–2011. We evaluated incidence, clinical presentations, and emm types that cause invasive GAS infection. We detected 370 cases; of the 369 for which we had data, most were skin and soft tissue infections (70%), severe pneumonia (23%), and primary bacteremia (14%). Overall case-fatality risk was 12%. Incidence of invasive GAS infection was 0.6 cases/1,000 live births among neonates, 101/100,000 person-years among children <1 year of age, and 35/100,000 among children <5 years of age. Genome sequencing identified 88 emm types. GAS causes serious disease in children in rural Kenya, especially neonates, and the causative organisms have considerable genotypic diversity. Benefit from the most advanced GAS type–specific vaccines may be limited, and efforts must be directed to protect against disease in regions of high incidence. PMID:26811918
Umaretiya, Puja J.; Swanson, Jennifer B.; Kwon, Hyo-Jin; Grose, Charles; Lohse, Christine M.
Background: We recently reported a more rapid waning of vaccine-induced humoral immunity (measles vaccine) in children with asthma. It is unknown if asthma affects susceptibility to vaccine-preventable diseases. Objective: To determine whether asthma is associated with an increased risk of vaccine-preventable disease, e.g., breakthrough varicella infection. Methods: This was a retrospective population-based case-control study that examined cases of breakthrough varicella among children between 2005 and 2011. Children with a diagnosis of breakthrough varicella infection in Olmsted County, Minnesota (infection of >42 days after vaccination) between 2005 and 2011 and two age- and sex-matched controls were enrolled for each case. Asthma status was determined by using predetermined criteria. Conditional logistic regression models were used to calculate matched odds ratios (OR) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI). Results: Of the 165 cases and their 330 matched controls, 48% were boys and the mean (standard deviation) age at the index date was 6.6 ± 3.5 years for both cases and controls. Of the 330 controls, 80 (24%) had two doses of the varicella vaccine compared with only 23 (14%) of the 165 cases (OR 0.29 [95% CI, 0.14–0.61]; p = 0.001). Children with a history of asthma ever had a higher risk of developing breakthrough varicella compared with those without a history of asthma (adjusted OR 1.63 [95% CI, 1.04–2.55]; p = 0.032) when adjusting for elapsed time since the first varicella vaccination and the number of varicella vaccine doses. Conclusions: A history of asthma might be an unrecognized risk factor for breakthrough varicella infection. Children with asthma should follow the two-dose varicella vaccine policy. PMID:27178889
Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A
The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ≥5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3·41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1·36-9·69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3·01; CI = 1·23-7·35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3·27; CI = 1·21-8·91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3·64; CI = 2·14-6·26), nail biting (OR = 3·47; CI = 1·97-6·08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4·84; CI = 2·33-10·14), and a personal (OR = 3·23; CI = 1·58-6·59) or family history (OR = 3·96; CI = 1·53-10·47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children.
Bello, J; Núñez, F A; González, O M; Fernández, R; Almirall, P; Escobedo, A A
The risk factors associated with Giardia infection, in children hospitalized in Havana, Cuba, were recently explored. Children aged ⩾5 years were more likely to be positive for Giardia infection than the younger children, with an odds ratio (OR) of 3.41 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.36–9.69]. The risk factors found to be associated with Giardia infection in univariate analyses were rural residence (OR = 3.01; CI = 1.23–7.35), belonging to a household that did not receive water from an aqueduct (OR = 3.27; CI = 1.21–8.91), drinking unboiled water (OR = 3.64; CI = 2.14–6.26), nail biting (OR = 3.47; CI = 1.97–6.08), eating unwashed vegetables raw (OR = 4.84; CI = 2.33–10.14), and a personal (OR = 3.23; CI = 1.58–6.59) or family history (OR = 3.96; CI = 1.53–10.47) of previous parasitic infection. In multivariate analyses, however, only two (modifiable) risk factors were found to be independently and significantly associated with Giardia infection: nail biting and eating unwashed vegetables raw. It therefore seems that, at least at the individual level, giardiasis-prevention activities in Havana should be focussed on health education to improve personal hygiene and food-related practices. If appropriately managed, the surveillance of drinking water and foodstuffs, for Giardia and other parasites, might also help to reduce the hospitalization of Cuban children. PMID:21294949
Robinson, Joan L; Finlay, Jane C; Lang, Mia Eileen; Bortolussi, Robert
Recent studies have resulted in major changes in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in children. The present statement focuses on the diagnosis and management of infants and children >2 months of age with an acute UTI and no known underlying urinary tract pathology or risk factors for a neurogenic bladder. UTI should be ruled out in preverbal children with unexplained fever and in older children with symptoms suggestive of UTI (dysuria, urinary frequency, hematuria, abdominal pain, back pain or new daytime incontinence). A midstream urine sample should be collected for urinalysis and culture in toilet-trained children; others should have urine collected by catheter or by suprapubic aspirate. UTI is unlikely if the urinalysis is completely normal. A bagged urine sample may be used for urinalysis but should not be used for urine culture. Antibiotic treatment for seven to 10 days is recommended for febrile UTI. Oral antibiotics may be offered as initial treatment when the child is not seriously ill and is likely to receive and tolerate every dose. Children <2 years of age should be investigated after their first febrile UTI with a renal/bladder ultrasound to identify any significant renal abnormalities. A voiding cystourethrogram is not required for children with a first UTI unless the renal/bladder ultrasound reveals findings suggestive of vesicoureteral reflux, selected renal anomalies or obstructive uropathy. PMID:25332662
Gianesin, Ketty; Noguera-Julian, Antoni; Zanchetta, Marisa; Del Bianco, Paola; Petrara, Maria Raffaella; Freguja, Riccardo; Rampon, Osvalda; Fortuny, Clàudia; Camós, Mireia; Mozzo, Elena; Giaquinto, Carlo; De Rossi, Anita
Objective: Several pieces of evidence indicate that HIV-infected adults undergo premature aging. The effect of HIV and antiretroviral therapy (ART) exposure on the aging process of HIV-infected children may be more deleterious since their immune system coevolves from birth with HIV. Design: Seventy-one HIV-infected (HIV+), 65 HIV-exposed-uninfected (HEU), and 56 HIV-unexposed-uninfected (HUU) children, all aged 0–5 years, were studied for biological aging and immune senescence. Methods: Telomere length and T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels were quantified in peripheral blood cells by real-time PCR. CD4+ and CD8+ cells were analysed for differentiation, senescence, and activation/exhaustion markers by flow cytometry. Results: Telomere lengths were significantly shorter in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (overall, P < 0.001 adjusted for age); HIV+ ART-naive (42%) children had shorter telomere length compared with children on ART (P = 0.003 adjusted for age). T-cell receptor rearrangement excision circle levels and CD8+ recent thymic emigrant cells (CD45RA+CD31+) were significantly lower in the HIV+ than in control groups (overall, P = 0.025 and P = 0.005, respectively). Percentages of senescent (CD28−CD57+), activated (CD38+HLA-DR+), and exhausted (PD1+) CD8+ cells were significantly higher in HIV+ than in HEU and HUU children (P = 0.004, P < 0.001, and P < 0.001, respectively). Within the CD4+ cell subset, the percentage of senescent cells did not differ between HIV+ and controls, but programmed cell death receptor-1 expression was upregulated in the former. Conclusions: HIV-infected children exhibit premature biological aging with accelerated immune senescence, which particularly affects the CD8+ cell subset. HIV infection per se seems to influence the aging process, rather than exposure to ART for prophylaxis or treatment. PMID:26990630
El-Tras, W F; Holt, H R; Tayel, A A; El-Kady, N N
Campylobacteriosis is a zoonotic disease which has a worldwide public health impact. The disease is endemic in Egypt; however, the epidemiology in animals and humans has not been fully characterized. The objective of this study was to compare the risk of Campylobacter faecal carriage in children exposed to Campylobacter-infected vs. non-infected backyard poultry and to identify risk factors for a backyard being classified as infected. A total of 103 households which owned backyard poultry were sampled from a rural community in Egypt. Within these households 379 poultry and 106 children were tested for C. jejuni and C. coli; 23·5% and 5·5% of poultry were positive for C. jejuni and C. coli, respectively. In the studied households; 12·3% of children were positive for C. jejuni, and 2·8% were positive for C. coli. Using logistic regression, households with poultry positive for C. jejuni had 3·86 (95% confidence interval 1·0-15·0) times the odds of having children positive for C. jejuni compared to those housed with poultry which all tested negative. Backyard poultry may present a transmission route of C. jejuni to children. Backyards with poor cleaning and disinfection, wet litter and manure disposed of within the backyard had increased odds of being positive for C. jejuni. Enhancing biosecurity and management in poultry backyards may reduce the risk of the disease.
Nielsen, Maja Verena; Amemasor, Solomon; Agyekum, Alex; Loag, Wibke; Marks, Florian; Sarpong, Nimako; Dekker, Denise; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; May, Jürgen
Differentiation of infectious causes in severely ill children is essential but challenging in sub- Saharan Africa. The aim of the study was to determine clinical indicators that are able to identify bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children in rural Ghana. In total, 1,915 severely ill children below the age of 15 years were recruited at Agogo Presbyterian Hospital in Ghana between May 2007 and February 2011. In 771 (40%) of the children malaria parasites were detected. This group was analyzed for indicators of bacterial co-infections using bivariate and multivariate regression analyses with 24 socio-economic variables, 16 terms describing medical history and anthropometrical information and 68 variables describing clinical symptoms. The variables were tested for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value. In 46 (6.0%) of the children with malaria infection, bacterial co-infection was detected. The most frequent pathogens were non-typhoid salmonellae (45.7%), followed by Streptococcus spp. (13.0%). Coughing, dehydration, splenomegaly, severe anemia and leukocytosis were positively associated with bacteremia. Domestic hygiene and exclusive breastfeeding is negatively associated with bacteremia. In cases of high parasitemia (>10,000/μl), a significant association with bacteremia was found for splenomegaly (OR 8.8; CI 1.6–48.9), dehydration (OR 18.2; CI 2.0–166.0) and coughing (OR 9.0; CI 0.7–118.6). In children with low parasitemia, associations with bacteremia were found for vomiting (OR 4.7; CI 1.4–15.8), severe anemia (OR 3.3; CI 1.0–11.1) and leukocytosis (OR 6.8 CI 1.9–24.2). Clinical signs of impaired microcirculation were negatively associated with bacteremia. Ceftriaxone achieved best coverage of isolated pathogens. The results demonstrate the limitation of clinical symptoms to determine bacterial co-infections in P. falciparum infected children. Best clinical indicators are dependent on the
Warunee, N; Choomanee, L; Sataporn, P; Rapeeporn, Y; Nuttapong, W; Sompong, S; Thongdee, S; Bang-On, S; Rachada, K
A study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children from eight schools located in Phuttamonthon District, Nakhon Prathom Province during November 2004 to December 2004. Stool samples were collected from 1920 students; age range from 7 to 12 years old, and examined for intestinal parasites by using formalin-ethyl acetate concentration technique. Of these subjects, 242 (12.6%) were infected with one or more of 10 intestinal parasitic species. In these infected subjects, 214 (11.1%) were single infections whereas 28 (1.5%) were mix infections. The most frequent parasite was Blastocystis hominis (6.2%). Other parasites were Giardia lamblia (1.7%), Entamoeba coli (1.5%), Endolimax nana (1.0%), Entamoeba histolytica (0.3%), Hookworm (0.3%), Trichuris trichiura (< 0.1%), Taenia spp. (< 0.1%), Strongyloides stercolaris (< 0.1%), and liver fluke or small intestinal fluke (Opisthorchis eggs) (< 0.1%). Prevalence of protozoan infections was significantly higher than helminth infections (p < 0.05). Between male and female, there was no significant difference in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (p > 0.05). The results suggest that prevention and control programme for intestinal parasites should be discussed in the design of long term use in this area.
Bliss, Sandra J; O'Brien, Katherine L; Janoff, Edward N; Cotton, Mark F; Musoke, Philippa; Coovadia, Hoosen; Levine, Orin S
Pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are a potentially useful complement to existing treatment strategies in HIV-infected children, for whom pneumococcal infections are common and serious. This Review summarises available data on the burden of pneumococcal disease and the safety and efficacy of PCVs in HIV-infected children. The data demonstrate that children with HIV have significantly increased risk of pneumococcal disease compared with uninfected children; the serotypes included in currently licensed or near-licensure conjugate vaccines include most serotypes that cause invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) in HIV-infected children and adults; PCVs provide substantial protection against IPD and clinical pneumonia when given to HIV-infected infants; and HIV-infected adults gain an indirect benefit when children in the community are vaccinated. PCV should be considered as an important intervention for improving the lives of HIV-infected children.
Marcone, Débora N; Ricarte, Carmen; Videla, Cristina; Ekstrom, Jorge; Carballal, Guadalupe; Vidaurreta, Santiago; Echavarría, Marcela
Molecular methods for human rhinoviruses (HRV) have increased the sensitivity in their diagnosis. HRV may cause acute respiratory infections (ARI) of the upper and lower respiratory tract. HRV infection during childhood is a predictor of asthma development. In this study, the HRV frequency in outpatient children with ARI was determined, and their clinical features and previous conditions were evaluated. A total of 186 respiratory samples of children under 6 year old attending the CEMIC pediatric emergency room from June 1, 2008 to May 31, 2010, were studied. Classical respiratory viruses were detected by immunofluorescence. A real time RT-PCR that amplifies part of the 5' non coding genomic region was used for HRV detection. Viral detection was obtained in 61% of children. The frequency was: 27% for HRV, 16% for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 9% for influenza, 8% for parainfluenza, 7% for metapneumovirus and 0.5% for adenovirus. Dual coinfection was detected in 8 children and HRV were the most frequent, detected in 4 of them. HRV circulated during the two year period of the study, with peaks during winter and spring. No clinical difference was observed between patients with or without HRV, except an increase percent of children with HRV without fever. HRV were the most frequent viruses detected in this population, mainly in children under 2 year old, the second cause of bronchiolitis after RSV and more frequently detected in children exposed to passive smoking (OR = 2.91; p = 0.012), and were detected as the sole etiologic agent in 28% of bronchiolitis.
Ben Musa, Najla; Sehari, Aisha; Hawas, Ali
An epidemiological survey was carried out in Tripoli district to collect baseline data on the prevalence of intestinal parasites. A sample of 486 school children aged from 5 to 14 years old provided morning stool samples as part of a pilot study of a larger national project. Questionnaires were distributed and general information on each child was recorded. Posters and leaflets were used extensively to increase the public health information and awareness about parasitosis. The results revealed that 14.6% of children were infected with at least one intestinal parasite. Double infections were in 2% of them. Giardia lamblia was the common parasite, followed by Enterobius vermicularis and then Ascqris lumbricoides. This was a preliminary approach to clarify the status on intestinal parasites since reliable reportable data being still comparatively lacking, which might be a guide for a feasible national control program.
Lewis, J D; Winter, H S
Children with HIV disease and gastrointestinal disease should be evaluated for enteric pathogens. Bacterial, protozoal, and viral agents can cause chronic diarrhea, abdominal pain, gastrointestinal bleeding, and contribute to growth retardation. This article presents an approach to the evaluation of the HIV-infected child with gastrointestinal symptoms. Therapeutic and nutritional interventions are discussed with emphasis on the multidisciplinary approach required to initiate successful management.
Sung, Lillian; Lange, Beverly J; Gerbing, Robert B; Alonzo, Todd A; Feusner, James
The primary objective was to describe the prevalence and characteristics of microbiologically defined infections and infection-related mortality (IRM) in 492 children with acute myeloid leukemia enrolled on CCG 2961. Secondary objectives were to determine the relationship between demographic, disease-related, and therapeutic variables, and infections and IRM. Institutions documented infections prospectively. Age, ethnicity, body mass index, leukemia karyotype, treatment, and institutional size were examined for association with infection outcomes. More than 60% of children experienced such infections in each of 3 phases of chemotherapy. There were 58 infectious deaths; cumulative incidence of IRM was 11% plus or minus 2%. Thirty-one percent of infectious deaths were associated with Aspergillus, 25.9% with Candida, and 15.5% with alpha hemolytic streptococci. Age older than 16 years (hazard ratio [HR], 3.32; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.87-5.89; P < .001), nonwhite ethnicity (HR, 1.85; 95% CI, 1.10-3.09; P = .02), and underweight status (HR, 3.06; 95% CI, 1.51-6.22; P = .002) were associated with IRM, while size of the treating institution was not. Thus, age, ethnicity, and BMI were important contributors to IRM. Fungi and Gram-positive cocci were the most common organisms associated with IRM and, in particular, Aspergillus species was the largest contributor to infectious deaths.
Mays, Rose M; Sturm, Lynne A; Zimet, Gregory D
Several vaccines for sexually transmitted infections (STI) are presently in development and the eventual availability of such vaccines is expected to result in the prevention of a significant number of burdensome conditions. Young adolescents are presumed to be likely targets for these vaccines since adolescents' risk for STI increases as they age and become sexually active. It is unclear, however, to what extent parents will agree to having adolescents receive STI vaccines. Inasmuch as acceptance is the foundation for effective immunization programs, an understanding of parental perspectives about this issue is required to inform future STI vaccine program strategies. This paper presents findings from a qualitative study that used in-depth interviews to elicit attitudes from 34 parents about accepting vaccines for genital herpes, human immunodeficiency virus, human papillomavirus and gonorrhea for their children (aged 8-17). Data were collected from parents bringing their children for care at an urban clinic and a suburban private office. Content analysis of the responses revealed that most parents (>70%) approved the administration of all four of the STI vaccines proposed. Parents' reasons for acceptance included wanting to protect their children, being concerned about specific disease characteristics, and previous experience with the infections. Parents who declined the vaccines did so primarily because they perceived their children to be at low risk for the infections or they had low concern about features of the diseases. Most parents thought they should be the decision-maker regarding children receiving an STI vaccine. Results from this study will be used to plan subsequent investigations of the determinants of STI vaccine acceptance by parents.
Hasegawa, Kohei; Camargo, Carlos A
Acute respiratory infections (ARIs), such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia, are the leading cause of hospitalization of infants in the US. While the incidence and severity of ARI can vary widely among children, the reasons for these differences are not fully explained by traditional risk factors (e.g., prematurity, viral pathogens). The recent advent of molecular diagnostic techniques has revealed the presence of highly functional communities of microbes inhabiting the human body (i.e., microbiota) that appear to influence development of local and systemic immune response. We propose a 'risk and resilience' model in which airway microbiota are associated with an increased (risk microbiota) or decreased (resilience microbiota) incidence and severity of ARI in children. We also propose that modulating airway microbiota (e.g., from risk to resilience microbiota) during early childhood will optimize airway immunity and, thereby, decrease ARI incidence and severity in children.
Esposito, Susanna; Bosis, Samantha; Sabatini, Caterina; Tagliaferri, Laura; Principi, Nicola
Lyme disease is a multisystem disease that frequently affects children. It is caused by a group of related spirochetes, Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato, that are transmitted by ticks belonging to species of the genus Ixodes. The clinical characteristics of Lyme disease in pediatrics resemble those observed in adults, although the symptoms may last for a shorter time and the outcome may be better. However, identifying Lyme disease in children can be significantly more difficult because some of its signs and symptoms can be similar to those of other common pediatric clinical manifestations. Finally, the diagnostic and therapeutic approach to childhood Lyme disease is frequently not codified, and guidelines specifically prepared for adults are used for children without having been validated. This review of the currently available data will evaluate what may be the best approach to the diagnosis and treatment of B. burgdorferi infection and disease in the pediatric population.
Butel, J. S.; Jafar, S.; Wong, C.; Arrington, A. S.; Opekun, A. R.; Finegold, M. J.; Adam, E.
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is known to have contaminated poliovirus vaccines used between 1955 and 1963. Accumulating reports have described the presence of SV40 DNA in human tumors and normal tissues, although the significance of human infections by SV40 is unknown. We investigated whether unselected hospitalized children had evidence of SV40 infections and whether any clinical correlations were apparent. Serum samples were examined for SV40 neutralizing antibody using a specific plaque reduction test; of 337 samples tested, 20 (5.9%) had antibody to SV40. Seropositivity increased with age and was significantly associated with kidney transplants (6 of 15 [40%] positive, P < .001). Many of the antibody-positive patients had impaired immune systems. Molecular assays (polymerase chain reaction and DNA sequence analysis) on archival tissue specimens confirmed the presence of SV40 DNA in 4 of the antibody-positive patients. This study, using 2 independent assays, shows the presence of SV40 infections in children born after 1980. We conclude that SV40 causes natural infections in humans.
Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N
Acute hematogenous osteomyelitis (AHO) is one of the commonest bone infection in childhood. Staphylococcus aureus is the commonest organism causing AHO. With use of advanced diagnostic methods, fastidious Kingella kingae is increasingly becoming an important organism in etiology of osteoarticular infections in children under the age of 3 y. The diagnosis of AHO is primarily clinical. The main clinical symptom and sign in AHO is pain and tenderness over the affected bone especially in the metaphyseal region. However, in a neonate the clinical presentation may be subtle and misleading. Laboratory and radiological investigations supplement the clinical findings. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are frequently elevated. Ultrasonography and MRI are key imaging modalities for early detection of AHO. Determination of infecting organism in AHO is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management and therefore, organism isolation using blood cultures and site aspiration should be attempted. Several effective antibiotics regimes are available for managing AHO in children. The choice of antibiotic and its duration and mode of delivery requires individualization depending upon severity of infection, causative organism, regional sensitivity patterns, time elapsed between onset of symptoms and child's presentation and the clinical and laboratory response to the treatment. If pus has been evidenced in the soft tissues or bone region, surgical decompression of abscess is mandatory.
Dettmar, Anne Katrin; Oh, Jun
Focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS) is the most common cause of steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome in children. It describes a unique histological picture of glomerular damage resulting from several causes. In the majority of patients the causing agent is still unknown, but in some cases viral association is evident. In adults, the most established FSGS causing virus is the human immune-deficiency virus, which is related to a collapsing variant of FSGS. Nevertheless, other viruses are also suspected for causing a collapsing or noncollapsing variant, for example, hepatitis B virus, parvovirus B19, and Cytomegalovirus. Although the systemic infection mechanism is different for these viruses, there are similarities in the pathomechanism for the induction of FSGS. As the podocyte is the key structure in the pathogenesis of FSGS, a direct infection of these cells or immediate damage through the virus or viral components has to be considered. Although viral infections are a very rare cause for FSGS in children, the treating pediatric nephrologist has to be aware of a possible underlying infection, as this has a relevant impact on therapy and prognosis. PMID:27294131
Brockmann V, Pablo; Viviani S, Támara; Peña D, Anamaría
Pulmonary complications in children infected by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are common and may be the first manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of our study was to review pulmonary diseases and complications in pediatric patients with HIV infection in a large tertiary hospital in Santiago, Chile. We performed a retrospective, descriptive analysis of 17 patients with HIV infection controlled at the Hospital Dr. Sótero del Rio. Respiratory complications/diseases were: overall pneumonia (n: 14), recurrent pneumonia (n: 10), citomegalovirus associated pneumonia (n: 4), Pneumocystis jiroveci associated pneumonia (n: 1) pulmonary tuberculosis (n: 1), lymphoid interstitial pneumonia (n: 3) and chronic pulmonary disease (n: 7). Microorganisms isolated were mostly atypical and frequently associated with severe and chronic pulmonary damage. A high degree of suspicion is required to detect atypical microorganisms promptly, in order to rapidly implement pathogen targeted therapy that could potentially decrease the possibility of sequelae.
Mandhan, Parkash; Hassan, Kamal Osman; Samaan, Sandra Moustafa; Ali, Mansour J
Visceral basidiobolomycosis is an unusual fungal infection of viscera caused by saprophyte Basidiobolus ranarum. It is very rare in healthy children and poses a diagnostic challenge due to the non-specific clinical presentation and the absence of predisposing factors. We report a case of gastrointestinal basidiobolomycosis in a 4-year-old healthy girl who presented with a short history of abdominal pain, bleeding per rectum, fever, and weight loss. The diagnosis was based on high eosinophilic count, classical histopathology findings of fungal hyphae (the Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon), and positive fungal culture from a tissue biopsy. Fungal infection was successfully eradicated with a combined approach of surgical resection of the infected tissue and a well-monitored course of antifungal therapy. The atypical clinical presentation, diagnostic techniques, and the role of surgery in the management of a rare and lethal fungal disease in an immunocompetent child are discussed. PMID:26612126
Ramos-Soriano, A G; Saavedra, J M; Wu, T C; Livingston, R A; Henderson, R A; Perman, J A; Yolken, R H
Infants and young children with HIV infection commonly suffer from gastrointestinal manifestations of their disease. Many HIV infected children have evidence of persistent diarrhoea, malabsorption, malnutrition or growth failure. The aetiology and pathogenesis of gastrointestinal dysfunction in HIV infected children have not been well defined. We performed immunocytochemical analyses on intestinal tissue from 19 HIV-infected children with gastrointestinal dysfunction or growth failure. None of these 19 children had microbial pathogens identified in faecal samples using standard microbiological methods. Intestinal tissues were obtained from the children by biopsy and were examined for antigens from Pneumocystis carinii, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) using the avidin-biotin-complex immunohistochemical technique and monoclonal or monospecific antibodies. We detected at least one of these pathogens in samples from eight (42%) of 19 HIV infected children. P. carinii was the most prevalent pathogen, found in five of the eight HIV infected children. All of the children with intestinal pneumocystis infection were receiving prophylaxis directed at the prevention of pulmonary disease with this organism and none of them were undergoing active pulmonary infection. We also identified CMV antigens in intestinal tissues from four children and HSV antigens in intestinal tissues from one child. Two children were infected with more than one pathogen. On the other hand, none of these pathogens were found in the tissues obtained from 10 HIV-uninfected patients who had intestinal tissues obtained for chronic non-infectious diarrheal and inflammatory diseases (P < 0.01, Fisher's exact test). Our findings indicate that some children with HIV infection and gastrointestinal dysfunction may be infected with opportunistic pathogens despite negative analyses employing standard microbiological methods. Our study also indicates that HIV infected children can undergo
Cai, Xiao-Ying; Wang, Qiong; Lin, Guang-Yu; Cai, Zhi-Wei; Lin, Chuang-Xing; Chen, Pai-Zhen; Zhou, Xiao-Hua; Xie, Jin-Chun; Lu, Xue-Dong
Acute respiratory tract infection is an important cause of morbidity and mortality with a worldwide disease burden. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and clinical characteristics of children with viral-induced acute respiratory tract infection, in Southern China. Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples from 1,980 pediatric patients with suspected acute respiratory tract infection, and 82 samples from healthy subject controls were collected for routine examination at the Second Affiliated Hospital of Shantou University Medical College, from October 2007 to August 2011. Specimens were tested by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR). At least one or more viruses were detected from 1,087 samples (54.9%). These included laboratory confirmations for 446 respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), 386 influenza virus A (FluA), 315 human rhinovirus (HRV), 135 human bocavirus (HBoV), 119 Parainfluenza virus 3 (PIV3), 82 Parainfluenza virus 1 (PIV1), 66 adenovirus (ADV), 53 WU polyomavirus (WUPyV), 52 human metapneumovirus (hMPV), and 29 influenza virus B (FluB) samples. Samples from healthy subjects were negative for any virus. Of the patients with positive specimens, 107 (9.8%) were admitted to pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Co-infection with at least two of the viral pathogens under study was observed in 325 of the 1,980 patients (16.4% of the total number of cases). These findings may help in the diagnosis of viral infections of the respiratory tract in children, and help to consider current and potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of acute respiratory tract infection, and further respiratory complications.
Mda, Siyazi; van Raaij, Joop M A; MacIntyre, Una E; de Villiers, François P R; Kok, Frans J
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children generally show poor growth. Episodes of diarrhoea and pneumonia in HIV-infected children are thought to be more severe than in HIV-uninfected children. The objective of this study was to compare duration of hospitalization, appetite and nutritional status of HIV-infected children with that of uninfected children. A cross-sectional study was performed on children (2-24 months) admitted with diarrhoea or pneumonia to the university hospital. Children were tested for HIV, and the duration of hospitalization was noted for 189 children. Follow-up for blood analysis (n=154) and appetite measurement (n=48) was performed 4-8 weeks after discharge. Appetite was measured as ad libitum intake of a commercial infant cereal using highly standardized procedures. Hospitalization (in days) was significantly longer in HIV-infected children; among children admitted with diarrhoea (5.9 ± 1.9 vs. 3.8 ± 1.5) (mean ± standard deviation) and with pneumonia (9.0 ± 2.5 vs. 5.9 ± 1.9). Serum zinc, iron and transferrin concentrations, and haemoglobin levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected children compared with uninfected children. Appetites [amounts eaten (g) per kg body weight] of HIV-infected children were significantly poorer than those of HIV-uninfected children (18.6 ± 5.8 vs. 25.2 ± 7.4). The eating rates (g min(-1) ) of HIV-infected children were also slower (17.6 ± 6.2 vs. 10.1 ± 3.7) Mean Z-scores for length-for-age were significantly lower among HIV-infected children compared with HIV-uninfected children. Weight-for-length Z-scores were not significantly different. In summary, HIV-infected children had a 55% longer duration of hospitalization and a 21% lower appetite.
Vreeman, Rachel C; Scanlon, Michael L; McHenry, Megan S; Nyandiko, Winstone M
Introduction As highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) transforms human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) into a manageable chronic disease, new challenges are emerging in treating children born with HIV, including a number of risks to their physical and psychological health due to HIV infection and its lifelong treatment. Methods We conducted a literature review to evaluate the evidence on the physical and psychological effects of perinatal HIV (PHIV+) infection and its treatment in the era of HAART, including major chronic comorbidities. Results and discussion Perinatally infected children face concerning levels of treatment failure and drug resistance, which may hamper their long-term treatment and result in more significant comorbidities. Physical complications from PHIV+ infection and treatment potentially affect all major organ systems. Although treatment with antiretroviral (ARV) therapy has reduced incidence of severe neurocognitive diseases like HIV encephalopathy, perinatally infected children may experience less severe neurocognitive complications related to HIV disease and ARV neurotoxicity. Major metabolic complications include dyslipidaemia and insulin resistance, complications that are associated with both HIV infection and several ARV agents and may significantly affect cardiovascular disease risk with age. Bone abnormalities, particularly amongst children treated with tenofovir, are a concern for perinatally infected children who may be at higher risk for bone fractures and osteoporosis. In many studies, rates of anaemia are significantly higher for HIV-infected children. Renal failure is a significant complication and cause of death amongst perinatally infected children, while new data on sexual and reproductive health suggest that sexually transmitted infections and birth complications may be additional concerns for perinatally infected children in adolescence. Finally, perinatally infected children may face psychological challenges, including
Abidoye, R. O.
Examined incidence of parasitic infections in school children in four contrasting areas of Lagos, Nigeria. Found that almost 40% of the infections identified were of the low socioeconomic status children. The 20 children from the higher socioeconomic status area, with the highest environmental sanitation, were without parasites. Twelve percent of…
Petrovic, Stanislava; Bogavac-Stanojevic, Natasa; Kotur-Stevuljevic, Jelena; Peco-Antic, Amira; Ivanisevic, Ivana; Ivanisevic, Jasmina; Paripovic, Dusan; Jelic-Ivanovic, Zorana
Introduction: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases in children. The aim of this study was to determine the total prooxidant and antioxidant capacity of children with UTI, as well as changes of oxidative status parameters according to acute inflammation persistence and acute kidney injury (AKI) development. Materials and methods: The patients enrolled in the study comprised 50 Caucasian children (median age was 6 months) with UTI. Total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), inflammation marker C-reactive protein (CRP) and renal function parameters urea and creatinine were analyzed in patient’s serums. Results: According to duration of inflammation during UTI, TAS values were significantly higher (0.99 vs. 0.58 mmol/L, P = 0.017) and OSI values were significantly lower (0.032 vs. 0.041 AU, P = 0.037) in the subjects with longer duration of inflammation than in the subjects with shorter duration of inflammation. We did not find significant difference in basal values of oxidative status parameters according to AKI development. Conclusions: OSI values could detect the simultaneous change of TAS and TOS due to change in the oxidative-antioxidant balance during the recovery of children with UTI. TAS and OSI as markers of oxidative stress during UTI are sensitive to accompanying inflammatory condition. Further investigations are needed to evaluate whether TAS, TOS and OSI could be used to monitor disease severity in children with UTI. PMID:24969920
Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia-Grande, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Pinnock, Elli; Salas, Antonio; Fink, Colin
Background The risk of bacteremia is considered low in children with acute bronchiolitis. However the rate of occult bacteremia in infants with RSV infection is not well established. The aim was to determine the actual rate and predictive factors of bacteremia in children admitted to hospital due to confirmed RSV acute respiratory illness (ARI), using both conventional culture and molecular techniques. Methods A prospective multicenter study (GENDRES-network) was conducted between 2011–2013 in children under the age of two admitted to hospital because of an ARI. Among those RSV-positive, bacterial presence in blood was assessed using PCR for Meningococcus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus, in addition to conventional cultures. Results 66 children with positive RSV respiratory illness were included. In 10.6% patients, bacterial presence was detected: H. influenzae (n = 4) and S. pneumoniae (n = 2). In those patients with bacteremia, there was a previous suspicion of bacterial superinfection and had received empirical antibiotic treatment 6 out of 7 (85.7%) patients. There were significant differences in terms of severity between children with positive bacterial PCR and those with negative results: PICU admission (100% vs. 50%, P-value = 0.015); respiratory support necessity (100% vs. 18.6%, P-value < 0.001); Wood-Downes score (mean = 8.7 vs. 4.8 points, P-value < 0.001); GENVIP scale (mean = 17 vs. 10.1, P-value < 0.001); and length of hospitalization (mean = 12.1 vs. 7.5 days, P-value = 0.007). Conclusion Bacteremia is not frequent in infants hospitalized with RSV respiratory infection, however, it should be considered in the most severe cases. PMID:26872131
Marmor, M; Glickman, L; Shofer, F; Faich, L A; Rosenberg, C; Cornblatt, B; Friedman, S
Sera from 4,652 children whose blood was submitted to the New York City Department of Health for lead analysis were tested for antibodies to Toxocara canis using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Standardized to the age distribution of the study population, T. canis seropositivity (inverse titers greater than or equal to 16) was 5.7 per cent in males and 5.1 per cent in females. T. canis antibody titers and lead exposures as measured by Centers for Disease Control lead classes were positively correlated. Children who were seropositive to T. canis (cases) were compared to seronegatives (controls) matched on age (+/- 6 months), sex, time-of-screening (+/- 3 months) and CDC lead class. Logistic regression analysis of 155 case-control pairs demonstrated elevated relative risks (RRs) for geophagia (RR = 3.14; 95% CI = 1.75, 5.64) and having had a litter of puppies in the home (RR = 5.22; 95% CI = 1.63, 16.71). Compared to controls, cases had increased eosinophil counts, serum immunoglobulin E concentrations, and anti-hemagglutinin-A titers. Small deficits in cases compared to controls were found in performance on several neuropsychological tests after adjustment for potential confounders including case-control differences in race, socioeconomic status, and current blood lead concentrations. The study thus confirmed that T. canis infection is common in urban children and suggested that infection may be associated with adverse neuropsychological effects. PMID:3565646
Quigley, Cassie F.; Miller, Zachary D.; Dogbey, James; Che, S. Megan; Hallo, Jeffrey
In the midst of the current environmental crisis, scientists, academics, authors, and politicians worldwide are urging citizens to create sustainable communities. However, there is little capability to build a sustainable society without an informed, active, and engaged populous. This requires more than just environmentally knowledgeable citizens. It requires a society that understands the principles of the environment and can also exemplify them in daily life. In order to create a more environmentally literate world, there has been a push for environmental education integrated into schools. This qualitative study sought to examine Kenyan teachers' perspectives on the human-nature interaction by conducting vignette focus-group interviews. It is a subject not widely explored but vital for conservation not only in this area, but also other areas that seek to have an ecological informed populous. The vignettes were created using photographs and explanations of the photographs that the participants collected and emailed to the authors. For the focus-group vignette interviews, there were a total of 55 participants (30 females and 25 males). After InVivo analysis, we had 6 codes (resentment, pride, perils, blame, pragmatism, and self-interested) within 3 major themes. This study has implications for informing science education to combat these traditions of subjecting students to a science curriculum that demotes Kenyan cultural heritage and lifestyle. By incorporating local knowledge such as the ideas discussed in this paper into Kenyan science education, Kenyans can reach one of most challenging objectives of education, which is to produce children who are fundamentally aware of their environment.
Viral aetiology, host susceptibility (in particular allergic predisposition and sensitization), and illness severity, timing and frequency all appear to contribute as synergistic factors to the risk of developing asthma. Experimental models have shown both innate and adaptive immune responses contribute to this risk with lung inflammatory cells showing marked differences in phenotype and function in young compared with older animals, and these differences are further enhanced following virus infection. Findings to date strongly suggest that the impact of infant and preschool viral infections on the maturing immune system and developing lung that subsequently result in an asthma phenotype occur during a critical susceptibility period, and in a genetically susceptible host. There are currently no therapeutic strategies that allow primary or secondary prevention of asthma following early life viral respiratory infections in high-risk children, thus a focus on understanding the mechanisms of progression from viral wheezing in infants and preschool children to asthma development are urgently needed. This review summarizes the data reporting the role of the two most common viruses, that is, respiratory syncytial virus and human rhinovirus, that result in asthma development, comparing risk factors for disease progression, and providing insight into strategies that might be adopted to prevent asthma development. PMID:25165549
Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio
The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed. PMID:24574741
Pacifico, Lucia; Osborn, John Frederick; Bonci, Enea; Romaggioli, Sara; Baldini, Rossella; Chiesa, Claudio
The combination of a proton pump inhibitor and two antibiotics (clarithromycin plus amoxicillin or metronidazole) has been the recommended first-line therapy since the first guidelines for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection in children were published. In recent years, the success of eradication therapies has declined, in part due to the development of H. pylori resistant strains. Alternative anti-H. pylori treatments are currently becoming more popular than the traditional eradication methods. Components that may be used either as a monotherapy or, in combination with antimicrobials, resulting in a more effective anti-H. pylori therapy have been investigated in depth by several researchers. One of the potential therapies is probiotic cultures; promising results have been observed in initial studies with numerous probiotic strains. Nevertheless, many questions remain unanswered. In this article, we comprehensively review the possible mechanisms of action of probiotics on H. pylori infection, and present the results of published studies using probiotics as possible agents to control H. pylori infection in children. The effect of the addition of probiotics to the standard H. pylori eradication therapy for the prevention of antibiotic associated side-effects is also discussed.
Wilber, Randall L; Pitsiladis, Yannis P
Since the 1968 Mexico City Olympics, Kenyan and Ethiopian runners have dominated the middle- and long-distance events in athletics and have exhibited comparable dominance in international cross-country and road-racing competition. Several factors have been proposed to explain the extraordinary success of the Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including (1) genetic predisposition, (2) development of a high maximal oxygen uptake as a result of extensive walking and running at an early age, (3) relatively high hemoglobin and hematocrit, (4) development of good metabolic "economy/efficiency" based on somatotype and lower limb characteristics, (5) favorable skeletal-muscle-fiber composition and oxidative enzyme profile, (6) traditional Kenyan/Ethiopian diet, (7) living and training at altitude, and (8) motivation to achieve economic success. Some of these factors have been examined objectively in the laboratory and field, whereas others have been evaluated from an observational perspective. The purpose of this article is to present the current data relative to factors that potentially contribute to the unprecedented success of Kenyan and Ethiopian distance runners, including recent studies that examined potential links between Kenyan and Ethiopian genotype characteristics and elite running performance. In general, it appears that Kenyan and Ethiopian distance-running success is not based on a unique genetic or physiological characteristic. Rather, it appears to be the result of favorable somatotypical characteristics lending to exceptional biomechanical and metabolic economy/efficiency; chronic exposure to altitude in combination with moderate-volume, high-intensity training (live high + train high), and a strong psychological motivation to succeed athletically for the purpose of economic and social advancement.
Ahmed, Saeed; Kim, Maria H.; Sugandhi, Nandita; Phelps, B. Ryan; Sabelli, Rachael; Diallo, Mamadou O.; Young, Paul; Duncan, Dana; Kellerman, Scott E.
There are 3.4 million children infected with HIV worldwide, with up to 2.6 million eligible for treatment under current guidelines. However, roughly 70% of infected children are not receiving live-saving HIV care and treatment. Strengthening case finding through improved diagnosis strategies, and actively linking identified HIV-infected children to care and treatment is essential to ensuring that these children benefit from the care and treatment available to them. Without attention or advocacy, the majority of these children will remain undiagnosed and die from complications of HIV. In this article, we summarize the challenges of identifying HIV-infected infants and children, review currently available evidence and guidance, describe promising new strategies for case finding, and make recommendations for future research and interventions to improve identification of HIV-infected infants and children. PMID:24361633
Nájera, O; González, C; Toledo, G; López, L; Cortés, E; Betancourt, M; Ortiz, R
The aim of this study was to determine if the distribution in vivo of CD4+CD45RA+/CD45RO− (naive), CD4+CD45RA+/CD45RO+ (Ddull) and CD4+CD45RO+ (memory) lymphocytes differs in malnourished infected and well-nourished infected children. The expression of CD45RA (naive) and CD45RO (memory) antigens on CD4+ lymphocytes was analysed by flow cytometry in a prospectively followed cohort of 15 malnourished infected, 12 well-nourished infected and 10 well-nourished uninfected children. Malnourished infected children showed higher fractions of Ddull cells (11·4 ± 0·7%) and lower fractions of memory cells (20·3 ± 1·7%) than the well-nourished infected group (8·8 ± 0·8 and 28·1 ± 1·8%, respectively). Well-nourished infected children showed increased percentages of memory cells, an expected response to infection. Impairment of the transition switch to the CD45 isoforms in malnourished children may explain these findings, and may be one of the mechanisms involved in immunodeficiency in these children. PMID:11737063
Person, Bobbie; Schilling, Katharine; Owuor, Mercy; Ogange, Lorraine; Quick, Rob
Background Recommended disease prevention behaviors of hand washing, hygienic hand drying, and covering one’s mouth and nose in a hygienic manner when coughing and sneezing appear to be simple behaviors but continue to be a challenge to successfully promote and sustain worldwide. We conducted a qualitative inquiry to better understand current hand drying behaviors associated with activities of daily living, and mouth and nose covering practices, among Kenyans. Methods and Findings We conducted 7 focus group discussions; 30 in-depth interviews; 10 structured household observations; and 75 structured observations in public venues in the urban area of Kisumu; rural communities surrounding Kisumu; and a peri-urban area outside Nairobi, Kenya. Using a grounded theory approach, we transcribed and coded the narrative data followed by thematic analysis of the emergent themes. Hand drying, specifically on a clean towel, was not a common practice among our participants. Most women dried their hands on their waist cloth, called a leso, or their clothes whether they were cooking, eating or cleaning the nose of a young child. If men dried their hands, they used their trousers or a handkerchief. Children rarely dried their hands; they usually just wiped them on their clothes, shook them, or left them wet as they continued with their activities. Many people sneezed into their hands and wiped them on their clothes. Men and women used a handkerchief fairly often when they had a runny nose, cold, or the flu. Most people coughed into the air or their hand. Conclusions Drying hands on dirty clothes, rags and lesos can compromise the benefits of handwashing. Coughing and sneezing in to an open hand can contribute to spread of disease as well. Understanding these practices can inform health promotion activities and campaigns for the prevention and control of diarrheal disease and influenza. PMID:24069302
Neumann, Charlotte G; Jiang, Luohua; Weiss, Robert E; Grillenberger, Monika; Gewa, Constance A; Siekmann, Jonathan H; Murphy, Suzanne P; Bwibo, Nimrod O
The present study examines the effect of animal-source-food (ASF) intake on arm muscle area growth as part of a larger study examining causal links between ASF intake, growth rate, physical activity, cognitive function and micronutrient status in Kenyan schoolchildren. This randomised, controlled feeding intervention study was designed with three isoenergetic feeding interventions of meat, milk, and plain traditional vegetable stew (githeri), and a control group receiving no snack. A total of twelve elementary schools were randomly assigned to interventions, with three schools per group, and two cohorts of 518 and 392 schoolchildren were enrolled 1 year apart. Children in each cohort were given feedings at school and studied for three school terms per year over 2 years, a total of 9 months per year: cohort I from 1998 to 2000 and cohort II from 1999 to 2001. Food intake was assessed by 24 h recall every 1-2 months and biochemical analysis for micronutrient status conducted annually (in cohort I only). Anthropometric measurements included height, weight, triceps skinfold (TSF) and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC). Mid-upper-arm muscle area (MAMA) and mid-upper-arm fat area (MAFA) were calculated. The two cohorts were combined for analyses. The meat group showed the steepest rates of gain in MUAC and MAMA over time, and the milk group showed the next largest significant MUAC and MAMA gain compared with the plain githeri and control groups (P< 0.05). The meat group showed the least increase in TSF and MAFA of all groups. These findings have implications for increasing micronutrient intake and lean body mass in primary schoolchildren consuming vegetarian diets.
Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth
We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate…
Dornbusch, H J; Groll, A; Walsh, T J
Early recognition and rapid initiation of effective treatment is a prerequisite for successful management of children with invasive fungal infections. The increasing diversity of fungal pathogens in high-risk patients, the differences in the antifungal spectra of available agents and the increasing rates of resistance call for identification of the infecting isolate at the species level and for information on drug resistance, in order to provide state-of-the-art patient care. Microscopy and culture of appropriate specimens remain the reference standard for mycological diagnosis, despite difficulties in obtaining appropriate and/or sufficient specimens, long durations of culture and false-negative results. Modern imaging studies and detection of circulating fungal cell wall components and DNA in blood and other body fluids or in affected tissues may improve the laboratory diagnosis of invasive mycoses.
Acosta, Jorge Humberto Davila; Rantes, Claudia Isabel Lazarte; Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio
Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a very common worldwide health problem in childhood with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, viruses are the most common cause of CNS infections, followed by bacterial etiology, and less frequent due to mycosis and other causes. Noncomplicated meningitis is easier to recognize clinically; however, complications of meningitis such as abscesses, infarcts, venous thrombosis, or extra-axial empyemas are difficult to recognize clinically, and imaging plays a very important role on this setting. In addition, it is important to keep in mind that infectious process adjacent to the CNS such as mastoiditis can develop by contiguity in an infectious process within the CNS. We display the most common causes of meningitis and their complications.
Marcos Raymundo, Luis A; Maco Flores, Vicente; Terashima Iwashita, Angélica; Samalvides Cuba, Frine; Gotuzzo Herencia, Eduardo
Recent studies show that human fascioliasis is an infectious disease with significance in Peru and in other Latin American countries. The purpose of this study is to describe the clinical characteristics with a criteria towards the diagnosis of chronic infection by hepatic Fasciola in children. Sixty five individuals with ages ranging between 4 and 15 years were included, all from the District of Asillo (fascioliasis endemic area) in the Province of Azángaro, Department of Puno, Peru. A clinical exam was performed, as well as egg count per gram of feces (EPG count) and eosinophiles count. The group of children with ages between 8 and 11 years was the most affected, accounting for 47.5% of the total. The most frequent result in the exams was abdominal pain (82%) with epigastric location (37.7%), the Murphy symptom showed in 25 children (41% and there was a jaundice record in 17 children (27.9%). The rest of the symptoms and signs were non-specific. In the leukocyte count, 43.5% presented eosinophilia. The average count of eosinophiles and the severity of the infection (EPG count) decreased as the child became older. We concluded that chronic fascioliasis in endemic zones presents abdominal pain localized in the epigastrium and the Murphy symptom as the most frequent clinical biliary characteristics, while the rest of the symptoms are non-specific and this is probably due to the high endemic degree of other intestinal parasitosis which are present in this population. Finally the eosinophilia of chronic fascioliasis is in inverse relation with age in individuals of endemic zones and the number of parasites probably decreases as the person grows older, probably due to a modulation in the immune response of the individual or by the natural death of the parasite.
Hutchinson, M. Katherine; Sandall, Susan R.
This article describes TORCH infections, a congenital cluster of infections including toxoplasmosis, syphilis, rubella, cytomegalovirus, and herpes which often results in developmental disabilities for infected children. Methods of transmission, incidence, and developmental outcomes for common TORCH infections are described, as are program…
Karppinen, S; Toivonen, L; Schuez-Havupalo, L; Waris, M; Peltola, V
An acute viral respiratory tract infection might prevent infections by other viruses because of the antiviral innate immune response. However, with the use of PCR methods, simultaneous detection of two or more respiratory viruses is frequent. We analysed the effect of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection on the occurrence of simultaneous rhinovirus (RV) infection in children within a birth cohort study setting. We used PCR for virus detection in nasal swabs collected from children with an acute respiratory tract infection at the age of 0-24 months and from healthy control children, who were matched for age and date of sample collection. Of 226 children with RSV infections, 18 (8.0%) had co-infections with RV, whereas RV was detected in 31 (14%) of 226 control children (p 0.049 by chi-square test). Adjustment for sex, number of siblings and socio-economic status strengthened the negative association between RSV and RV (OR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.90; p 0.02). The median durations of symptoms (cough, rhinorrhoea, or fever) were 11 days in children with single RSV infections and 14 days in children with RSV-RV co-infections (p 0.02). Our results suggest that the presence of RSV reduces the probability of RV infection, but that, if a co-infection occurs, both viruses cause clinical symptoms.
Boulanger, L. L.; Lee, L. A.; Odhacha, A.
Guidelines for the integrated management of childhood illness (IMCI) in peripheral health facilities have been developed by WHO and UNICEF to improve the recognition and treatment of common causes of childhood death. To evaluate the impact of the guidelines on treatment costs, we compared the cost of drugs actually prescribed to a sample of 747 sick children aged 2-59 months in rural health facilities in western Kenya with the cost of drugs had the children been managed using the IMCI guidelines. The average cost of drugs actually prescribed per child was US$ 0.44 (1996 US$). Antibiotics were the most costly component, with phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup accounting for 59% of the cost of all the drugs prescribed. Of the 295 prescriptions for phenoxymethylpenicillin syrup, 223 (76%) were for treatment of colds or cough. The cost of drugs that would have been prescribed had the same children been managed with the IMCI guidelines ranged from US$ 0.16 per patient (based on a formulary of larger-dose tablets and a home remedy for cough) to US$ 0.39 per patient (based on a formulary of syrups or paediatric-dose tablets and a commercial cough preparation). Treatment of coughs and colds with antibiotics is not recommended in the Kenyan or in the IMCI guidelines. Compliance with existing treatment guidelines for the management of acute respiratory infections would have halved the cost of the drugs prescribed. The estimated cost of the drugs needed to treat children using the IMCI guidelines was less than the cost of the drugs actually prescribed, but varied considerably depending on the dosage forms and whether a commercial cough preparation was used. PMID:10593034
Pardo-Seco, Jacobo; Gómez-Carballa, Alberto; Martinón-Torres, Nazareth; Salas, Antonio; Martinón-Sánchez, José María; Justicia, Antonio; Rivero-Calle, Irene; Sumner, Edward; Fink, Colin
Background Multiple viruses are often detected in children with respiratory infection but the significance of co-infection in pathogenesis, severity and outcome is unclear. Objectives To correlate the presence of viral co-infection with clinical phenotype in children admitted with acute respiratory infections (ARI). Methods We collected detailed clinical information on severity for children admitted with ARI as part of a Spanish prospective multicenter study (GENDRES network) between 2011–2013. A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) approach was used to detect respiratory viruses in respiratory secretions. Findings were compared to an independent cohort collected in the UK. Results 204 children were recruited in the main cohort and 97 in the replication cohort. The number of detected viruses did not correlate with any markers of severity. However, bacterial superinfection was associated with increased severity (OR: 4.356; P-value = 0.005), PICU admission (OR: 3.342; P-value = 0.006), higher clinical score (1.988; P-value = 0.002) respiratory support requirement (OR: 7.484; P-value < 0.001) and longer hospital length of stay (OR: 1.468; P-value < 0.001). In addition, pneumococcal vaccination was found to be a protective factor in terms of degree of respiratory distress (OR: 2.917; P-value = 0.035), PICU admission (OR: 0.301; P-value = 0.011), lower clinical score (-1.499; P-value = 0.021) respiratory support requirement (OR: 0.324; P-value = 0.016) and oxygen necessity (OR: 0.328; P-value = 0.001). All these findings were replicated in the UK cohort. Conclusion The presence of more than one virus in hospitalized children with ARI is very frequent but it does not seem to have a major clinical impact in terms of severity. However bacterial superinfection increases the severity of the disease course. On the contrary, pneumococcal vaccination plays a protective role. PMID:27096199
Khalil, H M; el Shimi, S; Sarwat, M A; Fawzy, A F; el Sorougy, A O
Survey on 1800 children was conducted to detect the prevalence of H. nana infection in Egyptian children, by direct smear and concentration techniques. The incidence of infection was found to be 16%. Two hundred cases of them were subjected to full clinical history, thorough physical examination and anthropometric assessment. Different clinical manifestations were found in 84% of cases. Delayed growth manifested by decrease of the body weight below the third percentile was found in 62% of cases, in addition to marked affection of the body, height, head circumference, midarm circumference and triceps skinfold thickness in 16%, 10%, 32% and 28% of cases respectively. Trials on these 200 cases were carried out to evaluate the efficacy of "Praziquantel" in comparison with "Mebendazole". Praziquantel gave significant higher cure rates, being 91.1% and 97.7% after 2 and 4 weeks respectively, compared to Mebendazole which gave cure rates of 50% and 59%. Both drugs were well tolerated and have no side effects, however Praziquantel was given as a single dose, and so have the advantage of being more effective, easily administered, safe with higher cure rate.
Lee, I Re; Shin, Jae Il; Park, Se Jin; Oh, Ji Young; Kim, Ji Hong
Mean platelet volume (MPV) has not yet been well-established in urinary tract infection (UTI). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role of MPV as an acute phase reactant in children with UTI. Data from 118 young children (<2 years) with UTI between 2012 and 2013 were grouped as acute pyelonephritis (APN) and lower UTI according to the dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) scan abnormalities. MPV, platelet distribution width (PDW) platelet count, and other infection markers (white blood cell [WBC] count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate [ESR], and C-reactive protein [CRP]) were measured. WBC (P = 0.001), ESR (P = 0.005), CRP (P < 0.001) and MPV levels (P = 0.011) were significantly higher in the APN group than those in the lower UTI group. MPV positively correlated with PDW, CRP and negatively with platelet count. Multiple logistic regression analyses showed that CRP and MPV were independent predictive factors for APN patients. However, the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve analysis for MPV was lower than CRP. Our results suggest that MPV can be an inflammatory marker in UTI, but the predictive value of MPV was not superior to CRP in the diagnosis of APN. PMID:26666588
Elliot, T C; Agunda, K O; Kigondu, J G; Kinoti, S N; Latham, M C
An Infant Feeding Practices Study (IFPS) in 1982 in Kenya, which included a cross-sectional survey of a weighted sample of 980 low and middle income Nairobi mothers who had given birth in the previous 18 months, found that most women breastfeed their infants for long periods, but many introduce alternate feeding, especially infant formula, in the 1st 4 months (86 and 50% of the infants were breastfed at 6 and 15 months respectively, but 50% of the 2 month-olds and 63% of the 4 month-olds were receiving substitutes, mostly formula). This is done largely out of the belief that infant formula is an additional health benefit. A workshop to discuss the findings of the IFPS and other available data, and to make policy recommendations urged the adoption of a policy of protection, support and promotion of breastfeeding. Since breastfeeding is already widely prevalent in Kenya, protection of breastfeeding should receive the 1st priority in policy related to infant feeding. Attention should be directed at at least 2 influences which help undermine breastfeeding: widespread availability and promotion of breast milk substitutes. Support for breastfeeding is viewed as the 2nd policy priority. Situations where support can play a helpful role are, women's paid employment outside the home, hospital practices, maternal morbidity, and difficulties in breastfeeding. Since promotion is the least cost effective of the 3 options, and most Kenyan women are already motivated to breastfeed, this should be the last priority. Promotion includes reeduction of mothers to make them better aware of the benefits of breastfeeding. The workshop recommended the dissemination of appropriate information, consisting of standarized messages based on clearcut guidelines, using mass media techniques.
Mason, P R; Patterson, B A
Fecal specimens were obtained on 3 occasions at 10-12 wk intervals from 315 children in 3 rural villages in Zimbabwe and from 351 children in the high-density suburbs of an adjacent small town. Specimens were examined qualitatively and quantitatively for eggs of Hymenolepis nana, and these were found in 142 (21%) children. Infections occurred more frequently in younger children in the urban area but in older children in rural areas. The prevalence in urban areas (24%) was higher than in rural areas (18%), and in urban areas infection correlated with low "hygiene scores" (determined by observation) and with the presence in the household of an infected sibling. The prevalence of infection in the 3 rural communities did not correlate with availability of water, number of households per toilet, with low "hygiene scores," or with the presence of an infected sibling. Treatment with a single oral dose of 15 mg/kg praziquantel cured 84% of the infected children. New or reinfections occurred more frequently in households that had an infected sibling in an urban but not rural setting. The study demonstrates distinct differences in the transmission of H. nana infection in rural and urban communities. The data suggest intrafamily transmission in urban areas, particularly in households with poor hygiene behavior, leading to primary infection early in life. In rural areas, the prevalence of infection and the incidence of reinfection were highest in children of school age, and there was little evidence for intrafamily transmission of the parasite.
Cobley, David S.
Given the well-documented links between poverty and disability in the majority world, and the mandate given to address this issue by international agreements, such as the recent United Nations Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, this paper examines the issue of how best to promote economic empowerment in the Kenyan context. The…
Aura, Lillie Josephine; Venville, Grady; Marais, Ida
This paper presents results of an investigation into the relationship between Kenyan Sign Language (KSL) and English literacy skills. It is derived from research undertaken towards an MEd degree awarded by The University of Western Australia in 2011. The study employed a correlational survey strategy. Sixty upper primary deaf students from four…
Mpontshane, Nontobeko; Broeck, Jan Van den; Chhagan, Meera; Luabeya, Kany Kany Angelique; Johnson, Ayesha; Bennish, Michael L.
Little is known about dietary diversity of children residing in areas of high HIV prevalence. This study examined dietary diversity in 381 children ages 6−24 mo in rural South Africa. Twenty-eight (7.3%) children and 170 mothers (44.6%) were HIV infected. Home visits were conducted weekly and a detailed history of dietary intake obtained. A dietary diversity score was computed based on the weekly consumption of 8 food classes. Low dietary diversity was defined as falling within the lowest quartile of the diversity scale. There were 22,772 child weeks of observation: 1369 for HIV-infected children, 8876 for HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-infected mothers, and 12,527 for HIV-uninfected children born to HIV-uninfected mothers. Low dietary diversity was more common in HIV-infected children [crude odds ratio (OR), 2.59; 95% CI, 1.52 to 4.41) compared with children born to HIV-uninfected mothers. In a multiple logistic regression analysis adjusting for socioeconomic and health status, HIV-infected children had lower dietary diversity (conditional OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 1.06 to 2.94) than HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children consumed less in 6 of 8 food classes compared with HIV-uninfected children, with the 2 exceptions being breast milk and formula milk. In rural South Africa, HIV-infected children's diets are significantly less diverse than those of HIV-uninfected children. This may be a factor contributing to increased morbidity and poorer survival in these children. PMID:18716173
Van Rie, Annelies; Dow, Anna; Mupuala, Aimee; Stewart, Paul
Objective To assess the effect of HIV care (including HAART if eligible) on neurodevelopment. Design Prospective cohort study Methods Motor and mental development of 35 HIV-infected children (age 18-71 months) was assessed at entry into care, and after 6 and 12 months using age-appropriate tools. Developmental trajectory was compared to 35 HIV-uninfected, affected and 90 control children using linear mixed effects models. Effects of age (≤ or >29 months) and timing of entry into care (before or after HAART eligibility) were explored in secondary analyses. Results At baseline, HIV-infected children had the lowest, control children the highest, and HIV-uninfected affected children intermediate mean developmental scores. After one year of care, HIV-infected children achieved mean motor and cognitive scores that were similar to HIV uninfected, affected children although lower compared to control children. Overall, HIV-infected children experienced accelerated motor development but similar gains in cognitive development compared to control children. Exploratory analyses suggest that younger children and those presenting early may experience accelerated greater gains in development. Conclusions HIV-infected children accessing care experience improved motor development, and may, if care is initiated at a young age or an early stage of the disease, also experience gains in cognitive development. PMID:19730268
Goldberg, Brittany E.; Mongodin, Emmanuel F.; Jones, Cheron E.; Chung, Michelle; Fraser, Claire M.; Tate, Anupama; Zeichner, Steven L.
The oral microbial community (microbiota) plays a critical role in human health and disease. Alterations in the oral microbiota may be associated with disorders such as gingivitis, periodontitis, childhood caries, alveolar osteitis, oral candidiasis and endodontic infections. In the immunosuppressed population, the spectrum of potential oral disease is even broader, encompassing candidiasis, necrotizing gingivitis, parotid gland enlargement, Kaposi’s sarcoma, oral warts and other diseases. Here, we used 454 pyrosequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes to examine the oral microbiome of saliva, mucosal and tooth samples from HIV-positive and negative children. Patient demographics and clinical characteristics were collected from a cross-section of patients undergoing routine dental care. Multiple specimens from different sampling sites in the mouth were collected for each patient. The goal of the study was to observe the potential diversity of the oral microbiota among individual patients, sample locations, HIV status and various dental characteristics. We found that there were significant differences in the microbiome among the enrolled patients, and between sampling locations. The analysis was complicated by uneven enrollment in the patient cohorts, with only five HIV-negative patients enrolled in the study and by the rapid improvement in the health of HIV-infected children between the time the study was conceived and completed. The generally good oral health of the HIV-negative patients limited the number of dental plaque samples that could be collected. We did not identify significant differences between well-controlled HIV-positive patients and HIV-negative controls, suggesting that well-controlled HIV-positive patients essentially harbor similar oral flora compared to patients without HIV. Nor were significant differences in the oral microbiota identified between different teeth or with different dental characteristics. Additional studies are needed to better
Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V
Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.
Pradhan, P; Bhandary, S; Shakya, P R; Acharya, T; Shrestha, A
Intestinal parasitic infections (IPI) are one of the most prevalent infections in humans residing in developing countries and its burden is high among school aged children. This cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and types of intestinal parasites in rural public school children of Nepal. It included students from Nursery to Class X of a rural public school located in the northeast part of the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal. Among the 194 participating children, prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was found as 23.7%; (28.2% for boys; 20.2% for girls). Amongst the infected children, single and mixed parasitic infection was detected in 43 (93.5%) and 3 (6.5%) children respectively. Among protozoan parasites, Giardia lamblia was the most common (58.6%) whereas Hymenolepis nana was the most common (21.7%) among the helminths. Statistically different prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection was observed among children aged above 10 years and children aged below 6 years as well as 6 to 10 years. Gender-wise, there was no statistical difference in prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection. This study suggests the need of health education program in schools along with regular screening of intestinal parasites and treatment for effective management of the intestinal parasites among school children in Nepal.
Ferguson, Gillian; Jelsma, Jennifer
Children living with HIV often display delayed motor performance owing to HIV infection of the central nervous system, the effects of opportunistic infections and, indirectly, owing to their social environments. Although these problems have been well documented, the impact of the virus on the development of South African children is less well…
Asander, Ann-Sofie; Bjorkman, Anders; Belfrage, Erik; Faxelid, Elisabeth
In Sweden, most HIV-infected parents are of African origin. The present study explored the frequency of HIV-infected African parents' disclosure of their status to their children and custody planning for their children's future to identify support needs among these families. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 47 parents (41 families).…
Nájera, Oralia; González, Cristina; Toledo, Guadalupe; López, Laura; Ortiz, Rocío
Protein-energy malnutrition is the primary cause of immune deficiency in children across the world. It has been related to changes in peripheral T-lymphocyte subsets. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of infection and malnutrition on the proportion of peripheral-lymphocyte subsets in well-nourished non-bacterium-infected (WN), well-nourished bacterium-infected (WNI), and malnourished bacterium-infected (MNI) children by flow cytometry. A prospectively monitored cohort of 15 MNI, 12 WNI, and 17 WN children was studied. All the children were 3 years old or younger and had only bacterial infections. Results showed a significant decrease in the proportion of T CD3(+) (P < 0.05 for relative and P < 0.03 for absolute values), CD4(+) (P < 0.01 for relative and absolute values), and CD8(+) (P < 0.05 for relative values) lymphocyte subsets in WNI children compared to the results seen with WN children. Additionally, B lymphocytes in MNI children showed significant lower values (CD20(+) P < 0.02 for relative and P < 0.05 for absolute values) in relation to the results seen with WNI children. These results suggest that the decreased proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets observed in WNI children were associated with infection diseases and that the incapacity to increase the proportion of B lymphocyte was associated with malnutrition. This low proportion of B lymphocytes may be associated with the mechanisms involved in the immunodeficiency of malnourished children.
Jain, Akansha; Jain, Shubham; Rawat, Swati
The incidence of fungal infections is increasing at an alarming rate, presenting an enormous challenge to healthcare professionals. This increase is directly related to the growing population of immunocompromised individuals especially children resulting from changes in medical practice such as the use of intensive chemotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs. Although healthy children have strong natural immunity against fungal infections, then also fungal infection among children are increasing very fast. Virtually not all fungi are pathogenic and their infection is opportunistic. Fungi can occur in the form of yeast, mould, and dimorph. In children fungi can cause superficial infection, i.e., on skin, nails, and hair like oral thrush, candida diaper rash, tinea infections, etc., are various types of superficial fungal infections, subcutaneous fungal infection in tissues under the skin and lastly it causes systemic infection in deeper tissues. Most superficial and subcutaneous fungal infections are easily diagnosed and readily amenable to treatment. Opportunistic fungal infections are those that cause diseases exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, e.g., aspergillosis, zygomycosis, etc. Systemic infections can be life-threatening and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Because diagnosis is difficult and the causative agent is often confirmed only at autopsy, the exact incidence of systemic infections is difficult to determine. The most frequently encountered pathogens are Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. But other fungi such as non-albicans Candida spp. are increasingly important. PMID:21180463
Jain, Akansha; Jain, Shubham; Rawat, Swati
The incidence of fungal infections is increasing at an alarming rate, presenting an enormous challenge to healthcare professionals. This increase is directly related to the growing population of immunocompromised individuals especially children resulting from changes in medical practice such as the use of intensive chemotherapy and immunosuppressive drugs. Although healthy children have strong natural immunity against fungal infections, then also fungal infection among children are increasing very fast. Virtually not all fungi are pathogenic and their infection is opportunistic. Fungi can occur in the form of yeast, mould, and dimorph. In children fungi can cause superficial infection, i.e., on skin, nails, and hair like oral thrush, candida diaper rash, tinea infections, etc., are various types of superficial fungal infections, subcutaneous fungal infection in tissues under the skin and lastly it causes systemic infection in deeper tissues. Most superficial and subcutaneous fungal infections are easily diagnosed and readily amenable to treatment. Opportunistic fungal infections are those that cause diseases exclusively in immunocompromised individuals, e.g., aspergillosis, zygomycosis, etc. Systemic infections can be life-threatening and are associated with high morbidity and mortality. Because diagnosis is difficult and the causative agent is often confirmed only at autopsy, the exact incidence of systemic infections is difficult to determine. The most frequently encountered pathogens are Candida albicans and Aspergillus spp. But other fungi such as non-albicans Candida spp. are increasingly important.
Bowman, Natalie M.; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H.; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z.; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V.; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E.; Maguire, James H.; Bern, Caryn
Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20–30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections. PMID:21212207
Bowman, Natalie M; Kawai, Vivian; Gilman, Robert H; Bocangel, Cesar; Galdos-Cardenas, Gerson; Cabrera, Lilia; Levy, Michael Z; Cornejo del Carpio, Juan Geny; Delgado, Freddy; Rosenthal, Lauren; Pinedo-Cancino, Vivian V; Steurer, Francis; Seitz, Amy E; Maguire, James H; Bern, Caryn
Chagas disease affects an estimated 8 million people in Latin America. Infected individuals have 20-30% lifetime risk of developing cardiomyopathy, but more subtle changes in autonomic responses may be more frequent. We conducted a matched case-control study of children in Arequipa, Peru, where triatomine infestation and Trypanosoma cruzi infection are emerging problems. We collected data on home environment, history, physical examination, electrocardiogram, and autonomic testing. Signs of triatomine infestation and/or animals sleeping in the child's room and household members with Chagas disease were associated with increased infection risk. Electrocardiogram findings did not differ between cases and controls. However, compared with control children, infected children had blunted autonomic responses by three different measures, the Valsalva maneuver, the cold pressor test, and the orthostatic test. T. cruzi-infected children show autonomic dysfunction, although the prognostic value of this finding is not clear. Sustained vector control programs are essential to decreasing future T. cruzi infections.
Majumdar, Indrajit; Hartley-McAndrew, Michelle E; Weinstock, Arie L
Central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is suspected in patients presenting with acute-onset seizures and lethargy. The potential neurologic sequelae from untreated herpes infection can prompt empirical acyclovir therapy, even in afebrile subjects. The objectives of this study were to determine the frequency of central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection in children presenting with afebrile seizures and to assess the need for empirical acyclovir therapy. Clinical and laboratory data of children with acute-onset afebrile seizures and children with central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection were compared. Polymerase chain reaction and viral cultures of the cerebrospinal fluid for herpes simplex virus infection were negative in all subjects with afebrile seizures; 32.7% of these subjects were empirically treated with acyclovir. In conclusion, central nervous system herpes simplex virus infection is uncommon in children presenting with afebrile seizures, and acyclovir therapy is rarely necessary in subjects with normal neurologic examination and cerebrospinal fluid analysis.
Madhi, S A; Ramasamy, N; Petersen, K; Madhi, A; Klugman, K P
The aim of this study was to compare the clinical course of severe lower respiratory tract infections associated with human parainfluenza virus types 1-3 (HPIV 1-3) in hospitalised children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) versus that in hospitalised children not infected with HIV-1. Children were enrolled prospectively as part of a broader study that evaluated the aetiology of lower respiratory tract infections in HIV-1-infected and -noninfected children from March 1997 through March 1999. HPIV types 1-3 were isolated from nasopharyngeal aspirate samples that were analysed using immunofluorescein monoclonal antibody assays. Thirty percent (24 of 80) of the children from whom HPIV was isolated were infected with HIV-1. Sixty-six percent (47 of 62) and 22% (14 of 62) of the HPIV isolates that were typed were subtypes 3 and 1, respectively. The clinical presentation of severe lower respiratory tract infection was similar in both HIV-1-infected and -noninfected children, except that the former were less likely to have wheezing (4.2% vs. 28.6%, P=0.01). Furthermore, the duration of hospitalisation was longer in HIV-1-infected children than in HIV-1-noninfected children (median 11.5 days [range 1-15 days] vs. median 7.5 days [range 1-22 days]; P=0.02), and mortality was higher (5 of 24 [20.8%] infected children vs. 0 of 56 noninfected children; P=0.001). Importantly, four of five (80%) of the HIV-1-infected children who died had other concurrent illnesses or predisposing factors for severe HPIV-associated disease. HPIV-associated lower respiratory tract infection causes greater morbidity and mortality in HIV-1-infected children than in HIV-1-noninfected children; however, this may be due to other concurrent illnesses in HIV-1-infected children.
Ruampunpong, Hathaiphan; Payungporn, Sunchai; Samransamruajkit, Rujipat; Pratheepamornkul, Thitikarn; Theamboonlers, Apiradee; Poovorawan, Yong
Human parainfluenza virus (HPIV) is a common cause of upper and lower respiratory illness in infants and young children. In order to classify the HPIV isolates circulating in the central part of Thailand, 650 samples obtained from the lower respiratory tract of patients from two hospital pediatric wards during 2010 to 2013, were analyzed for the presence and types of HPIVs by multiplex semi-nested PCR of hemagglutinin-neuraminidase (HN) gene. The results showed that 4.8% of the samples were positive for HPIV, among which 0.5%, 2.5% and 1.5% were positive for HPIV-1, HPIV-3, and HPIV-4, respectively, and none were positive for HPIV-2. A phylogenetic tree constructed from 31 HPIV HN gene sequences compared to those in GenBank showed greater than 80% identity to other reference strains. Prevalence of HPIV infection and phylogenetic characteristics of the circulating HPIVs may help explain the impact of HPIVs infection in Thai children.
Maraqa, Nizar F; Gomez, Margarita M; Rathore, Mobeen H
There are few data on the use of outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) in the management of osteoarticular infections (OAIs) in childhood. The objective of this study was to determine if OPAT is safe and effective in the management of OAIs. Using their OPAT database, the authors evaluated the use of OPAT in children younger than 18 years old treated for OAIs between January 1, 1995, and December 31, 1999. One hundred eighty-four OAIs were treated in 179 patients over 5 years. OPAT involved central venous lines (CVLs) in 110 (59.8%), peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs) in 71 (38.6%), and peripheral cannulas in 3 (1.6%). One hundred eighteen (64%) OPAT courses were completed without interruption. Rehospitalization occurred in 48 (26.1%) courses and occurred earlier with PICC. OPAT complications were catheter-related in 58 (30%) courses, not catheter-related in 60 (32%), and unknown in 10 (5.3%). The mechanical complication rate was 6.3 per 1,000 catheter-days (CVL 4.2, PICC 10.6), and the rate of infectious complications was 2.7 per 1,000 catheter-days (CVL 2.8, PICC 2.4). One hundred sixty-eight (98%) of 172 evaluable OAIs were cured. Four (2.2%) patients failed treatment: one had recurrence and three had persistent infection. The authors conclude that OPAT can be safely used to manage OAIs in children without compromising outcome. Mechanical complications are more common with PICCs.
Naghipour, Mohammadreza; Cuevas, Luis E; Bakhshinejad, Tahereh; Mansour-Ghanaei, Fariborz; Noursalehi, Smaeil; Alavy, Ali; Dove, Winifred; Hart, Charles Anthony
The study reports the frequency and clinical presentation of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human metapneumovirus, influenza (Inf V), parainfluenza, adenovirus (Adv), Chlamydia spp. and Mycoplasma pneumoniae in children with acute respiratory infections (ARI) in Rasht, Iran. Nasopharyngeal aspirates and swabs were collected from 261 children in 2003 and 2004. Pathogens were detected using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR), confirmed with sequence analysis. Ninety-three pathogens were detected in 83 children. RSV was present in 39 (15%), Adv in 37 (14%), Inf A in 11 (4%), C. trachomatis in 4 (2%) and M. pneumoniae, in 2 (1%) children. Neither parainfluenza nor metapneumovirus were detected. RSV, Inf A and C. trachomatis were more frequent in children with lower respiratory infections. Adv presented more frequently as upper respiratory infection. All pathogens, except M. pneumoniae, were detected in children with severe pneumonia. Viruses play a significant role in Iranian children with community-acquired ARI.
Lipka, Bozena; Milewska-Bobula, Bogumiła; Idzik, Mirosława; Marciński, Paweł; Dunin-Wasowicz, Dorota; Kassur-Siemieńska, Barbara; Bauer, Anna; Sebiguli Marishekome, Augustin; Hautz, Wojciech; Radziszewska, Marzanna
Intrauterine infections are an important cause of hearing and visual impairment in children. The aim of this paper was to evaluate the character and frequency of hearing and visual disturbances in children with congenital toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infection. 38 out of 54 children with congenital toxoplasmosis as well as 34 out of 403 children with congenital human cytomegalovirus disease, with visual/auditory impairment, hospitalized in Infant Department in Children's Memorial Health Institute between 1995-2001 were enrolled in this study. Visual impairment was observed in all children with toxoplasmosis (with visual dysfunction rate of 74%), but there was no deafness found. Vision impairment had been observed in 18% of children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection compared to 35% of children with auditory impairment (bilateral deafness had been found in half of them). Neurological deficits' rate was much higher in children with toxoplasmosis (52% vs. 4%). Because of common hearing impairment in children with congenital cytomegalovirus infection and vision impairment in children with congenital toxoplasmosis, it is essential to start the prophylaxis to decrease the percentage of handicapped children.
Mishra, Vinod; Arnold, Fred; Otieno, Fredrick; Cross, Anne; Hong, Rathavuth
We examined whether orphaned and fostered children and children of HIV-infected parents are disadvantaged in schooling, nutrition, and health care. We analyzed data on 2,756 children aged 0-4 years and 4,172 children aged 6-14 years included in the 2003 Kenya Demographic and Health Survey, with linked anonymous HIV testing, using multivariate logistic regression. Results indicate that orphans, fostered children, and children of HIV-infected parents are significantly less likely to attend school than non-orphaned/non-fostered children of HIV-negative parents. Children of HIV-infected parents are more likely to be underweight and wasted, and less likely to receive medical care for ARI and diarrhea. Children of HIV-negative single mothers are also disadvantaged on most indicators. The findings highlight the need to expand child welfare programs to include not only orphans but also fostered children, children of single mothers, and children of HIV-infected parents, who tend to be equally, if not more, disadvantaged.
An, Yao-Wu; Pang, Xin-Li; Liu, Jie-Bing; Huang, Shao-Yu
In China, the infection rate of Enterobius vermicularis in children is still relatively high. Because the development and spread of worm eggs is fast, it is easy to treat but difficult to control the disease, and the control effect is also difficult to be consolidated. The long-term repeated Enterobius vermicularis infection may cause the damage on children's body and mind in different degrees. This paper offers an overview on the current status, harm and prevention and control of Enterobius vermicularis infection.
Asner, S A; Rose, W; Petrich, A; Richardson, S; Tran, D J
Molecular assays have resulted in increased detection of viral respiratory infections, including virus coinfection, from children with acute respiratory infections. Yet the clinical severity of virus coinfection compared to single virus infection remains uncertain. We performed a retrospective study of children presenting with acute respiratory infections comparing clinical severity of single respiratory virus infection to virus coinfection, detected on midturbinate swabs by molecular assays. Patient characteristics and measures of clinical severity were abstracted from health records. A total of 472 virus-infected children were included, 391 with a single virus infection and 81 with virus coinfection. Virus status did not affect admission to hospital (odds ratio (OR) = 0.8; 95 % confidence interval (CI) 0.5-1.4; p 0.491) or clinical disease severity among inpatients (OR = 0.8; 95% CI 0.5-1.5; p 0.515) after adjusting for age and underlying comorbidities. However, children infected with rhinovirus/enterovirus (HRV/ENT) alone were more likely to be admitted to the hospital compared to those coinfected with HRV/ENT and at least another virus, although this was not significant in multivariable analyses (OR 0.47; 95% CI 0.22-1.0; p 0.051). In multivariable analyses, children coinfected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and other viruses were significantly more likely to present with radiologically confirmed pneumonia compared to those with an isolated RSV infection (OR 3.16, 95% CI 1.07-9.34, p 0.037). Equivalent clinical severity was observed between children with single virus infection and virus coinfection, although children coinfected with RSV and other viruses presented more frequently with pneumonia than those with single RSV infection. Increased disease severity observed among children with single HRV/ENT infection requires further investigation.
Komatsu, Haruki; Inui, Ayno; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Kuroda, Koichi; Tanaka, Toshio; Fujisawa, Tomoo
The TT virus (TTV) was isolated recently from the serum of a patient with post-transfusion hepatitis. TTV infection is widespread in the general population, and its prevalence increases continuously with age. The pathogenic role of TTV in liver disease remains controversial, and the source of transmission is still unclear. We investigated the pathogenicity and epidemiology of TTV infection in infants born to TTV DNA-positive mothers. Enrolled in this study were 22 mother-child pairs testing negative for antibodies to hepatitis B, hepatitis C, and the human immunodeficiency viruses (HIVs). The children were followed for 30 months after birth. Serum TTV DNA was detected by N22-PCR, and the PCR products were cloned and sequenced. The prevalence of TTV infection in children increased with age. Of the 22 children, 13 (59%) became positive for TTV DNA during the follow-up period. Of these 13 children, 6 (46%) had elevated levels of serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), although the elevations were transient and mild. TTV viremia was not associated significantly with the abnormal ALT levels. Children with TTV viremia developed neither severe liver disease nor fulminant hepatitis. Phylogenetic analysis showed that, in 11 (85%) of the 13 pairs, the mother and child had the same genotype at the first PCR-positive time point. Among those 11 mother-child pairs, 6 (55%) had identical TTV nucleotide sequences. However, the genotype of predominant clones changed in 5 (50%) of 10 children who were positive for TTV DNA at two or more time points during the follow-up period. In conclusion, this study did not provide evidence that TTV infection is related to liver disease in children. Although the main source of TTV infection in children is presumed to be their mothers, transmitted via non-parenteral routes in the course of daily contact, intrafamilial carriers may also be sources of TTV infection.
Agarwal, Anil; Aggarwal, Aditya N
The pathological invasion of a joint and subsequent inflammation is known as septic arthritis. The knee and hip are the most frequently involved joints. Staphylococcus aureus is the most common cause of septic arthritis in children. An acute onset of illness with an inflamed painful joint and restricted movements and inability to use joint (pseudoparalysis) clinically indicates septic arthritis. The diagnosis is difficult in a neonate or young child where refusal to feed, crying, discomfort during change of diaper (if hip is involved) or attempted joint movement may be the only findings. Fever and other systemic signs may also be absent in neonates. Septic arthritis is diagnosed clinically, supported by appropriate radiological and laboratory investigations. The peripheral blood white cell count is frequently raised with a predominance of polymorphonuclear cells. The acute phase reactants such as C-reactive protein (CRP) and erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) are often markedly raised. Ultrasonography and MRI are preferred investigations in pediatric septic arthritis. Determination of infecting organism in septic arthritis is the key to the correct antibiotic choice, treatment duration and overall management. Joint aspirate and/or blood culture should be obtained before starting antibiotic treatment. Several effective antibiotic regimes are available for managing septic arthritis in children. Presence of large collections, thick pus, joint loculations and pus evacuating into surrounding soft tissues are main indications for surgical drainage. Joint aspiration can be a practical alternative in case the lesion is diagnosed early, with uncomplicated presentations and superficial joints.
Morrissey, Benita J; Bycroft, Thomas P; Almossawi, Ofran; Wilkey, Olufunke B; Daniels, Justin G
Children with sickle cell disease are at increased risk of developing bacteremia and other serious bacterial infections. Fever is a common symptom in sickle cell disease and can also occur with sickle cell crises and viral infections. We aimed to evaluate the incidence and predictors of bacteremia and bacterial infection in children with sickle cell disease presenting with fever to a district hospital and sickle cell center in London. A retrospective analysis was performed on all attendances of children (aged under 16 years) with sickle cell disease presenting with a fever of 38.5 °C or higher over a 1-year period. Confirmed bacterial infection was defined as bacteremia, bacterial meningitis, urinary tract infection (UTI), pneumonia, osteomyelitis or other bacterial infection with positive identification of organism. Children were defined as having a suspected bacterial infection if a bacterial infection was suspected clinically, but no organism was identified. Over a 1-year period there were 88 episodes analyzed in 59 children. Bacteremia occurred in 3.4% of episodes and confirmed bacterial infection in 7.0%. Suspected bacterial infection occurred in 33.0%. One death occurred from Salmonella typhirium septicemia. C-reactive protein (CRP) level and white blood cell (WBC) count were both significantly associated with bacterial infection (p = 0.004 and 0.02, respectively.) In conclusion, bacterial infections continue to be a significant problem in children with sickle cell disease. C-reactive protein was significantly associated with bacterial infections, and could be included in clinical risk criteria for febrile children with sickle cell disease.
Gerber, D A; Green, M; Jaffe, R; Greenberg, D; Mazariegos, G; Reyes, J
The diagnosis and treatment of moderate-to-severe diarrhea in solid organ transplant recipients is often a challenge because of the variety of infectious and non-infectious causes. The morbidity associated with this clinical condition is of particular significance in the pediatric population where malnutrition may lead to poor growth and development. Rarely, Cryptosporidium has been identified as the cause of clinically significant diarrhea in pediatric solid organ transplant patients. A retrospective review identified cases of cryptosporidiosis among the 1160 non-renal, abdominal organ transplant recipients cared for at the Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh between 1981 and June 1998. Four cases of clinically significant diarrhea were identified in three liver transplant recipients and one small bowel transplant recipient. Endoscopy and biopsy with histologic confirmation diagnosed three cases; ova and parasitic examination of stool specimens identified the fourth case. Therapy varied among the patients depending on when they had been diagnosed as, over the years, different and newer agents have been indicated for the treatment of cryptosporidiosis. All four patients resolved their infections. Hence, endoscopy and biopsy is recommended for pediatric transplant patients who present with chronic diarrhea of unknown etiology. The patients who may be at a higher risk for cryptosporidial infections include those with an increased immunosuppressive state (i.e. pre-existing immunodeficiency, malignancy, re-transplantation, and those receiving higher doses of immunosuppressive therapy). While cryptosporidiosis is a non-lethal complication, it allows the clinician to gain further insight into the degree of immunosuppression of their patient.
Mann, Joshua R.; McDermott, Suzanne
Objective: To investigate the hypothesis that maternal genitourinary infection (GU) infection is associated with increased risk of ADHD. Method: The authors obtained linked Medicaid billing data for pregnant women and their children in South Carolina, with births from 1996 through 2002 and follow-up data through 2008. Maternal GU infections and…
Helicobacter pylori infection is acquired mainly during childhood and causes various diseases such as gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma, and iron deficiency anemia. Although H. pylori infection in children differs from adults in many ways, this is often overlooked in clinical practice. Unlike adults, nodular gastritis may be a pathognomonic endoscopic finding of childhood H. pylori infection. Histopathological findings of gastric tissues are also different in children due to predominance of lymphocytes and plasma cells and the formation of gastric MALT. Although endoscopy is recommended for the initial diagnosis of H. pylori infection, several non-invasive diagnostic tests such as the urea breath test (UBT) and the H. pylori stool antigen test (HpSA) are available and well validated even in children. According to recent data, both the 13C-UBT and HpSA using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay are reliable non-invasive tests to determine H. pylori status after eradication therapy, although children younger than 6 years are known to have high false positives. When invasive or noninvasive tests are applied to children to detect H. pylori infection, it should be noted that there are differences between children and adults in diagnosing H. pylori infection. PMID:27437185
Castagnola, Elio; Ruberto, Eliana; Guarino, Alfredo
AIM: To review gastrointestinal and liver infections in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. To look at gut microflora features in oncology children. METHODS: We selected studies published after year 2000, excluding trials on transplanted pediatric patients. We searched English language publications in MEDLINE using the keywords: “gastrointestinal infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “gastrointestinal infection AND oncology AND children”, “liver infection AND antineoplastic chemotherapy AND children”, “liver abscess AND chemotherapy AND child”, “neutropenic enterocolitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “thyphlitis AND chemotherapy AND children”, “infectious diarrhea AND children AND oncology”, “abdominal pain AND infection AND children AND oncology”, “perianal sepsis AND children AND oncology”, “colonic pseudo-obstruction AND oncology AND child AND chemotherapy”, “microflora AND children AND malignancy”, “microbiota AND children AND malignancy”, “fungal flora AND children AND malignancy”. We also analysed evidence from several articles and book references. RESULTS: Gastrointestinal and liver infections represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children undergoing antineoplastic chemotherapy. Antineoplastic drugs cause immunosuppression in addition to direct toxicity, predisposing to infections, although the specific risk is variable according to disease and host features. Common pathogens potentially induce severe diseases whereas opportunistic microorganisms may attack vulnerable hosts. Clinical manifestations can be subtle and not specific. In addition, several conditions are rare and diagnostic process and treatments are not standardized. Diagnosis may be challenging, however early diagnosis is needed for quick and appropriate interventions. Interestingly, the source of infection in those children can be exogenous or endogenous. Indeed, mucosal damage may allow the
Lowick, Sarah; Sawry, Shobna; Meyers, Tammy
Neurodevelopmental delay has been documented in up to 97.5% of HIV-infected children in Soweto who were not yet on antiretroviral treatment (ART). With growing numbers of children in South Africa being successfully treated with ART, the effects of ART on neurocognitive functioning in children require investigation. The objective of this study was to determine the extent of neurodevelopmental delay in stable HIV-infected preschool children (aged five to six years) receiving ART and compare it to an apparently healthy (unconfirmed HIV-status) group of preschool children. Thirty HIV-infected preschool children (virologically and immunologically stable on ART for more than one year) were conveniently sampled from 350 eligible children on ART at the Harriet Shezi Children's Clinic in Soweto, Johannesburg. The comparison group comprised 30 well-nourished preschool children attending the Lilian Ngoyi Primary Health Care Clinic in Soweto for routine immunizations. Each child was assessed using the Griffiths Mental Development Scales-Extended Revised Version (GMDS-ER), at a single point in time. The overall developmental z-scores on GMDS-ER were <-2 (indicating severe delay) in 27 (90%) children in the HIV-infected group compared to 23 (76%) in the comparison group (p = 0.166). Mental handicap (overall GQ < 70) was evident in 46.7% of children in the HIV-infected group compared to 10% in the comparison group (p = 0.002). There was a 7.88-fold increased likelihood of severe delay in the HIV infected group. The HIV-infected group and comparison group had significantly different (p = 0.001) mean overall GQ scores of 70 (95% CI: 66.0-74.0) and 78 (95% CI: 75.6-80.5), respectively, with lower mean scores in the HIV-infected group in all individual domains. Early initiation of ART in HIV-infected infants may improve cognitive functioning among this group; however, intervention strategies which optimize early cognitive development for all children in the area need to be
Otero, Renata A; Nascimento, Flávia N N; Souza, Ivete P R; Silva, Raquel C; Lima, Rodrigo S; Robaina, Tatiana F; Câmara, Fernando P; Santos, Norma; Castro, Gloria F
The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis.
OTERO, Renata A.; NASCIMENTO, Flávia N.N.; SOUZA, Ivete P.R.; SILVA, Raquel C.; LIMA, Rodrigo S.; ROBAINA, Tatiana F.; CÂMARA, Fernando P.; SANTOS, Norma; CASTRO, Gloria F.
The aims of this study were to compare the detection of human herpesviruses (HHVs) in the saliva of HIV-infected and healthy control children, and to evaluate associations between viral infection and gingivitis and immunodeficiency. Saliva samples were collected from 48 HIV-infected and 48 healthy control children. Clinical and laboratory data were collected during dental visits and from medical records. A trained dentist determined gingival indices and extension of gingivitis. Saliva samples were tested for herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2), varicella zoster virus (VZV), Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), and cytomegalovirus (CMV) by nested polymerase chain reaction assays. Thirty-five HIV-infected and 16 control children had gingivitis. Seventeen (35.4%) HIV-infected children and 13 (27%) control children were positive for HHVs. CMV was the most commonly detected HHV in both groups (HIV-infected, 25%; control, 12.5%), followed by HSV-1 (6.2% in both groups) and HSV-2 (HIV-infected, 4.2%; control, 8.3%). The presence of HHVs in saliva was not associated with the presence of gingivitis in HIV-1-infected children (p = 0.104) or healthy control children (p = 0.251), or with immunosuppression in HIV-infected individuals (p = 0.447). Gingivitis was correlated with HIV infection (p = 0.0001). These results suggest that asymptomatic salivary detection of HHVs is common in HIV-infected and healthy children, and that it is not associated with gingivitis. PMID:26200962
Efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in Kenyan children aged less than five years: results of an open-label, randomized, single-centre study
Background This open-label, randomized study evaluated efficacy and safety of artemether-lumefantrine (AL) and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (DP) in treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in children below five years of age, to build evidence on use of AL as first-line treatment and DP as second-line treatment in Kenya. Methods A total of 454 children aged six to 59 months with uncomplicated falciparum malaria were randomized (1:1) to receive AL dispersible or DP paediatric tablets and followed up for 42 days. Primary efficacy variable was corrected adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) rate on day 28. Secondary variables included corrected (day 14, 28 and 42), uncorrected (day 3, 14, 28 and 42) cure rates, parasitological failure at days 3, 14 and 42. Acceptability and tolerability of both drugs were assessed by caregiver questionnaire. Results On day 28, corrected ACPR rates for AL dispersible and DP paediatric were 97.8% (95% CI: 94.9-99.3) and 99.1% (95% CI: 96.8-99.9), respectively, in intention-to-treat population, with no significant treatment differences noted between AL dispersible and DP paediatric arms. Additionally, no significant differences were observed for PCR corrected cure rates on days 14 and ACPR on day 42 for AL dispersible (100%; 96.8%) and DP paediatric (100%; 98.7%). Similarly, for PCR uncorrected cure rates, no significant differences were seen on days 3, 14, 28, and 42 for AL dispersible (99.1%; 98.7%; 81.1%; 67.8%) and DP paediatric (100%; 100%; 87.7%; 70.5%). Parasite clearance was rapid, with approximately 90% clearance achieved in 40 hours in both treatment arms. Incidence of adverse events was related to underlying disease; malaria being reported in both treatment arms. One serious adverse event was noted in AL dispersible (0.42%) arm, not related to study drug. Adherence to treatment regimen was higher for children treated with AL dispersible (93.6%) compared to DP paediatric (85.6%). Acceptability of AL
Long, Kurt Z; Garcia, Coralith; Ko, GwangPyo; Santos, Jose I; Al Mamun, Abdullah; Rosado, Jorge L; DuPont, Herbert L; Nathakumar, Nanda
Vitamin A supplementation is associated with divergent clinical norovirus (NoV) outcomes in Mexican children. Fecal cytokine concentrations following NoV genogroup infections among 127 Mexican children 5-15 mo old enrolled in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, vitamin A supplementation trial were determined to clarify the role the gut immune response plays in these associations. Stools collected from supplemented children [20,000 IU retinol (3.3 IU = 1 μg retinol) for children < 12 mo of age; 45,000 iu for children ≥ 12 mo] or children in the placebo group were screened for NoV genogroups I (GI) and II (GII). Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), TNFα, IL-5, IL-6, IL-8, IL-4, IFNγ, and IL-10 fecal concentrations were also determined. Differences in cytokine levels between the 2 groups following GI and GII infections were determined using ordered logistic regression models. MCP-1 and IL-8 levels were greater among GI- and GII-infected children, respectively, compared with uninfected children, whereas IL-5 levels were greater following both genogroup infections. MCP-1, IL-8, and IL-6 fecal levels were reduced among supplemented children with GII-associated diarrhea compared with the placebo group. Vitamin A-supplemented, GII-infected children had reduced MCP-1 and TNFα levels compared with GII-infected children in the placebo group (P-interaction = 0.02 and 0.03, respectively). Supplemented children with GI-associated diarrhea had higher TNFα and IL-4 levels compared with children in the placebo group with diarrhea (P-interaction = 0.02 and 0.02, respectively). The divergent effects of supplementation on NoV outcomes may result from the different effects vitamin A has on the genogroup-specific immune responses.
Wilder-Smith, A; Lover, A; Kittayapong, P; Burnham, G
Dengue infection causes a significant economic, social and medical burden in affected populations in over 100 countries in the tropics and sub-tropics. Current dengue control efforts have generally focused on vector control but have not shown major impact. School-aged children are especially vulnerable to infection, due to sustained human-vector-human transmission in the close proximity environments of schools. Infection in children has a higher rate of complications, including dengue hemorrhagic fever and shock syndromes, than infections in adults. There is an urgent need for integrated and complementary population-based strategies to protect vulnerable children. We hypothesize that insecticide-treated school uniforms will reduce the incidence of dengue in school-aged children. The hypothesis would need to be tested in a community based randomized trial. If proven to be true, insecticide-treated school uniforms would be a cost-effective and scalable community based strategy to reduce the burden of dengue in children.
Uğraş, Meltem; Pehlivanoğlu, Ender
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is mainly acquired in childhood and is frequent in developing countries. The infection is associated with chronic gastritis in all infected children, but peptic ulcer disease develops in a small number of them. In our country, H. pylori infection and associated peptic ulcer disease are common. In eastern Turkey, we found peptic ulcer disease in 13.2% of children who underwent endoscopic examination. Peptic ulcers were mostly gastric ulcers and H. pylori-positive in the studied population, and most of the children were admitted due to abdominal pain. As there are no well-established criteria leading directly to diagnosis, pediatricians should include H. pylori infection and peptic ulcer disease in the differential diagnosis list when evaluating children with abdominal pain, failure to thrive and upper gastrointestinal system bleeding.
Queiroz, Dulciene MM; Rocha, Andreia MC; Crabtree, Jean E
Helicobacter pylori infection is predominantly acquired early in life. The prevalence of the infection in childhood is low in developed countries, whereas in developing countries most children are infected by 10 y of age. In poor resource settings, where malnutrition, parasitic/enteropathogen and H. pylori infection co-exist in young children, H. pylori might have potentially more diverse clinical outcomes. This paper reviews the impact of childhood H. pylori infection in developing countries that should now be the urgent focus of future research. The extra-gastric manifestations in early H. pylori infection in infants in poor resource settings might be a consequence of the infection associated initial hypochlorhydria. The potential role of H. pylori infection on iron deficiency, growth impairment, diarrheal disease, malabsorption and cognitive function is discussed in this review. PMID:23988829
Moss, William J.; Clements, C. John; Halsey, Neal A.
This paper reviews the English language literature on the safety, immunogenicity and effectiveness in children infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) of vaccines currently recommended by WHO for use in national immunization programmes. Immunization is generally safe and beneficial for children infected with HIV, although HIV-induced immune suppression reduces the benefit compared with that obtained in HIV-uninfected children. However, serious complications can occur following immunization of severely immunocompromised children with bacillus Calmette-Gu rin (BCG) vaccine. The risk of serious complications attributable to yellow fever vaccine in HIV-infected persons has not been determined. WHO guidelines for immunizing children with HIV infection and infants born to HIV-infected women differ only slightly from the general guidelines. BCG and yellow fever vaccines should be withheld from symptomatic HIV-infected children. Only one serious complication (fatal pneumonia) has been attributed to measles vaccine administered to a severely immunocompromised adult. Although two HIV-infected infants have developed vaccine-associated paralytic poliomyelitis, several million infected children have been vaccinated and the evidence does not suggest that there is an increased risk. The benefits of measles and poliovirus vaccines far outweigh the potential risks in HIV-infected children. The policy of administering routine vaccines to all children, regardless of possible HIV exposure, has been very effective in obtaining high immunization coverage and control of preventable diseases. Any changes in this policy would have to be carefully examined for a potential negative impact on disease control programmes in many countries. PMID:12640478
Hoberman, Alejandro; Keren, Ron; Gotman, Nathan; Docimo, Steven G.; Mathews, Ranjiv; Bhatnagar, Sonika; Ivanova, Anastasia; Mattoo, Tej K.; Moxey-Mims, Marva; Carpenter, Myra A.; Pohl, Hans G.; Greenfield, Saul
BACKGROUND: Little generalizable information is available on the outcomes of children diagnosed with bladder and bowel dysfunction (BBD) after a urinary tract infection (UTI). Our objectives were to describe the clinical characteristics of children with BBD and to examine the effects of BBD on patient outcomes in children with and without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). METHODS: We combined data from 2 longitudinal studies (Randomized Intervention for Children With Vesicoureteral Reflux and Careful Urinary Tract Infection Evaluation) in which children <6 years of age with a first or second UTI were followed for 2 years. We compared outcomes for children with and without BBD, children with and without VUR, and children with VUR randomly assigned to prophylaxis or placebo. The outcomes examined were incidence of recurrent UTIs, renal scarring, surgical intervention, resolution of VUR, and treatment failure. RESULTS: BBD was present at baseline in 54% of the 181 toilet-trained children included; 94% of children with BBD reported daytime wetting, withholding maneuvers, or constipation. In children not on antimicrobial prophylaxis, 51% of those with both BBD and VUR experienced recurrent UTIs, compared with 20% of those with VUR alone, 35% with BBD alone, and 32% with neither BBD nor VUR. BBD was not associated with any of the other outcomes investigated. CONCLUSIONS: Among toilet-trained children, those with both BBD and VUR are at higher risk of developing recurrent UTIs than children with isolated VUR or children with isolated BBD and, accordingly, exhibit the greatest benefit from antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26647376
Pollock, N; Hamilton, B
An elite Kenyan runner presented with a tibial fracture sustained during an international cross-country race. There was no clear history of symptoms suggestive of preceding overload and no radiological features of stress fracture. He was found to have sustained an osteoporotic, insufficiency fracture. There are no previous case reports of an osteoporotic fracture in a male athlete. Possible aetiologies and directions for future investigation are presented.
Carrol, Enitan D.; Mankhambo, Limangeni A.; Jeffers, Graham; Parker, Deborah; Guiver, Malcolm; Newland, Paul; Banda, Daniel L.; Molyneux, Elizabeth M.; Heyderman, Robert S.
Background Early recognition and prompt and appropriate antibiotic treatment can significantly reduce mortality from serious bacterial infections (SBI). The aim of this study was to evaluate the utility of five markers of infection: C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), CD163 and high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1), as markers of SBI in severely ill Malawian children. Methodology and Principal Findings Children presenting with a signs of meningitis (n = 282) or pneumonia (n = 95), were prospectively recruited. Plasma samples were taken on admission for CRP, PCT, sTREM-1 CD163 and HMGB1 and the performance characteristics of each test to diagnose SBI and to predict mortality were determined. Of 377 children, 279 (74%) had SBI and 83 (22%) died. Plasma CRP, PCT, CD163 and HMGB1 and were higher in HIV-infected children than in HIV-uninfected children (p<0.01). In HIV-infected children, CRP and PCT were higher in children with SBI compared to those with no detectable bacterial infection (p<0.0005), and PCT and CD163 were higher in non-survivors (p = 0.001, p = 0.05 respectively). In HIV-uninfected children, CRP and PCT were also higher in children with SBI compared to those with no detectable bacterial infection (p<0.0005), and CD163 was higher in non-survivors (p = 0.05). The best predictors of SBI were CRP and PCT, and areas under the curve (AUCs) were 0.81 (95% CI 0.73–0.89) and 0.86 (95% CI 0.79–0.92) respectively. The best marker for predicting death was PCT, AUC 0.61 (95% CI 0.50–0.71). Conclusions Admission PCT and CRP are useful markers of invasive bacterial infection in severely ill African children. The study of these markers using rapid tests in a less selected cohort would be important in this setting. PMID:19675669
Goldwater, Paul N
Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war-work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care-all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem.
Pediatric infectious disease clinicians in industrialized countries may encounter iatrogenically transmitted HIV, hepatitis B virus, and hepatitis C virus infections in refugee children from Central Asia, Southeast Asia, and sub-Saharan Africa. The consequences of political collapse and/or civil war—work migration, prostitution, intravenous drug use, defective public health resources, and poor access to good medical care—all contribute to the spread of blood-borne viruses. Inadequate infection control practices by medical establishments can lead to iatrogenic infection of children. Summaries of 4 cases in refugee children in Australia are a salient reminder of this problem. PMID:23739597
Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines
Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth
Objective To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. Methods We followed up children aged 2–59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5 days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. Results We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4–5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9–18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9–27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5–46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P = 0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching to account for imbalance in the distribution of baseline clinical characteristics among children with VSP revealed no difference in TF between those treated with the guideline-recommended regimen vs. more costly broad-spectrum alternatives [risk difference 0.37 (95% CI −0.84 to 0.51)]. Conclusion Before revising current pneumonia case management guidelines, standardised definitions of TF and appropriate studies of treatment effectiveness of alternative regimens are required. Objectif Déterminer l'ampleur et les caractéristiques de l’échec du traitement (ET) chez les enfants hospitalisés avec une pneumonie acquise dans la communauté dans
Libes, Jaime M; Seeley, Erin H; Li, Ming; Axt, Jason R; Pierce, Janene; Correa, Hernan; Newton, Mark; Hansen, Erik; Judd, Audra; McDonald, Hayes; Caprioli, Richard M; Naranjo, Arlene; Huff, Vicki; O’Neill, James A; Lovvorn, Harold N
Background Wilms tumor (WT) is the most common childhood kidney cancer worldwide and arises in children of black African ancestry with greater frequency and severity than other race groups. A biologic basis for this pediatric cancer disparity has not been previously determined. We hypothesized that unique molecular fingerprints might underlie the variable incidence and distinct disease characteristics of WT observed between race groups. Study Design To evaluate molecular disparities between WTs of different race groups, the Children’s Oncology Group provided 80 favorable histology specimens divided evenly between black and white patients and matched for disease characteristics. As a surrogate of sub-Saharan African patients, we also analyzed 18 Kenyan WT specimens. Tissues were probed for peptide profiles using MALDI-TOF imaging mass spectrometry. To control for histologic variability within and between specimens, cellular regions were analyzed separately as triphasic (containing blastema, epithelia, and stroma), blastema-only, and stroma-only. Data were queried using ClinProTools and statistically analyzed. Results Peptide profiles, detected in triphasic WT regions, recognized race with good accuracy, which increased for blastema- or stroma-only regions. Peptide profiles from North American WTs differed between black and white race groups but were far more similar in composition than Kenyan specimens. Individual peptides were identified that also associated with WT patient and disease characteristics (eg, treatment failure and stage). Statistically significant peptide fragments were used to sequence proteins, revealing specific cellular signaling pathways and candidate drug targets. Conclusions WT specimens arising among different race groups show unique molecular fingerprints that could explain disparate incidences and biological behavior and that could reveal novel therapeutic targets. PMID:24655859
Abubakar, Amina; Van Baar, Anneloes; Fischer, Ronald; Bomu, Grace; Gona, Joseph K.; Newton, Charles R.
Background Severe childhood illnesses present a major public health challenge for Africa, which is aggravated by a suboptimal response to the child's health problems with reference to the health-seeking behaviour of the parents or guardians. We examined the health-seeking behaviour of parents at the Kenyan coast because understanding impediments to optimal health-seeking behaviour could greatly contribute to reducing the impact of severe illness on children's growth and development. Methods and Results Health-seeking behaviour, and the factors influencing this behaviour, were examined in two traditional communities. We held in-depth interviews with 53 mothers, fathers and caregivers from two rural clinics at the Kenyan Coast. Biomedical medicine (from health facilities and purchased over the counter) was found to be the most popular first point of treatment. However, traditional healing still plays a salient role in the health care within these two communities. Traditional healers were consulted for various reasons: a) attribution of causation of ill-health to supernatural sources, b) chronic illness (inability of modern medicine to cure the problem) and c) as prevention against possible ill-health. In developing an explanatory model of decision-making, we observed that this was a complex process involving consultation at various levels, with elders, but also between both parents, depending on the perceived nature and chronicity of the illness. However, it was reported that fathers were the ultimate decision makers in relation to decisions concerning where the child would be taken for treatment. Conclusions Health systems need to see traditional healing as a complementary system in order to ensure adequate access to health care. Importantly, fathers also need to be addressed in intervention and education programs. PMID:24260094
Zhang, Liying; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Kaljee, Linda; Stanton, Bonita
This qualitative study aims to investigate parental HIV disclosure and psychological impact from the perspectives of their children. In-depth individual interviews with 47 children who had lost one or both parents to AIDS were conducted in China. All transcripts were coded using the software ATLAS.ti 5. Results showed that few of children knew of parental HIV status before the death of their parents. The main disclosers were the children’s current caregivers. Some children knew about their parent’s HIV infection based on their own observations or through overheard conversation, or their interactions with villagers. Both positive and negative psychological outcomes related to parental HIV disclosure were reported. Psychological counseling is needed for both parents and children to dealing with the parental HIV infection. PMID:24761258
Basu, Biswanath; Mahapatra, Tks
Chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) is a common dialysis treatment modality used to treat children with end-stage renal disease. Dialysis-related infections are the leading cause of technique failure. Enterobius vermicularis infestation indirectly increases the infection rate by causing pruritus around the anus, especially at night. We observed a significant decrease in the total infection rate (2.3 vs 5.4 per patient-year) following regular deworming over a 1-year study period. Regular deworming may be considered to prevent secondary bacterial infections in children on chronic PD.
Short, Susan E.; Goldberg, Rachel E.
Background In sub-Saharan Africa many children live in extreme poverty and experience a burden of illness and disease that is disproportionately high. The emergence of HIV and AIDS has only exacerbated long-standing challenges to improving children’s health in the region, with recent cohorts experiencing pediatric AIDS and high levels of orphan status, situations which are monitored globally and receive much policy and research attention. Children’s health, however, can be affected also by living with HIV-infected adults, through associated exposure to infectious diseases and the diversion of household resources away from them. While long recognized, far less research has focused on characterizing this distinct and vulnerable population of HIV-affected children. Methods Using Demographic and Health Survey data from 23 countries collected between 2003 and 2011, we estimate the percentage of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult. We assess overlaps with orphan status and investigate the relationship between children and the adults who are infected in their households. Results The population of children living in a household with at least one HIV-infected adult is substantial where HIV prevalence is high; in Southern Africa, the percentage exceeded 10% in all countries and reached as high as 36%. This population is largely distinct from the orphan population. Among children living in households with tested, HIV-infected adults, most live with parents, often mothers, who are infected; nonetheless, in most countries over 20% live in households with at least one infected adult who is not a parent. Conclusion Until new infections contract significantly, improvements in HIV/AIDS treatment suggest that the population of children living with HIV-infected adults will remain substantial. It is vital to on-going efforts to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality to consider whether current care and outreach sufficiently address the distinct
Nájera, O; González, C; Cortés, E; Toledo, G; Ortiz, R
The mechanisms involved in impaired immunity in malnourished children are not well understood. CD4(+) CD62L(-) and CD8(+) CD28(-) do not express the naive cell markers CD62L and CD28, suggesting that they function as effector T cells. Using a flow cytometry-based analysis we examined the proportions of CD4(+) CD62L(-) and CD8(+) CD28(-) T cell subsets in well-nourished infected (WNI) and malnourished infected (MNI) children. Here we report that WNI children had a higher percentage of CD4(+) CD62L(-) (11.1 +/- 1.0) and CD8(+) D28(-) (40.2 +/- 5.0) T cell subsets than healthy (6.5 +/- 1.0 and 23.9 +/- 4.8) and MNI children (7.4 +/- 1.1 and 23.1 +/- 6.2, respectively) (P < 0.5). Data suggest that WNI children respond efficiently against pathogenic microbes. In contrast, relatively low numbers of circulating of CD4(+) CD62L(-) and CD8(+) CD28(-) T cells in MNI children may represent an ineffective response to infection. Levels of effector T cells in children with gastrointestinal infections versus those suffering from respiratory infections were also significantly different within the WNI group. While WNI children with gastrointestinal infections had higher absolute and relative values of CD8(+), and CD8(+) CD28(-) T subsets, by those with respiratory infections had higher values of CD4(+) lymphocytes. However, due to the small number of subjects examined, our results in WNI children should be interpreted with caution and confirmed using a larger sample size. Our data suggest that altered expression of CD62L and CD28 receptors may contribute to impaired T cell function observed in MNI children.
Ojurongbe, Olusola; Adegbayi, Adebola M; Bolaji, Oloyede S; Akindele, Akeem A; Adefioye, Olusegun A; Adeyeba, Oluwaseyi A
BACKGROUND: Malaria and intestinal helminths are parasitic diseases causing high morbidity and mortality in most tropical parts of the world, where climatic conditions and sanitation practices favor their prevalence. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and possible impact of falciparum malaria and intestinal helminths co-infection among school children in Kajola, Osun state, Nigeria. METHODS: Fresh stool and blood samples were collected from 117 primary school children age range 4-15 years. The stool samples were processed using both Kato-Katz and formol-ether concentration techniques and microscopically examined for intestinal parasitic infections. Blood was collected by finger prick to determine malaria parasitemia using thick film method; and packed cell volume (PCV) was determined by hematocrit. Univariate analysis and chi-square statistical tests were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: The prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum, intestinal helminth infections, and co-infection of malaria and helminth in the study were 25.6%, 40.2% and 4.3%, respectively. Five species of intestinal helminths were recovered from the stool samples and these were Ascaris lumbricoides (34.2%), hookworm (5.1%), Trichuris trichiura (2.6%), Diphyllobothrium latum (0.9%) and Trichostrongylus species (0.9%). For the co-infection of both malaria and intestinal helminths, females (5.9%) were more infected than males (2.0%) but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.3978). Children who were infected with helminths were equally likely to be infected with malaria as children without intestinal helminths [Risk Ratio (RR) = 0.7295]. Children with A. lumbricoides (RR = 1.359) were also likely to be infected with P. falciparum as compared with uninfected children. CONCLUSIONS: Asymptomatic falciparum malaria and intestinal helminth infections do co-exist without clinical symp-toms in school children in Nigeria. PMID:22091292
Chang Cojulun, Alicia; Bustinduy, Amaya L; Sutherland, Laura J; Mungai, Peter L; Mutuku, Francis; Muchiri, Eric; Kitron, Uriel; King, Charles H
Anemia represents a substantial problem for children living in areas with limited resources and significant parasite burden. We performed a cross-sectional study of 254 Kenyan preschool- and early school-age children in a setting endemic for multiple chronic parasitic infections to explore mechanisms of their anemia. Complete venous blood cell counts revealed a high prevalence of local childhood anemia (79%). Evaluating the potential links between low hemoglobin and socioeconomic factors, nutritional status, hemoglobinopathy, and/or parasite infection, we identified age < 9 years (odds ratio [OR]: 12.0, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.4, 33) and the presence of asymptomatic malaria infection (OR: 6.8, 95% CI: 2.1, 22) as the strongest independent correlates of having anemia. A total of 130/155 (84%) of anemic children with iron studies had evidence of iron-deficiency anemia (IDA), 16% had non-IDA; 50/52 of additionally tested anemic children met soluble transferrin-receptor (sTfR) criteria for combined anemia of inflammation (AI) with IDA. Children in the youngest age group had the greatest odds of iron deficiency (OR: 10.0, 95% CI: 3.9, 26). Although older children aged 9-11 years had less anemia, they had more detectable malaria, Schistosoma infection, hookworm, and proportionately more non-IDA. Anemia in this setting appears multifactorial such that chronic inflammation and iron deficiency need to be addressed together as part of integrated management of childhood anemia.
Opini, Bathseba M.
This paper presents a review of the challenges that disabled people experience in participating in the Kenyan labour market. It draws on existing literature and on a narrative of the experiences of one disabled academic in a Kenyan university to highlight some of the forms of discrimination that disabled people have to cope with in their…
Tarus, John K.; Gichoya, David; Muumbo, Alex
In this paper, we discuss the challenges experienced by Kenyan public universities in implementation of e-learning and recommend possible solutions towards its successful implementation. In the last few years, most Kenyan public universities have adopted e-learning as a new approach to teaching and learning. However, the implementation challenges…
Mokua, Rodgers Nyandieka
The literature on international students from Africa, and particularly Kenya, is very limited despite the significant number of Kenyan international students attending colleges and universities in the United States. Therefore, the intent of this study was to examine the adjustment problems of Kenyan international students in the United States. The…
Tedeschi, Sara; Tumietto, Fabio; Conti, Matteo; Giannella, Maddalena; Viale, Pierluigi
We report our clinical experience with the use of daptomycin, administered in the dosage of 8 mg/kg/d in 3 minutes, in treating 12 critically ill children younger than 12 years, with bloodstream infections (n = 9) and complicated skin and soft-tissue infections (n = 3). Mean treatment duration was 14 ± 5 days; microbiologic eradication was achieved in all patients, and no drug related adverse events occurred.
In this article, the following topics about pediatric HIV infection and AIDS are summarized: a description of pathogenic and clinical aspects of HIV infection in children, the clues for its suspicion, the preventive strategies to avoid the vertical transmission of HIV, the study to certify or to rule out the HIV infection in infants and children, the main recommendations of antiretroviral treatment and how to prevent and treat manifestations of HIV infection. Besides, the evolution in Chile of the pediatric HIV infection is described with details, since the first child detected with AIDS in 1987, infected by transfusion and the first infants (twin) diagnosed in 1989, infected by vertical twins transmission, to 2014, with the progress obtained, snags, hopes and challenges addressed.
Podsiadły, Edyta; Fracka, Beata; Szmigielska, Agnieszka; Tylewska-Wierzbanowska, Stanisława
Presence of specific IgM, IgG and IgA antibodies against Chlamydia pneumoniae was evaluated in children aged 1 week to 36 months to investigate the role of C. pneumoniae in respiratory infections and other diseases. Serum samples were obtained from 150 hospitalized children, including 123 children presenting the clinical symptoms of various respiratory tract infections, two children with acute diarrhoea, two children with meningitis, 14 children with urinary tract infection, and 9 children with non-infectious diseases. Levels of specific C. pneumoniae IgM, IgG and IgA serum antibodies were measured by enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA). C. pneumoniae IgM antibodies were detected in 16 (13.0 %) of 123 children with respiratory tract infections. Specific IgG antibodies were found in sera of 11 children under 12 months old. Among 27 children without symptoms of a respiratory tract disease, specific C. pneumoniae IgM were found in two (7.4%) children, including one child with meningitis and another child with urinary tract infection. Specific IgA antibodies were not found in any tested child. All cases of C. pneumoniae infections were identified within two calendar years out of eight that were analyzed, i.e. in 1997 and 2000. The incidence of C. pneumoniae infections varied seasonally, with most children infected in autumn. C. pneumoniae IgM antibodies were detected more often in girls (17.9%) then in boys (7.2%). C. pneumoniae infections occur among small children in central Poland. The results of this study indicate that C. pneumoniae may play a role in the etiology of respiratory tract infections in infants and young children.
Schmitz, V; Nkoghe, D; Hoyoux, C; Dresse, M F
The management of the HIV infected child is nearly identical to the adult. Nevertheless, there are many clinical, immunological and virological details. Difficulties evoked for the adult have an even bigger importance, in view of the foreseeable longevity of these children under treatment. The reduction of the mother to child transmission, thanks to the AZT-caesarean association, must be continued. The use of anti-retroviral drugs during pregnancy requires a sustained attention because of the potential risks and benefits for the foetus and mother. The long-term impact of these drugs, in children exposed during pregnancy, remains unknown. The follow-up of these children therefore remains important.
Chisti, Mohammod Jobayer; Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A C; Faruque, Abu S G; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K; Hossain, Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/ very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies
Al-Aubaidi, Zaid; Pedersen, Niels Wisbech
Musculoskeletal infections in children present a challenge regarding diagnosis and treatment. Conventional radiographs guide the initial radiographic assessment. Additional imaging is often performed to improve the diagnosis of the abnormality. The modalities used are ultrasound, bone-scan, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). On suspicion of multifocal musculoskeletal infections (MMI), MRI may save time and improve preoperative planning. We highly recommend the use of MRI for the preoperative assessment of children with MMI.
Harris, D. Robert; de Oliveira, Ricardo Hugo; de Abreu, Thalita F.; Kakehasi, Fabiana; Pilotto, Jose Henrique; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Krauss, Margot R.; Hazra, Rohan
Abstract Renal toxicity is a concern in HIV-infected children receiving antiretrovirals. However, the prevalence [1.7%; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.0–2.6%] and incidence of kidney dysfunction (0.17 cases/100 person-years; 95% CI: 0.04–0.30) were rare in this multicenter cohort study of 1,032 perinatally HIV-infected Latin American and Caribbean children followed from 2002 to 2011. PMID:24866283
Autmizguine, Julie; Moran, Cassie; Gonzalez, Daniel; Capparelli, Edmund V.; Smith, P. Brian; Grant, Gerald A; Benjamin, Daniel K.; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael; Watt, Kevin M
This study described the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) exposure of vancomycin in 8 children prescribed intravenous vancomycin therapy for cerebral ventricular shunt infection. Vancomycin CSF concentrations ranged from 0.06 to 9.13 mg/L and the CSF: plasma ratio ranged from 0 to 0.66. Two children out of three with a staphylococcal CSF infection had CSF concentrations > minimal inhibitory concentration at the end of the dosing interval. PMID:24776517
Ruuskanen, O; Nurkka, A; Helminen, M; Viljanen, M K; Käyhty, H; Kainulainen, L
Specific antibody deficiency (SAD) to unconjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PPV) is an established primary B cell immunodeficiency. The occurrence and natural history of SAD in children is unclear. We conducted an observational study to identify SAD in children with recurrent respiratory infections. Ninety-nine children, mean age 5·9 (range 2–16) years, with recurrent or severe infections were vaccinated with PPV; serum antibody concentrations for serotypes 4, 6B, 9V, 14, 18C, 19F and 23F were measured before and 2 weeks after vaccination with enzyme immunoassay. The retrospective control group consisted of 89 healthy children matched for age and gender. No children had received previous conjugated pneumococcal vaccine (PCV) or PPV. The structured history of infectious diseases of all participants was collected. Ten of 91 (11%) children (eight excluded due to immunoglobulin G subclass deficiency) with recurrent respiratory infections had SAD. In the control group, three children (3%) responded inadequately to PPV (P = 0·05). Most children with SAD also had many other minor immune defects. After 0·5–5 years (medium 3·8), eight children with SAD were revaccinated with PPV; five responded adequately and three inadequately. Two SAD children were revaccinated with PCV, one developed an adequate and one an inadequate response. Two children with SAD received treatment with intravenous immunoglobulin; the remaining eight children recovered without replacement therapy during the follow-up. SAD is common in young children with recurrent respiratory infections, but it is often transient and resolves itself within a few years without specific treatment. PMID:23574320
Moore, Catrin E.; Nget, Phot; Saroeun, Mao; Kuong, Suy; Chanthou, Seng; Kumar, Varun; Bousfield, Rachel; Nader, Johanna; Bailey, J. Wendi; Beeching, Nicholas J.; Day, Nicholas P.; Parry, Christopher M.
Background Infections with helminths and other intestinal parasites are an important but neglected problem in children in developing countries. Accurate surveys of intestinal parasites in children inform empirical treatment regimens and can assess the impact of school based drug treatment programmes. There is limited information on this topic in Cambodia. Methods In a prospective study of intestinal parasites in symptomatic children attending Angkor Hospital for Children, Siem Reap, Cambodia, April-June 2012, samples were examined by microscopy of a direct and concentrated fecal sample. Two culture methods for hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were employed when sufficient sample was received. Demographic, clinical and epidemiological data were collected. Principal Findings We studied 970 samples from 865 children. The median (inter-quartile range) age of the children was 5.4 (1.9-9.2) years, 54% were male. The proportion of children with abdominal pain was 66.8%, diarrhea 34.9%, anemia 12.7% and malnutrition 7.4%. 458 parasitic infections were detected in 340 (39.3%) children. The most common parasites using all methods of detection were hookworm (14.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (11.6%) and Giardia lamblia (11.2%). Giardia lamblia was most common in children aged 1-5 years, hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis were more common with increasing age. Hookworm, Strongloides stercoralis and Giardia lamblia were more common in children living outside of Siem Reap town. In a multivariate logistic regression increasing age was associated with all three infections, defecating in the forest for hookworm infection, the presence of cattle for S. stercoralis and not using soap for handwashing for G. lamblia. Conclusions/Significance This study confirms the importance of intestinal parasitic infections in symptomatic Cambodian children and the need for adequate facilities for laboratory diagnosis together with education to improve personal hygiene and sanitation. PMID
Gray, Linsay; Cortina-Borja, Mario; Newell, Marie-Louise
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) ribo-nucleic acid (RNA) viral load is a measure of actively replicating virus and is used as a marker of disease progression. For a thorough understanding of the dynamics of the evolution of the virus in the early life of HIV-1 vertically infected children, it is important to elucidate the pattern of HIV-RNA viral load over age. An aspect of assay systems used in the quantification of RNA viral load is that they measure values above particular cut-off values for detection, below which the assays used are not sufficiently sensitive. In this way, measurements are potentially left-censored. Recent adult studies suggest that to adequately model RNA pattern over age, it is necessary to account for within-subject correlation, due to repeated measures, and censoring. The aim of this study, therefore, was to establish whether it is necessary to use complex methods to allow for repeated measures within individuals and censoring of the HIV-RNA viral load in children enrolled in a cohort study. The approach involved the identification of an appropriate model for the basic pattern of RNA viral load by age and subsequent assessment of various estimation procedures accounting for repeated measures and censoring in different ways. Methods developed by Hughes involving the expectation-maximization (EM) algorithm and the Gibbs sampler were taken as the benchmark for comparison of simpler alternatives. Other approaches considered involve linear mixed-effects and ordinary least squares in which censoring is dealt with informally by taking the cut-off value as absolute or taking the mid-point between cut-off and zero. Fractional polynomials provided a substantially superior approach for modelling the dynamics of viral load over age compared to conventional polynomials or change-point models. Allowing for repeated measures was necessary to improve the power of the likelihood ratio tests required to establish the final model, but methods beyond taking
My, Phan Vu Tra; Thompson, Corinne; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Vinh, Ha; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Hau, Nguyen Thi Thu; Campbell, James; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Farrar, Jeremy; Baker, Stephen
We performed a case-control investigation to identify risk factors for norovirus infections among children in Vietnam. Of samples from 1,419 children who had diarrhea and 609 who were asymptomatic, 20.6% and 2.8%, respectively, were norovirus positive. Risk factors included residential crowding and symptomatic contacts, indicating person-to-person transmission of norovirus.
Gulsen, Ismail; Ak, Hakan; Demir, Nihat; Sosuncu, Enver; Arslan, Mehmet
Objective: The purpose of the presenting study was to determine how frequently external ventricular drainage (EVD) device should be changed in children with ventriculopertienal shunt (VPS) infection during prolonged intravenous antimicrobial therapy. Methods: In this retrospective study, 25 children with VPS infection were evaluated between January 2012 and December 2013. In these children VPS was surgically removed and appropriate antimicrobial therapy was administered according to cerebrospinal culture results. Data noted about how frequently EVD device had been changed, the number of cells on direct observation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), glucose and protein levels of CSF, and CSF culture results were obtained from patients’ records. Results: Total 25 children were included in the study. The median age was three months (1 and 65 months). In 44% of children, Staphylococcus epidermidis was isolated. During treatment period, EVD catheter has changed one to six times. A total of 68 EVD catheters were changed in these patients. When the duration of ventriculostomy catheter and leukocyte count in CSF were evaluated on daily basis, leukocyte count was decreased 5 units per day in children whose catheter remained less than 10 days. However, in children whose catheter remained more than 10 days leukocyte count was decreased 2.21 units per day. Conclusions: In children with VPS infection, EVD device should be changed at every 10 days for the rapid resolution of the infection. PMID:26101506
My, Phan Vu Tra; Thompson, Corinne; Phuc, Hoang Le; Tuyet, Pham Thi Ngoc; Vinh, Ha; Hoang, Nguyen Van Minh; Minh, Pham Van; Vinh, Nguyen Thanh; Thuy, Cao Thu; Nga, Tran Thi Thu; Hau, Nguyen Thi Thu; Campbell, James; Chinh, Nguyen Tran; Thuong, Tang Chi; Tuan, Ha Manh; Farrar, Jeremy
We performed a case–control investigation to identify risk factors for norovirus infections among children in Vietnam. Of samples from 1,419 children who had diarrhea and 609 who were asymptomatic, 20.6% and 2.8%, respectively, were norovirus positive. Risk factors included residential crowding and symptomatic contacts, indicating person-to-person transmission of norovirus. PMID:23735160
Douraghi, Masoumeh; Goudarzi, Hossein; Rostami, Mahmoud Nateghi; Nikmanesh, Bahram
Infection with "Helicobacter pylori" was assessed through serum "H. pylori" IgG antibody in children with intellectual disabilities (ID). The sero-status of cytotoxin-associated gene A (CagA) was determined as a risk determinant for severe "H. pylori"-associated diseases. In total, 210 children with ID were included…
Mitchell, Charles D.
HIV-1 encephalopathy among perinatally infected children in the United States was initially defined by a classic triad of findings that included: (1) developmental delay, (2) secondary or acquired microcephaly, and (3) pyramidal tract neuromotor deficits. The most severe form of this disorder typically occurred among young children who developed…
Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others
A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…
Moya-Camarena, Silvia Y; Sotelo, Norberto; Valencia, Mauro E
The aim of this study was to evaluate carbohydrate absorption in well-nourished children with asymptomatic giardiasis. Two groups were selected based on results of stool examination of 211 children attending pre-school centers in Hermosillo, Sonora, Mexico: a control group of six non-infected children, and an infected group of seven children harboring Giardia intestinalis, without gastrointestinal symptoms of disease. Carbohydrate absorption was determined in the control group, before and after drug therapy in the infected group by the hydrogen breath test. Hydrogen production after lactose ingestion was higher in children with giardiasis compared with control group and after anti-parasite treatment; however, hydrogen production was not high enough to classify children as lactose malabsorbers by the cut-off criteria. Similar results were obtained for xylose absorption. None of the children had hydrogen increments high enough to be considered xylose malabsorbers. In conclusion, children asymptomatically infected with G. intestinalis showed significantly higher hydrogen production. However, the biological relevance is questionable since they did not exceed cut-off criteria to classify them as carbohydrate malabsorbers.
Rodríguez-Martínez, Carlos E; Rodríguez, Diego Andrés; Nino, Gustavo
There is growing evidence suggesting greater severity and worse outcomes in children with mixed as compared to single respiratory virus infections. However, studies that assess the risk factors that may predispose a child to a mixture of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and adenoviral infections, are scarce. In a retrospective cohort study, the study investigated the epidemiology of RSV and adenovirus infections and predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in young children hospitalized with acute lower respiratory infection in Bogota, Colombia, South America, over a 2-year period 2009-2011. Of a total of 5,539 children admitted with a diagnosis of acute lower respiratory infection, 2,267 (40.9%) who were positive for RSV and/or adenovirus were selected. Out the total number of cases, 1,416 (62.5%) infections occurred during the 3-month period from March to May, the first rainy season of Bogota, Colombia. After controlling for gender, month when the nasopharyngeal sample was taken, and other pre-existing conditions, it was found that an age greater than 6 months (OR:1.74; CI 95%:1.05-2.89; P = 0.030) and malnutrition as a comorbidity (OR:9.92; CI 95%:1.01-100.9; P = 0.049) were independent predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections in the sample of patients. In conclusion, RSV and adenovirus are significant causes of acute lower respiratory infection in infants and young children in Bogota, Colombia, especially during the first rainy season. The identified predictors of mixed RSV-adenoviral infections should be taken into account when planning intervention, in order to reduce the burden of acute lower respiratory infection in young children living in the country.
Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Pituch, Hanna
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic, immune-mediated disease of the gastrointestinal tract that develops in genetically susceptible individuals. Questions about the role of infections in the development and exacerbations of inflammatory bowel disease remain unanswered. Among numerous bacteria that have been linked to IBD, the most frequently associated is Clostridium difficile. Clinical symptoms of C. difficile infection and an exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease are often indistinguishable. In cases of diarrhea in patients with IBD and C. difficile infection, antibiotic treatment is recommended. This review attempts to summarize C. difficile infection's epidemiology and clinical features and describes current evidence on treatment of C. difficile infection in children with IBD.
Leslie, Douglas L.; Kozma, Laura; Martin, Andres; Landeros, Angeli; Katsovich, Liliya; King, Robert A.; Leckman, James F.
The link between streptococcal infections and the onset of a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders is studied using a national sample of privately insured children. Findings suggest that patients with new-onset of obsessive-compulsive disorder, Tourette syndrome or tic orders were more likely to have been diagnosed with streptococcal infections in…
Chen, Tingting; Tanner, Laura; Simell, Ville; Hedman, Lea; Mäkinen, Marjaana; Sadeghi, Mohammadreza; Veijola, Riitta; Hyöty, Heikki; Ilonen, Jorma; Knip, Mikael; Toppari, Jorma; Simell, Olli; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria; Hedman, Klaus
We used comprehensive serodiagnostic methods (IgM, IgG, and IgG avidity) and PCR to study Merkel cell polyomavirus and trichodysplasia spinulosa-associated polyomavirus infections in children observed from infancy to adolescence. Comparing seroconversion intervals with previous and subsequent intervals, we found that primary infections with these 2 viruses were asymptomatic in childhood.
Viazov, S.; Ratjen, F.; Scheidhauer, R.; Fiedler, M.; Roggendorf, M.
RNA of the newly identified human metapneumovirus (HMPV) was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 11 of 63 (17.5%) young children with respiratory tract disease. Markers of infection caused by another member of the Pneumovirinae subfamily of the family Paramyxoviridae, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), were identified in 15 of these patients (23.8%). Three patients were simultaneously infected with HMPV and RSV. Studies of the clinical characteristics of HMPV-infected children did not reveal any difference between HMPV-infected patients and a control population of RSV-infected patients with regard to disease severity, but the duration of symptoms was significantly shorter for HMPV-infected patients. Phylogenetic analysis of the amplified viral genome fragments confirmed the existence and simultaneous circulation within one epidemic season of HMPV isolates belonging to two genetic lineages. PMID:12843040
Al Ghwass, Mohamed Me; El Dash, Hanaa H; Amin, Sayed A; Hussin, Shimaa S
Different helminth parasites may have different effects on allergy depending on the timing of the exposure. A meta-analysis of many of studies reported the association between the presence of geohelminth eggs in stool samples and asthma provided some evidence for parasite-specific effects. This study evaluated the occurrence of allergy among different intestinal parasitic infected patients. A cross sectional study was carried out from June, 2013 to October, 2013 in the Pediatric Outpatient Clinic of Al-Fayoum University Hospitals among 55 children aged 2 years to 13 years. The data were collected using ISSAC questionnaire of allergy (International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood) also laboratory analysis of complete blood picture, stool analysis and measurement of total serum IgE were performed for the patients. Among the patients 27 suffered from allergy and 28 had no allergic complain. Stool examinations showed Entrobius vernicularis (15), Trichostrongylus species (9), Hymenolepis nana (8), Entameba histolytica (8), Giardia lamblia (6), and mixed infections (9). The allergic group by parasitological examination 7 children (25.9%) had Entrobius vermicularis; 6 children (22.2%) Entameba histolytica; and 2 children (7.4 %) Giardia lamblia, with eosinophilic count was higher in the enterobiasis infected children than in protozoa infected ones. There were significantly high IgE levels in mixed parasitic infection (P= 0.006) and with Entrobius vermicularis infections (P=0.04). Also statistically significant difference between allergic groups by ISAAC score and the non allergic group regarding Ig E levels (P= 0.03). There was no significant difference between numbers of children with allergy and those without allergy among different parasitic infections. However, a marked significant association between the allergy and parasitic infected children was not declaimed.
Dobrova-Krol, Natasha A.; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H.; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J.; Juffer, Femmie
To study the effects of perinatal HIV-1 infection and early institutional rearing on the physical and cognitive development of children, 64 Ukrainian uninfected and HIV-infected institutionalized and family-reared children were examined (mean age = 50.9 months). Both HIV infection and institutional care were related to delays in physical and…
Daryani, Ahmad; Hosseini-Teshnizi, Saeed; Hosseini, Seyed-Abdollah; Ahmadpour, Ehsan; Sarvi, Shahabeddin; Amouei, Afsaneh; Mizani, Azadeh; Gholami, Sara; Sharif, Mehdi
Parasitic infections are a serious public health problem because they cause anemia, growth retardation, aggression, weight loss, and other physical and mental health problems, especially in children. Numerous studies have been performed on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian preschool and school children. However, no study has gathered and analyzed this information systematically. The aim of this study was to provide summary estimates for the available data on intestinal parasitic infections in Iranian children. We searched 9 English and Persian databases, unpublished data, abstracts of scientific congresses during 1996-2015 using the terms intestinal parasite, Giardia, Cryptosporidium, Enterobiusvermicularis, oxyure, school, children, preschool, and Iran. We conducted meta-analysis using STATA, and for all statistical tests, p-value less than 0.05was considered significant. Among the 68,532 publications searched as a result, 103 were eligible for inclusion in the study. The prevalence rate of intestinal parasitic infections was 38% (95% CI- 33%, 43%). Prevalence of protozoa, helminthic intestinal infections, and non-pathogenic parasites was 16.9%, 9.48%, and 18.5%, respectively, which affected 14.27% males and 15.3% females. The rate of infection in preschool and school children was 38.19% and 43.37% respectively. Giardia, Enterobiusvermicularis and Entamoeba coli were the most common among protozoa, helminthic, and non-pathogenic infections (15.1%, 16.5%, and 7.1%, respectively). The data analyses indicated that the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection is decreasing in Iranian preschool and school children. Improvement of sanitation, personal hygiene, increased awareness of people, seasonal variations, and health education can be effective in reducing parasitic infections in different communities.
Mochon, M; Kaiser, B A; Dunn, S; Palmer, J; Polinsky, M S; Schulman, S L; Flynn, J T; Baluarte, H J
The records of 14 boys with posterior urethral valves who had renal failure and subsequently underwent renal transplantation were reviewed to determine the postoperative incidence of urinary tract infection relative to that of 29 male transplant children without valves, who served as controls. There were no significant differences between the posterior urethral valve patients and controls with regard to age, donor source, immunosuppression, followup after transplantation or mean calculated creatinine clearance. Vesicoureteral reflux was found in 1 child with posterior urethral valves and 3 of the children in the control group (p not significant). A total of 15 urinary tract infections occurred in 5 children (36%) with posterior urethral valves, for a rate of 1 per 30 patient-months of followup, and 6 urinary tract infections occurred in 2 controls (7%), for a rate of 1 per 216 patient-months of followup (p < 0.05). However, only 1 of 26 controls (4%) without vesicoureteral reflux had urinary tract infection, for a rate 1 per 1,144 patient-months (p < 0.01). Conversely, the rate of urinary tract infections in controls with vesicoureteral reflux was similar to that of children with posterior urethral valves. Of the 5 children with posterior urethral valves 4 had the initial urinary tract infection within 2 months of transplantation and 10 of 15 episodes occurred within the first 4 months. Antimicrobial prophylaxis did not appear to decrease the rate of infection in children with posterior urethral valves. A history of posterior urethral valves increases the frequency of urinary tract infection after renal transplantation but the usefulness of antimicrobial prophylaxis and the relationship to long-term graft function remain to be determined. Urinary tract infection rarely develops in other transplanted boys without vesicoureteral reflux.
authors thank Dr. Dean Erdman from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Atlanta, GA for providing the primers/probes and protocol...Etiology of acute respiratory tract infections among children in a combined community and hospital study in Rio de Janeiro. Clin Infect Dis 1995, 20(4...Garcia-Garcia ML, Blanco C, Vazquez MC, Frias ME, Perez-Brena P, Casas I: Multiple simultaneous viral infections in infants with acute respiratory
Calvo, Cristina; García-García, Maria Luz; Ambrona, Patricia; Rico, Miguel; Pozo, Francisco; Del Mar Molinero, M; Pérez-Breña, Pilar; Casas, Inmaculada
We designed a prospective study to describe the clinical impact of the parainfluenza viruse (PIV) types detected in hospitalized children with respiratory tract infections from September 2008 to August 2010 in Spain. PIV infections were a significant proportion of viral respiratory detections (11.8% of cases). PIV types 3 and 4 were most commonly detected. There were clinical differences between PIV and respiratory syncytial virus infections.
Background Exposure to household air pollutants released during cooking has been linked to numerous adverse health outcomes among residents of rural areas in low-income countries. Improved cookstoves are one of few available interventions, but achieving equity in cookstove access has been challenging. Therefore, innovative approaches are needed. To evaluate a project designed to motivate adoption of locally-produced, ceramic cookstoves (upesi jiko) in an impoverished, rural African population, we assessed the perceived benefits of the cookstoves (in monetary and time-savings terms), the rate of cookstove adoption, and the equity of adoption. Methods The project was conducted in 60 rural Kenyan villages in 2008 and 2009. Baseline (n = 1250) and follow-up (n = 293) surveys and a stove-tracking database were analyzed. Results At baseline, nearly all respondents used wood (95%) and firepits (99%) for cooking; 98% desired smoke reductions. Households with upesi jiko subsequently spent <100 Kenyan Shillings/week on firewood more often (40%) than households without upesi jiko (20%) (p = 0.0002). There were no significant differences in the presence of children <2 years of age in households using upesi jiko (48%) or three-stone stoves (49%) (p = 0.88); children 2–5 years of age were less common in households using upesi jiko versus three-stone stoves (46% and 69%, respectively) (p = 0.0001). Vendors installed 1,124 upesi jiko in 757 multi-family households in 18 months; 68% of these transactions involved incentives for vendors and purchasers. Relatively few (<10%) upesi jiko were installed in households of women in the youngest age quartile (<22 years) or among households in the poorest quintile. Conclusions Our strategy of training of local vendors, appropriate incentives, and product integration effectively accelerated cookstove adoption into a large number of households. The strategy also created opportunities to reinforce health messages
Mancini, S; Iacovoni, R; Fierimonte, V; Di Gilio, P; Spaini, A; Pichi, A
Serum IgG sub-classes levels were measured by radial immunodiffusion with policlonal antibodies in 26 children aged 2 years to 8 years, affected with respiratory recurrent infections. These subjects were controlled and compared with normal children values for age groups. In 10 patients a deficit of IgG sub-classes levels was found, in 7 patients an increase level for IgG1 was detected. These data must be taken in account defining IgG-sub-classes deficiencies in children with respiratory recurrent infection.
Sweeten, Thayne L.; Posey, David J.; McDougle, Christopher J.
Previous research has identified a relationship between autistic disorder (autism) and specific congenital infections. Three cases of congenital or perinatal cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection occurring in association with autism are described. Hypothetical mechanisms relating congenital infection, such as CMV, to the development of autism are…
Fagbo, Shamsudeen F; Garbati, Musa A; Hasan, Rami; AlShahrani, Dayel; Al-Shehri, Mohamed; AlFawaz, Tariq; Hakawi, Ahmed; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Skakni, Leila
The emergence of the Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in Saudi Arabia has intensified focus on Acute Respiratory Infections [ARIs]. This study sought to identify respiratory viruses (RVs) associated with ARIs in children presenting at a tertiary hospital. Children (aged ≤13) presenting with ARI between January 2012 and December 2013 tested for 15 RVs using the Seeplex(R) RV15 kit were retrospectively included. Epidemiological data was retrieved from patient records. Of the 2235 children tested, 61.5% were ≤1 year with a male: female ratio of 3:2. Viruses were detected in 1364 (61.02%) children, 233 (10.4%) having dual infections: these viruses include respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) (24%), human rhinovirus (hRV) (19.7%), adenovirus (5.7%), influenza virus (5.3%), and parainfluenzavirus-3 (4.6%). Children, aged 9-11 months, were most infected (60.9%). Lower respiratory tract infections (55.4%) were significantly more than upper respiratory tract infection (45.3%) (P < 0.001). Seasonal variation of RV was directly and inversely proportional to relative humidity and temperature, respectively, for non MERS coronaviruses (NL63, 229E, and OC43). The study confirms community-acquired RV associated with ARI in children and suggests modulating roles for abiotic factors in RV epidemiology. However, community-based studies are needed to elucidate how these factors locally influence RV epidemiology. J. Med. Virol. 89:195-201, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Goodyear, H M; McLeish, P; Randall, S; Buchan, A; Skinner, G R; Winther, M; Rolland, J; Morgan, G; Harper, J I
This study examines the role of immune defence mechanisms in herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections in atopic eczema and whether impairment of these mechanisms explains the susceptibility of some children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections. Ten children with eczema herpeticum and 13 with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infection affecting multiple skin sites were studied, together with relevant control groups. In all children with atopic eczema, in vitro lymphoproliferation in response to stimulation with concanavalin A (Con A) was significantly decreased and natural killer (NK) cells (CD16 + 56) were reduced compared with non-atopic controls. IL-2 receptors, a marker for lymphocyte activation, were decreased during the acute phase of eczema herpeticum, and for 1 month thereafter. A positive stimulation index (> 3) to HSV antigen, and high HSV IgG antibody titres measured by ELISA, Western blotting and neutralization assay, were seen in children with eczema herpeticum by 6 weeks, and also in children with atopic eczema and recurrent HSV infections. No evidence of an HSV-specific immune defect (either cell-mediated or humoral) was found in atopic eczema. Impairment of cell-mediated immunity in atopic eczema was suggested by the reduced response to Con A. It is likely that reduced numbers of circulating NK cells and a decrease in IL-2 receptors during early eczema herpeticum contribute to the susceptibility of children with atopic eczema to cutaneous HSV infections.
Betson, Martha; Sousa-Figueiredo, José C; Atuhaire, Aaron; Arinaitwe, Moses; Adriko, Moses; Mwesigwa, Gerald; Nabonge, Juma; Kabatereine, Narcis B; Sutherland, Colin J; Stothard, J Russell
During a longitudinal study investigating the dynamics of malaria in Ugandan lakeshore communities, a consistently high malaria prevalence was observed in young children despite regular treatment. To explore the short-term performance of artemether-lumefantrine (AL), a pilot investigation into parasite carriage after treatment(s) was conducted in Bukoba village. A total of 163 children (aged 2-7 years) with a positive blood film and rapid antigen test were treated with AL; only 8.7% of these had elevated axillary temperatures. On day 7 and then on day 17, 40 children (26.3%) and 33 (22.3%) were positive by microscopy, respectively. Real-time PCR analysis demonstrated that multi-species Plasmodium infections were common at baseline, with 41.1% of children positive for Plasmodium falciparum/Plasmodium malariae, 9.2% for P. falciparum/ Plasmodium ovale spp. and 8.0% for all three species. Moreover, on day 17, 39.9% of children infected with falciparum malaria at baseline were again positive for the same species, and 9.2% of those infected with P. malariae at baseline were positive for P. malariae. Here, chronic multi-species malaria infections persisted in children after AL treatment(s). Better point-of-care diagnostics for non-falciparum infections are needed, as well as further investigation of AL performance in asymptomatic individuals.
Patsantara, G G; Piperaki, E-T; Tzoumaka-Bakoula, C; Kanariou, M G
Previous studies have suggested an immunomodulatory and even protective role for Enterobius vermicularis, the least pathogenic human intestinal helminth. Here, in a study using haematological and serological parameters, we tested a total of 215 children from central Greece, with a mean age of 8.39, of whom 105 (48.84%) were infected with E. vermicularis and 110 (51.16%) were matched healthy controls. In particular, we analysed eosinophil counts (EO), serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), total and specific serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and the ECP/EO ratio. The atopic status and the potential occurrence of clinically expressed allergic diseases were both taken into account. Eosinophils, ECP and IgE were found to be higher in infected than in uninfected children, indicating a type-2 immune response activation during infection. Atopic infected children exhibited higher IgE levels compared to non-atopic ones. EO and ECP were found to be lower in atopic children who had a history of allergic disease than in those with no such history. The type-2 oriented immune response elicited against E. vermicularis could contribute to a balanced activation of the immune system in the examined children. Interestingly, although the atopic children showed a stronger activation, they did not exhibit any symptoms and, moreover, there seemed to be some indication of immunosuppression in those children with a positive history of allergic disease.
Hartini, Y; Geishamimi, G; Mariam, A Z; Mohamed-Kamel, A G; Hidayatul, F O; Ismarul, Y I
Intestinal parasitic infections are important public health problems among underprivileged communities. This study was carried out to evaluate the infection rate of intestinal parasites among aborigine children at Pos Sungai Rual, Kelantan, Malaysia. A total of 111 faecal samples from aborigine children aged 4-12 years were screened for intestinal parasites by direct smear technique. Harada-Mori culture was also performed to identify hookworm and Strongyloides stercoralis larvae. The results showed that 87.4% of the children examined were positive for one or more parasites. Intestinal parasites were significantly lower in boys (78.7%) as compared to girls (93.8%). The infection occurred in very young children aged 4-6 years (80.0%) and the percentage of parasite-positive cases appeared to be significantly higher (92.9%) among the children aged 7-9 years. Trichuris trichiura was the most common parasite found in aborigine children (65.8%). Low socioeconomic status, poor environmental sanitation and poor personal hygiene are possible contributing factors that increase the rate of intestinal parasitic infections among the children. Thus, the parasitic diseases will continue to threaten the people's health especially among communities from rural areas if no appropriate actions are taken to diminish the transmission of the parasites.
Degarege, A; Yimam, Y; Madhivanan, P; Erko, B
The current study was conducted to evaluate the nature of association of ABO blood type with helminth infection and related reduction in haemoglobin concentration. Stool samples were collected from 403 school-age children attending Tikur Wuha Elementary School from February to April 2011. Helminth infection was examined using formol-ether concentration and thick Kato-Katz (two slides per stool specimen) techniques. Haemoglobin level was determined using a HemoCue machine and ABO blood type was determined using the antisera haemagglutination test. Nutritional status was assessed using height and weight measurements. Out of 403 children examined, 169, 120, 96 and 18 had blood type O, A, B and AB, respectively. The prevalences of helminth infections were 46.9% for hookworm, 24.6% for Schistosoma mansoni, 4.2% for Ascaris lumbricoides, 1.7% for Trichuris trichiura and 58.3% for any helminth species. The relative odds of infection with at least one helminth species was significantly higher among children with blood type A (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 2.10; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.28-3.45) or blood type B (AOR, 2.08; 95% CI, 1.22-3.56) as compared to children with blood type O. Among children infected with helminths, mean haemoglobin concentration was lower in those with blood type A than those with blood type O (β, -0.36; 95% CI, -0.72 to -0.01). The relative odds of hookworm infection (AOR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.08-2.92) and related reduction in haemogobin levels (β, -0.45; 95% CI, -0.84 to -0.04) was higher among children with blood type A as compared to those with blood type O. Although the difference was not significant, the relative odds of S. mansoni or A. lumbricoides infections and related reduction in haemoglobin levels was also higher in children with blood type A or B as compared to children with blood type O. In conclusion, children with blood type A are associated with an increased risk of helminth, particularly hookworm, infection and related reduction
West, T. E.; Goetghebuer, T.; Milligan, P.; Mulholland, E. K.; Weber, M. W.
Acute lower respiratory infections (ALRI) are the main cause of death in young children worldwide. We report here the results of a study to determine the long-term survival of children admitted to hospital with severe pneumonia. The study was conducted on 190 Gambian children admitted to hospital in 1992-94 for ALRI who survived to discharge. Of these, 83 children were hypoxaemic and were treated with oxygen, and 107 were not. On follow-up in 1996-97, 62% were traced. Of the children with hypoxaemia, 8 had died, compared with 4 of those without. The mortality rates were 4.8 and, 2.2 deaths per 100 child-years of follow-up for hypoxaemic and non-hypoxaemic children, respectively (P = 0.2). Mortality was higher for children who had been malnourished (Z-score < -2) when seen in hospital (rate ratio = 3.2; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.03-10.29; P = 0.045). Children with younger siblings experienced less frequent subsequent respiratory infections (rate ratio for further hospitalization with respiratory illness = 0.15; 95% CI = 0.04-0.50; P = 0.002). Children in Gambia who survive hospital admission with hypoxaemic pneumonia have a good prognosis. Survival depends more on nutritional status than on having been hypoxaemic. Investment in oxygen therapy appears justified, and efforts should be made to improve nutrition in malnourished children with pneumonia. PMID:10083713
Poudel, Prakash; Pokharel, Rita; Chitlangia, Mohit; Chaudhary, Shipra
Objective To investigate the clinical, laboratory, epidemiological profiles and outcome in human immunodeficiency virus infected Nepalese children. Methods This was a hospital based prospective study. Human immunodeficiency virus-infected children presenting to pediatric immunology clinic at BP Koirala Institute of Health Sciences were enrolled and followed up. Results Median age at diagnosis among 39 enrolled children was 58 months. All children acquired infection vertically. Unsafe sex (74.4%) and intravenous drug use (25.6%) were the major risk behaviors in fathers. At presentation, 20.8% children were asymptomatic, 54.0% were malnourished, 41.0% were in WHO clinical stage 1, 17.9% were in stage 4, 74.4% were anemic, 17.9% had thrombocytopenia and median CD4 count was 543. Fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions and oral lesions were common presenting features (16.2%, 16.2%, 13.5%, 10.8%, and 8.1% respectively out of 74 features). Tuberculosis (16.0%), chronic otitis media (12.0%), scabies (10.7%), bacterial pneumonia (9.3%) and oropharyngeal candidiasis (6.7%) were common opportunistic infections. Antiretroviral treatment was started in 18 (46.2%) cases at median age of 67 months. Median change in CD4 count at follow up was significantly different between the groups receiving and not receiving antiretroviral treatment (+192 vs. -72; P=0.045). Conclusions Infection in children is vertical. Undernutrition, anemia, fever, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, skin eruptions, and ear discharge are common presenting features. Opportunistic infections are common and tuberculosis is the most common opportunistic infection followed by chronic ear infection, scabies, candidiasis and bacterial pneumonia. Timely antiretroviral treatment improves immune response.
Wang, Ya-Fang; Shen, Fan-Ching; Wang, Shan-Li; Kuo, Pin-Hwa; Tsai, Huey-Pin; Liu, Ching-Chuan; Wang, Jen-Ren; Chi, Chia-Yu
Abstract Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are important causes of respiratory infections in children. They usually cause mild upper respiratory symptoms, but they can also produce severe pneumonia and other complications. The aims of this retrospective study were to better define the molecular epidemiology of respiratory adenoviruses circulating in Taiwanese children during 2002 and 2013, detect reinfections and co-infections, and characterize the clinical features and laboratory findings according to the causative genotypes. We collected a representative sample of 182 isolates of adenoviruses from 175 children during the 12-year study period. The most prevalent species was HAdV-B genotype 3 (HAdV-3) (92/182, 50.5%) followed by HAdV-C (HAdV-2) (38/182, 20.9%). A single outbreak of HAdV-E (6/182, 3.3%) was noted in 2007. The mean age of children with adenovirus infections was 3.7 ± 2.0 years, with a slight predominance of males (53.1%). Children with HAdV-B tended to be older, had more lower respiratory tract infections, gastrointestinal symptoms, and a higher rate of hospitalization than those with HAdV-C (P < 0.05). Adenovirus co-infections were noted in 25/175 (14.3%) of the children. The most frequent co-infections were with species B (HAdV-3) and C (HAdV-2) (14/25, 56.0%). Additional infections were noted in 23/175 (13.1%) of the children. Of these repeated infections, the initial isolates were always genotypes of HAdV-C. The second isolates were genotypes of HAdV-B or HAdV-E. The clinical features of the first HAdV-B infection and the reinfection of HAdV-B followed the HAdV-C were similar. In conclusion, HAdV-B, C, and E were the only adenovirus species that were isolated from children who were sufficiently ill with respiratory infections to require a visit to the hospital. Human adenovirus B (HAdV-3) accounted for half of these species. HAdV-B was more likely than other species to produce severe disease. The high incidence of adenovirus co-infection and
Becquet, Renaud; Marston, Milly; Dabis, François; Moulton, Lawrence H.; Gray, Glenda; Coovadia, Hoosen M.; Essex, Max; Ekouevi, Didier K.; Jackson, Debra; Coutsoudis, Anna; Kilewo, Charles; Leroy, Valériane; Wiktor, Stefan Z.; Nduati, Ruth; Msellati, Philippe; Zaba, Basia; Ghys, Peter D.; Newell, Marie-Louise
Background Assumptions about survival of HIV-infected children in Africa without antiretroviral therapy need to be updated to inform ongoing UNAIDS modelling of paediatric HIV epidemics among children. Improved estimates of infant survival by timing of HIV-infection (perinatally or postnatally) are thus needed. Methodology/Principal Findings A pooled analysis was conducted of individual data of all available intervention cohorts and randomized trials on prevention of HIV mother-to-child transmission in Africa. Studies were right-censored at the time of infant antiretroviral initiation. Overall mortality rate per 1000 child-years of follow-up was calculated by selected maternal and infant characteristics. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate survival curves by child's HIV infection status and timing of HIV infection. Individual data from 12 studies were pooled, with 12,112 children of HIV-infected women. Mortality rates per 1,000 child-years follow-up were 39.3 and 381.6 for HIV-uninfected and infected children respectively. One year after acquisition of HIV infection, an estimated 26% postnatally and 52% perinatally infected children would have died; and 4% uninfected children by age 1 year. Mortality was independently associated with maternal death (adjusted hazard ratio 2.2, 95%CI 1.6–3.0), maternal CD4<350 cells/ml (1.4, 1.1–1.7), postnatal (3.1, 2.1–4.1) or peri-partum HIV-infection (12.4, 10.1–15.3). Conclusions/Results These results update previous work and inform future UNAIDS modelling by providing survival estimates for HIV-infected untreated African children by timing of infection. We highlight the urgent need for the prevention of peri-partum and postnatal transmission and timely assessment of HIV infection in infants to initiate antiretroviral care and support for HIV-infected children. PMID:22383946
McCallion, W A; Ardill, J E; Bamford, K B; Potts, S R; Boston, V E
Acute Helicobacter pylori associated gastritis causes achlorhydria, a powerful stimulus to gastrin secretion. If H pylori infection is acquired primarily in early childhood, then the degree of hypergastrinaemia in seropositive children should be age dependent. Anti-Helicobacter antibodies and fasting gastrin concentrations were measured in 439 children aged 4 to 13 years attending hospital for routine day case surgery not connected with any gastrointestinal disorder. Thirty per cent were seropositive for H pylori. There was an inverse relationship between the fasting gastrin concentration and age; the mean fasting gastrin in children aged 4-5 years, 155 ng/l, was significantly higher than that seen in children aged 12-13 years, 90 ng/l. The more noticeable hypergastrinaemia seen in young children with H pylori associated gastritis may reflect achlorhydria associated with acute H pylori infection and suggests that this is primarily acquired in early childhood. PMID:7672676
Northrop, C A; Lunn, P G; Wainwright, M; Evans, J
Plasma albumin concentration and intestinal permeability have been investigated in Bangladeshi children before and 9-14 d after successful treatment for ascariasis. Children infected with A. lumbricoides had lower plasma albumin concentrations than counterparts not harbouring this worm and values increased with successful treatment. Intestinal permeability tests indicated that the children had impaired gastrointestinal function and some loss of mucosal integrity; these factors had not improved 9-14 d after A. lumbricoides expulsion. The lowered nitrogen nutritional status implied by the reduced plasma albumin values in infected children, and the improvement following treatment, are in keeping with previous reports that A. lumbricoides impairs protein digestion or absorption. This may be the basis of the better growth rates of dewormed children in this area.
Paul, R. C.; Stanford, J. L.; MisljenÃ³vic, O.; Lefering, J.
This study on Kenyan schoolchildren aims to elucidate the effect of contact with environmental mycobacteria on the development of specific delayed hypersensitivity. A series of 12 skin test reagents was employed; eleven of them were prepared from extracts of living mycobacteria and the last was the P.P.D. RT 23. Eight of the new tuberculins were prepared from mycobacteria recovered from the East African environment. A total of 8641 tests were carried out on 4320 children between the ages of 6 and 17 years in four townships. Two of these townships were in fertile agricultural areas and two were in the desert. Just over 80% of the children had received BCG immunization The results obtained showed that increasing age, geographical locality and BCG immunization all had a profound effect, and socioeconomic background had some effect, on the pattern of reactivity to the various reagents. The rationale behind the use of the series of new tuberculins and the results obtained with them are discussed in relation to the interacting effects of the factors complicating these results. PMID:1058246
Rice, Mabel L.; Buchanan, Ashley L.; Siberry, George K; Malee, Kathleen M.; Zeldow, Bret; Frederick, Toni; Purswani, Murli U.; Hoffman, Howard J.; Sirois, Patricia A.; Smith, Renee; Torre, Peter; Allison, Susannah M; Williams, Paige L.
Objective To investigate risk for language impairment in children perinatally infected or exposed to HIV. Methods We evaluated the prevalence of language impairment (LI) in 7–16 year old children with perinatal HIV infection (HIV+) compared to children HIV-exposed and uninfected (HEU), using a comprehensive standardized language test (CELF-4). LI was classified as primary LI (Pri-LI) (monolingual English exposure and no cognitive or hearing impairment), concurrent LI (Con-LI) (cognitive or hearing impairment), or no LI. Associations of demographic, caregiver, HIV disease and antiretroviral treatment (ART) factors with LI category were evaluated using univariate and multivariable logistic regression models. Results Of 468 children with language assessments, 184 (39%) had LI. No difference was observed by HIV infection status for overall LI or for Pri-LI or Con-LI; mean (SD) CELF-4 scores were 88.5 (18.4) for HIV+ vs 87.5 (17.9) for HEU. After adjustment, Black children had higher odds of Pri-LI vs no LI (aOR=2.43, p=0.03). Children who were Black, Hispanic, had a caregiver with low education or low IQ, or a non-biological parent as caregiver had higher odds of Con-LI vs no LI. Among HIV+ children, viral load >400 copies/ml (aOR=3.04, p<0.001), CDC Class C (aOR=2.19, p=0.02) and ART initiation <6 months of age (aOR=2.12, p=0.02) were associated with higher odds of Con-LI vs. no LI. Conclusions Children perinatally exposed to HIV are at high risk for LI, but such risk was not increased for youth with HIV. Risk factors differed for Pri-LI and Con-LI. PMID:22179050
Penkert, Rhiannon R; Lavoie, Paul; Tang, Li; Sun, Yilun; Hurwitz, Julia L
Parvovirus B19 infection causes transient aplastic crisis in sickle cell disease (SCD) due to a temporary interruption in the red blood cell production. Toxicity from hydroxyurea includes anemia and reticulocytopenia, both of which also occur during a transient aplastic crisis event. Hydroxyurea inhibits proliferation of hematopoietic cells and may be immunosuppressive. We postulated that hydroxyurea could exacerbate parvovirus B19-induced aplastic crisis and inhibit the development of specific immune responses in children with SCD. We conducted a retrospective review of parvovirus B19 infection in 330 children with SCD. Altogether there were 120 known cases of aplastic crisis attributed to parvovirus B19 infection, and 12% of children were on hydroxyurea treatment during the episode. We evaluated hematological and immune responses. Children with HbSS or HbSβ0-thalassemia treated with hydroxyurea, when compared with untreated children, required fewer transfusions and had higher Hb concentration nadir during transient aplastic crisis. Duration of hospital stays was no different between hydroxyurea-treated and untreated groups. Children tested within a week following aplastic crisis were positive for parvovirus-specific IgG. Immune responses lasted for the duration of the observation period, up to 13 years after transient aplastic crisis, and there were no repeat aplastic crisis episodes. The frequencies of parvovirus-specific antibodies in all children with SCD increased with age, as expected due to the increased likelihood of a parvovirus exposure, and were comparable to frequencies reported for healthy children. Approximately one-third of children had a positive parvovirus B19-specific IgG test without a documented history of transient aplastic crisis, and 64% of them were treated with hydroxyurea. Hydroxyurea may reduce requirements for blood transfusions and may attenuate symptoms during transient aplastic crisis episodes caused by parvovirus B19 infections
Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Moss, William J
With increasing access to antiretroviral therapy for children infected with HIV, especially in sub-Saharan Africa, better understanding of the development and maintenance of memory T- and B-cell responses to pathogens after immune reconstitution is needed to assess the risk of infection. Knowledge of long-term immune responses after starting HAART is of particular importance for policies on revaccination of HIV-infected children, who may lose protective immunity to prior infections and immunizations. We review normal development of T- and B-cell memory responses to viruses and vaccines against viral pathogens, and contrast the immunological effects of perinatal HIV transmission with HIV infection acquired later in life. We then explore the potential benefits of antiretroviral therapy and revaccination, using measles virus as a model. PMID:21339832
Arias, C F; López, S; Mascarenhas, J D; Romero, P; Cano, P; Gabbay, Y B; de Freitas, R B; Linhares, A C
We have characterized the neutralizing antibody immune response to six human rotavirus serotypes (G1 to G4, G8, and G9) in Brazilian children with primary and secondary rotavirus infections and correlated the response with the G serotype of the infecting rotavirus strain. Twenty-five children were studied: 17 had a single rotavirus infection, 4 were reinfected once, and 4 experienced three infections. Two of the reinfections were by non-group A rotaviruses. Among the 25 primary infections, we observed homotypic as well as heterotypic responses; the serotype G1 viruses, which accounted for 13 of these infections, induced mostly a homotypic response, while infections by serotype G2 and G4 viruses induced, in addition to the homotypic, a heterotypic response directed primarily to serotype G1. Two of the primary infections induced heterotypic antibodies to 69M, a serotype G8 virus that by RNA electrophoresis analysis was found not to circulate in the population during the time of the study. The specificity of the neutralizing antibody immune response induced by a virus of a given serotype was the same in primary as well as secondary infections. These results indicate that the heterotypic immune response induced in a primary rotavirus infection is an intrinsic property of the virus strain, and although there seem to be general patterns of serotype-specific seroconversion, these may vary from serotype to serotype and from strain to strain within a serotype. PMID:7496929
Ceroni, Dimitri; Kampouroglou, Georgios; Valaikaite, Raimonda; Anderson della Llana, Rebecca; Salvo, Davide
Osteoarticular infections remain a significant cause of morbidity worldwide in young children. They can have a devastating impact with a high rate of serious and long-lasting sequelae, especially on remaining growth. Depending on the localisation of infection, they manifest as osteomyelitis, septic arthritis, a combination of both (i.e., osteomyelitis with adjacent septic arthritis) or spondylodiscitis. Osteoarticular infections can be divided into three types according to the source of infection: haematogenous; secondary to contiguous infection; or secondary to direct inoculation. During the last few years, many principles regarding diagnostic assays and the microbiological causes of these infections have evolved in a significant manner. In the present current-opinion review, we discuss recent concepts regarding epidemiology, physiopathology, and the microbiology of bone and joint infections in young children, as well as clinical presentations, diagnosis, and treatment of these infections. Clinicians caring for children need to be especially well versed in these newer concepts as they can be used to guide evaluation and treatment.
Chen, X D; Chen, B; Tang, Y M; Song, H; Shi, S W; Yang, S L; Xu, W Q; Pan, B H; Zhao, F Y; Zhao, N; Zhang, L Y; Mao, J Q
Serum cytokine profiles were analyzed before and after infection in children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase to explore the utility of cytokine variations for detecting infections. Serum Th1/Th2 cytokine levels, including tumor necrosis factor, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and interferon, were quantitatively determined by cytometric bead array technology in 480 cases (230 children) of children with hemopathy in the bone marrow inhibition phase with signs of infection, such as fever, and without, to establish baseline and affected levels for comparison with healthy control children. We used the cytokine profile of infected, blood culture-positive children to establish a bacterial infection-related cytokine profile (BIRCP) for predicting infections by pathogens in blood culture-negative children. Overall, 82.9% of children with Gram-negative bacterial infections were accompanied by marked increases of IL-6 and IL-10 levels [>10 times (means ± SD)], whereas only a mild increase of IL-6 levels occurred in Gram-positive bacteria-infected children [>2 times (means ± SD)] and only a mild increase of IFN-γ levels occurred in fungal culture-positive children [>2 times (means ± SD)]. Gram-positive bacterial and fungal infections did not cause a marked increase in IL-6 or IL- 10 levels. The effective rate (86.05%, N = 43) of infectious cases predicted by BIRCP was significantly higher than that obtained using traditional methods for selecting antibiotics based on clinical indications (65.45%, N = 55, P < 0.05). In summary, BIRCP can be used to predict the infections by pathogens in children with hemopathy and to select appropriate antibiotics.
Orellana-Manzano, Andrea; O'Ryan, Miguel G.; Lagomarcino, Anne J.; George, Sergio; Muñoz, Mindy S.; Mamani, Nora; Serrano, Carolina A.; Harris, Paul R.; Ramilo, Octavio; Mejías, Asunción; Torres, Juan P.; Lucero, Yalda; Quest, Andrew F. G.
Background: Helicobacter pylori infects half of the world's population and causes gastric cancer in a subset of infected adults. Previous blood microarray findings showed that apparently healthy children, persistently infected with H. pylori have differential gene expression compared to age-matched, non-infected children. SLC5A8, a cancer suppressor gene with decreased expression among infected children, was chosen for further study based on bioinformatics analysis. Methods: A pilot study was conducted using specific qRT-PCR amplification of SLC5A8 in blood samples from H. pylori infected and non-infected children, followed by a larger, blinded, case-control study. We then analyzed gastric tissue from H. pylori infected and non-infected children undergoing endoscopy for clinical purposes. Results: Demographics, clinical findings, and family history were similar between groups. SLC5A8 expression was decreased in infected vs. non-infected children in blood, 0.12 (IQR: 0–0.89) vs. 1.86 (IQR: 0–8.94, P = 0.002), and in gastric tissue, 0.08 (IQR: 0.04–0.15) vs. 1.88 (IQR: 0.55–2.56; P = 0.001). Children who were both stool positive and seropositive for H. pylori had the lowest SLC5A8 expression levels. Conclusions: H. pylori infection is associated with suppression of SCL5A8, a cancer suppressor gene, in both blood and tissue samples from young children. Key Points: Young children, persistently infected with Helicobacter pylori show decreased expression of SLC5A8 mRNA in both blood and tissue samples as compared to non-infected children. PMID:27777899
Pananghat, Ambili Nair; Aggarwal, Heena; Prakash, Somi Sankaran; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Singh, Ravinder; Lodha, Rakesh; Ali, Shakir; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana
Disease progression in HIV-1 infected children is faster than in adults. Less than 5% of the infected children maintain stable CD4 counts beyond 7 years of infection and are termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Delineating the host immune response in antiretroviral naïve (ART) and treated HIV-1 infected children at different disease stages will help in understanding the immunopathogenesis of the disease.A total of 79 asymptomatic, perinatally HIV-1 infected children (50 ART naïve and 29 ART treated) and 8 seronegative donors were recruited in this study. T- and B-cell activation PCR arrays were performed from the cDNA, using total RNA extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 14 HIV-1 infected children at different stages of the disease. The differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for the (interleukin-8) IL-8 gene and its transcriptional mediators, that is, SHP2, GRB2, and IL-8R (IL-8 receptor/CXCR1). Plasma levels of IL-8 were measured by flow cytometry.Gene array data revealed a higher expression of IL-8 in the ART naïve HIV-1 infected progressors and in ART nonresponders than LTNPs and ART responders, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a significant higher expression of IL-8 (P < 0.001), its receptor CXCR1 (P = 0.03) and the upstream signaling molecule SHP2 (P = 0.04) in the progressors versus LTNPs. Plasma levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in progressors versus LTNPs (P < 0.001), and ART nonresponders versus ART responders (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation of plasma levels of IL-8 with CD4 counts (cells/μL) was observed in HIV-1 infected ART naïve subjects (r = -0.488; P < 0.001), while the IL-8 levels positively correlated with viral load in the ART treated children (r = 0.5494; P < 0.001). ART naïve progressors on follow up demonstrated a significant reduction in the mRNA expression (P = 0.05) and plasma
Pananghat, Ambili Nair; Aggarwal, Heena; Prakash, Somi Sankaran; Makhdoomi, Muzamil Ashraf; Singh, Ravinder; Lodha, Rakesh; Ali, Shakir; Srinivas, Maddur; Das, Bimal Kumar; Pandey, Ravindra Mohan; Kabra, Sushil Kumar; Luthra, Kalpana
Abstract Disease progression in HIV-1 infected children is faster than in adults. Less than 5% of the infected children maintain stable CD4 counts beyond 7 years of infection and are termed long-term nonprogressors (LTNPs). Delineating the host immune response in antiretroviral naïve (ART) and treated HIV-1 infected children at different disease stages will help in understanding the immunopathogenesis of the disease. A total of 79 asymptomatic, perinatally HIV-1 infected children (50 ART naïve and 29 ART treated) and 8 seronegative donors were recruited in this study. T- and B-cell activation PCR arrays were performed from the cDNA, using total RNA extracted from the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 14 HIV-1 infected children at different stages of the disease. The differentially expressed genes were identified. Quantitative RT-PCR was performed for the (interleukin-8) IL-8 gene and its transcriptional mediators, that is, SHP2, GRB2, and IL-8R (IL-8 receptor/CXCR1). Plasma levels of IL-8 were measured by flow cytometry. Gene array data revealed a higher expression of IL-8 in the ART naïve HIV-1 infected progressors and in ART nonresponders than LTNPs and ART responders, respectively. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis demonstrated a significant higher expression of IL-8 (P < 0.001), its receptor CXCR1 (P = 0.03) and the upstream signaling molecule SHP2 (P = 0.04) in the progressors versus LTNPs. Plasma levels of IL-8 were significantly higher in progressors versus LTNPs (P < 0.001), and ART nonresponders versus ART responders (P < 0.001). A significant negative correlation of plasma levels of IL-8 with CD4 counts (cells/μL) was observed in HIV-1 infected ART naïve subjects (r = −0.488; P < 0.001), while the IL-8 levels positively correlated with viral load in the ART treated children (r = 0.5494; P < 0.001). ART naïve progressors on follow up demonstrated a significant reduction in the mRNA expression (P = 0
Yagupsky, P; Dagan, R
Kingella kingae, a fastidious hemolytic gram-negative bacillus once considered to be an exceptional cause of disease, has emerged in recent years as an important invasive pathogen in children. When synovial fluid and other exudates were inoculated into blood culture bottles, enhanced recovery of the organism was observed, and an annual incidence of invasive K. kingae infections of 27.4 per 100,000 children younger than age 24 months was demonstrated in southern Israel. Skeletal infections are the most common clinical presentation of K. kingae, and studies conducted in that region have shown that this organism is the most common etiology of septic arthritis in children below the age of 24 months. Other invasive diseases caused by K. kingae include bacteremia, endocarditis, and infections involving the lower respiratory tract, the eyes, or the central nervous system. Recent studies have demonstrated that K. kingae is part of the normal oropharyngeal flora of young children. Clinical data suggest that the organism may gain access to the bloodstream in the course of an upper respiratory infection or stomatitis. The organism is susceptible to a wide range of antimicrobial drugs, and with the exception of some cases of endocarditis, K. kingae infections in children usually run a benign clinical course.
Nourse, Peter J; Cotton, Mark F; Bates, William D
Many children in Cape Town are co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB). Granulomatous TB interstitial nephritis is a recognized entity. Our objective was to establish if TB plays a role in renal disease in HIV-infected children. We identified children co-infected with TB and HIV from our database and reviewed their biopsies and clinical notes. Since 2002, 12 renal biopsies or postmortem examinations were performed on HIV-infected children at our institution. The clinical scenario and renal biopsies in four cases (median age 73 months, range 24-108 months) were consistent with TB involvement. The mean CD4 count and percentage of these four patients were 508 cells/microl and 23%, respectively. All four patients presented with culture-proven disseminated TB (not yet on treatment) and had nephrotic range proteinuria and hypoalbuminemia. Three of these patients had renal impairment. The prominent features of the renal biopsies were a severe interstitial inflammatory infiltrate and mild to moderate mesangial proliferation. An interstitial granuloma was seen in one patient. With treatment for the TB, the proteinuria resolved and renal function improved in all four patients. Based on these results, we conclude that TB contributes to proteinuric renal disease in HIV-infected children and that the renal disease improves following TB treatment.
Eberhard, M L; Alfano, E
We report four cases of passage of subadult or adult Toxocara cati worms by young children ages 20 months to seven years. Worms were expelled rectally in two cases and in two cases they were vomited. A single worm was passed in two cases, three worms in one case, and 15 worms in the fourth case. All worms that were available for study were identified as T. cati by morphologic criteria, including the arrow-shaped cervical alae and the digitiform shape of the male tail. None of the four children exhibited clinical signs of ocular or visceral larva migrans, and in two cases where serum samples were available, neither child had a titer to Toxocara. These results further the argument that these children acquired the worms through the ingestion of immature worms passed by infected cats, not through the ingestion of infective eggs. Although the children were generally not ill as a result of these unusual infections, it does serve to reinforce the public health issue that potential serious consequences can occur where children have exposure to an environment that has been contaminated with cat feces, or, more specifically, infective eggs, and could become infected with larval forms of Toxocara.
Wu, Ping-Sheng; Chang, Luan-Yin; Berkhout, B; van der Hoek, L; Lu, Chun-Yi; Kao, Chuan-Liang; Lee, Ping-Ing; Shao, Pei-Lan; Lee, Chin-Yun; Huang, Fu-Yuan; Huang, Li-Min
Human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) is a global respiratory tract pathogen; however, the epidemiology of this virus in subtropical area is not well known. To evaluate the epidemics and disease spectrum of HCoV-NL63 infection in children in Taiwan, we prospectively screened children admitted to the hospital with respiratory tract infection from May 2004 to April 2005. Every enrolled child had a nasopharyngeal aspirate (NPA) sample taken. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to detect 1b gene of HCoV-NL63. A total of 539 NPAs were collected. Seven (1.3%) were positive for HCoV-NL63. All cases were boys younger than 3 years of age and most cases occurred in autumn. Co-infection with other pathogens was observed in three cases. The most common symptoms/signs of HCoV-NL63 infection were cough, fever, and inspiratory stridor. HCoV-NL63 was the most common pathogen (14.7%) in children with croup and was the cause of three cases of croup in October. The odds ratio of croup in children infected with HCoV-NL63 was 43.4 (95% CI 8.1 approximately 233.1). In conclusion, HCoV-NL63 is an important respiratory tract pathogen as the main cause in children admitted to the hospital in Taiwan.
Krauss, Margot R; Harris, D Robert; Abreu, Thalita; Ferreira, Fabiana G; Ruz, Noris Pavia; Worrell, Carol; Hazra, Rohan
Objective To evaluate the occurrence, clinical presentations and diagnostic methods for tuberculosis (TB) in a cohort of HIV-infected infants, children and adolescents from Latin America. Methods A retrospective analysis of children with TB and HIV was performed within a prospective observational cohort study conducted at multiple clinical sites in Latin America. Results Of 1114 HIV-infected infants, children, and adolescents followed from 2002-2011, 69 that could be classified as having confirmed or presumed TB were included in this case series; 52.2% (95% CI: 39.8-64.4%) had laboratory-confirmed TB, 15.9% (95% CI: 8.2-26.7%) had clinically-confirmed disease and 31.9% (95% CI: 21.2-44.2%) had presumed TB. Sixty-six were perinatally HIV-infected. Thirty-two (61.5%) children had a history of contact with an adult TB case; however information on exposure to active TB was missing for 17 participants. At the time of TB diagnosis, 39 were receiving antiretroviral therapy. Sixteen of these cases may have represented immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Conclusions Our study emphasizes the need for adequate contact tracing of adult TB cases and screening for HIV or TB in Latin American children diagnosed with either condition. Preventive strategies in TB-exposed, HIV-infected children should be optimized. PMID:25307683
Wang, Jingjing; Pu, Jing; Liu, Longding; Che, Yanchun; Liao, Yun; Wang, Lichun; Guo, Lei; Feng, Min; Liang, Yan; Fan, Shengtao; Cai, Lukui; Zhang, Ying; Li, Qihan
Hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD), with vesiculae on the hands, feet and mouth, is an infectious disease caused by many viral pathogens. However, the differences of immune response induced by these pathogens are unclear. We compared the clinical manifestations and the levels of immunologic indicators from 60 HFMD patients caused by different viral pathogens to analyze the differences in the immune response. It was shown that Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-10) increased significantly in EV71-infected children; Th1 cytokines (IL-2 and IFN-γ) rose in CA16-infected children; both Th1 and Th2 cytokines elevated in non-EVG-infected children; only individual cytokines (such as IL-10) went up in EVG-infected children. Meanwhile, the antibodies induced by viral infection could not cross-interfere between the different pathogens. These differences might be due to variations in the immune response induced by the individual pathogens or to the pathogenesis of the infections by the individual pathogens. PMID:27336013
Juma, Pamela Atieno
The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities. PMID:25349731
Juma, Pamela Atieno; Edwards, Nancy; Spitzer, Denise
The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities.
Nithyamathi, Kalimuthu; Chandramathi, Samudi; Kumar, Suresh
Background One of the largest cross-sectional study in recent years was carried out to investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections among urban and rural school children from five states namely Selangor, Perak, Pahang, Kedah and Johor in Peninsula Malaysia. This information would be vital for school authorities to influence strategies for providing better health especially in terms of reducing intestinal parasitism. Methods and Principal Findings A total of 3776 stool cups was distributed to 26 schools throughout the country. 1760 (46.61%) responded. The overall prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection in both rural and urban areas was 13.3%, with Blastocystis sp (10.6%) being the most predominant, followed by Trichuris trichiura (3.4%), Ascaris lumbricoides (1.5%) and hook worm infection (0.9%). Only rural school children had helminthic infection. In general Perak had the highest infection (37.2%, total, n = 317), followed by Selangor (10.4%, total, n = 729), Pahang (8.6%, total, n = 221), Kedah (6.2%, total, n = 195) and Johor (3.4%, total, n = 298). School children from rural schools had higher infection (13.7%, total, n = 922) than urban school children (7.2%, total, n = 838). Subtype (ST) 3 (54.3%) is the most predominant ST with persons infected with only ST1 and ST3 showing symptoms. Blastocystis sp infection significantly associated with low household income, low parent’s education and presence of symptoms (p<0.05). Conclusion It is critical that we institute deworming and treatment to eradicate the parasite especially in rural school children. PMID:26914483
Beukelman, Timothy; Xie, Fenglong; Baddley, John W; Chen, Lang; Delzell, Elizabeth; Grijalva, Carlos G; Mannion, Melissa L; Patkar, Nivedita M; Saag, Kenneth G; Winthrop, Kevin L; Curtis, Jeffrey R
Objective To compare incidence rates of selected opportunistic infections (OI) among children with and without juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA). Methods Using United States national Medicaid administrative claims data from 2000 through 2005, we identified a cohort of children with JIA based on physician diagnosis codes and dispensed medications. We defined a non-JIA comparator cohort of children diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We defined 15 types of OI using physician diagnosis or hospital discharge codes, and 7 of these types also required evidence of treatment with specific antimicrobials. We calculated infection incidence rates (IR). The rates in the ADHD comparator cohort were standardized to the age, sex, and race distribution of the JIA cohort. We calculated incidence rate ratios (IRR) to compare infection rates. Results The JIA cohort included 8,503 children with 13,990 person-years (p-y) of follow-up. The ADHD comparator cohort included 360,362 children with 477,050 p-y of follow-up. When all OI were considered together as a single outcome, there were 42 infections in the JIA cohort (IR 300 per 100,000 p-y; IRR 2.4 [1.7–3.3] versus ADHD). The most common OI among children with JIA were 3 Coccidioides (IR 21 per 100,000 p-y; IRR 101 [8.1–5319] versus ADHD); 5 Salmonella (IR 35 per 100,000 p-y; IRR 3.8 [1.2–9.5]); and 32 herpes zoster (IR 225 per 100,000 p-y; IRR 2.1 [1.4–3.0]). Conclusions OI are rare among children with JIA. Nevertheless, children with JIA had a higher rate of OI, including Coccidioides, Salmonella, and herpes zoster, than children with ADHD. PMID:23460423
Early, Gayle J; Seifried, Steven E
The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection overall, has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Children and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are disproportionately affected by CA-MRSA infection. The purpose of this case-control study was to identify risk factors for CA-S. aureus skin infections in children of Maui, Hawai'i, as a foundation for reducing the transmission of these infections. Survey data were obtained from patients in pediatric clinician offices over an 8-month period. NHPI participants were well-represented as 58% of cases and 54% of controls. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. Significant risk factors predictive of infection among all participants were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) household contact, and (c) overweight or obesity. Risk factors predictive of infection among NHPI were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) antibiotic use within 6 months, (c) overweight or obesity, and (d) a history of eczema or other skin disorder. The role of overweight or obesity in S. aureus skin infections among NHPI has not been identified in previous research and indicates a focus for additional education. Further research is needed to better understand the role of eczema, antibiotic use, overweight and obesity, and socio-cultural factors in these infections.
Perdomo-Celis, Federico; Salgado, Doris M; Narváez, Carlos F
Dengue is a major public health problem in tropical regions around the world. Viral and immune host factors determine the clinical courses of the infection. We analyzed the dynamics of viremia (by real-time polymerase chain reactions), antigenemia (through detection of the viral non-structural protein [NS]-1 by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays) and the frequency of virus-infected peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) (by multiparametric flow cytometry) in children with primary or secondary dengue virus (DENV) infection in mild to severe cases. Additionally, we evaluated the association of these factors with clinical severity and laboratory parameters. The levels of viremia and antigenemia peaked during the early days of illness and these viral parameters were correlated (rho=0.37, P=0.003). Circulating monocytes were the most naturally infected subset within the PBMCs population, with kinetics similar to those of viremia and antigenemia. The levels of viremia and antigenemia were higher in children with primary infections than in those with secondary infections (P≤0.04). Although there were no associations between the three evaluated factors and clinical severity, the levels of plasma NS1 and the frequency of dengue virus-infected monocytes correlated with prolonged coagulation times. In short, the viremia, antigenemia and infected monocytes were detected early and were not related to clinical severity. The magnitude of antigenemia and infected circulating monocytes was associated with coagulation disorders.
Seifried, Steven E
The prevalence of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) infection overall, has dramatically increased in the past 10 years. Children and Native Hawaiians and Pacific Islanders (NHPI) are disproportionately affected by CA-MRSA infection. The purpose of this case-control study was to identify risk factors for CA-S. aureus skin infections in children of Maui, Hawai‘i, as a foundation for reducing the transmission of these infections. Survey data were obtained from patients in pediatric clinician offices over an 8-month period. NHPI participants were well-represented as 58% of cases and 54% of controls. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used to identify risk factors. Significant risk factors predictive of infection among all participants were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) household contact, and (c) overweight or obesity. Risk factors predictive of infection among NHPI were (a) skin abrasions or wounds, (b) antibiotic use within 6 months, (c) overweight or obesity, and (d) a history of eczema or other skin disorder. The role of overweight or obesity in S. aureus skin infections among NHPI has not been identified in previous research and indicates a focus for additional education. Further research is needed to better understand the role of eczema, antibiotic use, overweight and obesity, and socio-cultural factors in these infections. PMID:22900237
Boivin, Michael J.; Boal, Hannah E.; Bangirana, Paul; Charlebois, Edwin; Havlir, Diane V.; Rosenthal, Philip J.; Dorsey, Grant; Achan, Jane; Akello, Carolyne; Kamya, Moses R.; Wong, Joseph K.
(See the Editorial Commentary by Wagner and Frenkel, on pages 1010–2.) Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection causes neurocognitive or motor function deficits in children with advanced disease, but it is unclear whether children with CD4 cell measures above the World Health Organization (WHO) thresholds for antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation suffer significant impairment. Methods. The neurocognitive and motor functions of HIV-infected ART-naive Ugandan children aged 6–12 years with CD4 cell counts of >350 cells/μL and CD4 cell percentage of >15% were compared with those of HIV-uninfected children, using the Test of Variables of Attention (TOVA), the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, second edition (KABC-2), and the Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency, second edition (BOT-2). Results. Ninety-three HIV-infected children (median CD4 cell count, 655 cells/μL; plasma HIV RNA level, 4.7 log10 copies/mL) were compared to 106 HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children performed worse on TOVA visual reaction times (multivariate analysis of covariance; P = .006); KABC-2 sequential processing (P = .005), simultaneous processing (P = .039), planning/reasoning (P = .023), and global performance (P = .024); and BOT-2 total motor proficiency (P = .003). High plasma HIV RNA level was associated with worse performance in 10 cognitive measures and 3 motor measures. In analysis of only WHO clinical stage 1 or 2 HIV-infected children (n = 68), significant differences between the HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected groups (P < .05) remained for KABC-2 sequential processing, KABC-2 planning/reasoning, and BOT-2 motor proficiency. Conclusions. Significant motor and cognitive deficits were found in HIV-infected ART-naive Ugandan children with CD4 cell counts of ∼350 cells/μL and percentages of >15%. Study of whether early initiation of ART could prevent or reverse such deficits is needed. PMID
Messacar, Kevin; Pastula, Daniel M.; Robinson, Christine C.; Leshem, Eyal; Sejvar, James J.; Nix, W. Allan; Oberste, M. Steven; Feikin, Daniel R.; Dominguez, Samuel R.
During August 8, 2014–October 14, 2014, a total of 11 children with acute flaccid myelitis and distinctive neuroimaging changes were identified near Denver, Colorado, USA. A respiratory prodrome was experienced by 10, and nasopharyngeal specimens were positive for enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) for 4. To determine whether an association exists between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis, we conducted a retrospective case–control study comparing these patients with 2 groups of outpatient control children (1 group tested for acute respiratory illness and 1 for Bordetella pertussis infection). Adjusted analyses indicated that, for children with acute flaccid myelitis, the odds of having EV-D68 infection were 10.3 times greater than for those tested for acute respiratory infection and 4.5 times greater than for those tested for B. pertussis infection. No statistical association was seen between acute flaccid myelitis and non–EV-D68 enterovirus or rhinovirus infection. These findings support an association between EV-D68 infection and acute flaccid myelitis. PMID:27434186
Rivas, Marta; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Rangel, Josefa; Caletti, Maria G.; Vallés, Patricia; Roldán, Carlos D.; Balbi, Laura; Marsano de Mollar, Maria C.; Amoedo, Diego; Miliwebsky, Elizabeth; Chinen, Isabel; Hoekstra, Robert M.; Mead, Paul
We evaluated risk factors for sporadic Shiga toxin–producing Escherichia coli (STEC) infection among children in Argentina. We conducted a prospective case–control study in 2 sites and enrolled 150 case-patients and 299 controls. The median age of case-patients was 1.8 years; 58% were girls. Serotype O157:H7 was the most commonly isolated STEC. Exposures associated with infection included eating undercooked beef, living in or visiting a place with farm animals, and contact with a child <5 years of age with diarrhea. Protective factors included the respondent reporting that he or she always washed hands after handling raw beef and the child eating more than the median number of fruits and vegetables. Many STEC infections in children could be prevented by avoiding consumption of undercooked beef, limiting exposure to farm animals and their environment, not being exposed to children with diarrhea, and washing hands after handling raw beef. PMID:18439359
Jiang, Cheng-Gong; Li, Shui-Ming
In order to understand pinworm infection of kindergarten children in Jurong City, Jiangsu Province, a total of 1 088 children were sampled for the survey from September 2011 to October 2012. The cellophane tape swab technique was used to examine pinworm eggs. The infection rate of pinworm was 1.1% (12/1 088). The rate in boys and girls was 1.3% (7/551) and 0.9% (5/537), respectively. Higher infection rate was in the senior class (1.4%, 5/370), and no significant difference was found with gender, as well as among different classes (P > 0.05). Evidently, pinworm prevalence is at a low level in the kindergarten children of Jurong.
Myint, Khin S; Endy, Timothy P; Mongkolsirichaikul, Duangrat; Manomuth, Choompun; Kalayanarooj, Siripen; Vaughn, David W; Nisalak, Ananda; Green, Sharone; Rothman, Alan L; Ennis, Francis A; Libraty, Daniel H
Apoptosis is an important modulator of cellular immune responses during systemic viral infections. Peripheral-blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) apoptosis and plasma soluble levels of CD95, a mediator of apoptosis, were determined in sequential samples from children participating in a prospective study of dengue virus (DV) infections. During the period of defervescence, levels of PBMC apoptosis were higher in children developing dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), the most severe form of illness, than in those with dengue fever (DF) and other, nondengue, febrile illnesses. CD8(+) T lymphocytes made up approximately half of the peak circulating apoptotic PBMCs in DHF and DF. Maximum plasma levels of soluble CD95 were also higher in children with DHF than in those with DF. The level of PBMC apoptosis correlated with dengue disease severity. Apoptosis appears to be involved in modulation of the innate and adaptive immune responses to DV infection and is likely involved in the evolution of immune responses in other viral hemorrhagic fevers.
In 1911, Lindner and colleagues identified intracytoplasmic inclusions in infants with a nongonococcal form of ophthalmia neonatorum called inclusion conjunctivitis of the newborn (ICN). Mothers of affected infants were found to have inclusions in their cervical epithelial cells, fathers of such infants had inclusions in their urethral cells, and the epidemiology of sexually transmitted chlamydial infections was revealed. Fifty years later, chlamydial isolation procedures were developed, and studies again demonstrated Chlamydia trachomatis as an etiology of ICN and the female birth canal as the reservoir. In the late 1970s, a report by Beem and Saxon described respiratory tract colonization and a distinct pneumonia syndrome in infected infants. Genital chlamydial infection is recognized as the world's most common sexually transmitted disease, with estimates of greater than 4 million new infections occurring annually in the United States. Although most C. trachomatis infections in men and women are asymptomatic, infection can lead to severe reproductive complications in women. The high prevalence in women of child-bearing age results in exposure of an estimated 100,000 neonates in the United States annually. Many of these infants develop conjunctivitis, pneumonia, or both in the first few months of life. Clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and approaches to prevention of conjunctivitis and pneumonia in the newborn and young infant are reviewed here. Appropriate testing for chlamydial infection in a pediatric victim of sexual assault and the implications of identifying C. trachomatis in suspected cases of childhood sexual abuse also are reviewed.
Tay, J; Gutiérrez Quiroz, M; Fernández Presas, A M; Romero Cabello, R; Ruiz González, L; Martínez Barbabosa, I
An analytic relationship between positivity of the indirect immunofluorescent test (IIFT) for toxoplasmosis and clinical findings in a population of 328 children with cerebral infantile palsy (CIP) was performed. Children were distributed by age in one of four groups: I (0-2 years); II (3-6 years); III (7-12 years) and IV (13-18 years). One control group of 168 children with no PCI clinical findings was included. 125 sera were positive at 1:64 dilutions. The study of the binomial mother-child of 40 cases rendered 26 mothers with significant titer values. The majority of positive mothers to IIFT correlated with the youngest children (Groups I, II and III), mainly with group I (70.0%), which showed the highest titer ranges. Correlation between positive IIFT and clinical features was as high as 100.0%.
Pham-Huy, Anne; Robinson, Joan L; Tapiéro, Bruce; Bernard, Chantal; Daniel, Sam; Dobson, Simon; Déry, Pierre; Le Saux, Nicole; Embree, Joanne; Valiquette, Louis; Quach, Caroline
BACKGROUND: Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections appear to be increasing in number and severity in developed countries worldwide. Surgical excision has been considered the standard treatment for NTM lymphadenitis, but the use of medical therapy seems to be increasing. OBJECTIVE: To determine the disease characteristics as well as the current therapeutic management of NTM infections in Canadian children. METHODS: Cases of definite or probable NTM infections were identified prospectively in children up to 18 years of age seen in 10 Canadian paediatric tertiary care centres from September 2005 to August 2006. Clinical, microbiological and pathological data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 60 cases were identified. Data were complete for 45 patients, including 34 cases of lymphadenitis, four cases of skin and soft tissue infection, and seven cases of pulmonary NTM infection. Seventy-nine per cent of children (27 of 34) with lymphadenitis had an unsuccessful course of antibiotics before diagnosis. Sixty-eight per cent of purified protein derivative tests (15 of 22) were positive. NTM was detected in 76% of samples (29 of 38), of which 62% were Mycobacterium avium complex. All patients with lymphadenitis underwent surgical therapy and most patients (74%) also received antimicrobials. CONCLUSIONS: Current trends indicate that the majority of the study centres are using medical therapy with variable regimen and duration as an adjunct to surgical excision in the treatment of NTM lymphadenitis. Larger numbers and longer follow-up times are needed to better evaluate the efficacy of medical therapy and outcome of disease. A randomized controlled study comparing surgical therapy alone and chemotherapy for NTM lymphadenitis is required. PMID:21532791
Bekele, Yonas; Amu, Sylvie; Bobosha, Kidist; Lantto, Rebecka; Nilsson, Anna; Endale, Birtukan; Gebre, Meseret; Aseffa, Abraham; Rethi, Bence; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca
Abstract T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important components in development of specific humoral immune responses; whether the number and biology of Tfh cells is impaired in HIV-1-infected children is not yet studied. The frequency, phenotype, and function of Tfh cells and B cells were determined in blood of HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and age-matched controls. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the frequency of Tfh cells and B cell subsets. Cytokine expression was measured after in vitro activation of Tfh cells. A reduced frequency of memory Tfh cells (P < 0.001) was identified in HIV-1-infected children and, on these cells, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Upon activation, the capacity of Tfh cells to express IL-4, an important cytokine for B cell function, was impaired in HIV-1-infected children. B cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected children displayed significant differences from the control group: the frequency of resting memory (RM) B cells was reduced (P < 0.01) whereas the frequency of exhausted memory B cells increased (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the decline of RM cells correlated with the reduction of memory Tfh cells (P = 0.02). Our study shows that function and phenotype of Tfh cells, pivotal cells for establishment of adaptive B cell responses, are impaired during HIV-1 infection in children. A consistent reduction of memory Tfh cells is associated with declined frequencies of RM B cells, creating a novel link between dysfunctional features of these cell types, major players in establishment of humoral immunity. PMID:26166114
Bekele, Yonas; Amu, Sylvie; Bobosha, Kidist; Lantto, Rebecka; Nilsson, Anna; Endale, Birtukan; Gebre, Meseret; Aseffa, Abraham; Rethi, Bence; Howe, Rawleigh; Chiodi, Francesca
T follicular helper (Tfh) cells are important components in development of specific humoral immune responses; whether the number and biology of Tfh cells is impaired in HIV-1-infected children is not yet studied.The frequency, phenotype, and function of Tfh cells and B cells were determined in blood of HIV-1-infected children receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) and age-matched controls. Flow cytometry was used to characterize the frequency of Tfh cells and B cell subsets. Cytokine expression was measured after in vitro activation of Tfh cells.A reduced frequency of memory Tfh cells (P < 0.001) was identified in HIV-1-infected children and, on these cells, a reduced expression of programmed death-1 (PD-1) and inducible T cell costimulator (ICOS) (P < 0.001 and P < 0.01). Upon activation, the capacity of Tfh cells to express IL-4, an important cytokine for B cell function, was impaired in HIV-1-infected children.B cell subpopulations in HIV-1-infected children displayed significant differences from the control group: the frequency of resting memory (RM) B cells was reduced (P < 0.01) whereas the frequency of exhausted memory B cells increased (P < 0.001). Interestingly, the decline of RM cells correlated with the reduction of memory Tfh cells (P = 0.02).Our study shows that function and phenotype of Tfh cells, pivotal cells for establishment of adaptive B cell responses, are impaired during HIV-1 infection in children. A consistent reduction of memory Tfh cells is associated with declined frequencies of RM B cells, creating a novel link between dysfunctional features of these cell types, major players in establishment of humoral immunity.
Schuster, M A; Kanouse, D E; Morton, S C; Bozzette, S A; Miu, A; Scott, G B; Shapiro, M F
OBJECTIVES: This study sought to determine the number, characteristics, and living situations of children of HIV-infected adults. METHODS: Interviews were conducted in 1996 and early 1997 with a nationally representative probability sample of 2864 adults receiving health care for HIV within the contiguous United States. RESULTS: Twenty-eight percent of infected adults in care had children. Women were more likely than men to have children (60% vs 18%) and to live with them (76% vs 34%). Twenty-one percent of parents had been hospitalized during the previous 6 months, and 10% had probably been drug dependent in the previous year. Parents continued to have children after being diagnosed with HIV: 12% of all women conceived and bore their youngest child after diagnosis, and another 10% conceived before but gave birth after diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: Clinical and support services for people affected by the HIV epidemic should have a family focus. PMID:10897185
Karunanayake, Chandima P.; Albritton, William; Rennie, Donna C.; Lawson, Joshua A.; McCallum, Laura; Gardipy, P. Jenny; Seeseequasis, Jeremy; Naytowhow, Arnold; Hagel, Louise; McMullin, Kathleen; Ramsden, Vivian; Abonyi, Sylvia; Episkenew, Jo-Ann; Dosman, James A.; Pahwa, Punam; Project Research Team, The First Nations Lung Health; Study Team, The Saskatchewan Rural Health
Background. Ear infections in children are a major health problem and may be associated with hearing impairment and delayed language development. Objective. To determine the prevalence and the associated risk factors of ear infections in children 6–17 years old residing on two reserves and rural areas in the province of Saskatchewan. Methodology. Data were provided from two rural cross-sectional children studies. Outcome variable of interest was presence/absence of an ear infection. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to examine the relationship between ear infection and the other covariates. Results. The prevalence of ear infection was 57.8% for rural Caucasian children and 43.6% for First Nations children living on-reserve. First Nations children had a lower risk of ear infection. Ear infection prevalence was positively associated with younger age; first born in the family; self-reported physician-diagnosed tonsillitis; self-reported physician-diagnosed asthma; and any respiratory related allergy. Protective effect of breastfeeding longer than three months was observed on the prevalence of ear infection. Conclusions. While ear infection is a prevalent condition of childhood, First Nations children were less likely to have a history of ear infections when compared to their rural Caucasian counterparts. PMID:26977160
Sindiga, I; Lukhando, M
In view of the rapidly increasing number of AIDS cases reported in Kenya since 1984, a survey was conducted among Kenyatta University undergraduate students during October and November 1988 to gauge their knowledge, attitudes and practices with regard to the disease. A random sample of 344 individuals both men and women was interviewed. The results showed that almost everyone had heard about AIDS and the knowledge was spread evenly across gender. Although the students were able to identify the symptoms of a full blown AIDS victim, their knowledge on HIV was vague. Other findings were: that condoms were lowly rated as a strategy for minimizing the risk of contracting AIDS and the majority of the students attempted to reduce the chance of contracting the disease by having one sex partner. However, the students were apathetic about contracting the disease. In the event of becoming victims of AIDS, most of them indicated that they would not merely wait to die; instead they would commit suicide. In view of these findings, there is a case for educating this group on how to respond to the AIDS infection.
Roy, A; Eisenhut, M; Harris, R J; Rodrigues, L C; Sridhar, S; Habermann, S; Snell, L; Mangtani, P; Adetifa, I; Lalvani, A
Objectives To determine whether BCG vaccination protects against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection as assessed by interferon γ release assays (IGRA) in children. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Searches of electronic databases 1950 to November 2013, checking of reference lists, hand searching of journals, and contact with experts. Setting Community congregate settings and households. Inclusion criteria Vaccinated and unvaccinated children aged under 16 with known recent exposure to patients with pulmonary tuberculosis. Children were screened for infection with M tuberculosis with interferon γ release assays. Data extraction Study results relating to diagnostic accuracy were extracted and risk estimates were combined with random effects meta-analysis. Results The primary analysis included 14 studies and 3855 participants. The estimated overall risk ratio was 0.81 (95% confidence interval 0.71 to 0.92), indicating a protective efficacy of 19% against infection among vaccinated children after exposure compared with unvaccinated children. The observed protection was similar when estimated with the two types of interferon γ release assays (ELISpot or QuantiFERON). Restriction of the analysis to the six studies (n=1745) with information on progression to active tuberculosis at the time of screening showed protection against infection of 27% (risk ratio 0.73, 0.61 to 0.87) compared with 71% (0.29, 0.15 to 0.58) against active tuberculosis. Among those infected, protection against progression to disease was 58% (0.42, 0.23 to 0.77). Conclusions BCG protects against M tuberculosis infection as well as progression from infection to disease. Trial registration PROSPERO registration No CRD42011001698 (www.crd.york.ac.uk/prospero/). PMID:25097193
Boeke, Caroline E; Mora-Plazas, Mercedes; Forero, Yibby; Villamor, Eduardo
While Giardia duodenalis infection has been consistently associated with nutrient malabsorption and stunting in children, the effects of other protozoans on nutritional status or gastrointestinal morbidity are less clear. We sought to determine whether infection with common intestinal protozoans including Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba coli and Blastocystis hominis was associated with anthropometric and micronutrient status, gastrointestinal symptoms, visits to the doctor or school absenteeism in children 5-12 years of age from Bogotá, Colombia. We obtained stool samples from 442 children enrolled in primary schools in 2006 and examined the presence of intestinal protozoans in relation to height, body mass index, plasma concentrations of vitamins A and B12, ferritin and zinc and erythrocyte folate. In addition, we examined the associations between protozoan infections and the incidence of common gastrointestinal symptoms, which were registered prospectively in morbidity diaries. The prevalence rates of G. duodenalis, E. coli and B. hominis infection were 6.3, 23.1 and 22.4%, respectively. Giardia infection was associated with lower height-for-age z-score (p = 0.04), whereas E. coli infection was associated with low erythrocyte folate (p = 0.04), and B. hominis infection was related to higher vitamin A levels (p = 0.05). Infection with E. coli was also associated with a significantly higher incidence of fever but fewer visits to the doctor, while B. hominis infection was associated with significantly less diarrhea, diarrhea with vomiting, doctor visits and school absenteeism. In conclusion, G. duodenalis and E. coli infections were associated with indicators of poor nutritional status in this population, while B. hominis was related to apparently decreased morbidity.
Ramos, Theresa N.; Arynchyna, Anastasia A.; Blackburn, Tessa E.; Johnston, James M.
BACKGROUND. Children treated with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts to manage hydrocephalus frequently develop shunt failure and/or infections, conditions that present with overlapping symptoms. The potential life-threatening nature of shunt infections requires rapid diagnosis; however, traditional microbiology is time consuming, expensive, and potentially unreliable. We set out to identify a biomarker that would identify shunt infection. METHODS. CSF was assayed for the soluble membrane attack complex (sMAC) by ELISA in patients with suspected shunt failure or infection. CSF was obtained at the time of initial surgical intervention. Statistical analysis was performed to assess the diagnostic potential of sMAC in pyogenic-infected versus noninfected patients. RESULTS. Children with pyogenic shunt infection had significantly increased sMAC levels compared with noninfected patients (3,211 ± 1,111 ng/ml vs. 26 ± 3.8 ng/ml, P = 0.0001). In infected patients undergoing serial CSF draws, sMAC levels were prognostic for both positive and negative clinical outcomes. Children with delayed, broth-only growth of commensal organisms (P. acnes, S. epidermidis, etc.) had the lowest sMAC levels (7.96 ± 1.7 ng/ml), suggesting contamination rather than shunt infection. CONCLUSION. Elevated CSF sMAC levels are both sensitive and specific for diagnosing pyogenic shunt infection and may serve as a useful prognostic biomarker during recovery from infection. FUNDING. This work was supported in part by the Impact Fund of Children’s of Alabama. PMID:27699221
Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío
Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways. PMID:21695035
Rodríguez, Leonor; Cervantes, Elsa; Ortiz, Rocío
Infectious disease is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in developing countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that protein-calorie malnutrition is the underlying reason for the increased susceptibility to infections observed in these areas. Moreover, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which can result in a vicious cycle. Malnutrition and bacterial gastrointestinal and respiratory infections represent a serious public health problem. The increased incidence and severity of infections in malnourished children is largely due to the deterioration of immune function; limited production and/or diminished functional capacity of all cellular components of the immune system have been reported in malnutrition. In this review, we analyze the cyclical relationship between malnutrition, immune response dysfunction, increased susceptibility to infectious disease, and metabolic responses that further alter nutritional status. The consequences of malnutrition are diverse and included: increased susceptibility to infection, impaired child development, increased mortality rate and individuals who come to function in suboptimal ways.
Rosenfeldt, Vibeke; Norja, Päivi; Lindberg, Ellinor; Jensen, Lise; Hedman, Lea; Väisänen, Elina; Li, Xuemeng; Hedman, Klaus; von Linstow, Marie-Louise
Parvovirus 4 (PARV4) has been associated with HIV infection in adults. We examined plasma samples from 46 HIV-infected 0-year-old to 16-year-old children for the presence of PARV4. Four children (8.7%) had detectable PARV4 IgG and 1 had IgM. The result of PARV4 polymerase chain reaction was found to be negative in all patients. PARV4 seropositivity was associated with low CD4 count but not with HIV viral load.
Mokrzycka, Małgorzata; Kolasa, Agnieszka; Kosierkiewicz, Anita; Wiszniewska, Barbara
The investigation were performed on children with Giardia lamblia infection, diagnosed on the basis of positive stool tests for Giardia antigen (Elisa) or by microscopical detection of trophozoites in duodenal fluid. In duodenal biopsies morphological studies and immunohistochemical reaction for inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were performed. The control group was made up of duodenal tissue of children with excluded giardiasis and inflammation of the upper part of gastrointestinal tract. The duodenal biopsies from children without Giardia lamblia infection were found to have a high immunoreactivity for iNOS in enterocytes, the cells of intestinal crypts, endothelial cells of vessels and connective tissue cells of lamina propria. In children with giardiasis: in some biopsies the expression of iNOS was as high as in control group, in others was weaker detectable and the shortening of intestinal villi was seen. There were also duodenal biopsies with the lack of immunoreactivity for iNOS, with shorter villi and a large amount of mucus in the intestinal epithelium. Beside of goblet cells, also enterocytes were loaded with mucus. The pathological changes may cause malabsorption and also may have a negative influence on the defense of the intestinal wall against Giardia lamblia infection. The different morphological and immunohistochemical results in the duodenum of children with giardiasis can elucidate a variety of clinical symptoms from asymptomatic to severe infection.
Wong, Weng Kin; Foo, Phiaw Chong; Roze, Mohamad Noor Mohamad; Pim, Chau Dam; Subramaniam, Puvaneswari; Lim, Boon Huat
Background. Orang Asli (aborigine) children are susceptible to soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections due to their lifestyle and substandard sanitation system. Objectives. This study aimed to examine the helminthic and nutritional status of Orang Asli school children in Sekolah Kebangsaan Pos Legap, a remote primary school at Kuala Kangsar District in the state of Perak, Malaysia. In addition, the sensitivities of four STH stool examination techniques were also compared. Methods. Demography and anthropometry data were collected by one-to-one interview session. Collected stools were examined with four microscopy techniques, namely, direct wet mount, formalin ether concentration (FEC), Kato-Katz (KK), and Parasep™. Results. Anthropometry analysis showed that 78% (26/33) of children in SK Pos Legap were malnourished and 33% (11/33) of them were stunted. Stool examinations revealed almost all children (97%) were infected by either one of the three commonest STHs. FEC was the most sensitive method in detection of the three helminth species. Conclusion. This study revealed that STH infections and nutritional status still remain a health concern among the Orang Asli children. These communal problems could be effectively controlled by regular monitoring of STH infection loads, administration of effective antihelminthic drug regimen, and also implementation of effective school nutritional programs. PMID:27366156
Chesshyre, Emily; Goff, Zoy; Bowen, Asha; Carapetis, Jonathan
With advancing paediatric healthcare, the use of central venous lines has become a fundamental part of management of neonates and children. Uses include haemodynamic monitoring and the delivery of lifesaving treatments such as intravenous fluids, blood products, antibiotics, chemotherapy, haemodialysis and total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Despite preventative measures, central venous catheter-related infections are common, with rates of 0.5-2.8/1000 catheter days in children and 0.6-2.5/1000 catheter days in neonates. Central line infections in children are associated with increased mortality, increased length of hospital and intensive care unit stay, treatment interruptions, and increased complications. Prevention is paramount, using a variety of measures including tunnelling of long-term devices, chlorhexidine antisepsis, maximum sterile barriers, aseptic non-touch technique, minimal line accessing, and evidence-based care bundles. Diagnosis of central line infections in children is challenging. Available samples are often limited to a single central line blood culture, as clinicians are reluctant to perform painful venepuncture on children with a central, pain-free, access device. With the advancing evidence basis for antibiotic lock therapy for treatment, paediatricians are pushing the boundaries of line retention if safe to do so, due to among other reasons, often limited venous access sites. This review evaluates the available paediatric studies on management of central venous line infections and refers to consensus guidelines such as those of the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA).
Van-Dunem, Joaquim C V D; Rodrigues, Laura C; Alencar, Luiz Claudio Arraes; Militão-Albuquerque, Maria de Fátima Pessoa; Ximenes, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar
The objective of this study was to estimate the protective effect of Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine against tuberculosis among (predominantly immunodeficient) HIV-infected children in Angola. A hospital-based case-control study was conducted with 230 cases, children coinfected with tuberculosis, and 672 controls, HIV-infected children from the same hospital, aged 18 months to 13 years. The presence of a vaccination scar was taken as a proxy marker for BCG vaccination. The crude effectiveness was 8% (95% CI: -26 to 32) and the adjusted effectiveness was 30% (95% CI: -75 to 72). The present study suggests that BCG does not have a protective effect against tuberculosis among immunodeficient HIV-infected children. Since BCG is no longer given to HIV-infected children, the study may not be replicated. Accepting that these findings should be considered with caution, they are nonetheless likely to be the last estimate of BCG efficacy in a sufficiently powered study.
Hutchinson, S E; Powell, C A; Walker, S P; Chang, S M; Grantham-McGregor, S M
The association of nutritional status, anemia, and geohelminth infection with school attendance and performance was investigated in a cross-sectional study of 800 primary school students 9-13 years of age (mean age, 10.8 years) from 4 rural parishes in Jamaica. 4.9% of the children had heights-for-age less than 2 standard deviations of the US National Center for Health Statistics references and 14.7% were anemic; 38.3% were infected with Trichuris trichiura and 19.4% with Ascaris lumbricoides. Multivariate analyses, controlled for socioeconomic status, indicated children with Trichuris infection had significantly lower achievement levels than uninfected children in spelling, reading, and arithmetic, while those with Ascaris infection had significantly lower scores in spelling and reading. Height-for-age was positively associated with performance in arithmetic. Ascaris infection and anemia predicted poorer school attendance. The associations demonstrated in this study are not necessarily causal. However, these findings indicate that efforts to increase school achievement levels in developing countries should include strategies to address the health and nutritional status of rural children.
Highly active antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected children has been associated with a dramatic decrease in progression to AIDS and HIV-related deaths, and infected children currently have an excellent quality of life. Antiretroviral drugs cannot eradicate the virus, although they can achieve a situation of latent infection. However, chronic use of these drugs has multiple adverse effects, the most important of which are metabolic complications. The large number of drugs required and patient characteristics such as age, tolerance to drugs, adherence, and social problems make unifying the criteria for initial therapy in HIV-infected children difficult. A balance should be sought between not delaying the start of treatment, to avoid immunologic deterioration, and minimizing the long-term adverse effects of the therapy. The present treatment recommendations are adapted from international guidelines and are based on a literature review and on our own experience. Our group previously published recommendations on the treatment of HIV-infected children and the aim of the present article is to provide an update.
Takeyama, Aya; Hashimoto, Koichi; Sato, Masatoki; Kawashima, Ryoko; Kawasaki, Yukihiko; Hosoya, Mitsuaki
Children with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection shed virus for variable periods. The aim of this study was to quantify the viral load in nasopharyngeal aspirates of children with RSV throughout their hospitalization. This study included 37 children who were admitted with a diagnosis of RSV infection based on a positive rapid diagnostic test. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from patients every day, from admission to discharge. Viral detection and quantification were performed using quantitative real-time PCR. Of the 37 patients, RSV-A was detected in 29 and RSV-B in 6. Two patients were PCR-negative for any type of RSV. RSV-A was detected in 12 of 16 patients (75%) 6 days after admission. These patients shed detectable virus from days 1 to 12, and for a significantly longer period (mean 5.7 days) than RSV-B (mean 3.8 days) patients. Half of the RSV-A patients were also positive on day 14 following onset. RSV-A was detected in patients <12 months of age for significantly longer periods after onset than in patients ≥12 months of age. RSV-A viral load was negatively correlated with days from admission and days from onset. Because RSV shedding was frequently prolonged, the hospitalized children may have contracted RSV as a nosocomial infection. To prevent nosocomial RSV infections in hospital wards, healthcare workers must take appropriate infection control measures and provide adequate guidance on hand washing to the family of the patient.
Simsek, Z; Zeyrek, F Yildiz; Kurcer, M A
Giardiasis, an intestinal protozoan infection caused by Giardia intestinalis, is common in southeastern Anatolia, Turkey. In this cross-sectional survey, to investigate the role of giardiasis on growth and psychomotor development, we studied 160 children aged 0-5 years. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire, anthropometry, Ankara Developmental Screening Inventory, and laboratory analysis of fecal samples. The results showed that 50 per cent of the subjects were infected with at least one pathogen of intestinal parasitic infections. Giardia intestinalis was the most frequent pathogenic parasite. Giardia-infected children had a risk for stunted (OR = 7.67, 95 per cent CI = 2.25-26.16; p = 0.001) and poor psychomotor development (OR = 2.68, 95 per cent CI = 1.09-6.58; p = 0.030). The data indicate that Giardia intestinalis infection has an adverse impact on child linear growth and psychomotor development. In the primary healthcare centers, during the programme of the monitoring growth and developmental status of children, following children in terms of Giardia, diagnosis and treatment will have a positive effect on child health.
Luo, Qingming; Peng, Wanjun; Chen, L I
Immune reaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of the progression of Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16)-infected hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, no details of T-cell subset frequency or imbalance during the CA16 infection process have been revealed. In the present study, whether CA16-induced HFMD changes the frequency of different T-cell subsets and associated immune mediators was determined in children. The results indicate that the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells were significantly increased in children with HFMD compared with those in healthy children. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were significant higher in children with HFMD. Furthermore, the percentage of Th17 cells and the Th17/Treg ratio as well as interleukin (IL)-17A levels were higher in HFMD cases. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the dysregulation of T-cell subsets following CA16 infection. The Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were imbalanced following infection. Also, the imbalance Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios contributed to the increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A. Based on this information, the present study provides new insights for the future study of CA16-induced HFMD and offers new data of diagnostic and therapeutic value for CA16 infection.
LUO, QINGMING; PENG, WANJUN; CHEN, LI
Immune reaction plays a crucial role in the regulation of the progression of Coxsackievirus A16 (CA16)-infected hand, foot and mouth disease (HFMD). However, no details of T-cell subset frequency or imbalance during the CA16 infection process have been revealed. In the present study, whether CA16-induced HFMD changes the frequency of different T-cell subsets and associated immune mediators was determined in children. The results indicate that the percentages of Th1 and Tc1 cells were significantly increased in children with HFMD compared with those in healthy children. In addition, the Th1/Th2 ratio and interferon (IFN)-γ levels were significant higher in children with HFMD. Furthermore, the percentage of Th17 cells and the Th17/Treg ratio as well as interleukin (IL)-17A levels were higher in HFMD cases. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated the dysregulation of T-cell subsets following CA16 infection. The Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios were imbalanced following infection. Also, the imbalance Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg ratios contributed to the increased levels of IFN-γ and IL-17A. Based on this information, the present study provides new insights for the future study of CA16-induced HFMD and offers new data of diagnostic and therapeutic value for CA16 infection. PMID:26136962
Krumkamp, Ralf; Sarpong, Nimako; Schwarz, Norbert Georg; Adelkofer, Julia; Loag, Wibke; Eibach, Daniel; Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Tannich, Egbert; May, Jürgen
Introduction Diarrheal diseases are among the most frequent causes of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide, especially in resource-poor areas. This case-control study assessed the associations between gastrointestinal infections and diarrhea in children from rural Ghana. Methods Stool samples were collected from 548 children with diarrhea and from 686 without gastrointestinal symptoms visiting a hospital from 2007–2008. Samples were analyzed by microscopy and molecular methods. Results The organisms most frequently detected in symptomatic cases were Giardia lamblia, Shigella spp./ enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC), and Campylobacter jejuni. Infections with rotavirus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 8.4; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.3–16.6), C. parvum/hominis (aOR = 2.7; 95% CI: 1.4–5.2) and norovirus (aOR = 2.0; 95%CI: 1.3–3.0) showed the strongest association with diarrhea. The highest attributable fractions (AF) for diarrhea were estimated for rotavirus (AF = 14.3%; 95% CI: 10.9–17.5%), Shigella spp./EIEC (AF = 10.5%; 95% CI: 3.5–17.1%), and norovirus (AF = 8.2%; 95% CI 3.2–12.9%). Co-infections occurred frequently and most infections presented themselves independently of other infections. However, infections with E. dispar, C. jejuni, and norovirus were observed more often in the presence of G. lamblia. Conclusions Diarrheal diseases in children from a rural area in sub-Saharan Africa are mainly due to infections with rotavirus, Shigella spp./EIEC, and norovirus. These associations are strongly age-dependent, which should be considered when diagnosing causes of diarrhea. The presented results are informative for both clinicians treating gastrointestinal infections as well as public health experts designing control programs against diarrheal diseases. PMID:25738935
Muhsen, Khitam; Cohen, Dani; Levine, Myron M
There are inconsistent findings concerning the role of Giardia lamblia in pediatric diarrhea. A prospective cohort study of the incidence of acute diarrhea among Israeli Arab preschool children offered the opportunity to examine the association between G. lamblia infection (at baseline) and subsequent diarrhea. Following baseline screening by light microscopy for the presence of Giardia in their stools, a cohort was assembled of 142 children who were followed between October 2003 and August 2004 for the incidence of diarrhea. Surveillance was performed through maternal interviews. At baseline, 21 children tested Giardia-positive. During the prospective surveillance, acute diarrhea occurred less often among Giardia-positive children (9.5%) than among children who were not infected with Giardia (26.5%). G. lamblia infection was associated with lower risk of acute diarrhea; adjusted odds ratio of 0.18 (95% confidence interval 0.04-0.93) (p = 0.041). This prospective study provides additional evidence that Giardia may lower the risk of subsequent acute diarrhea among preschool children.
Guangorena-Gómez, J O; Maravilla-Domínguez, A; García-Arenas, G; Cervantes-Flores, M; Meza-Velázquez, R; Rivera-Guillén, M; Acosta-Saavedra, L C; Goytia-Acevedo, R C
It has been demonstrated that the allergic response can be ameliorated by the administration of pathogen derivatives that activate Toll-like receptors and induce a Th1-type immune response (IR). Cryptosporidium is a parasite that promotes an IR via Toll-like receptors and elicits the production of Th1-type cytokines, which limit cryptosporidiosis. The aim of this study was to investigate allergy-related immune markers in children naturally infected with Cryptosporidium. In a cross-sectional study, 49 children with or without clinical diagnosis of allergies, oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp. in the faeces were screened microscopically. We microscopically screened for leucocytes, examined T and B cells for allergy-related activation markers using flow cytometry and evaluated serum for total IgE using chemiluminescence. Children with allergies and Cryptosporidium in the faeces had significantly lower levels of total IgE, B cells, CD19(+) CD23(+) and CD19(+) CD124(+) cells as well as a greater percentage of interferon-gamma (IFN-γ(+) ) and IL-4(+) CD4(+) cells than children with allergies without Cryptosporidium. This is the first description of the modulation of the IR in children with allergic diseases in the setting of natural Cryptosporidium infection. Our findings suggest the involvement of CD4(+) cells producing IL-4 and IFN-γ in the IR to Cryptosporidium in naturally infected children.
Cuevas, María Teresa; Pozo, Francisco; García-García, María Luz; Molinero, Mar; Calderón, Ana; Gonzalez-Esguevillas, Mónica; Pérez-Sautu, Unai; Casas, Inmaculada
Background: The incidence of enterovirus D68 (EV-D68) and the spectrum of clinical disease in children are not well known in European countries. We have designed a study with the objective of describing the clinical impact of EV-D68 detected in children with respiratory tract infections. Methods: As a part of a prospective study to identify the etiology and clinical characteristics of viral respiratory infections in children in Spain, we performed the analysis of the cases of EV infections in all children hospitalized in a secondary hospital in Madrid, during the epidemic respiratory season 2012–2013. A second group of samples was corresponded to infants of the same area, with ambulatory respiratory infection or asymptomatic. Phylogenetic EV-D68 analysis was made using the viral protein 1 gene (VP1). Clinical data of EV-D68 patients were compared with those infected by rhinovirus in the same period and population. Results: The study population consisted of 720 patients corresponding to 399 episodes of hospitalization for respiratory causes, 44 episodes of ambulatory respiratory infections and 277 children determined as a healthy control group. A total of 22 patients were positive for EVs (3.05%), and 12 of them were specifically typed as EV-D68 (11/443 respiratory infections, 2.5%). The most frequent diagnosis in the 10 hospitalized children with EV-D68 detection was recurrent wheezing. Hypoxia was present in 70% of cases, but admission in the intensive care unit was not required. No neurological signs or symptoms were observed. One patient had an ambulatory mild bronchiolitis and another was asymptomatic. No differences were found with rhinovirus infections except less duration of hypoxia and fever in EV-D68 group. Conclusions: EV-D68 infections were detected in 3.05% of respiratory studied samples (2.5% of admissions). The infection was associated with wheezing episodes with hypoxia. No admissions to intensive care unit or neurological symptoms were found. PMID
Choi, Jun Sik; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jeong; Lee, Gyung Min
Purpose We performed to reveal the association between the Helicobacter pylori infection and body weight among children. Methods Out retrospective study included patients who underwent the H. pylori immunoglobulin G testing at Konyang University Hospital between March 2011 and June 2014. These patients were classified as seropositive (28 boys, 27 girls; mean age: 9.89±3.28 years) or seronegative (55 boys, 54 girls; mean age: 9.84±3.02 years). Next, we compared various characteristics between the seropositive and negative groups, as well as between obese children (body weight ≥90th percentile) and non-obese children (body weight <90th percentile). Furthermore, we compared the change in body weight after 2 months of treatment with amoxicillin, clarithromycin and omeprazole among the 55 seropositive children (14 treated children and 41 non-treated children). Results There were no differences in the weights and laboratory data for the 55 seropositive children and 109 seronegative children (weight; 40.96±18.11 kg vs. 36.85±13.72 kg, respectively; p=0.14). And, there was no difference in the prevalence of H. pylori infection among the 29 obese and 135 non-obese children (p=0.581). However, after 2 months of eradication, the 14 treated patients exhibited a significant weight gain (+0.91±0.52 kg), compared to the 41 non-treated patients (-0.29±1.16 kg, p=0.025). Conclusion Our findings present that obesity was not associated with the H. pylori infection, although H. pylori eradication led to significant increase in body weight. PMID:27437187
Damanka, Susan; Adiku, Theophilus K; Armah, George E; Rodrigues, Onike; Donkor, Eric S; Nortey, David; Asmah, Richard
Human rotavirus infection was studied over a 13-month period (January 2004 to January 2005) in children <5 years of age admitted with severe diarrhea at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital in Accra, Ghana. During this period, 206 hospitalizations for diarrhea were recorded, with 34.0% (70/206) being positive for rotavirus infection. Infection occurred throughout the year, with peak rotavirus infection occurring during the month of March. Hospitalization associated with rotaviruses was most common in the 6-8 month age group. The case fatality rate of rotavirus infection was 2.9% (2/70) and occurred in children <12 months of age. Four rotavirus VP7 genotypes (G1, G2, G3, and G9) were detected. The predominant genotypes were G2 (22.9%), G1 (17.1%), G9 (17.1%) and G3 (12.9%). Mixed G types were also detected. The predominant VP4 genotypes (P types) were P (38.6%), P (21.4%), P (4.3%) and P (1.4%). The predominant rotavirus strains infecting children in Accra were G9P (10.0%) and G1P (8.6%). Strains with unusual genotypes such as G2P and G(2/3)P were also detected.
Jenson, Hal B.; Gauntt, Charles J.; Easley, Kirk A.; Pitt, Jane; Lipshultz, Steven E.; McIntosh, Kenneth; Shearer, William T.
In a matched case-control study of the association between coxsackieviruses and cardiac impairment, 24 human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1–infected children with cardiac impairment were compared with 24 HIV-1–infected control subjects. Serologic evidence of coxsackievirus infection was present in all children, with no significant difference in geometric mean antibody titers between case patients and control subjects. Conditional logistic regression to test for an association between coxsackievirus antibody titer and the presence or absence of cardiac impairment, by any indicator, showed an odds ratio of 1.11 (95% confidence interval, 0.58–2.10; P = .75), indicating no association between coxsackievirus infection and cardiac impairment. Coxsackievirus antibody titers correlated positively with total IgG levels in nonrapid progressors but not in rapid progressors. Paired serum samples taken before and after diagnosis of cardiac impairment in 5 patients showed no evidence of intervening coxsackievirus infection. These results do not identify a causal role for coxsackieviruses for cardiomyopathy in HIV-1–infected children. PMID:12085328
Canavese, Federico; Krajbich, Joseph I
Background: Postoperative deep infections are relatively common in children with instrumented spinal deformities, whose healing potential is somewhat compromised. Children with underlying diagnosis of cerebral palsy, spina bifida and other chronic debilitating conditions are particularly susceptible. Vacuum-assisted closure (VAC) is a newer technique to promote healing of wounds resistant to treatment by established methods. This article aims to review the efficacy of the VAC system in the treatment of deep spinal infections following spinal instrumentation and fusion in children and adolescents. Materials and Methods: We reviewed 33 patients with deep postoperative surgical site infection treated with wound VAC technique. We reviewed clinical and laboratory data, including the ability to retain the spinal hardware, loss of correction and recurrent infections. Results: All patients successfully completed their wound VAC treatment regime. None had significant loss of correction and one had persistent infection requiring partial hardware removal. The laboratory indices normalized in all but three patients. Conclusions: Wound VAC technique is a useful tool in the armamentarium of the spinal surgeon dealing with patients susceptible to wound infections, especially those with neuromuscular diseases. It allows for retention of the instrumentation and maintenance of the spinal correction. It is reliable and easy to use. PMID:20419005
Schneider, Lauriina; Ollila, Sari; Kimiywe, Judith; Lubeka, Crippina; Mutanen, Marja
The aim of this study was to explore factors associated with maternal infant and young child feeding motivation in urban and rural Kenya. We conducted 18 focus group discussions with mothers of children 0 to 23 months of age and healthcare workers. The data were transcribed, translated, and explored following the principles of content analysis. We first explored and coded the data inductively and categorized it according to emerging themes representing the most relevant topics for young child feeding. After this, these themes were theorized into an explanatory framework. Finally, the results yielded seven themes integrated into self-determination theory's three basic motivation-building pillars: autonomy, competence, and relatedness. We found that maternal intrahousehold autonomy on child feeding was substantial. However, this autonomy was lost for a period of time while in close contact with the healthcare staff. The authority of the healthcare workers was at its peak when the child was born and faded gradually as the child grew. Building maternal competence is important for child-feeding outcomes, but our data showed that the health education methods used by the healthcare workers were inadequate to improve maternal to improve the motivation. The competence of Kenyan healthcare workers should be improved in the area of complementary feeding counseling, and they should be trained to provide practical and emotional support as a way of increasing maternal motivation on infant and child feeding.
Esamai, Fabian; Liechty, Edward; Ikemeri, Justus; Westcott, Jamie; Kemp, Jennifer; Culbertson, Diana; Miller, Leland V.; Hambidge, K. Michael; Krebs, Nancy F.
Interference with zinc absorption is a proposed explanation for adverse effects of supplemental iron in iron-replete children in malaria endemic settings. We examined the effects of iron in micronutrient powder (MNP) on zinc absorption after three months of home fortification with MNP in maize-based diets in rural Kenyan infants. In a double blind design, six-month-old, non-anemic infants were randomized to MNP containing 5 mg zinc, with or without 12.5 mg of iron (MNP + Fe and MNP − Fe, respectively); a control (C) group received placebo powder. After three months, duplicate diet collections and zinc stable isotopes were used to measure intake from MNP + non-breast milk foods and fractional absorption of zinc (FAZ) by dual isotope ratio method; total absorbed zinc (TAZ, mg/day) was calculated from intake × FAZ. Mean (SEM) TAZ was not different between MNP + Fe (n = 10) and MNP − Fe (n = 9) groups: 0.85 (0.22) and 0.72 (0.19), respectively, but both were higher than C (n = 9): 0.24 (0.03) (p = 0.04). Iron in MNP did not significantly alter zinc absorption, but despite intakes over double estimated dietary requirement, both MNP groups’ mean TAZ barely approximated the physiologic requirement for age. Impaired zinc absorption may dictate need for higher zinc doses in vulnerable populations. PMID:25493942
Potterton, Joanne; Stewart, Aimee; Cooper, Peter; Becker, Pieter
Aims: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) potentially causes a significant encephalopathy and resultant developmental delay in infected children. The aim of this study was to determine whether a home-based intervention programme could have an impact on the neurodevelopmental status of children infected with HIV. Method: A longitudinal,…
Escobedo-Melendez, Griselda; Panduro, Arturo; Fierro, Nora A; Roman, Sonia
Studies on the prevalence of infection with hepatitis B virus (HBV) among children are scarce in Latin American countries, especially in Mexico. This study was aimed to investigate the prevalence of HBV infection, occult hepatitis B infection (OBI) and HBV genotypes among children with clinical hepatitis. In total, 215 children with clinical hepatitis were evaluated for HBV infection. HBV serological markers and HBV DNA were analysed. OBI diagnosis and HBV genotyping was performed. HBV infection was found in 11.2% of children with clinical hepatitis. Among these HBV DNA positive-infected children, OBI was identified in 87.5% (n = 21/24) of the cases and 12.5% (n = 3/24) were positive for both HBV DNA and hepatitis B surface antigen. OBI was more frequent among children who had not been vaccinated against hepatitis B (p < 0.05) than in those who had been vaccinated. HBV genotype H was prevalent in 71% of the children followed by genotype G (8%) and genotype A (4%). In conclusion, OBI is common among Mexican children with clinical hepatitis and is associated with HBV genotype H. The results show the importance of the molecular diagnosis of HBV infection in Mexican paediatric patients with clinical hepatitis and emphasise the necessity of reinforcing hepatitis B vaccination in children.
Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus
Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies
Background Ukraine has the highest HIV prevalence (1.6%) and is facing the fastest growing epidemic in Europe. Our objective was to describe the clinical, immunological and virological characteristics, treatment and response in vertically HIV-infected children living in Ukraine and followed from birth. Methods The European Collaborative Study (ECS) is an ongoing cohort study, in which HIV-1 infected pregnant women are enrolled and followed in pregnancy, and their children prospectively followed from birth. ECS enrolment in Ukraine started in 2000 initially with three sites, increasing to seven sites by 2009. Results A total of 245 infected children were included in the cohort by April 2009, with a median age of 23 months at most recent follow-up; 33% (n = 77) had injecting drug using mothers and 85% (n = 209) were infected despite some use of antiretroviral prophylaxis for prevention of mother-to-child transmission. Fifty-five (22%) children had developed AIDS, at a median age of 10 months (IQR = 6-19). The most prevalent AIDS indicator disease was Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia (PCP). Twenty-seven (11%) children had died (median age, 6.2 months). Overall, 108 (44%) children had started highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART), at a median 18 months of age; median HAART duration was 6.6 months to date. No child discontinued HAART and 92% (100/108) remained on their first-line HAART regimen to date. Among children with moderate/severe immunosuppression, 36% had not yet started HAART. Among children on HAART, 71% (69/97) had no evidence of immunosuppression at their most recent visit; the median reduction in HIV RNA was 4.69 log10 copies/mL over a median of 10 months treatment. From survival analysis, an estimated 94%, 84% and 81% of children will be alive and AIDS-free at 6, 12 and 18 months of age, respectively. However, survival increased significantly over time: estimated survival rates to 12 months of age were 87% for children born in 2000/03 versus 96
St Laurent, Brandyce; Cooke, Mary; Krishnankutty, Sindhu M; Asih, Puji; Mueller, John D; Kahindi, Samuel; Ayoma, Elizabeth; Oriango, Robin M; Thumloup, Julie; Drakeley, Chris; Cox, Jonathan; Collins, Frank H; Lobo, Neil F; Stevenson, Jennifer C
The success of mosquito-based malaria control is dependent upon susceptible bionomic traits in local malaria vectors. It is crucial to have accurate and reliable methods to determine mosquito species composition in areas subject to malaria. An unexpectedly diverse set of Anopheles species was collected in the western Kenyan highlands, including unidentified and potentially new species carrying the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. This study identified 2,340 anopheline specimens using both ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer region 2 and mitochondrial DNA cytochrome oxidase subunit 1 loci. Seventeen distinct sequence groups were identified. Of these, only eight could be molecularly identified through comparison to published and voucher sequences. Of the unidentified species, four were found to carry P. falciparum by circumsporozoite enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and polymerase chain reaction, the most abundant of which had infection rates comparable to a primary vector in the area, Anopheles funestus. High-quality adult specimens of these unidentified species could not be matched to museum voucher specimens or conclusively identified using multiple keys, suggesting that they may have not been previously described. These unidentified vectors were captured outdoors. Diverse and unknown species have been incriminated in malaria transmission in the western Kenya highlands using molecular identification of unusual morphological variants of field specimens. This study demonstrates the value of using molecular methods to compliment vector identifications and highlights the need for accurate characterization of mosquito species and their associated behaviors for effective malaria control.
Wanzala, W; Okanga, S
This artcile describes the results obtained from a tick survey conducted in Haller park along the Kenyan coastline. The survey aimed at evaluating tick-host associations, assessing tick population density, and providing baseline information for planning future tick control and management in the park. Ticks (2,968) were collected by handpicking from eight species of wildlife and by dragging in 14 selected sites within the park. A considerable proportion of ticks were also collected from leaves, stems, and bark of most dominant trees, namely, Casuarina equisetifolia L. (Forst. and Forst.), Cocos nucifera L., Adansonia digitata L., Musa paradisiaca L., and Azadiracta indica Adr. Juss. Dragging was conducted in sites predominantly occupied by Cynodon dactylon L. (Pers.), Cenchrus ciliaris L., Stenotaphrum dimidiatum L. (Kuntze.) Brongn., and Brachiaria xantholeuca Hack. Ex Schinz Stapf. and Loudetia kagerensis K. Schum. Hutch. Eight tick species were identified, and the collection included Rhipicephalus pravus Dönitz 1910, Rhipicephalus pulchellus Gerstäcker 1873, Hyalomma marginatum rufipes Koch 1844, Amblyomma gemma Dönitz 1910, Amblyomma hebraeum Koch 1844, Amblyomma sparsum Neumann 1899, Amblyomma nuttalli Dönitz 1909, and Boophilus decoloratus Koch 1844. Given that the identified tick species are known to parasitize humans as well as livestock, there exist risks of emergence of zoonotic infections mediated by tick vectors. In the recreational environment of Haller park, where tick vectors share habitats with hosts, there is a need to develop sustainable and effective tick control and management strategies to minimize economic losses that tick infestation may cause.
Neumann, Charlotte G; Nyandiko, Winstone; Siika, Abraham; Drorbaugh, Natalie; Samari, Goleen; Ettyang, Grace; Ernst, Judith A
This paper describes morbidity in a group of HIV-positive drug-naïve rural women in western Kenya. A total of 226 drug-naïve HIV-positive women were evaluated for baseline morbidity, immune function, and anthropometry before a food-based nutrition intervention. Kenyan nurses visited women in their homes and conducted semi-structured interviews regarding symptoms and physical signs experienced at the time of the visit and during the previous week and physical inspection. Blood and urine samples were examined for determination of immune function (CD4, CD8, and total lymphocyte counts), anaemia, malaria, and pregnancy status. Intradermal skin testing with tuberculin (PPD), candida, and tetanus toxoid antigens was also performed to evaluate cell-mediated immunity. Anthropometry was measured, and body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Seventy-six per cent of the women reported being sick on the day of the interview or within the previous week. Illnesses considered serious were reported by 13.7% of women. The most frequent morbidity episodes reported were upper respiratory tract infections (13.3%), suspected malaria (5.85%), skeletal pain (4.87%), and stomach pain (4.42%). The most common morbidity signs on physical inspection were respiratory symptoms, most commonly rhinorrhea and coughing. Confirmed malaria and severe diarrhea were significantly associated with a higher BMI.
Dicko, Fatoumata; Desmonde, Sophie; Koumakpai, Sikiratou; Dior-Mbodj, Hélène; Kouéta, Fla; Baeta, Novisi; Koné, Niaboula; Akakpo, Jocelyn; Sy, Haby Signate; Ye, Diarra; Renner, Lorna; Lewden, Charlotte; Leroy, Valériane
Introduction Current knowledge on morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children comes from data collected in specific research programmes, which may offer a different standard of care compared to routine care. We described hospitalization data within a large observational cohort of HIV-infected children in West Africa (IeDEA West Africa collaboration). Methods We performed a six-month prospective multicentre survey from April to October 2010 in five HIV-specialized paediatric hospital wards in Ouagadougou, Accra, Cotonou, Dakar and Bamako. Baseline and follow-up data during hospitalization were recorded using a standardized clinical form, and extracted from hospitalization files and local databases. Event validation committees reviewed diagnoses within each centre. HIV-related events were defined according to the WHO definitions. Results From April to October 2010, 155 HIV-infected children were hospitalized; median age was 3 years [1–8]. Among them, 90 (58%) were confirmed for HIV infection during their stay; 138 (89%) were already receiving cotrimoxazole prophylaxis and 64 children (40%) had initiated antiretroviral therapy (ART). The median length of stay was 13 days (IQR: 7–23); 25 children (16%) died during hospitalization and four (3%) were transferred out. The leading causes of hospitalization were WHO stage 3 opportunistic infections (37%), non-AIDS-defining events (28%), cachexia and other WHO stage 4 events (25%). Conclusions Overall, most causes of hospitalizations were HIV related but one hospitalization in three was caused by a non-AIDS-defining event, mostly in children on ART. HIV-related fatality is also high despite the scaling-up of access to ART in resource-limited settings. PMID:24763078
Wakefield, A E; Stewart, T J; Moxon, E R; Marsh, K; Hopkin, J M
Pneumocystis pneumonia is rarely identified in the many immunosuppressed individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and malnutrition in Africa. To test whether infection with Pneumocystis carinii occurs in the continent we conducted a comparative serological study, measuring by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay antibodies to the parasite in 150 healthy young individuals from both Britain and the Gambian savanna. The prevalence of significant titres of antibody to P. carinii steadily increased with age and included more than 70% of both populations by 8 years of age. Infection with P. carinii is, therefore, common in the Gambia. Thus opportunistic pneumocystis pneumonia may be an important but largely unrecognized disease in the continent, though its impact is probably diminished by the prevalence of fatal tuberculous infection, particularly in the AIDS population.
Fawkner-Corbett, David W; Khoo, Siew Kim; Duarte, Carminha M; Bezerra, Patricia G M; Bochkov, Yury A; Gern, James E; Le Souef, Peter N; McNamara, Paul S
Human rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. We aimed to characterize the clinical and demographic features associated with different RV species detected in children attending hospital with ARI, from low-income families in North-east Brazil. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 630 children <5 years with ARI. Clinical diagnosis and disease severity were also recorded. Samples were analyzed by multiplex PCR for 18 viral and atypical bacterial pathogens; RV positive samples underwent partial sequencing to determine species and type. RV was the fourth commonest pathogen accounting for 18.7% of pathogens detected. RV was commonly detected in children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia, and asthma/episodic viral wheeze (EVW). Species and type were assigned in 112 cases (73% RV-A; 27% RV-C; 0% RV-B). Generally, there were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between those infected with RV-A and RV-C. However, in children with asthma/EVW, RV-C was detected relatively more frequently than RV-A (23% vs. 5%; P = 0.04). Our findings highlight RV as a potentially important pathogen in this setting. Generally, clinical and demographic features were similar in children in whom RV-A and C species were detected. However, RV-C was more frequently found in children with asthma/EVW than RV-A.
Fawkner-Corbett, DW; Khoo, SK; Duarte, MC; Bezerra, PGM; Bochkov, YA; Gern, JE; Le Souef, PN; McNamara, PS
Introduction Human rhinovirus (RV) is a common cause of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children. We aimed to characterise the clinical and demographic features associated with different RV species detected in children attending hospital with ARI, from low-income families in North-east Brazil. Methods Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected from 630 children <5years with ARI. Clinical diagnosis and disease severity were also recorded. Samples were analysed by multiplex PCR for 18 viral and atypical bacterial pathogens; RV positive samples underwent partial sequencing to determine species and type. Results RV was the fourth commonest pathogen accounting for 18.7% of pathogens detected. RV was commonly detected in children with bronchiolitis, pneumonia and asthma/episodic viral wheeze (EVW). Species and type were assigned in 112 cases (73% RV-A; 27% RV-C; 0% RV-B). Generally, there were no differences in clinical or demographic characteristics between those infected with RV-A and RV-C. However, in children with asthma/EVW, RV-C was detected relatively more frequently than RV-A (23% vs 5%; p=0.04). Conclusions Our findings highlight RV as a potentially important pathogen in this setting. Generally, clinical and demographic features were similar in children in whom RV A and C species were detected. However, RV-C was more frequently found in children with asthma/EVW than RV-A. PMID:26100591
Bach, D; Brühl, P; Hesse, A
Infection stones have an outstanding position in childhood urolithiasis. In non-infection stones one can mostly find a certain--for example metabolic--causes of stone formation. In infection stones, the urease-producing and thus urea-cleaving properties of some gram-negative bacteria are responsible for alkalization of the urine and lead especially in combination with disturbances of urine transport to the staghorn calculi. Therefore in such children early diagnosis, adequate therapy and consequent maintenance is the crucial point for good life quality in future. Preliminary condition for therapeutic success is a close coworking between pediatric nephrologist, pediatric urologist, family doctor and parents.
Lederman, Edith R; Austin, Connie; Trevino, Ingrid; Reynolds, Mary G; Swanson, Holly; Cherry, Bryan; Ragsdale, Jennifer; Dunn, John; Meidl, Susan; Zhao, Hui; Li, Yu; Pue, Howard; Damon, Inger K
Orf virus leads to self-limited, subacute cutaneous infections in children who have occupational or recreational contact with infected small ruminants. Breaches in the integument and contact with animals recently vaccinated for orf may be important risk factors in transmission. Common childhood behaviors are likely important factors in the provocation of significant contact (ie, bites) or in unusual lesion location (eg, facial lesions). Clinician recognition is important in distinguishing orf infection from life-threatening cutaneous zoonoses. Recently developed molecular techniques provide diagnostic precision and newer topical therapeutics may hasten healing.
Cabada, Miguel M; Morales, Maria Luisa; Lopez, Martha; Reynolds, Spencer T; Vilchez, Elizabeth C; Lescano, Andres G; Gotuzzo, Eduardo; Garcia, Hector Hugo; White, Clinton A
Hymenolepis nana is the most common cestode infection in the world. However, limited information is available regarding its impact on affected populations. We studied the epidemiology and symptoms associated with hymenolepiasis among children 3-16 years old in 16 rural communities of the highlands of the Cusco region in Peru. Information on demographics, socioeconomic status, symptoms as reported by parents, and parasitological testing was obtained from the database of an ongoing Fasciola hepatica epidemiologic study. A total of 1,230 children were included in the study. Forty-five percent were infected with at least one pathogenic intestinal parasite. Giardia spp. (22.9%) was the most common, followed by Hymenolepis (17.4%), Fasciola (14.1%), Ascaris lumbricoides (6.1%), and Strongyloides stercoralis (2%). The prevalence of Hymenolepis infection varied by community, by other parasitic infections, and by socioeconomic status. However, only years of education of the mother, use of well water, and age less than 10 years were associated with Hymenolepis infection in the multivariate analysis. Hymenolepis nana infection was associated with diarrhea, jaundice, headaches, fever, and fatigue. Children with > 500 eggs/g of stool were more likely to have symptoms of weight loss, jaundice, diarrhea, and fever. Hymenolepis nana infection and age were the only factors retained in the multivariate analysis modeling diarrhea. Hymenolepiasis is a common gastrointestinal helminth in the Cusco region and is associated with significant morbidity in children in rural communities. The impact caused by the emergence of Hymenolepis as a prevalent intestinal parasite deserves closer scrutiny.
Everard, C. O.; Hayes, R. J.; Edwards, C. N.
A serological survey for leptospiral agglutinins was undertaken between 1980 and 1983 in over 500 Barbadian and 500 Trinidadian school-children aged 7-14 years. The children were selected randomly from urban and rural schools, and examined three times at approximately annual intervals. A total of 12.5% of the Barbadian children and 9.5% of the Trinidadian children were seropositive at a titre of 50 using the microscopic agglutination test. On both islands, seroprevalence was higher in males than females, the difference being significant in rural schools. There was no evidence of a difference in prevalence between urban and rural schools, or between junior and secondary age-ranges. Analysis of the association of serology with socio-economic and behavioural factors showed a significant association in Trinidad with father's occupation, but most other variables on both islands showed only weak non-significant associations. Fourteen children in Trinidad and three in Barbados seroconverted. Seroconversion in Trinidad occurred at a rate of 1.6% per annum and was significantly associated with livestock contact and with absence of a tapped water supply. In Trinidad, Autumnalis was the most commonly recorded serogroup, but this accounted for less than a quarter of seropositives. In Barbados, Panama accounted for over half the seropositives and was about four times more common than the next most common serogroup, Autumnalis. In Barbados, 39 persons aged 19 or less were hospitalized with leptospirosis between November 1979 and December 1986. Average annual incidence rates were 2.2, 4.9 and 13.3 per 100,000 in the 5-9, 10-14 and 15-19 age-groups, respectively. PMID:2789146
Miller, K L
Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a commonly diagnosed condition in pediatric practice caused by a wide variety of organisms and conditions. Presenting with multiple signs and symptoms, UTI is frequently unrecognized and has the potential to cause permanent renal damage if recurrent or untreated. Nurses have a unique opportunity to prevent this condition, assist in the diagnosis, and contribute to management.
Andrade, Natália Silva; Pontes, Alessandra Silva; de Sousa Paz, Hélvis Enri; de Moura, Marcoeli Silva; Moura, Lúcia de Fátima Almeida de Deus; Lima, Marina de Deus Mourade
The objective was to determine the prevalence of molar incisor hypomineralization (MIH) among individuals between 7 and 15 years old infected or noninfected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The study was conducted with 33 HIV-infected individuals (study group; SG) and 66 non-HIV-infected schoolchildren (control group; CG), paired by gender and age. Data collection was based on medical records (SG), a questionnaire for caregivers and oral examination for diagnosis of MIH (European Academy of Pediatric Dentistry criteria) and caries (DMFT index and ICDAS). Data were analyzed with Mann-Whitney, chi-square, and Fisher's exact tests and logistic regression. In SG, MIH (45.5%) and caries (87.9%) had higher prevalence. MIH was associated with use of protease inhibitors in SG (OR: 2.14; 95% CI: 1.21 to 3.77) and incubator need in CG (OR: 2.80; 95% CI: 1.71 to 9.10). HIV-infected patients had a higher prevalence of MIH and dental caries in the permanent dentition.
Oliveira, Dinamene; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António
Introduction Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. Results The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). Conclusions This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children. PMID:26371758
Azim, T; Ahmad, S M; Sefat-E-Khuda; Sarker, M S; Unicomb, L E; De, S; Hamadani, J D; Salam, M A; Wahed, M A; Albert, M J
A prospective study was conducted with Bangladeshi children with rotavirus (RV) diarrhea to assess whether nutritional and clinical parameters, RV serotypes, levels of interleukin-10 (IL-10), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), and gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and RV-specific antibody titers in plasma and stool were associated with the development of persistent diarrhea. Children with watery diarrhea for 6 to 8 days, selected from the Dhaka Hospital of the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Disease Research, Bangladesh (ICDDR,B), were enrolled in the study and monitored until diarrhea improved. Children were classified as having acute diarrhea (AD) if diarrhea resolved within 14 days of onset and as having persistent diarrhea (PD) if diarrhea persisted for more than 14 days after onset. Uninfected, control children (n = 13) from the Nutrition Follow-Up Unit of ICDDR,B were also enrolled. Of the 149 children with diarrhea enrolled, 29 had diarrhea with RV alone, of which 19 had AD and 10 developed PD. Samples of stool and blood were collected from all children on enrollment. Stool samples were collected again from children when they developed PD. Of the 10 children who had an initial RV infection and then developed PD, only one had persistent RV infection. Plasma levels of IL-10 and TNF-alpha were higher in children with diarrhea compared to uninfected controls but were similar in children with AD and PD. Plasma IFN-gamma levels were higher in children who developed PD than in those with AD (P = 0.008) or uninfected controls (P = 0.001). In stools, the levels of TNF-alpha, the only cytokine detected, were similar in the three groups of children. RV-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) titers in plasma were higher in uninfected children than in those with AD (P < 0.001) or PD (P = 0.024) but titers were similar in children with AD and PD. RV-specific IgA titers in plasma and stool were similar in the three groups of children. From all observed parameters, only
Vaz, Sara Nunes; Giovanetti, Marta; Rego, Filipe Ferreira de Almeida; Oliveira, Tulio de; Danaviah, Siva; Gonçalves, Maria Luiza Freire; Alcantara, Luiz Carlos Junior; Brites, Carlos
Approximately 35 million people worldwide are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) around 3.2 million of whom are children under 15 years. Mother-to-child-transmission (MTCT) of HIV-1 accounts for 90% of all infections in children. Despite great advances in the prevention of MTCT in Brazil, children are still becoming infected. Samples from 19 HIV-1-infected families were collected. DNA was extracted and fragments from gag, pol, and env were amplified and sequenced directly. Phylogenetic reconstruction was performed. Drug resistance analyses were performed in pol and env sequences. We found 82.1% of subtype B and 17.9% of BF recombinants. A prevalence of 43.9% drug resistance-associated mutations in pol sequences was identified. Of the drug-naive children 33.3% presented at least one mutation related to protease inhibitor/nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor/nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (PI/NRTI/NNRTI) resistance. The prevalence of transmitted drug resistance mutations was 4.9%. On env we found a low prevalence of HR1 (4.9%) and HR2 (14.6%) mutations.
As the result of improved bacteriological techniques, Kingella kingae is emerging as an important cause of infections of the skeletal system in children younger than 2 years of age. This review details the bacteriological features and detection methods of this pathogen, as well as the epidemiology, clinical presentation, treatment and prognosis of septic arthritis, osteomyelitis and diskitis caused by the organism.
Gismondi, Pierpacifico; Maffini, Valentina; Bizzarri, Barbara; Fornaroli, Fabiola; Madia, Carmen; Salerno, Antonino; Cangelosi, A. Marta; de'Angelis, Gian Luigi
The eradication therapy of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is still a challenge for gastroenterologists. One of the main causes of failure in H. pylori eradication is the antibiotic resistance mainly to clarithromycin. Culture from biopsies is maybe the most used method among the antimicrobial susceptibility techniques. In this study, we compared the antimicrobial susceptibility changes in children with H. pylori infection over 13 years and we confirmed that clarithromycin resistance has been increased (16% versus 26%) though with no statistically signficant value. Therefore, clarithromycin should not be used in empiric treatment of H. pylori eradication therapy in children, but its use should be limited only to children with known antimicrobial susceptibility. On the other hand, metronidazole resistance has decreased over this time period in statistically significant manner (56% versus 33%, p = 0.014). Furthermore, ampicillin resistance has been confirmed to be very rare (3% versus 0%) in children with H. pylori infection. In conclusion, in H. pylori infection, if we do not know the antibiotic susceptibility of patients, we should recommend an eradication therapy based on the local distribution of antibiotic resistance rates trying to limit the therapeutic failures. PMID:26064096
Background The causation of asthma is poorly understood. Risk factors for atopic and non-atopic asthma may be different. This study aimed to analyze the associations between markers of poverty, dirt and infections and wheezing in atopic and non-atopic children. Methods 1445 children were recruited from a population-based cohort in Salvador, Brazil. Wheezing was assessed using the ISAAC questionnaire and atopy defined as allergen-specific IgE ≥0.70 kU/L. Relevant social factors, environmental exposures and serological markers for childhood infections were investigated as risk factors using multivariate multinomial logistic regression. Results Common risk factors for wheezing in atopic and non-atopic children, respectively, were parental asthma and respiratory infection in early childhood. No other factor was associated with wheezing in atopic children. Factors associated with wheezing in non-atopics were low maternal educational level (OR 1.49, 95% CI 0.98-2.38), low frequency of room cleaning (OR 2.49, 95% CI 1.27-4.90), presence of rodents in the house (OR 1.48, 95% CI 1.06-2.09), and day care attendance (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.01-2.29). Conclusions Non-atopic wheezing was associated with risk factors indicative of poverty, dirt and infections. Further research is required to more precisely define the mediating exposures and the mechanisms by which they may cause non-atopic wheeze. PMID:21122116
Li, Yuefang; Xie, Xinbao; Xu, Xuebing; Wang, Xiangshi; Chang, Hailing; Wang, Chuanqing; Wang, Aiming; He, Yanlei; Yu, Hui; Wang, Xiaohong; Zeng, Mei
Information about nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) infection in children is limited in mainland China. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence, serotypes, and antibiotic resistance patterns of NTS infection in children in Shanghai. All cases with probable bacterial diarrhea were enrolled from the enteric clinic of a tertiary pediatric hospital between July 2010 and December 2011. Salmonella isolation, serotyping, and antimicrobial susceptibility testing were conducted by the microbiological laboratory. NTS were recovered from 316 (17.2%) of 1833 cases with isolation rate exceeding Campylobacter (7.1%) and Shigella (5.7%). NTS infection was prevalent year-round with a seasonal peak during summer and autumn. The median age of children with NTS gastroenteritis was 18 months. Fever and blood-in-stool were reported in 52.5% and 42.7% of cases, respectively. Salmonella Enteritidis (38.9%) and Salmonella Typhimurium (29.7%) were the most common serovars. Antimicrobial susceptibility showed 60.5% of isolates resistant to ≥1 clinically important antibiotics. Resistance to ciprofloxacin and the third-generation cephalosporins was detected in 5.5% and 7.1%-11.7% of isolates, respectively. NTS is a major enteropathogen responsible for bacterial gastroenteritis in children in Shanghai. Resistance to the current first-line antibiotics is of concern. Ongoing surveillance for NTS infection and antibiotic resistance is needed to control this pathogen in Shanghai.
Tetali, S; Abrams, E; Bakshi, S; Paul, M; Oyaizu, N; Pahwa, S
The relationship of virus load to clinical disease progression in HIV-infected children remains to be elucidated. In this study, HIV-1 proviral DNA load was determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the quantitative competitive DNA polymerase chain reaction assay (QC-PCR) in 47 HIV-infected children subdivided by age (group I, < or = 2 years; group II, > or = 5 years), who were further categorized to include 12 rapid progressors (RP, age < or = 2 years, Centers for Disease Control [CDC] defined clinical category C and/or immune category 3, or death before age 2 years) and slow progressors (SP, age > or = 5 years, excluding CDC categories C and/or immune category 3). Significantly higher mean proviral copies/10(3) PBMCs were detected in group I versus group II (75.4 +/- 104.3 and 13.0 +/- 17.8 respectively, p < 0.0001) and in RP (158.0 +/- 118.2) as compared to either SP (11.8 +/- 18.8, p < 0.0001) or other age-matched infected children (20.3 +/- 38.8, p < 0.0001). Thus HIV-infected children appear to have a higher cell-associated virus load early in life, especially in association with rapid disease progression.
Ellis, Walter L.
It is well documented that perinatally HIV-infected children experience difficulty in learning as well as behavioral and social problems in the school setting. While the research is mixed on the effect of the HIV virus on behavioral and social problems, it is much clearer on the effect of this virus on learning. This exploratory study identifies…
Sever, J L; Rakusan, T A; Ellaurie, M; Frenkel, N; Wyatt, L S; Campos, J M; O'Donnell, R M; Price, M V
Coinfection with herpesviruses in young children born to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected women was studied with blood samples from children who were 9-12 months and 15-24 months of age. Three groups of children were included: (I) HIV-uninfected, asymptomatic (HIV-); (II) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and/or culture-positive and asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic (HIV+ asymptomatic); and (III) PCR and/or culture-positive and symptomatic (HIV+ symptomatic). Significantly more of the HIV+ symptomatic patients had cytomegalovirus (CMV) antibody than the HIV patients. In addition, CMV antibody levels were significantly higher in the HIV+ symptomatic patients than in either of the other two groups. Human herpesvirus 7 (HHV-7) antibody titers were significantly different among the three groups of patients; however, no pairwise comparisons were significant. No differences were found for HHV-6 or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) antibody frequencies or titers. These findings suggest that infection with CMV is a cofactor or an opportunistic infection causing symptomatic HIV infections in young children.
This essay acknowledges that the HIV/AIDS pandemic has created entire communities for whom loss has become a common and a shared experience. As a result of this impact of HIV/AIDS, several questions surface. However, the one question upon which this essay focuses is, "What type of environment is required for children infected and affected by…
Oh, Jun Suk; Choi, Jun Sik; Lee, Young Hyuk; Ko, Kyung Og; Lim, Jae Woo; Cheon, Eun Jung; Lee, Gyung Min
Purpose We sought to examine the relationship between the clinical manifestations of nonspecific reactive hepatitis and respiratory virus infection in pediatric patients. Methods Patients admitted to the pediatric unit of Konyang University Hospital for lower respiratory tract disease between January 1, 2014 and December 31, 2014 and who underwent reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction tests were examined. The patients were divided into those with increased levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and those with normal ALT or AST levels. Further, patients with increased ALT and AST levels were individually compared with patients in the normal group, and the blood test results were compared according to the type of respiratory virus. Results Patients with increased ALT or AST levels had one more day of hospital stay, on average, compared with patients in the normal group (5.3±3.1 days vs. 4.4±3.0 days, p=0.019). Patients in the increased ALT level group were younger and had a longer mean hospital stay, compared with patients in the normal group (p=0.022 and 0.003, respectively). The incidences of increased ALT or AST were the highest in adenovirus infections (6/24, 25.0%), followed by enterovirus (2/11, 18.2%) and respiratory syncytial virus A (21/131, 16.0%) infections. Conclusion Nonspecific reactive hepatitis is more common among patients with adenovirus, enterovirus and respiratory syncytial virus infection, as well as among those infected at a younger age. Compared with AST levels, ALT levels are better indicators of the severity of nonspecific reactive hepatitis. PMID:28090469
McKibben, Maxim; Mungai, Peter; Muchiri, Eric M.; McKibben, Elisabeth; Gildengorin, Ginny; Sutherland, Laura J.; King, Charles H.; King, Christopher L.; Malhotra, Indu
Background Parasitic infections, which are among the most common infections worldwide, disproportionately affect children; however, little is known about the impact of parasitic disease on growth in very early childhood. Our objective was to document the prevalence of parasitic infections and examine their association with growth during the first three years of life among children in coastal Kenya. Methodology/Principal Findings Children enrolled in a maternal-child cohort were tested for soil transmitted helminths (STHs: Ascaris, Trichuris, hookworm, Strongyloides), protozoa (malaria, Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia), filaria, and Schistosoma infection every six months from birth until age three years. Anthropometrics were measured at each visit. We used generalized estimating equation (GEE) models to examine the relationship between parasitic infections experienced in the first three years of life and growth outcomes (weight, length and head circumference). Of 545 children, STHs were the most common infection with 106 infections (19%) by age three years. Malaria followed in period prevalence with 68 infections (12%) by three years of age. Filaria and Schistosoma infection occurred in 26 (4.8%) and 16 (2.9%) children, respectively. Seven percent were infected with multiple parasites by three years of age. Each infection type (when all STHs were combined) was documented by six months of age. Decreases in growth of weight, length and head circumference during the first 36 months of life were associated with hookworm, Ascaris, E. histolytica, malaria and Schistosoma infection. In a subset analysis of 180 children who followed up at every visit through 24 months, infection with any parasite was associated with decelerations in weight, length and head circumference growth velocity. Multiple infections were associated with greater impairment of linear growth. Conclusions/Significance Our results demonstrate an under-recognized burden of parasitism in the first
Hagel, I; Cabrera, M; Puccio, F; Santaella, C; Buvat, E; Infante, B; Zabala, M; Cordero, R; Di Prisco, M C
We evaluated the effect of Ascaris lumbricoides on Giardia duodenalis infection and TH1/TH2 type immune mechanisms toward this parasite in 251 rural parasitized and 70 urban non-parasitized school children. The children were classified according to light (0-5000 eggs/g faeces) or moderate (>5001-50,000 eggs/g faeces) A. lumbricoides infection. Anti G. duodenalis skin hyper-reactivity, IgE, IgG, IL-13, IFN γ, IL6 and IL-10 levels were compared among G. duodenalis infected and non-infected children according to light or moderate A. lumbricoides infection. It was found that 62% of the A. lumbricoides moderately infected children were co-infected by G. duodenalis compared to 45% of the lightly infected group. After treatment, 42% of the A. lumbricoides moderately group were infected with G. duodenalis compared to 11% of their lightly counterparts, being A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels higher (p<0.0001) in the moderately infected group. In the A. lumbricoides lightly parasitized children, G. duodenalis infection was associated to a significant increase (p<0.005) of the levels of G. duodenalis IL-13, IFN-γ, IL-6, IgE, IgG and skin test hyper reactivity. In contrast, there was no effect of G. duodenalis infection in the elevation of these parameters among the A. lumbricoides moderately parasitized group, being those levels similarly lower as those observed in the control group. Inverse correlations were found between the levels of anti G duodenalis antibodies, skin test hyper-reactivity and cytokines with the intensity of A. lumbricoides infection (p>0.0001) and A. lumbricoides IL-10 levels (p>0.0001), suggesting that co-infection with A. lumbricoides may affect both TH1 and TH2 type immunity against G. duodenalis that may play an important role in the susceptibility to the infection after chemotherapy in children from endemic areas.
Pinzón-Iregui, María C.; Malow, Robert M.
Since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (ART) in 1996, HIV-infected children often survive beyond adolescence. To assess worldwide trends in disclosure since ART was introduced, we reviewed articles that refer to disclosure of their status to HIV-infected children, and which described patient, health care provider and/or caregiver opinions about disclosure and/or reported the proportion of children who knew their diagnosis. Most studies (17 [55%]) were performed in low- or middle-income (LMI) countries. In the 21 articles that included information on whether the children knew their status, the proportion who knew ranged from 1.2 to 75.0% and was lower in LMI (median = 20.4%) than industrialized countries (43%; p = 0.04). LMI country study participants who knew their status tended to have learned it at older ages (median = 9.6 years) than industrialized country participants (median = 8.3 years; p = 0.09). The most commonly reported anticipated risks (i.e. emotional trauma to child and child divulging status to others) and benefits (i.e. improved ART adherence) of disclosure did not vary by the country’s economic development. Only one article described and evaluated a disclosure process. Despite recommendations, most HIV-infected children worldwide do not know their status. Disclosure strategies addressing caregiver concerns are urgently needed. PMID:23070738
Verkauskiene, Rasa; Dollfus, Catherine; Levine, Martine; Faye, Albert; Deghmoun, Samia; Houang, Muriel; Chevenne, Didier; Bresson, Jean-Louis; Blanche, Stéphane; Lévy-Marchal, Claire
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related lipodystrophy is characterized by adipose tissue redistribution, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance. We hypothesized that fat redistribution and metabolic abnormalities in HIV-infected children are related to alterations in endocrine function of adipose tissue. A multicenter study was conducted in 130 HIV-infected children. Lipodystrophy definition was based on the central to peripheral skinfold ratio. Fasting adiponectin, leptin, insulin concentrations, glycemia, and lipid profile were measured in all children. Fat redistribution syndrome was apparent in 32 children: 14 with atrophic (LPDA) and 18 with hypertrophic lipodystrophy (LPDH). Mean serum adiponectin levels were significantly decreased in LPDA and LPDH groups compared with the group with no lipodystrophy (LPD-). Fasting insulin concentration was significantly higher in LPDA and LPDH groups versus LPD-. Mean serum leptin concentration was significantly increased only in LPDH compared with LPDA and LPD- groups. Triglyceride levels were significantly increased and high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol concentration decreased in the LPDA versus LPD- group. Controlling for puberty stage, gender, percentage of total fat mass, serum lipids, HIV treatment, and disease severity, adiponectin was significantly and inversely associated with central obesity and insulin/glucose ratio. Fat redistribution had no significant effect on leptin concentration, which was directly related to the percentage of body fat, female gender, and insulin/glucose ratio. In conclusion, HIV-infected children with symptoms of fat redistribution have decreased levels of adiponectin, associated with insulin resistance and dyslipidemia.
Alarcón, Jorge O.; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F.; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M.; Cardoso, Edmundo
Abstract Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates. PMID:21902581
Alarcón, Jorge O; Freimanis-Hance, Laura; Krauss, Margot; Reyes, Mary F; Cardoso, Claudete Aparecida Araújo; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa M; Cardoso, Edmundo; Hazra, Rohan
Opportunistic and other infections have declined since the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in developed countries but few studies have addressed the impact of HAART in HIV-infected children from developing countries. This study examines the prevalence and incidence of opportunistic and other infections in Latin America during the HAART era. Vertically HIV-infected children enrolled in a cohort study between 2002 and 2007 were followed for the occurrence of 29 targeted infections. Cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses were performed to calculate the prevalence of infections before enrollment and the incidence rates of opportunistic and other infections after enrollment. Comparisons were made with data from a U.S. cohort (PACTG 219C). Of the 731 vertically HIV-infected children 568 (78%) had at least one opportunistic or other infection prior to enrollment. The most prevalent infections were bacterial pneumonia, oral candidiasis, varicella, tuberculosis, herpes zoster, and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. After enrollment, the overall incidence was 23.5 per 100 person-years; the most common infections (per 100 person-years) were bacterial pneumonia (7.8), varicella (3.0), dermatophyte infections (2.9), herpes simplex (2.5), and herpes zoster (1.8). All of these incidence rates were higher than those reported in PACTG 219C. The types and relative distribution of infections among HIV-infected children in Latin America in this study are similar to those seen in the United States but the incidence rates are higher. Further research is necessary to determine the reasons for these higher rates.
Van Dalen, Yvonne W.; Blokhuis, Charlotte; Cohen, Sophie; Ter Stege, Jacqueline A.; Teunissen, Charlotte E.; Kuhle, Jens; Kootstra, Neeltje A.; Scherpbier, Henriette J.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Pajkrt, Dasja
Abstract Despite treatment with combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), cognitive impairment is still observed in perinatally HIV-infected children. We aimed to evaluate potential underlying cerebral injury by comparing neurometabolite levels between perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls. This cross-sectional study evaluated neurometabolites, as measured by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS), in perinatally HIV-infected children stable on cART (n = 26) and healthy controls (n = 36). Participants were included from a cohort of perinatally HIV-infected children and healthy controls, matched group-wise for age, gender, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. N-acetylaspartate (NAA), glutamate (Glu), myo-inositol (mI), and choline (Cho) levels were studied as ratios over creatine (Cre). Group differences and associations with HIV-related parameters, cognitive functioning, and neuronal damage markers (neurofilament and total Tau proteins) were determined using age-adjusted linear regression analyses. HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter (HIV-infected = 0.29 ± 0.03; controls = 0.27 ± 0.03; P value = 0.045). Lower nadir CD4+ T-cell Z-scores were associated with reduced neuronal integrity markers NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre. A Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) stage C diagnosis was associated with higher glial markers Cho:Cre and mI:Cre. Poorer cognitive performance was mainly associated with higher Cho:Cre in HIV-infected children, and with lower NAA:Cre and Glu:Cre in healthy controls. There were no associations between neurometabolites and neuronal damage markers in blood or CSF. Compared to controls, perinatally HIV-infected children had increased Cho:Cre in white matter, suggestive of ongoing glial proliferation. Levels of several neurometabolites were associated with cognitive performance, suggesting that MRS may be a useful method to assess cerebral changes potentially linked to
Hirst, Ceri; Owusu-Ofori, Shirley
Background This is an update of a Cochrane Review first published in 2002, and previously updated in 2012. People with sickle cell disease are particularly susceptible to infection. Infants and very young children are especially vulnerable, and the 'Co-operative Study of Sickle Cell Disease' observed an incidence rate of 10 per 100 patient years of pneumococcal septicaemia in children under the age of three.Vaccines, including customary pneumococcal vaccines, may be of limited use in this age group. Therefore, prophylactic penicillin regimens may be advisable for this population.Objectives To assess the effects of prophylactic antibiotic regimens for preventing pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease.Search methods We searched the Cochrane Cystic Fibrosis and Genetic Disorders Group Haemoglobinopathies Trials Register, which is comprised of references identified from comprehensive electronic database searches and handsearches of relevant journals and abstract books of conference proceedings.Date of the most recent search: 26 June 2014.Selection criteria All randomised or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing prophylactic antibiotics to prevent pneumococcal infection in children with sickle cell disease with placebo, no treatment or a comparator drug.Data collection and analysis Both authors independently extracted data and assessed trial quality.Main results Five trials were identified by the initial search, of which three trials met the inclusion criteria. All of the included trials showed a reduced incidence of infection in children with sickle cell disease (SS or Sβ0Thal) receiving prophylactic penicillin. In trials which investigated initiation of penicillin on risk of pneumococcal infection, the odds ratio was 0.37 (95% CI 0.16 to 0.86), while for withdrawal the odds ratio was 0.49 (95% CI 0.09 to 2.71). Adverse drug effects were rare and minor. Rates of pneumococcal infection were found to be relatively low in children over the age
Background Asthma is a major public health problem with a huge social and economic burden affecting 300 million people worldwide. Viral respiratory infections are the major cause of acute asthma exacerbations and may contribute to asthma inception in high risk young children with susceptible genetic background. Acute exacerbations are associated with decreased lung growth or accelerated loss of lung function and, as such, add substantially to both the cost and morbidity associated with asthma. Discussion While the importance of preventing viral infection is well established, preventive strategies have not been well explored. Good personal hygiene, hand-washing and avoidance of cigarette smoke are likely to reduce respiratory viral infections. Eating a healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and bacterial-derived products, such as OM-85, may reduce recurrent infections in susceptible children. There are no practical anti-viral therapies currently available that are suitable for widespread use. Summary Hand hygiene is the best measure to prevent the common cold. A healthy balanced diet, active probiotic supplements and immunostimulant OM-85 may reduce recurrent infections in asthmatic children. PMID:22974166
Lee, Eun Jin; Kim, Jae-Seok; Song, Wonkeun; Kim, MiYoung; Lee, Young Kyung
Human bocaviruses (HBoVs) are suggested to be etiologic agents of childhood respiratory and gastrointestinal infections. There are four main recognized genotypes of HBoVs (HBoV1–4); the HBoV-1 genotype is considered to be the primary etiologic agent in respiratory infections, whereas the HBoV2–4 genotypes have been mainly associated with gastrointestinal infections. The aim of the present study was to determine the distribution of HBoV genotypes in children with respiratory or gastrointestinal infections in a hospital in Korea. A total of 662 nasopharyngeal swabs (NPSs) and 155 fecal specimens were collected from children aged 5 years or less. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was conducted to detect the NS1 HBoV gene. The VP1 gene of HBoV was further amplified in samples that were positive for the NS1 gene. The PCR products of VP1 gene amplification were genotyped by sequence analysis. HBoV was detected in 69 (14.5%) of 662 NPSs and in 10 (6.5%) of 155 fecal specimens. Thirty-three isolates from NPSs and five isolates from fecal specimens were genotyped, and all 38 sequenced isolates were identified as the HBoV-1 genotype. HBoV-1 is the most prevalent genotype in children with respiratory or gastrointestinal HBoV infections in a hospital in Korea. PMID:27990436
Zhang, Xu-Fu; Long, Yan; Tan, Ming; Zhang, Ting; Huang, Qiong; Jiang, Xi; Tan, Wen-Fang; Li, Jian-Dong; Hu, Gui-Fang; Tang, Shixing; Dai, Ying-Chun
Rotaviruses are known to recognize human histo-blood group antigens (HBGAs) as a host ligand that is believed to play an important role in rotavirus host susceptibility and host range. In this study, paired fecal and saliva samples collected from children with viral gastroenteritis, as well as paired serum and saliva samples collected from the general population in south China were studied to evaluate potential association between rotavirus infections and human HBGA phenotypes. Rotavirus was detected in 75 (28%) of 266 fecal samples and P rotaviruses were found to be the predominant genotype. The HBGA phenotypes of the rotavirus-infected children were determined through their saliva samples. Secretor statuses were found to correlate with the risk of rotavirus infection and all P/P rotavirus infected children were secretors. Accordingly, recombinant VP8* proteins of the P/P rotaviruses bound saliva samples from secretor individuals. Furthermore, correlation between serum P/P-specific IgG and host Lewis and secretor phenotypes has been found among 206 studied serum samples. Our study supported the association between rotavirus infection and the host HBGA phenotypes, which would help further understanding of rotavirus host range and epidemiology. PMID:27708367
de Graaf, H; Pai, S; Burns, D A; Karas, J A; Enoch, D A; Faust, S N
Although Clostridium difficile is a major cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea in adults, the incidence and severity of C. difficile infection (CDI) in children is unclear. One complicating factor in assessing the role of CDI in children is the possibility of co-infection with other gastrointestinal pathogens. In this review, we summarise the literature concerning C. difficile co-infections in young children, in an attempt to discuss the rate of co-infections and their potential role in the severity of CDI clinical presentation. We identified 31 studies where co-infections were analysed, comprising 1,718 patients with positive C. difficile tests. The pooled percentage of reported co-infections was 20.7% (range 0-100%). Viral co-infections were most commonly reported (46%), with bacteria and parasites accounting for 14.9% and 0.01% of cases, respectively. However, the panel of co-infections tested for varied considerably among studies and 38% of stated co-infections did not have a pathogen reported. Substantial variation in how and when tests for gastrointestinal co-infections are carried out, small sample sizes and a lack of clear CDI case definitions preclude meaningful conclusions on the true rate of co-infections in this patient population. This review suggests that co-infections may be common in children with diarrhoea who tested positive for C. difficile. Given a lack of CDI case definitions, especially in young children under the age of 5 years, a broad panel of pathogens should be tested for to exclude other microbiological causes. However, the summarised poor quality of the available literature on this subject highlights a need for further studies.
Pipatsatitpong, Duangnate; Leelayoova, Saovanee; Mungthin, Mathirut; Aunpad, Ratchaneewan; Naaglor, Tawee; Rangsin, Ram
In September 2009, a cross-sectional study was conducted to evaluate parasitic infections in a child care center in Khlong Toei, Bangkok, Thailand. Of 503 children and staff members, 258 (51.3%) stool samples and questionnaires were obtained. The most common parasitic infection was Blastocystis sp. (13.6%). Blastocystis sp. subtype 3 was predominantly found (80.0%), followed by subtypes 2 (12.0%) and 1 (8.0%). The prevalence of Blastocystis infection varied among different age groups. The prevalence of Blastocystis infection in non-HIV-infected children aged < 10 and 10-19 years were 14.5% and 10.3%, respectively, which were not significantly different. All 31 HIV-infected children were not infected with Blastocystis sp. The most likely reason could be the result of properly using prevention measures for this specific group.
Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Vu, M P; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H
Information about viral acute respiratory infections (ARIs) is essential for prevention, diagnosis and treatment, but it is limited in tropical developing countries. This study described the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of ARIs in children hospitalized in Vietnam. Nasopharyngeal samples were collected from children with ARIs at Ho Chi Minh City Children's Hospital 2 between April 2010 and May 2011 in order to detect respiratory viruses by polymerase chain reaction. Viruses were found in 64% of 1082 patients, with 12% being co-infections. The leading detected viruses were human rhinovirus (HRV; 30%), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV; 23·8%), and human bocavirus (HBoV; 7·2%). HRV was detected all year round, while RSV epidemics occurred mainly in the rainy season. Influenza A (FluA) was found in both seasons. The other viruses were predominant in the dry season. HRV was identified in children of all age groups. RSV, parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, PIV3 and HBoV, and FluA were detected predominantly in children aged 24 months, respectively. Significant associations were found between PIV1 with croup (P < 0·005) and RSV with bronchiolitis (P < 0·005). HBoV and HRV were associated with hypoxia (P < 0·05) and RSV with retraction (P < 0·05). HRV, RSV, and HBoV were detected most frequently and they may increase the severity of ARIs in children.
Khan, A. J.; Khan, J. A.; Akbar, M.; Addiss, D. G.
Between 1985 and 1987, a community-based case-management programme for acute lower respiratory infection (ALRI) was conducted in a rural district of northern Pakistan. The impact on infant and child mortality of this programme, which included active case-finding and maternal health education, was evaluated. In 1985-86, the ALRI-specific mortality rate among children less than 5 years old in 31 intervention villages was 6.3 deaths per 1000 children per year, compared with 14.4 in seven control villages (P = 0.0001). Within one year of the interventions being extended to the control villages in 1987, the ALRI-specific mortality rate in these villages dropped by 55% to 6.5 per 1000 children per year (P = 0.06). The total child mortality rate in 1985-86 was 29.0 per 1000 children per year in the intervention villages and 39.4 per 1000 children in the control villages, a difference of 26% (P = 0.01). With the interventions in 1987, the total child mortality rate in the control villages declined by 29% to 27.8 per 1000 children per year (P = 0.09). Similar intervention-associated declines in the infant mortality rate were also observed. Case management of acute respiratory infection by village-level community health workers backed up by local health centre staff appeared to significantly reduce both ALRI-specific and total infant and child mortality rates in this setting. PMID:2289294
Brent, Andrew J; Lakhanpaul, Monica; Thompson, Matthew; Collier, Jacqueline; Ray, Samiran; Ninis, Nelly; Levin, Michael; MacFaul, Roddy
Objectives To derive and validate a clinical score to risk stratify children presenting with acute infection. Study design and participants Observational cohort study of children presenting with suspected infection to an emergency department in England. Detailed data were collected prospectively on presenting clinical features, laboratory investigations and outcome. Clinical predictors of serious bacterial infection (SBI) were explored in multivariate logistic regression models using part of the dataset, each model was then validated in an independent part of the dataset, and the best model was chosen for derivation of a clinical risk score for SBI. The ability of this score to risk stratify children with SBI was then assessed in the entire dataset. Main outcome measure Final diagnosis of SBI according to criteria defined by the Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health working group on Recognising Acute Illness in Children. Results Data from 1951 children were analysed. 74 (3.8%) had SBI. The sensitivity of individual clinical signs was poor, although some were highly specific for SBI. A score was derived with reasonable ability to discriminate SBI (area under the receiver operator characteristics curve 0.77, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.83) and risk stratify children with suspected SBI. Conclusions This study demonstrates the potential utility of a clinical score in risk stratifying children with suspected SBI. Further work should aim to validate the score and its impact on clinical decision making in different settings, and ideally incorporate it into a broader management algorithm including additional investigations to further stratify a child's risk. PMID:21266341
Moreno, Y F; Sgarbieri, V C; da Silva, M N; Toro, A A D C; Vilela, M M S
HIV infection is associated with subnormal GSH levels. An increase in glutathione levels has been observed in HIV-infected adults under oral whey protein supplementation. We studied the features associated with a whey protein concentrate supplementation in children with rapidly progressive AIDS. A prospective double-blind clinical trial was carried out for 4 months with 18 vertically HIV-infected children (1.98-6.37 years), under antiretroviral therapy, who had received whey protein, maltodextrin (placebo) or none. Erythrocyte glutathione concentration, T lymphocyte counts (CD4+ and CD8+) and occurrence of associated co-infections were evaluated. Wilcoxon's and Fischer's Exact tests were used to assess differences between whey protein-supplemented and control (placebo and non-supplemented) groups. A significant median increase of 16.14 mg/dl (p = 0.018) in erythrocyte glutathione levels was observed in the whey protein-supplemented group; the TCD4/CD8 lymphocyte ratio showed a non significant increase and lower occurrence of associated co-infections was also observed. In conclusion, whey protein concentrate supplementation can stimulate glutathione synthesis and, possibly, decrease the occurrence of associated co-infections.
Acute respiratory infections are a major cause of morbidity in children both in developed and developing countries. A wide range of respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza A and B viruses, parainfluenza viruses (PIVs), adenovirus, rhinovirus (HRV), have repeatedly been detected in acute lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) in children in the past decades. However, in the last ten years thanks to progress in molecular technologies, newly discovered viruses have been identified including human Metapneumovirus (hMPV), coronaviruses NL63 (HcoV-NL63) and HKU1 (HcoV-HKU1), human Bocavirus (HBoV), new enterovirus (HEV), parechovirus (HpeV) and rhinovirus (HRV) strains, polyomaviruses WU (WUPyV) and KI (KIPyV) and the pandemic H1N1v influenza A virus. These discoveries have heavily modified previous knowledge on respiratory infections mainly highlighting that pediatric population is exposed to a variety of viruses with similar seasonal patterns. In this context establishing a causal link between a newly identified virus and the disease as well as an association between mixed infections and an increase in disease severity can be challenging. This review will present an overview of newly recognized as well as the main emerging respiratory viruses and seek to focus on the their contribution to infection and co-infection in LRTIs in childhood. PMID:23102237
Tran, Adissa; Talmud, Déborah; Lejeune, Benoît; Jovenin, Nicolas; Renois, Fanny; Payan, Christopher; Leveque, Nicolas; Andreoletti, Laurent
From January to December 2007, 973 stool specimens were prospectively collected from children hospitalized for gastroenteritis signs or from neonates and premature cases who were born in two French hospital settings in the north of France. They were tested by rapid enzyme immunoassay (EIA) analyses for rotavirus and adenovirus and by two commercially available ELISA tests for the detection of norovirus and astrovirus. The overall rates of prevalence for rotavirus, norovirus, adenovirus, and astrovirus were 21, 13, 5, and 1.8%, respectively, and they did not significantly differ between the two hospital settings (P = 0.12). Mixed virus infections were detected in 32 (3.3%) of the 973 study children and were associated with norovirus in 21 (66%) infants, including 5 premature cases. From fall to spring, norovirus infections accounted for 52% of documented gastroenteritidis viral infections at a time when rotavirus was epidemic, resulting in mixed norovirus and rotavirus gastrointestinal tract infections. Of the 367 documented viral gastroenteritis cases, 15 (4.1%) were identified as nosocomial infections, 5 of which occurred in premature cases. These findings highlight the need to implement norovirus and astrovirus ELISA detection assays in association with rapid EIA rotavirus and adenovirus detection assays for the clinical diagnosis and the nosocomial prevention of gastroenteritis viral infections in pediatric departments. PMID:20305010
Kendall, Emily A.; González, Elsa; Espinoza, Iván; Tipismana, Martín; Verdonck, Kristien; Clark, Daniel; Vermund, Sten H.; Gotuzzo, Eduardo
Objective Because human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1)-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP) may occur in some children infected with HTLV-1-infected, we sought to determine the prevalence of neurologic abnormalities and any associations with infective dermatitis in these children. Study design We enrolled 58 children infected with HTLV-1 and 42 uninfected children (ages 3-17) of mothers infected with HTLV-1 in a family study in Lima, Peru. We obtained medical and developmental histories, surveyed current neurologic symptoms, and conducted a standardized neurologic examination without prior knowledge of HTLV-1 status. Results HTLV-1 infection was associated with reported symptoms of lower extremity weakness/fatigue (OR=6.1, CI:0.7–281), lumbar pain (odds ratio [OR] = 1.7, 95% confidence interval [CI]:0.4–8), and paresthesia/dysesthesia (OR=2.6, CI:0.6–15.8). HTLV-1 infection was associated with lower-extremity hyperreflexia (OR=3.1, CI:0.8–14.2), ankle clonus (OR=5.0, CI:1.0–48.3), and extensor plantar reflex (OR undefined; p = 0.2). Among children infected HTLV-1, a history of infective dermatitis was associated with weakness (OR=2.7, CI:0.3–33), lumbar pain (OR=1.3, CI:0.2–8), paresthesia/dysesthesia (OR=2.9, CI:0.5–20), and urinary disturbances (OR=5.7, CI:0.5–290). Conclusions Abnormal neurologic findings were common in Peruvian children infected with HTLV-1, and several findings were co-prevalent with infective dermatitis. Pediatricians should monitor children infected with HTLV-1 for neurologic abnormalities. PMID:19628219
Background Severe malaria remains a major cause of pediatric hospital admission across Africa. Invasive bacterial infection (IBI) is a recognized complication of Plasmodium falciparum malaria, resulting in a substantially worse outcome. Whether a biological relationship exists between malaria infection and IBI susceptibility remains unclear. We, therefore, examined the extent, nature and evidence of this association. Methods We conducted a systematic search in August 2012 of three major scientific databases, PubMed, Embase and Africa Wide Information, for articles describing bacterial infection among children with P. falciparum malaria using the search string ‘(malaria OR plasmodium) AND (bacteria OR bacterial OR bacteremia OR bacteraemia OR sepsis OR septicaemia OR septicemia).’ Eligiblity criteria also included studies of children hospitalized with malaria or outpatient attendances in sub-Saharan Africa. Results A total of 25 studies across 11 African countries fulfilled our criteria. They comprised twenty cohort analyses, two randomized controlled trials and three prospective epidemiological studies. In the meta-analysis of 7,208 children with severe malaria the mean prevalence of IBI was 6.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 5.81 to 6.98%). In a further meta-analysis of 20,889 children hospitalised with all-severity malaria and 27,641 children with non-malarial febrile illness the mean prevalence of IBI was 5.58 (95% CI 5.5 to 5.66%) in children with malaria and 7.77% (95% CI 7.72 to 7.83%) in non-malaria illness. Ten studies reported mortality stratified by IBI. Case fatality was higher at 81 of 336, 24.1% (95% CI 18.9 to 29.4) in children with malaria/IBI co-infection compared to 585 of 5,760, 10.2% (95% CI 9.3 to 10.98) with malaria alone. Enteric gram-negative organisms were over-represented in malaria cases, non-typhoidal Salmonellae being the most commonest isolate. There was weak evidence indicating IBI was more common in the severe anemia manifestation
Yapi, Richard B.; Hürlimann, Eveline; Houngbedji, Clarisse A.; Ndri, Prisca B.; Silué, Kigbafori D.; Soro, Gotianwa; Kouamé, Ferdinand N.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Fürst, Thomas; N’Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg; Raso, Giovanna
Background Helminth infection and malaria remain major causes of ill-health in the tropics and subtropics. There are several shared risk factors (e.g., poverty), and hence, helminth infection and malaria overlap geographically and temporally. However, the extent and consequences of helminth-Plasmodium co-infection at different spatial scales are poorly understood. Methodology This study was conducted in 92 schools across Côte d’Ivoire during the dry season, from November 2011 to February 2012. School children provided blood samples for detection of Plasmodium infection, stool samples for diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminth (STH) and Schistosoma mansoni infections, and urine samples for appraisal of Schistosoma haematobium infection. A questionnaire was administered to obtain demographic, socioeconomic, and behavioral data. Multinomial regression models were utilized to determine risk factors for STH-Plasmodium and Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Principal Findings Complete parasitological and questionnaire data were available for 5,104 children aged 5-16 years. 26.2% of the children were infected with any helminth species, whilst the prevalence of Plasmodium infection was 63.3%. STH-Plasmodium co-infection was detected in 13.5% and Schistosoma-Plasmodium in 5.6% of the children. Multinomial regression analysis revealed that boys, children aged 10 years and above, and activities involving close contact to water were significantly and positively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection. Boys, wells as source of drinking water, and water contact were significantly and positively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Access to latrines, deworming, higher socioeconomic status, and living in urban settings were negatively associated with STH-Plasmodium co-infection; whilst use of deworming drugs and access to modern latrines were negatively associated with Schistosoma-Plasmodium co-infection. Conclusions/Significance More than 60% of the
Bimczok, Diane; Shaffer, Carrie L.; Cover, Timothy L.; Venegas, Alejandro; Salazar, Maria G.; Smythies, Lesley E.; Harris, Paul R.; Smith, Phillip D.
Helicobacter pylori induces less gastric inflammation in children than adults. Here we investigated whether this reduced inflammation involves dysregulated Th17 responses. H. pylori-infected children and adults in Santiago, Chile had similar levels of H. pylori colonization, proportions of bacteria containing cagA and s1/s2 vacA markers of virulence and strain genotypes (predominantly hpEurope), but the children had significantly reduced levels of gastric inflammation and neutrophil infiltration. The reduced neutrophil accumulation in infected children was accompanied by significantly fewer gastric Th17 cells and significantly lower levels of IL-17-specific mRNA and protein compared to infected adults. The gastric mucosa of H. pylori-infected children also contained higher numbers of IL-10+ cells and increased levels of both IL-10 and Foxp3 mRNA compared to that of infected adults. Thus, reduced gastric inflammation, including diminished neutrophil accumulation, in H. pylori-infected children compared with infected adults is likely due to down-regulated gastric Th17/IL-17 responses as a consequence of enhanced mucosal regulatory T cell activity in the children. PMID:23299619
Malmo, Jostein; Moe, Nina; Krokstad, Sidsel; Ryan, Liv; Loevenich, Simon; Johnsen, Ingvild B.; Espevik, Terje; Nordbø, Svein Arne; Døllner, Henrik; Anthonsen, Marit W.
Human metapneumovirus (hMPV) causes severe airway infection in children that may be caused by an unfavorable immune response. The nature of the innate immune response to hMPV in naturally occurring infections in children is largely undescribed, and it is unknown if inflammasome activation is implicated in disease pathogenesis. We examined nasopharynx aspirates and blood samples from hMPV-infected children without detectable co-infections. The expression of inflammatory and antiviral genes were measured in nasal airway secretions by relative mRNA quantification while blood plasma proteins were determined by a multiplex immunoassay. Several genes were significantly up-regulated at mRNA and protein level in the hMPV infected children. Most apparent was the expression of the chemokine IP-10, the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-18 in addition to the interferon inducible gene ISG54. Interestingly, children experiencing more severe disease, as indicated by a severity index, had significantly more often up-regulation of the inflammasome-associated genes IL-1β and NLRP3. Overall, our data point to cytokines, particularly inflammasome-associated, that might be important in hMPV mediated lung disease and the antiviral response in children with severe infection. Our study is the first to demonstrate that inflammasome components are associated with increased illness severity in hMPV-infected children. PMID:27171557
Muriuki, Joseph; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Lihana, Raphael; Lwembe, Raphael; Mwangi, Joseph; Mwau, Matilu
The majority of anti-HIV drug susceptibility tests have been performed on subtype B HIV-1 strains, since these are the most prevalent in countries designing, testing, and manufacturing the current anti-HIV agents. The increasing global spread of HIV subtype highlights the need to determine the activity of anti-HIV drugs against subtypes of HIV other than subtype B. Furthermore an increasing number of individuals infected with many of the non subtype B virus strains now receive antiretroviral therapy because of rollout programs in developing countries as well as increasing migration to the developed world. The phenotypic susceptibility of two laboratory strains HIV-1JFRL and HIV-1IIIB (representing subtype B) and two clinical isolates HIV-104RTA and HIV-1025RTA (representing subtypes A and D respectively) was determined. The in vitro drug susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out in C8166 cell line and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The study revealed that the drugs used in the Kenyan national ART program inhibited HIV-1 replication in-vitro as their inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared well with the standard Inhibitory concentration values. The results also suggest a biochemical similarity of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease enzymes from these subtypes despite the divergence at the genetic level. The findings suggest that similar clinical benefits of antiviral therapy obtain in persons infected with other subtypes of HIV-1other than subtype B and that the generic drugs used in the national ART program in Kenya are as efficacious as branded drugs in inhibiting HIV replication in vitro despite the limited number of the viruses studied.
Muriuki, Joseph; Ng'ang'a, Zipporah; Lihana, Raphael; Lwembe, Raphael; Mwangi, Joseph; Mwau, Matilu
The majority of anti-HIV drug susceptibility tests have been performed on subtype B HIV-1 strains, since these are the most prevalent in countries designing, testing, and manufacturing the current anti-HIV agents. The increasing global spread of HIV subtype highlights the need to determine the activity of anti-HIV drugs against subtypes of HIV other than subtype B. Furthermore an increasing number of individuals infected with many of the non subtype B virus strains now receive antiretroviral therapy because of rollout programs in developing countries as well as increasing migration to the developed world. The phenotypic susceptibility of two laboratory strains HIV-1JFRL and HIV-1IIIB (representing subtype B) and two clinical isolates HIV-104RTA and HIV-1025RTA (representing subtypes A and D respectively) was determined. The in vitro drug susceptibility testing of the isolates was carried out in C8166 cell line and in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). The study revealed that the drugs used in the Kenyan national ART program inhibited HIV-1 replication in-vitro as their inhibitory concentrations (IC50) compared well with the standard Inhibitory concentration values. The results also suggest a biochemical similarity of the reverse transcriptase (RT) and protease enzymes from these subtypes despite the divergence at the genetic level. The findings suggest that similar clinical benefits of antiviral therapy obtain in persons infected with other subtypes of HIV-1other than subtype B and that the generic drugs used in the national ART program in Kenya are as efficacious as branded drugs in inhibiting HIV replication in vitro despite the limited number of the viruses studied. PMID:27313820
Srinivasan, Sujatha; Huang, Dandi; Ko, Daisy L.; Sanders, Eduard J.; Peshu, Norbert M.; Krieger, John N.; Muller, Charles H.; Coombs, Robert W.; Fredricks, David N.; Graham, Susan M.
Introduction: HIV-1 is transmitted through semen from men to their sexual partners. Genital infections can increase HIV-1 RNA shedding in semen, but shedding also occurs in the absence of typical pathogens. We hypothesized that higher bacterial concentrations in semen would be associated with higher HIV-1 RNA levels. Methods: We analyzed semen samples from 42 HIV-1–seropositive Kenyan men using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to assess bacterial concentrations and real-time PCR to measure HIV-1 RNA levels. Generalized estimation equations were used to evaluate associations between these 2 measures. Broad-range 16S rRNA gene PCR with pyrosequencing was performed on a subset of 13 samples to assess bacterial community composition. Results: Bacteria were detected in 96.6% of 88 samples by quantitative PCR. Semen bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA levels were correlated 0.30 (P = 0.01). The association between bacterial concentration and HIV-1 RNA detection was not significant after adjustment for antiretroviral therapy (ART) (adjusted odds ratio: 1.27, 95% CI: 0.84 to 1.91). Factors associated with semen bacterial concentration included insertive anal sex (adjusted beta 0.92, 95% CI: 0.12 to 1.73) and ART use (adjusted beta: −0.77, 95% CI: −1.50 to 0.04). Among 13 samples with pyrosequencing data, Corynebacterium spp., Staphylococcus spp., and Streptococcus spp. were most frequently detected. Conclusion: Most of these HIV-1–infected men had bacteria in their semen. ART use was associated with undetectable semen HIV-1 RNA and lower semen bacterial concentrations, whereas insertive anal sex was associated with higher bacterial concentrations. Additional studies evaluating the relationship between semen bacteria, inflammation, mucosal immunity, and HIV-1 shedding are needed to understand implications for HIV-1 transmission. PMID:27861240
Kaul, R; Rowland-Jones, S L; Kimani, J; Fowke, K; Dong, T; Kiama, P; Rutherford, J; Njagi, E; Mwangi, F; Rostron, T; Onyango, J; Oyugi, J; MacDonald, K S; Bwayo, J J; Plummer, F A
A clearer understanding of HIV-1 specific immune responses in highly-exposed, persistently seronegative (HEPS) subjects is important in developing models of HIV-1 protective immunity. HIV-1 specific cytotoxic T-lymphocytes (CTL) have been described in a cohort of HEPS Kenyan sex workers, and recent work has further elucidated these responses. CTL specific for HIV-1 Env were found in the blood of over half the sex workers meeting criteria for HIV resistance, and in some women recognized unmapped epitopes. The proportion of women with Env-specific CTL increased with the duration of uninfected HIV exposure, suggesting that these responses were acquired over time. CD8+ lymphocyte responses directed against predefined HIV-1 CTL epitopes from various HIV-1 genes were found in the blood and genital tract of >50% resistant sex workers, at a ten-fold lower frequency than in infected subjects. The epitope specificity of CD8+ responses differs between HEPS and HIV infected women, and in HEPS the maintenance of responses appears to be dependent on persistent HIV exposure. Several HIV-1 'resistant' sex workers have become HIV infected over the past 6 years, possibly related to waning of pre-existing HIV-specific CTL, and infection has often been associated with a switch in the epitope specificity of CD8+ responses. These findings suggest that vaccine-induced protective HIV immunity is a realistic goal, but that vaccine strategies of boosting or persistent antigen may be necessary for long-lived protection.
Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima
Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits.
Romero, Ana Carla Leite; Alfaya, Lívia Marangoni; Gonçales, Alina Sanches; Frizzo, Ana Claudia Figueiredo; Isaac, Myriam de Lima
Introduction The auditory system of HIV-positive children may have deficits at various levels, such as the high incidence of problems in the middle ear that can cause hearing loss. Objective The objective of this study is to characterize the development of children infected by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) in the Simplified Auditory Processing Test (SAPT) and the Staggered Spondaic Word Test. Methods We performed behavioral tests composed of the Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of the Staggered Spondaic Word Test (SSW). The participants were 15 children infected by HIV, all using antiretroviral medication. Results The children had abnormal auditory processing verified by Simplified Auditory Processing Test and the Portuguese version of SSW. In the Simplified Auditory Processing Test, 60% of the children presented hearing impairment. In the SAPT, the memory test for verbal sounds showed more errors (53.33%); whereas in SSW, 86.67% of the children showed deficiencies indicating deficit in figure-ground, attention, and memory auditory skills. Furthermore, there are more errors in conditions of background noise in both age groups, where most errors were in the left ear in the Group of 8-year-olds, with similar results for the group aged 9 years. Conclusion The high incidence of hearing loss in children with HIV and comorbidity with several biological and environmental factors indicate the need for: 1) familiar and professional awareness of the impact on auditory alteration on the developing and learning of the children with HIV, and 2) access to educational plans and follow-up with multidisciplinary teams as early as possible to minimize the damage caused by auditory deficits. PMID:28050213
Bem, Reinout A; Bos, Albert P; Wösten-van Asperen, Roelie M; Bruijn, Martijn; Lutter, Rene; Sprick, Martin R; van Woensel, Job B M
Lower respiratory tract infection by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a frequent cause of acute lung injury in young children and infants. Studies in adults and animals suggest that tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) ligands may mediate lung injury by causing apoptosis of epithelial cells. The main goal of the present study was to determine whether the TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (Apo2L/TRAIL) pathway may be implicated in epithelial injury during severe RSV infection in children. We report elevated levels of soluble (s)TRAIL released by leukocytes in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of patients with RSV-associated respiratory failure (n = 22) as compared with mechanically ventilated patients without pulmonary illness (n = 7). Primary bronchial epithelial cells of children without pulmonary disease obtained by nonbronchoscopic cytobrushing expressed both death receptors TRAIL-R1 and -R2, and were found to be susceptible for cell death by human recombinant sTRAIL in vitro. Furthermore, BALF from a patient with RSV induced cell death in these cells, which was partly attenuated by inhibiting TRAIL signaling. These data suggest that the TRAIL pro-apoptotic pathway may contribute to lung epithelial injury in severe RSV infection in children.
Brewinski, Margaret; Megazzini, Karen; Hance, Laura Freimanis; Cruz, Miguel Cashat; Pavia-Ruz, Noris; Della Negra, Marinella; Ferreira, Flavia Gomes Faleiro; Marques, Heloisa; Hazra, Rohan
In order to describe the prevalence of hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia in a cohort of HIV-infected children and adolescents in Latin America and to determine associations with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), we performed this cross-sectional analysis within the NICHD International Site Development Initiative pediatric cohort study. Eligible children had to be at least 2 years of age and be on HAART. Among the 477 eligible HIV-infected youth, 98 (20.5%) had hypercholesterolemia and 140 (29.4%) had hypertriglyceridemia. In multivariable analyses, children receiving protease inhibitor (PI)-containing HAART were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.7, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.3-5.6] and hypertriglyceridemia (AOR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9-6.4) compared with children receiving non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI)-containing HAART. In conclusion, HIV-infected youth receiving PI-containing HAART in this Latin American cohort were at increased risk for hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia compared with those receiving NNRTI-containing HAART.
Beiraghdar, Fatemeh; Panahi, Yunes; Einollahi, Behzad; Moharamzad, Yashar; Nemati, Eghlim; Amirsalari, Susan
This study was undertaken to determine the predisposing factors for renal scarring in children with urinary tract infection. In this prospective cohort study, 176 children with documented urinary tract infection were categorized into four groups: ≤1 year old, 1-2 years old, 2-7 years and 7-14 years old. Ultrasonography and Technetium-99 m-DMSA scan were used to detect the possible abnormalities. Infants under 12 months old presented as the most common group for renal scarring (27 cases, 52.9%), and vesicoureteral reflux (VUR) was diagnosed in 29 cases (56.8%). Fifteen (41.67%) children between the ages of one and two years had renal scar, and VUR was detected in half of the patients. In the third group, 36.3%, and in fourth group, 41.6% of the patients had renal scar. Also, 38.6% in group three and 50% in the final group had VUR. A co-incidental finding that was observed in this study was the high incidence of pseudohypoaldesteronism (PHA) in our patients: in 39.2% of the children in group one, 22.2% in group two and 4% in group three. In group four however, none of the patients had PHA. Risk of scar formation with urinary tract infection (UTI) was higher in the younger age group and in those with recurrent UTIs.
Amaral, Marina Azambuja; Guedes, Gabriela Helena Barbosa Ferreira; Epifanio, Matias; Wagner, Mario Bernardes; Jones, Marcus Herbert; Mattiello, Rita
Probiotics have emerged as a promising intervention for the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Assess the effect of probiotics on prevention of RTIs in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. Key words: "respiratory tract infections" AND probiotics. Randomized controlled trials RCT assessing the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children and adolescents were included. Two reviewers, working independently, to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria. Main and secondary outcomes were RTIs and adverse effects, respectively. Twenty-one trials with 6.603 participants were included. Pairwise meta-analysis suggested that Lactobacillus casei rhamnosus (LCA) was the only effective probiotic to the rate of RTIs compared to placebo (RR0.38; Crl 0.19-0.45). Network analysis showed that the LCA exhibited 54.7% probability of being classified in first, while the probability of Lactobacillus fermentum CECT5716 (LFC) being last in the ranking was 15.3%. LCA showed no better effect compared to other probiotic strains by indirect analysis. This systematic review found a lack of evidence to support the effect of probiotic on the incidence rate of respiratory infections in children and adolescents. Pediatr Pulmonol. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Dahl, Kari Kragh Blume
This study focuses on Kenyan student-teachers' professional learning and development in health education in a participatory action research project conducted in one Kenyan teacher training college. The aim was to explore the potential of participatory action research to instigate change in student-teachers' health education practices in a…
Gatua, Mary Wairimu
The purpose of this study was to explore the educational and sociocultural experiences of Kenyan women pursing higher education in the United States and how they negotiated their multiple identities. Using a sociocultural theoretical framework and narrative inquiry methodology, seven Kenyan immigrant women pursuing or who recently pursued advanced…
Tran, D N; Trinh, Q D; Pham, N T K; Pham, T M H; Ha, M T; Nguyen, T Q N; Okitsu, S; Shimizu, H; Hayakawa, S; Mizuguchi, M; Ushijima, H
Molecular epidemiology and clinical impact of human rhinovirus (HRV) are not well documented in tropical regions. This study compared the clinical characteristics of HRV to other common viral infections and investigated the molecular epidemiology of HRV in hospitalized children with acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in Vietnam. From April 2010 to May 2011, 1082 nasopharyngeal swabs were screened for respiratory viruses by PCR. VP4/VP2 sequences of HRV were further characterized. HRV was the most commonly detected virus (30%), in which 70% were diagnosed as either pneumonia or bronchiolitis. Children with single HRV infections presented with significantly higher rate of hypoxia than those infected with respiratory syncytial virus or parainfluenza virus (PIV)-3 (12·4% vs. 3·8% and 0%, respectively, P < 0·05), higher rate of chest retraction than PIV-1 (57·3% vs. 34·5%, P = 0·028), higher rate of wheezing than influenza A (63·2% vs. 42·3%, P = 0·038). HRV-C did not differ to HRV-A clinically. The genetic diversity and changes of types over time were observed and may explain the year-round circulation of HRV. One novel HRV-A type was discovered which circulated locally for several years. In conclusion, HRV showed high genetic diversity and was associated with significant morbidity and severe ARIs in hospitalized children.
del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Cornejo-Tapia, Angela; Weilg, Pablo; Verne, Eduardo; Nazario-Fuertes, Ronald; Ugarte, Claudia; del Valle, Luis J; Pumarola, Tomás
Acute respiratory infections are responsible for high morbi-mortality in Peruvian children. However, the etiological agents are poorly identified. This study, conducted during the pandemic outbreak of H1N1 influenza in 2009, aims to determine the main etiological agents responsible for acute respiratory infections in children from Lima, Peru. Nasopharyngeal swabs collected from 717 children with acute respiratory infections between January 2009 and December 2010 were analyzed by multiplex RT-PCR for 13 respiratory viruses: influenza A, B, and C virus; parainfluenza virus (PIV) 1, 2, 3, and 4; and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) A and B, among others. Samples were also tested with direct fluorescent-antibodies (DFA) for six respiratory viruses. RT-PCR and DFA detected respiratory viruses in 240 (33.5%) and 85 (11.9%) cases, respectively. The most common etiological agents were RSV-A (15.3%), followed by influenza A (4.6%), PIV-1 (3.6%), and PIV-2 (1.8%). The viruses identified by DFA corresponded to RSV (5.9%) and influenza A (1.8%). Therefore, respiratory syncytial viruses (RSV) were found to be the most common etiology of acute respiratory infections. The authors suggest that active surveillance be conducted to identify the causative agents and improve clinical management, especially in the context of possible circulation of pandemic viruses.
Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Augustynowicz, Alina; Smoleń, Agata; Lass, Anna
Objective: To estimate the prevalence of intestinal parasites and their species in Afghan school children and to establish appropriate treatment methods for detected pathogens. Methods: Parasitological examination of stool samples collected from 1369 children aged 8-18, students of the Jahan Malika High School in Ghazni Province in eastern Afghanistan, was conducted in the period November 2013-April 2014. Three stool samples were collected from each patient every second day; the samples were fixed in 10% formalin and tested by light microscopy using the methods of direct smear in Lugol’s solution, decantation in distilled water, and Fülleborn’s flotation. Results: Of 535 examined children (39.1% of the study group) were infected with nematodes (n=324), cestodes (n=118), trematodes (n=12), and protozoa (n=228), 132 were diagnosed with co-infections (mainly ascariasis+giardiasis, ascariasis+hymenolepiasis) and received single or combined therapy. Conclusions: The Afghan community is an example of population characterized by a high rate of parasitic infections. Owing to high prevalence of multiple infections among inhabitants of Afghanistan, it seems that a mass deworming campaign with a single-dose chemotherapy may prove ineffective in eradicating intestinal parasites in the local population. PMID:26870108
Rocha, Cristiane; Gouvêa, Aída; Machado, Daisy; Cunegundes, Kelly; Beltrão, Suênia; Bononi, Fabiana; Succi, Regina Célia
The CNS infection by HIV-1 in infancy could be present immediately after infection or became manifest later. Microcephalia, mental retardation, pyramidal signs, humor and behavioral disorders and antiretroviral therapy complications are common. This is an observational, sectional and descriptive study about findings on neurological examination of 173 patients in a group of children and adolescents infected and exposed to HIV-1 in perinatal period. Most of them had more than one neurological finding or different diagnosis. The more common findings were: encephalopathy, mental retardation, language delay, pyramidal signs, hyporeflexia. The neurological examination was abnormal in 67% of all patients even in seroreverters. We suggest that this group has a high risk to neurological disease and the development of co-morbidity is directly correlated to clinical deterioration by HIV-1 infection.
Long, Kurt Z; Rosado, Jorge L; DuPont, Herbert L; Hertzmark, Ellen; Santos, Jose Ignacio
Previous clinical vitamin A trials have found no consistent effect on diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infection. These inconsistent results may be due to the distinct effects vitamin A supplementation has among children stratified by factors related to socio-economic status, nutritional status and season. We evaluated the effect of supplementation on the overall incidence of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and on the incidence among children stratified by these factors. A total of 188 children, aged 6-15 months, from periurban, marginalized communities of Mexico City were assigned to receive vitamin A ( < 12 months of age, 20,000 IU retinol; >or= 12 months, 45,000 IU retinol) or a placebo every 2 months, and were followed for up to 15 months. Project personnel visited households twice a week to determine the onset and duration of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections. Vitamin A supplementation had no significant effect on risk of overall diarrhoeal disease but reduced mild watery diarrhoea (incidence rate ratio (RR) 0.69; 95 % CI 0.50, 0.93) and cough with fever (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.48, 0.98). Vitamin A supplementation decreased diarrhoeal disease during the summer (RR 0.74; 95 % CI 0.57, 0.94), among non-stunted children (RR 0.69; 95 % CI 0.52, 0.93) and among children from households with better socio-economic measures. Heterogeneity in the response to vitamin A supplementation may reflect heterogeneity in the aetiology and epidemiology of diarrhoeal disease and respiratory tract infections and the impact that supplementation has on the immune response.
Starke, Jeffrey R
Tuberculosis (TB) remains an important problem among children in the United States and throughout the world. Although diagnosis and treatment of infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (also referred to as latent tuberculosis infection [LTBI] or TB infection) remain the lynchpins of TB prevention, there is no diagnostic reference standard for LTBI. The tuberculin skin test (TST) has many limitations, including difficulty in administration and interpretation, the need for a return visit by the patient, and false-positive results caused by significant cross-reaction with Mycobacterium bovis-bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccines and many nontuberculous mycobacteria. Interferon-γ release assays (IGRAs) are blood tests that measure ex vivo T-lymphocyte release of interferon-γ after stimulation by antigens specific for M tuberculosis. Because these antigens are not found on M bovis-BCG or most nontuberculous mycobacteria, IGRAs are more specific tests than the TST, yielding fewer false-positive results. However, IGRAs have little advantage over the TST in sensitivity, and both methods have reduced sensitivity in immunocompromised children, including children with severe TB disease. Both methods have a higher positive predictive value when applied to children with risk factors for LTBI. Unfortunately, neither method distinguishes between TB infection and TB disease. The objective of this technical report is to review what IGRAs are most useful for: (1) increasing test specificity in children who have received a BCG vaccine and may have a false-positive TST result; (2) using with the TST to increase sensitivity for finding LTBI in patients at high risk of developing progression from LTBI to disease; and (3) helping to diagnose TB disease.
Ajdinović, Boris; Jauković, Ljiljana; Krstić, Zoran; Dopuda, Marija
The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of abnormal dimercaptosuccinic acid-Tc-99m ((99m)Tc-DMSA) renal scintigraphy findings in children with culture proved urinary tract infection (UTI) with or without vesicoureteral reflux (VUR). (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy was performed in 343 children with culture documented UTI (247 girls and 96 boys) aged from three months to 14 years (middle age of 4.82 years). The children studied were all those submitted for renal scintiscan to the Institute of Nuclear Medicine, Military Medical Academy, Belgrade during a five-year period (2000-2004). Micturating cystoureterography (MCU) performed in all patients before (99m)Tc-DMSA scan, revealed VUR in 213 children, while in 130 children VUR was not detected by MCU. In 15 of the 213 children the grade of VUR was I, in 88 was II, in 57 was III, in 33 was IV and 20 children had grade V of VUR. Findings of (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy were classified as: normal, equivocal and abnormal. Statistical analysis was performed using c(2)test. In all patients abnormal findings were detected in 38% (131/343), normal in 51% (174/343) and equivocal findings in 11% (38/343). In children with UTI and VUR the incidence of abnormal findings was 53% (112/213), of normal 37% (80/213) and of equivocal findings 10% (21/213). In children with UTI without VUR the incidence of abnormal findings was 15% (19/130), of normal findings 72% (94/130), and of equivocal findings 13% (17/130). The incidence of abnormal findings was significantly higher in children with UTI and VUR than in those with UTI without VUR (P<0.001). In children with VUR grades I, II, III, IV and V abnormal findings were 33%, 32%, 60%, 79% and 95% respectively. The incidence of abnormal findings was higher in children with VUR grades IV and V, than in grade I and II (P<0.001). Our results suggest that (99m)Tc-DMSA renal scintigraphy in children can discriminate between grade I-II and IV-V of VUR and also that in children with
Pagava, K I; Metskhvarishvili, G D; Gachechiladze, K K; Korinteli, I A; Khoĭle, N; Dzuliashvili, M G
The aim of the study was to reveal the possible immunological changes in children with bacterial infections treated with commercial bacteriophage preparations administered per os. In case of medical indications (for treatment or diagnostic) blood sampling was carried out. In serum the antibodies against bacteriophage preparations - phage cocktail components (phages against Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Proteus vulgaris, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) were investigated. The neutralisation reaction was used. There were processed samples from 65 children with following diagnoses: sepsis, bacterial pneumonia, urinary tract infection, bacterial infections of upper respiratory ways, bacterial diarrhea. In samples taken in the first days of treatment antibodies were revealed in infants up to one month (I group) in 0/29 cases - 0%, in infants aged from one month till one year (II group)- 1/25 - 4.0%, in children aged from 1 till 15 years (III group) - 3/9 - 33.3%; data after 14-20 days from the beginning of treatment - I group - 0/9 - 0%, II group - 4/15 - 26.7%, III group - 5/5 - 100%; data after 30-60 days from the beginning of the treatment - I group - 1/5 - 20.0%, II group - 6/10 - 60.0%, III group - 3/3 - 100%. Bacteriophages neitralisation degree varied between 50,7% and 97.3%. Any regularity regarding different components of used phage preparations was not established. In case of inclusion of commercial phage preparations administered per os in the treatment of bacterial infections in children, the anti-phage neutralizing antibodies are produced by the macroorganism. This fact limits the duration of phage therapy and its usage in the treatment of future bacterial infections in treated patients. Production of anti-phage antibodies in young infants is substantially less expressed and this indicates to purposefulness and presumably higher efficacy of bacteriophage therapy in this age period.
Mourad, Sawsan; Rajab, Mariam; Alameddine, Aouni; Fares, Mohammad; Ziade, Fouad; Merhi, Bassem Abou
Background: Pneumonia is the biggest single cause of childhood death under the age of 5 years, and anemia affects approximately 30% of infants and children all over the world. Aim: Determination of the relationship between anemia and lower respiratory tract infection as a risk factor in Lebanese children. Patients and Methods: A total number of two hundred infants and children aged nine months to twelve years were included; One hundred cases were hospitalized for lower respiratory tract infection in Department of Pediatrics, Makassed General Hospital, and one hundred healthy, age and sex matched controls, were selected from outpatient department. Complete blood count, iron level, ferritin level, and total iron binding capacity were taken if hemoglobin level less than eleven gram per deci-liter. In addition peripheral blood smear, chest radiograph and C-reactive protein were done to hospitalized cases. Definition of iron deficiency anemia and normal laboratory values were predetermined. Results: Anemia was found in 32% of hospitalized cases and 16% of healthy controls. Mean hemoglobin level was 9.99 ± 0.62 gram per deci-liter and 11.99 ± 0.92 gram per deci-liter in anemic and non-anemic group respectively with a significant P-value of 0.001. C-reactive protein levels and number hospitalization days were similar among the anemic and non-anemic group. History of recurrent chest infections was significantly higher in both anemic group and hospitalized cases compared to non-anemic group and healthy controls. Low hemoglobin level was a risk factor for lower respiratory tract infection with a P-value of 0.008. Conclusion: Anemic children were two times more susceptible to lower respiratory tract infection compared to the control group, and iron deficiency anemia was predominating. Accurate diagnosis and prevention of anemia, whatever its etiology, is essential. PMID:22558548
Harris, Paul R.; Sanderson, Ian R.; Windle, Henry J.; Walker, Marjorie M.; Rocha, Andreia Maria Camargos; Rocha, Gifone Aguiar; Carvalho, Simone Diniz; Bittencourt, Paulo Fernando Souto; de Castro, Lucia Porto Fonseca; Villagrán, Andrea; Serrano, Carolina; Kelleher, Dermot
Objective Iron deficiency (ID) and iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) are global major public health problems, particularly in developing countries. Whilst an association between H. pylori infection and ID/IDA has been proposed in the literature, currently there is no consensus. We studied the effects of H. pylori infection on ID/IDA in a cohort of children undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy for upper abdominal pain in two developing and one developed country. Methods In total 311 children (mean age 10.7±3.2 years) from Latin America - Belo Horizonte/Brazil (n = 125), Santiago/Chile (n = 105) - and London/UK (n = 81), were studied. Gastric and duodenal biopsies were obtained for evaluation of histology and H. pylori status and blood samples for parameters of ID/IDA. Results The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 27.7% being significantly higher (p<0.001) in Latin America (35%) than in UK (7%). Multiple linear regression models revealed H. pylori infection as a significant predictor of low ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations in children from Latin-America. A negative correlation was observed between MCV (r = −0.26; p = 0.01) and MCH (r = −0.27; p = 0.01) values and the degree of antral chronic inflammation, and between MCH and the degree of corpus chronic (r = −0.29, p = 0.008) and active (r = −0.27, p = 0.002) inflammation. Conclusions This study demonstrates that H. pylori infection in children influences the serum ferritin and haemoglobin concentrations, markers of early depletion of iron stores and anaemia respectively. PMID:23861946
Phoba, M-F; De Boeck, H; Ifeka, B B; Dawili, J; Lunguya, O; Vanhoof, R; Muyembe, J-J; Van Geet, C; Bertrand, S; Jacobs, J
Salmonella enterica is the leading cause of bloodstream infection in children in sub-Saharan Africa, but few data are available from Central-Africa. We documented during the period November 2011 to May 2012 an epidemic increase in invasive Salmonella bloodstream infections in HGR Bwamanda, a referral hospital in Equateur Province, DR Congo. Salmonella spp. represented 90.4 % (103 out of 114) of clinically significant blood culture isolates and comprised Salmonella Typhimurium (54.4 %, 56 out of 103), Salmonella Enteritidis (28.2 %, 29 out of 103) and Salmonella Typhi (17.5 %, 18 out of 103), with Salmonella Enteritidis accounting for most of the increase. Most (82 out of 103, 79.6 %) isolates were obtained from children < 5 years old. Median ages of patients infected with Salmonella Typhimurium and Salmonella Enteritidis were 14 months (14 days to 64 years) and 19 months (3 months to 8 years) respectively. Clinical presentation was non-specific; the in-hospital case fatality rate was 11.1 %. More than two thirds (69.7 %, 53 out of 76) of children < 5 years for whom laboratory data were available had Plasmodium falciparum infection. Most (83/85, 97.6 %) non-typhoid Salmonella isolates as well as 6/18 (33.3 %) Salmonella Typhi isolates were multidrug resistant (i.e. resistant to the first-line oral antibiotics amoxicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol), one (1.0 %) Salmonella Typhimurium had decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility owing to a point mutation in the gyrA gene (Gly81Cys). Multilocus variable-number tandem-repeat (MLVA) analysis of the Salmonella Enteritidis isolates revealed closely related patterns comprising three major and four minor profiles, with differences limited to one out of five loci. These data show an epidemic increase in clonally related multidrug-resistant Salmonella bloodstream infection in children in DR Congo.
Chris Buck, W.; Kazembe, Peter N.; Phiri, Sam; Andrianarimanana, Diavolana; Weigel, Ralf
Background: Little is known about viral co-infections in African human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected children. We examined the prevalence of seromarkers for cytomegalovirus (CMV), herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) infections among HIV-infected, antiretroviral treatment (ART)-naïve children in Lilongwe, Malawi. Methods: Ninety-one serum samples were tested for IgG and IgM antibodies to CMV, and IgG antibodies to HSV-2 and hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Baseline demographic, clinical and laboratory data were abstracted from electronic records. Results: CMV IgG was the most common positive result in all age groups (in 73% of children <1 year, and 100% in all other groups). Three patients were CMV IgM positive (3.3%), suggesting acute infection. HSV-2 IgG was positive in four patients (4.4%), and HBsAg in two (2.2%). Conclusions: CMV infection occurred early in life, and few children had specific signs of CMV infection at the time of ART initiation. Unrecognized HBV infection represents opportunities for testing and treatment of HIV/HBV co-infected children. PMID:26884443
Hacımustafaoğlu, Mustafa; Celebi, Solmaz; Bozdemir, Sefika Elmas; Ozgür, Taner; Ozcan, Ismail; Güray, Atilla; Cakır, Deniz
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most frequent agent of acute lower respiratory diseases and creates a significant burden of disease in children under 5 years all over the world. RSV causes severe lower respiratory tract infections (LRTI) that require hospitalization, especially in children ≤2 years. The aim of this study was to determine the incidence of RSV in children ≤2 years of age hospitalized for LRTI. Children ≤2 years of age hospitalized for one year for LRTI in the three largest hospitals of Bursa City Center, Turkey were evaluated. These three hospitals comprise 67.5% of all child beds in central Bursa, so this study allows us to evaluate the total disease burden and hospitalization incidence in central Bursa. Nasal swabs of the children were evaluated with RSV Respi- Strip (Coris Bioconcept Organization). A total of 671 children were hospitalized for LRTI, and 254 (37.9%) had at least one hospitalization that was positive for RSV. Of all patients with LRTI, 54.8% (368/671) were hospitalized for acute bronchiolitis, while 45.2% (303/671) were hospitalized for pneumonia. Of patients with acute bronchiolitis or pneumonia, 41% (151/368) and 34% (103/303) were RSV+, respectively. Of RSV+ hospitalized children, 59.5% (151/254) were diagnosed as acute bronchiolitis and 40.5% (103/254) as pneumonia. The annual incidences of hospitalization due to LRTI, acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia were 20.5/1000, 11.2/1000 and 9.3/1000, respectively, in children ≤2 years of age. The annual incidences of hospitalization due to RSV+ LRTI, acute bronchiolitis and pneumonia were found as 7.8/1000, 4.6/1000 and 3.2/1000, respectively, in children ≤2 years of age. More than one-third of all children hospitalized with LRTI (38.3%, n=257) were in the 0-3 months age group. Compared to other age groups, RSV positivity was highest in that age group for acute bronchiolitis (57%), pneumonia (39.5%) and also total children with LRTI (47.9%). RSV is a very important
Wang, Yizhong; Li, Xiaolu; Ge, Ting; Xiao, Yongmei; Liao, Yang; Cui, Yun; Zhang, Yucai; Ho, Wenzhe; Yu, Guangjun; Zhang, Ting
Abstract Background: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) represent one of the main health problems in children. Probiotics are viable bacteria that colonize the intestine and affect the host intestinal microbial balance. Accumulating evidence suggests that probiotic consumption may decrease the incidence of or modify RTIs. The authors systematically reviewed data from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to investigate the effect of probiotic consumption on RTIs in children. Methods: MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science were systematically searched for RCTs regarding the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children. The outcomes included number of children experienced with at least 1 RTI episode, duration of illness episodes, days of illness per subject, and school/day care absenteeism due to infection. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled relative risks, or mean difference (MD) with the corresponding 95% confidence interval (CI). Results: A total of 23 trials involving 6269 children were eligible for inclusion in the systematic review. None of the trials showed a high risk of bias. The quality of the evidence of outcomes was moderate. The age range of subjects was from newborn to 18 years. The results of meta-analysis showed that probiotic consumption significantly decreased the number of subjects having at least 1 RTI episode (17 RCTs, 4513 children, relative risk 0.89, 95% CI 0.82–0.96, P = 0.004). Children supplemented with probiotics had fewer numbers of days of RTIs per person compared with children who had taken a placebo (6 RCTs, 2067 children, MD −0.16, 95% CI −0.29 to 0.02, P = 0.03), and had fewer numbers of days absent from day care/school (8 RCTs, 1499 children, MD −0.94, 95% CI −1.72 to −0.15, P = 0.02). However, there was no statistically significant difference of illness episode duration between probiotic intervention group and placebo group (9 RCTs, 2817 children, MD −0.60, 95% CI −1
von Renesse, Anja; Schildgen, Oliver; Klinkenberg, Dennis; Müller, Andreas; von Moers, Arpad; Simon, Arne
One thousand five hundred sixty-eight RSV infections were documented prospectively in 1,541 pediatric patients. Of these, 20 (1.3%) had acquired the RSV infection while treated by mechanical ventilation for reasons other than the actual RSV infection (group ventilated mechanically). The clinical characteristics of children who were infected with respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection while ventilated mechanically for other reasons are described and compared with a matched control group. Sixty percent of the group ventilated mechanically had at least one additional risk factor for a severe course of infection (prematurity 50%, chronic lung disease 20%, congenital heart disease 35%, immunodeficiency 20%). The median age at diagnosis in the group ventilated mechanically was 4.2 months. The matched pairs analysis (group ventilated mechanically vs. control group) revealed a higher proportion of patients with hypoxemia and apnoea in the group ventilated mechanically; more patients in the control group showed symptoms of airway obstruction (wheezing). At least one chest radiography was performed in 95% of the patients (n = 19) in the group ventilated mechanically versus 45% (n = 9) in the control group (P = 0.001). The frequency of pneumonia was 40% in the group ventilated mechanically and 20% in the control group. Despite existing consensus recommendations, only two patients (10%) of the group ventilated mechanically had received palivizumab previously. Significantly more patients in the group ventilated mechanically received antibiotic treatment (85% vs. 45%, P = 0.008), and attributable mortality was higher in the group ventilated mechanically (15% [n = 3] vs. 0% in the control group, P = 0.231). Children treated by long term mechanical ventilation may acquire RSV infection by transmission by droplets or caregivers and face an increased risk of a severe course of RSV infection. The low rate of immunoprophylaxis in this particular risk group should be improved.
Blokhuis, Charlotte; Mutsaerts, Henri J.M.M.; Cohen, Sophie; Scherpbier, Henriëtte J.; Caan, Matthan W.A.; Majoie, Charles B.L.M.; Kuijpers, Taco W.; Reiss, Peter; Wit, Ferdinand W.N.M.; Pajkrt, Dasja
Abstract This study aimed to evaluate cerebral blood flow (CBF) in pediatric human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infection, and its role in HIV-related cerebral injury and cognitive impairment. This cross-sectional observational study compared 28 perinatally HIV-infected children (8–18 years) to 34 healthy controls matched for age, sex, ethnicity, and socio-economic status. All participants underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging, using arterial spin labeling to assess CBF in gray matter (GM), white matter (WM), basal ganglia, and thalamus. We used linear regression analysis to evaluate group differences and associations with HIV disease and treatment characteristics, macrostructural (volume loss, WM lesions) or microstructural injury (increased WM diffusivity, neurometabolite alterations), or poorer cognitive performance. HIV-infected children had higher CBF in WM (+10.2%; P = 0.042), caudate nucleus (+4.8%; P = 0.002), putamen (+3.6%; P = 0.017), nucleus accumbens (+3.9%; P = 0.031), and thalamus (+5.5%; P = 0.032). Thalamus CBF was highest in children with a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention stage B (Coef. = 6.45; P = 0.005) or C (Coef. = 8.52; P = 0.001) diagnosis. Lower GM CBF was associated with higher WM lesion volume in HIV-infected children (Coef. = −0.053; P = 0.001). No further associations with HIV-related cognitive impairment or cerebral injury were found. CBF was higher in WM, basal ganglia, and thalamus in combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated perinatally HIV-infected children, but this was not associated with cerebral injury or cognitive impairment. HIV-infected children with lower GM CBF had a higher volume of WM lesions, which could reflect vascular disease as potential contributing factor to white matter injury. Lifelong exposure to HIV and cART in this population warrants longitudinal assessment of CBF and how it relates to (neuro)inflammation, vascular dysfunction, and
Zalwango, Sarah K; Kizza, Florence N; Nkwata, Allan K; Sekandi, Juliet N; Kakaire, Robert; Kiwanuka, Noah; Whalen, Christopher C; Ezeamama, Amara E
Objective To determine whether perinatal HIV infection and exposure adversely affected psychosocial adjustment (PA) between 6 and 18 years of life (i.e. during school-age and adolescence). Methods We enrolled 58 perinatally HIV-infected, 56 HIV-exposed uninfected and 54 unexposed controls from Kampala, Uganda. Perinatal HIV status was determined by 18 months of age using a DNA-polymerase chain-reaction test and was confirmed via HIV rapid diagnostic test at psychosocial testing when the children were 6 to 18 years old. Five indicators of PA (depressive symptoms, distress, hopelessness, positive future orientation and esteem) were measured using validated, culturally adapted and translated instruments. Multivariable linear regression analyses estimated HIV-status-related percent differences (β) in PA indicators and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Results During school-age and adolescence, positive outlook (β=−3.8, 95% CI: −7.2, −0.1) and self-esteem (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −6.7, −1.8) scores were significantly lower, whereas depressive (β=11.4, 95% CI: 3.3, 19.5) and distress (β=12.3, 95% CI: 5.9, 18.7) symptoms were elevated for perinatally HIV-infected, compared to unexposed controls and exposed uninfected children. Similarly, positive outlook (β=−4.3, 95% CI: −7.3, −1.2) and self-esteem were lower for exposed controls versus HIV-unexposed children. Hopelessness was similar by perinatal HIV status. Likewise, the distress and depressive symptom levels were comparable for HIV-exposed uninfected and HIV-unexposed children. Conclusions Perinatal HIV infection predicted higher distress and depressive symptoms, while HIV-affected status (infection/exposure) predicted low self-esteem and diminished positive outlook in the long term. However, HIV-affected status had no impact on hopelessness, suggesting that psychosocial interventions as an integral component of HIV care for infected children or primary care exposed uninfected children may
Kuntawee, Chalermkwan; Fungladda, Wijitr; Kaewkungwal, Jaranit; Chanthavanich, Pornthep; Chotpittayasunon, Tawee
A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the social factors and quality of life of HIV infected children attending the Pediatric Infectious Disease Clinic, Sappasithiprasong Hospital, Ubon Ratchathani Province, Thailand. Data were collected during October-November 2008, by interviewing caretakers and their children using a structured questionnaire. The children's families were in need of improved social support (84.5%), since community resources provided limited support, such as clothes, food, financial support, consultation, and information. The HIV infected children's quality of life needed improvement (78.7%). The factors associated with quality of life included having others as main caretakers (OR 4.64, 95% CI 1.45-14.78), parental death (OR 4.19, 95% CI 1.55-11.31), age of caregivers above 45 years old (OR 9.52, 95% CI 2.62-34.53), and family income less than THB 5,000 per month (OR 5.25, 95% CI 1.14-23.39). However, on multivariate analysis, only age of caregiver was a significant predictor for quality of life of the child. Children who were cared for by caregivers aged 45 years or above had a better quality of life than those whose caregivers were 20-45 years old (OR 6.32, 95% CI 1.12-35.62). Therefore, to improve quality of life among HIV infected children, age of caregiver is an important factor to be considered. Government and non-government organizations should focus on supporting caregivers in terms of food, financial, and emotional support based on resources available in the community.
Brischetto, Anna; Leung, Grace; Marshall, Catherine S.; Bowen, Asha C.
Abstract Our clinical workload as infectious diseases pediatricians in northern Australia is dominated by complicated bone and joint infections in indigenous children. We reviewed the clinical presentation, microbiology, management, and outcomes of children presenting to Royal Darwin Hospital with bone and joint infections between 2010 and 2013, and aimed to compare severity and incidence with other populations worldwide. A retrospective audit was performed on children aged 0 to 18 years who were admitted to Royal Darwin Hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2013 with a bone and joint infection. Seventy-nine patients were identified, of whom 57 (72%) had osteomyelitis ± associated septic arthritis and 22 (28%) had septic arthritis alone. Sixty (76%) were indigenous Australians. The incidence rate of osteomyelitis for indigenous children was 82 per 100,000 children. Staphylococcus aureus was the confirmed pathogen in 43/79 (54%), of which 17/43 (40%) were methicillin resistant. Median length of stay was 17 days (interquartile range: 10–31 days) and median length of IV antibiotics was 15 days (interquartile range: 6–24 days). Fifty-six (71%) required at least 1 surgical procedure. Relapse within 12 months was documented in 12 (15%) patients. We report 3 key findings: osteomyelitis incidence in indigenous children of northern Australia is amongst the highest reported in the world; methicillin-resistant S aureus accounts for 36% of osteomyelitis with a positive microbiological diagnosis; and the severity of disease requires extended antibiotic therapy. Despite this, 15% of the cohort relapsed within 12 months and required readmission. PMID:26937926
Chen, Chun-Liang; Jensen, Ryan L.; Schnepp, Bruce C.; Connell, Mary J.; Shell, Richard; Sferra, Thomas J.; Bartlett, Jeffrey S.; Clark, K. Reed; Johnson, Philip R.
Although adeno-associated virus (AAV) infection is common in humans, the biology of natural infection is poorly understood. Since it is likely that many primary AAV infections occur during childhood, we set out to characterize the frequency and complexity of circulating AAV isolates in fresh and archived frozen human pediatric tissues. Total cellular DNA was isolated from 175 tissue samples including freshly collected tonsils (n = 101) and archived frozen samples representing spleen (n = 21), lung (n = 16), muscle (n = 15), liver (n = 19), and heart (n = 3). Samples were screened for the presence of AAV and adenovirus sequences by PCR using degenerate primers. AAV DNA was detected in 7 of 101 (7%) tonsil samples and two of 74 other tissues (one spleen and one lung). Adenovirus sequences were identified in 19 of 101 tonsils (19%), but not in any other tissues. Complete capsid gene sequences were recovered from all nine AAV-positive tissues. Sequence analyses showed that eight of the capsid sequences were AAV2-like (∼98% amino acid identity), while the single spleen isolate was intermediate between serotypes 2 and 3. Comparison to the available AAV2 crystal structure revealed that the majority of the amino acid substitutions mapped to surface-exposed hypervariable domains. To further characterize the AAV capsid structure in these samples, we used a novel linear rolling-circle amplification method to amplify episomal AAV DNA and isolate infectious molecular clones from several human tissues. Serotype 2-like viruses were generated from these DNA clones and interestingly, failed to bind to a heparin sulfate column. Inspection of the capsid sequence from these two clones (and the other six AAV2-like isolates) revealed that they lacked arginine residues at positions 585 and 588 of the capsid protein, which are thought to be essential for interaction with the heparin sulfate proteoglycan coreceptor. These data provide a framework with which to explore wild-type AAV
Pifer, L L; Hughes, W T; Stagno, S; Woods, D
Using Pneumocystis carinii organisms propagated through three passages in embryonic chick epithelial lung cultures, specific antigens and antisera were prepared for use in counterimmunoelectrophoresis and indirect immunofluorescent antibody techniques. These methods proved to be specific and sensitive for the detection of P. carinii antigen and antibody, respectively, in sera, and were applied to the study of cancer patients with P. carinii pneumonitis (PCP), cancer patients without pneumonitis, and normal children. Antigenemia was detected in 95% of patients with PCP, in 15% of cancer patients without pneumonitis, and in none of the normal children tested. In cross-sectional and longitudinal studies of normal infants and children, acquisition of serum antibody to P. carinii was demonstrated to occur progressively with increase in age. By 4 years of age two thirds of the normal children were found to have antibody to P. carinii in titers of 1:16 or greater. These studies indicate that subclinical P. carinii infection is highly prevalent in normal children, analogous to other opportunistic infections where active disease is manifest predominantly in the compromised host.
Hu, Ai-Hua; Xu, Hui-Min; Hu, Guo-Hua; Jin, Fang; Li, Zhong; Fang, Guo-Xing
Study the infect of child anorexia granule on serum ghrelin and leptin of anorexia children and its clinical efficacy. Selected 81 cases of anorexia children aged 1-6 years old into treatment group (42 cases) and control group (39 cases), in addition, 30 case healthy children as healthy control group. The control group children were treated with domperidone suspension 0.3 mg x kg(-1) x d(-1), tid, orally 30 minutes before meals. Treatment group were treated with child anorexia granule, 1-3 years 1 package, bid; 4-6 years 1 package, tid; po, 4 weeks as a course of treatment. Study the change of serum ghrelin and leptin before and after therapy. The study demonstrates that before treatment, the serum ghrelin level of disease group was lower than healthy group (P < 0.01), and the serum leptin level was higher than healthy group (P < 0.01). After treatment, the serum ghrelin level both increase, and the serum leptin decline. And the change of treatment group was significantly different with control group (P < 0.01). And the clinical effective rate are 95.23% and 74.35% (P < 0.01). After 6 months of follow-up visit, the children weight significantly increase in treatment group (P < 0.01). Results indicate that child anorexia granule can facilitate secretion of ghrelin, and inhibit secretion of leptin, so as to work up an appetite. And the molecular mechanism is its infect on serum ghrelin, leptin.
Fiore, P; Donelli, E; Boni, S; Pontali, E; Tramalloni, R; Bassetti, D
Maintaining linear growth and weight gain in HIV-infected children is often difficult. Nutritional evaluation and support are recognised as important factors to improve their quality of life. Combination antiretroviral therapy including protease inhibitors (HAART) reduces HIV-viral load and improves survival, quality of life and nutritional status. Our study aimed to determine changes in nutrional status based on body weight, height and nutritional habits, of HIV-infected children receiving HAART. Possible side effects of lipid metabolism were also studied. Twenty five children, 13 treated with HAART (group B) were followed up for 12 months. We did not observe statistically significant differences in nutritional status over that time or between groups A and B. Inadequate energy intake was more common in patients with advanced HIV-disease. Hyperlipidemia was found in 70% of children receiving ritonavir and in approximately 50% of children receiving nelfinavir. We observed an important although not statistically significative modification in the height of those in group B.
Rylance, Jamie; Mchugh, Grace; Metcalfe, John; Mujuru, Hilda; Nathoo, Kusum; Wilmore, Stephanie; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Majonga, Edith; Kranzer, Katharina; Ferrand, Rashida A
Objective: Respiratory disease is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in HIV-infected children. Despite antiretroviral therapy (ART), children suffer chronic symptoms. We investigated symptom prevalence, lung function and exercise capacity among older children established on ART and an age-matched HIV-uninfected group. Design: A cross-sectional study in Zimbabwe of HIV-infected children aged 6–16 years receiving ART for over 6 months and HIV-uninfected children attending primary health clinics from the same area. Methods: Standardized questionnaire, spirometry, incremental shuttle walk testing, CD4+ cell count, HIV viral load and sputum culture for tuberculosis were performed. Results: A total of 202 HIV-infected and 150 uninfected participants (median age 11.1 years in each group) were recruited. Median age at HIV diagnosis and ART initiation was 5.5 (interquartile range 2.8–7.5) and 6.1 (interquartile range 3.6–8.4) years, respectively. Median CD4+ cell count was 726 cells/μl, and 79% had HIV viral load less than 400 copies/ml. Chronic respiratory symptoms were rare in HIV-uninfected children [n = 1 (0.7%)], but common in HIV-infected participants [51 (25%)], especially cough [30 (15%)] and dyspnoea [30 (15%)]. HIV-infected participants were more commonly previously treated for tuberculosis [76 (38%) vs 1 (0.7%), P < 0.001], had lower exercise capacity (mean incremental shuttle walk testing distance 771 vs 889 m, respectively, P < 0.001) and more frequently abnormal spirometry [43 (24.3%) vs 15 (11.5%), P = 0.003] compared with HIV-uninfected participants. HIV diagnosis at an older age was associated with lung function abnormality (P = 0.025). No participant tested positive for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusion: In children, despite ART, HIV is associated with significant respiratory symptoms and functional impairment. Understanding pathogenesis is key, as new treatment strategies are urgently required. PMID:27662546
Monteiro, Ana Isabel M. P.; Bellei, Nancy Cristina J.; Sousa, Alessandra Ramos; dos Santos, Amélia Miyashiro N.; Weckx, Lily Yin
OBJECTIVE: To identify the viruses involved in acute respiratory tract infections and to analyze the rates of hospitalization and death in children on palivizumab prophylaxis. METHODS: Prospective cohort of 198 infants up to one year old who were born before 29 weeks of gestational age and infants under two years old with hemodynamically unstable cardiopathy or chronic pulmonary disease who received prophylactic palivizumab against severe respiratory syncytial virus infections in 2008. During the study period, in each episode of acute respiratory tract infection, nasopharyngeal aspirate was collected to identify respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, parainfluenza 1, 2 and 3, influenza A and B by direct immunofluorescence, rhinovirus and metapneumovirus by polymerase chain reaction preceded by reverse transcription. Data regarding hospitalization and deaths were monitored. RESULTS: Among the 198 studied infants, 117 (59.1%) presented acute respiratory tract infections, with a total of 175 episodes. Of the 76 nasopharyngeal aspirates collected during respiratory tract infections, 37 were positive, as follow: rhinovirus (75.7%), respiratory syncytial virus (18.9%), parainfluenza (8.1%), adenovirus 2 (2.7%), metapneumovirus (2.7%) and three samples presented multiple agents. Of the 198 children, 48 (24.4%) were hospitalized: 30 (15.2%) for non-infectious etiology and 18 (9.1%) for respiratory causes. Among these 18 children, one case of respiratory syncytial virus was identified. Two deaths were reported, but respiratory syncytial virus was not identified. CONCLUSIONS: During the prophylaxis period, low frequency of respiratory syncytial virus infections and low rates of hospitalization were observed, suggesting the benefit of palivizumab prophylaxis. PMID:25119744
Galvan-Ramírez, Ma de la Luz; Troyo-Sanroman, Rogelio; Roman, Sonia; Bernal-Redondo, Rosamaría; Vázquez Castellanos, José Luís
Introduction. Recent studies in Mexico have shown that from 20/10,000 to 58/10,000 newborns with Toxoplasma infection could be undetected. The aim of