Science.gov

Sample records for infected root canal

  1. Bacteroides buccae and related taxa in necrotic root canal infections.

    PubMed Central

    Haapasalo, M

    1986-01-01

    Fifty-seven adults with apical periodontitis were examined for the presence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species in 62 infected root canals. Nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found in 35 canals. In four cases two nonpigmented Bacteroides species and in one case three nonpigmented Bacteroides species were found. Species belonging to the B. fragilis group were not isolated. The most frequently isolated species were B. buccae (15 strains), B. oris (12 strains), and B. oralis (7 strains). alpha-Fucosidase, beta-N-acetylglucosaminidase, and beta-xylosidase appeared to be useful in the identification of B. buccae and B. oris. Corroding Bacteroides species were not found; all corroding strains were identified as Wolinella recta. The occurrence of nonpigmented Bacteroides species was compared with the severity of the periapical infection. A total of 13 B. buccae strains were found in acute infections and only 2 strains were found in asymptomatic infections, whereas other nonpigmented Bacteroides species were present in acutely infected and asymptomatic teeth with nearly equal frequency. Ultrastructural study of 13 B. buccae strains showed that 8 strains had a crystalline proteinaceous surface layer (S-layer) outside the outer membrane, but all 13 strains had areas of crystalline protein throughout in the outer membrane. The results suggest that B. buccae may have a specific role in the development of an acute opportunistic infection. Images PMID:3782459

  2. Antimicrobial effect of camphorated chloroxylenol (ED 84) in the treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, E; Bössmann, K

    1999-08-01

    During and after chemomechanical preparation, particularly before the definitive filling of an infected root canal, a temporary intracanal dressing with an antimicrobial activity is generally indicated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the antimicrobial effect of ED 84, a liquid root canal disinfectant containing chloroxylenol (10%) and camphor (15%), against selected test organisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans) both in vitro and under clinical conditions, using extracted teeth. With a contact time of 180 min between undiluted ED 84 and the four bacterial suspensions in the canal, there was a 2 to 3 log reduction in the number of organisms. Under in vitro conditions, the reduction was even greater than 3 logs. When using a liquid medication as a temporary root canal dressing for a duration of approximately 2 days, ED 84 can definitely be used.

  3. Microbial Flora of Root Canals of Pulpally-infected Teeth: Enterococcus faecalis a Prevalent Species

    PubMed Central

    Gajan, Esrafil Balaei; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Abashov, Rahib; Salem Milani, Amin; Moosavi, Zohreh

    2009-01-01

    Background and aims The aim of this study was to determine the microorganisms prevalent in the necrotic dental pulp and root canals of unsuccessfully treated teeth. Materials and methods The present study was conducted on 150 single-rooted teeth of patients referring to a dental clinic. Sampling was performed by placing a sterile paper point in the canal for 60 s. Bacterial samples were evaluated by a microbiological technique specific for anaerobic species, used for isolation and identification of sampled strains. Results From the 150 samples taken, 101 were from necrotic pulps (primary infection) and 49 were from the teeth with an unsuccessful endodontic treatment (secondary infection). Conclusion Enterococcus faecalis was a prevalent species in the failed root canals evaluated. PMID:23230477

  4. Root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed. We performed a Medline search for English-language papers published untill July 2010. The keywords used were ‘root canal irrigants’ and ‘endodontic irrigants.’ The reference lists of each article were manually checked for additional articles of relevance. PMID:21217955

  5. Therapeutic Potential of Gramicidin S in the Treatment of Root Canal Infections

    PubMed Central

    Berditsch, Marina; Lux, Hannah; Babii, Oleg; Afonin, Sergii; Ulrich, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    An intrinsic clindamycin-resistant Enterococcus faecalis, the most common single species present in teeth after failed root canal therapy, often possesses acquired tetracycline resistance. In these cases, root canal infections are commonly treated with Ledermix® paste, which contains demeclocycline, or the new alternative endodontic paste Odontopaste, which contains clindamycin; however, these treatments are often ineffective. We studied the killing activity of the cyclic antimicrobial peptide gramicidin S (GS) against planktonic and biofilm cells of tetracycline-resistant clinical isolates of E. faecalis. The high therapeutic potential of GS for the topical treatment of problematic teeth is based on the rapid bactericidal effect toward the biofilm-forming, tetracycline-resistant E. faecalis. GS reduces the cell number of planktonic cells within 20–40 min at a concentration of 40–80 μg/mL. It kills the cells of pre-grown biofilms at concentrations of 100–200 μg/mL, such that no re-growth is possible. The translocation of the peptide into the cell interior and its complexation with intracellular nucleotides, including the alarmon ppGpp, can explain its anti-biofilm effect. The successful treatment of persistently infected root canals of two volunteers confirms the high effectiveness of GS. The broad GS activity towards resistant, biofilm-forming E. faecalis suggests its applications for approval in root canal medication. PMID:27618065

  6. Redefining the persistent infection in root canals: possible role of biofilm communities.

    PubMed

    Chavez de Paz, Luis E; Chávez de Paz, Luis

    2007-06-01

    Current concepts suggest that persisting infections subsequent to endodontic therapy are caused by one or two bacterial species that are "too robust" to be eliminated by conventional treatment measures. As a consequence, numerous studies are exploring the characteristics of these "most" resistant organisms to define an effective treatment strategy to eradicate them from root canals. By taking an ecological perspective, the main objective of this review is to present evidence that the nature of persisting endodontic infections depends not on the robustness of the organisms in the infected site, but on their capability of adapting their physiology to the new environmental conditions set by the treatment. Changes in the environment, such as an increase in pH by calcium hydroxide or the effect of antimicrobials, are capable of triggering genetic cascades that modify the physiological characteristics of bacterial cells. Surface adherence by bacteria to form biofilms is a good example of bacterial adaptation and one that is pertinent to endodontic infections. Increasing information is now available on the existence of polymicrobial biofilm communities on root canal walls, coupled with new data showing that the adaptive mechanisms of bacteria in these biofilms are significantly augmented for increased survival. This ecological view on the persisting infection problem in endodontics suggests that the action of individual species in persisting endodontic infections is secondary when compared to the adaptive changes of a polymicrobial biofilm community undergoing physiological and genetic changes in response to changes in the root canal environment.

  7. Molecular Identification of Cultivable Bacteria From Infected Root Canals Associated With Acute Apical Abscess.

    PubMed

    Nóbrega, Letícia M M; Montagner, Francisco; Ribeiro, Adriana C; Mayer, Márcia A P; Gomes, Brenda P F A

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the bacterial composition present in root canals of teeth associated with acute apical abscess by molecular identification (16S rRNA) of cultivable bacteria. Two hundred and twenty strains isolated by culture from 20 root canals were subjected to DNA extraction and amplification of the 16S rRNA gene (PCR), followed by sequencing. The resulting nucleotide sequences were compared to the GenBank database from the National Center of Biotechnology Information through BLAST. Strains not identified by sequencing were submitted to clonal analysis. The association of microbiological findings with clinical features and the association between microbial species were also investigated. Fifty-nine different cultivable bacteria were identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, belonging to 6 phyla, with an average number of 6 species per root canal. Molecular approaches allowed identification of 99% of isolates. The most frequently identified bacteria were Prevotella spp., Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus, Parvimonas micra, Dialister invisus, Filifactor alocis, and Peptostreptococcus stomatis. Positive association was found between Prevotella buccae and Pseudoramibacter alactolyticus and between Parvimonas micra and Prevotella nigrescens (both p<0.05). It was concluded that the microbiota of infected root canals associated with acute apical abscess is diverse and heterogeneous, composed mainly of anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria, with the great majority belonging to the phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes.

  8. Bactericidal Efficacy of Cold Plasma at Different Depths of Infected Root Canals In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, Sascha R.; Hertel, Moritz; Ballout, Husam; Pierdzioch, Philipp; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; Wirtz, Henrik C.; Abu-Sirhan, Shady; Kostka, Eckehard; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Saskia

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cold plasma (CP) has been shown to be effective even against multiresistant microorganisms. As previous investigations on the effect of CP in root canals showed promising results, the aim of the present study was to analyze the bactericidal efficacy of CP in different depths of infected dentin. Methods: 32 standardized root canals of human mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated for one week. Specimens were randomly selected for one of four disinfection methods: control (5mL NaCl), 5mL chlorhexidine (CHX), CP alone (CP), and a combination of 5mL CHX and cold plasma (CHX+CP). CHX was ultrasonically activated for 30s, while cold plasma was used for 60s in the root canals. Dentin samples at depths of 300, 500 and 800 µm were obtained and diluted serially. Colony forming units (CFUs) were counted on agar plates after 24h of incubation. Results: The highest overall logarithmic reduction factors (RF) were obtained from CHX+CP (log RF 3.56 p<0.01; Mann-Whitney U test), followed by CP (log RF 3.27 p<0.01) and CHX alone (log RF 2.65 p<0.01) related to the control. All disinfection methods showed significantly lower CFU counts compared to the control group in 300 µm and 800 µm (both p<0.01, Kruskal-Wallis test). Discussion: The adjuvant use of CP might be beneficial in highly infected root canals to improved disinfection. However, the disinfection effect against Enterococcus faecalis of CP is comparable to ultrasonically activated CHX. PMID:26962378

  9. Large Reactional Osteogenesis in Maxillary Sinus Associated with Secondary Root Canal Infection Detected Using Cone-beam Computed Tomography.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Porto, Olavo César Lyra; Costa, Nádia Lago; Garrote, Marcel da Silva; Decurcio, Daniel Almeida; Bueno, Mike R; Silva, Brunno Santos de Freitas

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory injuries in the maxillary sinus may originate from root canal infections and lead to bone resorption or regeneration. This report describes the radiographic findings of 4 asymptomatic clinical cases of large reactional osteogenesis in the maxillary sinus (MS) associated with secondary root canal infection detected using cone-beam computed tomographic (CBCT) imaging. Apical periodontitis, a consequence of root canal infection, may lead to a periosteal reaction in the MS and osteogenesis seen as a radiopaque structure on imaging scans. The use of a map-reading strategy for the longitudinal and sequential slices of CBCT images may contribute to the definition of diagnoses and treatment plans. Root canal infections may lead to reactional osteogenesis in the MS. High-resolution CBCT images may reveal changes that go unnoticed when using conventional imaging. Findings may help define initial diagnoses and therapeutic plans, but only histopathology provides a definitive diagnosis. Surgical enucleation of the periapical lesion is recommended if nonsurgical root canal treatment fails to control apical periodontitis.

  10. Antimicrobial effect of Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals: an in vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    This study evaluated in vitro the antimicrobial action of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals. A total of 36 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and inoculated with suspensions of S. aureus, E. faecalis, P aeruginosa, B. subtilis and C. albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2094 nm) with two different evaluation parameters: 52 mJ and 110 mJ laser output at the fiber tip. After the irradiation, the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water and the solutions were collected with sterile paper points and incubated in Letheen Broth for 48 hours. After this period 0,1 ml of this solution was transferred to 10 ml of Brain Heart Infusion and incubated for 48 hours. After 72 hours a new collect ion was done and incubated again. Based on the data, it was concluded that the distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite irradiated or not with an Er:YAG laser with two different parameters: 10 Hz, 110 mJ input and 52 mJ output, and 10 Hz, 250 mJ input and 110 mJ output had no antimicrobial activity in the root canals contaminated with the following microorganisms: Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and Candida albicans.

  11. Comparison of Different Irrigants in the Removal of Endotoxins and Cultivable Microorganisms from Infected Root Canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Cardoso, Flávia Goulart da Rosa; Chung, Adriana; Xavier, Ana Cláudia Carvalho; Figueiredo, Mariana Diehl; Martinho, Frederico Canato; Palo, Renato Miotto

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different irrigants used to remove endotoxins and cultivable microorganisms during endodontic therapy. Forty root canals were contaminated and divided into groups according to the irrigant: 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, 2.5% NaOCl, and pyrogen-free saline solution (control). Samples were collected after root canal contamination (S1), after instrumentation (S2), and 7 days after instrumentation (S3). Microorganisms and endotoxins were recovered from 100% of the contaminated root canals (S1). At S2, 2% NaOCl + surfactant, 2% CHX, and 2.5% NaOCl were able to completely eliminate cultivable microorganisms. At S3, both 2% CHX and 2.5% NaOCl were effective in preventing C. albicans and E. coli regrowth, but E. faecalis was still detected. No microorganism species was recovered from root canals instrumented with 2% NaOCl + surfactant. At S2, a higher percentage value of endotoxin reduction was found for 2% NaOCl + surfactant (99.3%) compared to 2% CHX (98.9%) and 2.5% NaOCl (97.18%) (p < 0.05). Moreover, at S3, 2% NaOCl + surfactant (100%) was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins. All irrigants tested were effective in reducing microorganisms and endotoxins from root canals. Moreover, 2% NaOCl + surfactant was the most effective irrigant against endotoxins and regrowth of microorganisms.

  12. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section (canal full) - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  13. Osmolarity and root canal antiseptics.

    PubMed

    Rossi-Fedele, G; Guastalli, A R

    2014-04-01

    Antiseptics used in endodontics for disinfection purposes include root canal dressings and irrigants. Osmotic shock is known to cause the alteration of microbial cell viability and might have a role in the mechanism of action of root canal antiseptics. The aim of this review was to determine the role of osmolarity on the performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment. A literature search using the Medline electronic database was conducted up to 30 May 2013 using the following search terms and combinations: 'osmolarity AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmolality AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmotic AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; osmosis AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm; sodium chloride AND root canal or endodontic or antiseptic or irrigation or irrigant or medication or dressing or biofilm'. Publications were included if the effects of osmolarity on the clinical performance of antiseptics in root canal treatment were stated, if preparations with different osmolarities values were compared and if they were published in English. A hand search of articles published online, 'in press' and 'early view', and in the reference list of the included papers was carried out following the same criteria. A total of 3274 publications were identified using the database, and three were included in the review. The evidence available in endodontics suggests a possible role for hyperosmotic root canal medicaments as disinfectants, and that there is no influence of osmolarity on the tissue dissolution capacity of sodium hypochlorite. There are insufficient data to obtain a sound conclusion regarding the role of hypo-osmosis in root canal disinfection, or osmosis in any further desirable

  14. Microbiological profile and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of infected root canals associated with periapical abscesses.

    PubMed

    Sousa, E L R; Gomes, B P F A; Jacinto, R C; Zaia, A A; Ferraz, C C R

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this investigation was to identify microorganisms from root canals with periapical abscesses and assess the susceptibility of specific anaerobic bacteria to selected antimicrobials and their β-lactamase production. Sixty root canals were microbiologically investigated. The susceptibility of Anaerococcus prevotii, Fusobacterium necrophorum, F. nucleatum, Parvimonas micra, and Prevotella intermedia/nigrescens to antimicrobials was evaluated with the Etest, whereas β-lactamase production was assessed with nitrocefin. A total of 287 different bacterial strains were recovered, including 201 strict anaerobes. The most frequently strict isolated anaerobes were A. prevotii, P. micra, and F. necrophorum. The selected bacteria were susceptible to all the tested antibiotics, except A. prevotii and Fusobacterium species to azithromycin and erythromycin, as well as A. prevotii and F. necrophorum to metronidazole. None of the microorganisms produced β-lactamase. Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria predominated in the root canals with periapical abscesses. All microorganisms tested were susceptible to benzylpenicillin, amoxicillin, amoxicillin + clavulanate, cefaclor, and clindamycin, producing no β-lactamase.

  15. Efficacy of lasers as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fransson, H; Larsson, K M; Wolf, E

    2013-04-01

    The aim was to evaluate the efficacy of various types of lasers used as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals with the outcome measures 'normal periapical condition' or 'reduction of microbial load'. PubMed, CENTRAL and ISI Web of Knowledge literature searches with specific indexing terms and a subsequent hand search were made with stated limits and criteria. Relevant publications were retrieved, followed by interpretation. The quality of each included publication was assessed as high, moderate or low. The initial search process yielded 234 publications. All abstracts of these publications were read, and the reference lists of relevant publications were hand-searched. Ten articles were read in full text and interpreted according to a data extraction form. Five were included in the systematic review and were assessed. A meta-analysis was impossible to perform because the included studies were heterogeneous with regard to study design, treatment and outcome measures. Positive effects were reported; however, no concluding evidence grade could be made because each included study was judged to have low quality, primarily due to lack of a power analysis, blinding and reproducibility. The evidence grade for whether lasers can be recommended as an adjunct to chemo-mechanical disinfection of infected root canals was insufficient. This does not necessarily imply that laser should not be used as an adjunct to root canal treatment but instead underscores the need for future high-quality studies.

  16. Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG Laser Irradiation with Radial Firing Tips on Candida albicans in Experimentally Infected Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To compare the disinfection effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser using radial firing tips with NaOCI in root canals infected with C. albicans and to evaluate the irradiation effect on the dentinal surfaces. Material and Methods. In total seventy-six mandibular premolar teeth were used. In order to standardize the incubation and sterilization procedure, eight teeth were used. Sixty-eight of the root canals were incubated with C. albicans suspension for 72 hours. The specimens were divided into 5 experimental groups. Two groups were constituted as Group 1 was irradiated with 1.5 W laser (n = 8) and group 2, which was irradiated with 2 W laser (n = 8). Two more groups were formed as Group 3 (2 W laser (n = 25) and Group 4 NaOCI (5%) (n = 25). Group 5 (n = 2) did not receive any treatment. Mann-Whitney U and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to compare the different laser output powers. Wilcoxon Signed Ranks Test was used in order to compare the Candida cfu/ml levels according to treatment protocols (P < 0.05). Results. Both 1.5 W and 2 W laser resulted in a major reduction of C. albicans without a significant difference. The comparison of the dentin surfaces irradiated with Er,Cr:YSGG laser at two power settings resulted in similar morphological changes. However, NaOCI was found to be more effective in reduction of C. albicans than 2 W laser application. Conclusion. According to the results of the present study, the Er,Cr:YSGG laser with radial firing tips presented less antifungal effects on C. albicans in root canals of infected teeth than NaOCl solution. PMID:24955367

  17. Microbial contamination of the environment after the irradiation of Er:YAG laser in infected root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Zanin, Fatima A. A.; Sampaio Moura, Marcelo; Heredia Seixas, Fabio; Rodrigues de Araujo Estrela, Cyntia; Estrela, Carlos; Djalma Pecora, Jesus

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the environment microbial contamination produced by Er:YAG laser irradiation in infected root canals. A total of 20 human anterior teeth were prepared, sterilized and, then, inoculated with a mixture of the following microorganisms: S. Aureus, E. Faecalis, P. Aeruginosa, B. Subtilis and C. Albicans. After the contamination period (28 days), the teeth were irrigated with sterile distilled water or 1% sodium hypochlorite and, then, irradiated with an Er:YAG laser with two different laser parameters: 52 mJ or 110 mJ output at the fiber tip. Eighteen Petri dishes with 20 ml of BHI Agar were used in the study. For each group, 3 plates with BHIA were used for the analysis of the microbial contamination of the environment during the activation of the laser in infected root canals. The plates were positioned in differing distances away from the irradiated tooth (plate 1 - distance of 15 cm, plate 2 - distance of 50 cm and plate 3 - distance of 3 meters). After the analysis of the results, it was observed that the larger microbial contamination occurred in Group 1 (teeth irrigated with sterile distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser with 52 mJ output at the fiber tip), plate 1 (positioned 15 cm away from the irradiated tooth), with values greater than 30 Colony-Forming Units (CFU).

  18. Method for Constructing Standardized Simulated Root Canals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schulz-Bongert, Udo; Weine, Franklin S.

    1990-01-01

    The construction of visual and manipulative aids, clear resin blocks with root-canal-like spaces, for simulation of root canals is explained. Time, materials, and techniques are discussed. The method allows for comparison of canals, creation of any configuration of canals, and easy presentation during instruction. (MSE)

  19. Sonic instruments in root canal therapy.

    PubMed

    Waplington, M; Lumley, P J; Walmsley, A D

    1995-10-01

    Although hand instrumentation is considered the most acceptable method of preparing root canals, sonic instruments may be useful additions to the endodontic armamentarium. Sonic instrumentation may be incorporated as an adjunct to traditional techniques for shaping the root canal. The use of such instruments may assist the practitioner during root canal treatment in general practice.

  20. The effect of sodium hypochlorite and ginger extract on microorganisms and endotoxins in endodontic treatment of infected root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; Cardoso, Flavia Goulart Rosa; Oliveira, Luciane Dias de; Oliveira, Carolina Lima de; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge

    2014-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the biomechanical preparation action on microorganisms and endotoxins by using sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and an intracanal medication containing Zingiber officinale, with or without calcium hydroxide. Single-rooted teeth were contaminated, and root canal instrumentation (using 2.5% NaOCl) was performed. Samples were divided into 4 groups, according to the intracanal medication employed. The root canal content was gathered 28 days after contamination (baseline), immediately after biomechanical preparation, 7 days after biomechanical preparation, 14 days after intracanal medication, and 7 days after intracanal medication was removed. The results (submitted to Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests) showed that the NaOCl eliminated 100% of root canal microorganisms and reduced 88.8% of endotoxins immediately after biomechanical preparation, and 83.2% at 7 days after biomechanical preparation.

  1. The fluid mechanics of root canal irrigation.

    PubMed

    Gulabivala, K; Ng, Y-L; Gilbertson, M; Eames, I

    2010-12-01

    Root canal treatment is a common dental operation aimed at removing the contents of the geometrically complex canal chambers within teeth; its purpose is to remove diseased or infected tissue. The complex chamber is first enlarged and shaped by instruments to a size sufficient to deliver antibacterial fluids. These irrigants help to dissolve dying tissue, disinfect the canal walls and space and flush out debris. The effectiveness of the procedure is limited by access to the canal terminus. Endodontic research is focused on finding the instruments and clinical procedures that might improve success rates by more effectively reaching the apical anatomy. The individual factors affecting treatment outcome have not been unequivocally deciphered, partly because of the difficulty in isolating them and in making the link between simplified, general experimental models and the complex biological objects that are teeth. Explicitly considering the physical processes within the root canal can contribute to the resolution of these problems. The central problem is one of fluid motion in a confined geometry, which makes the dispersion and mixing of irrigant more difficult because of the absence of turbulence over much of the canal volume. The effects of treatments can be understood through the use of scale models, mathematical modelling and numerical computations. A particular concern in treatment is that caustic irrigant may penetrate beyond the root canal, causing chemical damage to the jawbone. In fact, a stagnation plane exists beyond the needle tip, which the irrigant cannot penetrate. The goal is therefore to shift the stagnation plane apically to be coincident with the canal terminus without extending beyond it. Needle design may solve some of the problems but the best design for irrigant penetration conflicts with that for optimal removal of the bacterial biofilm from the canal wall. Both irrigant penetration and biofilm removal may be improved through canal fluid

  2. Surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canals of maxillary incisors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    This case report presents surgical endodontic management outcomes of maxillary incisors that were infected via the lateral canals. Two cases are presented in which endodontically-treated maxillary central incisors had sustained lateral canal infections. A surgical endodontic treatment was performed on both teeth. Flap elevation revealed vertical bone destruction along the root surface and infected lateral canals, and microscopy revealed that the lateral canals were the origin of the lesions. After the infected lateral canals were surgically managed, both teeth were asymptomatic and labial fistulas were resolved. There were no clinical or radiographic signs of surgical endodontic management failure at follow-up visits. This case report highlights the clinical significance and surgical endodontic management of infected lateral canal of maxillary incisor. It is important to be aware of root canal anatomy variability in maxillary incisors. Maxillary central incisors infected via the lateral canal can be successfully managed by surgical endodontic treatment. PMID:25671217

  3. Management of Six Root Canals in Mandibular First Molar

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Fabio de Almeida; Sousa, Bruno Carvalho

    2015-01-01

    Success in root canal treatment is achieved after thorough cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the root canal system. This clinical case describes conventional root canal treatment of an unusual mandibular first molar with six root canals. The prognosis for endodontic treatment in teeth with abnormal morphology is unfavorable if the clinician fails to recognize extra root canals. PMID:25685156

  4. The Antibacterial Efficacy of Photo-Activated Disinfection, Chlorhexidine and Sodium Hypochlorite in Infected Root Canals: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Eskandarinezhad, Mahsa; Negahdari, Ramin; Pakseresht, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This study compared the efficacy of light-activated low-power laser, 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and 2.5% NaOCl in eliminating Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) from the root canal system. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 maxillary central incisors were contaminated with E. faecalis and then the bacteria were incubated for 24 h. All the root canals were instrumented in a crown-down manner with #4 and 3 Gates-Glidden drills, followed by RaCe rotary files (40/0.10, 35/0.08, and 30/0.06). The samples were randomly assigned to three experimental groups and one control group (n=15). In the control group no intervention was made. In the photo-activated disinfection (PAD) group, laser therapy was undertaken with diode laser beams (with an output power of 100 mW/cm2) for 120 sec. For the other two experimental groups, root canals were irrigated either with 5 mL of 2% CHX or 2.5% NaOCl solutions, respectively. The Kruskal-Wallis test was used to compare the CFU values of the bacteria and post-hoc Bonferroni test was used for pairwise comparisons. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The inhibition of bacterial growth in all the experimental groups was significantly superior to the control group (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the effect of PAD and 2% CHX (P=0.05). The effect of 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than that of the PAD technique (P<0.001). In addition, 2.5% NaOCl was significantly better than 2% CHX (P=0.007). Conclusion: Photodynamic therapy was effective in reducing the E. faecalis counts in comparison with the control group, but 2.5% NaOCl solution was the most effective protocol. PMID:27471527

  5. Root Canal Treatment of a Maxillary Second Premolar with Two Palatal Root Canals: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Golmohammadi, Maryam; Jafarzadeh, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of the root canal morphology and anatomy is essential for thorough shaping and cleaning of the entire root canal system and consequent successful treatment. This report describes a case of maxillary second premolar with two roots and three root canals (two mesial and distal palatal canals). The case report underlines the importance of complete knowledge about root canal morphology and possible variations, coupled with clinical and radiographic examination in order to increase the ability of clinicians to treat difficult cases. PMID:27471538

  6. Tissue engineering in endodontics: root canal revascularization.

    PubMed

    Palit Madhu Chanda; Hegde, K Sundeep; Bhat, Sham S; Sargod, Sharan S; Mantha, Somasundar; Chattopadhyay, Sayan

    2014-01-01

    Root canal revascularization attempts to make necrotic tooth alive by the use of certain simple clinical protocols. Earlier apexification was the treatment of choice for treating and preserving immature permanent teeth that have lost pulp vitality. This procedure promoted the formation of apical barrier to seal the root canal of immature teeth and nonvital filling materials contained within root canal space. However with the success of root canal revascularization to regenerate the pulp dentin complex of necrotic immature tooth has made us to rethink if apexification is at the beginning of its end. The objective of this review is to discuss the new concepts of tissue engineering in endodontics and the clinical steps of root canal revascularization.

  7. Nanodiamond-Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Dong-Keun; Kim, Sue Vin; Limansubroto, Adelheid Nerisa; Yen, Albert; Soundia, Akrivoula; Wang, Cun-Yu; Shi, Wenyuan; Hong, Christine; Tetradis, Sotirios; Kim, Yong; Park, No-Hee; Kang, Mo K; Ho, Dean

    2015-11-24

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes.

  8. How to bond to root canal dentin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nica, Luminita; Todea, Carmen; Furtos, Gabriel; Baldea, Bogdan

    2014-01-01

    Bonding to root canal dentin may be difficult due to various factors: the structural characteristic of the root canal dentin, which is different from that of the coronal dentin; the presence of the organic tissue of the dental pulp inside the root canal, which has to be removed during the cleaning-shaping of the root canal system; the smear-layer resulted after mechanical instrumentation, which may interfere with the adhesion of the filling materials; the type of the irrigants used in the cleaning protocol; the type of the sealer and core material used in the obturation of the endodontic space; the type of the materials used for the restoration of the endodontically treated teeth. The influence of the cleaning protocol, of the root canal filling material, of the type of the adhesive system used in the restoration of the treated teeth and of the region of the root canal, on the adhesion of several filling and restorative materials to root canal dentin was evaluated in the push-out bond strength test on 1-mm thick slices of endodontically treated human teeth. The results showed that all these factors have a statistically significant influence on the push-out bond strength. Formation of resin tags between radicular dentin and the investigated materials was observed in some of the samples at SEM analysis.

  9. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  10. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  11. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  12. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  13. 21 CFR 872.3810 - Root canal post.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal post. 872.3810 Section 872.3810 Food... DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3810 Root canal post. (a) Identification. A root canal... of the platinum group intended to be cemented into the root canal of a tooth to stabilize and...

  14. Comprehensive Analysis of Secondary Dental Root Canal Infections: A Combination of Culture and Culture-Independent Approaches Reveals New Insights

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Annette Carola; Hellwig, Elmar; Vespermann, Robin; Wittmer, Annette; Schmid, Michael; Karygianni, Lamprini; Al-Ahmad, Ali

    2012-01-01

    Persistence of microorganisms or reinfections are the main reasons for failure of root canal therapy. Very few studies to date have included culture-independent methods to assess the microbiota, including non-cultivable microorganisms. The aim of this study was to combine culture methods with culture-independent cloning methods to analyze the microbial flora of root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Twenty-one samples from previously root-filled teeth were collected from patients with periradicular lesions. Microorganisms were cultivated, isolated and biochemically identified. In addition, ribosomal DNA of bacteria, fungi and archaea derived from the same samples was amplified and the PCR products were used to construct clone libraries. DNA of selected clones was sequenced and microbial species were identified, comparing the sequences with public databases. Microorganisms were found in 12 samples with culture-dependent and -independent methods combined. The number of bacterial species ranged from 1 to 12 in one sample. The majority of the 26 taxa belonged to the phylum Firmicutes (14 taxa), followed by Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes. One sample was positive for fungi, and archaea could not be detected. The results obtained with both methods differed. The cloning technique detected several as-yet-uncultivated taxa. Using a combination of both methods 13 taxa were detected that had not been found in root-filled teeth so far. Enterococcus faecalis was only detected in two samples using culture methods. Combining the culture-dependent and –independent approaches revealed new candidate endodontic pathogens and a high diversity of the microbial flora in root-filled teeth with periradicular lesions. Both methods yielded differing results, emphasizing the benefit of combined methods for the detection of the actual microbial diversity in apical periodontitis. PMID:23152922

  15. Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Bitter Root Irrigation district canal, looking east, typical section and crossing - Bitter Root Irrigation Project, Bitter Root Irrigation Canal, Heading at Rock Creek Diversion Dam, West of U.S. Highway 93, Darby, Ravalli County, MT

  16. Nanodiamond–Gutta Percha Composite Biomaterials for Root Canal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) represents a standard of treatment that addresses infected pulp tissue in teeth and protects against future infection. RCT involves removing dental pulp comprising blood vessels and nerve tissue, decontaminating residually infected tissue through biomechanical instrumentation, and root canal obturation using a filler material to replace the space that was previously composed of dental pulp. Gutta percha (GP) is typically used as the filler material, as it is malleable, inert, and biocompatible. While filling the root canal space with GP is the standard of care for endodontic therapies, it has exhibited limitations including leakage, root canal reinfection, and poor mechanical properties. To address these challenges, clinicians have explored the use of alternative root filling materials other than GP. Among the classes of materials that are being explored as novel endodontic therapy platforms, nanodiamonds (NDs) may offer unique advantages due to their favorable properties, particularly for dental applications. These include versatile faceted surface chemistry, biocompatibility, and their role in improving mechanical properties, among others. This study developed a ND-embedded GP (NDGP) that was functionalized with amoxicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic commonly used for endodontic infection. Comprehensive materials characterization confirmed improved mechanical properties of NDGP over unmodified GP. In addition, digital radiography and microcomputed tomography imaging demonstrated that obturation of root canals with NDGP could be achieved using clinically relevant techniques. Furthermore, bacterial growth inhibition assays confirmed drug functionality of NDGP functionalized with amoxicillin. This study demonstrates a promising path toward NDGP implementation in future endodontic therapy for improved treatment outcomes. PMID:26452304

  17. Effect of two contemporary root canal sealers on root canal dentin microhardness

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Successful root canal treatment depends on proper cleaning, disinfecting and shaping of the root canal space. Pulpless teeth have lower dentin microhardness value compared to that of vital teeth. A material which can cause change in dentin composition may affect the microhardness. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effect of two root canal sealers on dentin microhardness. Material and Methods Forty two single rooted teeth were selected and divided into 3 equal groups; Apexit, iRootSP and control groups (n=14) Each group was then divided into 2 subgroups according to the post evaluation period; 1 week and 2 months (n=7). Root canal procedure was done in the experimental groups and obturation was made using either; Apexit, iRootSP or left unprepared and unobturated in the control group. Roots were sectioned transversely into cervical, middle and apical segments. The three sections of each root were mounted in a plastic chuck with acrylic resin. The coronal dentin surfaces of the root segments werepolished. Microhardness of each section was measured at 500 µm and 1000 µm from the canal lumen. Results Four way-ANOVA revealed that different tested sealer materials, canal third, measuring distance from the pulp and time as independent variables had statistically non significant effect on mean microhardness values (VHN) at p≤0.001. Among iRootSP groups there was a statistically significant difference between iRoot SP at coronal root portion (87.79±17.83) and iRoot SP at apical root portion (76.26±9.33) groups where (p=0.01). IRoot SP at coronal canal third had higher statistically significant mean microhardness value (87.79±17.83) compared to Apexit at coronal third (73.61±13.47) where (p=0.01). Conclusions Root canal sealers do not affect dentin microhardness. Key words:Root canal, dentin, sealers, microhardness, bioceramic. PMID:28149466

  18. Tooth anatomy risk factors influencing root canal working length accessibility

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Lu; Sun, Tuo-qi; Gao, Xiao-jie; Zhou, Xue-dong; Huang, Ding-ming

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the specific influence of root canal anatomy on the accessibility of working length during root canal therapy. Four hundred seventy-six root canal therapy cases (amounting to a total of 1 005 root canals) were examined. The anatomy risk factors assessed in each case included: tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, and root canal calcification, as well as endodontic retreatment. The investigation examined the correlation between each of these anatomic factors and the working length, with statistical analysis consisting of Chi-square tests and multiple logistic regression analysis. In an independent factor analysis, tooth type (tooth location), root canal curvature, canal calcification, and endodontic retreatment were determined to be the primary risk factors. In a multiple-factor regression model, root curvature and canal calcification were found to most significantly influence root canal working length accessibility (P<0.05). Root canal anatomy increases the difficulty of root canal preparation. Appropriate consideration of tooth anatomy will assist in accurate determination of preparation difficulty before instrumentation. This study alerts clinical therapists to anatomical factors influencing the working length accessibility, and allows for a direct estimate of success rate given in situ measurements of tooth factors during the root canal treatment procedure. PMID:21789962

  19. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  20. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872...) MEDICAL DEVICES DENTAL DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 872.3820 Root canal filling resin. (a) Identification. A root canal filling resin is a device composed of material, such as methylmethacrylate,...

  2. Newer Root Canal Irrigants in Horizon: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Jaju, Sushma; Jaju, Prashant P.

    2011-01-01

    Sodium hypochloride is the most commonly used endodontic irrigant, despite limitations. None of the presently available root canal irrigants satisfy the requirements of ideal root canal irrigant. Newer root canal irrigants are studied for potential replacement of sodium hypochloride. This article reviews the potential irrigants with their advantages and limitations with their future in endodontic irrigation. PMID:22190936

  3. A novel image processing and measurement system applied to quantitative analysis of simulated tooth root canal shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yong, Tao; Yong, Wei; Jin, Guofan; Gao, Xuejun

    2005-02-01

    Dental pulp is located in root canal of tooth. To modern root canal therapy, "Root canal preparation" is the main means to debride dental pulp infection. The shape of root canal will be changed after preparation, so, when assessing the preparation instruments and techniques, the root canal shaping ability especially the apical offset is very important factor. In this paper, a novel digital image processing and measurement system is designed and applied to quantitative analysis of simulated canal shape. By image pretreatment, feature extraction, registration and fusion, the variation of the root canals' characteristics (before and after preparation) can be accurately compared and measured, so as to assess the shaping ability of instruments. When the scanning resolution is 1200dpi or higher, the registration and measurement precision of the system can achieve 0.021mm or higher. The performance of the system is tested by a series of simulated root canals and stainless steel K-files.

  4. Four cuspal maxillary second premolar with single root and three root canals: Case report

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Parul; Nikhil, Vineeta; Goyal, Ayush; Singh, Ritu

    2016-01-01

    Traditional configuration of maxillary second premolars has been described to have two cusps, one root and one or two root canals. The endodontic literature reports considerable anatomic aberrations in the root canal morphology of maxillary second premolar but the literature available on the variation in cuspal anatomy and its relationship to the root canal anatomy is sparse. The purpose of this clinical report was to describe the root and root canal configuration of a maxillary second premolar with four cusps. PMID:27563190

  5. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals

    PubMed Central

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals. PMID:27640530

  6. Phage therapy against Enterococcus faecalis in dental root canals.

    PubMed

    Khalifa, Leron; Shlezinger, Mor; Beyth, Shaul; Houri-Haddad, Yael; Coppenhagen-Glazer, Shunit; Beyth, Nurit; Hazan, Ronen

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic resistance is an ever-growing problem faced by all major sectors of health care, including dentistry. Recurrent infections related to multidrug-resistant bacteria such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE) in hospitals are untreatable and question the effectiveness of notable drugs. Two major reasons for these recurrent infections are acquired antibiotic resistance genes and biofilm formation. None of the traditionally known effective techniques have been able to efficiently resolve these issues. Hence, development of a highly effective antibacterial practice has become inevitable. One example of a hard-to-eradicate pathogen in dentistry is Enterococcus faecalis, which is one of the most common threats observed in recurrent root canal treatment failures, of which the most problematic to treat are its biofilm-forming VRE strains. An effective response against such infections could be the use of bacteriophages (phages). Phage therapy was found to be highly effective against biofilm and multidrug-resistant bacteria and has other advantages like ease of isolation and possibilities for genetic manipulations. The potential of phage therapy in dentistry, in particular against E. faecalis biofilms in root canals, is almost unexplored. Here we review the efforts to develop phage therapy against biofilms. We also focus on the phages isolated against E. faecalis and discuss the possibility of using phages against E. faecalis biofilm in root canals.

  7. Comparison of the rheological properties of four root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Seok Woo; Lee, Young-Kyu; Zhu, Qiang; Shon, Won Jun; Lee, Woo Cheol; Kum, Kee Yeon; Baek, Seung Ho; Lee, In Bog; Lim, Bum-Soon; Bae, Kwang Shik

    2015-01-01

    The flowability of a root canal sealer is clinically important because it improves the penetration of the sealer into the complex root canal system. The purpose of this study was to compare the flowabilities of four root canal sealers, measured using the simple press method (ISO 6876), and their viscosities, measured using a strain-controlled rheometer. A newly developed, calcium phosphate-based root canal sealer (Capseal) and three commercial root canal sealers (AH Plus, Sealapex and Pulp Canal Sealer EWT) were used in this study. The flowabilities of the four root canal sealers were measured using the simple press method (n=5) and their viscosities were measured using a strain-controlled rheometer (n=5). The correlation between these two values was statistically analysed using Spearman's correlation test. The flow diameters and the viscosities of the root canal sealers were strongly negatively correlated (ρ=−0.8618). The viscosity of Pulp Canal Sealer EWT was the lowest and increased in the following order: AH Plusroot canal sealers showed characteristic time- and temperature-dependent changes in their rheological properties. The viscosities measured using the strain-controlled rheometer were more precise than the flowabilities measured using the simple press method, suggesting that the rheometer can accurately measure the rheological properties of root canal sealers. PMID:25059248

  8. Root canal treatment of a maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots: A case report

    PubMed Central

    George, Gingu Koshy; Varghese, Anju Mary; Devadathan, Aravindan

    2014-01-01

    Anatomical variations in root canal morphology are an enigma and it is this variability, which is often a complicating factor in a successful root canal treatment. To achieve success in endodontic therapy it is imperative that all the canals are located, cleaned and shaped and obturated three dimensionally. Maxillary first premolar having three separate roots has an incidence of 0.5-6%. Even rarer are reported clinical case reports of maxillary second premolar with three separate roots and three canals. This case report describes the endodontic management of maxillary second premolar with two palatal roots and one buccal root having three root canals PMID:24944457

  9. MAXILLARY FIRST PREMOLAR WITH THREE ROOT CANALS: A CASE REPORT

    PubMed Central

    Sulaiman, A.O; Dosumu, O.O; Amedari, McKing

    2013-01-01

    The maxillary first premolar is the most commonly bi- rooted tooth with occasional presentation of three roots system; it is a transitional tooth between incisors and molars. Although it usually has two canals, it may rarely have three and this third canal can easily be missed. Thus meticulous knowledge of tooth morphology, careful interpretation of angled radiographs, proper access cavity preparation and a detailed exploration of the interior of the tooth is needed to ensure a proper endodontic treatment. This article reports a rare finding of three canals in a maxillary first premolar with non well defined root outline radiographically during an elective root canal treatment. PMID:25161429

  10. New Technologies to Improve Root Canal Disinfection.

    PubMed

    Plotino, Gianluca; Cortese, Teresa; Grande, Nicola M; Leonardi, Denise P; Di Giorgio, Gianni; Testarelli, Luca; Gambarini, Gianluca

    2016-01-01

    Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites to promote root canal disinfection and debris removal and improve successful endodontic treatment. This paper presents an overview of the currently available technologies to improve the cleaning of the endodontic space and their debridement efficacy. A PubMed electronic search was conducted with appropriate key words to identify the relevant literature on this topic. After retrieving the full-text articles, all the articles were reviewed and the most appropriate were included in this review. Several different systems of mechanical activation of irrigants to improve endodontic disinfection were analysed: manual agitation with gutta-percha cones, endodontic instruments or special brushes, vibrating systems activated by low-speed hand-pieces or by sonic or subsonic energy, use of ultrasonic or laser energy to mechanically activate the irrigants and apical negative pressure irrigation systems. Furthermore, this review aims to describe systems designed to improve the intracanal bacterial decontamination by a specific chemical action, such as ozone, direct laser action or light-activated disinfection. The ultrasonic activation of root canal irrigants and of sodium hypochlorite in particular still remains the gold standard to which all other systems of mechanical agitation analyzed in this article were compared. From this overview, it is evident that the use of different irrigation systems can provide several advantages in the clinical endodontic outcome and that integration of new technologies, coupled with enhanced techniques and materials, may help everyday clinical practice.

  11. High-altitude illness induced by tooth root infection

    PubMed Central

    Finsterer, J

    1999-01-01

    High-altitude illness may occur after recent pulmonary infection, but high-altitude illness after root canal therapy has not been described previously. A 44-year-old man is presented who skied to a 3333 m high peak in the Eastern Alps one day after he had undergone root canal therapy because of a tooth root infection. After 4 hours above 3000 m severe symptoms of high-altitude illness, including pulmonary oedema, developed. His condition improved after immediate descent. The next day he presented with local and general signs of infection which were successfully treated with gingival incisions and antibiotics. In conclusion, acute tooth root infection and root canal therapy may induce high-altitude illness at an altitude just above 3000 m.


Keywords: high-altitude illness; pulmonary oedema; root canal therapy; tooth root infection PMID:10715764

  12. Bactericidal effect of the CO2 laser in the root canal: an in-vitro study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Wilkert-Walter, Cornelia; Lampert, Friedrich

    1998-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the bactericidal effect of a CO2 laser used in a continuous mode. Classically prepared root canals were irradiated under standardized conditions with power settings of 2, 4, and 6 Watts. The mean elimination of Enterococcus faecalis in prepared and infected root canals of extracted teeth was 98.97%, 99.51% and 99.34% respectively. Minimum elimination was 91.67% and maximum 99.696%.

  13. Root canal filling evaluation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negrutiu, Meda L.; Sinescu, Cosmin; Topala, Florin; Nica, Luminita; Ionita, Ciprian; Marcauteanu, Corina; Goguta, Luciana; Bradu, Adrian; Dobre, George; Rominu, Mihai; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh.

    2010-04-01

    Endodontic therapy consists in cleaning and shaping the root canal system, removing organic debris and sealing the intra-canal space with permanent filling materials. The purpose of this study was to evaluate various root canal fillings in order to detect material defects, the marginal adaptation at the root canal walls and to assess the quality of the apical sealing. 21 extracted single-root canal human teeth were selected for this study. We instrumented all roots using NiTi rotary instruments. All canals were enlarged with a 6% taper size 30 GT instrument, 0,5 mm from the anatomical apex. The root canals were irrigated with 5% sodium hypochlorite, followed by 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). After the instrumentation was completed, the root canals were obturated using a thermoplasticizable polymer of polyesters. In order to assess the defects inside the filling material and the marginal fit to the root canal walls, the conebeam micro-computed tomography (CBμCT) was used first. After the CBμCT investigation, time domain optical coherence tomography working in en face mode (TDefOCT) was employed to evaluate the previous samples. The TDefOCT system was working at 1300 nm and was doubled by a confocal channel at 970 nm. The results obtained by CBμCT revealed no visible defects inside the root-canal fillings and at the interfaces with the root-canal walls. TDefOCT investigations permit to visualize a more complex stratificated structure at the interface filling material/dental hard tissue and in the apical region.

  14. Chelation in root canal therapy reconsidered.

    PubMed

    Zehnder, Matthias; Schmidlin, Patrick; Sener, Beatrice; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this study was to assess interactions of EDTA and citric acid (CA) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), the indispensable endodontic irrigant. Other chelators were simultaneously evaluated as possible alternatives: sodium triphosphate (STP), amino tris methylenephosphonic acid (ATMA), and 1- hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate (HEBP). Available chlorine was titrated in chelator-NaOCl solutions. All chelators other than HEBP and STP caused an almost complete, immediate loss of available chlorine in solution. Atomic absorbtion spectrometry and SEM evaluation of root canal walls of instrumented teeth indicated that NaOCl had no negative effect on calcium-complexing ability of chelators. STP was too weak a complexing agent to warrant further studies. Finally, CA-, EDTA-, and HEBP-NaOCl mixtures were evaluated for their antimicrobial capacity. Again, EDTA and CA negatively interfered with NaOCl, while HEBP did not.

  15. Laser scanning dental probe for endodontic root canal treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blank, Molly A. B.; Friedrich, Michal; Hamilton, Jeffrey D.; Lee, Peggy; Berg, Joel; Seibel, Eric J.

    2011-03-01

    Complications that arise during endodontic procedures pose serious threats to the long-term integrity and health of the tooth. Potential complexities of root canals include residual pulpal tissue, cracks, mesial-buccal 2 and accessory canals. In the case of a failed root canal, a successful apicoectomy can be jeopardized by isthmuses, accessory canals, and root microfracture. Confirming diagnosis using a small imaging probe would allow proper treatment and prevent retreatment of endodontic procedures. An ultrathin and flexible laser scanning endoscope of 1.2 to 1.6mm outer diameter was used in vitro to image extracted teeth with varied root configurations. Teeth were opened using a conventional bur and high speed drill. Imaging within the opened access cavity clarified the location of the roots where canal filing would initiate. Although radiographs are commonly used to determine the root canal size, position, and shape, the limited 2D image perspective leaves ambiguity that could be clarified if used in conjunction with a direct visual imaging tool. Direct visualization may avoid difficulties in locating the root canal and reduce the number of radiographs needed. A transillumination imaging device with the separated illumination and light collection functions rendered cracks visible in the prepared teeth that were otherwise indiscernible using reflected visible light. Our work demonstrates that a small diameter endoscope with high spatial resolution may significantly increase the efficiency and success of endodontic procedures.

  16. Mandibular Second Molar with a Single Root and a Single Canal: Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Anna; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy; Suresh, Nandhini

    2013-01-01

    The variability of root canal system morphology of multirooted teeth represents a continuous challenge to endodontic diagnosis and therapeutics. This report extends the range of known possible anatomical variations to include teeth with lesser number of root and root canals. Variations of root canal systems need not always be in the form of extra canals. Clinicians should be aware that there is a possibility of existence of fewer number of roots and root canals than the normal root canal anatomy. Thus the aim of this article is to present three cases of endodontically managed mandibular second molars with a single root and root canal. PMID:24392427

  17. Effect of solvents on bonding to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Eldeniz, Ayce Unverdi; Belli, Sema; Pashley, David H

    2004-08-01

    The long-term success of resin cementation of post/cores is likely increased with improvement in resin-root canal dentin bonding. The adverse effect of some irrigation constituents (NaOCl, H2O2) or medications (eugenol) on the bond strengths of resins to dentin have been reported. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effect of two gutta-percha solvents (chloroform versus halothane) on microtensile bond strength to root canal dentin. Thirty, extracted, human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented to a #70 file and randomly divided into 3 groups of 10 each. The root canals were treated with water, chloroform, or halothane for 60 s. All root canals were obturated using C&B Metabond. After 24 h of storage in distilled water, serial 1-mm-thick cross-sections were cut and trimmed. Microtensile bond strength to apical, middle, and coronal root canal dentin were measured using an Instron machine. Using pooled data, the results indicated that water-treated roots had significantly higher resin-dentin bond strengths compared with chloroform or halothane treatment groups (control: 23.9 MPa; chloroform: 18.3 MPa; halothane: 17 MPa; p < 0.05). Gutta-percha solvents have an adverse effect on bond strengths of adhesive cements to root canal dentin.

  18. Modeling and measurement of root canal using stereo digital radiography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Analoui, Mostafa; Krisnamurthy, Satthya; Brown, Cecil

    2000-04-01

    Determining root canal length is a crucial step in success of root canal treatment. Root canal length is commonly estimated based on pre-operation intraoral radiography. 2D depiction of a 3D object is the primary source of error in this approach. Techniques based on impedance measurement are more accurate than radiographic approaches, but do not offer a method for depicting the shape of canal. In this study, we investigated a stererotactic approach for modeling and measurement of root canal of human dentition. A weakly perspective model approximated the projectional geometry. A series of computer-simulated objects was used to test accuracy of this model as the first step. The, to assess the clinical viability of such an approach, endodontic files inserted in the root canal phantoms were fixed on an adjustable platform between a radiographic cone and an image receptor. Parameters of projection matrix were computed based on the relative positions of image receptors, focal spot, and test objects. Rotating the specimen platform from 0 to 980 degrees at 5-degree intervals set relative angulations for stereo images. Root canal is defined as the intersection of two surfaces defined by each projection. Computation of error for length measurement indicates that for angulations greater than 40 degrees the error is within clinically acceptable ranges.

  19. Root canal morphology of South Asian Indian maxillary molar teeth

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Shishir; Pawar, Mansing

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The objective was to study the root canal morphology of South Asian Indian Maxillary molars using a tooth clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Hundred teeth each comprising of first, second, and third molars collected from different dental schools and clinics in India were subjected to standard dye penetration, decalcification and clearing procedure before being studied. Results: The first molar mesiobuccal roots exhibited 69% Type I, 24% Type II, 4% Type IV, 2% Type V, and 1% exhibited a Vertuccis Type VIII canal anatomy. In the group with three separate roots the second molar mesiobuccal roots in exhibited 80.6% Type I, 15.3% Type II, 2.7% Type IV, and 1.4% Type V canal anatomy while the third molars mesiobuccal roots exhibited 57.4% Type I, 32% Type II, 2.1% Type III, 8.5% Type IV, 1% had a Type V canal anatomy in the similar group. Conclusion: A varied root canal anatomy was seen in the mesiobuccal root canal of the maxillary molars. PMID:25713497

  20. Comparison of antimicrobial substantivity of root canal irrigants in instrumented root canals up to 72 h: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Shahani, M N; Subba Reddy, V V

    2011-01-01

    Disinfection of the root canal system is one of the primary aims of root canal treatment. This can be achieved through the use of various antimicrobial agents in the form of irrigants and medicaments. The antimicrobial substantivity of 2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 1% povidone iodine, 2.5% hydrogen peroxide followed by 2% sodium hypochlorite, and 2% sodium hypochlorite alone as irrigants was assessed in instrumented root canals. 2% chlorhexidine showed antimicrobial substantivity lasting up to 72 h, followed by 1% povidone iodine, and 2% sodium hypochlorite. Thus 2% chlorhexidine should be used as a final rinse irrigant in endodontic treatment protocols.

  1. [Endodontics in motion: new concepts, materials and techniques 4. Root canal disinfection in 2015].

    PubMed

    van der Waal, S V; de Soet, J J

    2015-12-01

    Apical periodontitis is an inflammatory response around the root tip of a tooth to microbial infection of the root canal system. Therefore, disinfection of the root canal system is the most important aim of root canal treatment. There are various mechanical and chemical ways to clean and disinfect. Most methods, however, cannot be relied upon to fully decontaminate in all cases. There are problems, for example, with the proper concentrations of disinfectant agents, like sodium hypochlorite. But the more recent agents, like ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, calcium hydroxide or antibiotic pastes also have disadvantages, which are mostly a result of poor access of the irrigant to the biofilm bacteria in the affected root canals. Currently, a new strategy with a modified salt solution is under investigation that offers the prospect of being used as a root canal irrigant. At this moment the preferred treatment still seems to be to remove infected tissue as much as possible and to create access for irrigation procedures. The best results are achieved with 1-2% sodium hypochlorite as a disinfectant, possibly alternating with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid as a cleansing agent. There is no scientific evidence for the successful use of calcium hydroxide.

  2. Cytotoxicity of Two Bioactive Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Pezelj-Ribaric, Sonja; Roguljić, Marija; Miletic, Ivana

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the cytotoxicity of two different bioactive root canal sealers: one based on mineral trioxide aggregate, MTA Fillapex (Angelus, Solucoes Odontologicas, Londrina, PR, Brazil), and the other based on bioceramics, Endosequence BC Sealer (Brasseler, Savannah, Georgia, USA), in culture of mouse L929 fibroblasts. Materials and methods Mouse fibroblasts (L929), obtained from subcutaneous connective tissue of mouse line C3Hf, were cultivated in plastic culture flasks in an incubator at 37şC, with 5% CO2 and 90% humidity. Freshly mixed Endosequence BC Sealer and MTA Fillapex (0.1 g each) were placed on sterile teflon discs, 6 mm in diameter. Teflon discs with the materials as well as empty discs serving as control were placed in wells of 12-well plate. After incubation times of 1, 6, 20 and 24 hours, the teflon discs were removed from the wells and the number of viable cells was determined using trypan blue in Neubauer chamber. Results In comparison to the control group, MTA Fillapex had significantly less viable cells for all incubation periods (p≤0.05), while Endosequence BC sealer had significantly less viable cells after 6, 20, and 24 hours of incubation (p≤0.05). MTA Fillapex comprised significantly less viable cells in comparison to Endosequence BC sealer after the first hour and after 20 hours of incubation (p≤0.05), while for the other incubation periods there were no significant differences (p≥0.05). Conclusion MTA Fillapex and Endosequence BC sealer were both cytotoxic in cultures of mouse L929 fibroblasts. PMID:27688421

  3. A novel approach in assessment of root canal curvature

    PubMed Central

    Sadeghi, Shiva; Poryousef, Vahideh

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this in vitro study was to introduce a new method to describe root canal curvatures and to assess the degree of curvature of human permanent mandibular teeth with curved root canals. Materials and Methods: One hundred and thirty five mesial root canals of mandibular first and second molar teeth were selected. Access cavities were prepared. After inserting a K-file size #10 into each canal, radiographs were taken. Canal curvature was determined by measuring the Schneider angle, canal access angle, as well as the canal radius, length, height and curvature starting distance on scanned radiographs using a computerized image processing system. Data was evaluated statistically using Pearson correlation. Results: The mean canal access angle (CAA) and Schneider angle (S) were 8.04◦ (3.46) and 19◦ (6.99), respectively. The Pearson correlation analysis found significant positive correlation between S and CAA (r=0.826, P<0.0001). Negative correlations were found between radius and length (r= –0.4, P<0.0001), radius and Schneider angle (r= –0.4, P<0.0001), radius and CAA (r= –0.24, P=0.004) and CAA and curvature starting distance (r= 0.4, P<0.0001). There was no correlation between height and distance (r=0.013, P=0.789), as well as CAA and height (r=0.654, P=0.001). Conclusion: Under the limitations of this study, the results indicated that the shape of root canal curvature can be more accurately described using two angles, Schneider in combination with Canal access angle. The related parameters included radius, length, distance and height of curvature. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):131-4] PMID:24019833

  4. Mandibular first molar with six root canals: a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad; Rahman, Munawar; Saad, Najeeb

    2014-01-01

    Recently, there has been an ongoing trend of case reports that highlight the presence of more than four root canals in mandibular first molars. This tendency warns clinicians to be more prudent when dealing with mandibular first molars requiring endodontic treatment. Moreover, radiographic examination should be taken as a clue providing tool rather than as an absolute guide to anatomy and its associated aberrances. This case reports the successful non-surgical endodontic management of a mandibular first molar with six root canal systems with three canals in the mesial root and three in the distal root. The classification of root canal systems found in this case was Sert and Bayirli type XV in both the roots. After non-surgical endodontic treatment, the tooth was restored definitively with a resin composite core followed by porcelain fused to the metal crown. This case adds to the library of previously reported cases of mandibular first molars with six root canals and further emphasises on the importance of rare morphological deviations that may occur in the mandibular first molars. PMID:25082869

  5. Effect of root canal filling materials containing calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of root dentin.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J; Spiess, V; Heinecke, A; Müller, H P

    1995-08-01

    The effect of root canal filling pastes containing calcium oxide resp. calcium hydroxide on the alkalinity of extracted human teeth was investigated using a colour indicator (cresol red). An aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide (Pulpdent), which is normally used for temporary root canal filling, most consistently produced alkalinity. Removal of the smear layer following instrumentation of the root canal led to increased proportion of alkaline-positive spots in dentinal locations distant from the canal. A clearly smaller effect was found with a calcium salicylate cement (Sealapex) and an oil-paste (Gangraena Merz), both of which are available for definite root canal fillings. Following removal of the smear layer, these hard-setting preparations caused moderate alkalinity in dentin adjacent to the canal but no effect was observed in locations more distant from the canal. Neither at locations adjacent to nor distant from the root canal was alkalinity found when another calcium salicylate cement (Apexit) was used. Apparently the release of hydroxyl ions into root dentin from calcium hydroxide containing root canal filling materials is not solely influenced by the absolute amount of calcium hydroxide, but also depends on other ingredients which variably inhibit the release of these ions.

  6. Root Canal Irrigation: Chemical Agents and Plant Extracts Against Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Borzini, Letizia; Condò, Roberta; De Dominicis, Paolo; Casaglia, Adriano; Cerroni, Loredana

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are various microorganisms related to intra and extra-radicular infections and many of these are involved in persistent infections. Bacterial elimination from the root canal is achieved by means of the mechanical action of instruments and irrigation as well as the antibacterial effects of the irrigating solutions. Enterococcus faecalis can frequently be isolated from root canals in cases of failed root canal treatments. Antimicrobial agents have often been developed and optimized for their activity against endodontic bacteria. An ideal root canal irrigant should be biocompatible, because of its close contact with the periodontal tissues during endodontic treatment. Sodium hypoclorite (NaOCl) is one of the most widely recommended and used endodontic irrigants but it is highly toxic to periapical tissues. Objectives: To analyze the literature on the chemotherapeutic agent and plant extracts studied as root canal irrigants. In particularly, the study is focused on their effect on Enterococcus faecalis. Method: Literature search was performed electronically in PubMed (PubMed Central, MEDLINE) for articles published in English from 1982 to April 2015. The searched keywords were “endodontic irrigants” and “Enterococcus faecalis” and “essential oil” and “plant extracts”. Results: Many of the studied chemotherapeutic agents and plant extracts have shown promising results in vitro. Conclusion: Some of the considered phytotherapic substances, could be a potential alternative to NaOCl for the biomechanical treatment of the endodontic space. PMID:28217184

  7. Mandibular First Molar with a Single Root and Single Canal

    PubMed Central

    Sooriaprakas, Chandrasekaran; Ballal, Suma; Velmurugan, Natanasabapathy

    2014-01-01

    Successful endodontic management of mandibular first molar with a single root and single canal is diagnosed with the aid of dental operating microscope and multiple angled radiographs. In addition all the mandibular molars and premolars were single rooted on either side. PMID:24715990

  8. On the dynamics of root canal infections—what we understand and what we don't

    PubMed Central

    Zehnder, Matthias; Belibasakis, Georgios N.

    2015-01-01

    Infections of the root canal space and their sequelae can be extremely painful and potentially dangerous, yet they do not necessarily have to be. Chronic, asymptomatic inflammatory lesions around the apex of a tooth with a necrotic dental pulp or an insufficient root canal treatment can develop unnoticed by the patient, and remain so for years. The course of disease is modulated by both the virulence of the microbiota established in the root canal space and the capacity of the immune system to curb the infection. To both ends, highly convincing investigations to help us understand when and why the tissues around an endodontically involved tooth become acutely inflamed are missing. We will discuss how recent advances in molecular identification of microorganisms have altered our understanding of root canal infections, and which information is currently missing to link clinical experience with observations from experimental research. PMID:25654162

  9. Root canal preparation in endodontics: conventional versus laser methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goodis, Harold E.; White, Joel M.; Marshall, Sally J.; Marshall, Grayson W.; Moskowitz, Emrey

    1992-06-01

    Conventional cleaning and shaping of root canal systems employs hand and/or rotary instrumentation to remove the contents of the canal and shape the canal to receive a filling material. With the advent of the Nd:YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups. The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning. The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd:YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems. We will discuss the ability of Nd:YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.

  10. Mandibular lateral incisor with Vertucci Type IV root canal morphological system: A rare case report

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Kanika

    2016-01-01

    Abnormalities in the root canal anatomy are commonly occurring phenomenon. A thorough knowledge of root canal anatomy and its variation is necessary for successful completion of endodontic treatment. Mandibular anteriors are known for having extra canals. The role of genetics and racial variations may result in difference of incidence of root number and canal number. This paper attempts at explaining a rare case of successful endodontic management of two-rooted lateral incisor with awareness of data pertaining to number of canals, knowledge of canal morphology, correct radiographic interpretation, and tactile examination of canal wall which are important in detecting the presence of multiple canals. PMID:27003981

  11. Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular First Permanent Molars in an Indian Population

    PubMed Central

    Chourasia, Hemant Ramesh; Meshram, Ganesh K.; Warhadpande, Manjusha; Dakshindas, Darshan

    2012-01-01

    An in vitro study was performed to determine the number of roots, root canals per tooth, root canal configurations, and frequency of isthmi and apical deltas in mandibular first permanent molars in an Indian population. Hundred and fifty mandibular first permanent molars were collected and subjected to clearing technique. The cleared teeth were examined in a stereomicroscope under 7.5x magnifications. The canal configurations were categorized using Vertucci's classification. Overall 94.6% of the mandibular first molars had two roots, and 5.3% had extradistal roots (distolingual root). In addition, 64% of the specimens had three root canals, and 36% had four root canals. The most common canal configurations of mesial and distal roots were Vertucci type IV (54%) and type I (65.3%), respectively. Clinician should be aware of the complex root canal morphology of mandibular first molars among the Indian population before and during the root canal treatment. PMID:22287965

  12. Disinfection of Contaminated Canals by Different Laser Wavelengths, while Performing Root Canal Therapy.

    PubMed

    Asnaashari, Mohammad; Safavi, Nassimeh

    2013-01-01

    Removal of smear layer and disinfection of canals are important objectives of teeth root canal cleaning. In order to achieve this purpose, rinsing substances, intra canal drugs as well as ultrasound are used. Today, use of laser to remove smear layer and to disinfect root canals has increasingly attracted the attentions. Till now different lasers such as CO2, Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG have been used for debris and smear removal from the canals. Numerous studies have shown that Er:YAG is the most appropriate laser for intra canal debris and smear removal. In addition different laser wavelengths have been used directly or as an adjunctive to disinfect canals. Laser light can penetrate areas of canals where irrigating and disinfecting solutions cannot reach, like secondary canals and deep dentinal tubules and also can eliminate microorganisms. Different studies have confirmed the penetration of Nd:YAG laser in deep dentin and reduction of microorganisms penetration. But studies on comparison of antibacterial effects of Nd:YAG laser with sodium hypochlorite showed effectiveness of both, with a better effect for sodium hypochlorite. Studies performed in relation with anti-microbial effects of Diode laser with various parameters show that this laser can be effective in reducing intra canal bacterial count and penetration in the depth of 500 microns in dentin. In studies performed on Diode laser in combination with canal irrigating solutions such as sodium hypochlorite and oxygenated water better results were obtained. Although studies on disinfection by the Erbium laser family show that use of this laser alone can be effective in disinfecting canals, studies evaluating the disinfecting effects of this laser and different concentrations of sodium hypochlorite show that the latter alone is more effective in disinfecting canals. And better results were obtained when Erbium laser was used in combination with sodium hypochlorite irrigating solution in canals. Results of the

  13. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A.

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature. PMID:27242904

  14. Bioceramic-Based Root Canal Sealers: A Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Afaf; Che Ab Aziz, Zeti A

    2016-01-01

    Bioceramic-based root canal sealers are considered to be an advantageous technology in endodontics. The aim of this review was to consider laboratory experiments and clinical studies of these sealers. An extensive search of the endodontic literature was made to identify publications related to bioceramic-based root canal sealers. The outcome of laboratory and clinical studies on the biological and physical properties of bioceramic-based sealers along with comparative studies with other sealers was assessed. Several studies were evaluated covering different properties of bioceramic-based sealers including physical properties, biocompatibility, sealing ability, adhesion, solubility, and antibacterial efficacy. Bioceramic-based sealers were found to be biocompatible and comparable to other commercial sealers. The clinical outcomes associated with the use of bioceramic-based root canal sealers are not established in the literature.

  15. C-shaped root canal configuration: A review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Marina; de Ataide, Ida; Wagle, Rahul

    2014-01-01

    The aim is to review and discuss the etiology, incidence, anatomic features, classification, diagnosis and management of the C-shaped canal configuration. C-shaped canal configuration is a variation that has a racial predilection and is commonly seen in mandibular second molars. The intricacies present in this variation of canal morphology can pose a challenge to the clinician during negotiation, debridement and obturation. Manual and electronic searches of literature were performed from 1979 to 2012, in Pub Med by crossing the keywords: C-shaped canals, mandibular second molar, mandibular first premolar, root canal morphology. Knowledge of the C-shaped canal configuration is essential to achieve success in endodontic therapy. Radiographic and clinical diagnoses can aid in identification and negotiation of the fan-shaped areas and intricacies of the C-shaped anatomy. Effective management of this anomalous canal configuration can be achieved with rotary and hand instrumentation assisted with sonics and ultrasonics. Modifications in the obturation techniques will ensure a 3-dimensional fill of the canal system and chamber retained restorations like amalgam or composites, serve as satisfactory post endodontic restorations. PMID:25125841

  16. The antimicrobial effect of iodine-potassium iodide after cleaning and shaping procedures in mesial root canals of mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Tello-Barbaran, Javier; Nakata, Hilda Moromi; Salcedo-Moncada, Doris; Bramante, Clovis M; Ordinola-Zapata, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the antibacterial activity of 2% iodine potassium iodide (IKI) used as a final rinse after the cleaning and shaping procedures in mesial root canals of mandibular molars infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Seventy two mandibular first molars were used. The root canals were infected with Enterococcus faecalisfor 30 days. After the infection procedures, the root canals were cleaned and shaped by using the Pro Taper rotary system and manual files. The teeth were randomly assigned to four experimental groups (N = 18). In group 1, the root canals were irrigated with sterile distilled water (control). In group 2, the root canals were irrigated with 1% Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) during instrumentation. In group 3, root canals were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during instrumentation and a five minute final irrigation using 2% IKI. In group 4, the root canals were irrigated with 1% NaOCl during instrumentation and a 15 minutes final irrigation with 2% IKI. Bacteria colony-forming units (CFU) from root canals were semi-quantified and the presence of negative cultures among the groups was compared using Fisher's test (p < 0.05). The order of effectiveness was: 1% NaOCI plus 2% IKl for 15 minutes (95%), 1% NaOCl plus 2% IKl for 5 minutes (44%), 1% NaOCl (17%) and sterile distilled water (0%). Fisher's exact test showed a significant difference among the groups (p < 0.05). It was concluded that under in vitro conditions, IKI was able to eliminate the Enterococcus faecalis from infected dentin significantly in a 15-minute time frame after the cleaning and shaping procedures.

  17. Accurate Measurement of Canal Length during Root Canal Treatment: An In Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Sadaf, Durre; Ahmad, Muhammad Zubair

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the consistency and accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator (EAL) (Root ZXII) in individual canals and its association with other clinical variables. Study Design: Cross-Sectional study. Place of study: Dental section of the Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan. Materials and Methods: Working length was measured by EAL in 180 patients requiring endodontic therapy in molar and premolar teeth. The effects of clinical variables e.g. gender and pulpal status on the consistency and accuracy of EAL were recorded. Performance of apex locator was considered “Consistent” when the scale bar was stable and moved only in correspondence to the movement of file in the root canal. Accuracy was determined by inserting the file at the working length determined by the EAL and periapical view of radiograph was taken using paralleling technique. Estimated working length was considered accurate when the file tip was located 0-2mm short of the radiographic apex. If the file was overextended from the radiographic apex, it showed dysfunction of the EAL. Results: Consistency of EAL was found 97.6% in distobuccal canals, 91.1% in palatal canals, 73.7% in mesiolingual canals, 83.3% in mesiobuccal and 80.2% in distal canals. Accuracy of EAL was 91.4% in mesiolingual canal, 92% in mesiobuccal, and 90.2% in Palatal and 93.2% in distal canal. Conclusion: Consistency of electronic apex locator vary in different canals, however consistent measurements are highly accurate. No significant association was found between other clinical variables with the consistency and accuracy of EAL.

  18. Microstructure and wettability of root canal dentine and root canal filling materials after different chemical irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonijevic, Djordje; Milovanovic, Petar; Brajkovic, Denis; Ilic, Dragan; Hahn, Michael; Amling, Michael; Rakocevic, Zlatko; Djuric, Marija; Busse, Björn

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of various irrigation solutions on root canal dentine and gutta-percha surface properties. In addition, the effects of disinfectant chemicals on the wettability and surface morphological properties of the filling materials were evaluated. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), citric acid, and ozone were employed as irrigation solutions for dentine and gutta-percha treatment. Thereafter, the samples' microstructure, degree of mineralization, and mechanical properties were assessed by means of quantitative backscattered electron imaging (qBEI) and reference point indentation (RPI). A contact angle analyzer was used to measure adhesion on the tested materials. Here, EDTA had the most significant affect on both the mechanical properties and the adhesive behavior of dentine. Citric acid did not affect dentine wettability, whereas the indentation properties and the mineralization were reduced. Similar effects were observed when ozone was used. The dentinal tubules were significantly widened in citric acid compared to the ozone group. EDTA causes considerable micromechanical surface alteration of dentine and gutta-percha, but represents the best option in clinical cases where a high adhesiveness of the filling materials is desired.

  19. Root canal length measurement in teeth with electrolyte compensation.

    PubMed

    Nam, K C; Kim, S C; Lee, S J; Kim, Y J; Kim, N G; Kim, D W

    2002-03-01

    Electronic root canal length measurement devices have made it easier and faster to measure the root canal length of a tooth compared with the conventional radiographic method. Of these electronic apex locators, the frequency-dependent type features greater accuracy and convenience in operation. However, its accuracy is still influenced by the presence of blood and/or the various electrolytes used in root canal therapy. This study describes the development of a new frequency-dependent electronic apex locator featuring electrolyte compensation, utilising an impedance ratio and voltage difference technique to minimise the influence of electrolytes on the accuracy of root canal length measurement. The errors for distances from file tips to apical constrictions were determined in vivo with the device operating with electrolyte compensation. The measured lengths were compared with the true lengths of the extracted teeth determined using a microscope. The mean error was +0.14+/-0.27mm, and 95.2% of the measurements were within the clinical tolerance of +/-0.5mm. It was also found that the degree of accuracy was not dependent on the size of the apical foramen (p = 0.74).

  20. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before December...

  1. 21 CFR 872.3820 - Root canal filling resin.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Root canal filling resin. 872.3820 Section 872.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... completion of a PDP is required to be filed with the Food and Drug Administration on or before December...

  2. Antibacterial Efficacy of Super-Oxidized Water on Enterococcus faecalis Biofilms in Root Canal

    PubMed Central

    Zan, Recai; Alacam, Tayfun; Hubbezoglu, Ihsan; Tunc, Tutku; Sumer, Zeynep; Alici, Oguzhan

    2016-01-01

    Background The success of endodontic treatment depends on a few crucial factors. One of these factors is the complete chemomechanic preparation of root canal against various bacteria. In particular, the effect of resistant bacteria may cause intense pain with flare-up and formation of periapical lesions. Therefore, the strong effect of irrigants plays an important role in terms of the complete elimination of these bacteria to achieve long-term successful treatment. Objectives The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effects of super-oxidized water (SPO) in root canals infected with Enterococcus faecalis biofilms. Methods One hundred twenty single-root, premolar teeth were selected. Initially, the teeth were prepared and then disinfected. E. faecalis were inoculated and kept at 37°C for 24 hours in the root canals. The re-inoculation procedure was repeated on the first, fourth, seventh, and tenth days. The infected root canals were divided into one negative (saline) and one positive (sodium hypochlorite) control group and four experimental groups (super-oxidized water: 1, 2, 3, or 5 minutes) (n = 20). Paper points were placed in the root canals to control and evaluate the biofilm formation. Biofilms were counted on blood agar plates, and data was evaluated and statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. Results Although sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) showed no statistically significant difference when compared with three and five minutes of SPO irrigation (P > 0.05), NaOCl showed statistically significant differences among all other groups (P < 0.05). Conclusions Super-oxidized water indicated a remarkable and similar bactericidal effect to that of traditional NaOCl against E. faecalis biofilms. In terms of successful endodontic treatment approaches, super-oxidized water may be used as an effective irrigation solution in clinics. PMID:27800142

  3. Effect of root canal preparation, type of endodontic post and mechanical cycling on root fracture strength

    PubMed Central

    RIPPE, Marília Pivetta; SANTINI, Manuela Favarin; BIER, Carlos Alexandre Souza; BALDISSARA, Paolo; VALANDRO, Luiz Felipe

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the impact of the type of root canal preparation, intraradicular post and mechanical cycling on the fracture strength of roots. Material and Methods eighty human single rooted teeth were divided into 8 groups according to the instruments used for root canal preparation (manual or rotary instruments), the type of intraradicular post (fiber posts- FRC and cast post and core- CPC) and the use of mechanical cycling (MC) as follows: Manual and FRC; Manual, FRC and MC; Manual and CPC; Manual, CPC and MC; Rotary and FRC; Rotary, FRC and MC; Rotary and CPC; Rotary, CPC and MC. The filling was performed by lateral compactation. All root canals were prepared for a post with a 10 mm length, using the custom #2 bur of the glass fiber post system. For mechanical cycling, the protocol was applied as follows: an angle of incidence of 45°, 37°C, 88 N, 4 Hz, 2 million pulses. All groups were submitted to fracture strength test in a 45° device with 1 mm/ min cross-head speed until failure occurred. Results The 3-way ANOVA showed that the root canal preparation strategy (p<0.03) and post type (p<0.0001) affected the fracture strength results, while mechanical cycling (p=0.29) did not. Conclusion The root canal preparation strategy only influenced the root fracture strength when restoring with a fiber post and mechanical cycling, so it does not seem to be an important factor in this scenario. PMID:25025556

  4. Adaptation and penetration of resin-based root canal sealers in root canals irradiated with high-intensity lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura-Netto, Cacio; Mello-Moura, Anna Carolina Volpi; Palo, Renato Miotto; Prokopowitsch, Igor; Pameijer, Cornelis H.; Marques, Marcia Martins

    2015-03-01

    This research analyzed the quality of resin-based sealer adaptation after intracanal laser irradiation. Extracted teeth (n=168) were root canal treated and divided into four groups, according to dentin surface treatment: no laser; Nd:YAG laser (1.5 W, 100 mJ, 15 Hz) diode laser (2.5 W in CW), and Er:YAG laser (1 W, 100 mJ, 10 Hz). The teeth were divided into four subgroups according to the sealer used: AH Plus, EndoREZ, Epiphany, and EpiphanySE. For testing the sealing after root canal obturation, the penetration of silver nitrate solution was measured, whereas to evaluate the adaptation and penetration of the sealer into the dentin, environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM) was used. The ESEM images were analyzed using a four-grade criteria score by three evaluators. The inter-examiner agreement was confirmed by Kappa test and the scores statistically compared by the Kruskal-Wallis' test (p<0.05). Both adaptation and sealer penetration in root canals were not affected by the laser irradiation. Nd:YAG and diode laser decreased the tracer penetration for AH Plus, whereas EndoREZ and EpiphanySE performances were affected by Nd:YAG irradiation (p<0.05). It can be concluded that intracanal laser irradiation can be used as an adjunct in endodontic treatment; however, the use of hydrophilic resin sealers should be avoided when root canals were irradiated with Nd:YAG laser.

  5. Temperature rise during photo-activated disinfection of root canals.

    PubMed

    Dickers, B; Lamard, L; Peremans, A; Geerts, S; Lamy, M; Limme, M; Rompen, E; De Moor, R J G; Mahler, P; Rocca, J P; Nammour, S

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether it is safe to use photo-activated disinfection (PAD) during root canal treatment without heating the periodontal tissues. Root canals of 30 freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared using ProFiles up to size ISO 40 and then filled with photo-sensitiser: tolonium blue (1.2 mg/l). The 635 nm diode laser was used with the manufacturer's endo-tip. Samples were irradiated for 150 s (output power 100 mW, approximate energy density 106.16 J/cm(2)). Temperatures were recorded at working length on the external root surface. After 150 s of PAD irradiation, the average temperature rise was 0.16 +/- 0.08 degrees C. All values were lower than the 7 degrees C safety level for periodontal injury. It was concluded that, regarding the temperature increase, the use of PAD in root canals could be considered harmless for periodontal tissues.

  6. Geminated Maxillary Lateral Incisor with Two Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Romano, Nayara; Souza-Flamini, Luis Eduardo; Mendonça, Isabela Lima; Silva, Ricardo Gariba

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports a case of gemination in a maxillary lateral incisor with two root canals and crown-root dilaceration. A 16-year-old male patient was referred for endodontic treatment of the maxillary left lateral incisor and evaluation of esthetic and functional complaints in the anterior region. The patient reported trauma to the anterior primary teeth. There was no spontaneous pain, but the tooth responded positively to the vertical percussion test and negatively to the pulp vitality test. Clinical examination showed esthetic and functional alterations and normal periodontal tissues. CBCT imaging confirmed the suspicion of gemination and crown-root dilaceration and also revealed the presence of two root canals and periapical bone rarefaction. The root canals were instrumented with Reciproc R40 and 1% NaOCl irrigation and were filled by lateral condensation of gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer. The tooth was definitely restored with composite resin to recover esthetics. Continued follow-up over 6 months has shown absence of pain or clinical alterations as well as radiographic image suggestive of apical repair. PMID:28119787

  7. [Electronic determination of the length of the root canal].

    PubMed

    Dehon, P; Van Nieuwenhuysen, J P

    1999-01-01

    The endpoint of an endodontic treatment must be situated at the cemen-to-dentinal junction to preserve the biological potential of the periapical area and to realize a complete disinfection of the principal root canal system. Thus, the determination of working length is a crucial factor in endodontic therapy. The conventional radiographic method cannot provide the accurate location of the apical constriction. For this reason, the electronic apex locators have been developed. Now, the last generation of apex locators has become more sophisticated and the electronic measurements seem to be accurate and reliable with electrolytic solutions in the canal.

  8. Five root canals in peg lateral incisor with dens invaginatus: A case report with new nomenclature for the five canals

    PubMed Central

    Jaikailash, Shanmugam; Kavitha, Mahendran; Ranjani, Muthukrishnan Sudharshana; Saravanan, Balasubramaniam

    2014-01-01

    This case report describes endodontic treatment completed in a peg-shaped maxillary lateral incisor, with single root and five root canals of which, one is due to dens invaginatus. Cone beam computed tomogram scanning confirmed the unique morphology of the tooth. New nomenclature for the five canals is proposed. PMID:25125854

  9. Evaluation of a non-thermal plasma needle to eliminate ex vivo biofilms in root canals of extracted human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Schaudinn, C; Jaramillo, D; Freire, M O; Sedghizadeh, P P; Nguyen, A; Webster, P; Costerton, J W; Jiang, C

    2013-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the efficacy of a non-thermal plasma (NTP) at atmospheric pressure on ex vivo biofilm in root canals of extracted teeth. Methodology Intra-canal contents from three teeth with root canal infections were collected, pooled, and grown in thirty-five microCT-mapped root canals of extracted and instrumented human teeth. One group of teeth was treated with NTP, another with 6% NaOCl, and one set was left untreated. The intra-canal contents from twenty-seven teeth (nine teeth in each group) were plated on agar and colony forming units were determined. Parametric test of one-way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze statistical significance. The remaining teeth were cut open, stained with LIVE/DEAD® and examined with confocal laser scanning microscopy. Results The untreated root canals were covered with biofilm of varying thickness. The treatment with the non-thermal plasma decreased the number of viable bacteria in these biofilms by one order of magnitude, while the NaOCl control achieved a reduction of more than four magnitudes. Both the NTP and the NaOCl treatment results were significantly different from the negative control (P< 0.05). Conclusion The non-thermal plasma displayed antimicrobial activity against endodontic biofilms in root canals, but was not as effective as the use of 6 % NaOCl. PMID:23480318

  10. A Clinical Update on the Different Methods to Decrease the Occurrence of Missed Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Asgary, Saeed; Shalavi, Sousan; V. Abbott, Paul

    2016-01-01

    One of the main causes of endodontic treatment failure is the clinician’s inability to localize all the root canals. Due to the complex anatomy of the root canal system, missed canals are not uncommon. There are several strategies to decrease the possibility of missed root canals starting with good pre-operative radiographies. In order to overcome the limitations of conventional radiographies, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) can be considered. A correct access cavity preparation is of pivotal importance in localizing the orifices of the root canals. Furthermore, ultrasonics are very important devices to find missed canals. Increasing magnification and illumination enhance the possibility of finding all root canals during root canal treatment. The purpose of the present paper was to review all of the above techniques and devices. PMID:27471533

  11. Mixture tetracycline citric acid and detergent – A root canal irrigant. A review

    PubMed Central

    Srikumar, G.P.V.; Sekhar, K.S.; Nischith, K.G.

    2012-01-01

    Background Root canal irrigants play an indispensable role for the complete disinfection of the root canal system, in particular those areas of the root canal that are not accessible for instrumentation. Sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide and chlorhexidine are the most commonly used root canal irrigants in endodontic practice, but they do not satisfy all the properties of an ideal root canal irrigant. Mixture tetracycline, citric acid and detergent, a root canal irrigant, is commercially available as BioPure MTAD (Dentsply, Tulsa Dental, Tulsa, OK). Methodology The literature was searched for root canal irrigants used in the last 3 decades in PubMed. Data showed 83 relevant articles, of which 24 were found most suitable on the basis of description of properties, advantages and disadvantages of MTAD, hence were included. The aim of this study was to evaluate the properties of MTAD for its antibacterial efficiency, biocompatibility, chelating action with removal of endodontic smear layer and compare it with other commonly used root canal irrigants like sodium hypochlorite, ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, hydrogen peroxide, chlorhexidine. Results MTAD was found to be highly effective intracanal irrigant compared to other commonly used root canal irrigants with excellent disinfection of the entire root canal system. Conclusion MTAD is biocompatible with superior antimicrobial efficiency compared to other commonly used root canal irrigants. PMID:25737877

  12. A comparison of methods used in root canal sealability studies

    SciTech Connect

    Matloff, I.R.; Jensen, J.R.; Singer, L.; Tabibi, A.

    1982-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare several methods that have been used to assess marginal leakage of root canal fillings. Sixty-three extracted, single-rooted teeth were instrumented and filled in a standardized manner. Teeth were randomly divided into groups of twenty and exposed to solutions containing methylene blue dye, calcium-45, carbon-14-labeled urea, and iodine-125-labeled albumin for 48 hours to compare the degree of leakage indicated by each technique. Methylene blue dye was found to penetrate farther up the canal than any of the isotope tracers. Carbon-14-labeled urea penetrated farther than the calcium-45- or iodine-125-labeled albumin. The mean volume of solution penetrating the teeth was exceedingly small (0.0011 ml) and probably unimportant physiologically.

  13. [Treatment of a fractured endodontical instrument in the root canal].

    PubMed

    Schipper, M; Peters, L B

    2015-12-01

    A 53-year-old woman with continuing pain coming from a lower first molar was diagnosed with apical periodontitis, with a retained fractured instrument in the root canal. There are a variety of treatment options for dealing with a corpus alienum in a root canal. In this case it was decided to treat the tooth endodontically, and leave the fractured instrument fragment in situ. The selection of this treatment option was made on the basis of knowledge of the original diagnosis and the success rates of the various treatment options as described in the relevant literature, weighed against the possible risks and their effects on the prognosis. This suggested that the use of a dental operating microscope has a positive impact on the success rates of endodontic treatment The prognosis for endodontic treatment when a fractured instrument fragment is left within the root canal, as in this case, is not significantly reduced. The presence of preoperative periapical pathology, however, is a more clinically significant prognostic indicator.

  14. Monoblocks in root canals - a hypothetical or a tangible goal

    PubMed Central

    Tay, Franklin R.; Pashley, David H.

    2007-01-01

    The term “monoblock” has become a familiar term in the endodontic literature with recent interest in the application of dentin adhesive technology to endodontics. Endodontic “monoblocks” have generated controversial discussions among academicians and clinicians as to whether they are able to improve the quality of seal in root fillings and to strengthen roots. This review attempts to provide a broader meaning to the term “monoblock” and see how this definition may be applied to the materials that have been used in the past and present for rehabilitation of the root canal space. The potential of currently available bondable materials to achieve mechanically homogeneous units with root dentin is then discussed in relation to the classical concept in which the term “monoblock” was first employed in restorative dentistry, and subsequently in endodontics. PMID:17368325

  15. Comparing irradiation parameters on disinfecting enterrecoccus faecalis in root canal disinfection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarp, Ayşe. S.; Gülsoy, Murat

    2016-02-01

    Although conventional method carries all the debris, studies on persisting infections in root canals show bacteria and their toxins spread from the root canal and contaminate the apical region. Thus developes apical periodontitis or symptoms, and loss of tooth. Even if the treatment has adequate success, anatomy of root canal system can be very complexwith accessory canals. The disinfecting effect of laser radiation has only recently been used in dentistry. Laser irradiation has a bactericidal effect. Each wavelength has its own advantages and limitations according to their different absorption characteristics, depending on their 'absorption coefficient'. The sterilizing efficiency of two types of wavelengths, a new fiber laser 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser and an 2940 nm Er:YAG Laser were compared in this study. Irradiation with a power of 0.50 W with 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser disinfected 95,15% of bacteria, however irradiation with same laser power with Er:YAG Laser caused a reduction of 96,48 %. But there was no significant difference in the disinfection effect of two different laser groups ( p < 0.05, Mann- U-Whitney Test). In addition to this, Er :YAG Laser caused three times more reduction from its own positive control group where 1940- nm Thulium fiber Laser caused 2,5 times effective disinfection.

  16. Clinical relevance of trans 1,4-polyisoprene aging degradation on the longevity of root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Maniglia-Ferreira, Cláudio; Valverde, Guilherme Bönecker; Silva, João Batista Araújo; de Paula, Regina Célia Monteiro; Feitosa, Judith Pessoa Andrade; de Souza-Filho, Francisco José

    2007-01-01

    This in vivo study investigated the time of degradation of root filling material (trans 1,4-polyisoprene) retrieved from endodontically treated teeth and correlated the occurrence of degradation with the longevity of endodontics. Thirty-six root-filled teeth with different filling times (2 to 30 years) and with and without periapical lesions were selected. All teeth presented clinical indication for root canal retreatment. The association among filling time, presence of periapical lesion and root filling material degradation was investigated. Root filling samples were retrieved from the root canals using a Hedströ m file without solvent. The trans 1,4-polyisoprene was isolated by root filling solubilization in chloroform followed by filtration and centrifugation. GPC and FT-IR were the analytical techniques utilized. Degradation of trans 1,4-polyisoprene occurred with time, as a slow process. It is an oxidative process, and production of carboxyl and hydroxyl groups in the residual polymer were observed. Statistically significant decrease of molar mass was observed after 5 (p=0.0001) and 15 (p=0.01) years in teeth with and without periapical lesion, respectively. Bacteria participated in polymer degradation. Gutta-percha aging was proven an important factor for the long-term success of endodontic treatment. The findings of the present study showed that, after 15 years, polymer weight loss may decrease the capacity of the filling mass to seal the root canal space and prevent re-infection, thus compromising significantly the longevity of root canal therapy.

  17. Assessment of Photodynamic Therapy (PDT) in Disinfection of Deeper Dentinal Tubules in a Root Canal System: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Bhaskar, Dara John; Agali, Chandan R; Punia, Himanshu; Gupta, Vipul; Singh, Vikas; Kadtane, Safalya; Chandra, Sneha

    2014-01-01

    Context: The success of endodontic treatment therapy depends on how well we eliminate pathogenic microflora from the root canal system as micro organism as the major cause of root canal infection. Conventional root canal treatment can fail if microorganisms cannot be removed sufficiently by thorough cleaning, shaping of root canal. Newer modalities such as photodynamic therapy are being tried now a days for disinfection of root canals. Aim & Objectives: The basic aim of this study was assessment of the antimicrobial efficacy of Photodynamic Therapy in deeper dentinal tubules for effective disinfection of root canals using microbiological and scanning electron microscopic examination in vitro. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at Teerthanker Mahaveer Dental College & Research Centre. The teeth required for study was collected from Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery. Only freshly extracted 20 intact, non carious single rooted teeth which were indicated for orthodontic treatment were taken for this study. Statistical analysis was done using Student’s Unpaired t-test were at (p<0.001) was found to be highly significant. Microbiological examination of samples were done and colony forming units were counted to assess the disinfection potential of photodynamic therapy. Scanning electron microscopic examination of samples was done to check penetration of bacteria’s into deeper dentinal tubules. Results: On examination, there was a marked reduction in microbial growth after use of photodynamic therapy. On scanning electron microscopic examination, it was observed that there were less number of bacteria’s in deeper dentinal tubules in case of PDT group as compared to control group. Conclusion: The results of the present study indicate that PDT can be effectively used during antimicrobial procedures along with conventional disinfection procedure for sterilization of root canals. PMID:25584321

  18. [Comparative analysis of rotatory (GT) and manual root canal preparation and association of both techniques in instrumentation of flattened root canals].

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Silvana Beltrami; Brosco, Viviane Haiub; Bramante, Clovis Monteiro

    2003-03-01

    Root canal preparation has been considered one of the most important steps in root canal therapy, thus many techniques and instruments have been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cleaning of the root canal through three different instrumentation techniques. Thirty mandibular incisors were selected and submitted to lingual access cavities. Afterwards, the canals were filled with India ink dye previously stored in carpules, which was inserted into the root canal by means of anesthetic syringe and anesthetic needles. After 48 hours, during which the dye was allowed to dry inside the root canal, the teeth were divided in three groups: G1- GT rotatory instrumentation; G2- manual instrumentation; G3- association of both. After instrumentation, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned. The cleaning process accomplished through the different instrumentation techniques was evidenced by dye removal at the cervical, middle and apical thirds of the root canal. The results of this study showed that were not statistically significant differences between these three instrumentation techniques for all three thirds of the root canal.

  19. Discrimination potential of root canal treated tooth in forensic dentistry.

    PubMed

    Khalid, K; Yousif, S; Satti, A

    2016-07-01

    Forensic Odontology is a vital component of forensic science and one branch involves the application of dental science to the identification of unknown human remains. The aim of this study is to investigate the discriminatory potential for identification of the radiographic morphology of obturated single root canals. Thirty periapical radiographs of patients having endodontic treatment of single rooted canals were selected randomly from the data bank of the digital X- ray system present in the restorative department, University of Science and Technology, Sudan. The post-operative radiographs were considered as an ant-mortem data "Set 1". Ten radiographs from the thirty were reprinted, labelled from (A-J) and considered as a post-mortem data "Set 2". This post-mortem group of 10 radiographs "Set 2" would be compared with the ante-mortem group of 30 radiographs comprising "Set 1". These two sets of radiographs would be examined by 40 dentally trained personnel. The thirty radiographs comprising "Set 1" and the 10 radiographs comprising "Set 2" were provided to each of the examiners who were asked to match the individual post-mortem radiographs ("Set 2") with the ante-mortem radiographs ("Set1"). The result demonstrated that 34 examiners achieved a success rate of 100%, 4 examiners achieved a success rate of 97.5% (1 mismatch) and 2 examiners achieved a success rate of 95% (2 mismatches). The radiographic images of obturated single-rooted teeth in this study were shown to have highly- specific morphological features. It is proposed that, in cases where the ante and post-mortem radiographs of a single-rooted obturated canal show similar morphology, this commonality of morphology can be used as a tool in the identification process.

  20. Anatomical evaluation of the root canal diameter and root thickness on the apical third of mesial roots of molars.

    PubMed

    Martos, Josué; Tatsch, Gustavo Henrique; Tatsch, Augusto César; Silveira, Luiz Fernando Machado; Ferrer-Luque, Carmen María

    2011-09-01

    The purpose was to determine the diameter of the main root canal and wall thickness in the apical dentin in mesial roots of maxillary and mandibular molars. Forty mesiobuccal and mesial root specimens were sectioned horizontally at 1, 2 and 3 mm from the apex, and measured at each top surface by using optical microscopy to an accuracy of ×20 magnification. The anatomical parameters were established as the following points of reference: AB, two points connected by a line from the outer edge of the mesial wall to the outer edge of the distal one through the center of the root canal to measure the thickness of the root and mesiodistal diameter of the root canal (CD). A second line (EF) was designed to evaluate the diameter of the root canal in the buccolingual direction. All data were summarized, and values were assessed statistically by ANOVA and Bonferroni multiple comparisons. The buccolingual (BL) root canal diameters at 1, 2 and 3 mm in the mandibular and maxillary molars were greater than in the mesiodistal (MD), showing statistically significant differences (p < 0.05). The MD root thicknesses at 1, 2 and 3 mm in mandibular and maxillary molars were statistically significant (p < 0.05). The lowest value to 1 mm from the apex in the mandibular molars was 1.219 mm and the highest at 3 mm from the root apex in maxillary molars was 1.741 mm. The BL diameters in maxillary and mandibular molars were higher than the MD diameter. The thickness (MD) of maxillary and mandibular molars decreased as a function of apical proximity.

  1. Endodontic Management of a Maxillary First Molar with Seven Root Canals Using Spiral Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Hemant Kumar; Saini, Gaurav Kumar; Chhabra, Harpreet Singh; Panwar, Pratyaksha Singh

    2017-01-01

    The main objective of this case report is to present a rare root canal configuration of maxillary molar with seven root canals; three mesiobuccal, two palatal and two distobuccal canals diagnosed during treatment procedure confirmed by spiral computed tomography. A thorough knowledge of root canal morphology, proper clinical and radiographic examination, and use of dental operating microscopes are necessary for successful clinical outcomes. This article highlights the variations in the morphology of maxillary first molar and use of the latest techniques in successful diagnosis and negotiation of the additional canals. PMID:28293666

  2. In vitro comparison of passive and continuous ultrasonic irrigation in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Castelo-Baz, Pablo; Varela-Patiño, Purificación; Cantatore, Giuseppe; Domínguez-Perez, Ana; Ruíz-Piñón, Manuel; Martín-Biedma, Benjamín

    2016-01-01

    Background The efficacy of endodontic irrigation procedures can be compromised by the complexity of the root canal system. Delivering irrigants to the apical third of curved canals presents a particular challenge to endodontists. This study compared the effects of two ultrasonic irrigation techniques on the penetration of sodium hypochlorite into the main canal and simulated lateral canals of curved roots in extracted teeth. Material and Methods Two sets of simulated lateral canals were created at 2, 4, and 6 mm from the working length in 60 single-rooted teeth (6 canals/tooth, n = 360 canals). The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental irrigation groups: group 1 (n = 20), positive pressure irrigation (PPI); group 2 (n = 20), passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI); and group 3 (n = 20), continuous ultrasonic irrigation (CUI). To assess the irrigation solution penetration, 20% Chinese ink (Sanford Rotring GmbH, Hamburg, Germany) was added to a 5% sodium hypochlorite solution and delivered into the curved root canals. The penetration of contrast solution into the simulated lateral canals was scored by counting the number of lateral canals (0-2) penetrated to at least 50% of the total length. Results The CUI group showed significantly higher (P < 0.05) irrigant penetration into the lateral canals and into the apical third of the main canals. The PPI group showed significantly lower sodium hypochlorite penetration (P < 0.001) into the main and lateral canals compared with that in the CUI and PUI groups. Significantly higher irrigant penetration was observed in the PUI group than the PPI group. Conclusions Using CUI as the final rinse significantly increased the penetration of irrigant solution into the simulated lateral canals and apical third of curved roots. Key words:Continuous ultrasonic irrigation, curved root canals, passive ultrasonic irrigation, positive pressure irrigation, root canal irrigation. PMID:27703613

  3. The surface of root canal irradiated by Nd:YAG laser with TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebihara, Arata; Anjo, Tomoo; Takeda, Atsushi; Suda, Hideaki

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the appropriateness of Nd:YAG laser irradiation for root canal preparation. Tooth crowns were removed from single-rooted human teeth and a quartz optical fiber (diameter 400 μm) was inserted into the root canal orifice towards the apical foramen. The length of the fiber within the root canal was measured, and the irradiating length determined. Root canals were then filled with 3% TiO2 emulsion solution (a photosensitizer) and irradiated using a pulsed Nd:YAG laser at 600 mJ/pulse (pulse frequency; 5 or 10 pps). During laser irradiation, the fiber was moved coronally from the apical region towards the canal orifice at a rate of 1 mm/s. Contact microradiographs (CMR) were taken before and after laser irradiation. Each root was then halved longitudinally, and the root canal surface observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The CMR images of the tooth revealed that the root canal was slightly enlarged as a result of treatment. Carbonization of the root canal dentin was not seen, but a smear layer and melted dentin were observed by SEM. Nd:YAG laser irradiation using TiO2 emulsion solution appears to be a useful tool for root canal preparation.

  4. Root canal revascularization. The beginning of a new era in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Alrahabi, Mothanna K; Ali, Mahmoud M

    2014-05-01

    Endodontic management of immature anterior teeth with necrotic pulps is a great challenge. Although there are different treatment procedures to deal with this problem such as apexification by using calcium hydroxide dressings or applying a barrier of mineral trioxide aggregate and gutta-percha obturation, the outcomes are still unsatisfactory and the root might still be weak. Recently, a new treatment protocol by revascularization of immature non-vital, infected teeth was introduced to regenerate dental structure and complete the root maturation. However, larger case series with longer follow-up periods are required to accept revascularization as the standard protocol for management of immature non-vital, infected teeth. In this review, we discuss the concept of root canal revascularization, revascularization mechanisms, and the structure of the regenerated tissues.

  5. EFFECT OF RELINING ON FIBER POST RETENTION TO ROOT CANAL

    PubMed Central

    Faria-E-Silva, André Luís; Pedrosa, Celso de Freitas; Menezes, Murilo de Sousa; da Silveira, Daniele Machado; Martins, Luís Roberto Marcondes

    2009-01-01

    One of the clinically relevant problems dentists face when restoring endodontically treated teeth is the mismatch between fiber post and post space diameters, which results in an excessively thick resin cement layer. Fiber post relining appears as a solution for this problem. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of fiber post relining with composite resin on push-out bond strength. Material and Methods: Twenty bovine incisors were selected to assess post retention. The crowns were removed below the cementoenamel junction and the root canals were treated endodontically and flared with diamond burs. The roots were allocated into two groups (n=10): G1: fiber posts without relining and G2: fiber posts relined with composite resin. The posts were cemented with a dual-cured resin cement and the specimens were sectioned transversally. Three 1.5-mm thick slabs were obtained per root and identified as cervical, medium and apical thirds. The push-out test was performed at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min until post dislodgement occurred. The failure mode of fractured specimens was analyzed under scanning electron microscopy. Data were analyzed by split-plot ANOVA and post-hoc Tukey's test at a pre-set alpha of 0.05. Results: Relined fiber posts presented higher retention values than non-relined post in all thirds. No statistically significant differences (p>0.05) were found among thirds for relined posts. All failures occurred at the interface between resin cement and root dentin. Conclusions: Relining with composite resin seems to be an effective method to improve the retention of fiber posts to flared root canals. PMID:20027434

  6. Comparison of carbon fiber and stainless steel root canal posts.

    PubMed

    Purton, D G; Payne, J A

    1996-02-01

    This in vitro study compared physical properties of root canal posts made of carbon fiber-reinforced epoxy resin with those of stainless steel posts. Three-point bending tests were used to derive the transverse modulus of elasticity of the posts. Resin composite cores on the posts were subjected to tensile forces to test the bonds between the cores and posts. Carbon fiber posts appeared to have adequate rigidity for their designed purpose. The bond strength of the resin composite cores to the carbon fiber posts was significantly less than that to the stainless steel posts.

  7. Three canals in the mesiobuccal root of a maxillary first molar: a case report.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, David B; Kjar, Kirby S; Hartwell, Gary R

    2005-05-01

    This article describes the identification and treatment of a maxillary first molar exhibiting three canals in the mesiobuccal root. An 18-yr-old male patient presented for nonsurgical root canal therapy of tooth #3. After accessing the pulp chamber, and probing with 2.5x magnification, only one canal was located in the mesiobuccal root initially. Subsequent to troughing the groove between the mesiobuccal and palatal canals with a #2 round bur, two additional canals were located. An electronic apex locator was utilized to ensure a perforation of the pulpal floor had not occurred. A working film confirmed the presence of three canals in the mesiobuccal root, and the canals were cleaned, shaped, and obturated.

  8. Photodynamic therapy with water-soluble phtalocyanines against bacterial biofilms in teeth root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gergova, Raina; Georgieva, Tzvetelina; Angelov, Ivan; Mantareva, Vanya; Valkanov, Serjoga; Mitov, Ivan; Dimitrov, Slavcho

    2012-06-01

    The study presents the PDT with metal phthalocyanines on biofilms grown in root canals of ten representatives of the Gram-positive and the Gram-negative bacterial species and a fungus Candida albicans which cause aqute teeth infections in root canals.. The extracted human single-root teeth infected for 48 h with microorganisms in conditions to form biofilms of the above pathogens were PDT treated. The stage of biofilm formation and PDT effect of the samples of the teeth were determined by the scaning electron microscopy and with standard microbial tests. The PDT treating procedure included 10 min incubation with the respected phthalocyanine and irradiated with 660 nm Diode laser for 10 min. The most strongly antibacterial activity was achieved with zinc(II) phthalocyanine (ZnPc) against Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus and Moraxella catarrhalis. The other Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans were 10-100 times more resistant than the Gram-positive species. The Gram-negative Moraxella catarrhalis and Acinetobacter baumannii were more sensitive than the enterobacteria, but eradication of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in biofilm was insignificant. The influence of the stage of biofilm formation and the initial conditions (bacterial density, photosensitizer concentration and energy fluence of radiation) to the obtained level of inactivation of biofilms was investigated. The PDT with ZnPc photosensitizers show a powerful antimicrobial activity against the most frequent pathogens in endodontic infections and this method for inactivation of pathogens may be used with sucsses for treatment of the bacterial biofilms in the root canals.

  9. Presence of Two Distal and One Mesial Root Canals in Mandibular Second Molars: Report of Four Cases

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul; Yosefi, Mohammad Hosein; Hosseini, Hamid Reza

    2014-01-01

    Most mandibular second molars have one and two canals in distal and mesial roots, respectively. This report represents four cases of mandibular second molars with a single mesial and two distal root canals with two different canal configurations. After access cavity preparation, two teeth had one distal and two mesial orifices, whereas in the two other teeth one mesial and two distal orifices were found. In the teeth with two mesial canal orifices, the distal root canal and one of root canals with a mesial orifice joined together in the apical part of the root, whereas in the two other teeth with one mesial and two distal canal orifices, three separate canals each with a different apical foramen were detected. Dental practitioners should be aware that despite higher prevalence of one distal and two mesial root canals, the mandibular second molars may also have one mesial and two distal root canals. PMID:25031600

  10. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor gene associated with resistance to lactamic agents.

    PubMed

    Moraes, Ludmila Coutinho; Fatturi-Parolo, Clarissa Cavalcanti; Ferreira, Maria Beatriz Cardoso; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Montagner, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the presence of Prevotella strains and genes associated with resistance to lactamics in different oral niches from patients with/without primary endodontic infections. Saliva (S) and supragingival biofilm (SB) were collected from three patient groups: Group I - no endodontic infection (n = 15); Group II - acute endodontic infection (n = 12); and Group III - chronic endodontic infection (n = 15). Root canal (RC) samples were collected from Groups II and III. The presence of P. intermedia, P nigrescens, P. tannerae and cfxA/cfxA2 gene was assessed by PCR. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was not detected in all environments within the same patient. The cfxA/cfxA2 gene was present in 23.81% of S samples, 28.57% of SB samples, and 7.41% of RC samples. Prevotella species were detected in 53.97%, 47.62% and 34.56% of the S, SB, and RC samples, respectively. P. intermedia had a high frequency in saliva samples from Group 3. Saliva samples from Group 1 had higher detection rates of P. nigrescens than did Groups 2 and 3. Patients without endodontic disease had high frequencies of P. nigrescens in the SB samples. The presence or absence of spontaneous symptoms was not related to the detection rates for resistance genes in the RC samples. Saliva, supragingival biofilm and root canals can harbor resistant bacteria. The presence of symptomatology did not increase the presence of the cfxA/cfxA2 gene in the supragingival biofilm and inside root canals.

  11. Various Strategies for Pain-Free Root Canal Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; V. Abbott, Paul

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Achieving successful anesthesia and performing pain-free root canal treatment are important aims in dentistry. This is not always achievable and therefore, practitioners are constantly seeking newer techniques, equipments, and anesthetic solutions for this very purpose. The aim of this review is to introduce strategies to achieve profound anesthesia particularly in difficult cases. Materials and Methods: A review of the literature was performed by electronic and hand searching methods for anesthetic agents, techniques, and equipment. The highest level of evidence based investigations with rigorous methods and materials were selected for discussion. Results: Numerous studies investigated to pain management during root canal treatment; however, there is still no single technique that will predictably provide profound pulp anesthesia. One of the most challenging issues in endodontic practice is achieving a profound anesthesia for teeth with irreversible pulpitis especially in mandibular posterior region. Conclusion: According to most investigations, achieving a successful anesthesia is not always possible with a single technique and practitioners should be aware of all possible alternatives for profound anesthesia. PMID:24396370

  12. Detection of Procedural Errors during Root Canal Instrumentation using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; da Costa, Marcus Vinícius Corrêa; Dorilêo, Maura Cristiane Gonçales Orçati; de Oliveira, Helder Fernandes; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Bandeca, Matheus Coelho; Borges, Álvaro Henrique

    2015-01-01

    Background: This study investigated procedural errors made during root canal preparation with nickel-titanium (NiTi) instruments, using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) imaging method. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 human mandibular molars were divided into five groups (n = 20) according to the NiTi system used for root canal preparation: Group 1 - BioRaCe, Group 2 - K3, Group 3 - ProTaper, Group 4 - Mtwo and Group 5 - Hero Shaper. CBCT images were obtained to detect procedural errors made during root canal preparation. Two examiners evaluated the presence or absence of fractured instruments, perforations, and canal transportations. Chi-square test was used for statistical analyzes. The significance level was set at a=5%. Results: In a total of 300 prepared root canals, 43 (14.33%) procedural errors were detected. Perforation was the procedural errors most commonly observed (58.14%). Most of the procedural errors were observed in the mesiobuccal root canal (48.84%). In the analysis of procedural errors, there was a significant difference (P < 0.05) between the groups of NiTi instruments. The root canals instrumented with BioRaCe had significantly less procedural errors. Conclusions: CBCT permitted the detection of procedural errors during root canal preparation. The frequency of procedural errors was low when root canals preparation was accomplished with BioRaCe system. PMID:25878475

  13. Endodontic retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five root canal systems: an important clinical lesson

    PubMed Central

    Hasan, Muhammad; Umer, Fahad

    2014-01-01

    The objective of root canal treatment is to perform complete debridement of the root canals and subsequent obturation to facilitate healing of periapical pathosis. However, this process becomes complicated with the presence of additional root canal systems. The purpose of the present article is to report successful non-surgical retreatment of a mandibular first molar with five canals. This case report discusses the clinical management of a previously root filled mandibular firstmolar with two missed canal systems; distolingual and an additional mesial canal known as the middle mesial canal. The post-treatment radiographs show successful obturation to length in all canals. The middle mesial canal was found to be associated with mesiolingual canal and categorised as confluent. The configuration of canals in the mesial root was type XV, based on the classification given by Sert and Bayirli. This case report highlights the importance of knowledge and its application in the management of abnormal anatomic variants which play a crucial role in the success of endodontic retreatment. PMID:24654237

  14. Maxillary lateral incisors with two canals and two separate curved roots

    PubMed Central

    Mohan, Ajit George; Rajesh, Ebenezar A. V.; George, Liza; Sujathan; Josy, Susan Ann

    2012-01-01

    Variation in the roots and root canal anatomy seems to be the norm rather than an exception. For a successful endodontic treatment, a clinician should have a thorough knowledge of the internal and external dental anatomy and its variations. Maxillary lateral incisors usually exhibit single canal with a single root. In this case, clinical examination and radiographs clearly demonstrates the presence of two root canals with two separate curved roots. This case report emphasizes the need for attention during endodontic management of maxillary lateral incisors. PMID:23633825

  15. Endodontic Treatment of a Maxillary First Premolar with Type IV Buccal Root Canal: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Shahmirzadi, Solaleh

    2009-01-01

    The maxillary first premolar may present large number of anatomic variations. The clinician should be aware of the configuration of the pulp system. Maxillary first premolars usually have two canals. The incidence of three canals in these teeth is quite rare. This case report presents the diagnosis and clinical management of a maxillary first premolar with two distinct canals in the apical third of buccal root (type IV), drawing particular attention to tactile examination of all the canal walls. PMID:23864875

  16. A QUANTITATIVE ANALYSIS OF ROTARY, ULTRASONIC AND MANUAL TECHNIQUES TO TREAT PROXIMALLY FLATTENED ROOT CANALS

    PubMed Central

    Grecca, Fabiana Soares; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernardineli, Norberti

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The efficiency of rotary, manual and ultrasonic root canal instrumentation techniques was investigated in proximally flattened root canals. Material and Methods: Forty human mandibular left and right central incisors, lateral incisors and premolars were used. The pulp tissue was removed and the root canals were filled with red die. Teeth were instrumented using three techniques: (i) K3 and ProTaper rotary systems; (ii) ultrasonic crown-down technique; and (iii) progressive manual technique. Roots were bisected longitudinally in a buccolingual direction. The instrumented canal walls were digitally captured and the images obtained were analyzed using the Sigma Scan software. Canal walls were evaluated for total canal wall area versus noninstrumented area on which dye remained. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between the instrumentation techniques studied (p<0.05). Conclusion: The findings of this study showed that no instrumentation technique was 100% efficient to remove the dye. PMID:19089108

  17. Maxillary first molar with 7 root canals diagnosed using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Evaldo; Braitt, Antônio Henrique; Galvão, Bruno Ferraz

    2017-01-01

    Root canal anatomy is complex, and the recognition of anatomic variations could be a challenge for clinicians. This case report describes the importance of cone beam computed tomographyic (CBCT) imaging during endodontic treatment. A 23 year old woman was referred by her general dental practitioner with the chief complaint of spontaneous pain in her right posterior maxilla. From the clinical and radiographic findings, a diagnosis of symptomatic irreversible pulpitis was made and endodontic treatment was suggested to the patient. The patient underwent CBCT examination, and CBCT scan slices revealed seven canals: three mesiobuccal (MB1, MB2, and MB3), two distobuccal (DB1 and DB2), and two palatal (P1 and P2). Canals were successfully treated with reciprocating files and filled using single-cone filling technique. Precise knowledge of root canal morphology and its variation is important during root canal treatment. CBCT examination is an excellent tool for identifying and managing these complex root canal systems. PMID:28194366

  18. SEM analysis of smear layer removal after manual and automated handpiece root canal preparation.

    PubMed

    Sydney, G B; Batista, A; Estrela, C; Pesce, H F; de Melo, L L

    1996-01-01

    Scanning electron microscopy was used to analyze the smear layer removal after root canal preparation by a manual technique and by an automated handpiece, the Canal Finder System (CFS). When 1% sodium hypochlorite was used as the irrigating solution, both manual and CFS techniques showed root canal walls with a dense smear layer obscuring the dentinal tubules entrance plus a large amount of debris. Root canal walls of the group of teeth treated with a chelating agent (EDTA) for 5 min and a final flush, after the preparation, with 1% sodium hypochlorite as an irrigating solution showed the cervical, middle and apical thirds extremely smooth and clear.

  19. [Microleakage of root canal fillings with GuttaFlow and Resilon compared with lateral condensation].

    PubMed

    Kqiku, Lumnije; Miletic, Ivana; Gruber, Hans Jürgen; Anic, Ivica; Städtler, Peter

    2010-05-01

    Epiphany/Resilon and GuttaFlow are newly developed methods for obturation of the root canal system. Epiphany/Resilon is a thermoplastic, synthetic polymer-based root canal filling material which enables the bonding to the dentin root canal wall during root canal obturation. GuttaFlow is a cold flowable filling system for the obturation of root canals, combining sealer and gutta-percha in one product. The purpose of this study was to assess the leakage of the Epiphany/Resilon or GuttaFlow root canal filling compared with lateral condensation of gutta-percha. For this study were used 45 human extracted teeth, chemo mechanically prepared, divided into three groups and obturated with gutta-percha/AH Plus, Epiphany/Resilon and GuttaFlow. For dye penetration all teeth were centrifuged for three minutes at 30 g in 2% methylene blue and dissolved in 65% nitric acid for 3 days. The extracted methylene blue was determined with Photometer. Root Canal fillings with Epiphany/Resilon showed less dye penetration than lateral condensation of gutta-percha and GuttaFlow. Epiphany/Resilon is ideally suited as a root canal filling material.

  20. Formation of replica of root canal morphology of maxillary first premolars. A technique.

    PubMed

    Sreekrishnan, B; Ajithkumar, K; Sadashivshetty, K

    1995-01-01

    Various methods have been used to study the root canal morphology of human teeth. The purpose of this study was to develop a technique for the formation of a resin replica of the root canal morphology of maxillary first premolars. 30 recently extracted maxillary first premolars were used for the study. An occlusal access cavity was prepared and the teeth placed in 5% sodium hypochlorite solution to dissolve the pulp remnants. The teeth were then rinsed in water. A two-part resin system was then introduced into the root canal through the access cavity opening. Subsequent to curing the resin using a specific curing cycle the specimens were put in 20% hydrochloric acid. This facilitated the dissolution of the tooth and the retrieval of the resin replica of the root canal. The different types of root canal morphology observed are discussed. The relevance and utility of the resin models and further possibilities in this field are discussed.

  1. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8–51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva. PMID:22422085

  2. Prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of teeth associated with apical periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian-Qian; Zhang, Cheng-Fei; Chu, Chun-Hung; Zhu, Xiao-Fei

    2012-03-01

    To investigate the prevalence of Enterococcus faecalis in saliva and filled root canals of patients requiring endodontic retreatment for apical periodontitis. Patients with apical periodontitis who were referred for endodontic retreatment were examined. The type and quality of the restoration, symptoms, quality of obturation were recorded. During retreatment, an oral rinse sample and root canal sample were cultured using brain-heart infusion agar and bile esculinazide agar to select for E. faecalis. The 16S rRNA technique was used to identify E. faecalis. A total of 32 women and 22 men (mean age: 38 years; s.d.: 11 years) and 58 teeth were studied. The prevalence of E. faecalis was 19% in the saliva and 38% in the root canals. The odds that root canals harbored E. faecalis were increased if the saliva habored this bacterium (odds ratio=9.7; 95% confidence interval=1.8-51.6; P<0.05). Teeth with unsatisfactory root obturation had more cultivable bacterial species in root canals than teeth with satisfactory root obturation (P<0.05). E. faecalis is more common in root canals of teeth with apical periodontitis than in saliva. The prevalence of E. faecalis in root canals is associated with the presence of E. faecalis in saliva.

  3. Carbon fiber reinforced root canal posts. Mechanical and cytotoxic properties.

    PubMed

    Torbjörner, A; Karlsson, S; Syverud, M; Hensten-Pettersen, A

    1996-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical properties of a prefabricated root canal post made of carbon fiber reinforced composites (CFRC) with metal posts and to assess the cytotoxic effects elicited. Flexural modulus and ultimate flexural strength was determined by 3 point loading after CRFC posts had been stored either dry or in water. The bending test was carried out with and without preceding thermocycling of the CFRC posts. The cytotoxicity was evaluated by an agar overlay method after dry and wet storage. The values of flexural modulus and ultimate flexural strength were for dry stored CFRC post 82 +/- 6 GPa and 1154 +/- 65 MPa respectively. The flexural values decreased significantly after water storage and after thermocycling. No cytotoxic effects were observed adjacent to any CFRC post. Although fiber reinforced composites may have the potential to replace metals in many clinical situations, additional research is needed to ensure a satisfying life-span.

  4. Extraoral Retrograde Root Canal Filling of an Orthodontic-induced External Root Resorption Using CEM Cement

    PubMed Central

    Kheirieh, Sanam; Fazlyab, Mahta; Torabzadeh, Hassan; Eghbal, Mohamad Jafar

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory external root resorption (IERR) after orthodontic treatments is an unusual complication. This case report describes a non-vital maxillary premolar with symptomatic extensive IERR (with a crown/root ratio of 1:1) after receiving orthodontic treatment. The first appointment included drainage, chemo-mechanical preparation of the canal and intra-canal medication with calcium hydroxide (CH) along with prescription of analgesic/antibiotic. The subsequent one-week follow-up revealed the persistence of symptoms and formation of a sinus tract. Finally, extraoral endodontic treatment was planned; the tooth was atraumatically extracted and retrograde root canal filling with calcium enriched mixture (CEM) cement was placed followed by tooth replantation. Clinical signs/symptoms subsided during 7 days postoperatively. The sinus tract also resolved after one week. Six-month and one-year follow-ups revealed complete healing and a fully functional asymptomatic tooth. This case study showed favorable outcomes in a refractory periapical lesion associated with orthodontically induced extensive IERR. The chemical as well as biological properties of CEM cement may be a suitable endodontic biomaterial for these cases. PMID:24688586

  5. Evaluation of alginate as a substitute for root-surrounding tissues in electronic root canal measurements.

    PubMed

    Lipski, Mariusz; Trąbska-Świstelnicka, Marlena; Woźniak, Krzysztof; Dembowska, Elżbieta; Droździk, Agnieszka

    2013-12-01

    Alginate as a substitute for root-surrounding tissue was investigated. The electronic working lengths of root canals under clinical conditions were compared with an in vitro simulation of the same teeth extracted and embedded in alginate. The working lengths in 26 teeth were determined on two occasions using an electronic apex locator, before extraction and after extraction with the same teeth embedded in an alginate mass. The apical 4 mm of the root canals were exposed following the measurements, and the distances between the apical constrictions and the tips of files repositioned in the canals were measured and recorded. The mean distance between the file tip and the constriction was +0.33 mm (±0.38) in vivo and +0.32 mm (±0.30) in vitro. The Wilcoxon signed-rank test indicated that these means were not significantly different. The apical constriction was assessed to be within the limits of 0.5 mm in 80.7% of in vivo cases and in 76.9% of extracted teeth. Statistical analysis demonstrated that there was no significant difference between the results recorded in vivo and in vitro regarding apical constriction localisation. Based on the results of this study, the alginate mass is a useful tool in evaluating the performance of electronic apex locators.

  6. Influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain during endodontic therapy

    PubMed Central

    Martín-González, Jenifer; Echevarría-Pérez, Marta; Sánchez-Domínguez, Benito; Tarilonte-Delgado, Maria L.; Castellanos-Cosano, Lizett; López-Frías, Francisco J.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the influence of root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques on intra-operative pain experienced by patients during endodontic therapy. Method and Materials: A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in Ponferrada and Sevilla, Spain, including 80 patients (46 men and 34 women), with ages ranged from 10 to 74 years, randomly recruited. Patient gender and age, affected tooth, pulpal diagnosis, periapical status, previous NSAID or antibiotic (AB) treatment, and root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques were recorded. After root canal treatment (RCT), patients completed a 10-cm visual analogue scale (VAS) that ranked the level of pain. Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests and logistic regression analysis. Results: The mean pain level during root canal treatment was 2.9 ± 3.0 (median = 2) in a VAS between 0 and 10. Forty percent of patients experienced no pain. Gender, age, arch, previous NSAIDs or AB treatment and anaesthetic type did not influence significantly the pain level (p > 0.05). Pain during root canal treatment was significantly greater in molar teeth (OR = 10.1; 95% C.I. = 1.6 - 63.5; p = 0.013). Root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques did not affect significantly patient’s pain during root canal treatment (p > 0.05). Conclusion: Patients feel more pain when RCT is carried out on molar teeth. The root canal instrumentation and obturation techniques do not affect significantly the patients’ pain during RCT. Key words:Anaesthesia, endodontic pain, pulpitis, root canal instrumentation, root canal obturation, rotary files. PMID:22549694

  7. Evaluation of the apical adaptation performance of various root canal instruments

    PubMed Central

    Ceyhanli, K. Tolga; Turkun, Murat; Erdilek, Necdet; Peskersoy, Cem; Kose, Timur

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the apical root canal adaptation performance of various root canal instruments. Materials and Methods: A total of 40 freshly extracted single-rooted mandibular incisors were used in this study. Coroner parts of all teeth were removed from cemento-enamel junction and root canal of each tooth was explored with a size 8 K-file until the tip of the file was just visible at the apex. Working lengths (WLs) were determined as 1 mm short of these measurements. ProTaper, K-file, profile and hedstroem files were inserted into the root canals of 10 teeth to the WL following the flaring of the coronal and middle thirds. Instruments were fixed in the root canals with acrylic resin. The apical 1 mm of each root tip was ground on wet sandpaper to expose the canal and the instrument at the WL and the apical region of each tooth was examined under stereomicroscope. The stereoscopic images of the teeth were digitized and analyzed with software in order to determine the differences between the areas of root canals and file tips. Result data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance test (P = 0.05). Results: There were no significant differences between apical file/root canal areas of the evaluated instruments (P > 0.05). Conclusions: None of the evaluated instruments performed a perfect adaptation with the apical root canal surface at the WL in mandibular incisors. Therefore, total removal of the debris from the apical canal surface may not be achieved when these filing instruments are used. PMID:24966727

  8. Impact of the quality of coronal restoration versus the quality of root canal fillings on success of root canal treatment: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gillen, Brian M.; Looney, Stephen W.; Gu, Li-Sha; Loushine, Bethany A.; Weller, Roger N.; Loushine, Robert J.; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Thorough cleaning and shaping of root canals are essential for periapical healing. Restoration of endodontically-treated teeth is also required for them to function and prevent coronal leakage. This study compared the impact of the quality of root canal treatment versus the quality of coronal restoration in treatment outcomes. Methods Literature search was conducted using the search terms “coronal restoration”, “root canal”, “periapical status” and “quality”. Articles that evaluated the effect of the quality of root filling and coronal restoration or both on the success of root canal treatment were selected. Nine articles were identified and were reviewed by three investigators. Data were collected based on pre-determined criteria. Percentages of teeth without apical periodontitis were recorded for each category: Adequate Root Canal Treatment (AE), Inadequate Root Canal Treatment (IE), Adequate Restoration (AR), Inadequate Restoration (IR). Data were analyzed using meta-analysis for odds ratios (ORs). Results After adjusting for significant covariates to reduce heterogeneity, the results were combined to obtain pooled estimates of the common OR for the comparison of AR/AE vs AR/IE (OR 2.734; 95% CI 2.61–2.88; p<0.001) and AR/AE vs IR/AE (OR 2.808; 95% CI 2.64–2.97; p<0.001). Conclusion On the basis of the current best available evidence, the odds for healing of apical periodontitis increase with both adequate root canal treatment and adequate restorative treatment. Although poorer clinical outcomes may be expected with adequate root filling-inadequate coronal restoration and inadequate root filling-adequate coronal restoration, there is no significant difference in the odds of healing between these two combinations. PMID:21689541

  9. Continued root formation after replantation and root canal treatment in an avulsed immature permanent tooth: a case report.

    PubMed

    Wang, Su-Hsin; Chung, Ming-Pang; Su, Wen-Song; Cheng, Jen-Chan; Shieh, Yi-Shing

    2010-04-01

    This case report describes the continued root formation following replantation and conventional root canal therapy of a traumatically avulsed open-apex tooth with suppurative apical periodontitis. A 7-year-old male patient had an avulsed upper left central incisor (tooth 21) replanted approximately 50 min after traumatic avulsion. A root canal procedure was initiated due to pulp necrosis and periapical abscess detected in the follow-up period. After endodontic treatment with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) dressing, a normal root length developed including an apical segment beyond the hard tissue barrier. Regeneration of the root occurred without pathology or ankylosis at 1-year of follow up.

  10. A comparative evaluation of the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation in curved root canals by three rotary systems: A cone-beam computed tomographic study

    PubMed Central

    Prasanthi, Nalam NVD; Rambabu, Tanikonda; Sajjan, Girija S; Varma, K Madhu; Satish, R Kalyan; Padmaja, M

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to measure the increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation after biomechanical preparation at 1, 3, and 5 mm short of the apex with three different rotary systems in both continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary motions. Materials and Methods: Sixty freshly extracted human mandibular molars with mesial root canal curvatures between 20° and 30° were included in the study. Teeth were randomly distributed into three groups (n = 20). Biomechanical preparations were done in all the mesial canals. In Group 1, instrumentation was done with ProTaper universal rotary files, Group 2, with K3XF rotary files, and Group 3, with LSX rotary files. Each group was further subdivided into subgroups A and B (n = 10) where instrumentation was done by continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques, respectively. Increase in root canal surface area and canal transportation was measured using the preoperative and postoperative cone-beam computed tomography scans. Statistical Analysis: The data were analyzed by one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey pairwise multiple comparison tests. Results: Increase in root canal surface area was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper and K3XF groups when compared to LSX group. Canal transportation was significantly more (P < 0.05) in ProTaper group when compared to K3XF and LSX groups. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in increase of root canal surface area and canal transportation between continuous rotary and reciprocating rotary techniques for ProTaper Universal, K3XF and LSX groups. Conclusion: LSX rotary system showed minimal increase of root canal surface area and minimal canal transportation when compared to ProTaper and K3XF rotary systems. PMID:27656062

  11. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar.

    PubMed

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-E-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal in the palatal root. An endodontic treatment was performed in a first maxillary molar with palatal canals, and the tooth was restored with a cast metal crown. The patient returned four years later presenting with a discomfort in chewing, which was reduced after occlusal adjustment. CBCT was prescribed to verify additional diagnostic information. Axial scans on coronal, middle, and apical palatal root sections showed images similar to a third root canal. However, sagittal scans demonstrated that these images were artifacts caused by root canal fillings. A careful interpretation of CBCT images in root-filled teeth must be done to avoid mistakes in treatment.

  12. Artefacts in Cone Beam CT Mimicking an Extrapalatal Canal of Root-Filled Maxillary Molar

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Carla Cristina; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Faria-e-Silva, André Luis; Quintino, Alex Carvalho; de Paula, Adrianne Freire; Cruz-Filho, Antônio Miranda; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2013-01-01

    Despite the advantages of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), the images provided by this diagnostic tool can produce artifacts and compromise accurate diagnostic assessment. This paper describes an endodontic treatment of a maxillary molar where CBCT images suggested the presence of a nonexistent third root canal in the palatal root. An endodontic treatment was performed in a first maxillary molar with palatal canals, and the tooth was restored with a cast metal crown. The patient returned four years later presenting with a discomfort in chewing, which was reduced after occlusal adjustment. CBCT was prescribed to verify additional diagnostic information. Axial scans on coronal, middle, and apical palatal root sections showed images similar to a third root canal. However, sagittal scans demonstrated that these images were artifacts caused by root canal fillings. A careful interpretation of CBCT images in root-filled teeth must be done to avoid mistakes in treatment. PMID:23606995

  13. Root Canal Anatomy and Morphology of Mandibular First Molars in a Selected Iranian Population: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Khalilak, Zohreh; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Mohammadi, Saman; Pirmoradi, Sakineh; Fazlyab, Mahta; Safavi, Kamran

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate root canal anatomy of mandibular first molars (MFM) in a selected Iranian Population using clearing technique. Methods and Materials: A total of 150 extracted MFMs were cleared. The root canal morphology (including the root numbers and root length) and the anatomy of the root canal system (including is the number and type of canals based on Vertucci’s classification, canal curvature according to Schneider's method and the presence of isthmus) was evaluated using the buccolingual and mesiodistal parallel x-rays and stereomicroscope. The data were analyzed using the chi-square test. Results: Two and three roots were present in 96.7% and 33% of the teeth, respectively (P=0.0001). All the teeth (100%) had two canals in the mesial root, while 61.3% of the samples had one distal root canal (P=0.006). The root canal configuration in the mesial canal included type IV (55.3%) and type II (41.3%) (P=0.0001). In doubled-canalled distal roots, 68.8% and 24.3% were type II and type IV, respectively (P=0.0001). Isthmii were observed in 44.6% of mesial and 27.3% of distal roots (P=0.0001). Conclusion: The notable prevalence of type IV configuration in both roots of mandibular first molars, presence of isthmus and root curvature, necessitates the careful negotiation and cleaning of all accessible canal spaces. PMID:28179932

  14. Computed Tomography Evaluation of Canal Transportation and Volumetric Changes in Root Canal Dentin of Curved Canals Using Mtwo, ProTaper and ProTaper Next Rotary System-An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Shivashankar, Mayuri Biccodu; Jayasheel, Arun; Kenchanagoudra, Mallikarjun Goud

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Complete cleaning and shaping of root canal system is of paramount importance to achieve a successful root canal treatment. There are various rotary Ni-Ti systems available in the market to achieve mechanical goal of root canal preparation. But aggressive preparation of root canal with such systems would result in canal transportation and excess root dentin removal that would be one of the major reasons to decide the prognosis of root canal treated tooth. Aim The present study was conducted to compare the root canal preparation in terms of canal transportation and volumetric changes in the root canal dentin among three Ni-Ti file systems, namely Mtwo, ProTaper (PT) and ProTaper NEXT (PTN) file system, using Computed Tomography (CT). Materials and Methods A total of 45 mesiobuccal root canals of extracted first molar teeth with completely formed root apices and angle of curvature ranging between 10°- 35° were selected. These teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups containing 15 teeth each, based on rotary system used. Group-I: Mtwo files, Group-II: PT files and Group-III: PTN files. Pre-instrumentation CT images were obtained at three cross-sectional planes – 3mm, 7mm and 11mm from apical end of the root. Similarly, post-instrumentation images were obtained. Shortest distance from the edge of the canal to the periphery of the root was analyzed by using Analysis of Variance. Results All three file systems tested in the present study presented similar behaviour with respect to the root canal transportation. Lesser canal transportation was recorded in Mtwo. But no statistically significant difference was seen in terms of canal transportation and volume of dentin removed between all three rotary systems (p>0.05). Conclusion Mtwo, PT and PTN rotary systems have similar behaviour with respect to canal transportation and volume of dentin removed. PMID:28050495

  15. The Use of Lasers in Disinfection and Cleanliness of Root Canals: a Review.

    PubMed

    Jurič, Ivona Bago; Anić, Ivica

    2014-03-01

    The outcome of root canal treatment is based on efficient disinfection of the root canal system and prevention of reinfection. Current chemomechanical cleaning methods do not always achieve these goals, and insufficient root canal disinfection is the main reason for endodontic failure. Due to high energy content and specific characteristics of laser light, laser treatment has been proposed for cleaning and disinfecting the root canal system. This paper reviews the literature covering the effect of Er:YAG, Er,Cr:YSGG, Nd:YAG and diode laser on the root canal wall in the removal of smear layer and against intracanal bacteria. Recently, the use of laser energy to induce cavitation and acoustic streaming of intracanal irrigants has been investigated. Based on recent literature, it can be concluded that lasers have bactericidal effects. However, they still cannot replace sodium hypochlorite and should be considered as an adjunct to the current chemical root canal disinfection protocols. Certain lasers can help in removing the smear layer and debris and can modify the morphology of the root canal wall. Unfortunately, there have not been enough randomized clinical studies evaluating endodontic treatment outcome following the use of laser.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of root canal surface roughness after filing with adaptive reciprocating and continuous rotary instruments.

    PubMed

    Sakhaei Manesh, Vahid; Giacomin, Paul; Stoll, Richard

    2017-01-31

    Obtaining clean and smooth root canal walls is the ideal clinical outcome of the cleaning and shaping stage in root canal treatment. This study compares the surface roughness of root canal surfaces instrumented with a NiTi filing system with either adaptive reciprocating (AR) or continuous rotation (CR). Root canal cleaning and shaping was carried out on the mesial canals of 24 extracted first molars roots with either AR or CR. Roots were split in half and the surface roughness of their canals was evaluated in 12 three dimensional roughness reconstructions using a scanning electron microscope. Rz (nm) values were calculated in three areas of each reconstruction and analyzed (α = 0.05). Mann-Whitney tests showed that surface roughness was significantly higher overall in the AR group (Rz = 967 ± 250 nm) compared with the CR group (Rz = 739 ± 239 nm; p = 0.044). The roughness values generally increased from apical towards the coronal third in both groups. A less aggressive finishing file or a continuous rotary system to end the cleaning and shaping stage may be beneficial to reduce roughness of the root canal surface.

  17. Microleakage of adhesive resinous materials in root canals

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Jason Gilbert; Caputo, Angelo Anthony; Li, Ping; White, Shane Newport

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro micro-leakage resistance of adhesive resin materials to long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers. Materials and Methods: Seven materials, five test (Real Seal, Real Seal XT, Panavia F 2.0, Infinity Syringeable, GCEM) and two controls (Tubliseal, AH Plus), were evaluated for micro-leakage resistance in a bovine incisor root model, with 12 roots per material. Teeth were root canal treated, stored in water, artificially aged by thermal-cycling, stained with silver nitrate, sectioned to yield eight measurement points per tooth (four coronal and four apical), giving 672 measurement points. Stain penetration was measured using digital positioners and a toolmakers microscope; then analyzed using descriptive statistics, two-way analysis of variance and multiple comparisons testing (P < 0.05). Results: All modern adhesive resinous materials leaked significantly less than long-used zinc oxide-eugenol and epoxy resin sealers (P < 0.05). Mean leakage values and their associated (standard deviations) in mm were: Infinity Syringeable 2.5 (1.5), Real Seal XT 3.2 (1.4), Real Seal 3.4 (1.6), Panavia F 2.0 3.8 (2.7), GCEM 4.2 (1.8), Tubli-seal 5.4 (2.8), AH Plus 6.3 (2.3). Overall, more leakage occurred apically than coronally (P < 0.0001). Many materials exhibited dimensional instability: Marked contraction, expansion, or lack of cohesion. Conclusion: A variety of adhesive resinous materials, endodontic sealers and crown cements, reduced micro-leakage in comparison to long and widely used zinc oxide- eugenol and epoxy sealers. PMID:23833453

  18. Effect of Peracetic Acid as A Final Rinse on Push Out Bond Strength of Root Canal Sealers to Root Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Gaddala, Naresh; Veeramachineni, Chandrasekhar

    2015-01-01

    Background Smear layer which was formed during the instrumentation of root canals hinders the penetration of root canal sealers to root dentin and affect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Final irrigant such as demineralizing agents are used to remove the inorganic portion of the smear layer. In the present study, peracetic acid used as a final rinse, to effect the bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Aim The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of peracetic acid as a final irrigant on bond strength of root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods Sixty six freshly extracted human single rooted mandibular premolars were used for this study. After decoronation the samples were instrumented with Protaper upto F3 and irrigated with 5.25% NaOcl. The teeth were then divided into three groups based on final irrigant used: Group-1(control group) Canals were irrigated with distilled water. Group-2: Canals were irrigated with peracetic acid. Group-3: Canals were irrigated with smear clear. Each group was further divided into three subgroups (n=30) based on the sealer used to obturate the canals. Subgroup-1: kerr, Subgroup-2: Apexit plus, Subgroup-3: AH PLUS. Each sealer was mixed and coated to master cone and placed in the canal. The bonding between sealer and dentin surface was evaluated using push out bond strength by universal testing machine. The mean bond strength values of each group were statistically evaluated using Two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post-hoc test. Results Significant difference was found among the bond strength of the sealers. But, there is no statistically significant difference between the groups irrigated with peracetic acid and smear clear compared to control group. AH Plus showed highest bond strength irrespective of the final irrigant used. Conclusion Peracetic acid when employed as final irrigant improved the bond strength of root canal sealers compared to control group but

  19. Antimicrobial efficacy of different root canal sealers by using real-time polymerase chain reaction: An ex vivo study

    PubMed Central

    Seelan, R Gnana; Kumar, A Arvind; Emil Sam, R Jonathan; Maheswari, S Uma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Root canal sealers help to minimize leakage, provides antimicrobial activity to reduce the possibility of residual bacteria, and to resolve periapical lesion. Aim: To compare five different root canal sealers against Enterococcus faecalis in an infected root canal model by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Settings and Design: Sixty human mandibular premolars were sectioned to standardize a uniform length of 14 mm. Fifty microliters of the inoculum containing E. faecalis were transferred into each microcentrifuge tube (n = 60). The samples were divided into six groups Tubli-Seal, Apexit Plus, Fillapex, AH Plus, RoekoSeal, and Positive control, respectively. Materials and Methods: Five groups after the incubation with the microorganism E. faecalis were coated with different root canal sealers and obturated using F3 ProTaper Gutta-percha point. The dentinal shavings were collected and analyzed for RT-PCR. Statistical Analysis: The mean difference between six groups was calculated using analysis of variance and post-hoc test. Results: The highest antibacterial activity was achieved with Tubli-Seal (1938.13 DNA in pictogram [pg]) and least by RoekoSeal (3034.54 DNA in pg). Conclusion: The maximum antimicrobial activity was achieved AH Plus and Tubli-Seal. RT-PCR can be used as a valuable and accurate tool for testing antimicrobial activity. PMID:26752843

  20. Microorganism penetration in dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal walls. In vitro SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sulaiman, Alaa; Al-Rasheed, Fellwa; Alnajjar, Fatimah; Al-Abdulwahab, Bander; Al-Badah, Abdulhakeem

    2014-01-01

    Objectives This in vitro study aimed to investigate the ability of Candida albicans (C. albicans) and Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to penetrate dentinal tubules of instrumented and retreated root canal surface of split human teeth. Materials and Methods Sixty intact extracted human single-rooted teeth were divided into 4 groups, negative control, positive control without canal instrumentation, instrumented, and retreated. Root canals in the instrumented group were enlarged with endodontic instruments, while root canals in the retreated group were enlarged, filled, and then removed the canal filling materials. The teeth were split longitudinally after canal preparation in 3 groups except the negative control group. The teeth were inoculated with both microorganisms separately and in combination. Teeth specimens were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the depth of penetration into the dentinal tubules was assessed using the SMILE view software (JEOL Ltd). Results Penetration of C. albicans and E. faecalis into the dentinal tubules was observed in all 3 groups, although penetration was partially restricted by dentin debris of tubules in the instrumented group and remnants of canal filling materials in the retreated group. In all 3 groups, E. faecalis penetrated deeper into the dentinal tubules by way of cell division than C. albicans which built colonies and penetrated by means of hyphae. Conclusions Microorganisms can easily penetrate dentinal tubules of root canals with different appearance based on the microorganism size and status of dentinal tubules. PMID:25383343

  1. Fluoride Varnish as Root Canal Sealer: A Scanning Electron Microscopy and Bacterial Penetration Study

    PubMed Central

    Parirokh, Masoud; Talebizad, Mohammad; Forghani, Farshid Reza; Haghdoost, Ali Akabar; Asgary, Saeed; Eghbal, Mohammad Jafar; Goddousi, Jamileh

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This study was carried out to evaluate the bacterial leakage of root canal fillings when cavity varnish containing 5% fluoride (Duraflur) was used as root canal sealer. Methods and Materials: Root canals of 88 straight single-rooted teeth were prepared. Eighty teeth were randomly divided into 3 experimental groups (n=20) and two positive and negative control groups of ten each. The roots in group I and II were obturated with gutta-percha and AH-26 sealer using lateral condensation technique. The root canal walls in group II were coated with a layer of varnish before obturation. In group III the canals were obturated with gutta-percha and fluoride varnish as the sealer. Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) was used to determine the bacterial leakage during 90 days. The Kaplan Meier survival analysis was used for assessing the leakage and log rank test was used for pairwise comparison. The rest of eight single rooted teeth were selected for scanning electron microscopy (SEM) evaluation with 5000× magnification. Results: Leakage occurred between 20 to 89 days. Group III showed significantly less bacterial penetration than groups I and II (P=0.001 and P=0.011, respectively). However, there was no significant difference between group I and II (P>0.05). SEM evaluation showed that the varnish had covered all dentinal tubules. Conclusion: The present study showed promising results for the use of fluoride varnish as root canal sealer but further in vitro and in vivo studies are needed. PMID:25598813

  2. Canal Configuration of Mesiobuccal Roots in Permanent Maxillary First Molars in Iranian Population: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Kharazifard, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: It is essential for clinicians to have adequate knowledge about root canal configurations; although its morphology varies largely in different ethnicities and even in different individuals with the same ethnic background. The current study aims to review the root canal configurations of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in an Iranian population based on different epidemiological studies. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was conducted to retrieve articles related to root canal configuration and prevalence of each type of root canal based on Vertucci’s classification for the mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molars. An electronic search was conducted in Medline, Scopus and Google Scholar from January 1984 to September 2015. The articles were evaluated and methods, population, number of teeth and percentage of each root canal type evaluated in each study were summarized in the data table. Websites such as http://www.magiran.com/ , http://health.barakatkns.com/journal-internal-list and www.sid.ir were used to search all related studies published in Persian. Results: Totally, out of nine studies conducted on the Iranian populations in nine provinces of Iran and 798 teeth, the Vertucci’s type I was the most common type (35.70%), followed by type II (30.37%), type IV (16.66%), type III (7.93%) and type V (2.61%). Conclusions: From this review article, it is concluded that the root canal morphology of mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars in the Iranian population predominantly has more than one canal. Therefore, careful evaluation of radiographs and anatomy of the pulp chamber is essential in order to achieve a successful root canal therapy. PMID:28243306

  3. Surface modification of tooth root canal after application of an X-ray opaque waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostálová, T.; Jelínková, H.; Šulc, J.; Němec, M.; Koranda, P.; Bartoňová, M.; Radina, P.; Miyagi, M.; Shi, Y.-W.; Matsuura, Y.

    The interest in endodontic use of dental laser systems has been increasing. With the development of thin and flexible delivery systems for various wavelengths, laser applications in endodontics may become even more desirable. The aim of this study is to check the X-ray opacity of a hollow waveguide and to observe the results after laser root canal treatment. The root canal systems of 10 molars were treated endodontically by laser. For the laser radiation source, an Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm and an Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm were used. The hollow waveguide used was checked under X-ray . A root canal surface treated by laser radiation was analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). The special hollow glass waveguide used was visible in the root canal system under X-ray imaging. Surface modification of the root canal after laser treatment was not found. After conventional treatment the root canal was enlarged. The surface was covered with a smear layer. After application of both laser systems, the smear layer was removed. The resulting canal surface was found to be clean and smooth. Under SEM observation open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were present, nor were surface modifications observed.

  4. Dynamic intratubular biomineralization following root canal obturation with pozzolan‐based mineral trioxide aggregate sealer cement

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Yeon‐Jee; Baek, Seung‐Ho; Kum, Kee‐Yeon; Shon, Won‐Jun; Woo, Kyung‐Mi

    2015-01-01

    Summary The application of mineral trioxide aggregates (MTA) cement during the root canal obturation is gaining concern due to its bioactive characteristic to form an apatite in dentinal tubules. In this regard, this study was to assess the biomineralization of dentinal tubules following root canal obturation by using pozzolan‐based (Pz‐) MTA sealer cement (EndoSeal MTA, Maruchi). Sixty curved roots (mesiobuccal, distobuccal) from human maxillary molars were instrumented and prepared for root canal obturation. The canals were obturated with gutta‐percha (GP) and Pz‐MTA sealer by using continuous wave of condensation technique. Canals obturated solely with ProRoot MTA (Dentsply Tulsa Dental) or Pz‐MTA sealer were used for comparison. In order to evaluate the biomineralization ability under different conditions, the PBS pretreatment before the root canal obturation was performed in each additional samples. At dentin‐material interfaces, the extension of intratubular biomineralization was analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy. When the root canal was obturated with GP and Pz‐MTA sealer, enhanced biomineralization of the dentinal tubules beyond the penetrated sealer tag was confirmed under the SEM observation (p < 0.05). Mineralized apatite structures (calcium/phosphorous ratio, 1.45–1.89) connecting its way through the dentinal tubules were detected at 350–400 μm from the tubule orifice, and the pre‐crystallization seeds were also observed along the intra‐ and/or inter‐tubular collagen fiber. Intratubular biomineralization depth was significantly enhanced in all PBS pretreated canals (p < 0.05). Pz‐MTA cement can be used as a promising bioactive root canal sealer to enhance biomineralization of dentinal tubules under controlled environment. SCANNING 38:50–56, 2016. © 2015 The Authors. Scanning Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26179659

  5. Retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique

    PubMed Central

    Vivekananda Pai, A R; Mir, Shugufta; Jain, Rachit

    2013-01-01

    A metallic obstruction in the root canal blocks canal cleaning and shaping procedures and requires either bypassing or retrieval. Many methods have been recommended to retrieve a metallic obstruction from the root canal. This article describes the retrieval of a metallic obstruction from the root canal of a premolar using Masserann technique to facilitate endodontic retreatment. Masserann technique is said to have limited application in posteriors. However, in this case, the obstruction was successfully retrieved by employing Masserann technique which consisted of using a trephan to cut the dentine and extractor tube to retrieve the obstruction. The retrieved obstruction was found to be a separated H-file. Endodontic retreatment was completed following the detection and negotiation of an extra canal in the same tooth. PMID:24403807

  6. Susceptibilties of two Enterococcus faecalis phenotypes to root canal medications.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Mariam; Ng, Yuan-Ling; Gulabivala, Kishor; Moles, David R; Spratt, David A

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate and compare the efficacy of selected root canal irrigants and a medicament on a clinical isolate of Enterococcus faecalis grown as biofilm or planktonic suspension phenotype. A cell-dense pellet "presentation" prepared from planktonic phenotype was also tested. Each bacterial presentation was exposed to calcium hydroxide (pH 12.3), 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate, 17% ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid, 10% povidone iodine, or 3.0% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) for a range of time periods (1, 2, 4, 8, 15, 30, and 60 min). Phosphate buffered saline was used as a control agent. The difference in gradients of bacterial killing among the biofilm, planktonic suspension or pellet presentation was significant (p < 0.05) and dependent upon the test agent except in the case of NaOCl and calcium hydroxide where no difference could be detected. NaOCl was the most effective agent and achieved 100% kills for all presentations of E. faecalis after a 2 min contact time.

  7. Dissolving efficacy of organic solvents on root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Martos, J; Gastal, M T; Sommer, L; Lund, R G; Del Pino, F A B; Osinaga, P W R

    2006-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the solubility of three types of root canal sealers in three organic solvents used in endodontics. The solubility of calcium-hydroxide-based (Sealer 26), silicon-polydimethylsiloxane-based (RoekoSeal), and zinc-oxide-eugenol based (Endofill and Intrafill) sealers was assessed in eucalyptol, xylol, orange oil, and distilled water. Eighty samples of each filling material were prepared according to the manufacturers' instructions and then divided into four groups for immersion in solvent for 2 or 10 min. The means of sealer dissolution in solvents were obtained by the difference between the original preimmersion weight and the postimmersion weight in a digital analytical scale. Data were statistically analyzed with the Student's t test, and multiple comparisons were performed with Student-Newman-Keuls. Xylol and orange oil showed similar effects, with significant solubilization (P<0.05) of the tested cements. Endofill and Sealer 26 did not show any significant difference in solubilization at the two immersion times, whereas RoekoSeal and Intrafill showed a more pronounced solubility at 10 min. The lowest levels of solubilization occurred in RoekoSeal, Sealer 26, Endofill, and Intrafill. It is concluded that xylol and orange oil presented similar solvent effects with a significant solubility of the tested cements.

  8. Caprylic acid in the effective treatment of intractable medical problems of frequent urination, incontinence, chronic upper respiratory infection, root canalled tooth infection, ALS, etc., caused by asbestos & mixed infections of Candida albicans, Helicobacter pylori & cytomegalovirus with or without other microorganisms & mercury.

    PubMed

    Omura, Yoshiaki; O'Young, Brian; Jones, Marilyn; Pallos, Andrew; Duvvi, Harsha; Shimotsuura, Yasuhiro

    2011-01-01

    There are many causes of frequent urination. Whenever water or fluids are consumed, the patient has to urinate within 10 or 20 min. Often urinary bladder examinations & blood tests show no significant abnormalities, & treatment by anti-bacterial or anti-viral agents does not improve the symptoms significantly. In intractable frequent urination with difficulty holding urine, as well as other intractable medical problems such as frequent coughing, white pus in gingiva, infection of the apex of a root canalled tooth, slow-healing wounds, & ALS, the authors often found coexisting mixed infections of Candida albicans (C.A.), Helicobacter pylori (H.P.), & Cytomegalovirus (CMV) with or without additional bacterial (Chlamydia trachomatis, etc.) or viral infections & increased Asbestos, with or without Hg deposits. We often found various degrees of mixed infections with C.A., H.P., & CMV in the external sphincters of the urethra & in the Trigone of the urinary bladder which consists of (1) a horizontal, band-like area between the 2 ureter openings & (2) the funnel shaped part of the Trigone at the lower half of the urinary bladder. In the coexistence of significant amounts of C.A., H.P. & CMV, the infection cannot be reduced by otherwise effective medicines for H.P. & CMV. However, one optimal dose of Diflucan, or Caprylic acid taken orally or externally applied, rapidly reduced the symptoms significantly. We found the best treatment is to give a combination of an optimal dose of Caprylic acid orally in the form of "CaprilyCare" or "Caprylic Acid," with a capsule of Omega-3 Fish Oil as an anti-viral agent, Amoxicillin, Substance Z & a Cilantro tablet. We found that an optimal dose of Caprylic acid increases normal cell telomere (NCT) to a desirable 750 ng BDORT units while Diflucan increases NCT by only 25 ng BDORT units, & with Omega-3 fish oil, leads to a mutual cancellation of both drugs. Thus, Caprylic acid is superior to & less expensive than Diflucan, & has potential

  9. Evaluation of Microbial Reduction in Root Canals Instrumented with Reciprocating and Rotary Systems

    PubMed Central

    DE OLIVEIRA, BRUNA PALOMA; AGUIAR, CARLOS MENEZES; CÂMARA, ANDRÉA CRUZ; DE ALBUQUERQUE, MIRACY MUNIZ; CORREIA, ANA CRISTINA REGIS DE BARROS; SOARES, MONICA FELTS DE LA ROCA

    2015-01-01

    Objective This in vitro study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the disinfection of root canal systems carried out with ReciprocTM and ProTaper UniversalTM systems using 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Methods Forty human single-rooted mandibular premolars were infected with Enterococcus faecalis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans, and twenty were not infected. The specimens were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 10): Group 1: ProTaper UniversalTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 2 (positive control): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 3 (negative control without microorganisms): ProTaper UniversalTM + saline; Group 4: ReciprocTM + 1% NaOCl; Group 5 (positive control): ReciprocTM + saline; Group 6 (negative control without microorganisms): ReciprocTM + saline. Samples were collected before and after the completion of specific treatments, and plated in specific media cultures. The Fisher exact test was used for the statistical analysis of differences in terms of presence or absence of microbial growth among groups. For all tested pathogens, significant differences (p < 0.001) were verified between the instrumentation systems used. Results ProTaper UniversalTM associated with 1% NaOCl completely eliminated all microorganisms. Microbial growth, however, was observed when ReciprocTM was used associated with 1% NaOCl. Conclusion According to the protocol executed for this study, the ReciprocTM system associated with 1% NaOCl was not able to completely eliminate E. faecalis, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans from the root canal systems. PMID:27688413

  10. Wavelength dependence of photon-induced photoacoustic streaming technique for root canal irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukač, Nejc; Zadravec, Jure; Gregorčič, Peter; Lukač, Matjaž; Jezeršek, Matija

    2016-07-01

    Laser-enhanced irrigation of complex root canals appears to be a very promising technique to improve the outcome of root canal treatment. This applies, in particular, if the technique can be effective at very low laser energies in irrigating not only the main canal but also the small lateral canals. This is important in order to avoid potential undesirable effects at higher laser energies such as temperature increase, dentin ablation, or extrusion of irrigating solution beyond the apical foramen. An improved understanding of the role of laser parameters, such as laser wavelength and pulse duration, in irrigation of lateral canals is therefore desired in order to optimize treatment efficacy. The influence of laser wavelength and pulse duration on cavitation phenomena was studied using shadow photography and a method of measuring fluid flow in lateral canals based on tracking of movements of small air bubbles naturally forming in liquid as a result of laser agitation. A simulated model of a root canal including a narrow lateral canal designed to represent typical root canal morphology was used for the water flow measurements. The following three laser wavelengths with relatively high absorption in water were studied: Er:YAG (2.94 μm), Er,Cr:YSGG (2.73 μm), and Nd:YAP (1.34 μm). Among the three wavelengths studied, the Er:YAG laser wavelength was found to be the most effective in formation of cavitation bubbles and in generating fluid motions within narrow lateral canals. A comparison between the shadow photography and fluid motion data indicates that it is the bubble's radius and not the bubble's volume that predominantly influences the fluid motion within lateral canals. Based on the results of our study, it appears that effective minimally invasive laser-assisted irrigation can be performed with low Er:YAG laser pulse energies below 10 mJ.

  11. Radiographic quality of root canal fillings performed in a postgraduate program in endodontics.

    PubMed

    Santos, Suelleng Maria Cunha; Soares, Janir Alves; César, Carlos Augusto Santos; Brito-Júnior, Manoel; Moreira, Allyson Nogueira; Magalhães, Cláudia Silami de

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the standard quality of 1,347 root fillings performed by postgraduate students in Endodontics according to 3 radiographic quality parameters. The analyzed quality parameters included apical extension (AE), taper (TA) and homogeneity (HO), which received scores S2 (ideal standard), S1 (slight deviation) or S0 (accentuated deviation). A perfect filling (PF) received S2 for all parameters. In the absence of one or two S2 score, the fillings were deemed as satisfactory (SF) or deficient (DF), respectively. The results showed 51.7%, 41.5% and 6.8% of PF, SF, and DF, respectively. AE, TA, and HO presented equivalent quality parameters in root-filled canals of mandibular incisors and mandibular premolars (p>0.05). Conversely, in maxillary incisors, canines and distal root of mandibular molars, significant differences (p<0.05) were found between 2 parameters. Besides, there were significant differences (p<0.05) among the measured parameters in root-filled canals of maxillary premolars, all root canals of the maxillary molars and mesial root of the mandibular molars. AE showed the lowest frequency of S2 score for all groups. In conclusion the prevalence of perfect, satisfactory and deficient fillings varied significantly according to the root canal group. The quality parameters categorized fillings in 3 complexity degrees. AE was the most critical parameter of quality in root canal fillings.

  12. Comparison of incidence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with continuous rotation and reciprocating instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Monga, Prashant; Bajaj, Nitika; Mahajan, Pardeep; Garg, Shiwani

    2015-12-01

    Biomechanical preparation is one of the most important steps in endodontic therapy. Rotary instrumentation has facilitated this step. Nowadays the market is flooded with different types of rotary instruments. The present study compared the root dentinal crack formation with continuous rotating versus reciprocating root canal preparation methods. One hundred and fifty freshly extracted teeth were used for the study. They were divided into 5 groups with 30 teeth in each group. Thirty teeth were kept under control group A and no root canal preparation was done for this group. Another 30 teeth were prepared with hand files which were kept under control group B. In the experimental groups (sample size, n=30 each) root canals were prepared with ProTaper, K3XF rotary system and WaveOne. Sectioning of these teeth was done at 3, 6 and 9mm from the apex and were evaluated for the presence of any defects. Root dentinal cracks were produced with each type of rotary instruments. Statistical analysis showed no significant difference in root dentinal crack formation between control groups and WaveOne system. There was statistically significant difference in root dentinal crack formation when the canals were prepared with ProTaper and K3XF rotary system. So it was concluded, that continuous rotating instruments could produce dentinal crack formation. Root canal instruments with reciprocating movement appear to be a better option than continuous rotation movement.

  13. Evaluation of Root Canal Preparation Using Rotary System and Hand Instruments Assessed by Micro-Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Stavileci, Miranda; Hoxha, Veton; Görduysus, Ömer; Tatar, Ilkan; Laperre, Kjell; Hostens, Jeroen; Küçükkaya, Selen; Muhaxheri, Edmond

    2015-01-01

    Background Complete mechanical preparation of the root canal system is rarely achieved. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the root canal shaping efficacy of ProTaper rotary files and standard stainless steel K-files using micro-computed tomography. Material/Methods Sixty extracted upper second premolars were selected and divided into 2 groups of 30 teeth each. Before preparation, all samples were scanned by micro-computed tomography. Thirty teeth were prepared with the ProTaper system and the other 30 with stainless steel files. After preparation, the untouched surface and root canal straightening were evaluated with micro-computed tomography. The percentage of untouched root canal surface was calculated in the coronal, middle, and apical parts of the canal. We also calculated straightening of the canal after root canal preparation. Results from the 2 groups were statistically compared using the Minitab statistical package. Results ProTaper rotary files left less untouched root canal surface compared with manual preparation in coronal, middle, and apical sector (p<0.001). Similarly, there was a statistically significant difference in root canal straightening after preparation between the techniques (p<0.001). Conclusions Neither manual nor rotary techniques completely prepared the root canal, and both techniques caused slight straightening of the root canal. PMID:26092929

  14. A Review on Root Anatomy and Canal Configuration of the Maxillary Second Molars

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemi, Negin; Rahimi, Saeed; Shahi, Shahriar; Samiei, Mohammad; Frough Reyhani, Mohammad; Ranjkesh, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The complexity of the root canal system presents a challenge for the practitioner. This systematic review evaluated the papers published in the field of root canal anatomy and configuration of the root canal system in permanent maxillary second molars. Methods and Materials: All articles related to the root morphology and root canal anatomy of the permanent maxillary second molars were collected by suitable keywords from PubMed database. The exhaustive search included all publications from 1981 to December 2015. The articles relevant to the study were evaluated and data was extracted. The author/year of publication, country, number of the evaluated teeth, type of study (method of the evaluation), number of roots and the canals, type of canals and the morphology of the apical foramen was noted. Results: The highest studied populations were in Brazil and United States. A total of 116 related papers were found, which had investigated 11945 teeth in total. Across all the studied populations, the three-rooted anatomy was most common, while the four-rooted anatomy had the lowest prevalence. The presence of the second mesiobuccal canal ranged from 11.53 % to 93.7%, where type II (2-1) configuration was the predominant type in Brazil and USA and types II and III (1-2-1) in Chinese populations. In 8.8-44% of cases, fusion was observed. The main reported cases were related to palatal root. The major method of anatomical investigation in case reports was periapical radiography, and the chief method in morphological studies was CBCT. Conclusion: The clinicians should be aware of normal morphology and anatomic variations to reduce the treatment failure. PMID:28179915

  15. Effect of rotational speed on root canal preparation with Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti instruments.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, Işil; Ersev, Handan; Engin-Akkoca, Ece; Küçükay, Sedat; Gürsoy, Tankut

    2003-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti instruments driven at 300, 400, or 600 rpm on root canal straightening, loss of working length, and instrument breakage. Sixty mesial root canals from extracted human mandibular molars were divided into 3 groups of 20 each and were instrumented at the aforementioned rotational speeds with a crown-down technique. Using a digital intraoral radiography system directly on the images of pre- and postoperative radiographs, degrees of canal curvatures were measured and recorded. Statistical analysis showed that final canal curvatures and working lengths were significantly reduced compared with those of original values in each group (p < 0.001). However, using Hero 642 rotary Ni-Ti system at different rotational speeds had no effect on canal curvature and working length alterations (p > 0.05). No file breakage was observed in any of the groups.

  16. Stereomicroscopic Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Four Different Root Canal Sealers- An invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Chandak, Manoj; Jain, Pradeep; Patni, Mona Jain; Jain, Sumeet; Mishra, Prashant; Jain, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The most commonly used core material for root canal filling is gutta-percha and as the gutta-percha by itself cannot obturate the complete root canal system, owing to its poor sealing properties hence, a sealer is used in combination with root filling material. Sealer is more important than the core obturating material. Sealer plays a secondary role by merely reinforcing (binding or luting) the gutta-percha to the canal walls, however, it is now confirmed that the sealer has a prime role in sealing the canal by blocking the irregularities between the canal space and the core filling material. Aim To investigate the effectiveness of the apical seal obtained by different sealers used in conjugation with cold lateral condensation technique of obturation using gutta-percha under stereomicroscope. Materials and Methods One hundred single-rooted extracted human permanent teeth with a single root canal were used in this in-vitro study. The sealers tested were conventional Zinc oxide eugenol sealer, Apexit, AH-Plus and Roekoseal Automix (RSA). The specimens were examined under a stereomicroscope. For the analysis of data Snedocor’s F test for the quality of variances among the experimental group and control group (One-Way ANOVA) were employed. Results The polydimethylsiloxane endodontic root canal sealer RSA provided a significantly better apical seal followed by AH plus and Apexit whereas conventional zinc oxide eugenol showed the lowest sealing ability. Conclusion It was concluded that there were statistically significant differences amongst the experimental groups. The shrinkage related to setting and potential dissolution might risk the proper seal of the root canal leading to treatment failure. PMID:27656560

  17. CBCT-Aided Microscopic and Ultrasonic Treatment for Upper or Middle Thirds Calcified Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Ying-Ming; Guo, Bin; Guo, Li-Yang; Yang, Yan; Hong, Xiao; Pan, Hong-Ying

    2016-01-01

    Root canal calcification is considered a great challenge during root canal treatment. Although the application of ultrasonic instruments and dental operating microscope (DOM) has advantages, dealing with calcified root canals still suffers a great risk of failure because of limited information about the location, length, and direction of obliteration on periapical radiographs. In this work, a cone-beam computed tomography- (CBCT-) aided method aimed at solving complicated calcified root canals in which conventional approaches could not work was proposed. Thirteen teeth with sixteen calcified canals (12 calcified in the upper third, 4 calcified in the middle third), which cannot be negotiated with conventional methods, were treated with the aid of CBCT. The location of calcification and depth of instrumentation and operating direction were calculated and assessed in three dimensions with ultrasonic instruments under DOM. In all thirteen teeth, canals with upper and middle thirds calcification were treated successfully. Finally, a guideline was proposed to help achieve consistent apical patency in calcified canals. PMID:27525269

  18. In vitro leakage associated with three root-filling techniques in large and extremely large root canals.

    PubMed

    Mente, Johannes; Werner, Sabine; Koch, Martin Jean; Henschel, Volkmar; Legner, Milos; Staehle, Hans Joerg; Friedman, Shimon

    2007-03-01

    This study assessed the apical leakage of ultrasonically condensed root fillings in extremely large canals, compared to cold lateral condensation and thermoplastic compaction. Ninety single-rooted teeth were used. In 45 teeth canals were enlarged to size 70 (large). The remaining 45 canals were enlarged to size 140 (extremely large). Each set of teeth was subdivided into three root-filling groups (n = 15): (1) cold lateral condensation (LC); (2) thermoplastic compaction (TC); and (3) ultrasonic lateral condensation (UC). Teeth in all six subgroups were subjected to drawing ink penetration, cleared, and evaluated for linear apical dye leakage. Significantly deeper dye penetration (p < 0.04, Wilcoxon rank-sum test) was observed for LC than for UC. TC did not differ significantly from LC and UC. Dye penetration was significantly deeper (p < 0.0001) in canals enlarged to size 140 than to size 70, independent of root-filling method. Apical leakage associated with ultrasonically condensed root fillings was less than that with cold lateral condensation. It was consistently greater in extremely large canals than that in large ones.

  19. Primary Mandibular First Molar with Single Root and Single Canal: A Case Report of a Rare Morphology

    PubMed Central

    Bahrololoomi, Zahra; Ghafourifard, Roya; Soleimani, Ali Asghar

    2014-01-01

    Single rooted primary mandibular first molar is a rare developmental anomaly. Literatures reveal that failure of invagination of Hertwig’s epithelial root sheath leads to this unusual root form. Thorough knowledge of root canal morphology and anatomical variations of primary teeth can help a pediatric dentist in successful root canal treatment. Hereby, we describe two cases of primary mandibular first molars with an unusual morphology as a single root called pyramidal molar. PMID:25628671

  20. The effect of irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability in different root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Bodrumlu, Emre; Parlak, Esra; Bodrumlu, Ebru Hazar

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of three root canal irrigation solutions on the apical sealing ability of three root canal obturation materials: gutta-percha/AH plus or MM-seal and Resilon/Epiphany SE. A total of 100 teeth with single straight root canals were randomly divided into three equal groups of 30 samples each, with the other 10 teeth (5 positive and 5 negative) used as controls. Each irrigation group was divided into three groups according to the use of three different root canal obturation materials (n = 10): Gutta-percha with AH plus or MM-seal, Resilon with Epiphany SE. The crowns were removed at the cementoenamel junction with a diamond disc under water coolant. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique and irrigation with either sodium hypochlorite (2.5%), chlorhexidine (2%), or MTAD solutions. The roots were obturated with lateral condensation technique using one of the obturation materials. The root surfaces was coated with two layer nail varnish (except apex), placed in 2% methylene blue dye solution, and centrifuged at 3,000 rpm for 5 minutes. Irrigation solutions affected the apical sealing ability of all the sealers. The chlorhexidine irrigation solution exhibited higher apical leakage values than did MTAD and NaOCl in all canal sealers, although the MTAD irrigation solution groups showed the least leakage values. The apical sealing ability of AH plus, Epiphany SE and MM-seal root canal sealers decreased when the chlorhexidine was used as an irrigation solution.

  1. Root Canal Morphology of Mandibular Canine in an Iranian Population: A CBCT Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani, Ali; Namaryan, Nafiseh; Moudi, Ehsan; Gholinia, Ali

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present study was conducted to assess the morphology of mandibular canines using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in a north Iranian population. Methods and Materials: For the morphological assessment of mandibular canines, 150 CBCT images taken from patients for different reasons were used. The mandibular canines were examined in sagittal, coronal and axial dimensions. The canal pattern, number of roots/canals, the tooth length, the orientation of the roots and the position of the apical foramina were evaluated and the effect of gender on each variable was assessed. The obtained data were analyzed using the Chi-square and student’s t-tests. Results: According to the Vertucci’s criteria, the most common pattern was type I morphology (89.7%), followed by types III (5.7%), II (3.7%) and V (1%). No significant differences were observed between the male and female patients in terms of canal type (P>0.05). Gender difference is a factor which affected the root length and the number of mandibular canine root and root canal. There were 296 single-root and four double-root canines. The double-root canines and mandibular canine with two canals were significantly more common among men than women (P=0.00). The apical foramen was laterally positioned in 68.3% and centrally in 31.7% of the cases, and the root curvatures were mostly oriented toward the buccal region. No significant statistical difference was observed for mentioned parameters in right and left half of the jaw. Conclusion: Due the diverse morphology and the potential presence of a second mandibular canine among Iranians, dentists should perform endodontic treatments with greater care. CBCT is an accurate tool for the morphological assessment of root canals. PMID:28179930

  2. Comparative Analysis of Crack Propagation in Roots with Hand and Rotary Instrumentation of the Root Canal -An Ex-vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnaswamy, Manjunath Mysore

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Success of any endodontic treatment depends on strict adherence to ‘endodontic triad’. Preparation of root canal system is recognized as being one of the most important stages in root canal treatment. At times, we inevitably end up damaging root dentin which becomes a Gateway for infections like perforation, zipping, dentinal cracks and minute intricate fractures or even vertical root fractures, thereby resulting in failure of treatment. Several factors may be responsible for the formation of dentinal cracks like high concentration of sodium hypochlorite, compaction methods and various canal shaping methods. Aim To compare and evaluate the effects of root canal preparation techniques and instrumentation length on the development of apical root cracks. Materials and Methods Seventy extracted premolars with straight roots were mounted on resin blocks with simulated periodontal ligaments, exposing 1-2 mm of the apex followed by sectioning of 1mm of root tip for better visualization under stereomicroscope. The teeth were divided into seven groups of 10 teeth each – a control group and six experimental groups. Subgroup A & B were instrumented with: Stainless Steel hand files (SS) up to Root Canal Length (RCL) & (RCL –1 mm) respectively; sub group C & D were instrumented using ProTaper Universal (PTU) up to RCL and (RCL -1mm) respectively; subgroup E & F were instrumented using ProTaper Next (PTN) up to RCL & (RCL -1 mm) respectively. Stereomicroscopic images of the instrumentation sequence were compared for each tooth. The data was analyzed statistically using descriptive analysis by ‘Phi’ and ‘Cramers’ test to find out statistical significance between the groups. The level of significance was set at p< 0.05 using SPSS software. Results Stainless steel hand file group showed most cracks followed by ProTaper Universal & ProTaper Next though statistically not significant. Samples instrumented up to 1mm short of working length (RCL-1mm) showed

  3. Root canal filling: fracture strength of fiber-reinforced composite-restored roots and finite element analysis.

    PubMed

    Rippe, Marília Pivetta; Santini, Manuela Favarin; Bier, Carlos Alexandre Souza; Borges, Alexandre Luiz Souto; Valandro, Luiz Felipe

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were to evaluate the effect of root canal filling techniques on root fracture resistance and to analyze, by finite element analysis (FEA), the expansion of the endodontic sealer in two different root canal techniques. Thirty single-rooted human teeth were instrumented with rotary files to a standardized working length of 14 mm. The specimens were embedded in acrylic resin using plastic cylinders as molds, and allocated into 3 groups (n=10): G(lateral) - lateral condensation; G(single-cone) - single cone; G(tagger) - Tagger's hybrid technique. The root canals were prepared to a length of 11 mm with the #3 preparation bur of a tapered glass fiber-reinforced composite post system. All roots received glass fiber posts, which were adhesively cemented and a composite resin core was built. All groups were subjected to a fracture strength test (1 mm/min, 45°). Data were analyzed statistically by one-way ANOVA with a significance level of 5%. FEA was performed using two models: one simulated lateral condensation and Tagger's hybrid technique, and the other one simulated the single-cone technique. The second model was designed with an amount of gutta-percha two times smaller and a sealer layer two times thicker than the first model. The results were analyzed using von Mises stress criteria. One-way ANOVA indicated that the root canal filling technique affected the fracture strength (p=0.004). The G(lateral) and G(tagger) produced similar fracture strength values, while G(single-cone) showed the lowest values. The FEA showed that the single-cone model generated higher stress in the root canal walls. Sealer thickness seems to influence the fracture strength of restored endodontically treated teeth.

  4. The fundamental operating principles of electronic root canal length measurement devices.

    PubMed

    Nekoofar, M H; Ghandi, M M; Hayes, S J; Dummer, P M H

    2006-08-01

    It is generally accepted that root canal treatment procedures should be confined within the root canal system. To achieve this objective the canal terminus must be detected accurately during canal preparation and precise control of working length during the process must be maintained. Several techniques have been used for determining the apical canal terminus including electronic methods. However, the fundamental electronic operating principles and classification of the electronic devices used in this method are often unknown and a matter of controversy. The basic assumption with all electronic length measuring devices is that human tissues have certain characteristics that can be modelled by a combination of electrical components. Therefore, by measuring the electrical properties of the model, such as resistance and impedance, it should be possible to detect the canal terminus. The root canal system is surrounded by dentine and cementum that are insulators to electrical current. At the minor apical foramen, however, there is a small hole in which conductive materials within the canal space (tissue, fluid) are electrically connected to the periodontal ligament that is itself a conductor of electric current. Thus, dentine, along with tissue and fluid inside the canal, forms a resistor, the value of which depends on their dimensions, and their inherent resistivity. When an endodontic file penetrates inside the canal and approaches the minor apical foramen, the resistance between the endodontic file and the foramen decreases, because the effective length of the resistive material (dentine, tissue, fluid) decreases. As well as resistive properties, the structure of the tooth root has capacitive characteristics. Therefore, various electronic methods have been developed that use a variety of other principles to detect the canal terminus. Whilst the simplest devices measure resistance, other devices measure impedance using either high frequency, two frequencies, or

  5. Real-time imaging and quantification of bioluminescent bacteria in root canals in vitro.

    PubMed

    Sedgley, Christine; Applegate, Bruce; Nagel, Aaron; Hall, Dan

    2004-12-01

    The detection of microorganisms in root canals is generally limited to qualitative or semiquantitative methods. We describe a new and nondestructive in vitro method to quantify root-canal bacteria over sequential treatment procedures using real-time imaging in conjunction with the bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL. Induced bacterial photon emission can be monitored by sensitive optical photonic imaging and luminometry, providing images as well as spatial and quantitative measurements. Bioluminescence imaging and luminometry determined that the lower limit of detection of bacteria in root canals occurred between 2 x 10(2) and 2 x 10(3) cells, with high correlation between cell counts and detection devices (r > or = 0.981). A preliminary study assessed the efficacy of sequential irrigation procedures to remove 5 x 10(6) bacteria from root canals (n = 5; apical size 60) using a 28-gauge, endodontic needle positioned 1 mm from working length; 9.2% +/- 3.1% and 8% +/- 3.6% of bacteria remained after 3 and 6 ml irrigation, respectively (p = 0.03), corresponding to approximately 4 x 10(5) bacteria remaining after 6 ml. This method can be used to study the efficacy of sequential endodontic treatment procedures in removing bacteria from root canals.

  6. Morphological changes related to age in mesial root canals of permanent mandibular first molars.

    PubMed

    Gani, Omar A; Boiero, Claudio F; Correa, Carolina; Masin, Ivana; Machado, Ricardo; Silva, Emmanuel J N L; Vansan, Luiz Pascoal

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate age-related morphological canal changes in mesial root canals of mandibular first molars of known ages. Fifty-six specimens were selected for this study and distributed into the following four age groups (n. 14): a) Group of children under 13 years, b) Group of adolescents (from 14 to 19 years), c) Group of young adults (from 20 to 39 years) and d) Group of older adults (over 40 years). The specimens were in perfect condition because after extraction they were carefully cleaned, sterilized, identified and stored in water. In order to improve the cleaning, they were placed in 1% sodium hypochlorite solution for four hours and rinsed in 10 vol. hydrogen peroxide for 8 hours. After that, a clearing technique was performed to illustrate root canal anatomy. Digitalized images of all samples were obtained by use of a stereomicroscope. Canals were noticeably simpler in older adults: they were sharply defined and narrow, sometimes too narrow. Calcification nuclei were not found and there were only a few remains of internuclear spaces. The canal system appeared cleaner, clearer and more sharply defined than in the other age groups. It may be concluded that there is a correlation between aging and morphological changes in the mesial root canals of mandibular first molars.

  7. Root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolars in an Emirati subpopulation: A laboratory study

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Sheela Balu; Gopinath, Vellore Kannan

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the root canal anatomy of mandibular first premolar teeth in an Emirati subpopulation using a decalcification and clearing method. Materials and Methods: One hundred permanent mandibular first premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic purposes from an Emirati subpopulation from the United Arab Emirates were used for this study. They were subjected to decalcification and clearing. The tooth length, the canal orifice shape, mesial invagination, canal pattern, the location of apex, presence of lateral canals, and intercanal communications were determined. Results: The most common canal pattern was the Vertucci Type I (65%) followed by Type V (14%) and Type IV (13%). The most common type of canal orifice seen was the oval shape (36%) followed by the round shape (25%). Mesial invaginations were seen in 44% of the teeth. The mean tooth length was 19.9 mm, and apical deltas were seen in 24% of teeth. Conclusion: The Vertucci Type I canal pattern was the most prevalent in the mandibular first premolars while the occurrence of multiple canals was noted in 35% of this population. PMID:26929684

  8. Evaluation for cracks associated with ultrasonic root-end preparation of gutta-percha filled canals.

    PubMed

    Beling, K L; Marshall, J G; Morgan, L A; Baumgartner, J C

    1997-05-01

    Many clinicians use ultrasonics for root-end preparations. The purpose of this study was to evaluate resected root-end surfaces of bilaterally matched human teeth for cracks before and after ultrasonic root-end preparation. Twenty matched pairs of extracted single rooted teeth were divided into two experimental groups. In group 1, root-end resection was performed on uninstrumented teeth. In group 2, root-end resection was performed after the canals were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. All teeth in both groups received root-end preparations using ultrasonic instrumentation at low power. Two examiners evaluated the root-ends after root-end resection and again after root-end preparation using zoom magnification of 20x to 63x. The number, types, and location of cracks were mapped. There were no significant differences when gutta-percha filled roots were compared to uninstrumented roots with regard to the number or type of cracks after root-end resection or root-end preparation. In addition, there were no significant differences in the number or type of cracks following root resection and ultrasonic root-end preparation when compared to teeth with root resection alone.

  9. Mineral trioxide aggregate as a root canal filling material in reimplanted teeth. Microscopic analysis in monkeys.

    PubMed

    Panzarini, Sônia Regina; Holland, Roberto; de Souza, Valdir; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Sonoda, Celso Koogi; Pedrini, Denise

    2007-10-01

    This study analyzed mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) as a root canal filling material for the immediate reimplantation of monkey teeth. Four adult capuchin monkeys Cebus apella were used, which had their maxillary and mandibular lateral incisors on both sides extracted and reimplanted after 15 min. During the extra-alveolar period, the teeth were kept in saline solution and after reimplantation retention was performed with a stainless steel wire and composite resin for 14 days. After 7 days, the reimplanted teeth were submitted to endodontic treatment with biomechanics up to file n. 30 and irrigation with a saturated solution of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)(2)], and then divided into two study groups: group I - root canal filled with a Ca(OH)(2) paste, and group II - root canal filled with MTA. Radiographic follow up was performed at 30, 60 and 90 days postoperatively, and after 180 days the animals were killed and specimens were processed for histomorphological analysis. The results revealed that most specimens of both groups presented organized periodontal ligament with no inflammation. The resorptions observed were surface resorptions and were repaired by cementum. Both MTA and Ca(OH)(2) were good root canal filling materials for immediately reimplanted teeth, providing good repair and also allowing biological sealing of some lateral canals. There was no significant difference between the study groups (alpha = 29.60%).

  10. Effectiveness of castor oil extract on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals.

    PubMed

    Valera, Marcia Carneiro; Maekawa, Lilian Eiko; Chung, Adriana; de Oliveira, Luciane Dias; Carvalho, Claudio Antonio Talge; Koga-Ito, Cristiane Yumi; Jorge, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2012-01-01

    This in vitro study sought to evaluate the effectiveness of castor oil extract used as an irrigating solution on Escherichia coli and its endotoxins in root canals. Sixty single-rooted teeth were prepared (using castor oil extract as irrigating solution) and divided into five groups (n = 12): Group 1 samples were treated with calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2), Group 2 samples were treated with polymyxin B, Group 3 samples were treated with Ca(OH)2 and 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), and Group 4 samples were treated with castor oil extract. A control group used physiological saline solution as an irrigant. Canal content samples were collected at four different times: immediately after instrumentation, seven days after instrumentation, after 14 days of intracanal medication, and seven days after removal of intracanal medication. A plating method was used to assess antimicrobial activity and the quantification of endotoxins was evaluated by the chromogenic Limulus lysate assay. Data were submitted to ANOVA and a Dunn test (a = 5%). Irrigation with castor oil extract decreased E. coli counts but had no effect on the level of endotoxins. Samples taken seven days after removal of medication revealed a significant reduction in endotoxin levels in Groups 3 and 4. Compared to the saline solution irrigation, castor oil extract decreased microorganism counts in root canals immediately after canal preparation. None of the medications used completely eliminated endotoxins in the root canal.

  11. Antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, sodium hypochlorite and chlorhexidine gluconate in primary molar root canals

    PubMed Central

    Goztas, Zeynep; Onat, Halenur; Tosun, Gul; Sener, Yagmur; Hadimli, Hasan Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim was to determine the antimicrobial effect of ozonated water, ozonated water with ultrasonication, sodium hypochloride and chlorhexidine (CHX) in human primary root canals contaminated by Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods: Fifty-eight extracted human primary molar teeth were used. Crowns were cut off using a diamond saw under water-cooling. One hundred roots were obtained and mechanically prepared. The roots were then sterilized by autoclaving in water for 15 min at 121°C. All samples were contaminated with E. faecalis for 24 h and the root canals were randomly divided into five groups (n = 20). Group I: 25 mg/L of Ozonated water (O3aq), Group II: 25 mg/L of O3aq with ultrasonication, Group III: 2.5% Sodium hypochloride (NaOCl), Group IV: 2% CHX and Group V: Positive control. The canal of each specimen was irrigated for 4 min and positive control was untreated. All root canals were agitated with sterile saline solution. The saline solution was collected from canals with sterile paper points. For each specimen, the paper points were transposed to eppendorf vials containing 2 ml of brain heart infusion. According to bacterial proliferation, the mean values of optical density were achieved by ELİSA (Biotek EL ×800, Absorbance Microplate Reader, ABD) and the data were analyzed. Results: NaOCI, CHX and two types of O3aq were found statistically different than positive control group. NaOCI irrigation was found significantly most effective. Conclusions: NaOCl, CHX and O3aq applications provide antibacterial effect in vitro conditions in primary root canals. PMID:25512726

  12. Proposal for a simple and effective diagrammatic representation of root canal configuration for better communication amongst oral radiologists and clinicians

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Saurabh Kumar; Saxena, Payal

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Root canal anatomy has been proved to be a complex canal configuration system. The negotiation and cleaning of this system is essential for successful root canal treatment. The present root canal classification systems are unable to transfer the clinically relevant information about the canal system from the oral radiologist to the treating clinician. Thus, a simple and effective diagrammatic representation of the canal system, depicting the major canals, important changes during their course along with other relevant information has been presented. Methods The proposed representation consists of five horizontal lines dividing the tooth into four segments from the point of reference to apical foramen. Each line has been designated with different line style. The diagrammatic images, one anterior and one posterior multi-rooted tooth, are given for easy understanding of the orientation of image. The whole image can be saved in portable network graphics format and can be imported to any word processing document. The image can be printed in the reporting sheet. Result Applying the same proposal, some of the diagrammatic representations have been showed. Conclusion This proposal for diagrammatic representation of root canal configuration can be helpful in getting an approximate distribution of the canals in a relatively simple manner. This scheme also provides valuable clinical information about the root canal system, which the other classifications fail to represent. PMID:26937372

  13. Detection and management of a complex canal configuration in mesiobuccal root of maxillary first molar using three dimensional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, Velagala L.; Bollu, Indira Priyadharsini; Dhamaraju, Bhargavi; Yadla, Padmasri

    2016-01-01

    This case report discusses the identification and management of complex canal configuration of 3-2-1 in the mesiobuccal (MB) root of the maxillary left first molar. Careful attention to details of the pulpal floor and applying the knowledge of the laws of orifice location along with deepening the subpulpal groove with ultrasonic tips helped in identifying the three MB canals. Manual scouting helped in understanding the anatomic configuration; the use of three-dimensional imaging technique and spiral computed tomography (SCT) confirmed the same. SCT images showed buccolingually wide and bulbous mesiobuccal root with three separate canals at coronal third that merged into two canals in the middle and exited as a single canal at the apex. This article highlights the role of SCT in three-dimensionally analyzing the unseen rarest canal configurations that ultimately enabled the clinician to thoroughly explore, debride, and obturate the entire root canal system. PMID:27195233

  14. Evaluation of root canal sealer filling quality using a single-cone technique in oval shaped canals: An In vitro Micro-CT study.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; Uzuntas, Ceren Feriha; Orhan, Ayse Isıl; Orhan, Kaan; Tufenkci, Pelin; Kursun, Sebnem; Demiralp, Kemal Özgür

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the presence of voids in oval root canals filled with different root canal sealers (EndoSequence BC Sealer, Smartpaste bio, ActiV GP) and to compare those with root canals filled with AH Plus sealer using micro-CT. In total, 40 freshly extracted human single-root maxillary premolars were used. Specimens instrumented with the EndoSequence NiTi rotary instrument were assigned randomly into four groups. In each group, root canals were filled with single-cone gutta-percha and one of the tested sealers. Each specimen was then scanned using micro-CT at a voxel resolution of 13.47 μm. Proportions of sections with voids in cross-sectional images and void volumes for each sealer were calculated in the apical, middle, and coronal thirds. Differences according to root canal sealers were evaluated statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test and the Mann-Whitney U-test at a significance level of 5%. The analysis showed a decrease in void formation in the apical third, with a significant difference between the apical and coronal thirds among bioceramic sealers, ActiV GP, and AH Plus (p < 0.05) but no significant difference between the apical and middle thirds or between the middle and coronal thirds was found for the sealers tested (p > 0.05). All root canal sealers tested resulted in voids. The bioceramic sealers (EndoSequence BC Sealer, Smartpaste bio) produced similar voids which had the fewest in the apical third of root canals among the sealers tested which can be related due to root canal anatomy variations.

  15. A scanning electron microscopic evaluation of different root canal irrigation regimens.

    PubMed

    Mônika, Chaves Medici; Fröner, Izabel Cristina

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effectiveness of endodontic irrigants in removing the smear layer from instrumented root canal walls using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The endodontic irrigants used were: 1% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl); 1% NaOCl mixed to 17% EDTAC; 2% chlorhexidine gel; and Ricinus communis gel. Photomicrographs of the middle and apical thirds were evaluated with the aid of the Fotoscore - v. 2.0 software. The results indicated that the mixture of sodium hypochlorite and EDTAC completely removed the smear layer from dentinal walls. The other endodontic irrigants were not as efficient in cleansing the root canals.

  16. Computed tomography evaluation of rotary systems on the root canal transportation and centering ability.

    PubMed

    Pagliosa, André; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião; Versiani, Marco Aurélio; Raucci-Neto, Walter; Silva-Sousa, Yara Teresinha Corrêa; Alfredo, Edson

    2015-01-01

    The endodontic preparation of curved and narrow root canals is challenging, with a tendency for the prepared canal to deviate away from its natural axis. The aim of this study was to evaluate, by cone-beam computed tomography, the transportation and centering ability of curved mesiobuccal canals in maxillary molars after biomechanical preparation with different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary systems. Forty teeth with angles of curvature ranging from 20° to 40° and radii between 5.0 mm and 10.0 mm were selected and assigned into four groups (n = 10), according to the biomechanical preparative system used: Hero 642 (HR), Liberator (LB), ProTaper (PT), and Twisted File (TF). The specimens were inserted into an acrylic device and scanned with computed tomography prior to, and following, instrumentation at 3, 6 and 9 mm from the root apex. The canal degree of transportation and centering ability were calculated and analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (α = 0.05). The results demonstrated no significant difference (p > 0.05) in shaping ability among the rotary systems. The mean canal transportation was: -0.049 ± 0.083 mm (HR); -0.004 ± 0.044 mm (LB); -0.003 ± 0.064 mm (PT); -0.021 ± 0.064 mm (TF). The mean canal centering ability was: -0.093 ± 0.147 mm (HR); -0.001 ± 0.100 mm (LB); -0.002 ± 0.134 mm (PT); -0.033 ± 0.133 mm (TF). Also, there was no significant difference among the root segments (p > 0.05). It was concluded that the Hero 642, Liberator, ProTaper, and Twisted File rotary systems could be safely used in curved canal instrumentation, resulting in satisfactory preservation of the original canal shape.

  17. Laser assisted irrigation and hand irrigation for root canal decontamination: a comparison

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivi, M.; Stefanucci, M.; Todea, C.

    2014-01-01

    Aim: to compare the bactericidal efficiency of conventional method and LAI for root canal decontamination. Material and method: 22 human single root teeth, extracted for periodontal problems, mechanically prepared up to ISO 25 at the working lenght were divided in 2 groups: after sterilization, the teeth were infected with enterococcus faecalis and incubated for 4 weeks. Group A: 10 teeth were irrigated with conventional hand technique (CI): 3ml of 5% NaClO were used for two times of 30s each and after washing with sterile bi-distilled water for 20s, a final irrigation was performed with 3ml of 17% EDTA. Group B: 10 teeth were irrigated with 3ml of NaClO and activated by erbium laser, two cycles of 30s; also the final irrigation with 3ml of 17% EDTA was activated by erbium laser. In both the groups a resting time of 30s was used between the two sessions to allow the reaction rate of NaClO. The Erbium laser 2940 nm (LightWalker AT, Fotona; Lublijana, Slovenia) was used with 50microsecond pulse duration, at 15Hz, 20mJ, with a 600micron PIPS tip. Two samples were used as positive and negative control.

  18. Evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy of various root canal filling materials used in primary teeth: a microbiological study.

    PubMed

    Reddy, S; Ramakrishna, Y

    2007-01-01

    The primary goal of endodontic treatment in primary teeth is to eliminate infection, and to retain the tooth in a functional state until their nornal exfoliation time without endangering the permanent dentition or the general health of the child. The complexity of the pulp canal system in primary teeth presents a discerning problem for chemo-mechanical preparation. One of the factors determining the success of endodontic treatment in infected primary teeth is the sealing material that should encompass among other factors a potent bactericidal effect and the capacity to resorb along with the roots of primary teeth. This study evaluated the antimicrobial effectiveness of 5 root canal filing materials and a negative control agent against 23 strains of bacteria isolated from infected root canals of primary molar teeth and 3 non standard bacterial strains using agar diffusion assay. The materials were Zinc oxide and Eugenol (ZOE), Zinc oxide-Eugenol and Formocresol (ZOE+FC), Calcium hydroxide and sterile water (CAOH+H2O), Zinc oxide and Camphorated phenol (ZO+CP), Calcium hydroxide and Iodoform (Metapex) and Vaseline (Control). All the materials except Vaseline showed varied antimicrobial activity against the test bacteria. The zones of inhibition were ranked into 4 inhibition categories based on the proportional distribution of the data. All the 26 bacterial isolates were classified under 4 groups based on Aerobic/Anaerobic and Gram positive/Gram negative. Statistical analysis was carried out to compare the antimicrobial effectiveness between materials tested with each of the bacterial groupings. ZOE+FC produced strong inhibtion against most bacteria when compared to ZOE, ZO+CP and CAOH+H2O. Metapex and Vaseline were found to be non inhibitory

  19. Decalcifying capability of irrigating solutions on root canal dentin mineral content

    PubMed Central

    Poggio, Claudio; Dagna, Alberto; Vinci, Andrea; Beltrami, Riccardo; Cucca, Lucia; Giardino, Luciano

    2015-01-01

    Background: Chelating agents are believed to aid root canal irrigation and to be able to remove the inorganic smear layer. Aims: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and to compare the decalcifying capability of different irrigating solutions (Tubuliclean, Largal Ultra, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid 17%, Tetraclean, Tetraclean NA). Materials and Methods: Sixty maxillary central incisors were used. Root canals were instrumented and irrigated. From each root, four comparable slices of cervical dentin were obtained. At three successive 5-min interval immersion times, the concentration of calcium extracted from root canal dentin was assessed with an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed by means of Kruskal Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Significance was predetermined at P < 0.05. Results and Conclusions: For all irrigating solutions, the maximum amount of Ca2+ extracted from root canal dentin samples was reached after 10 min contact time except for citric acid-based agents (Tetraclean and Tetraclean NA) which induced a higher and still increasing calcium release even after 10 min contact time. In order to obtain an efficient decalcifying action on dentin and to facilitate the biomechanical procedures, citric acid-based irrigants can be applied. PMID:26097355

  20. Effect of gutta-percha solvents on fiberglass post bond strength to root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Orlando A; Chaves, Gustavo S; Alencar, Ana H G; Borges, Alvaro H; Estrela, Cyntia R A; Soares, Carlos J; Estrela, Carlos

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gutta-percha solvents on the bond strength of fiberglass post to root canal dentin. Forty bovine incisors were decoronated, prepared, filled, and randomly distributed into four groups (n = 10) according to the gutta-percha solvent used: control, xylene, eucalyptol and orange oil. After root canal treatment, the posts were cemented into the prepared root canals using a resin-based cement. A micro push-out test was executed, and the patterns of failure were assessed with microscopy. The data were analyzed using two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. The control group exhibited greater bond strength compared to the eucalyptol group in the cervical and middle thirds of the root (P < 0.05); however, it did not differ significantly from the xylene and orange oil groups (P > 0.05). No difference was observed in the values of the xylene, orange oil, and eucalyptol groups (P > 0.05). The cervical third had higher values than the apical third for all tested solvents (P < 0.05). Adhesive failure between resin cement and dentin was the most frequent type of failure. The use of xylene and orange oil as gutta-percha solvents did not influence the bond strength of fiberglass posts to root canal dentin.

  1. Evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate as root canal sealer: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Thakur, Sophia; Emil, Jonathan; Paulaian, Benin

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the clinical and radiological outcome of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) or epoxy resin as a root canal sealer compared with zinc oxide eugenol sealer. Materials and Methods: 45 single rooted teeth with periapical index Score 2 or more were allotted to three groups with 15 teeth in each group. Root canal treatment was performed in two visits and obturated with Gutta-percha as obturating material and zinc oxide eugenol as sealer in Group 1, epoxy resin as sealer in Group 2 and MTA mixed with propylene glycol as sealer in Group 3. Visual analog scale, periapical index and VixWin digital Pro image analysis software were used for evaluation. The quantitative data was analyzed by t-test and analysis of variance. Ordinal data was analyzed by Wilcoxon's signed rank test, Mann-Whitney and Kruskall-Wallis test. Results: Results suggested that there exists no statistically significant difference in clinical or radiological outcome of root canal therapy with three different types of sealers used in this study. Conclusions: MTA could be used as a root canal sealer with equal effectiveness compared with epoxy resin and zinc oxide eugenol sealers. Further long-term studies should be carried out to prove the effectiveness. PMID:24347880

  2. EVALUATION OF THE APICAL INFILTRATION AFTER ROOT CANAL DISRUPTION AND OBTURATION

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, João Eduardo; Hopp, Renato Nicolás; Bernabé, Pedro Felício Estrada; Nery, Mauro Juvenal; Otoboni, José Arlindo; Dezan, Elói

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate two root canal filling techniques used in teeth that had their apical foramen disrupted and compare the apical infiltration with an ideal clinical situation. Twenty-seven freshly extracted single-rooted teeth were selected and radiographed to confirm the existence of a single and straight root canal. The crowns were removed at a mean distance of 11 mm from the apex. The teeth had the root canals instrumented and were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n=9): ND group - root canals were filled using the lateral compaction technique and no disruption was performed; DRF group - the apical constriction was disrupted by advancing a #40 K-file 1 mm beyond the original working length, the canals were reinstrumented to create an apical ledge at 1 mm from the apical foramen and were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone with same size as the last file used for reinstrumentation; DF group - the teeth had the apical constriction disrupted and the canals were obturated with a master gutta-percha cone that fit at 1 mm from the apex. The teeth were submitted to dye leakage test with Rhodamine B for 7 days, using vaccum on the initial 5 min. The teeth were sectioned longitudinally and the leakage was measured in a linear fashion from apex to crown. There was no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) between the groups that had the apical foramen disrupted (DF, DRF), but significant difference was found between the disrupted groups and the non-disrupted one (p<0.01). In conclusion, none of the evaluated techniques was able to prevent apical infiltration, so working length so the working length determination has to be established and maintained carefully. PMID:19089232

  3. The Comparative Efficacy of Different Files in The Removal of Different Sealers in Simulated Root Canal Retreatment- An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Kanaparthy, Aruna

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root canal treatment enjoys a high success rate all over the world and has saved billions of teeth from extraction. However, there are instances of failure, the main causes being insufficient cleaning and inadequate obturation. In such cases the most conservative treatment option would be non-surgical retreatment. It requires regaining access to the entire root canal system through removal of the original root canal filling thus permitting further cleaning and re- obturation. Removal of gutta-percha and sealer becomes a critical step to gain access to the root canal system, remove necrotic tissue debris, bacteria and infected dentin. Aim To compare and evaluate the efficacy of manual hand Hedstrom files and two rotary retreatment file systems ProTaper Universal retreatment files and MtwoR (retreatment) files in the removal of root canal filling material during root canal retreatment and the influence of the type of sealers zinc oxide eugenol and AH plus on the presence of remaining debris in the reinstrumented canals in the apical, middle and coronal third. Materials and Methods Sixty single rooted human premolar teeth were divided into 3 Groups of 20 teeth each Group I (20 Teeth): prepared using hand K Files, Group II (20 Teeth): prepared using ProTaper rotary system and Group III (20 Teeth): prepared using Mtwo rotary system. In Groups- IA, IIA, IIIA: (10 teeth each) Obturation was done using Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer and gutta percha. In Groups- IB, IIB, IIIB: (10 teeth each) obturation was done with AH Plus sealer and gutta percha. All the teeth were subjected to retreatment. Groups IA and IB with Hedstrom files, Groups IIA and IIB with ProTaper retreatment files and for Groups IIIA and IIIB with Mtwo retreatment Files. The roots were longitudinally split and were observed under a stereomicroscope for remaining amount of filling material on the canal walls. Statistical analysis was done using One–way ANOVA (Analysis of variance) test and Tukey

  4. Root Canal Morphology of Permanent Maxillary and Mandibular Canines in Indian Population Using Cone Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Somalinga Amardeep, Nikhita; Raghu, Sandhya; Natanasabapathy, Velmurugan

    2014-01-01

    Aim. To investigate the root canal anatomy of single-rooted permanent maxillary and mandibular canines in an Indian population using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methodology. A total of 250 permanent maxillary canines and 250 permanent mandibular canines were selected and scanned using CBCT. The root anatomy of each tooth was evaluated for the following parameters: the pattern of the root canals, anatomic length of the crown and the root, the presence of accessory canals, the shape of the access cavity, the position of the apical foramina, root diameter, and dentin thickness of the root. Results. Majority of the teeth had a Type I canal configuration in both maxillary canines (81.6%) and mandibular canines (79.6%). In maxillary canine the other canal patterns found were Type III (11.6%), Type II (2.8%), Type V (2%), Type XIX (1.2%), and Type IV (0.8%). In mandibular canines the various other canal patterns found were Type III (13.6%), Type II (3.2%), Type V (2%), and Type XIX (1.6%). Apical foramina were laterally positioned in the majority of the teeth, 70.4% and 65.6% in maxillary and mandibular canines, respectively. 12% of the maxillary canines and 12.8% of the mandibular canines had accessory canals. Conclusion. The root canal anatomy of permanent maxillary and mandibular canines varied widely in an Indian population. PMID:24895538

  5. A Case Report of Maxillary Second Molar with Two Palatal Root Canals and a Furcal Enamel Pearl

    PubMed Central

    Shojaeian, Shiva; Ghoddusi, Jamileh; Hajian, Sara

    2013-01-01

    This case report presents an uncommon case of maxillary molar with two palatal root canals and an enamel pearl in the furcation area. The article discusses root canal complexities of maxillary second molars as well as possibility of coexisting anomalies in the region that makes radiographic interpretation difficult and compromises the success of endodontic treatment. PMID:23411467

  6. Effect of dowel space preparation on the apical seal of root canal fillings.

    PubMed

    Raiden, G C; Gendelman, H

    1994-06-01

    The effect of post preparation on the apical seal was studied using simulated root canals. The maximum level of removal was tested with residual fillings 1, 2, 3, and 4 mm long. All of the artificial canals were filled with gutta-percha, Grossman's sealer, and lateral condensation. The removal was immediate and carried out with warm pluggers and the dowel space was completed with a Peeso drill. Stainless steel posts were cemented with zinc phosphate cement in the free space of the root canals. The coronal access of the canals was sealed with temporary fillings. After setting the materials, the specimens were immersed in a 2% methylene blue dye solution for 72 h and were observed with a measuring microscope. The final length of the apical fillings was found to be different from the intended length in every group. As far as leakage was concerned, 1, 2, and 3 mm-long fillings did not show a significant difference when compared with the negative control group (that is to say, filled canals where no dowel space was created). In the 4 mm fillings the leakage value was zero. These findings may be of clinical importance when restoring short roots.

  7. Single-visit or multiple-visit root canal treatment: systematic review, meta-analysis and trial sequential analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schwendicke, Falk; Göstemeyer, Gerd

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Single-visit root canal treatment has some advantages over conventional multivisit treatment, but might increase the risk of complications. We systematically evaluated the risk of complications after single-visit or multiple-visit root canal treatment using meta-analysis and trial-sequential analysis. Data Controlled trials comparing single-visit versus multiple-visit root canal treatment of permanent teeth were included. Trials needed to assess the risk of long-term complications (pain, infection, new/persisting/increasing periapical lesions ≥1 year after treatment), short-term pain or flare-up (acute exacerbation of initiation or continuation of root canal treatment). Sources Electronic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Central) were screened, random-effects meta-analyses performed and trial-sequential analysis used to control for risk of random errors. Evidence was graded according to GRADE. Study selection 29 trials (4341 patients) were included, all but 6 showing high risk of bias. Based on 10 trials (1257 teeth), risk of complications was not significantly different in single-visit versus multiple-visit treatment (risk ratio (RR) 1.00 (95% CI 0.75 to 1.35); weak evidence). Based on 20 studies (3008 teeth), risk of pain did not significantly differ between treatments (RR 0.99 (95% CI 0.76 to 1.30); moderate evidence). Risk of flare-up was recorded by 8 studies (1110 teeth) and was significantly higher after single-visit versus multiple-visit treatment (RR 2.13 (95% CI 1.16 to 3.89); very weak evidence). Trial-sequential analysis revealed that firm evidence for benefit, harm or futility was not reached for any of the outcomes. Conclusions There is insufficient evidence to rule out whether important differences between both strategies exist. Clinical significance Dentists can provide root canal treatment in 1 or multiple visits. Given the possibly increased risk of flare-ups, multiple-visit treatment might be preferred for certain teeth (eg

  8. An In Vitro Comparison of Root Canal Transportation by Reciproc File With and Without Glide Path

    PubMed Central

    Nazarimoghadam, Kiumars; Daryaeian, Mohammad; Ramazani, Nahid

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of ideal canal preparation is to prevent iatrogenic aberrations such as transportation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the root canal transportation by Reciproc file with and without glide path. Materials and Methods: Thirty acrylic-resin blocks with a curvature of 60° and size#10 (2% taper) were assigned into two groups (n= 15). In group 1, the glide path was performed using stainless steel k-files size#10 and 15 at working length In group 2, canals were prepared with Reciproc file system at working length. By using digital imaging software (AutoCAD 2008), the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation digital images were superimposed over, taking the landmarks as reference points. Then the radius of the internal and external curve of the specimens was calculated at three α, β and γ points (1mm to apex as α, 3mm to apex as β, and 5mm to apex as γ). The data were statically analyzed using the independent T-test and Mann-Whitney U test by SPSS version 16. Results: Glide path was found significant for only external curve in the apical third of the canal; that is, 5mm to apex (P=0.005). But in the other third, canal modification was not significant (P> 0.008). Conclusion: Canal transportation in the apical third of the canal seems to be significantly reduced when glide path is performed using reciprocating files. PMID:25628682

  9. Fracture resistance of overtly flaring root canals filled with resin-based obturation material

    PubMed Central

    Abdo, Salma B.; Eldarrat, Aziza H.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Reinforcement of root canals obturated with Resilon was reported by several investigators, but no studies reported the reinforcement of overtly flared root canals obturated with Resilon material. The aim of this study was to investigate the fracture resistance of overtly flared root canals filled with Resilon as compared to similar root canals filled with gutta-percha (GP). Materials and Methods: Sixty single-rooted premolars were divided randomly into six groups. Group 1 served as control group. The control group was sub-divided into two groups, a negative group and a positive group. The negative group consisted of root canals that were only cleaned from residual pulpal tissues, however, the positive group had prepared and overtly flared root canals without obturation. Groups 2 and 4 were shaped using 0.04 taper rotary files, while groups 3 and 5 were shaped using 0.06 taper rotary files. Before obturation, the last four groups were further flared coronally with a reverse cone diamond bur. Groups 2 and 3 were obturated with GP and a resin-based sealer, while groups 4 and 5 were obturated with Resilon and Epiphany self-etching primer and Epiphany sealer. Roots were then fixed into a universal testing machine and vertically loaded until fracture. SPSS software (Release 9.0 for Windows, SPSS, Chicago, USA) was used to perform the statistical analysis. Results: Fracture resistance measurements showed that there were differences in resistance to fracture among the experimental groups (ANOVA, P < 0.0001). Mean values of the loading force applied to the negative control group were the highest at 1.81 KN, whereas the mean values for the Resilon groups (Groups 4 and 5) at 1.13 KN and 1.54 KN were found to be higher than the GP groups (Groups 2 and 3) at 0.45 KN and 0.88 KN, respectively. Tukey's post hoc test showed that there was no statistical difference between the mean values of the negative control group and Group 5 (P = 0.69). Conclusion: Obturation of

  10. Post space preparation timing of root canals sealed with AH Plus sealer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae-Ri; Kim, Young Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To determine the optimal timing for post space preparation of root canals sealed with epoxy resin-based AH Plus sealer in terms of its polymerization and influence on apical leakage. Materials and Methods The epoxy polymerization of AH Plus (Dentsply DeTrey) as a function of time after mixing (8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week) was evaluated using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and microhardness measurements. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) of the material with time was also investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Fifty extracted human single-rooted premolars were filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus, and randomly separated into five groups (n = 10) based on post space preparation timing (immediately after root canal obturation and 8, 24, and 72 hours, and 1 week after root canal obturation). The extent of apical leakage (mm) of the five groups was compared using a dye leakage test. Each dataset was statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (α = 0.05). Results Continuous epoxy polymerization of the material with time was observed. Although the Tg values of the material gradually increased with time, the specimens presented no clear Tg value at 1 week after mixing. When the post space was prepared 1 week after root canal obturation, the leakage was significantly higher than in the other groups (p < 0.05), among which there was no significant difference in leakage. Conclusions Poor apical seal was detected when post space preparation was delayed until 1 week after root canal obturation. PMID:28194361

  11. Assessment of Root Canal Enlargement Using Mtwo and BioRace Rotary Files

    PubMed Central

    Russo, Riccardo; Gallina, Giuseppe

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate root canal enlargement following mechanical shaping using 2 nickel titanium rotary systems. Material and Methods. Forty single-rooted teeth were immersed in resin and sectioned perpendicular to the long axis at 4, 8, and 12 mm from the apex. Digital capture of sections was performed before and after canal instrumentation using Mtwo and BioRace instruments. The area increase of endodontic space was calculated by subtraction. Results. The use of both instruments has allowed the removal of great amounts of dentin from the canal walls, even when the endodontic morphology is characterized by awkwardness to reach recesses. Conclusions. Both procedures seem to be valid and no differences were found between Mtwo and BioRaCe considering the amount of dentin removed at different distances from the apex. PMID:25879075

  12. Systemic distribution of sup 14 C-labeled formaldehyde applied in the root canal following pulpectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Hata, G.I.; Nishikawa, I.; Kawazoe, S.; Toda, T.

    1989-11-01

    The systemic distribution of {sup 14}C-labeled formaldehyde which had been placed in the root canals of the canines of cats following pulpectomies was studied using liquid scintillation counting and whole-body autoradiographic technique. Radioactive {sup 14}C which had been placed in the canals was found in the plasma 30 min after the root canal procedure. The recovery of systemic {sup 14}C radioactivity increased with time. In addition, it seemed that approximately 3% of the dose placed in the teeth was excreted in the urine within 36 h. Whole-body autoradiograms indicated extensive concentration of {sup 14}C radioactivity in tissues other than those analyzed with the liquid scintillation technique.

  13. Aetiology, incidence and morphology of the C-shaped root canal system and its impact on clinical endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Kato, A; Ziegler, A; Higuchi, N; Nakata, K; Nakamura, H; Ohno, N

    2014-01-01

    The C-shaped root canal constitutes an unusual root morphology that can be found primarily in mandibular second permanent molars. Due to the complexity of their structure, C-shaped root canal systems may complicate endodontic interventions. A thorough understanding of root canal morphology is therefore imperative for proper diagnosis and successful treatment. This review aims to summarize current knowledge regarding C-shaped roots and root canals, from basic morphology to advanced endodontic procedures. To this end, a systematic search was conducted using the MEDLINE, BIOSIS, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Google Scholar, Web of Science, PLoS and BioMed Central databases, and many rarely cited articles were included. Furthermore, four interactive 3D models of extracted teeth are introduced that will allow for a better understanding of the complex C-shaped root canal morphology. In addition, the present publication includes an embedded best-practice video showing an exemplary root canal procedure on a tooth with a pronounced C-shaped root canal. The survey of this unusual structure concludes with a number of suggestions concerning future research efforts. PMID:24483229

  14. Clinical and Radiographic Evaluation of a Resin-Based Root Canal Sealer: 10-Year Recall Data

    PubMed Central

    Zmener, Osvaldo; Pameijer, Cornelis H.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives. This retrospective clinical and radiographical study evaluated the 10-year outcome of one-visit endodontic treatment with gutta-percha and a methacrylate resin-based sealer. Methods. From an initial sample size of 180 patients, 89 patients with 175 root canals responded to a recall. Treatment outcome was based on predetermined clinical and radiographic criteria. Results. Root canals had been adequately filled to the working length in 80 teeth (89.88%), short in 6 instances (6.74%), while 3 (3.37%) with extrusion immediate postoperatively, showed no sealer in periradicular tissues. The difference in the outcomes of treatments with respect to age, gender, preoperative pulp or periapical status, the size of periapical lesions and the type of permanent restorations were not statistically significantly different (P > 0.05). Overall, 7 (7.86%) cases were considered clinically and radiographically a failure. A life table analysis showed a cumulative probability of success of 92.13% after 10 years with a 95% confidence interval of 83.0 to 94.0. Conclusions. The results of this retrospective clinical and radiographical study suggest that the tested methacrylate-resin based sealer used with gutta-percha performed similarly to other root canal sealers over a period 10 years. Clinical Implications. Considering the success rate after 10 years of this methacrylate resin-based sealer can be recommended as an alternative to other commonly used root canal sealers. PMID:22654909

  15. Analgesic Effect of Odontopaste and a Compound Intracanal Medicament Between Root Canal Therapy Appointments

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Behrooz; Moghimipour, Eskandar; Pourakbar Jahandideh, Pejman; Jalali, Sahar; Mahmoudian, Mahsa

    2013-01-01

    Background Pain experience makes a serious anxiety for both patient and clinician before and after root canal treatment. Pain is a complex psychophysiologic phenomenon. Objectives The aim of this randomized control trial study was to evaluate the analgesic effect of Odontopaste® and a corticosteroid containing compound medicament between root canal therapy appointments. Materials and Methods One hundred and twenty lower first and second mandibular molars with spontaneous pain and sensitivity to percussion were selected and divided into three groups (40 patients per each group). After root canal preparation, patients were entered one of these groups randomly. Root canals in group 1 were dressed with Odontopaste, in group 2 with a compound intracanal medicament, and in group 3 with placebo. Patients determined their pain rate and percussion sensitivity on Heft-parker VAS diagram, before the first appointment and 24 hours and 7 days after that. Results Spontaneous pain and Percussion sensitivity score averages of 24 hours after the first appointment in group 1 and group 2 were less than group 3, which indicates statistically significant difference between these groups. There was no statistically significant difference between these groups after 7 days neither on spontaneous pain nor percussion sensitivity. Conclusions Odontopaste® and compound intracanal medicaments resulted in statistically significant reduction in postoperative pain and percussion sensitivity after 24 hours, but there was no statistically significant difference after 7 days with placebo. PMID:24624209

  16. Root canal surface after application of an x-ray opaque waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Bartonova, Marie; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-05-01

    The success of endodontic treatment depends on the methods used for shaping, cleaning, disinfecting, and sealing of a root canal. In the last few decades, big progress has been achieved in the application of the following methods: manual instrumentation, sonic and ultrasonic devices, and rotary instruments. The procedures used in the root canal system preparation result in a smear layer creation. The aim of this study was to give more precision to the smear layer removal using laser radiation. The root canal systems of 20 human teeth were treated endodontically. As laser radiation sources, Er:YAG laser system generating a wavelength of 2940 nm (rep. rate 1.5 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 55, energy 100 mJ) and Alexandrite laser system generating a wavelength of 375 nm (rep. rate 1 Hz, spot size diameter 320 um, number of pulses 200, energy 1 mJ) were used. As a delivery system, a hollow glass waveguide with the special X-ray contrast cover was used. The flexible waveguide was moved via root canal and the laser radiation cleaned the wall surface. After application of Er:YAG laser radiation, the smear layer was fully removed, the surface was clean and smooth, and in the SEM investigation the open dentinal tubules were visible. No cracks were determined. The surface modifications were also not observed after endodontic preparation as well as Alexandrite laser radiation therapy. The whole treatment can be checked by X-ray machine.

  17. Cleaning efficacy of reciprocal and rotary systems in the removal of root canal filling material

    PubMed Central

    Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Koçak, Sibel; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Sağlam, Baran Can

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of hand file, nickel titanium rotary instrument, and two reciprocating instruments for removing gutta-percha and sealer from the root canals. Materials and Methods: Eighty-eight mandibular premolar teeth were used. The root canals were shaped and filled with gutta-percha and a resin-based sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups according to the technique by which the root filling material was removed: Group 1 — Wave One; Group 2 — Reciproc; Group 3 — ProTaper; and Group 4 — Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Then teeth were split longitudinally and photographed. The images were transferred to a computer. The ratio of remaining filling material to the root canal periphery was calculated with the aid of ImageJ software. Statistical analysis was performed using Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney tests. Results: A significant difference was found among all groups (P < 0.001). The WaveOne group demonstrated significantly less remaining filling material. The greatest amount of filling material was found in specimens where gutta-percha was removed with Gates-Glidden burs and stainless steel hand file. Conclusion: The reciprocating files were found to be significantly more effective in removing the filling material from the canal walls compared to the rotational file and hand file. PMID:27099429

  18. Canals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkleman, Michael

    1974-01-01

    In the mid-1800's, the canal system in the U.S. was thriving. But, by the end of that century, roads and railways had replaced these commercial thoroughfares. Renewed interest in the abandoned canals is now resulting in renovation and ecological site development in Pennsylvania and New Jersey. (MA)

  19. Conventional Versus Digital Radiography in Detecting Root Canal Type in Maxillary Premolars: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Moshfeghi, Mahkameh; Sajadi, Soodabeh Sadat; Sajadi, Sepideh; Shahbazian, Majid

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Successful endodontic therapy depends on adequate mechanical and chemical debridement of the canal which requires knowledge of the canal morphology. Conventional radiography has been used to evaluate the canal type; however, direct digital radiography has recently been practiced for this purpose due to the shortcomings of conventional radiography. The aim of the present study was to compare the accuracy of digital and conventional radiography taken at 0° and 30° angles in the diagnosis of the canal type of extracted maxillary premolars. Materials and Methods: This diagnostic study was performed on 90 extracted maxillary premolars. Conventional and digital radiographies were taken of all teeth at 0° and 30° horizontal angles. The images were assessed by an oral and maxillofacial radiologist. The clearing technique was used as the gold standard. The canal type was determined using Weine classification. The agreement between each one of the 4 radiographic modalities and gold standard was determined by kappa statistics. Results: The kappa values for the agreement of parallel conventional, 30° conventional, parallel digital and 30° digital modalities with the clearing technique were 0.059, 0.215, 0.043 and 0.391, respectively. Parallel modalities were unable to determine the tooth canal type. Radiographic images taken at 30° significantly determined the canal type, although only a poor level of agreement was noted between the two modalities and the clearing technique. Conclusion: All modalities had limited value to determine the root canal type in maxillary premolars. However, direct digital imaging taken at 30° angle showed the highest accuracy for canal type assessment. PMID:23724205

  20. Root Canal Shaping by Single-File Systems and Rotary Instruments: a Laboratory Study

    PubMed Central

    Bane, Khaly; Faye, Babacar; Sarr, Mouhamed; Niang, Seydina O; Ndiaye, Diouma; Machtou, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of two single-file systems and conventional rotary instruments in severely curved root canals of extracted human molars. Methods and Materials: Mesiobuccal canals of 120 mandibular molars with angles of curvature ranging between 25° and 35° and radii of curvature from 5 to 9 mm, were divided into three groups (n=40). In each group the canals were instrumented with either WaveOne (W), Reciproc (R) or ProTaper (P). The time required for canal shaping and the frequency of broken instruments were recorded. The standardized pre and post-instrumentation radiographs were taken to determine changes in working length (WL) and straightening of canal curvature. The presence of blockage or perforation was also evaluated. Data were analyzed using the one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and post-hoc Tukey’s test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Both single-instrument systems reduced the canal preparation time by approximately 50% (P<0.05). No incidence of broken instruments from single-file systems was reported; however, two F2 instruments in the P group were broken (P<0.05). Reduction in WL and straightening of canal curvature was observed in all three systems with the highest scores belonging to P system (P<0.05). No case of blockage or perforation was found during shaping in any group. Conclusion: Single-file systems shaped curved canals with substantial saving in time and a significant decrease in incidence of instrument separation, change in WL, and straightening of canal curvature. PMID:25834600

  1. In vivo accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in confirming root canal working length determination by Root ZX

    PubMed Central

    OROSCO, Fernando Accorsi; BERNARDINELI, Norberti; GARCIA, Roberto Brandão; BRAMANTE, Clovis Monteiro; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Húngaro; de MORAES, Ivaldo Gomes

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To compare, in vivo, the accuracy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in determining root canal working length. Material and Methods Twenty-five maxillary incisor or canine teeth from 22 patients were used in this study. Considering the preoperative radiographs as the baseline, a 25 K file was inserted into the root canal to the point where the Root ZX electronic apex locator indicated the APEX measurement in the screen. From this measurement, 1 mm was subtracted for positioning the file. The radiographic measurements were made using a digital sensor (Digora 1.51) or conventional type-E films, size 2, following the paralleling technique, to determine the distance of the file tip and the radiographic apex. Results The Student "t" test indicated mean distances of 1.11 mm to conventional and 1.20 mm for the digital method and indicated a significant statistical difference (p<0.05). Conclusions The conventional radiographic method was found to be superior to the digital one in determining the working length of the root canal. PMID:23138737

  2. Root canal ramifications in mandibular incisors and efficacy of low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha filling.

    PubMed

    Karagöz-Küçükay, I

    1994-05-01

    The frequency of root canal ramifications in mandibular central and lateral incisors and the efficacy of low-temperature injection thermoplasticized gutta-percha in filling these canals were determined, and any evidence of apical leakage was evaluated. Forty mandibular incisors were instrumented; the external root surfaces were coated with nail polish except for the apical foramen, and the teeth were obturated with injection of gutta-percha and sealer. The teeth were centrifuged in India ink for 20 min at 3000 rpm before being suspended in ink for 30 days and then cleared. Under a stereomicroscope at x30 magnification, 62.5% of the teeth showed a simple main canal, 15.0% a bifurcated canal, 7.5% a lateral canal, and 25% accessory canals. Except for the two lateral and three accessory canals, the thermoplasticized gutta-percha was found to be highly effective in filling the root canal ramifications as well as the main canals. The extent of ink penetration was limited to the main canal in seven teeth showing leakage. However, the reliability of conventional apical leakage assessment by only exposing major foramen to dye needs to be reexamined with regard to the potential presence of multiple foramina on the root surfaces.

  3. Complex Apical Intraradicular Infection and Extraradicular Mineralized Biofilms as the Cause of Wet Canals and Treatment Failure: Report of 2 Cases.

    PubMed

    Ricucci, Domenico; Candeiro, George T M; Bugea, Calogero; Siqueira, José F

    2016-03-01

    This article describes 2 cases that showed persistent intracanal exudation (wet canal) even after several visits of antimicrobial endodontic treatment. Histologic and histobacteriologic investigation was conducted for determination of the cause. The 2 cases involved teeth with apical periodontitis lesions, which presented persistent exudation refractory to treatment after several visits. In case 1, it was not possible to achieve a dry canal, and surgery had to be performed. In case 2, attempts to dry the canal succeeded and the canal was filled, but follow-up examination showed an enlarged apical periodontitis lesion and extraction was performed. Biopsy specimens consisting of the root apex and apical periodontitis lesion for case 1 and the whole root for case 2 were subjected to histologic and histobacteriologic analyses. Both cases showed complex bacterial infection in the apical root, affecting both the intraradicular space and the outer root surface. Case 1 showed bacterial biofilms in ramifications, on untouched walls, and extending to the external root surface to form a thick and partially mineralized structure with high bacterial density. Different bacterial morphotypes were evidenced. Case 2 had a ledge on the apical canal wall created during instrumentation, which was filled with necrotic debris, filling material, and bacteria. The walls of the apical portion of the canal were covered by a bacterial biofilm, which was continuous with a thick extraradicular biofilm covering the cementum and dentin in resorptive defects. The extraradicular biofilm showed areas of mineralization and was dominated by filamentous bacteria. The 2 cases with wet canals and treatment failure were associated with complex persistent infection in the apical part of the root canal system extending to form thick and partially mineralized biofilm structures (calculus) on the outer apical root surface.

  4. Assessment of the Centralization of Root Canal Preparation with Rotary Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lopes, Daniela Siqueira; Pessoa, Mariana Albuquerque Veiga

    2016-01-01

    Objective Apical deviations are important factors in endodontic therapy, since they can cause the treatment failure. The aim of the present study was to determine the centering capacity of ProTaper Universal™, Twisted File™ and Revo-S® rotary systems using cone beam computed tomography analysis before and after the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods Thirty mesiobuccal roots from human lower first molars were divided into three groups of ten: Group 1 - ProTaper Universal™ Rotary System; Group 2 - Twisted File™ Rotary System; and Group 3 - Revo-S® Rotary System. All teeth were scanned using computed tomography to determine the condition of the root canal before and after instrumentation (4mm, 3mm and 2mm from the root apex). Images were made using ICAT VISION software for both instrumented and non-instrumented canals. Results The results were analyzed statistically using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov normality test for quantitative variables. Comparisons were made with two groups (Mann-Whitney - abnormal) and with more than two groups (Kruskal Wallis - abnormal). The level of significance was set at p<0.05. A statistically significant difference was found for the measurement of 4 mm between the “ProTaper Universal” and “Twisted File” systems. For the Twisted File system, a statistically significant difference was recorded between the measurements of 4mm and 3 mm. Conclusion None of the assessed instruments was completely effective in terms of the biomechanical preparation of root canals since all created deviation from the original anatomy of the canal. PMID:27847398

  5. Resistance of a novel root canal sealer to bacterial ingress in vitro.

    PubMed

    Padachey, N; Patel, V; Santerre, P; Cvitkovitch, D; Lawrence, H P; Friedman, S

    2000-11-01

    A dentin-bonding root canal sealer (ZUT) has been developed, consisting of an experimental glass ionomer cement (KT-308) and an antimicrobial silver-containing zeolite (0.2% by weight). This in vitro study evaluated the ability of ZUT used with or without gutta-percha, to resist bacterial ingress of Enterococcus faecalis over a period of 90 days. Canals of 80 single-rooted teeth were prepared with apical patency and filled as follows (n = 10): KT-308 alone; KT-308 with a single gutta-percha cone (SCGP); ZUT alone; ZUT with SCGP; AH26 alone; AH26 with SCGP; positive control-no root canal filling; and negative control-no root canal filling, with the apices of this group sealed with C&B Metabond cement. Teeth were coated with nail polish except for the apical 2 mm, and each tooth was sealed in a 4-ml glass vial, with an 18-gauge needle inserted through the vial cover and bonded into the pulp chamber with C&B Metabond cement. After sterilization with 2.5 Mrad gamma-radiation, Brain Heart Infusion broth with phenol red was injected into each vial. An inoculum of E. faecalis was pipetted through the needle into the pulp chamber every 5 days, and the broth was monitored daily for color change and turbidity. When change occurred, the broth was cultured for growth of E. faecalis. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and the log-rank test revealed no significant differences among the three sealers used. The presence of gutta-percha, however, significantly improved resistance to bacterial ingress through obturated root canals (X, p < 0.05). Under the conditions of this study, the hypothesized advantage of ZUT (0.2% zeolite) was not demonstrated.

  6. Human tooth and root canal morphology reconstruction using magnetic resonance imaging

    PubMed Central

    DRĂGAN, OANA CARMEN; FĂRCĂŞANU, ALEXANDRU ŞTEFAN; CÂMPIAN, RADU SEPTIMIU; TURCU, ROMULUS VALERIU FLAVIU

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Visualization of the internal and external root canal morphology is very important for a successful endodontic treatment; however, it seems to be difficult considering the small size of the tooth and the complexity of the root canal system. Film-based or digital conventional radiographic techniques as well as cone beam computed tomography provide limited information on the dental pulp anatomy or have harmful effects. A new non-invasive diagnosis tool is magnetic resonance imaging, due to its ability of imaging both hard and soft tissues. The aim of this study was to demonstrate magnetic resonance imaging to be a useful tool for imaging the anatomic conditions of the external and internal root canal morphology for endodontic purposes. Methods The endodontic system of one freshly extracted wisdom tooth, chosen for its well-known anatomical variations, was mechanically shaped using a hybrid technique. After its preparation, the tooth was immersed into a recipient with saline solution and magnetic resonance imaged immediately. A Bruker Biospec magnetic resonance imaging scanner operated at 7.04 Tesla and based on Avance III radio frequency technology was used. InVesalius software was employed for the 3D reconstruction of the tooth scanned volume. Results The current ex-vivo experiment shows the accurate 3D volume rendered reconstruction of the internal and external morphology of a human extracted and endodontically treated tooth using a dataset of images acquired by magnetic resonance imaging. The external lingual and vestibular views of the tooth as well as the occlusal view of the pulp chamber, the access cavity, the distal canal opening on the pulp chamber floor, the coronal third of the root canals, the degree of root separation and the apical fusion of the two mesial roots, details of the apical region, root canal curvatures, furcal region and interradicular root grooves could be clearly bordered. Conclusions Magnetic resonance imaging offers 3

  7. Apical dye penetration with four root canal sealers and gutta-percha using longitudinal sectioning.

    PubMed

    Limkangwalmongkol, S; Abbott, P V; Sandler, A B

    1992-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the level of apical dye penetration when different sealers were used with lateral condensation of gutta-percha. Fifty teeth with single root canals were biomechanically prepared using the step-back technique and irrigation with 15% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid with cetrimide and 1% NaOCl solutions. The teeth were divided into five groups of 10 teeth each. The control group root canals were filled with laterally condensed gutta-percha without sealer and the other four groups were filled with laterally condensed gutta-percha and either Apexit, Sealapex, Tubli-Seal, or AH-26 sealer. After storage in 100% humidity at 37 degrees C for 48 h, the root surfaces were coated with nail varnish (except at the apex), placed in 2% methylene blue dye solution, and centrifuged at 30 x g for 3 min. The roots were sectioned longitudinally to determine the following mean levels of dye penetration: AH-26, 0.48 mm; Apexit, 1.33 mm; Sealapex, 4.59 mm; Tubli-Seal, 5.58 mm; and gutta-percha alone, 7.99 mm. This study demonstrated that a root canal sealer should be used in conjunction with laterally condensed gutta-percha and that AH-26 sealer had significantly less dye penetration than the other three sealers while Apexit had significantly less dye penetration than Sealapex and Tubli-Seal. There was no significant difference between Sealapex and Tubli-Seal.

  8. Measurement and modeling of temperature distribution for Er:YAG laser root canal sterilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hibst, Raimund; Stock, Karl; Keller, Ulrich

    1999-02-01

    Based on the bactericidal effect of subablative irradiation the Er:YAG laser can be used for root canal sterilization in endodontics. For this, an optical fiber will be inserted into the root canal down to a depth of about 1 mm in front of the apex, and then removed while activating the laser. In order to avoid heat accumulation which could be harmful to the desmodont or periodont, repetition rate and fiber withdrawal velocity must be kept within certain limits. These limits were determined by calculations based on a 1-dim, cylindrical model and related temperature measurements on half cutted teeth. The calculations agree well to the control measurements and are used to derive a complete set of application parameters in dependence on the expected root thickness.

  9. Interfacial adaptation and thickness of bioceramic-based root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Al-Haddad, Afaf; Abu Kasim, Noor Hayaty; Che Ab Aziz, Zeti Adura

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated and compared the sealer thickness and interfacial adaptation of bioceramic sealers (Sankin Apatite III, MTA Fillapex(®), EndoSequence(®) BC) to root dentin against AH Plus(®) sealer. Sixty extracted single-root premolars were prepared and equally divided into four groups. Sealers were labeled with 0.1% Rhodamine B fluorescent dye. Roots were dissected along the transverse plane at 1 mm (apical), 3 mm (middle), and 6 mm (coronal) levels. Sealer-to-whole canal area ratio was evaluated. Percentage of gap-containing region to canal circumference was calculated using a confocal laser microscope. Sealer thickness was significantly higher at apical and middle levels than at coronal level. EndoSequence BC had the significantly highest thickness compared with MTA Fillapex and AH Plus. The coronal level had significantly less interfacial gaps compared with apical and middle levels. Bioceramic sealers showed more gaps compared with AH Plus, with no significant differences among them.

  10. Root canal disinfection of immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis: Comparison of three different protocols

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Benítez, Soledad; Stambolsky Guelfand, Carlos; Martín-Jiménez, Milagros

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: The present in vivo study was designed to assess the efficacy of 3 root canal disinfection protocols in immature dog teeth with apical periodontitis (AP). Material and Methods: Forty immature premolars with pulp necrosis and AP of five Beagle dogs were used. Three experimental disinfection protocols were established. After irrigation with 40 ml 5.25% sodium hypochlorite using the Endovac system, in Group 1 canals were flushed with QMix solution; in Group 2, canals were flushed with QMix solution and 2% chlorhexidine gel dressing was placed for two weeks; and in Group 3, triantibiotic paste dressing was placed for two weeks. Canals were sampled after periapical lesions were radiographically visible (S1), after the first disinfection session (S2) and, in groups 2 and 3, after dressing (S3). Results: After the first session of the disinfection protocol (S2), there was significant (p < 0.05) bacterial reduction in the three experimental groups. Microorganisms were absent in 100% of S2 samples in groups 1 and 2, and in 75% of group 3 (p > 0.05). After dressing, 87.5% of the S3 samples showed increased bacterial count: in group 2, CFU counts (median = 891) were significantly higher than in group 3 (median = 18) (p = 0.03). Conclusions: In immature dog teeth with AP, root canal irrigation using QMix solution, with or without chlorhexidine gel dressing, or a triantibiotic paste dressing, provides the same level of disinfection than irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite alone in only one session. Key words:Apical periodontitis, chlorhexidine, Endovac, immature teeth, QMix solution, root canal disinfection, triantibiotic paste. PMID:25593656

  11. Comparison of curved root canals preparation using reciprocating, continuous and an association of motions.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Böttcher, Daiana Elisabeth; Justo, Aline Martins; Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the rotary ProTaper Universal system, the single-file reciprocating WaveOne system and an association of motions assessing shaping ability, cleanliness, preparation time and instrument failures after preparation of curved root canals. Sixty root canals of extracted human molar teeth, with curvatures ranging between 20° and 40°, were divided into three groups, according with preparation system. Canals were prepared until apical size 25 using the ProTaper Universal system (G1), WaveOne (G2), or a hybrid technique (G3) associating reciprocating preparation with rotary glide path and cervical pre-enlargement. Teeth were scanned pre and post-operatively using computed tomography. Direction of transportation and centering ability of canals were measured using a computer image analysis program, and the results were analyzed statistically using one-way ANOVA. Preparation time was analyzed by one-way ANOVA and the Tukey post hoc test. Instrument failures were recorded. The amounts of debris and smear layer were quantified based on a numerical evaluation scale by scanning electron microscopy and were analyzed statistically using the Kruskal-Wallis test. No difference in transportation and centering ratio was found between the systems. Instrumentation with WaveOne was significantly faster than with other instruments (p < 0.05). During preparation, no instruments fractured and three suffered deformations. For debris removal and remaining smear layer, the results for the three groups were similar. The single-file reciprocating instrument was capable of providing faster root canal preparation with similar transporting, centralization and cleaning ability when compared with continuous and an association of motions in curved canals. SCANNING 38:462-468, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Resistance of a 4-META-containing, methacrylate-based sealer to dislocation in root canals.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Matthew S; Loushine, Bethany; Mai, Sui; Weller, R Norman; Pashley, David H; Tay, Franklin R; Loushine, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    The dislocation resistance of root fillings created with MetaSEAL, a self-adhesive 4-META-containing methacrylate resin-based sealer, was evaluated. Forty-six incisors were cleaned and shaped using NaOCl and EDTA as irrigants. They were filled with gutta-percha/MetaSEAL or gutta-percha/AH Plus sealer using either a single-cone technique or warm vertical compaction (n = 10). The roots were sectioned at the coronal and middle thirds to obtain thin slices, which were subjected to compressive loading to displace the set sealer/filling toward the coronal side of the slice. The remaining six teeth were filled with gutta-percha/MetaSEAL and cryofractured for scanning electron microscopic examination. The push-out strength of AH Plus was significantly higher than MetaSEAL irrespective of filling techniques (p < 0.05). A minimal hybrid layer was seen in radicular dentin, and resin tags were inconsistently identified from canal walls in the MetaSEAL-filled canals. The lower dislocation resistance in MetaSEAL-filled canals challenges the use of a self-adhesive bonding mechanism to create continuous bonds inside root canals.

  13. Radiographic Evaluation of Root Canal Fillings Accomplished by Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Yavari, Hamidreza; Samiei, Mohammad; Shahi, Shahriar; Borna, Zahra; Abdollahi, Amir Ardalan; Ghiasvand, Negar; Shariati, Gholamreza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the radiographic quality of root canal fillings by fourth-, fifth-, and sixth-year undergraduate students at Tabriz Faculty of Dentistry between 2006 and 2012. Methods and Materials: A total of 1183 root canal fillings in 620 teeth were evaluated by two investigators (and in case of disagreement by a third investigator) regarding the presence or absence of under-fillings, over-fillings and perforations. For each tooth, preoperative, working and postoperative radiographs were checked. The Pearson’s chi-square test was used for statistical evaluation of the data. Inter-examiner agreement was measured by Cohen’s kappa (k) values. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Total frequencies of over-filling, under-filling and perforation were 5.6%, 20.4% and 1.9%, respectively. There were significant differences between frequencies of over- and under-fillings (P<0.05). Unacceptable quality, under- and over-fillings were detected in 27.9% of 1183 evaluated canals. Conclusion: The technical quality of root canal therapies performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and lateral compaction techniques was unacceptable in almost one-fourth of the cases. PMID:25834598

  14. In vitro evaluation of the dissolving effect of solvents on root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Erdemir, Ali; Adanir, Necdet; Belli, Sema

    2003-09-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate two commonly used gutta-percha solvents for their effectiveness in dissolving several types of root canal sealers. Seven different sealers (AH26, AH Plus, Diaket, Roekoseal, Sankin Apatite Root Sealer, Sealapex, and Sultan U/P) were used in this study. After mixing according to the manufacturers' directions, each material was syringed into 30 glass capillary tubes, and a total of 210 tubes were placed in a humidifier at 37 degrees C for one week to allow the materials to set completely. Each group of 30 tubes, obturated with one type of sealer, was then randomly divided into three subgroups, including 10 tubes each. Chloroform was used in the first ten tubes from each sealer group. Halothane was used for the second group. In the last group, the sealer was removed with files, without using any solvent. The time necessary to pass a file through to the end of the tube was recorded for each sample in seconds. Results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance. Sealapex did not set at all unless in contact with air. Roekoseal did not adhere to the glass capillary tubes, and was therefore easily removed from the tube in all samples. AH26 and AH Plus root canal sealers tightly adhered to the tube walls, so none of the techniques were effective in removing them from the tubes within 30 min. Diaket root canal sealer was easily removed using solvents (P < 0.05). There was no advantage in using solvents to remove Sankin Apatite Root Sealer (P > 0.05). Solvents were found to be very effective in dissolving the Sultan U/P root canal sealer (P < 0.05).

  15. Effect of Cyclic Loading on Bond Strength of Fiber Posts to Root Canal Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Khamverdi, Zahra; Damavandi, Leila Yazdani; Kasraei, Shahin

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclic loading on the bond strength of quartz fiber posts to root canal dentin after different surface treatments of different regions of root canal dentin. Materials and Methods: Forty-eight single-rooted human teeth were selected. Post spaces were prepared and then the teeth were divided into four groups: G1: no treatment (control); G2: irrigation with a chemical solvent; G3: etching with 37% phosphoric acid; G4: treatment with ultrasonic file. The fiber posts were cemented using dual-cured resin cement. Half of the specimens were load-cycled (10000 cycles, 3 cycles/s) and the others did not undergo any load cycling. From each root, two slides measuring 1 mm in thickness were obtained from the apical and cervical regions. The push-out bond strength test was performed for each slice. Data were analyzed by using 3-way ANOVA and Tukey HSD tests. The fracture modes were evaluated under a stereomicroscope at ×20. Results: The effect of load cycling and surface treatment as the main factors and the interaction of main factors were not significant (P=0.734, P=0.180, and P=0.539, respectively). The most frequent failure mode under the stereomicroscope was adhesive. Conclusion: It appears that load cycling and surface treatment methods had no effect on the bond strength of fiber posts to root canal dentin, but it depended on the region of the root canal dentin. PMID:24910680

  16. Effect of photo-activated disinfection on bond strength of three different root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    Ok, Evren; Ertas, Huseyin; Saygili, Gokhan; Gok, Tuba

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the bond strength of Photo-Activated Disinfection (PAD) system to dentin with different root canal sealers by using a push-out test design. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 extracted mandibular premolar teeth with single and straight roots were used. The crowns were removed and the root canals were prepared by using ProTaper rotary files. The smear layer was removed and the roots were randomly divided into two groups (n = 15) according to the use of PAD system as the final disinfecting agent. Each group was then divided into 6 (n = 5) subgroups and obturated with gutta-percha and 3 different root canal sealers. The groups were Group 1: Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA)-AH Plus sealer; Group 2: NaOCl + EDTA + PAD-AH Plus; Group 3: NaOCl + EDTA-Sealapex; Group 4: NaOCl + EDTA + PAD-Sealapex; Group 5: NaOCl + EDTA-mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-Fiallapex; and Group 6: NaOCl + EDTA + PAD-MTA-Fillapex. 1-mm thickness horizontal sections (n: 5 × 4 = 20) were sliced for the push-out bond strength measurement. Results: Group 3 and 4 showed significantly lower bond strengths compared with all the other groups (P < 0.05). No statistically significant difference was found among Groups 1, 2 and 5, but there was statistically significant difference between Group 5 and 6 (P < 0.05). Conclusion: This in vitro study indicated that the PAD system adversely affected the bond strength of the MTA Fillapex root canal sealer. PMID:24966752

  17. [Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: a platform to assess physical parameters].

    PubMed

    Peters, O A; Kappeler, S; Bucher, W; Barbakow, F

    2001-01-01

    The number of engine-driven rotary instruments available on the market is steadily increasing. These instruments enable clinicians to prepare better shaped root canals, however, rotary instruments have a higher risk for fracture than hand instruments. Unfortunately, the stresses placed on engine-driven rotary instruments in curved canals are insufficiently studied. The aim of this study was to develop a device which could measure more accurately the physical parameters influencing rotary instruments in curved canals. For this purpose, a specially designed machine was constructed to measure the torque which develops between the rotary instrument and the motor. Apical forces and penetration depths could also be directly measured in real time. A variety of other measurements was also possible because of other special set-ups integrated into the device. In the current study torque was assessed for GT-Files, size 35 with a .12 and sizes 20 with a .12 to .06 taper. In additions to preparations in simulated canals in plastic blocks, the "ISO 3630-1 specification for fracture moment" and "number of cycles till fatigue fracture" was measured. The findings indicated that when instruments were used for preparations, torques up to 40 Nmm were present. This exceeded the static fracture load, which was less than than 13 Nmm for the size 20 with .12 taper. In contrast, the number of rotations were more than 10 times lower when shaping canals in plastic blocks with a 5 mm radius of curvature than the number of rotations to fracture in the "cyclic fatigue test". This suggests that a GT-instrument could be used in ten canals. The apical force was always greater than 1 N and occasionally, 8 N or more was recorded. Further studies on natural teeth with varying canal geometries are required using the specially developed torsional machine to reduce the incidence of instrument fracture. In this way an efficient clinical potential can be confirmed for engine-driven rotary instruments in

  18. In vivo determination of the frequency response of the tooth root canal impedance versus distance from the apical foramen.

    PubMed

    Rambo, Marcos V H; Gamba, Humberto R; Ratzke, Alexandre S; Schneider, Fabio K; Maia, Joaquim M; Ramos, Carlos A S

    2007-01-01

    Working length (WL) determination is a key factor to the endodontic therapy or root canal treatment success. Almost all therapy procedures depend on this measure and the wrong WL determination may produce severe consequences, like post-therapeutic pain and the need of a new root canal treatment. Electronic foramen locators (EFL) have been replacing the traditional radiographic imaging as they are faster, easier to use and have a higher success rate when measuring WL. EFLs are based on the root canal impedance assessment between two electrodes: one fixed on the endodontic file that is inserted into the root canal, and the other positioned at oral mucosa membrane. There are only few reported studies that qualify or quantify the root canal impedance characteristics. The present work aims to determine the module of tooth root canal frequency response. The preliminary results show the frequency response module variation as a function of endodontic file position inside the root canal and reinforce the methods based on relative impedance over frequency analysis used in modern EFLs.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of MTA Fillapex and AH 26 Root Canal Sealers at Different Time Intervals

    PubMed Central

    Jafari, Farnaz; Samadi Kafil, Hossein; Jafari, Sanaz; Aghazadeh, Mohammad; Momeni, Tahereh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The main goal of endodontic treatment is elimination of bacteria and their by-products from infected root canals. This study compared the antibacterial effect of two different sealers, AH 26 and MTA Fillapex, on 4 microorganisms 24, 48 and 72 h and 7 days after mixing. Methods and Materials: The microorganisms used in this study consisted of Lactobacillus acidophilus (ATCC 4356), Lactobacillus casei (ATCC 39392), Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Enterococcus faecalis (ATCC 29212). This test is based on the growth of bacteria and turbidity measurement technique using a spectrophotometer, and direct contact was conducted. Multiple comparisons were carried out using repeated-measures ANOVA followed by Tukey’s test and student’s t-test. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The antibacterial activity in the indirect technique was more than the technique with both sealers. In the direct technique the antibacterial activity on all microorganisms were lower for MTA Fillapex sealer. In the indirect technique, both sealers exhibited similar antibacterial properties. Conclusion: The antibacterial effect of MTA Fillapex sealer was significantly less than that of AH 26 sealer in the direct technique. The antibacterial effects of both sealers were similar in the indirect technique. PMID:27471530

  20. Centering and transportation: in vitro evaluation of continuous and reciprocating systems in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Navós, Beatriz Vilas; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Mestieri, Leticia Boldrin; Böttcher, Daiana Elizabeth; Só, Marcus Vinicius Reis; Grecca, Fabiana Soares

    2016-01-01

    Context: One of the goals of endodontic therapy is the shaping and cleaning of the root canal system. In recent years, there has been multiple systems instrumentation, and changes in their dynamics are central to maintain the original shape of the canal after preparation. Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate centering and transportation in curved root canals after using ProTaper® and MTwo® in continuous rotation, Reciproc® in reciprocating motion, and a step-down manual instrumentation technique. Settings and Design: Mesiobuccal roots of human extracted the first and second maxillary molars were selected and the canals (n = 60) were divided into four groups according to the preparation techniques: PT-ProTaper®; MT-MTwo®; RE-Reciproc®; MI-manual instrumentation. Subjects and Methods: The final apical diameter was standardized to a size 25. Centering and transportation were evaluated by cone-beam computed tomography and Adobe Photoshop 8.0 software. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were statistically analyzed by ANOVA and Tukey post hoc. Results: Results of transportation showed no statistical differences (P > 0.05) between groups, and significantly, difference (P < 0.05) between ProTaper® and Reciproc® was found when evaluating centering ability in the apical third. Conclusions: We concluded that there were no differences in transportation between the evaluated systems for the preparation of curved root canals with an apical instrumentation diameter of #25. For centering ability, in the apical third, ProTaper® presented worst behavior when compared to Reciproc®. PMID:27656071

  1. Effect of gravity and capillarity on human saliva penetration in coronally unsealed obturated root canals

    PubMed Central

    Karamifar, Kasra; Khayat, Akbar; Mogharrabi, Sara; Rajaei, Yasaman; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali

    2012-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of gravity and capillarity on penetration of human salivary bacteria into the entire length of obturated root canals, and to demonstrate the dye penetration configuration. Materials and methods Fifty single-rooted premolars were decoronated, prepared to a standardized length of 15 mm, instrumented, and randomly divided into two groups (A and B) of 25 teeth each. Each group consisted of experimental (15 samples) and negative and positive controls (five samples each). The experimental groups were obturated with gutta-percha and root canal sealer. The positive control groups were obturated with a single cone of gutta-percha and root canal sealer. The outer surfaces (except for the apical 2 mm) were covered with two layers of nail varnish. An apparatus containing Brain Heart Infusion broth was designed, in which the teeth were placed. The samples in Group A were placed upside down, while Group B was placed normally. The coronal portions of the samples were placed in contact with fresh saliva. The number of days required for bacteria to penetrate the entire length of canals was determined. The samples were then immersed in India ink to determine the dye penetration configuration. Data were analyzed using Student’s t-test. Results The extent of dye penetration was significantly greater in Group B compared to Group A, and they were in a pattern rather than linear form. Conclusions Gravity and capillarity insignificantly affected bacterial leakage. Although gravity and capillarity did not affect bacterial penetration when applied to the coronal access of endodontically treated teeth, it seems that they can promote penetration of India ink into the canal after the bacterial test on the same tooth. PMID:23960545

  2. Morphologic characteristics of root canal of mandibular incisors in North-East Indian population: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Boruah, Lalit C; Bhuyan, Atul C

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To aim of this study is to investigate the root canal characteristics of mandibular incisors in a North East Indian population using a canal staining and tooth-clearing technique. Materials and Methods: Four hundred and eighty extracted mandibular incisors, collected from dental clinics within North East India were selected for this study. Following pulp tissue removal, the teeth were decalcified with 5% nitric acid, dehydrated with ascending concentrations of alcohol and rendered clear by immersion in methyl salicylate. After staining of the canal systems with India ink, cleared teeth were examined under 5X magnification and the following features were evaluated: (i) number and type of root canals; (ii) presence and location of lateral canals and intercanal communications; (iii) location of apical foramina; and, (iv) Bifurcation of canals. Results: The majority of mandibular incisors had a single canal (63.75% of teeth possessed a Type I canal system). Although 36.25% of the roots possessed two canals, only 6.25% had two separate apical foramina. Conclusions: The prevalence of two canals in this group (of North East Indians) of mandibular incisors was 36.25% and is within the range of previous studies performed on populations of different racial origin. PMID:22144800

  3. Effectiveness of rotatory and reciprocating movements in root canal filling material removal.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emmanuel João Nogueira Leal; Orlowsky, Nayra Bittencourt; Herrera, Daniel Rodrigo; Machado, Ricardo; Krebs, Renato Liess; Coutinho-Filho, Tauby de Souza

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of reciprocating and rotary techniques for removing gutta-percha and sealer from root canals. Forty straight and oval single-rooted premolars were prepared up to size 30, filled with gutta-percha and sealer, and then randomly allocated to two experimental retreatment groups: ProTaper Retreatment System (PTRS) and WaveOne System (WS). Procedural errors, time of retreatment and apically extruded material were recorded for all the roots. The roots were radiographed after retreatment. The percentage of residual material was calculated using image analysis software. The data were analyzed by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and t tests, with a significance level set at 5%. No system completely removed the root filling material from the root canal. No significant differences were observed between the systems, in terms of residual filling material in any tested third (p > 0.05). WS was faster in removing filling material than PTRS (p < 0.05). Extrusion was observed in 4 cases in PTRS and in 5 cases in WS. No procedural errors were observed in either group. It can be concluded that although no differences were observed in the efficacy of PTRS and WS for removing root filling material, WS was faster than PTRS.

  4. Micro-CT assessment of the sealing ability of three root canal filling techniques.

    PubMed

    Celikten, Berkan; F Uzuntas, Ceren; I Orhan, Ayse; Tufenkci, Pelin; Misirli, Melis; O Demiralp, Kemal; Orhan, Kaan

    2015-01-01

    This study used micro-CT to compare three obturation techniques with respect to void occurrence in canals filled with bioceramic sealer. Thirty extracted first mandibular premolars were prepared with a ProTaper Universal system and randomly allocated to three groups. Canals were obturated with gutta-percha and bioceramic root canal sealer, using either single-cone, lateral compaction, or Thermafil filling technique. Each tooth was then scanned with micro-CT. Voids in 2D cross-sectional images and void volumes in 3D images of all root thirds were assessed in relation to obturation technique. There was no significant difference between obturation techniques in the proportion of sections with voids (P > 0.05). However, the results of the obturation techniques significantly differed in relation to root region (P < 0.05). In conclusion, no root filling technique resulted in void-free specimens. Void volumes were highest for the single-cone technique and lowest for Thermafil, in all regions (P < 0.05).

  5. Effectiveness of bonding fiber posts to root canals and composite core build-ups.

    PubMed

    Rathke, Andreas; Haj-Omer, Dima; Muche, Rainer; Haller, Bernd

    2009-10-01

    This study investigated the effects of fiber posts, silanization, and luting agents on the interfacial strength to root dentin and composite cores. Root canals of 120 crownless human teeth were instrumented. Three different posts (opaque and translucent), with and without silane treatment, were bonded using etch-and-rinse, self-etch, and self-adhesive luting agents. The restored roots were built up with dual-curing composite. After storage in water for 24 h at 37 degrees C, 2-mm-thick slices were cut from each sample: one from the composite core and one from the restored root. Interfacial push-out bond strengths of the posts were determined in a universal testing machine. Failure modes were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy. The post type and the luting agent had significant effects on both the post-to-dentin and post-to-core strengths. Silanization did not significantly influence post-to-dentin strengths, but enhanced post-to-core strengths. With etch-and-rinse luting agents, debonding occurred predominantly between the post and the cement, while the self-etch and self-adhesive luting agents showed more failures on root dentin. No failures occurred between the composite core and the cement. The combination of translucent posts and etch-and-rinse dual-curing luting agents can positively influence the retention of fiber posts in root canals. Silanization seems to be less relevant for intra-root canal bonding, but may have beneficial effects on post-to-core strengths.

  6. Engine-driven preparation of curved root canals: measuring cyclic fatigue and other physical parameters.

    PubMed

    Peters, Ove A; Kappeler, Stefan; Bucher, Willi; Barbakow, Fred

    2002-04-01

    An increasing number of engine-driven rotary systems are marketed to shape root canals. Although these systems may improve the quality of canal preparations, the risk for instrument fracture is also increased. Unfortunately, the stresses generated in rotary instruments when shaping curved root canals have not been adequately studied. Consequently, the aim of an ongoing project was to develop a measurement platform that could more accurately detail physical parameters generated in a simulated clinical situation. Such a platform was constructed by fitting a torque-measuring device between the rotating endodontic instrument and the motor driving it. Apically directed force and instrument insertion depth were also recorded. Additional devices were constructed to assess cyclic fatigue and static fracture loads. The current pilot study evaluated GT rotary instruments during the shaping of curved canals in plastic blocks as well as "ISO 3630-1 torque to fracture" and number of rotations required for fatigue fracture. Results indicated that torques in excess of 40 Nmm were generated by rotary GT-Files, a significantly higher figure than static fracture loads (less than 13 Nmm for the size 20. 12 GT-File). Furthermore, the number of rotations needed to shape simulated canals with a 5 mm radius of curvature in plastic blocks was 10 times lower than the number of rotations needed to fracture instruments in a "cyclic fatigue test". Apical forces were always greater than 1 N, and in some specimens, scores of 8 N or more were recorded. Further studies are required using extracted natural teeth, with their wide anatomical variation, in order to reduce the incidence of fracture of rotary instruments. In this way, the clinical potential of engine-driven rotary instruments to safely prepare curved canals can be fully appreciated.

  7. In vitro evaluation of efficacy of different rotary instrument systems for gutta percha removal during root canal retreatment

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Mercy; Malhotra, Amit; Rao, Murali; Sharma, Abhimanyu; Talwar, Sangeeta

    2016-01-01

    Background Complete removal of old filling material during root canal retreatment is fundamental for predictable cleaning and shaping of canal anatomy. Most of the retreatment methods tested in earlier studies have shown inability to achieve complete removal of root canal filling. Therefore the aim of this investigation was to assess the efficacy of three different rotary nickel titanium retreatment systems and Hedstrom files in removing filling material from root canals. Material and Methods Sixty extracted mandibular premolars were decoronated to leave 15 mm root. Specimen were hand instrumented and obturated using gutta percha and AH plus root canal sealer. After storage period of two weeks, roots were retreated with three (Protaper retreatment files, Mtwo retreatment files, NRT GPR) rotary retreatment instrument systems and Hedstroem files. Subsequently, samples were sectioned longitudinally and examined under stereomicroscope. Digital images were recorded and evaluated using Digital Image Analysing Software. The retreatment time was recorded for each tooth using a stopwatch. The area of canal and the residual filling material was recorded in mm2 and the percentage of remaining filling material on canal walls was calculated. Data was analysed using ANOVA test. Results Significantly less amount of residual filling material was present in protaper and Mtwo instrumented teeth (p < 0.05) compared to NRT GPR and Hedstrom files group. Protaper instruments also required lesser time during removal of filling material followed by Mtwo instruments, NRT GPR files and Hedstrom files. Conclusions None of the instruments were able to remove the filling material completely from root canal. Protaper universal retreatment system and Mtwo retreatment files were more efficient and faster compared to NRT GPR fles and Hedstrom files. Key words:Gutta-percha removal, nickel titanium, root canal retreatment, rotary instruments. PMID:27703601

  8. Quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the University of Khartoum, Sudan.

    PubMed

    Elsayed, Randa Osman; Abu-Bakr, Neamat H; Ibrahim, Yahia Eltayeb

    2011-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the University of Khartoum. Assessment was by examination of periapical radiographs of completed endodontically treated teeth, performed by undergraduate dental students. A total of 166 postoperative periapical radiographs compromising 265 roots were included. The quality of endodontic treatment was examined in relation to the length of the root filling in relation to the radiographic apex, the density of the obturation according to presence of voids and the taper of root canal fillings. Adequate length of the root filling was found in 34.7% of the maxillary teeth and in 10.9% of mandibular teeth in this study. Adequate density was found in 38.87% of maxillary and 16.98% of mandibular teeth and appropriate taper was found in 40% of maxillary and 16.6% of mandibular teeth. Overall 24.2% in all evaluated teeth were found to have a root filling of an acceptable quality. This result may be because of insufficient preclinical endodontic training of the students' operators or because of the introduction of students to endodontic clinical practice late in their program.

  9. The influence of canal curvature on the mechanical efficacy of root canal irrigation in vitro using real-time imaging of bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nguy, Donald; Sedgley, Christine

    2006-11-01

    There are no quantitative data on the mechanical efficacy of irrigation in the removal of bacteria from curved canals. This study quantitatively analyzed the effects of root canal curvature and preparation size on the mechanical efficacy of irrigation using 33 mandibular single-rooted bicuspids allocated to groups according to root canal curvatures, group 1 (straight) 4 to 8 degrees, group 2 (intermediate curvature) 15 to 19 degrees, and group 3 (greatest curvature) 24 to 28 degrees. Teeth were sequentially instrumented to sizes 27/.04, 36/.04, and 46/.04 using a crown-down technique. Suspensions of the bioluminescent reporter strain Pseudomonas fluorescens 5RL (1.5 x 10(6) cells) were inoculated into canals of sterilized teeth after each sequential instrumentation. Canals were irrigated with 6 ml of irrigant delivered 1 mm from working length using a 30-gauge needle. Remaining bacteria were quantified using real-time bioluminescent imaging. Irrigation was significantly less effective in 24 to 28 degrees curvature canals prepared to size 27/.04 compared to 46/.04 (p < 0.007, repeated-measures ANOVA).

  10. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2(nd) molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal damage healed nearly completely. Several precautions must be taken during NaOCl use to prevent the spread of the solution into surrounding tissues. Early recognition of NaOCl accident and proper immediate management are important to achieve the best possible outcome.

  11. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1: 13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2: 17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5 ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth.

  12. Evaluation of Chlorine Dioxide Irrigation Solution on the Microhardness and Surface Roughness of Root Canal Dentin.

    PubMed

    Ballal, Nidambur Vasudev; Khandewal, Deepika; Karthikeyan, Saravana; Somayaji, Krishnaraj; Foschi, Federico

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of chlorine dioxide and various other more common irrigation solutions on the microhardness and surface roughness of root canal dentin. Fifty human maxillary central incisors were sectioned longitudinally and treated for 1 minute with 5 ml of the following aqueous solutions (v/v%): Group 1:13.8% chlorine dioxide, Group 2:17% ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA). Group 3: 7% maleic acid, Group 4: 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (5ml/min), Group 5: Saline (control). Specimens were subjected to microhardness and surface roughness testing. Chlorine dioxide and sodium hypochlorite reduced the microhardness more than other test agents. The highest surface roughness was produced with maleic acid. Chlorine dioxide should be used cautiously during chemomechanical preparation of the root canal system in order to prevent untoward damage to the teeth.

  13. [Solvents for the removal of gutta-percha from root canals. 1. Efficacy].

    PubMed

    Schuurs, A H B; Moorer, W R; Wesselink, P R

    2004-07-01

    The removal of gutta-percha and sealer from endodontically treated root canals may prompt the use of organic solvents. In the present article a number of possible solvents are described and, based upon the literature, their efficacy is assessed. Some solvents, amongst which chloroform, xylene and halothane are almost equally efficient, although all leave a debris of gutta-percha and sealer in the root canals behind. Only chloroform solves AH26 and most probably AH-plus, but very slowly. Eucalyptol and turpentine oil are slow dissolvers. Orange oil and limonene are promising. The data on other solvents, if candidates at all, are scarce. The choice of a solvent is co-determined by factors such as toxicity and sensitisation, which will be described in a second publication.

  14. How Can Hypnodontics Manage Severe Gag Reflex for Root Canal Therapy? A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ramazani, Mohsen; zarenejad, Nafiseh; Parirokh, Masoud; Zahedpasha, Samir

    2016-01-01

    In endodontics, severe involuntary gagging can have a severe impact on treatment procedure. There are many ways to ease the gag reflex, one of which is hypnosis. A 34-year-old male was referred for root canal treatment of a molar tooth. He had not received any dental treatments for the past nine years due to fear of severe gag reflex. Three hypnotic sessions based upon eye fixation, progressive muscle relaxation and guided imagery techniques were spent for psychosomatic management. The gag reflex was controlled and reduced to a normal level, and the required dental treatments including root canal therapy and restoration were performed successfully. This report shows that hypnosis can control gag reflex for dental treatments. PMID:27141226

  15. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident-An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics.

    PubMed

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Stratul, Stefan-Ioan; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina; Cristache, Corina Marilena

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur.

  16. Complication of improper management of sodium hypochlorite accident during root canal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Faras, Fatemah; Abo-Alhassan, Fawaz; Sadeq, Abdullah; Burezq, Hisham

    2016-01-01

    Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) is a common irrigation solution used in root canal treatment. It has strong antibacterial and tissue dissolving properties. Nevertheless, it has some serious complications, some of which are life-threatening. A young male presented with severe chemical burn of the right infraorbital area and partial necrosis of the hard palate resulting from extrusion of NaOCl during root canal treatment of the upper right 2nd molar tooth. The patient had a facial scar, and mucosal damage healed nearly completely. Several precautions must be taken during NaOCl use to prevent the spread of the solution into surrounding tissues. Early recognition of NaOCl accident and proper immediate management are important to achieve the best possible outcome. PMID:27891318

  17. Root Canal Stripping: Malpractice or Common Procedural Accident—An Ethical Dilemma in Endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Ciobanu, Ionela Elisabeta; Rusu, Darian; Didilescu, Andreea Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Root canal stripping is defined as an oblong, vertical perforation that appears especially in the middle section of curved root canals during endodontic treatments with nickel-titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments. Its occurrence may drastically affect the outcome of the treatment, transforming a common otherwise efficient endodontic procedure into a complication such as tooth extraction. In order to discuss the ethical and legal consequences, two cases of dental strip perforations are herewith presented. Due to the existence of risk factors for dental strip perforation, experience of the clinician and the use of magnification and modern imagistic methods (CBCT) may avoid or reduce the frequency of this type of accidents. Under correct working circumstances, dental stripping should not be regarded as a malpractice but as a procedural accident. However, the patient must always be informed, before and during the endodontic procedure, about the event and the possible complications that may occur. PMID:27672458

  18. Prevalence of a second canal in the mesiobuccal root of permanent maxillary first molars from an Indonesian population.

    PubMed

    Peeters, Harry H; Suardita, Ketut; Setijanto, Darmawan

    2011-12-01

    A sample of 308 extracted human permanent maxillary first molars from an Indonesian population was randomly selected. A rhomboid access cavity was made in all teeth in anticipation of identifying a second mesiobuccal canal (MB2). Ultrasonic tips were used to open the subpulpal groove to locate the second canal in the mesiobuccal root. Dentin was carefully removed from the trifurcation area at the expense of the mesial wall. If a second canal was located, a 0.8 C+ file was inserted into it until the file reached the apex. The prevalence of a second canal in the mesiobuccal root of the permanent maxillary first molar was 68.5% (95% CI: 63.1%-73.4%) in this population. Sections of the mesial root showed that the MB2 was a separate canal in 52.6% of the sample and a joined canal in 47.4%. The mean (SD) distance between MB1 and MB2 was 1.55 (0.66) mm. The data obtained from this study provide theoretical and experimental evidence to aid in the clinical management of the MB2 canal and may increase the success rate for root canal treatment of the maxillary first molar.

  19. Influence of Taper of Root Canal Shape on the Intracanal Bacterial Reduction

    PubMed Central

    Paraskevopoulou, Mary Th.; Khabbaz, Marouan G.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Taper is a factor that determines final root canal dimensions and consequently, the space available for the cleaning action of irrigants. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the influence of taper on intracanal bacterial reduction. Methods: Sterilized root canals of 25 mandibular incisors were inoculated with E. faecalis and then divided into two experimental groups and one control group (A= saline, B= NaOCl + EDTA and C= control, not prepared). Groups A and B were prepared to an apical size of #30/0.04, a culture was obtained and then prepared to #30/0.08 and cultured again. Final irrigation sequence was 30 ml of saline for group A and 10 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 10 ml of 2.5% NaOCl and 10 ml of saline for group B. The CFU ml-1 of the pre- and two post-operative samplings were recorded. Values were compared by performing ANOVA and FDR for multiple hypothesis testing. Results: No statistically significant difference between initial CFU ml-1 readings was recorded, whereas significant differences between group A and B at both 4% and 8% tapers were noted. Furthermore, a linear-dependent reduction of CFU ml-1 was recorded in each group from non-instrumented root canals to #30/0.04 and subsequently to #30/0.08. The positive control group shows the expected reduction of bacterial count. Conclusion: Chemomechanical instrumentation was more efficient at reducing E. faecalis when the taper of root canals increased from 4% to 8% and NaOCl plus EDTA led to a greater intracanal bacterial reduction than saline, regardless of the taper achieved. PMID:27857818

  20. Microbiome in the Apical Root Canal System of Teeth with Post-Treatment Apical Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Siqueira, José F.; Antunes, Henrique S.; Rôças, Isabela N.; Rachid, Caio T. C. C.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Bacteria present in the apical root canal system are directly involved with the pathogenesis of post-treatment apical periodontitis. This study used a next-generation sequencing approach to identify the bacterial taxa occurring in cryopulverized apical root samples from root canal-treated teeth with post-treatment disease. Methods Apical root specimens obtained during periradicular surgery of ten adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis were cryogenically ground. DNA was extracted from the powder and the microbiome was characterized on the basis of the V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene by using paired-end sequencing on Illumina MiSeq device. Results All samples were positive for the presence of bacterial DNA. Bacterial taxa were mapped to 11 phyla and 103 genera composed by 538 distinct operational taxonomic units (OTUs) at 3% of dissimilarity. Over 85% of the sequences belonged to 4 phyla: Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria and Actinobacteria. In general, these 4 phyla accounted for approximately 80% of the distinct OTUs found in the apical root samples. Proteobacteria was the most abundant phylum in 6/10 samples. Fourteen genera had representatives identified in all cases. Overall, the genera Fusobacterium and Pseudomonas were the most dominant. Enterococcus was found in 4 cases, always in relatively low abundance. Conclusions This study showed a highly complex bacterial community in the apical root canal system of adequately treated teeth with persistent apical periodontitis. This suggests that this disease is characterized by multispecies bacterial communities and has a heterogeneous etiology, because the community composition largely varied from case to case. PMID:27689802

  1. [Deformations occurring in the apical third of curved root canals during biomechanical preparation using manual impulsion-traction techniques].

    PubMed

    Roig Cayón, M; Basilio Monné, J; Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    Apical deformations, specially zips and elbows, during instrumentation of the root canals, are studied. The authors study why do they appear, their effect on endodontic therapy, and the way of avoiding them.

  2. Various conditioning methods for root canals influencing the tensile strength of titanium posts.

    PubMed

    Schmage, P; Sohn, J; Nergiz, I; Ozcan, M

    2004-09-01

    Conditioning the root canal is frequently advised to achieve high post-retention when resin composite luting cements are used. However, manufacturers' instructions for this purpose differ widely from one another. The aim of this study was to compare the tensile bond strengths of passive, tapered, titanium root posts that were luted with four different resin composite cements (Compolute Aplicap, Flexi-Flow cem, Panavia 21 EX, Twinlook) in the root canals at three conditions, namely (i) no conditioning, (ii) etching with 37% phosphoric acid, and (iii) etching + bonding agent application. Panavia 21 EX was further tested after using the primer for the post-surface according to the manufacturer's recommendations. The posts luted with zinc phosphate cement (Tenet) acted as the control group. Following endodontic preparation of 140 intact anterior teeth with hand instruments, the post-spaces were prepared using the opening drills of the corresponding size of the posts. The samples were first stored in water at 37 degrees C for 24 h and then thermocycled (5000 cycles, 5-55 degrees C, 30 s). The tensile strength values were measured with the universal testing machine at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). The data were analysed statistically using anova and corrected with Scheffé test due to the significance levels (P < 0.05). The tensile bond strengths of the titanium posts after luting with various cements and thermocycling were affected by the conditioning systems used for the root canals. Tensile bond strengths were the highest with Flexi-Flow (475 +/- 78 N) followed in descending order by Panavia 21 EX (442 +/- 97 N), Twinlook (430 +/- 78 N) and Compolute Aplicap (352 +/- 76 N) after conditioning the root canal. The use of primer on the post improved the tensile bond strength compared with the non-conditioned group for the Panavia 21 EX group (375 +/- 77 N) (P < 0.001). Tensile bond strengths obtained after luting the posts with zinc phosphate cement (414 +/- 102 N

  3. Root canal retreatment using reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Patricia Fonseca; Oliveira Goncalves, Leonardo Cantanhede; Franco Marques, Andre Augusto; Sponchiado Junior, Emilio Carlos; Roberti Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca; de Carvalho, Fredson Marcio Acris

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The complete filling material removal during endodontic retreatment is a clinical procedure difficult to achieve. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of reciprocating and continuous rotary nickel-titanium instruments used in root canal retreatment. Materials and Methods: Forty freshly extracted human premolars were cleaned and shaped by the crown-down technique, followed by filling by the lateral compaction technique. The teeth were randomly separated into two groups (n = 20), according to the system used for filling material removal: G1 - Reciproc and G2 - ProTaper Universal Retreatment System. The teeth were photographed under operating microscope at ×8 magnification; and the total area of the root canal and remaining filling material were quantified. Results: No statistically significant difference (P > 0.05) in residual filling material was observed between groups; however, the time required for filling removal was significantly shorter for Reciproc system (P < 0.05). Conclusions: It was observed remaining filling material in all teeth, irrespective of the system used; however, root canal retreatment was faster when reciprocating motion was used. PMID:26038656

  4. A Case of Recurrent Urticaria Due to Formaldehyde Release from Root-Canal Disinfectant

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hyun; Jang, Hang Jea; Lee, Sung Geun; Park, Jin Han; Jeong, Jae Won

    2017-01-01

    Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure. PMID:27873521

  5. Technical Quality of Root Canal Treatment Performed By Undergraduate Dental Students

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Vatanpour, Mehdi; Atef Yekta, Hojat; Baradaran Mohajeri, Ladan

    2008-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: This study was carried out to evaluate the technical quality of root canal treatment (RCT) performed by undergraduate dental students at the Islamic Azad University in Tehran, Iran. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Four-hundred records of patients who had received RCT at faculty of dentistry, between the years 2004-2006 were evaluated. For each treated tooth at least three periapical x-rays were assessed: preoperative, working length measurement, and postoperative. Evaluation of root canal filling was based on two variables: length and density. The filling length was recorded as adequate, under- or overfilled. Density of filling was recorded as poor or adequate. Fillings with adequate length and density were recorded as acceptable. Detected iatrogenic errors were: ledge formations, root perforations, furcation perforations, strip perforations and presence of fractured instruments. Results were evaluated statistically using one-way ANOVA and Chi-square analysis. RESULTS: Out of the 400 teeth, 50.5% had at least one of the mentioned errors. Acceptable filling was observed in 32.5% of all studied teeth. Ledge was found in 17.5% of the teeth. Canal curvature was the most important factor associated with ledge formation (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The technical quality of RCT performed by undergraduate dental students using step-back preparation and cold lateral condensation was classified as acceptable in 32.5% of the cases. PMID:24146674

  6. A Case of Recurrent Urticaria Due to Formaldehyde Release from Root-Canal Disinfectant.

    PubMed

    Jang, Ji Hoon; Park, Seung Hyun; Jang, Hang Jea; Lee, Sung Geun; Park, Jin Han; Jeong, Jae Won; Park, Chan Sun

    2017-01-01

    Although formaldehyde is well known to cause type 4 hypersensitivity, immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated hypersensitivity to formaldehyde is rare. Here, we report a case of recurrent generalized urticaria after endodontic treatment using a para-formaldehyde (PFA)-containing root canal sealant and present a review of previous studies describing cases of immediate hypersensitivity reactions to formaldehyde. A 50-year-old man visited our allergy clinic for recurrent generalized urticaria several hours after endodontic treatment. Prick tests to latex, lidocaine, and formaldehyde showed negative reactions. However, swelling and redness at the prick site continued for several days. The level of formaldehyde-specific IgE was high (class 4). Thus, the patient was deemed to have experienced an IgE-mediated hypersensitivity reaction caused by the PFA used in the root canal disinfectant. Accordingly, we suggest that physicians should pay attention to type I hypersensitivity reactions to root canal disinfectants, even if the symptoms occur several hours after exposure.

  7. EVALUATION OF APICAL DEVIATION IN ROOT CANALS INSTRUMENTED WITH K3 AND ProTaper SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Mariana Diniz Bisi; Marceliano, Marília Fagury; Souza, Patrícia Rodrigues de Almeida Silva E

    2006-01-01

    Objectives: this study evaluated the apical deviation of curved root canals instrumented with K3 and ProTaper systems. Material and methods: twenty root canals of human maxillary and mandibular first molars were employed, which were divided into 2 groups: group A (10 teeth) was instrumented with the K3 system, and group B (10 teeth) with the ProTaper system. Evaluation of deviation was performed by double radiographic exposure. Radiographs were achieved before and after instrumentation, with 0.3-second, thus allowing superimposition of images. Three-dimensional computerized tomograph was performed in 3 specimens in each group, as an additional means to evaluate the apical deviation. Results: were evaluated by the parametric test Student-Newman-Keuls at 5%, which did not reveal significance between groups concerning the apical deviation. The results of computerized tomograph images demonstrated that the larger deviation of the root canal occurred at the distolingual area for both systems. Conclusions: both techniques produced a mild apical deviation. Computerized microtomography was shown to be accurate for experimental endodontics studies. PMID:19089248

  8. Apical extrusion of debris: a literature review of an inherent occurrence during root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Tanalp, J; Güngör, T

    2014-03-01

    Extrusion of intracanal debris as well as irrigants is a common occurrence during root canal treatment, and no instrument or technique has thoroughly solved this problem. Because flare-ups may arise with any irritation directed towards periapical tissues, a shaping or irrigation technique should minimize the risk of apical extrusion, even though it may not be prevented. There has been a rapid evolution of root canal instruments and irrigation systems through the last decade, and many have been assessed for their debris extrusion potential. The purpose of this review was to identify publications regarding the evaluation of debris, bacteria and irrigant extrusion during root canal treatment. A PubMed, Ovid and MEDLINE search was conducted using the keywords "apical extrusion", "debris extrusion" and "endodontic treatment". The literature search extended over a period of more than 30 years up to 2012. Content of the review was limited to apical extrusion of debris and irrigants, extrusion of liquid by irrigation methods and bacterial extrusion. Issues relevant to apical extrusion were obtained by further search in the reference sections of the retrieved articles. The review provides an update on the current status of apical extrusion.

  9. Vitality of Enterococcus faecalis inside dentinal tubules after five root canal disinfection methods

    PubMed Central

    Vatkar, Niranjan Ashok; Hegde, Vivek; Sathe, Sucheta

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To compare the vitality of Enterococcus faecalis within dentinal tubules after subjected to five root canal disinfection methods. Materials and Methods: Dentin blocks (n = 60) were colonized with E. faecalis. After 4 weeks of incubation, the dentin blocks were divided into one control and five test groups (n = 10 each). The root canals of test groups were subjected to one of the disinfection methods, namely, normal saline (NS), sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX), neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd: YAG) laser, and diode laser. The effect of disinfection methods was assessed by LIVE/DEAD BacLight stain under the confocal laser scanning microscopy to determine the “zone of dead bacteria” (ZDB). Mean values were calculated for ZDB and the difference between groups was established. Results: Penetration of E. faecalis was seen to a depth of >1000 μm. Viable bacteria were detected with NS irrigation. NaOCl and CHX showed partial ZDB. When the root canals were disinfected with Nd: YAG and diode lasers, no viable bacteria were found. Conclusion: E. faecalis has the ability to colonize inside dentinal tubules to a depth of >1000 μm. In contrast to conventional irrigants, both Nd: YAG and diode lasers were effective in eliminating the vitality of E. faecalis. NS, NaOCl, and CHX showed viable bacteria remaining in dentinal tubules. PMID:27656064

  10. Marginal adaptation of newer root canal sealers to dentin: A SEM study

    PubMed Central

    Polineni, Swapnika; Bolla, Nagesh; Mandava, Pragna; Vemuri, Sayesh; Mallela, Madhusudana; Gandham, Vijaya Madhuri

    2016-01-01

    Aim: This in vitro study evaluated and compared the marginal adaptation of three newer root canal sealers to root dentin. Materials and Methods: Thirty freshly extracted human single-rooted teeth with completely formed apices were taken. Teeth were decoronated, and root canals were instrumented. The specimens were randomly divided into three groups (n = 10) based upon the sealer used. Group 1 - teeth were obturated with epoxy resin sealer (MM-Seal). Group 2 - teeth were obturated with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) based sealer (MTA Fillapex), Group 3 - teeth were obturated with bioceramic sealer (EndoSequence BC sealer). Later samples were vertically sectioned using hard tissue microtome and marginal adaptation of sealers to root dentin was evaluated under coronal and apical halves using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and marginal gap values were recorded. Results: The data were statistically analyzed by two-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple post hoc test. The highest marginal gap was seen in Group 2 (apical-16680.00 nm, coronal-10796 nm) and the lowest marginal gap was observed in Group 1 (apical-599.42 nm, coronal-522.72 nm). Coronal halves showed superior adaptation compared to apical halves in all the groups under SEM. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study epoxy resin-based MM-Seal showed good marginal adaptation than other materials tested. PMID:27563187

  11. SEALING ABILITY OF CEMENTS IN ROOT CANALS PREPARED FOR INTRARADICULAR POSTS

    PubMed Central

    Nakamura, Dirce Haruko; Garcia, Roberto Brandão; Bramante, Clóvis Monteiro; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Bernadineli, Norberti

    2006-01-01

    This research evaluated the sealer ability of 2 temporary filling materials (white Cimpat and IRM) and 1 restorative cement (glass ionomer), in canals prepared for root posts. Sixty human palatal roots of maxillary first molars were used. They were divided into 3 groups, according to the cements used: Group I (Cimpat), Group II (IRM) and Group III (glass ionomer). The roots were rendered impermeable, filled with the respective cements and soon after immersed into 0.2% Rhodamine B dye and maintained for 72 hours in an oven for 37°C. Microleakage was measured with a light microscope, cutting the roots longitudinally in buccolingual direction. The results showed that Group I presented significantly more leakage than Groups II and III, which were not significantly different from each other. PMID:19089266

  12. Evaluation of Root Canal Configuration of Mandibular First Molars in a Palestinian Population by Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: An Ex Vivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Mukhaimer, Raed Hakam

    2014-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to investigate the number of canals and variations in root canal configuration in the mandibular permanent first molar teeth of a Palestinian population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods. A sample of 320 extracted double-rooted mandibular permanent first molars from Palestinian population was collected for this study and scanned with CBCT scanner. The following observations were made: number of root canals per root and canal configuration in each root based on Vertucci's classification. Results. Of the 320 mandibular first molars analyzed, 174 (54.4%) had three canals, 132 teeth (41.3%) had four canals, and only four teeth had two canals. The most common canal configuration in the mesial roots was Vertucci type IV (53.8%) followed by type II (38.8%). In the distal roots, the most prevalent canal configuration was Vertucci type I (57.5%) followed by type II ( 22.5%) and type III (10.6%). Conclusion. Our results showed that the number of canals and canal configuration in Palestinian population were consistent with previously reported data. The present study also indicates that CBCT is helpful as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of root canal morphology. PMID:27379321

  13. The effect of different root canal medicaments on the elimination of Enterococcus faecalis ex vivo

    PubMed Central

    Dammaschke, Till; Jung, Nina; Harks, Inga; Schafer, Edgar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of chlorhexidine gel (CHX-G) 2%, chlorhexidine powder (CHX-P) 1%, povidone-iodine (PVP-I), polyhexanide and camphorated-and-mentholated chlorophenol (ChKM) ex vivo. Materials and Methods: For every medicament group 10 root segments (15 mm long) of extracted human teeth were prepared to ISO-size 45 and sterilized (n = 50). The root segments were then inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and aerobically incubated at 37°C. After 1 week, ten root canals were filled with one of the medicaments, respectively and aerobically incubated at 37°C for another week. Ten teeth served as positive controls and were filled with sterile saline solution. After 7 days, the medicaments were inactivated and all root canals were instrumented to ISO-size 50. The obtained dentin samples were dispersed in Ringer solution followed by the preparation of serial dilutions. 10 μl per sample were applied to an agar plate and incubated at 37°C for 48 h. The colony forming units were counted and the reduction factors (RFs) were calculated and statistically analyzed. Results: Compared with the positive controls all medicaments exhibited an antibacterial effect against E. faecalis. The RFs for CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were significantly higher compared to PVP-I and polyhexanide (P < 0.05). In contrast to PVP-I and polyhexanide, CHX-G, CHX-P and ChKM were able to eliminate E. faecalis from all dentin samples. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this ex vivo investigation, 2% CHX-G and CHX-P were as effective as ChKM against E. faecalis. Thus, when choosing a root canal medicament the better biocompatibility of CHX compared with ChKM should be taken in consideration. PMID:24932119

  14. Effect of Imidazolium-Based Silver Nanoparticles on Root Dentin Roughness in Comparison with Three Common Root Canal Irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Farshad, Melika; Abbaszadegan, Abbas; Ghahramani, Yasamin; Jamshidzadeh, Akram

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of a nanosilver-based irrigant on dentin roughness in comparison with three commonly used root canal irrigation solutions. Methods and Materials: Three common irrigants including 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) and also an imidazolium-based silver nanoparticle solution (ImSNP) (5.7×10 -8 mol/L), were used. Distilled water was used as control. Roots of 25 human anterior teeth were sectioned longitudinally to obtain 50 dentin samples. Roughness values were evaluated by atomic force microscopy analysis on 5 groups (n=10) after each group was treated in one of the tested irrigant solutions for 10 min. Values were statistically analyzed by One-way analysis of variance, followed by a post hoc Tukey’s test for pair-wise comparison. Results: Dentin roughness significantly increased from 95.82 nm (control) to 136.02 nm, 187.07 nm, 142.29 nm and 150.92 nm with NaOCl, CHX, ImSNP and EDTA, respectively. CHX demonstrated a significantly higher roughness value compared to the other tested irrigants while no significant differences were seen in NaOCl, ImSNP and EDTA groups (P>0.242). Conclusion: ImSNP affected the physicochemical properties of dentin and raised its surface roughness; thus, this irrigant could impact bacterial and restorative material adhesion to root canal dentin walls. PMID:28179931

  15. Quality of root canal fillings using three gutta-percha obturation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Edith Siu Shan; Chang, Jeffrey Wen Wei

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The goal of this study was to compare the density of gutta-percha root fillings obturated with the following techniques: cold lateral (CL) compaction, ultrasonic lateral (UL) compaction, and warm vertical (WV) compaction. Materials and Methods Thirty-three extracted mandibular first molars, with two separate mesial canals in each, were selected. After instrumentation, the canals were stratified into three groups based on canal length and curvature, and underwent obturation with one of the techniques. No sealer was used in order to avoid masking any voids. The teeth were imaged pre- and post-obturation using micro-computed tomography. The reconstructed three-dimensional images were analyzed volumetrically to determine the amount of gutta-percha present in every 2 mm segment of the canal. P values < 0.05 were considered to indicate statistical significance. Results The overall mean volume fraction of gutta-percha was 68.51 ± 6.75% for CL, 86.56 ± 5.00% for UL, and 88.91 ± 5.16% for WV. Significant differences were found between CL and UL and between CL and WV (p < 0.05), but not between UL and WV (p = 0.526). The gutta-percha density of the roots treated with WV and UL increased towards the coronal aspect, but this trend was not noted in the CL group. Conclusions WV compaction and UL compaction produced a significantly denser gutta-percha root filling than CL compaction. The density of gutta-percha was observed to increase towards the coronal aspect when the former two techniques were used. PMID:26877987

  16. Debris Evaluation after Root Canal Shaping with Rotating and Reciprocating Single-File Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dagna, Alberto; Gastaldo, Giulia; Beltrami, Riccardo; Poggio, Claudio

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the root canal dentine surface by scanning electron microscope (SEM) after shaping with two reciprocating single-file NiTi systems and two rotating single-file NiTi systems, in order to verify the presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules along the walls of each sample; Forty-eight single-rooted teeth were divided into four groups and shaped with OneShape (OS), F6 SkyTaper (F6), WaveOne (WO) and Reciproc and irrigated using 5.25% NaOCl and 17% EDTA. Root canal walls were analyzed by SEM at a standard magnification of 2500×. The presence/absence of the smear layer and the presence/absence of open tubules at the coronal, middle, and apical third of each canal were estimated using a five-step scale for scores. Numeric data were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U statistical tests and significance was predetermined at P < 0.05; The Kruskal-Wallis ANOVA for debris score showed significant differences among the NiTi systems (P < 0.05). The Mann-Whitney test confirmed that reciprocating systems presented significantly higher score values than rotating files. The same results were assessed considering the smear layer scores. ANOVA confirmed that the apical third of the canal maintained a higher quantity of debris and smear layer after preparation of all the samples; Single-use NiTi systems used in continuous rotation appeared to be more effective than reciprocating instruments in leaving clean walls. The reciprocating systems produced more debris and smear layer than rotating instruments. PMID:27763503

  17. A CBCT Assessment of Apical Transportation in Root Canals Prepared with Hand K-Flexofile and K3 Rotary Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Madani, Zahra Sadat; Goudarzipor, Daryoush; Haddadi, Azam; Saeidi, Akam; Bijani, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Apical transportation changes the physical shape and physiologic environment of the root canal terminus. The aim of the present experimental study was to determine the extent of apical transportation after instrumentation with hand K-Flexofile and K3 rotary instruments by means of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Forty mesiobuccal root canals of maxillary first molars, with 19-22 mm length and 20-40° canal curvature, were selected and assigned into two preparation groups. The first group was prepared with K-Flexofile with passive step-back technique and the second group was prepared with K3 rotary instruments. Pre and post instrumentation CBCT images were taken under similar conditions. The amount of root canal transportation was evaluated by Mann-Whitney U test and the chi-square test was used for the qualitative evaluation. Results: The amounts of apical canal transportation with the K3 and K-Flexofile instruments were 0.105±0.088 and 0.150±0.127 mm, respectively with no statistically significant differences. In the manual technique, 25% of the canals had no apical transportation; while 30% of the canals in the K3 group were transportation free. Conclusion: Both systems were able to preserve the initial curvature of the canals and both had sufficient accuracy. Preparation with K3 rotary instruments resulted in apical transportation similar to that of K-Flexofile. PMID:25598809

  18. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Sabino, C. P.; Garcez, A. S.; Núñez, S. C.; Ribeiro, M. S.; Hamblin, M. R.

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 µM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ=660 nm, P=100 mW, beam diameter=2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency. PMID:25060900

  19. Preparation of severely curved simulated root canals using engine-driven rotary and conventional hand instruments.

    PubMed

    Szep, S; Gerhardt, T; Leitzbach, C; Lüder, W; Heidemann, D

    2001-03-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the efficacy and safety of six different nickel-titanium engine-driven instruments used with a torque-controlled engine device and nickel-titanium hand and stainless steel hand instruments in preparation of curved canals. A total of 80 curved (36 degrees) simulated root canals were prepared. Images before and after were superimposed, and instrumentation areas were observed. Time of instrumentation, instrument failure, change in working length and weight loss were also recorded. Results show that stainless steel hand instruments cause significantly less transportation towards the inner wall of the canal than do nickel-titanium hand instruments. No instrument fracture occurred with hand instruments, but 30-60% breakage of instruments was recorded during instrumentation with the engine-driven devices. The working length was maintained by all types of instruments. Newly developed nickel-titanium rotary files were not able to prevent straightening of the severely curved canals when a torque-controlled engine-driven device was used.

  20. Confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy investigation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm degradation using passive and active sodium hypochlorite irrigation within a simulated root canal model.

    PubMed

    Mohmmed, Saifalarab A; Vianna, Morgana E; Penny, Matthew R; Hilton, Stephen T; Mordan, Nicola; Knowles, Jonathan C

    2017-02-28

    Root canal irrigation is an important adjunct to control microbial infection. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of 2.5% (wt/vol) sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation on the removal, killing, and degradation of Enterococcus faecalis biofilm. A total of 45 root canal models were manufactured using 3D printing with each model comprising an 18 mm length simulated root canal of apical size 30 and taper 0.06. E. faecalis biofilms were grown on the apical 3 mm of the models for 10 days. A total of 60 s of 9 ml of 2.5% NaOCl irrigation using syringe and needle was performed, the irrigant was either left stagnant in the canal or agitated using manual (Gutta-percha), sonic, and ultrasonic methods for 30 s. Following irrigation, the residual biofilms were observed using confocal laser scanning, scanning electron, and transmission electron microscopy. The data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA with Dunnett post hoc tests at a level of significance p ≤ .05. Consequence of root canal irrigation indicate that the reduction in the amount of biofilm achieved with the active irrigation groups (manual, sonic, and ultrasonic) was significantly greater when compared with the passive and untreated groups (p < .05). Collectively, finding indicate that passive irrigation exhibited more residual biofilm on the model surface than irrigant agitated by manual or automated (sonic, ultrasonic) methods. Total biofilm degradation and nonviable cells were associated with the ultrasonic group.

  1. Tooth discoloration induced by a novel mineral trioxide aggregate-based root canal sealer

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Dae-Sung; Lim, Myung-Jin; Choi, Yoorina; Rosa, Vinicius; Hong, Chan-Ui; Min, Kyung-San

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate tooth discoloration caused by contact with a novel injectable mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)-based root canal sealer (Endoseal; Maruchi, Wonju, Korea) compared with a widely used resin-based root canal sealer (AHplus; Dentsply De Trey, Konstanz, Germany) and conventional MTA (ProRoot; Dentsply, Tulsa, OK, USA). Materials and Methods: Forty standardized bovine tooth samples were instrumented and divided into three experimental groups and one control group (n = 10/group). Each material was inserted into the cavity, and all specimens were sealed with a self-adhesive resin. Based on CIE Lab system, brightness change (ΔL) and total color change (ΔE) of each specimen between baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks were obtained. Results: At all time points, Endoseal showed no significant difference in ΔL and ΔE compared to AHplus and control group (P > 0.05), whereas the ProRoot group showed significantly higher ΔL and ΔE values than the Endoseal group at 2, 4, and 8 weeks (P < 0.05). Therefore, Endoseal showed less discoloration than conventional MTA and a similar color change to AHplus. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, our data indicate that the MTA-based sealer produces a similar amount of tooth discoloration as AHplus which is considered to be acceptable. PMID:27403062

  2. Antibacterial properties of root canal lubricants: a comparison with commonly used irrigants.

    PubMed

    Wong, Samantha; Mundy, Lance; Chandler, Nicholas; Upritchard, Jenine; Purton, David; Tompkins, Geoffrey

    2014-12-01

    The aim was to assess in vitro the antibacterial activity of 10 root canal lubricants. K-Y Jelly personal lubricant, RC-Prep, File-Eze, File-Rite, EndoPrep Gel, Endosure Prep Crème 15%, Prep-Rite, Glyde, SlickGel ES and Alpha Glide were selected and compared in their antimicrobial properties to seven irrigants. Serial dilutions of each agent in tryptic soy broth were inoculated with either Enterococcus faecalis or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and incubated at 37C for 24 h. During incubation bacterial growth was measured by optical density (A(600)), and samples removed for cultivation on tryptic soy broth agar. Against both test bacteria after 1 h incubation, six lubricants recorded minimum bactericidal concentrations ranging from 1/10 to 1/80, whereas the inhibitory activity of the irrigants ranged from 1/20 to 1/640. Under these conditions, several lubricants exhibited antimicrobial activity comparable with some irrigants. Three irrigants, Consepsis (containing chlorhexidine), Endosure EDTA/C (containing cetrimide) and EndoPrep Solution (containing cetrimide), showed superior antibacterial action to lubricants against both species. The irrigants containing ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and cetrimide were the most effective against both bacterial species at all time intervals. Antimicrobial activity of the lubricants did not correlate to pH values, which ranged from 2.9 to 10.3. Root canal lubricants have antibacterial properties that may help to disinfect canals.

  3. Effect of diode laser radiation in root canal wall dentine: a microbiological study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutknecht, Norbert; Conrads, Georg; Apel, Christian; Schubert, Claus; Lampert, Friedrich

    2000-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial effect of a diode laser in deep root canal dentine. The microbial colonization of root canal dentine can lead to failures in conventional endodontic treatment if only an inadequate bacterial reduction is achieved through canal treatment and chemical disinfection. 100 micrometer, 300 micrometer and 500 micrometer bovine dentine slices obtained by longitudinal sections were sterilized and inoculated on one side with an Enterococcus faecalis suspension. Laser radiation was performed on the opposite side with the diode laser, emits light at 810 nm and operates in the continuous wave mode (cw). Radiation was performed using a 400 micrometer tapered fiber tip at an angle of approx. 5 degrees to the surface over a period of 30 s. The output power at the distal end of the tip was 0.6 watt. The bacteria were then eluted through vibration and cultured on blood agar plates. The colony count reflected the antibacterial effect of laser radiation as a function of the layer thickness. A mean bacterial reduction of 74% was achieved even with a 500 micrometer thick slice. This investigation indicates that the diode laser can support the bacterial reduction in endodontic treatment.

  4. Effect of Zingiber officinale and propolis on microorganisms and endotoxins in root canals

    PubMed Central

    MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of glycolic propolis (PRO) and ginger (GIN) extracts, calcium hydroxide (CH), chlorhexidine (CLX) gel and their combinations as ICMs (ICMs) against Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and endotoxins in root canals. Material and Methods: After 28 days of contamination with microorganisms, the canals were instrumented and then divided according to the ICM: CH+saline; CLX, CH+CLX, PRO, PRO+CH; GIN; GIN+CH; saline. The antimicrobial activity and quantification of endotoxins by the chromogenic test of Limulus amebocyte lysate were evaluated after contamination and instrumentation at 14 days of ICM application and 7 days after ICM removal. Results and Conclusion: After analysis of results and application of the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn statistical tests at 5% significance level, it was concluded that all ICMs were able to eliminate the microorganisms in the root canals and reduce their amount of endotoxins; however, CH was more effective in neutralizing endotoxins and less effective against C. albicans and E. faecalis, requiring the use of medication combinations to obtain higher success. PMID:23559108

  5. Survey of attitudes, materials and methods preferred in root canal therapy by general dental practice in Turkey: Part 1

    PubMed Central

    Unal, Gul Celik; Kaya, Bulem Ureyen; Tac, Ali Gurhan; Kececi, Ayse Diljin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To gather information on the materials and methods employed in root canal treatment by dentists in Turkey. Methods: A questionnaire was distributed to 1,527 dentists who attended the Turkish Dental Association Congress. Respondents were asked to choose one or more suitable answers for the questions. Data was gathered for demographic and professional information regarding stages, materials, and methods commonly used in endodontic therapy. The collected data was analyzed using the statistical package SPSS. Descriptive statistics were given as frequencies (n) and percent (%). Chi-square (χ2) test was used to investigate the influence of gender and the years of professional activity for the materials and techniques employed. Results: The response rate was 49%. A total of 97% of respondents were working in a general dental practice. Of respondents, 44% were using an agent containing arsenic or aldehyde. Only 5.1% of the respondents preferred the rubber dam isolation method. Sodium hypochlorite was the most popular choice (73%) as a root canal irrigation solution. Calcium hydroxide was the most commonly used medicament (53%). Most of the practitioners (77%) preferred radiographs for working-length determination. Root canal preparation done solely with K-Files or in combination with other instruments was preferred by 73.1% of the respondents. Ni-Ti hand or rotary files were used by 79.7% of the practitioners. Polymer based root canal sealers were the sealers most frequently chosen (48.4%). The majority of the respondents (66.2%) preferred cold lateral condensation as an obturation technique. Gender affected the preference of intracanal medicament, periapical radiographs for working-length determination, root canal instrument, root canal sealers, and root canal obturation technique (P<.05). Years of professional experience affected the preference of devitalizing agents, irrigation solutions, intracanal medicament, root canal instrument, root canal sealer, and

  6. In vivo antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite as root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Podar, Rajesh; Kulkarni, Gaurav P.; Dadu, Shifali S.; Singh, Shraddha; Singh, Shishir H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate and compare the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, and 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) as root canal irrigants. Materials and Methods: Thirty nonvital maxillary anteriors were randomly assigned to one of the three groups corresponding to the irrigant to be tested; 6% Morinda citrifolia juice (MCJ) (n = 10), A. indica (n = 10) and 3% NaOCl (n = 10). After the root canal access opening a root canal culture sample was taken with two paper points and cultured under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Cleaning and shaping were completed with irrigation by 10 mL of respective irrigants and 5 mL of final rinse. The patients were recalled after 3 days and canals were rinsed again with 5 mL of the test irrigants. This was followed by obtaining a posttreatment root canal culture sample and culturing and analyzed by counting the colony forming units (CFUs). Results: Six percentage MCJ, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl showed a significant reduction (P < 0.05) in the mean CFU counts for aerobic and anaerobic bacteria between baseline and 3 days. Conclusion: There was no difference in the antimicrobial efficacy of 6% M. citrifolia, A. indica, and 3% NaOCl as root canal irrigants. PMID:26929692

  7. A scoping review of root canal revascularization: relevant aspects for clinical success and tissue formation.

    PubMed

    Conde, M C M; Chisini, L A; Sarkis-Onofre, R; Schuch, H S; Nör, J E; Demarco, F F

    2016-10-22

    The aim of this scoping study was to evaluate the survival rate and nature of tissue formed inside root canals of human immature permanent teeth with necrotic pulps (NIPT) under root canal revascularization (RCR). The search was performed in SciVerse Scopus®, PubMed/MEDLINE, Web of Science®, BIREME and in the grey literature up to November 2015. The keywords were selected using MeSH terms and DECs. Two independent reviewers scrutinized the records obtained considering specific inclusion criteria. The included studies were evaluated in accordance with a modified Arksey and O' Malley's framework. From 375 studies that were evaluated, 75 were included. A total of 367 NIPT were submitted to RCR, from which only 21 needed further endodontic treatment. The weighted mean follow-up time was 17.6 months. The data were derived mainly from case reports (69%) or small case series (15%). NaOCl [0.5-6%] was applied as the disinfecting solution in almost all studies. Triple antibiotic paste was as effective as Ca(OH)2 as on intracanal medicament. De novo tissue was cementum and poorly mineralized bone positive to bone sialoprotein (BSP) but negative to dentine sialoprotein (DSP). Failures were associated mainly with reinfection of the root canal. The majority of included studies reported a significant increase in both root length and width. However, as most of these data came from case reports, they must be interpreted with care, as most were focused on treatment successes (not failures). Therefore, well-designed randomized controlled trials comparing RCR with available apexification treatments are needed to address this gap in the literature.

  8. Shaping ability of three ProFile rotary instrumentation techniques in simulated resin root canals.

    PubMed

    Kum, K Y; Spängberg, L; Cha, B Y; Il-Young, J; Msd; Seung-Jong, L; Chan-Young, L

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the shaping ability of three ProFile rotary instrumentation techniques and a conventional step-back method in simulated root canals. Prevalence of canal aberrations, change in working length, and preparation time were measured. A total of 48 composite images were made from pre- and postcanal scanned images using Corel Photopaint 8.0 and then the amount of coronal substance the instruments removed was also calculated two-dimensionally on digitized images with the Brain C software to compare the enlarging efficiency. There were no significant differences between the three rotary groups in preparation time, change in working length, and the incidence of aberrations (p > 0.05). The amount of coronal substance the instruments removed in the ProFile .04 taper group was significantly smaller than the other three groups (p < 0.05).

  9. In vitro study of effect of solvent on root canal retreatment.

    PubMed

    Oyama, Kazumi Onaga Nagayama; Siqueira, Evandro Luiz; Santos, Marcelo dos

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of five different solvents: xylol, eucalyptol, halothane, chloroform and orange oil on softening gutta-percha in simulated root canals. One drop of solvent was placed into a reservoir made in a simulated canal whose channel was previously instrumented and filled with gutta-percha and N-Rickert sealer. After 5 min, softening was evaluated for each solvent by the penetration of a spreader while applying force with a 442 Instron apparatus to reach a depth of 5 mm. The results were analyzed statistically by the Kruskal-Wallis test. Xylol and orange oil were better in softening gutta-percha than the other solvents. There was no significant difference between xylol and orange oil, but these were statistically different from eucalyptol, halothane and chloroform (p < 0.01).

  10. Apical sealing ability of a new glass ionomer root canal sealer.

    PubMed

    Goldberg, F; Artaza, L P; De Silvio, A

    1995-10-01

    This study compared the sealing ability of Ketac Endo with and without smear layer and Tubli Seal. Thirty upper central incisors and canines with straight canals were instrumented and randomly divided into three equal groups of 10. All teeth were obturated with laterally condensed gutta-percha. An additional group of five teeth with unobturated++ root canals served as positive controls. The sealers were Tubli Seal (group A), Ketac Endo (group B), and Ketac Endo preceded by the removal of the smear layer (group C). The teeth were immersed in India ink for 7 days, centrifuged for 5 min at 3000 rpm, cleared, and then examined under a light microscope at X 50 magnification. The mean value of ink penetration for group A was 0.14 mm, for group B 0.24 mm, and for group C 0.48 mm. No statistically significant differences were observed among groups (p > 0.05).

  11. Impact of the quality of coronal restoration and root canal filling on the periapical health in adult syrian subpopulation

    PubMed Central

    Alafif, Hisham

    2014-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the status of periapical tissues of endodontically treated teeth according to coronal restorations and root canal fillings separately and in concomitant in adult Syrian subpopulation. Methods: 784 endodontically treated teeth from two hundred randomly selected Syrian adult patients were radiographically evaluated. According to predetermined criteria, the quality of coronal restorations and root canal filling of each tooth was scored as adequate or inadequate. The status of periapical tissues was also classified as healthy or diseased. Results were analyzed using Chi-squared test. Results: Adequate coronal restorations were determined in 58.54% of cases which was accompanied with less periapical pathosis than that in teeth with inadequate restorations (P < 0.01). 14% of teeth were restored by posts which showed no significant impact on the periapical tissues health. 18.5% of endodontic treatments were evaluated as adequate with less number of periapical radiolucencies than that of inadequate root canal fillings (P < 0.01). Absence of periapical pathosis was 96.6% in cases with both adequate coronal restorations and root canals fillings. The rate was 88.5% in cases with only adequate root canals fillings, and about 70% in cases with only adequate coronal restorations. When the treatment was inadequate in both coronal and root canals fillings, success rate was only observed in 48.8%. Conclusion: The most important factor with regard to the periradicular tissue health is the quality of root canal filling without neglecting the influence of coronal restoration (regardless of its type). There is a high prevalence rate of periapical pathosis in Syrian subpopulation due to poor dental practice. PMID:25565729

  12. Gender difference and root canal morphology in mandibular premolars: A cone-beam computed tomography study in an Iranian population

    PubMed Central

    Kazemipoor, Maryam; Hajighasemi, Afrooz; Hakimian, Roqayeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Mandibular premolars are of the most difficult teeth to treat endodontically. Aims: To compare the root canal morphology of mandibular premolars between two genders in an Iranian population. Settings and Design: Totally, 230 cone-beam computed tomography images of the mandibles belonged to 115 males and 115 females were evaluated in the three spatial planes. Materials and Methods: The total number of roots and canals in the mandibular premolars was counted, and the difference between males and females were analyzed. Statistical Analysis: Data were analyzed using Chi-square test. The significance level was set as P < 0.05. Results: The majority of mandibular first and second premolars had one root (85.7% and 94.8%, respectively) and one canal (63.9% and 78.3%, respectively). The number of roots in the mandibular first premolars had statistically significant difference between two genders (P = 0.001). There was no significant difference between two genders in the number of roots (P = 0.208) and canals (P = 0.498) in the mandibular second premolars. Conclusion: According to the results of this study, the root canal morphology in the mandibular first premolars had statistically significant difference between two genders. PMID:26321843

  13. Ability of New Obturation Materials to Improve the Seal of the Root Canal System – A Review

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Olsen, Mark; De-Deus, Gustavo; Eid, Ashraf A.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives New obturation biomaterials have been introduced over the past decade to improve the seal of the root canal system. However, it is not clear whether they have really produced a three-dimensional impervious seal that is important for reducing diseases associated with root canal treatment. Methods A review of the literature was performed to identify models that have been employed for evaluating the seal of the root canal system. Results and Significance In-vitro and in-vivo models are not totally adept at quantifying the seal of root canals obturated with classic materials. Thus, one has to resort to clinical outcomes to examine whether there are real benefits associated with the use of recently-introduced materials for obturating root canals. However, there is no facile answer because endodontic treatment outcomes are influenced by a host of other predictors that are more likely to take precedence over the influence of obturation materials. From the perspective of clinical performance, classic root filling materials have stood the test of time. Because many of the recently-introduced materials are so new, there is not enough evidence yet to support their ability to improve clinical performance. This emphasizes the need to translate anecdotal information into clinically relevant research data on new biomaterials. PMID:24321349

  14. Comparative in vitro investigation of different methods for temporary root canal filling with aqueous suspensions of calcium hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Staehle, H J; Thomä, C; Müller, H P

    1997-06-01

    Three methods for temporarily filling root canals with calcium hydroxide pastes were compared. Each of 20 root canals of extracted, human, single-rooted teeth was shaped with hand instruments under standardized conditions up to ISO size 50 and filled using a syringe system, a lentulo spiral or an endodontic reamer. Quality of fillings was assessed radiographically and by inspecting ground preparations. Ridit (relative to an identified distribution) analysis was employed to confirm differences in frequencies of certain quality criteria obtained with various application methods. With regard to degree of obturation and occurrence of porosities, application of temporary fillings with a lentulo spiral or syringe system revealed significantly better results than application with hand instruments (reamer). No differences with regard to degree of obturation were detected when comparing results obtained with syringe or lentulo. Fewer porosities in the apical part of the root canal were seen, both on radiographs and ground sections, with the syringe system compared with the lentulo spiral. In the presence of some contradictory reports found in the literature, the present study suggests that, after straight or slightly curved root canals have been shaped up to at least ISO size 50, high quality temporary root canal fillings may be obtained by application of an aqueous suspension of calcium hydroxide with a syringe system.

  15. Clinical microscopic analysis of ProTaper retreatment system efficacy considering root canal thirds using three endodontic sealers.

    PubMed

    Só, Marcus Vinícius Reis; De Figueiredo, Jose Antônio Poli; Freitas Fachin, Elaine Vianna; Húngaro Duarte, Marco Antônio; Pereira, Jefferson Ricardo; Kuga, Milton Carlos; Da Rosa, Ricardo Abreu

    2012-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of ProTaper Universal rotary retreatment system and the influence of sealer type on the presence of filling debris in the reinstrumented canals viewed in an operative clinical microscope. Forty-five palatal root canals of first molars were filled with gutta-percha and one of the following sealers: G1, EndoFill; G2, AH Plus; G3, Sealapex. The canals were then reinstrumented with ProTaper Universal rotary system. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and examined under an operative clinical microscope (10×), and the amount of filling debris on canal walls was analyzed using the AutoCAD 2004 software. A single operator used a specific software tool to outline the canal area and the filling debris area in each third (cervical, middle, and apical), as well as the total canal area. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test and Tukey test at P < 0.05. Sealapex demonstrated significant differences in the average of filling debris area/canal among the 3 thirds. This group revealed that apical third showed more debris than the both cervical and middle third (P < 0.0001). Endofill presented significantly more filling debris than Sealapex in the cervical third (P < 0.05). In the middle (P = 0.12) and apical third (P = 0.10), there were no differences amongst groups. Debris was left in all canal thirds, regardless of the retreatment technique. The greatest differences between techniques and sealers were found in the cervical third.

  16. Leakage of bovine serum albumin in root canals obturated with super-EBA and IRM.

    PubMed

    Malcic, Ana; Jukic, Silvana; Brzovic, Valentina; Miletic, Ivana; Anic, Ivica

    2006-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the leakage of SuperEBA and intermediate restorative material (IRM) in root canal samples, with or without orthograde filling, by evaluating bovine serum albumin (BSA) microleakage using spectrophotometry. Thirty-five single-rooted teeth were divided into five groups, instrumented, and had apices resected. Root-end cavities in groups I and II were filled with SuperEBA and IRM. The samples from the groups III, IV, and V were filled with gutta-percha and sealer. In groups IV and V, root-end cavities were filled with SuperEBA and IRM. After 60 days, the greatest microleakage of BSA was observed in group II (4.1 +/- 0.0011 ng), followed by group III (3.4 +/- 0.0064 ng), and then group I (2.6 +/- 0.0019 ng). Samples from groups IV and V leaked the least (0.7 +/- 0.0014 ng). Significantly less leakage (p < 0.05) occurred in samples filled with orthograde and root-end fillings than did in samples filled only with an orthograde approach and the samples with IRM root-end fillings.

  17. Effect of intracanal cryotherapy on pain after single-visit root canal treatment.

    PubMed

    Keskin, Cangül; Özdemir, Özgür; Uzun, İsmail; Güler, Buğra

    2016-10-04

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of 2.5°C cold saline irrigation as final irrigant on postoperative pain after single-visit root canal treatment of teeth with vital pulps. One-hundred and seventy patients were assessed as eligible and included to the study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups (n = 85) (i.e. the control group and the cryotherapy group). In the cryotherapy group, final irrigation with 2.5°C 0.9% physiological saline solution for 5 min was performed following completion of biomechanical preparation, whereas in control group same solution stored at the root temperature was used. Treatments were performed in a single visit. Participants were asked to rate the intensity of their postoperative pain using visual analogue scale at 24 and 48 h. Data were analysed by Mann-Whitney U test and Student's t test. In the cryotherapy group level of reported postoperative pain was significantly lower than the control group (P < 0.05, Mann-Whitney U test). The outcome of this investigation indicates that 2.5°C cold saline irrigation as final irrigant can result a significant reduction in postoperative pain levels in comparison to the control group. Cryotherapy is a simple, cost-effective, and non-toxic option for postoperative pain control in single visit root canal treatment.

  18. Antral bony wall erosion, trigeminal nerve injury, and enophthalmos after root canal surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, Eduardo; Antunes, Luís; Dinis, Paulo Borges

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The frequently used irrigant in dental surgery, sodium hypochlorite, is occasionally the cause of minor, usually circumscribed, adverse effects. Severe, extensive complications, with lasting sequelae, however, also can occur, as in the case we report herein. Case Report: A 55-year-old woman underwent an endodontic procedure on a maxillary molar, whose roots, unknown to the surgeon, were protruding into the maxillary sinus. After sodium hypochlorite root canal irrigation, the patient immediately developed intense facial pain, facial edema, and periorbital cellulitis. An emergency department evaluation diagnosed an intense inflammatory disease of the maxillary sinus, with significant destruction of its bony walls, accompanied by midface paraesthesia due to infraorbital nerve injury. In the following weeks, the patient slowly developed enophthalmos due to bone erosion of the orbit floor. Treatment, besides prolonged oral steroids, required the endoscopic endonasal opening of the maxillary sinus for profuse irrigation. Two years later, the patient maintained a complete loss of function of the maxillary sinus, anesthesia-paraesthesia of the midface, and inferior dystonia of the eye with an enophthalmos. Conclusion: Dentists, maxillofacial surgeons, and otorhinolaryngologists should all be aware of the whole spectrum of complications of even the simplest dental work. Sodium hypochlorite irrigations should be used cautiously in root canal surgery, with the full awareness of its potential for causing soft-tissue damage. PMID:27465790

  19. Root canal

    MedlinePlus

    ... Broken or knocked out tooth Dental care - adult Tooth abscess Toothaches Review Date 2/22/2016 Updated by: Michael Kapner, DDS, general and aesthetic dentistry, Norwalk Medical Center, Norwalk, CT. Review provided by VeriMed ... Disorders Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A.M., ...

  20. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Thiruvenkadam, G; John, Baby; Priya, PR Geetha

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Successful obturation in the primary teeth demands complete dryness of the root canal system. Aim: The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of 95% ethanol as the final irrigant before root canal obturation in primary teeth. Materials and methods: A total of 20 extracted primary mandibular canines were biomechanically prepared and pre-obturated volume of each tooth was assessed using spiral computed tomography (CT). The specimens were divided into two groups (n = 10): group 1, Metapex group; group 2, zinc oxide eugenol group. Each group was further divided randomly into two subgroups (n = 5): subgroup 1, canals were dried with 95% ethanol; subgroup 2, canals were blot dried with paper points with the last one appearing dry. All canals were obturated and the postobturated volume of each tooth was measured. The percentage of obturated volume (POV) was calculated using the formula: (postobturated volume/preobturated volume) × 100. The POV between the groups was statistically analyzed using Mann-Whitney test and Wilcoxon Signed rank test appropriately. Results: Root canals that were dried with ethanol showed better obturation than using paper points alone and the difference was statistically significant in both group 1 (p < 0.001) and group 2 (p < 0.002). Conclusion: Drying of the root canal system with 95% ethanol can result in better obturation in the primary teeth. How to cite this article: Thiruvenkadam G, Asokan S, John B, Geetha Priya PR. Effect of 95% Ethanol as a Final Irrigant before Root Canal Obturation in Primary Teeth: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(1):21-24. PMID:27274150

  1. Efficacy of Two Rotary Systems in Removing Gutta-Percha and Sealer from the Root Canal Walls

    PubMed Central

    Dadresanfar, Bahareh; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Ghafari, Sedigh; Khalilak, Zohreh; Vatanpour, Mehdi

    2011-01-01

     INTRODUCTION: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of two retreatment rotary systems in removal of gutta-percha (GP) and sealer from the root canal walls with and without use of solvent. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty single-canalled distal roots of mandibular molars were prepared and root filled with gutta-percha and AH26. Each canal was randomly allocated to receive one of the retreatment techniques, Mtwo R or ProTaper. The groups were further divided into two subgroups: with or without the use of solvent. The cleanliness of canal walls was determined by stereomicroscope and scanning electron microscopy. RESULTS: The results showed that Mtwo R without the use of solvent was more efficient in material removal compared to ProTaper D (P<0.05). Most remnants were found in the apical third of the canals (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Mtwo R seems to be an efficient rotary system for endodontic retreatment of root canal with GP. PMID:23130056

  2. In vitro evaluation of the sealing ability of three newly developed root canal sealers: A bacterial microleakage study

    PubMed Central

    Sobhani, Ehsan; Samadi-Kafil, Hossein; Pirzadeh, Ahmad; Jafari, Sanaz

    2016-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to compare the sealing ability of MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26 sealers. Material and Methods The present in vitro study was carried out on 142 extracted single-rooted human mature teeth. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups (n=44) and two control groups (n=5). Three root canal sealers were MTA Fillapex, Apatite Root Canal Sealer and AH26. The teeth in the control groups were either filled with no sealer or made completely impermeable. The root canals were prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and one of the sealers. The teeth were sterilized with ethylene oxide gas prior to the bacterial leakage assessment using Enterococcus faecalis. Leakage was evaluated every 24 hours for 90 days. Data were analyzed with descriptive statistical methods and chi-squared test. If the data were significant, a proper post hoc test was used. Statistical significance was set at P<0.05. Results The positive control specimens exhibited total bacterial penetration whilst the negative control specimens showed no evidence of bacterial penetration. At the end of the study, the analysis of microleakage with chi-squared test showed no significant differences between the experimental groups (P<0.05). The results of chi-squared test analyzing the pair-wise differences between the groups considering the numerical values for leakage day indicated the lowest leakage with AH26 and the highest with Apatite root sealer. Conclusions According to the results of the present study, sealing ability of AH26 was significantly higher than that of MTA Fillapex and Apatite Root Canal Sealer. Key words:Mineral Trioxide aggregate, root canal obturation, dental seal. PMID:27957271

  3. Development of a handheld smart dental instrument for root canal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okoro, Chukwuemeka; Vartanian, Albert; Toussaint, , Kimani C., Jr.

    2016-11-01

    Ergonomics and ease of visualization play a major role in the effectiveness of endodontic therapy. Using only commercial off-the-shelf components, we present the pulpascope-a prototype of a compact, handheld, wireless dental instrument for pulp cavity imaging. This instrument addresses the current limitations of occupational injuries, size, and cost that exist with current endodontic microscopes used for root canal procedures. Utilizing a 15,000 coherent, imaging fiber bundle along with an integrated illumination source and wireless CMOS sensor, we demonstrate images of various teeth with resolution of ˜48 μm and angular field-of-view of 70 deg.

  4. [Behavior of different strains of Staphylococcus aureus against root canal filling cements].

    PubMed

    Pumarola, J; Berástegui, E; Canalda, C; Brau, E

    1991-01-01

    The mean goal of this study is the determination of the conduct of 120 strains of Staphylococcus aureus against seven root canal sealers: Traitement Spad, Endométhasone, N2 Universal, AH26 with silver, Diaket-A, Tubli Seal and Sealapex. The agar diffusion test was employed in the determination of its bacterial growth inhibition. The results obtained have demonstrated values very different between the tested strains. Therefore we recommended to employ strains with reference in the investigation of the bacterial growth inhibition in order to repeat equal experimentation conditions.

  5. A survey of root canal treatment of molar teeth by general dental practitioners in private practice in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Fouzan, Khalid S.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the practice and depth of knowledge of root canal treatment by general dental practitioners working in private dental centers in different cities within the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. A questionnaire was distributed to 400 general dental practitioners. Completed questionnaires were analyzed in term of simple summary statistics. A total of 252 (63%) practitioners responded. The majority of the respondents were Syrians (59%) and Egyptians (32%). Ninety-one per cent of the respondents indicated that they performed root canal treatment. Amongst those who carried out root canal treatment, only seven practitioners (3%) used rubber dam for isolation. More than half of the respondents (55%) used saline to irrigate canals during treatment. Forty-six per cent of practitioners used formocresol as an inter appointment medicament. The standardized and step-back preparation techniques were the method of choice for the majority of the respondents (91%). Ninety-seven per cent of the practitioners used stainless steel hand instruments to prepare root canals and the majority (92%) used gutta-percha for obturation. Seventy-four per cent of the respondent used cold lateral condensation. The average number of radiographs routinely taken for root canal treatment was four. Ninety-three per cent indicated that they usually completed a root canal treatment of molar teeth in three or more visits. Eighty-eight per cent of the practitioners preferred waiting for 1 or 2 weeks to restore the teeth permanently. Results of this study confirm that many general dental practitioners are not following quality guidelines for endodontic treatment. PMID:23960485

  6. High speed imaging of an Er,Cr:YSGG laser in a model of a root canal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdaasdonk, Rudolf; Blanken, Jan; van Heeswijk, Hans; de Roode, Rowland; Klaessens, John

    2007-02-01

    Laser systems of various wavelengths and pulse characteristics have been introduced in dentistry. At present, the range of applications for the different systems is being investigated mainly differentiating between soft and hard tissue applications. For the preparation of root canals both hard and soft tissues are involved. Ideally, one would like to use one laser system for the whole treatment. In this study, we studied the characteristics of the pulsed 2,78 Er,Cr:YSGG laser (Biolase, Waterlase Millenium), in view of root canal cleaning and desinfection. The laser energy was fiber delivered with fiber tip diameters from 400 μm down to 200 μm. Special thermal and high speed imaging techniques were applied in a transparent model of a tapered root canal and slices cut from human teeth. High speed imaging revealed the dynamics of an explosive vapor bubble at the tip of the Er laser in water and the root canal model. Typically for Erbium lasers, within a time span of several hundred μs, a longitudinal bubble expanded to maximum size of 5 mm length and 2 mm diameter at 100 mJ and imploded afterwards. In the root canal, the explosive bubble created turbulent high speed water streaming which resects soft tissue from the hard tissue. Thermal imaging showed the dynamics of all lasers heating of the canal wall up to several mm depending on the wavelength and energy settings. The mechanism of smear layer removal and sterilization in the root canal, is attributed to cavitation effects induced by the pulsed laser. The heat generation into the dentine wall was minimal.

  7. Endodontic treatment of a C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four root canals and three apical foramina: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bertrand, Thikamphaa

    2016-01-01

    This case report describes a unique C-shaped mandibular second premolar with four canals and three apical foramina and its endodontic management with the aid of cone-beam computer tomography (CBCT). C-shaped root canal morphology with four canals was identified under a dental operating microscope. A CBCT scan was taken to evaluate the aberrant root canal anatomy and devise a better instrumentation strategy based on the anatomy. All canals were instrumented to have a 0.05 taper using 1.0 mm step-back filing with appropriate apical sizes determined from the CBCT scan images and filled using a warm vertical compaction technique. A C-shaped mandibular second premolar with multiple canals is an anatomically rare case for clinicians, yet its endodontic treatment may require a careful instrumentation strategy due to the difficulty in disinfecting the canals in the thin root area without compromising the root structure. PMID:26877993

  8. HISTOMICROBIOLOGIC ASPECTS OF THE ROOT CANAL SYSTEM AND PERIAPICAL LESIONS IN DOGS' TEETH AFTER ROTARY INSTRUMENTATION AND INTRACANAL DRESSING WITH Ca(OH)2 PASTES

    PubMed Central

    Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mário Roberto; da Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra; Tanomaru, Mário; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the distribution of microorganisms in the root canal system (RCS) and periapical lesions of dogs' teeth after rotary instrumentation and placement of different calcium hydroxide [Ca(OHy-based intracanal dressings. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Chronic periapical lesions were experimentally induced in 80 premolar roots of four dogs. Instrumentation was undertaken using the ProFile rotary system and irrigation with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite. The following Ca(OH)2-based pastes were applied for 21 days: group 1 - Calen (n=18); group 2 - Calen+CPMC (n=20); group 3 - Ca(OH2 p.a. + anaesthetic solution (n=16) and group 4 - Ca(OH2 p.a.+ 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (n=18). Eight root canals without endodontic treatment constituted the control group. Histological sections were obtained and stained with Brown & Brenn staining technique to evaluate the presence of microorganisms in the main root canal, ramifications of the apical delta and secondary canals, apical cementoplasts, dentinal tubules, areas of cemental resorption and periapical lesions. The results were analyzed statistically by the Mann-Whitney U test (p<0.05). RESULTS: The control group showed the highest prevalence of microorganisms in all sites evaluated. Gram-positive cocci, bacilli and filaments were the most frequent morphotypes. Similar microbial distribution patterns in the RCS and areas of cementum resorption were observed in all groups (p>0.05). The percentage of RCS sites containing microorganisms in groups 1, 2, 3, 4 and control were: 67.6%, 62.5%, 78.2%, 62.0% and 87.6%, respectively. CONCLUSION: In conclusion, the histomicrobiological analysis showed that the rotary instrumentation and the different calcium hydroxide pastes employed did not effectively eliminate the infection from the RCS and periapical lesions. However, several bacteria seen in the histological sections were probably dead or were inactivated by the biomechanical preparation and calcium

  9. Numerical investigation of root canal irrigation adopting innovative needles with dimple and protrusion.

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Zhang, Di; Xie, Yonghui; Lan, Jibing

    2013-01-01

    As important passive flow control methods, dimples and protrusions have been successfully implemented via geometric modifications to manipulate flow fields to get a desired flow parameters enhancement. In this research, two novel needles were proposed based on a prototype by means of the dimple and protrusion, and flow patterns within a root canal during final irrigation with these needles were numerically investigated. The calculation cases consistent with the clinically realistic irrigant flow rates, which are 0.02, 0.16 and 0.26 mL s(-1) are marked as case A, B and C, respectively. The characteristic parameters to estimate irrigation efficiency, such as shearing effect, mean apical pressure, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation, were compared and the optimal geometry in every calculation case was obtained. As shown from the results, flow rates and needle geometries were the causes of irrigation parameters variations. The sum of shear stress, irrigation replacement and fluid agitation were equal in the low flow rate case A, however, the needle with a protrusion on its tip had advantages in the three irrigation characteristic parameters above in calculation case B, and the needle with a dimple on its tip had advantages in calculation case C. Furthermore, the needles proposed did not give rise to the risk of irrigant extrusion. These needles can be better choices at larger flow rates. Therefore, needle geometry optimizations utilizing passive flow control methods are worthy to be investigated in the root canal irrigation enhancement.

  10. Physicochemical and biological properties of a novel injectable polyurethane system for root canal filling

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Zuo, Yi; Zhao, Minghui; Jiang, Jiaxing; Man, Yi; Wu, Jun; Hu, Yunjiu; Liu, Changlei; Li, Yubao; Li, Jidong

    2015-01-01

    A root canal sealer with antibacterial activity can be efficacious in preventing reinfection that results from residual microorganisms and/or the leakage of microorganisms. In the present study, a series of injectable, self-curing polyurethane (PU)-based antibacterial sealers with different concentrations of silver phosphate (Ag3PO4) were fabricated. Subsequently, their physicochemical properties, antibacterial abilities, and preliminary cytocompatibilities were evaluated. The results indicated that the fabricated PU-based sealers can achieve a high conversion rate in a short amount of time. More than 95% of the isocyanate group of PU sealers with 3 wt% (PU3) and 5 wt% (PU5) concentrations of Ag3PO4 were included in the curing reaction after 7 hours. With the exception of those for film thickness for PU5, the results of setting time, film thickness, and solubility were able to meet the requirements of the International Organization for Standardization. The antibacterial tests showed that PU3 and PU5 exhibit stronger antimicrobial effects than that achieved with 1 wt% Ag3PO4 (PU1) and AH Plus (positive control) against Streptococcus mutans. The cytocompatibility evaluation revealed that the PU1 and PU3 sealers possess good cytocompatibility and low cytotoxicity. These results demonstrate that the PU3 sealer offers good physicochemical and antimicrobial properties along with cytocompatibility, which may hold great application potential in the field of root canal fillings. PMID:25653518

  11. Root canal obturation: experimental study on the thermafil system related to different irrigation protocols

    PubMed Central

    Migliau, Guido; Sofan, Afrah Ali Abdullah; Sofan, Eshrak Ali Abdullah; Cosma, Salvatore; Eramo, Stefano; Gallottini, Livio

    2014-01-01

    Summary Aim The aim of this study was to stress the ability of a specific obturation technique (thermafil technique) to seal root canal system in presence or absence of smear layer. Methodology Sixteen monoradicular teeth, extracted for periodontal reasons, were collected for this study. All specimens were prepared with nickel-titanium rotary files, and then divided into two groups: for each group was applied a different kind of irrigation method, verifying the effectiveness in removing the smear layer, thus rendering the dentinal tubules more permeable for penetration of softened gutta-percha. Thermafil system was used to fill the root canals, and then all the specimens were observed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results The results showed that the Group which followed irrigation only with sodium hypochlorite exhibited significantly less gutta-percha tags when compared to the second Group, which was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite and EDTA. Conclusion The thermafil systems have a very good quality of compression and fluency that permit to gain a good seal of endodontic space; furthermore it allows the penetration of gutta-percha with the formation of numerous of gutta-percha tags inside the dentinal tubules above all when smear layer is reduced or eliminated. PMID:25506413

  12. Photodynamic Antimicrobial Chemotherapy for Root Canal System Asepsis: A Narrative Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Diogo, P.; Gonçalves, T.; Palma, P.; Santos, J. M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim. The aim of this comprehensive literature review was to address the question: Does photodynamic therapy (PDT) improve root canal disinfection through significant bacterial reduction in the root canal system? Methodology. A comprehensive narrative literature review was performed to compare PDT effect with sodium hypochlorite as the comparative classical irrigant. Two reviewers independently conducted literature searches using a combination of medical subject heading terms and key words to identify relevant studies comparing information found in 7 electronic databases from January 2000 to May 2015. A manual search was performed on bibliography of articles collected on electronic databases. Authors were contacted to ask for references of more research not detected on the prior electronic and manual searches. Results. The literature search provided 62 titles and abstracts, from which 29 studies were related directly to the search theme. Considering all publications, 14 (48%) showed PDT to be more efficient in antimicrobial outcome than NaOCl (0.5–6% concentration) used alone and 2 (7%) revealed similar effects between them. Toluidine blue and methylene blue are the most used photosensitizers and most commonly laser has 660 nm of wavelength with a 400 nm diameter of intracanal fiber. Conclusions. PDT has been used without a well-defined protocol and still remains at an experimental stage waiting for further optimization. The level of evidence available in clinical studies to answer this question is low and at high risk of bias. PMID:26783392

  13. Why not to treat the tooth canal to solve external root resorptions? Here are the principles!

    PubMed Central

    Consolaro, Alberto; Bittencourt, Graziella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper aims at exposing the foundations or reasons why, in cases of external tooth resorption, including those of orthodontic origin, one should not perform a root canal to treat it. That should be done only to teeth with contamination or pulp necrosis, to remove the periapical inflammation induced by microbial products. When facing cases of external tooth resorption, one's conduct must always respect the following sequence of steps: first of all, identifying the cause accurately; then, planning the therapeutic approach and, finally, adopting the conducts in a very well-founded way. The situations in which endodontic treatment is recommended for tooth resorptions are those when there are: a) pulp necrosis with microbial contamination, b) aseptic pulp necrosis, c) developing calcific metamorphosis of the pulp and d) diagnosis of internal resorption. It is not possible, through the pulp, to control the resorption process that is taking place in the external part, after all, the causes are acting in the periodontal ligament. There is no evidence that justifies applying endodontic treatment, by means of root canal, to control external resorption processes, when the pulp shows vitality. PMID:28125136

  14. Biotoxicity of commonly used root canal sealers: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Amandeep; Shah, Naseem; Logani, Ajay; Mishra, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The main objective of a root canal sealer is to provide a fluid tight seal. The purpose of this systematic meta-analysis was to determine the relative toxicity of commonly used root canal sealers like zinc oxide eugenol, calcium hydroxide, and resin-based sealers. Materials and Methods: An online search was conducted in peer-reviewed journals listed in PubMed, Cochrane, EBSCO, and IndMed databases between 2000 and 2012). Statistical analysis was carried out by using analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by post-hoc comparison by Bonferroni method. The comparison between toxicity at 24 h and between 3 and 7 days was done by using paired t-test for each sealer. Results: At 24 h, the relative biotoxicity of the three sealers reported was insignificant (P- value 0.29), but the difference in toxicity was found significant (P < 0.001) after 3 days. Conclusion: Calcium hydroxide sealer and zinc oxide eugenol were found to be significantly biotoxic as compared to resin-based sealers after 3 days. PMID:25829682

  15. Antibacterial effect of urushiol on E. faecalis as a root canal irrigant

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sang-Wan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to compare the antibacterial activity of urushiol against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis) to that of NaOCl. Materials and Methods The canals of thirty two single rooted human teeth were instrumented with Ni-Ti files (ProTaper Next X1, X2, X3, Dentsply). A pure culture of E. faecalis ATCC 19433 was prepared in sterile brain heart infusion (BHI) broth. The teeth were submerged in the suspension of E. faecalis and were incubated at 37℃ for 7 days to allow biofilm formation. The teeth were randomly divided into three experimental groups according to the irrigant used, and a negative control group where no irrigant was used (n = 8). Group 1 used physiologic normal saline, group 2 used 6% NaOCl, and group 3 used 10 wt% urushiol solution. After canal irrigation, each sample was collected by the sequential placement of 2 sterile paper points (ProTaper NEXT paper points, size X3, Dentsply). Ten-fold serial dilutions on each vials, and 100 µL were cultured on a BHI agar plate for 8 hours, and colony forming unit (CFU) analysis was done. The data were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-whitney U tests. Results Saline group exhibited no difference in the CFU counts with control group, while NaOCl and urushiol groups showed significantly less CFU counts than saline and control groups (p < 0.05). Conclusions The result of this study suggests 10% urushiol and 6% NaOCl solution had powerful antibacterial activity against E. faecalis when they were used as root canal irrigants. PMID:28194365

  16. Influence of antimicrobial solutions in the decontamination and adhesion of glass-fiber posts to root canals

    PubMed Central

    HARAGUSHIKU, Gisele Aihara; BACK, Eduardo Donato Eing Engelke; TOMAZINHO, Paulo Henrique; BARATTO, Flares; FURUSE, Adilson Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of root canal disinfectants on the elimination of bacteria from the root canals, as well as their effect on glass-fiber posts bond strength. Material and Methods Fifty-three endodontically treated root canals had post spaces of 11 mm in length prepared and contaminated with E. faecalis. For CFU/ml analysis, eight teeth were contaminated for 1 h or 30 days (n=4). Teeth were decontaminated with 5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or distilled water. As control, no decontamination was conducted. After decontamination, sterile paper points were used to collect samples, and CFU/ml were counted. For push-out, three groups were evaluated (n=15): irrigation with 2.5% NaOCl, 2% CHX, or sterile distilled water. A bonding agent was applied to root canal dentin, and a glass-fiber post was cemented with a dual-cured cement. After 24 h, 1-mm-thick slices of the middle portion of root canals were obtained and submitted to the push-out evaluation. Three specimens of each group were evaluated in scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Dunnett’s T3 test (α=0.05). Results The number of CFU/ml increased from 1 h to 30 days of contamination in control and sterile distilled water groups. Decontamination with NaOCl was effective only when teeth were contaminated for 1 h. CHX was effective at both contamination times. NaOCl did not influence the bond strength (p>0.05). Higher values were observed with CHX (p<0.05). SEM showed formation of resin tags in all groups. Conclusion CHX showed better results for the irrigation of contaminated root canals both in reducing the bacterial contamination and in improving the glass-fiber post bonding. PMID:26398518

  17. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital, UMST, Sudan

    PubMed Central

    Awooda, Elhadi M.; Siddig, Reem I.; Alturki, Ruaa S.; Sanhouri, Nada M.

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To radiographically evaluate the technical quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students and compare the findings with other institution's work. Materials and Methods: A retrospective, cross-sectional study was conducted at the Academy Dental Teaching Hospital involving postoperative periapical radiographs of patients who were endodontically treated by batch #14 undergraduate dental students of final year (2013–2014) from UMST, Sudan. The total number of the students was 21, while periapical radiographs fulfilling the required criteria were 173. The radiographs of each case were evaluated in terms of length, density, and taper of the root canal filling. Procedural errors such as presence of a ledge, perforation, and a separated instrument were also recorded. Chi-square test was used to determine statistically significant differences between variables, with the level of significance set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: The overall quality of performed root canal treatment was adequate in almost half (55.5%) of the evaluated teeth. The length and taper of the root canal filling were found to be significantly associated with maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth with P = 0.018 and 0.006, respectively. No associations were found between the density and presence of separated instrument in the maxillary and mandibular posterior teeth, P = 0.314 and 0.480, respectively. Conclusion: The radiographic quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate students of batch #14 UMST was acceptable in 55.5% of the cases. Special emphasis must be placed on the educational methods and training of students for providing root canal treatment on molar teeth. PMID:28032048

  18. Regional bond strengths to root canal dentin of fiber posts luted with three cementation systems.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Giovana Mongruel; Gomes, Osnara Maria Mongruel; Reis, Alessandra; Gomes, João Carlos; Loguercio, Alessandro Dourado; Calixto, Abraham Lincoln

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the cementation system on the regional push-out bond strength and failure pattern of fiber posts to radicular dentin. The roots of 48 extracted human incisors were prepared and divided into 3 groups (n = 16), according to the cementation system: AdperScotchbond Multi-Purpose + resin cement RelyX ARC (SBMP+ARC); Adper SingleBond 2 + RelyX ARC (SB+ARC) and; RelyX U100 self-adhesive resin cement (U100). The posts were cemented as per manufacturer's instructions for each cementation system. After 1 week, the roots were sectioned transversely into 6 discs. Two discs were obtained from the cervical, middle and apical thirds and the push-out test was carried out. The failure pattern was examined on all debonded specimens. The data were analyzed by two-way repeated measures ANOVA and Tukey's test. When U100 was used, no statistically significant difference (p>0.05) was observed among the different root regions. Statistically higher push-out bond strength values were detected in the cervical third for SBMP+ARC and SB+ARC (p<0.05). The U100 showed significantly more mixed failures than SBMP+ARC in the apical third (p<0.05). In conclusion, the self-adhesive cement RelyX U100 was the only cement not sensitive to the root canal region.

  19. Monitoring the effectiveness of root canal procedures on endotoxin levels found in teeth with chronic apical periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    MARINHO, Ariane Cassia Salustiano; MARTINHO, Frederico Canato; ZAIA, Alexandre Augusto; FERRAZ, Caio Cezar Randi; GOMES, Brenda Paula Figueiredo de Almeida

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to monitor the effectiveness of root canal procedures by using different irrigants and intracanal medication on endotoxin levels found in root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Material and Methods: Thirty root canals of teeth with pulpal necrosis associated with periapical lesions were selected and randomly divided into groups according to the irrigants used: GI - 2.5% NaOCl, GII - 2% chlorhexidine (CHX) gel, and GIII - saline solution (SS) (all, n=10). Samples were collected with sterile/apyrogenic paper points before (S1) and after root canal instrumentation (S2), after use of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) (S3), and after 30 days of intracanal medication (Ca(OH)2+SS) (S4). A turbidimetric kinetic Limulus Amebocyte Lysate assay was used for endotoxin measurement. Results: Endotoxins were detected in 100% of the root canals investigated (30/30), with a median value of 18.70 EU/mL. After S2, significant median percentage reduction was observed in all groups, irrespective of the irrigant tested: 2.5% NaOCl (99.65%) (GI), 2% CHX (94.27%) (GII), and SS (96.79%) (GIII) (all p<0.05). Root canal rinse with 17% EDTA (S3) for a 3-minute period failed to decrease endotoxin levels in GI and a slight decrease was observed in GII (59%) and GIII (61.1%) (all p>0.05). Intracanal medication for 30 days was able to significantly reduce residual endotoxins: 2.5% NaOCl (90%) (GI), 2% CHX (88.8%) (GII), and SS (85.7%) (GIII, p<0.05). No differences were found in the endotoxin reduction when comparing s2 and s4 treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings demonstrated the effectiveness of the mechanical action of the instruments along with the flow and backflow of irrigant enduring root canal instrumentation for the endotoxin removal from root canals of teeth with chronic apical periodontitis. Moreover, the use of intracanal medication for 30 days contributed for an improvement of endotoxin reduction. PMID:25075670

  20. Neurotoxicity evaluation of three root canal sealers on cultured rat trigeminal ganglion neurons

    PubMed Central

    Ayar, Ahmet; Kalkan, Omer-Faruk; Canpolat, Sinan; Tasdemir, Tamer; Ozan, Ulku

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the possible neurotoxic effects of 3 root canal sealers (RCSs) (AH Plus, GuttaFlow, iRoot SP) on cultured rat trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons. Material and Methods Primary cultures of TG neurons were obtained from 1 to 2-day old rats. Freshly mixed RCSs were incubated in sterile phosphate buffered saline and cells were incubated with supernatants of the RCSs for different time intervals (1-, 3-, 6- and 24-h; 1 or 1/10 diluted) and viability/cytotoxicity was tested by counting the number of live cells. Pair of dishes with cells from the same culture incubated with only culture medium was considered as negative controls. Cell images were captured and acquired at x200 magnification using a microscope equipped with a camera using special image program. The viable cells were manually counted assigned from the images for each dose and incubation duration. Data was analysed by using 1-way analysis of variance with Tukey post hoc tests. Results There was no significant change in cell viability after short duration of incubation (1- and 3-h) with the supernatant of any of RCSs, except for undiluted-AH Plus at 3-h. When AH Plus was compared with other RCSs, for diluted supernatants, there was only significant difference between iRoot SP and AH Plus at 24-h (P<0.05). Whereas undiluted-AH Plus was significantly more cytotoxic for 3-, 6- and 24-h periods as compared to respective incubation periods of undiluted other groups (P<0.05). GuttaFlow groups had similar neurotoxic effect on cells for all test periods. Conclusions All tested RCSs exhibited a variable degree of neurotoxicity on these primary sensory neurons of orofacial tissues, depending on their chemical compositions. GuttaFlow and iRoot SP evoked a less toxic response to TG cells than AH Plus. Key words:Neurotoxicity, trigeminal ganglia, cell culture, root canal sealer, AH Plus, GuttaFlow, iRoot SP. PMID:28149460

  1. Present and future in the use of micro-CT scanner 3D analysis for the study of dental and root canal morphology.

    PubMed

    Grande, Nicola M; Plotino, Gianluca; Gambarini, Gianluca; Testarelli, Luca; D'Ambrosio, Ferdinando; Pecci, Raffaella; Bedini, Rossella

    2012-01-01

    The goal of the present article is to illustrate and analyze the applications and the potential of microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) in the analysis of tooth anatomy and root canal morphology. The authors performed a micro-CT analysis of the following different teeth: maxillary first molars with a second canal in the mesiobuccal (MB) root, mandibular first molars with complex anatomy in the mesial root, premolars with single and double roots and with complicated apical anatomy. The hardware device used in this study was a desktop X-ray microfocus CT scanner (SkyScan 1072, SkyScan bvba, Aartselaar, Belgium). A specific software ResolveRT Amira (Visage Imaging) was used for the 3D analysis and imaging. The authors obtained three-dimensional images from 15 teeth. It was possible to precisely visualize and analyze external and internal anatomy of teeth, showing the finest details. Among the 5 upper molars analyzed, in three cases, the MB canals joined into one canal, while in the other two molars the two mesial canals were separate. Among the lower molars two of the five samples exhibited a single canal in the mesial root, which had a broad, flat appearance in a mesiodistal dimension. In the five premolar teeth, the canals were independent; however, the apical delta and ramifications of the root canals were quite complex. Micro-CT offers a simple and reproducible technique for 3D noninvasive assessment of the anatomy of root canal systems.

  2. Characterization of mandibular molar root and canal morphology using cone beam computed tomography and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Reinhilde; Lambrechts, Paul; Brizuela, Claudia; Cabrera, Carolina; Concha, Guillermo; Pedemonte, María Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This study used cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) to characterize mandibular molar root and canal morphology and its variability in Belgian and Chilean population samples. Materials and Methods We analyzed the CBCT images of 515 mandibular molars (257 from Belgium and 258 from Chile). Molars meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed to determine (1) the number of roots; (2) the root canal configuration; (3) the presence of a curved canal in the cross-sectional image of the distal root in the mandibular first molar and (4) the presence of a C-shaped canal in the second mandibular molar. A descriptive analysis was performed. The association between national origin and the presence of a curved or C-shaped canal was evaluated using the chi-squared test. Results The most common configurations in the mesial root of both molars were type V and type III. In the distal root, type I canal configuration was the most common. Curvature in the cross-sectional image was found in 25% of the distal canals of the mandibular first molars in the Belgian population, compared to 11% in the Chilean population. The prevalence of C-shaped canals was 10% or less in both populations. Conclusion In cases of unclear or complex root and canal morphology in the mandibular molars, CBCT imaging might assist endodontic specialists in making an accurate diagnosis and in treatment planning. PMID:26125004

  3. Real-time evaluation of two light delivery systems for photodynamic disinfection of Candida albicans biofilm in curved root canals.

    PubMed

    Sabino, C P; Garcez, A S; Núñez, S C; Ribeiro, M S; Hamblin, M R

    2015-08-01

    Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) combined with endodontic treatment has been recognized as an alternative approach to complement conventional root canal disinfection methods on bacterial biofilms. We developed an in  vitro model of bioluminescent Candida albicans biofilm inside curved dental root canals and investigated the microbial reduction produced when different light delivery methods are employed. Each light delivery method was evaluated in respect to the light distribution provided inside curved root canals. After conventional endodontic preparation, teeth were sterilized before canals were contaminated by a bioluminescent strain of C. albicans (CEC789). Methylene blue (90 μM) was introduced into the canals and then irradiated (λ = 660 nm, P = 100 mW, beam diameter = 2 mm) with laser tip either in contact with pulp chamber or within the canal using an optical diffuser fiber. Light distribution was evaluated by CCD camera, and microbial reduction was monitored through bioluminescence imaging. Our findings demonstrated that the bioluminescent C. albicans biofilm model had good reproducibility and uniformity. Light distribution in dental tissue was markedly dependent on the light delivery system, and this strategy was directly related to microbial destruction. Both light delivery systems performed significant fungal inactivation. However, when irradiation was performed with optical diffuser fiber, microbial burden reduction was nearly 100 times more effective. Bioluminescence is an interesting real-time analysis to endodontic C. albicans biofilm inactivation. APDT showed to be an effective way to inactivate C. albicans biofilms. Diffuser fibers provided optimized light distribution inside curved root canals and significantly increased APDT efficiency.

  4. [110th year Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Tandheelkunde. 2. Root canal treatment, intra-canal disinfectants and bacterial culture: past and present].

    PubMed

    Moorer, W R; Wesselink, P R

    2003-05-01

    Fifty years ago the Dutch Journal of Dentistry published methods and opinions concerning root canal treatment. Qualitative bacterial culture, inclusion of aggressive disinfectants, as well as antibiotics and widening of the apical constriction were carried out. Nowadays, because of several reasons, these are not clinical practice anymore. Controversy over the clinical consequences of bacterial presence in tubules and in the peri-apical area prevailed in the past and seem to be prevalent once again.

  5. Efficacy of Electronic Foramen Locators in Controlling Root Canal Working Length during Rotary Instrumentation.

    PubMed

    Parente, Lorena Arruda; Levin, Martin D; Vivan, Rodrigo Ricci; Bernardes, Ricardo Affonso; Duarte, Marco Antonio Hungaro; Vasconcelos, Bruno Carvalho de

    2015-10-01

    The present study evaluated the efficacy of electronic foramen locators (EFLs) to control root canal working length during rotary instrumentation and to assess possible reliability variations of different working lengths. Forty-eight human mandibular bicuspids were randomly divided in 2 groups according to the used device, Root ZX II (RZX) and Propex II (PRO). They were further subdivided in 2 subgroups according to the root canal preparation level (0.0 and -1.0). Preparation was performed with the Protaper rotary system using a crown-down technique. RZX was employed on its automatic auto-reverse mode (AAR) and PRO was used with the MPAS-10R contra-angle to monitor the preparation. The last used file (F3) was fixed, and the apical portion of the teeth was worn buccolingually, allowing to measure the extent between the file tip and the apical foramen (AF). The precision values of 0.0 mm and -1.0 mm were 100% and 0.0% for RZX, and 100% and 66.7% for PRO, respectively, with a range of ±0.5 mm. Statistical analysis showed no differences between the groups at 0.0 mm. However, at -1.0 mm, RZX showed the poorest results (0.96±0.11 mm), followed by PRO (0.43±0.23 mm). The difference between RZX and PRO was statistically significant. The EFLs were precise in maintaining the working length during rotary preparation when reaching the AF, but when their penetration was limited, both devices showed decreased precision; the RZX AAR failed in all instances.

  6. Cervical microleakage in root canals treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sponchiado, Emilio C., Jr.; Azevedo, Lidiany K.; Marchesan, Melissa; Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Silva-Sousa, Yara T.; Alfredo, Edson; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.

    2005-03-01

    Cervical microleakage was evaluated in sealed root canals previously treated with Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers. Ninety-two single-rooted maxillary human canines were prepared with the crown-down technique and irrigated with distilled and deionized water. The samples were distributed randomly into 9 groups of 10 teeth each. One tooth was used as a positive control and one as a negative control. In group I, 1.2 ml of EDTAC was applied during 5 min. In groups II to V, radicular dentine was irradiated with Er:YAG laser (Opus 20, Opus Dent, Israel) at the following parameters: 200 mJ and 8 Hz, 200 mJ and 16 Hz, 400 mJ and 8 Hz, or 400 mJ and 16Hz, respectively, for 60 s. In groups VI to IX, radicular dentine was irradiated with Nd:YAG laser (Fotona Medical Lasers, Slovenia) at 10 Hz and 1 W, 10 Hz and 2 W, 15 Hz and 1 W, or 15 Hz and 2 W, respectively, for 60 s. The canals were then sealed by the lateral condensation technique with an epoxy resin-based sealer. The roots were immersed in India ink for 15 days and then cleared to visualize the level of cervical microleakage with a measurement microscope. The results were evaluated by the Kruskal-Wallis test, which showed no statistical significance (p>0.01) for parameter variations of the Er:YAG laser when compared to the control group. However, the increase in frequency and potency for Nd:YAG laser decreased the microleakage when compared to the control group.

  7. The effectiveness of manual and mechanical instrumentation for the retreatment of three different root canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Somma, Francesco; Cammarota, Giuseppe; Plotino, Gianluca; Grande, Nicola M; Pameijer, Cornelis H

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the Mtwo R (Sweden & Martina, Padova, Italy), ProTaper retreatment files (Dentsply-Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), and a Hedström manual technique in the removal of three different filling materials (gutta-percha, Resilon [Resilon Research LLC, Madison, CT], and EndoRez [Ultradent Products Inc, South Jordan, UT]) during retreatment. Ninety single-rooted straight premolars were instrumented and randomly divided into 9 groups of 10 teeth each (n = 10) with regards to filling material and instrument used. For all roots, the following data were recorded: procedural errors, time of retreatment, apically extruded material, canal wall cleanliness through optical stereomicroscopy (OSM), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). A linear regression analysis and three logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the level of significance set at p = 0.05. The results indicated that the overall regression models were statistically significant. The Mtwo R, ProTaper retreatment files, and Resilon filling material had a positive impact in reducing the time for retreatment. Both ProTaper retreatment files and Mtwo R showed a greater extrusion of debris. For both OSM and SEM logistic regression models, the root canal apical third had the greatest impact on the score values. EndoRez filling material resulted in cleaner root canal walls using OSM analysis, whereas Resilon filling material and both engine-driven NiTi rotary techniques resulted in less clean root canal walls according to SEM analysis. In conclusion, all instruments left remnants of filling material and debris on the root canal walls irrespective of the root filling material used. Both the engine-driven NiTi rotary systems proved to be safe and fast devices for the removal of endodontic filling material.

  8. Comparison of Two Base Materials Regarding Their Effect on Root Canal Treatment Success in Primary Molars with Furcation Lesions.

    PubMed

    Arikan, Volkan; Sonmez, Hayriye; Sari, Saziye

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare MTA with another base material, IRM, which is generally used on pulpal floor after root canal treatment, regarding their effect on the success of root canal treatment of primary teeth with furcation lesions. Materials and Methods. Fifty primary teeth with furcation lesions were divided into 2 groups. Following root canal treatment, the pulpal floor was coated with MTA in the experimental group and with IRM in the control group. Teeth were followed up considering clinical (pain, pathological mobility, tenderness to percussion and palpation, and any soft tissue pathology and sinus tract) and radiographical (pathological root resorption, reduced size or healing of existing lesion, and absence of new lesions at the interradicular or periapical area) criteria for 18 months. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's chi-square tests were used and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. Although there were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of treatment success, lesions healed significantly faster in the MTA group. Conclusion. In primary teeth with furcation lesions, usage of MTA on the pulpal floor following root canal treatment can be a better alternative since it induced faster healing.

  9. Comparison of Two Base Materials Regarding Their Effect on Root Canal Treatment Success in Primary Molars with Furcation Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Sonmez, Hayriye; Sari, Saziye

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. The aim of this study was to compare MTA with another base material, IRM, which is generally used on pulpal floor after root canal treatment, regarding their effect on the success of root canal treatment of primary teeth with furcation lesions. Materials and Methods. Fifty primary teeth with furcation lesions were divided into 2 groups. Following root canal treatment, the pulpal floor was coated with MTA in the experimental group and with IRM in the control group. Teeth were followed up considering clinical (pain, pathological mobility, tenderness to percussion and palpation, and any soft tissue pathology and sinus tract) and radiographical (pathological root resorption, reduced size or healing of existing lesion, and absence of new lesions at the interradicular or periapical area) criteria for 18 months. For the statistical analysis, Fisher's exact test and Pearson's chi-square tests were used and a p value of <0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results. Although there were no statistically significant differences between two groups in terms of treatment success, lesions healed significantly faster in the MTA group. Conclusion. In primary teeth with furcation lesions, usage of MTA on the pulpal floor following root canal treatment can be a better alternative since it induced faster healing. PMID:27957486

  10. Efficacy of different solvents in removing gutta-percha from curved root canals: a micro-computed tomography study.

    PubMed

    Sağlam, Baran Can; Koçak, Mustafa Murat; Türker, Sevinç Aktemur; Koçak, Sibel

    2014-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the root filling material that remained after retreatment of curved root canals with chloroform and Endosolv R as solvents. The evaluation employed micro-computed tomography (CT) imaging. Thirty-six extracted molar teeth with curved roots were selected. After preparation with ProTaper rotary instruments, the canals were filled with gutta-percha and AH26 sealer. The teeth were randomly divided into three groups according to solvent used (n = 12) as follows: group 1: chloroform; group 2: Endosolv R; group 3: no solvent (negative control). ProTaper Universal Retreatment files were used to remove each root canal filling and then the self-adjusting file was applied for two minutes. Preoperative and postoperative micro-CT images were used to assess the percentage of residual filling material. The mean percentage of residual filling material was quantified. There were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of percentage volume of residual root canal filling.

  11. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and quality of root canal fillings in population of Zagreb, Croatia: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Matijević, Jurica; Čižmeković Dadić, Tina; Prpić Mehičić, Goranka; Anić, Ivica; Šlaj, Mladen; Jukić Krmek, Silvana

    2011-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of apical periodontitis and assess the quality of endodontic fillings in the population of the city of Zagreb, Croatia. Methods A total of 1462 orthopantomograms from new patients at 6 different dental practices was analyzed during 2006 and 2007. The presence of periapical lesions was determined by using the periapical index score (PAI). The quality of endodontic fillings was assessed according to the filling length and homogeinicity. Data were analyzed using t test and ANOVA with Scheffe post-hoc test. Results There were 75.9% of participants with endodontically treated teeth and 8.5% of all teeth were endodontically treated. Only 34.2% of endodontically treated roots had adequate root canal filling length, while 36.2% of root canal fillings had homogenous appearance. From the total number of teeth with intracanal post, 17.5% had no visible root canal filling. Using PAI 3 as a threshold value for apical periodontitis, periapical lesions were detected in 8.5% of teeth. Adequate quality of root canal fillings was associated with a lower prevalence of periapical lesions. Conclusion We found a large proportion of endodontically treated teeth with apical periodontitis and a correlation between the quality of endodontic filling and the prevalence of periapical lesions. This all suggests that it is necessary to improve the quality of endodontic treatment in order to reduce the incidence and prevalence of apical periodontitis. PMID:22180266

  12. Incidence of post-operative pain after single visit and multiple visit root canal treatment: A randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Smita; Garg, Aniket

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To compare the incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain after single or multi visit root canal treatment on single rooted teeth in a randomized controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Two hundred patients requiring root canal treatment on permanent single rooted teeth (both vital and non vital) were included. The patients were assigned randomly into two groups of 100 patients each. The teeth in Group1 (n = 100) were obturated at the first visit, whilst those in Group 2 (n = 100) were obturated in a second visit 7 days later. A modified Heft Parker visual analog scale was used to measure pre-operative pain and post-obturation pain at 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours after obturation. Independent-sample T-tests was used for statistical analysis. Results: Twelve patients were excluded from the study as they failed to follow the scheduled revisit. Data were obtained from the remaining 188 patients. There was no statistically significant difference in the incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain experienced by two groups. Conclusions: The incidence and intensity of post-obturation pain experience following one- or two-visit root canal treatment on teeth with a single canal were not significantly different. PMID:23112477

  13. Study of Root Canal Anatomy in Human Permanent Teeth in A Subpopulation of Brazil's Center Region Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography - Part 1.

    PubMed

    Estrela, Carlos; Bueno, Mike R; Couto, Gabriela S; Rabelo, Luiz Eduardo G; Alencar, Ana Helena G; Silva, Ricardo Gariba; Pécora, Jesus Djalma; Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency of roots, root canals and apical foramina in human permanent teeth using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). CBCT images of 1,400 teeth from database previously evaluated were used to determine the frequency of number of roots, root canals and apical foramina. All teeth were evaluated by preview of the planes sagittal, axial, and coronal. Navigation in axial slices of 0.1 mm/0.1 mm followed the coronal to apical direction, as well as the apical to coronal direction. Two examiners assessed all CBCT images. Statistical data were analyzed including frequency distribution and cross-tabulation. The highest frequency of four root canals and four apical foramina was found in maxillary first molars (76%, 33%, respectively), followed by maxillary second molars (41%, 25%, respectively). The frequency of four root canals in mandibular first molars was 51%. Mandibular first premolars had two root canals and two apical foramina in 29% and 20% of the cases, respectively. Mandibular central and lateral incisors and canines presented two root canals in 35%, 42% and 22% of the cases, respectively. The navigation strategy in CBCT images favors a better identification of frequency and position of roots, root canals and apical foramina in human permanent teeth.

  14. Root canal morphology of Chalcolithic and early bronze age human populations of El Mirador Cave (Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain).

    PubMed

    Ceperuelo, Dolors; Lozano, Marina; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Mercadé, Montse

    2014-12-01

    This study provides a morphological characterization of the inner anatomy of the root canals of permanent first and second molars in Chalcolithic and early Bronze Age human fossils using cone-beam computed tomography. The general evolutionary trend in present-day human dentition is related to morphological simplification. As little is known about when this trend appeared in Homo sapiens populations, the aim of this work is to test the presence of modern radicular morphology 4,400 years ago. Fifty-four permanent first and second maxillary and mandibular molars of 17 individuals were included in the study. All maxillary first and second molars showed three separate roots. Almost all the lower molars analyzed (100% of first molars and 75% of second molars) had two separate roots. More differences in the canal system configuration were documented in the maxillary mesiobuccal roots than in the palatal or distobuccal roots. The most variable tooth in root and canal configuration is the maxillary second molar. It should be pointed out that 12.5% of the teeth analyzed showed a C-shaped root configuration.

  15. Accuracy of CBCT, Digital Radiography and Cross-Sectioning for the Evaluation of Mandibular Incisor Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Assadian, Hadi; Dabbaghi, Arash; Gooran, Morteza; Eftekhar, Behrouz; Sharifi, Sanaz; Shams, Nassim; Dehghani Najvani, Ali; Tabesh, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to compare the accuracy of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), digital radiography and tooth sectioning in evaluating root canal morphology of mandibular incisors in an in vitro setting. Methods and Materials: A total of 76 samples were imaged using CBCT, and digital radiography in straight and angled views. The samples were then sectioned at different distances from the apex for further visualization under stereomicroscope. The agreement between the observers was statistically analyzed by kappa correlation coefficient and the chi-square test. Results: The results showed that the majority of the samples had a single canal (Vertucci’s Type I). CBCT analysis reported more frequent multi-canal roots in comparison with the other techniques. In pairwise comparisons, the highest agreement was found between digital radiographic imaging and microscopic cross-sectioning both in terms of canal configuration and the number of root canals. Conclusion: None of the used imaging techniques per se could adequately show the exact internal anatomical configuration in accordance with the gold standard. PMID:27141217

  16. Working Length Determination of Root Canal of Young Permanent Tooth: An In vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Diwanji, A; Rathore, AS; Arora, R; Dhar, V; Madhusudan, A; Doshi, J

    2014-01-01

    Background: Determination of correct working length is one of the keys to success in endodontic therapy. Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic efficacy of various methods to determine working length of root canal. Materials and Methods: Tactile method was assessed using digital radiography and compared with electronic method using apex locator. A total sample of 30 single rooted young permanent teeth the (mandibular first premolars) with matured apices were selected for the study. Access cavity preparation was carried out. Working length was measured by tactile method using digital radiography and electronic method using apex locator with no 15 K file. Actual working length was established by grinding of cementum and dentine from the root apex and was observed under stereomicroscope. Data was collected and statistical analysis was carried out with the help of SPSS-15. Results: The results of this study showed that there was a significant difference between tactile method assessed by digital radiography and electronic method using apex locator. Conclusion: Apex locator was found to be more reliable and accurate when compared with the actual length. PMID:25221703

  17. Apical third enlargement of the root canal and its relationship with the repair of periapical lesions

    PubMed Central

    Souza, Ronaldo Araújo; Dantas, João Costa Pinto; Brandão, Paula Maciel; Colombo, Suely; Lago, Maurício; Duarte, Marco Antônio Húngaro

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to evaluate if the apical third enlargement of root canal is the determinant factor for the repair of periapical lesions in endodontic treatment. Methods: Eighty upper and lower incisors, canines and premolars with periapical lesions were randomly divided in 2 groups and were treated by undergraduate students. Canals were instrumented with up to 3 files in group I (n = 40) and up to 4 files in group II (n = 40) 1 mm short of the apex and were filled with a calcium hydroxide dressing. After removing calcium hydroxide 14 days later, both groups were filled using the lateral condensation technique. In the 2-year follow-up, a few patients did not return, and some cases did not present conditions for accurate comparisons. Therefore, only 43 patients (24 in group I and 19 in group II) presented conditions for radiographic comparisons. Data were statistically analyzed using Fisher's exact test. Results: Comparison of the initial and follow-up radiographs showed that 22 out of 24 (91.67%) patients in group I and 17 out of 19 patients (89.47%) in group II showed repair. Statistical analysis revealed no significant differences between the groups (P>.05). Conclusion: The results of this study show that the apical third enlargement did not alter the outcome of endodontic treatment of teeth with periapical lesion performed by undergraduate students. PMID:23077417

  18. Dentin Morphology of Root Canal Surface: A Quantitative Evaluation Based on a Scanning Electronic Microscopy Study

    PubMed Central

    Lo Giudice, Giuseppe; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Centofanti, Antonio; Artemisia, Alessandro; Bramanti, Ennio; Militi, Angela; Rizzo, Giuseppina; Favaloro, Angelo; Irrera, Alessia; Lo Giudice, Roberto; Cicciù, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Dentin is a vital, hydrated composite tissue with structural components and properties that vary in the different topographic portions of the teeth. These variations have a significant implication for biomechanical teeth properties and for the adhesive systems utilized in conservative dentistry. The aim of this study is to analyse the root canal dentin going from coronal to apical zone to find the ratio between the intertubular dentin area and the surface occupied by dentin tubules varies. Observations were conducted on 30 healthy premolar teeth extracted for orthodontic reasons in patients aged between 10 and 14. A SEM analysis of the data obtained in different canal portions showed that, in the coronal zone, dentinal tubules had a greater diameter (4.32 μm) than the middle zone (3.74 μm) and the apical zone (1.73 μm). The average number of dentinal tubules (in an area of 1 mm2) was similar in coronal zone (46,798 ± 10,644) and apical zone (45,192 ± 10,888), while in the middle zone they were lower in number (30,940 ± 7,651). However, intertubular dentin area was bigger going from apical to coronal portion. The differences between the analysed areas must be considered for the choice of the adhesive system. PMID:26413504

  19. Ability of Three Endodontic Sealers to Fill the Root Canal System in Association with Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Ormiga, Fabiola; Ferreira de Assis, Danielle; de Andrade Risso, Patricia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The present study compared the ability of the endodontic sealers AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha. Methods: Ninety mandibular premolars were accessed, prepared and divided into three groups of 30 teeth each, according to the sealer used to fill the canals: AH Plus, Pulp Canal Sealer and EndoREZ. All the teeth were filled using the continuous wave of condensation technique. The specimens were then decalcified, dehydrated, rendered transparent, and analyzed by three independent evaluators with 8x magnification. Chi-squared test (χ2, p < 0.05) was used to compare the groups in relation to the totally filled, the partially filled and the non filled ramifications. The same test was used to compare the directions of filled ramifications and the number of ramifications among the three thirds of the roots. Results: EndoREZ filled a significantly higher number of ramifications than AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer (χ2, p < 0.05). All the groups showed higher number of totally filled ramifications than partially filled and unfilled ramifications. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, followed by medium and coronal thirds, respectively (χ2, p < 0.05). The ramifications were more frequently detected towards lingual direction (χ2, p < 0.05). Conclusion: EndoREZ presented higher ability to fill the root canal system in association with gutta-percha when compared to AH Plus and Pulp Canal Sealer. The ramifications were more frequently detected in the apical third, running in a lingual direction. PMID:27006719

  20. Management of the sodium hypochlorite accident: a rare but significant complication of root canal treatment

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Stephen; Wilson, Alan

    2015-01-01

    A 66-year-old female patient presented to the accident and emergency department, 3 h following a dental appointment. Significant right-sided facial swelling, bruising and pain were present. The patient had been sent by her general dental practitioner with a covering letter explaining that a hypochlorite accident had occurred during root canal treatment of the upper right first premolar tooth. An iatrogenic perforation was suspected. The patient was admitted under the care of the maxillofacial team and intravenous antibiotics, analgesia and steroids were administered. The patient was prepared for the possibility of requiring surgical intervention under a general anaesthetic. No nerve injury was encountered and the periorbital tissues were spared. A full recovery was made by the patient with no surgical intervention required but significant bruising and swelling were present up to 4 weeks following the incident. PMID:25809429

  1. An Update on the Management of Endodontic Biofilms Using Root Canal Irrigants and Medicaments

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Zahed; Soltani, Mohammad Karim; Shalavi, Sousan

    2014-01-01

    Microbial biofilm is defined as a sessile multicellular microbial community characterized by cells that are firmly attached to a surface and enmeshed in a self-produced matrix of extracellular polymeric substances. Biofilms play a very important role in pulp and periradicular pathosis. The aim of this article was to review the role of endodontic biofilms and the effects of root canal irrigants, medicaments as well as lasers on biofilms A Medline search was performed on the English articles published from 1982 to 2013 and was limited to papers published in English. The searched keywords were “Biofilms AND endodontics”, “Biofilms AND sodium hypochlorite”, "Biofilms AND chlorhexidine", "Biofilms AND MTAD", "Biofilms AND calcium hydroxide", “Biofilms AND ozone”, “Biofilms AND lasers” and "Biofilms AND nanoparticles". The reference list of each article was manually searched to find other suitable sources of information. PMID:24688576

  2. Bayesian cure rate frailty models with application to a root canal therapy study.

    PubMed

    Yin, Guosheng

    2005-06-01

    Due to natural or artificial clustering, multivariate survival data often arise in biomedical studies, for example, a dental study involving multiple teeth from each subject. A certain proportion of subjects in the population who are not expected to experience the event of interest are considered to be "cured" or insusceptible. To model correlated or clustered failure time data incorporating a surviving fraction, we propose two forms of cure rate frailty models. One model naturally introduces frailty based on biological considerations while the other is motivated from the Cox proportional hazards frailty model. We formulate the likelihood functions based on piecewise constant hazards and derive the full conditional distributions for Gibbs sampling in the Bayesian paradigm. As opposed to the Cox frailty model, the proposed methods demonstrate great potential in modeling multivariate survival data with a cure fraction. We illustrate the cure rate frailty models with a root canal therapy data set.

  3. The impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of three root canal irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Saghiri, Mohammad Ali; Delvarani, Abbas; Mehrvarzfar, Payman; Nikoo, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Karamifar, Kasra; Asgar, Kamal; Dadvand, Sahar

    2011-01-01

    Aim Cytotoxicity of root canal irrigants is important due to their close contact with host tissues. This study was to assess the possible impact of pH on cytotoxic effects of MTAD, 17% EDTA, and 2.6% NaOCl on the human gingival fibroblasts using MTT assay. Materials and methods Human gingival fibroblasts were exposed to the irrigants and their viability was assessed after 1, 6, and 12 h. The pH of the medium was measured in each interval. Light absorption values were measured for each culture medium using Elisa Reader device. Results NaOCl had significantly less cytotoxicity than EDTA and MTAD. Also irrigants cytotoxicity decreased in 12, 1, and 6 h, respectively. Conclusion It seems that variation of the pH resulted in variation in the cytotoxicity of solutions; i.e., it follows the pattern of the pH variation. PMID:23960509

  4. Interrelationships in the Variability of Root Canal Anatomy among the Permanent Teeth: A Full-Mouth Approach by Cone-Beam CT

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Ove A.; Maury, Elisabeth; Telmon, Norbert; Georgelin-Gurgel, Marie; Maret, Delphine

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In endodontic practice, clinicians should be aware of possible root canal anatomic variations. The aim of this study was to assess using CBCT acquisitions regarding whether one root canal anatomy of a tooth is associated with a specific anatomy of another tooth. Methods A total of 106 CBCT acquisitions were obtained using a CBCT scanner with 200μm voxel size. Numbers of roots and canals of the entire dentition were described. Bivariate analyses and logistic regressions were conducted to explore root canal anatomy on one tooth according to age, gender, jaw, side and the others teeth. Multiple correspondence analysis (MCA) was performed to correlate the different numbers of canals profiles. Results A total of 2424 teeth were analyzed. Independently from the other variables, the presence of an additional root canal on a mandibular incisor increases the risk of having an additional root canal on a mandibular premolar (OR [95%] 3.7 [1.0;13.2]). The mandibular molar variability increases in women compared to men (OR [95%] 0.4 [0.1; 0.9]). MCA showed correspondence between 2-canals maxillary incisor and canines and 5-canals maxillary molars, and some correlation between additional canal on maxillary and mandibular premolars. Conclusions Although CBCT examinations are conducted in the first intention of making a diagnosis or prognostic evaluation, medium FOV acquisitions could be used as an initial database thus furnishing preliminary evaluations and information. In endodontic practice, clinicians should be aware of possible root canal anatomic variations. The visualization of all canals is considered essential in endodontic therapy. The use of multi-correspondence analysis for statistics in endodontic research is a new approach as a prognostic tool. PMID:27764246

  5. Sodium hypochlorite accident resulting in life-threatening airway obstruction during root canal treatment: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Halabi, Omar A; El-Hakim, Ibrahim E

    2015-01-01

    Aim This case report describes a serious and life-threatening complication of the use of sodium hypochlorite as an irrigation solution in root canal therapy. Summary This case report describes a hypochlorite accident that occurred in a healthy 42-year-old female who was undergoing routine root canal therapy for the lower right central incisor (tooth #41). After approximately 1 hour of irrigation with 3% sodium hypochlorite (for a total of 12 cc), the patient complained of severe pain and burning in the lip. The swelling progressed over the next 8 hours to involve the sublingual and submental fascial spaces with elevation of the tongue and resultant upper airway obstruction. The patient was intubated and remained on mechanical ventilation for 3 days. She recovered without any skin necrosis or nerve deficits. Key learning points This case report highlights the importance of carefully performing root canal irrigation with sodium hypochlorite to avoid complications. Careful injection without pressure, the use of proper rubber dam isolation, and the use of the endodontic needle are necessary to avoid this type of complication. Although it is a safe root canal irrigation solution, its use may lead to life-threatening complications. Early recognition and management of the untoward effects of sodium hypochlorite are vital for the patient’s safety. PMID:25767406

  6. Application of 17% EDTA Enhances Diffusion of (45)Ca-labeled OH(-) and Ca(2+) in Primary Tooth Root Canal.

    PubMed

    Ximenes, Marcos; Cavalcanti Taguchi, Carolina Mayumi; Triches, Thaisa Cezaria; Sartori, Neimar; Pereira Dias, Luis Alberto; de Araujo, Elaine Bortoleti; Cardoso, Mariane

    2016-01-01

    Proper cleaning of the root canal is key to the success of endodontic treatment as it allows more effective diffusion of medication throughout the dentinal tubules. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate the efficacy of 17% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) in enhancing diffusion of hydroxyl (OH(-)) and calcium ions (Ca(2+)) throughout the root canal in primary teeth. The canals of 25 primary tooth roots were cleaned with endodontic files and 1% sodium hypochlorite. Three groups (G) were then established: GI, in which final irrigation was performed with 1% sodium hypochlorite; GII, in which 17% EDTA was used; and GIII, in which no irrigation was performed. The roots canals in GI and GII were filled with a calcium hydroxide-based paste labeled with the radioisotope calcium-45. Diffusion of OH(-) was detected with pH strips and Ca(2+) analyzed by measuring radioactivity in counts per min. Group II differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of OH(-) at 24 hr (p<0.05), but no significant difference among groups was found at the day 7 evaluation; GII also differed statistically from the other groups in diffusion of Ca(2+) at 24 hr (p<0.05). These results suggest that application of 17% EDTA in primary tooth enhances diffusion of OH(-) and Ca(2+).

  7. Cytotoxicity evaluation of a copaiba oil-based root canal sealer compared to three commonly used sealers in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Garrido, Angela Delfina Bittencourt; de Cara, Sueli Patricia Harumi Miyagi; Marques, Marcia Martins; Sponchiado, Emílio Carlos; Garcia, Lucas da Fonseca Roberti; de Sousa-Neto, Manoel Damião

    2015-01-01

    Background: The constant development of new root canal sealers has allowed the solution of a large number of clinical cases in endodontics, however, cytotoxicity of such sealers must be tested before their validation as filling materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxic effect of a new Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer (Biosealer [BS]) on osteoblast-like Osteo-1 cells. Materials and Methods: The experimental groups were formed according to the culture medium conditioned with the tested sealers, as follows: Control group (CG) (culture medium without conditioning); Sealer 26 (S26) - culture medium + S26; Endofill (EF) - culture medium + EF; AH Plus (AHP) - culture medium + AHP; and BS - culture medium + BS (Copaiba oil-based sealer). The conditioned culture medium was placed in contact with 2 × 104 cells cultivated on 60 mm diameter Petri dishes for 24 h. Then, hemocytometer count was performed to evaluate cellular viability, using Trypan Blue assay. The normal distribution of data was tested by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test and the values obtained for cellular viability were statistically analyzed (1-way ANOVA, Tukey's test - P < 0.05), with a significance level of 5%. Results: S26, EF and AHP presented decreased cellular viability considerably, with statistical significance compared with CG (P < 0.05). BS maintained cellular viability similar to CG (P > 0.05). Conclusion: The Copaiba oil-based root canal sealer presented promising results in terms of cytotoxicity which indicated its usefulness as a root canal sealer. PMID:25878676

  8. Frequency of Persistent Tooth Pain Following Root Canal Therapy: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Moana-Filho, Estephan J.; Law, Alan S.; McGuire, Lisa A.; Hodges, James S.; John, Mike T.

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Little is known about the frequency of persistent pain after endodontic procedures, even though pain is a core patient-oriented outcome. We estimated the frequency of persistent pain, regardless of etiology, following endondontic treatment. Methods Persistent tooth pain was defined as pain present ≥ 6 months after endodontic treatment. Endodontic procedures included in the review were pulpectomy, non-surgical root canal treatment, surgical root canal treatment, as well as retreatment. Four databases were searched electronically, complemented by hand searching. Two independent reviewers determined eligibility, abstracted data, and assessed study quality. A summary estimate of persistent all-cause tooth pain frequency was established by using a random-effects meta-analysis. Using subgroup analyses, we explored the influence of treatment approach (surgical/non-surgical), longitudinal study design (prospective/retrospective), follow-up rate, follow-up duration, initial treatment versus re-treatment, and quality of reporting (STROBE rankings) on the pain frequency estimate. Results Of 770 articles retrieved and reviewed, 26 met inclusion criteria. A total of 5,777 teeth were enrolled, and 2,996 had follow-up information regarding pain status. We identified 168 teeth with pain and derived a frequency of 5.3% (95%CI: 3.5–7.2%, p<0.001) for persistent all-cause tooth pain. High and statistically significant heterogeneity among studies (I2=80%) was present. In subgroup analysis, prospective studies had a higher pain frequency (7.6%) than retrospectives studies did (0.9%). Quality of study reporting was identified as the most influential reason for study heterogeneity. Conclusions Frequency of all-cause persistent tooth pain following endodontic procedures was estimated to be 5.3%, with higher report quality studies suggesting >7%. PMID:20113779

  9. Premolar root and canal variation in South African Plio-Pleistocene specimens attributed to Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus.

    PubMed

    Moore, N Collin; Thackeray, J Francis; Hublin, Jean-Jacques; Skinner, Matthew M

    2016-04-01

    South African hominin fossils attributed to Australopithecus africanus derive from the cave sites of Makapansgat, Sterkfontein, and Taung, from deposits dated between about 2 and 3 million years ago (Ma), while Paranthropus robustus is known from Drimolen, Kromdraai, and Swartkrans, from deposits dated between about 1 and 2 Ma. Although variation in the premolar root complex has informed taxonomic and phylogenetic hypotheses for these fossil hominin species, traditionally there has been a focus on external root form, number, and position. In this study, we use microtomography to undertake the first comprehensive study of maxillary and mandibular premolar root and canal variation in Australopithecus africanus and Paranthropus robustus (n = 166 teeth) within and between the species. We also test for correlations between premolar size and root morphology as predicted under the 'size/number continuum' (SNC) model, which correlates increasing root number with tooth size. Our results demonstrate previously undocumented variation in these two fossil hominin species and highlight taxonomic differences in the presence and frequency of particular root types, qualitative root traits, and tooth size (measured as cervix cross-sectional area). Patterns of tooth size and canal/root number are broadly consistent with the SNC model, however statistically significant support is limited. The implications for hominin taxonomy in light of the increased variation in root morphology documented in this study are discussed.

  10. Influence of the length of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation on the coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis

    PubMed Central

    Mozini, Alexandra Conca Alves; Vansan, Luis P.; Sousa Neto, Manoel D.; Pietro, Rosimeire

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the sealing ability of different lengths of remaining root canal filling and post space preparation against coronal leakage of Enterococcus faecalis. Forty-one roots of maxillary incisors were biomechanically prepared, maintaining standardized canal diameter at the middle and coronal thirds. The roots were autoclaved and all subsequent steps were undertaken in a laminar flow chamber. The canals of 33 roots were obturated with AH Plus sealer and gutta-percha. The root canal fillings were reduced to 3 predetermined lengths (n=11): G1=6 mm, G2=4 mm and G3=2 mm. The remaining roots served as positive and negative controls. Bacterial leakage test apparatuses were fabricated with the roots attached to Eppendorf tubes keeping 2 mm of apex submerged in BHI in glass flasks. The specimens received an E. faecalis inoculum of 1 x 107 cfu/mL every 3 days and were observed for bacterial leakage daily during 60 days. Data were submitted to ANOVA, Tukey’s test and Fisher’s test. At 60 days, G1 (6 mm) and G2 (4 mm) presented statistically similar results (p>0.05) (54.4% of specimens with bacterial leakage) and both groups differed significantly (p<0.01) from G3 (2 mm), which presented 100% of specimens with E. faecalis leakage. It may be concluded that the shortest endodontic obturation remnant leaked considerably more than the other lengths, although none of the tested conditions avoids coronal leakage of E. faecalis. PMID:24031339

  11. Incidence of Postoperative Pain after Single Visit and Two Visit Root Canal Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Joshi, Sonal B.; Bhagwat, S.V; Patil, Sanjana A

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Root Canal Treatment (RCT) has become a mainstream procedure in dentistry. A successful RCT is presented by absence of clinical signs and symptoms in teeth without any radiographic evidence of periodontal involvement. Completing this procedure in one visit or multiple visits has long been a topic of discussion. Aim To evaluate the incidence of postoperative pain after root canal therapy performed in single visit and two visits. Material and Methods An unblinded/ open label randomized controlled trial was carried out in the endodontic department of the Dental Institute, where 78 patients were recruited from the regular pool of patients. A total of 66 maxillary central incisors requiring root canal therapy fulfilled the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Using simple randomization by biased coin randomization method, the selected patients were assigned into two groups: group A (n=33) and group B (n=33). Single visit root canal treatment was performed for group A and two visit root canal treatment for group B. Independent sample t-test was used for statistical analysis. Results Thirty three patients were allotted to group A where endodontic treatment was completed in single visit while 33 patients were allotted to group B where endodontic treatment was completed in two visits. One patient dropped-out from Group A. Hence in Group A, 32 patients were analysed while in Group B, 33 patients were analysed. After 6 hours, 12 hours and 24 hours of obturation, pain was significantly higher in Group B as compared to Group A. However, there was no significant difference in the pain experienced by the patients 48 hours after treatment in both the groups. Conclusion Incidence of pain after endodontic treatment being performed in one-visit or two-visits is not significantly different. PMID:27437339

  12. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers.

    PubMed

    Reszka, Przemysław; Nowicka, Alicja; Lipski, Mariusz; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm) were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated.

  13. A Comparative Chemical Study of Calcium Silicate-Containing and Epoxy Resin-Based Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Reszka, Przemysław; Dura, Włodzimierz; Droździk, Agnieszka; Woźniak, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The present study assessed the chemical elements in two novel calcium silicate-containing root canal sealers, BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST, compared to a calcium silicate-containing root canal sealer that has been on the market for several years, MTA Fillapex, and epoxy resin-based sealer AHPlus. Material and Methods. The sealers were mixed and manipulated according to the manufacturers' instructions. Twelve cylindrical molds (inner diameter 4 mm; height 3 mm) were placed on a glass petri dish and packed with the materials. The dish was transferred to an incubator. After 72 h the molds were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. Results. BioRoot RCS and Well-Root ST had high peaks of calcium, zirconium, oxygen, carbon, silicon, and chlorine. Well-Root ST also had sodium, magnesium, aluminum, and titanium peaks. MTA Fillapex and AHPlus had carbon, oxygen, calcium, titanium, and bismuth peaks. A silicon peak was also observed for MTA Fillapex, and zirconium and tungsten peaks for AHPlus. Conclusion. BioRoot RSC had the highest degree of purity. The clinical implication of metals contained in the other sealers needs to be investigated. PMID:28097154

  14. Specific immunoglobulin measurements related to exposure and resistance to Schistosoma mansoni infection in Sudanese canal cleaners.

    PubMed

    Satti, M Z; Lind, P; Vennervald, B J; Sulaiman, S M; Daffalla, A A; Ghalib, H W

    1996-10-01

    The present work comprises a longitudinal study of Schistosoma mansoni infection in occupationally hyper-exposed canal cleaners in the Sudan and the influence of chemotherapy on humoral immune parameters. The study groups included chronically infected canal cleaners (n = 19), newly recruited canal cleaners (n = 17), normally exposed adults (n = 31), school children (n = 46) and Sudanese negative controls (n = 48). Previous studies of the same canal cleaners have demonstrated that chronically infected canal cleaners were more resistant to reinfection than newly recruited canal cleaners. ELISA was used to detect specific IgE and IgG subclasses in response to whole worm antigen (WWH) and soluble egg antigen (SEA) before and 3 months after praziquantel treatment in the groups of canal cleaners and before and 1 year after treatment in normally exposed adults. When intensity of infection was correlated with IgE antibody response, the resistant group of canal cleaners (those who stopped passing ova after treatment) showed a significant positive correlation between intensity of infection and specific IgE to WWH (Spearman's correlation coefficient = 0.49, P < 0.05) compared with a highly significant negative correlation in the susceptible group (acquired new infection after treatment, Spearman's correlation coefficient = -0.94, P < 0.01). Normally exposed adults and school children had significantly less specific IgE to WWH than canal cleaners, while chronically infected canal cleaners had significantly higher levels of specific IgG1 to WWH than newly recruited canal cleaners and school children, and significantly higher levels of specific IgG4 to WWH than school children. There was a significant increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to WWH, 3 months after treatment, in newly recruited canal cleaners and a significant decrease, 1 year after treatment, in normally exposed adults. None of the groups studied after treatment showed a significant change in their specific IgE to WWH

  15. Root canals decontamination by coherent photons initiated photoacustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants: an ex-vivo study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedullà, E.; Genovese, C.; Scolaro, C.; Cutroneo, M.; Tempera, G.; Rapisarda, E.; Torrisi, L.

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this ex vivo study was to assess the antibacterial effectiveness of coherent photon initiated photoacoustic streaming (PIPS) of irrigants using an Er:YAG laser equipped with a newly designed, stripped and tapered, tip in extracted teeth with infected root canals. One hundred-forty-eight single-rooted extracted teeth were prepared using a rotary abrasive instrument providing a root channel with a suitable size. The samples were sterilized and all teeth except ten (negative control group) were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis and incubated in a CO2 chamber at 37°C for 15 days in Eppendorff tubes filled with trypticase soy broth medium changed every 2 days. Infected teeth were then randomly divided into 4 test groups (n=32 for each): pulsed erbium:YAG laser at non-ablative settings for 30 seconds with sterile bi-distilled water (Group A) or 5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) (Group B); without laser activated sterile bi-distilled water irrigation for 30 seconds (Group C) or 5% NaOCl irrigation for 30 seconds (Group D); the positive control group received no treatment in infected teeth (n=10). Colony-forming units (CFUs) were counted from bacteriologic samples taken before (S1) and after treatment (S2). Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn's multiple comparison tests. CFU counts were significantly lower in groups B and D than in group C (P<0.001). Moreover, there was a significant difference between Group A and C (P<0.001). Group B showed the highest CFU reduction, which was significantly greater than that evident in groups A or C (P<0.001). There were no statistically significant differences between group B and D (P>0.05). None of the four groups predictably generated negative samples. Under the conditions of this ex vivo study, statistically significant difference wasn't found in planktonic bacteria reduction between the laser and NaOCl or NaOCl alone groups.

  16. A novel model for testing the efficiency of removal of calcium hydroxide from complex root canal anatomies.

    PubMed

    Küçükkaya Eren, Selen; Aksel, Hacer; Parashos, Peter

    2017-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of several irrigation protocols in the removal of calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] from simulated internal root resorption cavities in a complex root canal anatomy model. The 20° to 35° curved mesiobuccal roots of 94 maxillary molars were sectioned longitudinally; internal resorption cavities were prepared in the apical third of the canal walls. Calcium hydroxide was placed into the cavities and the root halves reassembled. Four teeth were used as controls, and 90 teeth were randomly divided into six experimental groups (n = 15), according to the irrigation protocols used: syringe irrigation; H2 O2 (HP); Navitip FX; Vibringe-syringe; Vibringe-NaviTip FX; ultrasonically activated irrigation (UAI) using an ultrasonic K-file. In the HP group, 2.5% NaOCl and 3% H2 O2 were used, while 2.5% NaOCl and 17% EDTA were used in the remaining groups. Stereomicroscope images and radiographs were used to measure the remaining Ca(OH)2 . The model proved to be suitable for simulating complex anatomy. Positive correlation was found between stereomicroscope and radiographic analyses (P < 0.05). UAI removed significantly more Ca(OH)2 than the other experimental groups (P < 0.05). The HP group was the least efficient protocol (P < 0.05). It would appear that a reliable model has been developed that simulates complex root canal anatomy. Irrigant activation protocols enhanced Ca(OH)2 removal.

  17. Cone-Beam Computed Tomography Assessment of Root Canal Transportation by Neoniti and Reciproc Single-File Systems

    PubMed Central

    Moazzami, Fariborz; Khojastepour, Leila; Nabavizadeh, Mohammadreza; Seied Habashi, Mina

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the canal transportation of two single-file engine-driven systems, Neoniti and Reciproc, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: Forty-five non-calcified roots with mature apices and apical curvature of 15-30 degrees were selected from extracted human maxillary molars for this study. Samples were randomly divided into two groups (n=20) and a control group (n=5) and canal preparation with either system was performed according to manufacturers' instructions. Pre- and post-instrumentation CBCT images were captured and the amount of canal transportation within the files was calculated at levels of 3, 4, and 5 mm from the apex. The independent sample t-test was used to analyze the statistical significance between the two groups. The level of significance was defined at 0.05. Results: Reciproc created more canal transportation compared to Neoniti in both mesiodistal and buccolingual directions. The difference between the two systems was statistically significant in all evaluated distances from the apex (P<0.001). During this study fracture of one file (25/0.08) in the Neoniti group occurred. Conclusion: Neoniti and Reciproc systems have significant difference in terms of creating canal transportation. Reciproc created more canal transportation in buccolingual and mesiodistal dimensions. PMID:27141215

  18. Effect of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG lasers on the mineral content of root canal dentin.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Köseoğlu, Mustafa

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effect of two different laser systems on the mineral content of root canal dentin. Thirty-six single canal-extracted mandibular premolars were used in this study. The teeth were randomly divided into two groups of 18 teeth each and prepared with a master apical file #50. Dentin chips were obtained by Gates-Glidden burs and saved in Eppendorf tubes to serve as a control. Then, root canals were treated with a erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet or neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser. Dentin chips were again obtained using Gates-Glidden. The levels of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg), sodium (Na), and potassium (K) in each specimen were measured by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry. Data were statistically analyzed by a Mann-Whitney U test. The changes in Ca, P, Mg, Ca, and K levels and the Ca/P ratio after laser irradiations were minimal and statistically not significant (p > 0.05). It was determined that the laser systems used in this study did not affect the mineral content of root canal dentin.

  19. Mechanical Behavior of a NiTi Endodontic File During Insertion in an Anatomic Root Canal Using Numerical Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legrand, V.; Moyne, S.; Pino, L.; Arbab Chirani, S.; Calloch, S.; Chevalier, V.; Arbab Chirani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Superelastic NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) have biomedical applications including rotary endodontic files. These alloys are used thanks to their flexibility, which is due to solid-solid martensitic transformation. Unfortunately, the intracanal file separation can occur during canal preparation. To avoid this problem and to have a good idea of the mechanical behavior of these instruments, finite elements simulations taking into account the real shape of root canals are proposed in this study. This is possible by using a well-adapted model describing all the particularities of SMA and representative limit conditions. The behavior model has been validated in previous studies under complex loadings. It is implemented in ABAQUS® finite elements software. The anatomic shapes of root canals are extracted by microtomography using a real tooth. They are applied as limit conditions in realized simulations to be as near as possible to clinical conditions. The mechanical behavior of an endodontic file is then simulated during insertion in a root canal without and with rotation. This permits to obtain different information like the loading applied to the instrument during its use, the stress, and the phase transformation fields through the file. This is useful not only for clinical use but also for new NiTi endodontic instruments design.

  20. Retreatability of Root Canals Obturated Using Gutta-Percha with Bioceramic, MTA and Resin-Based Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Uzunoglu, Emel; Yilmaz, Zeliha; Sungur, Derya Deniz; Altundasar, Emre

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the retreatability of root canals obturated with gutta-percha (GP) and three different endodontic sealers [iRoot SP (bioceramic sealer), MTA Fillapex (MTA-based sealer) and AH-26 (epoxy resin-based sealer)] using the ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR) system. Methods and Materials: Forty extracted single-rooted human teeth were prepared with universal ProTaper files up to F4 (40/0.06). Specimens were randomly divided into four groups according to obturation technique/material: single-cone GP/AH-26, lateral compaction of GP/AH-26, single-cone GP/iRoot SP, and single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex. Root fillings were removed with PTR. The time taken to reach the working-length (TWL) was recorded. Roots were longitudinally sectioned and each half was evaluated using a stereomicroscope. Three observers scored each third of all specimen. Obtained data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney U, Welch and Games-Howell tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: In single-cone GP/MTA Fillapex group the TWL was significantly shorter. The remnant of filling material in the apical and middle thirds of groups was similar and higher than the coronal thirds. Conclusion: None of the tested sealers were completely removed from the root canal system. PMID:25834591

  1. Cone-beam computed tomography study of the root and canal morphology of mandibular permanent anterior teeth in a Chongqing population

    PubMed Central

    Zhengyan, Yang; Keke, Lu; Fei, Wang; Yueheng, Li; Zhi, Zhou

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the root and canal morphology of permanent mandibular anterior teeth in a Chongqing population using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods CBCT images of 1,725 patients in a Chongqing population were selected, and a total of 9,646 mandibular anterior teeth were analyzed. The number of root canals and the canal configurations were investigated. Results In total, 0.3% (11/3,257) of lateral incisors and 0.8% (26/3,014) of canines had double roots, and 3.8% (127/3,375) of central incisors, 10.6% (345/3,257) of lateral incisors, and 4.2% (127/3,014) of canines had multi-root canals. The difference in the incidence of multi-canals in lateral incisors between female and male was statistically significant. The frequency of multi-canals in the different age groups was 5.0% for central incisors for ages 21–30 years, 14.7% for lateral incisors for ages 41–50 years, and 8.1% for canines for ages 41–50 years. Conclusion With the limitations of the current study, we found that a high percentage of mandibular anterior teeth had multiple canals in the studied Chinese Chongqing population. The current data may provide clinicians practicing in Chongqing with a more thorough understanding of root canal morphology. PMID:26730198

  2. Ex Vivo Comparison of Mtwo and RaCe Rotary File Systems in Root Canal Deviation: One File Only versus the Conventional Method

    PubMed Central

    Aminsobhani, Mohsen; Nozari, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Cleaning and shaping of the root canal system is an important step in endodontic therapy. New instruments incorporate new preparation techniques that can improve the efficacy of cleaning and shaping. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of Mtwo and RaCe rotary file systems in straightening the canal curvature using only one file or the conventional method. Materials and Methods: Sixty mesial roots of extracted human mandibular molars were prepared by RaCe and Mtwo nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary files using the conventional and only one rotary file methods. The working length was 18 mm and the curvatures of the root canals were between 15–45°. By superimposing x-ray images before and after the instrumentation, deviation of the canals was assessed using Adobe Photoshop CS3 software. Preparation time was recorded. Data were analyzed using three-way ANOVA and Tukey’s post hoc test. Results: There were no significant differences between RaCe and Mtwo or between the two root canal preparation methods in root canal deviation in buccolingual and mesiodistal radiographs (P>0.05). Changes of root canal curvature in >35° subgroups were significantly more than in other subgroups with smaller canal curvatures. Preparation time was shorter in one file only technique. Conclusion: According to the results, the two rotary systems and the two root canal preparation methods had equal efficacy in straightening the canals; but the preparation time was shorter in one file only group. PMID:26877736

  3. COMPARISON OF THE CLEANING EFFICACY OF THE FKG RACE SYSTEM AND HAND INSTRUMENT IN MOLAR ROOT CANAL

    PubMed Central

    SIPERT, Carla Renata; HUSSNE, Renata Pardini; NISHIYAMA, Celso Kenji

    2006-01-01

    Introduction and objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of root canal cleaning of the RaCe rotary instrumentation system (FKG Dentaire – La-Cheaux-de Fonds – Switzerland), compared to manual filing with Stainless Steel K-files (Maillefer Instruments – Ballaigues – Switzerland). Material and Method: Twenty extracted human teeth (maxillary molars) were selected and their pulp tissue was removed after coronal access. The root canals were filled with a dye (India ink) and allowed to dry for 48 hours, followed by establishment of the working length of the mesiobuccal root; then, half of the specimens were instrumented by the modified Oregon technique and the other half were instrumented by crown-down sequence of the RaCe system. After preparation, the teeth were longitudinally sectioned and evaluated according to the amount of remaining dye. Results: Data obtained were registered as numerical scores, and the arithmetic means were compared between groups using the Mann Whitney test. Both techniques were unable to completely clean the interior of the root canals, with a better performance of the manual technique only at the middle third. Conclusion: It could be concluded that the RaCe system was able to provide satisfactory cleaning, similar to that obtained by the manual instrumentation technique. PMID:19089022

  4. A comparative evaluation of electronic and radiographic determination of root canal length in primary teeth: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Krishnan, Iyer Satishkumar; Sreedharan, Sheela

    2012-01-01

    Aims: The purpose of this in vitro study was to compare the root canal length determination by Electronic apex locator (EAL) (Raypex 5) and conventional radiography, and then compare them with the actual measurements obtained by direct visualization. Settings and Design: This study was conducted at the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, Government Dental College, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala, India. Subjects and Methods: One hundred single rooted primary teeth extracted due to extensive caries, trauma, serial extraction or unwillingness of the parent to save the teeth were selected. The teeth were numbered and root canal length was determined using the visual, electronic and the radiographic methods. The actual, electronic and the radiographic measurements were recorded. Statistical Analysis Used: Data were analyzed using Intraclass correlation test and linear regression analysis. Results: The accuracy of EAL and radiographic methods were 92% and 72%, respectively within + 0.5 mm. Both the electronic and conventional radiographic methods showed a high correlation and agreement (ICC intraclass correlation coefficient = 0.99 and 0.98 respectively) with the actual measurements. Conclusions: EALs proved to be more accurate in determining the root canal length than the radiographic method. PMID:23633801

  5. [The influence of the difference of caries detective methods on the bond strength for caries affected root canal dentin].

    PubMed

    Otake, Shiho

    2010-03-01

    Firm adhesion of composite resin and dentin is the basic premise for building up resin composite cores successfully. To assess the efficacy of several caries detective methods (stained with Caries Detector and probing with sharp probe) for caries affected root canal dentin, microtensile bond strengths of resin composite to caries-affected root canal dentin and failure mode distribution were analyzed in this study. Color and hardness were used for assessment of root caries as follows: Dye stain group (pale pink stained with Caries Detector), Probing group (probing with sharp probe) and Sound dentin group (Control). The bond strengths (mean +/- standard deviation) of the Probing group (64.6 +/- 11.9 MPa) and the Sound dentin group (68.7 +/- 11.1 MPa) were significantly higher than those of the Dye stain group (46.9 +/- 7.9 MPa, p<0.05). However, there is no significant difference in fracture mode between the Dye stain group and the Probing group (p<0.05). This could be attributed to that the thick smear layer caused a loss of hybrid layer strength. In conclusion, the caries removal technique of the root canal dentin affected the bond strength of the resin composite.

  6. An in vitro evaluation of various irrigation techniques for the removal of double antibiotic paste from root canal surfaces

    PubMed Central

    GOKTURK, Hakan; OZKOCAK, Ismail; BUYUKGEBİZ, Fevzi; DEMİR, Osman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of conventional syringe irrigations, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), Vibringe, CanalBrush, XP-endo Finisher, and laser-activated irrigation (LAI) systems in removing double antibiotic paste (DAP) from root canals. Material and Methods One hundred five extracted single-rooted teeth were instrumented. The roots were split longitudinally. Three standard grooves were created and covered with DAP. The roots were distributed into seven groups: Group 1, beveled needle irrigation; Group 2, double side-vented needle irrigation; Group 3, CanalBrush; Group 4, XP-endo Finisher; Group 5, Vibringe; Group 6, PUI; Group 7, LAI. The amount of remaining DAP was scored under a stereomicroscope. Results Group 4, Group 6, and Group 7 removed significantly more DAP than the other protocols in the coronal region. Group 7 was more efficient in the middle region; however, no significant difference was found between Group 7 and Group 6. No differences were found between groups in the apical region either, except for the comparisons between groups 7 and 2, and groups 2 and 3. Conclusions None of the investigated protocols were able to completely remove the DAP from the grooves. The Vibringe and XP-endo Finisher systems showed results similar to those of conventional needle irrigation. PMID:28076461

  7. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  8. Survey of Anatomy and Root Canal Morphology of Maxillary First Molars Regarding Age and Gender in an Iranian Population Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Naseri, Mandana; Safi, Yaser; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza; Khayat, Akbar; Eftekhar, Leila

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to investigate the root and canal morphology of maxillary first molars with regards to patients’ age and gender with cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods and Materials: A total of 149 CBCT scans from 92 (67.1%) female and 57 (31.3%) male patients with mean age of 40.5 years were evaluated. Tooth length, presence of root fusion, number of the roots and canals, canal types based on Vertucci’s classification, deviation of root and apical foramen in coronal and sagittal planes and the correlation of all items with gender and age were recorded. The Mann Whitney U, Kruskal Wallis and Fisher’s exact tests were used to analyze these items. Results: The rate of root fusion was 1.3%. Multiple canals were present in the following frequencies: four canals 78.5%, five canals 11.4% and three canals 10.1%. Additional canal was detected in 86.6% of mesiobuccal roots in which Vertucci’s type VI configuration was the most prevalent followed by type II and I. Type I was the most common one in distobuccal and palatal roots. There was no statistically significant difference in the canal configurations in relation to gender and age as well as the incidence root or canal numbers (P>0.05). The mean tooth length was 19.3 and 20.3 mm in female and male patients, respectively which was statistically significant (P<0.05). Evaluation of root deviation showed that most commonly, a general pattern of straight-distal in the mesiobuccal and straight-straight for distobuccal and palatal roots occurred. In mesiobuccal roots, straight and distal deviations were more dominant in male and female, respectively (P<0.05). The prevalence of apical foramen deviation in mesiobuccal and palatal roots statistically differed with gender. Conclusion: The root and canal configuration of Iranian population showed different features from those of other populations. PMID:27790259

  9. Endodontic management of a C-shaped maxillary first molar with three independent buccal root canals by using cone-beam computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    Karanxha, Lorena; Kim, Hee-Jin; Hong, Sung-Ok; Lee, Wan; Kim, Pyung-Sik

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to present a method for endodontic management of a maxillary first molar with unusual C-shaped morphology of the buccal root verified by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images. This rare anatomical variation was confirmed using CBCT, and nonsurgical endodontic treatment was performed by meticulous evaluation of the pulpal floor. Posttreatment image revealed 3 independent canals in the buccal root obturated efficiently to the accepted lengths in all 3 canals. Our study describes a unique C-shaped variation of the root canal system in a maxillary first molar, involving the 3 buccal canals. In addition, our study highlights the usefulness of CBCT imaging for accurate diagnosis and management of this unusual canal morphology. PMID:23429761

  10. The Effects of Ni-Ti Hand Files, Ni-Ti Engine Files, and K-Flex Files on Root Canal Morphology

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-30

    of pulp tissue, debris, and irritants is necessary for healing and the proper shaping of the canal is an important factor in achieving a dense. leak...2) and Mizrahi (3) have ř shown that no instrumentation technique is totally effective in removing pulp tissue. debris, and canal irregularities...the first ni-ti root canal files that were machined from orthodontic wire. The ni-ti files were found to have two to three times more elastic

  11. Efficacy of Reciproc® and Profile® Instruments in the Removal of Gutta-Percha from Straight and Curved Root Canals ex Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Marfisi, Karem; Plotino, Gianluca; Clavel, Tatiana; Duran-Sindreu, Fernando; Roig, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To compare the efficacy of Reciproc® (VDW GmbH) and ProFile® (Dentsply Maillefer) instruments at removing gutta-percha from straight and curved root canals ex vivo filled using the cold lateral condensation and GuttaMaster® (VDW GmbH) techniques. Material and Methods Forty mesial roots of mandibular molars with two curved canals and 80 single-rooted teeth with straight root canals, a total of 160 root canals, were randomly assigned to eight groups (canals per group = 20) according to filling technique, retreatment instrument and root canal curvature as follows: Group I, cold lateral condensation/ProFile®/straight; Group II, cold lateral condensation/ProFile®/curved; Group III, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc®/straight; Group IV, cold lateral condensation/Reciproc®/curved; Group V, GuttaMaster®/ProFile®/straight; Group VI, GuttaMaster®/ProFile®/curved; Group VII, GuttaMaster®/Reciproc®/straight; and Group VIII, GuttaMaster®/Reciproc®/curved. The following data were recorded: procedural errors, retreatment duration and canal wall cleanliness. Means and standard deviations were calculated and analysed using the Kruskal-Wallis test, one-way analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (P < 0.05). Results Reciproc® instruments were significantly faster than ProFile® instruments at removing GuttaMaster® from both straight (P = 0.0001) and curved (P = 0.0003) root canals. Reciproc® were statistically more effective than ProFile® instruments in removing GuttaMaster® from straight root canals (P = 0.021). Regardless of filling technique or retreatment instrument, gutta-percha was removed more rapidly from curved than from straight root canals (P = 0.0001). Conclusions Neither system completely removed filling material from the root canals. Compared with ProFile® instruments, Reciproc® instruments removed GuttaMaster® filling material from straight and curved root canals more rapidly. PMID:26539283

  12. Retrievabilty of calcium hydroxide intracanal medicament with Chitosan from root canals: An in vitro CBCT volumetric analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vineeta, Nikhil; Gupta, Sachin; Chandra, Aditi

    2014-01-01

    Aim: This study compared the amount of aqueous-based and oil-based calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2 ] remaining in the canal, after removal with two different chelators 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan in combination with ultrasonic agitation. Materials and Methods: Cleaning and shaping of root canals of 28 mandibular premolar was done and canals were filled either with Metapex or Ca(OH)2 mixed with distilled water. Volumetric analysis was performed utilizing cone beam-computed tomography (CBCT) after 7 days of incubation. Ca(OH)2 was removed using either 17% EDTA or 0.2% Chitosan in combination with ultrasonic agitation. Volumetric analysis was repeated and percentage difference was calculated and statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: Both the chelators failed to remove aqueous-based as well as oil-based Ca(OH)2 completely from the root canal. Aqueous-based Ca(OH)2 was easier to be removed than oil-based Ca(OH)2. 0.2% Chitosan was significantly more effective for removal of oil-based Ca(OH)2 (P < 0.01) while both 17% EDTA and 0.2% Chitosan were equally effective in removing aqueous-based Ca(OH)2 . Conclusion: Combination of 0.2% Chitosan and ultrasonic agitation results in lower amount of Ca(OH)2 remnants than 17% EDTA irrespective of type of vehicle present in the mix. PMID:25298647

  13. Wear of the Primary WaveOne single file when shaping vestibular root canals of first maxillary molar

    PubMed Central

    Borie, Eduardo; Betancourt, Pablo; Aracena, Angella; Guzmán, Mario

    2017-01-01

    Background It is very important for a clinician to know the increased wear of mechanized files when establishing endodontic therapy. The aim of this study was to check the wear of the Primary WaveOne file upon shaping two, four and six maxillary molar vestibular canals. Material and Methods The deterioration of 40 files, divided into four groups, was evaluated microscopically: group 1, control (unused); group 2, two canals; group 3, four canals; and group 4, six canals. After instrumentation, the files were embedded in resin and sectioned at their apical third into three equal parts. To analyze the wear of edges in the different sections, AutoCAD software was used and analysis of variance (ANOVA) was then performed to compare the mean rake angles. Results The files with two and four uses showed slight wear, whereas those with six applications showed significant wear (p<0.05). Conclusions Primary WaveOne files can be used in up to four root canals without their edges losing effectiveness. Key words:Files wear, reciprocating motion, shaping capacity, WaveOne. PMID:28298976

  14. A survey of interfacial forces used during filing of root canals.

    PubMed

    Regan, J D; Sherriff, M; Meredith, N; Gulabivala, K

    2000-06-01

    The pattern of dentine removal during endodontic instrumentation is influenced by many factors including the interfacial forces applied by the operator. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of operators and different sizes and types of instruments on the magnitude of these interfacial forces. Single-rooted teeth were mounted on a cantilevered aluminium beam to which two pairs of single element strain gauges were joined in a half-bridge configuration and mounted at right angles to each other. The strain gauges were connected to an analogue-to-digital converter fitted in a micro-computer via conditioning amplifiers. This enabled strains to be recorded over a period of time. Twenty operators instrumented root canals using a series of hand instruments for 1 min each. The mean interfacial forces used by operators demonstrated a wide variation ranging from 9.06 g to 149.42 g (range of forces from 0-331 g) but there was a consistency in the relative magnitude for each operator. The 20 operators could be divided into 13 groups which were significantly different (alpha = 0.05) from each other. There were significant differences (alpha = 0.05) between the forces used for each of the K-Flex files (15, 25, 35, 45, and 70), the force increasing with the file size. There was also a significant difference (alpha = 0.05) in the forces used between the Flexofile (#25) and the #25 K-Flex and Hedström files. However, there was no significant difference between the K-Flex and Hedström files.

  15. SEM evaluation of smear layer removal by Er:YAG laser in root canals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brugnera, Aldo, Jr.; Roe, Iain M.; Guerisoli, Danilo M.; Barbizam, Joao Vicente B.; Pecora, Jesus D.

    2002-06-01

    The effects of two endodontic irrigants associated or not with Er:YAG laser on a smear layer created by hand instrumentation were evaluated in vitro in the middle and apical thirds of root canals. Twenty five human maxillary canines with a single root were distributed randomly into five groups of five teeth each. Group 1 was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite 1.0%, Group 2 received EDTAC 15% as irrigating solution and Group 3 received both NaClO 1.0% and EDTAC 15%. Group 4 was irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Group 5 received NaClO 1.0% as irrigating solution and was irradiated with Er:YAG laser. Teeth were split longitudinally and prepared for examination under scanning electron microscopy. The teeth irrigated with NaClO (Group 1) showed the higher amount of smear layer, with statistically significant differences (p<0.05) from the teeth irrigated with distilled water and irradiated with Er:YAG laser (Group 4), which showed intermediate amounts of smear layer. The teeth irrigated with EDTAC 15%, NaClO 1.0% associated with EDTAC 15% and NaClO 1.0% with Er:YAG laser (Groups 2,3 and 5) showed the lowest amounts of smear layer, being statistically similar between them and different (p<0.05) from Groups 1 and 4. There were no differences between the radicular thirds. It can be concluded that irradiation with Er:YAG laser can be as effective as EDTAC 15% when used associated with 1.0% sodium hypochlorite, but not as effective when used together with distilled water.

  16. Chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by root canal overfilling of Calcipex II

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jin-Woo; Cho, Kyung-Mo; Park, Se-Hee; Park, Soh-Ra; Lee, Sang-Shin

    2014-01-01

    This is a case report of chronic maxillary sinusitis caused by root canal overfilling of Calcipex II (Techno-Dent). A 60 year-old male complained of dull pain in the right maxillary molar area after complicated endodontic treatment using Calcipex II paste and was finally diagnosed with a chronic maxillary sinusitis through a clinical and radiological observation. In the biopsy examination, the periapical granuloma contained a lot of dark and translucent Calcipex II granules which were not stained with hematoxylin and eosin. They were usually engulfed by macrophages but rarely resorbed, resulting in scattering and migrating into antral mucosa. Most of the Calcipex II granules were also accumulated in the cytoplasms of secretory columnar epithelial cells, and small amount of Calcipex II granules were gradually secreted into sinus lumen by exocytosis. However, chronic granulomatous inflammation occurred without the additional recruitment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and lymphocytes, and many macrophages which engulfed the Calcipex II granules were finally destroyed in the processes of cellular apoptosis. It is presumed that Calcipex II granules are likely to have a causative role to induce the granulomatous foreign body inflammation in the periapical region, and subsequently to exacerbate the chronic maxillary sinusitis in this study. PMID:24516832

  17. A clinical trial of pulpotomy vs. root canal therapy of mature molars.

    PubMed

    Asgary, S; Eghbal, M J

    2010-10-01

    Root canal therapy (RCT) and tooth extraction are the main treatment options for irreversible pulpitis or its sequelae. Pulpotomy is an alternative treatment; however, more evidence is required. If outcomes of pulpotomy with a calcium-enriched mixture (PCEM) are non-inferior for mature molars with irreversible pulpitis compared with those from one-visit RCT (ORCT), this may be a beneficial treatment option. Four hundred seven individuals met the inclusion criteria and were randomly allocated [PCEM (n = 205), ORCT (n = 202)]. We used NRS questionnaires to record pain intensity. Six-month clinical and radiographic successes were assessed. Individuals in the ORCT arm reported significantly more post-operative pain than those in the PCEM arm (P < 0.001). Clinical success rates in the two arms showed no statistically significant difference; however, the radiographic success rates were significantly greater in the PCEM arm (P < 0.001). This trial suggests PCEM as an alternative for treatment of irreversible pulpitis. If long-term results confirm initial ones, PCEM may revolutionize oral health worldwide.

  18. Epiphany root canal sealer prepared with resinous solvent is irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Daleffe, Élcio; Vieira-Ozório, José E.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the biocompatibility of the Epiphany endodontic sealer prepared with resinous solvent of Epiphany system (Thinning resin) in rat subcutaneous tissues. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes were filled with the sealer and 4 groups were established: GI, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of resinous solvent (RS); GII, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated; GIII, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer and prepared with 1 drop of RS; GIV, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer, prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated. The filled tubes were implanted into 4 different regions of the dorsum of 20 adult male rats. Results: After 7, 14 and 21 days, all groups presented a moderate to severe chronic inflammation, necrosis and foreign-body giant cells. At 42 days, although the intensity of chronic inflammatory reaction decreased, the other features still were observed. Conclusion: The Epiphany sealer prepared with the RS was irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues. Key words:Biocompatibility, Epiphany, methacrylate resin sealer, resinous solvent, root canal sealer. PMID:22322512

  19. A novel vending machine for supplying root canal tools during surgery.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Carl A; Hossain, S G M; Al-Okaily, Ala'a; Ong, Jason

    2012-02-01

    A root canal surgery involves the successive use of several tools one after another. Typically dozens of tools are laid out for possible use, and the process of tool selection is done manually. This is a rather inefficient process and uses up a large area on the mobile cart or cabinet of the dental chair due to the large number of tools. In this article, a novel 'tool vending machine' is introduced which will be capable of solving those problems and at the same time move a step closer to robot-assisted dental surgery. The tool vending machine was designed considering the needs of the dentists and also from the perspective of the entire product life cycle. For these reasons the design process was implemented using a rigorous analysis of effective manufacturing processes and product quality. To show the feasibility of using such a machine in improving work efficiency during operations, a study of the associated motion patterns and the required time increments were demonstrated.

  20. Radiopacity evaluation of new root canal filling materials by digitalization of images.

    PubMed

    Tanomaru-Filho, Mário; Jorge, Erica Gouveia; Guerreiro Tanomaru, Juliane Maria; Gonçalves, Marcelo

    2007-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radiopacity of five root canal filling materials (AH Plus, Intrafill, Roeko Seal, Epiphany, and EndoRez). Following the International Organization of Standardization 6876/2001, five circular specimens (10 x 1 mm) were made from each material. After the material set, radiographs were made using occlusal film and a graduated aluminum step-wedge varying in thickness from 2 to 16 mm. The dental X-ray unit (GE1000) was set at 50 Kvp, 10 mA, 18 pulses/second, and distance of 33.5 cm. The radiographs were digitized, and the radiopacity was compared with the aluminum step-wedge, using WIXWIN-2000 software (Gendex). Data (mm Al) were analyzed using ANOVA and Tukey tests. AH Plus and Epiphany were the most radiopaque materials (9.8 and 8.8 mm Al, respectively), followed by EndoRez (7.2 mm Al). Roeko Seal and Intrafill presented the lowest radiopacity values (5.7 and 6.1 mm Al, respectively). Although the materials evaluated demonstrated different radiopacities, all had values above the minimum recommended by the International Organization of Standardization.

  1. The Efficacy of Passive Ultrasonic Activation of Organic Solvents on Dissolving Two Root Canal Sealers

    PubMed Central

    Trevisan, Letícia; Huerta, Isadora Razzera; Michelon, Carina; Bello, Mariana De Carlo; Pillar, Rafael; Souza Bier, Carlos Alexandre

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the dissolving efficacy of eucalyptol and orange oil solvents associated with passive ultrasonic activation (PUA) in zinc oxide-eugenol (ZOE) based and epoxy resin-based root canal sealers. Methods and Materials: Seventy samples of each sealer were prepared and then randomized according to the solvent and the time of the ultrasonic activation (n=5). The mean amount of weight loss of sealers was calculated in percentages and was analyzed by using the Kruskal-Wallis and Bonferroni post-hoc tests. Results: The greatest values of weight loss were obtained with the ZOE sealer groups (P<0.05), regardless of the solvent that was used. An application of PUA for 3 min, with a renewal of orange oil solvent each min, showed the greatest percentage of weight loss in ZOE sealer compared to the others templates (P<0.05). Neither the solvent nor the different times had any influence on the weight loss of the resin sealer (P>0.05). Conclusion: The application of PUA with essential oils can be an effective method in dissolving ZOE based sealers. PMID:28179919

  2. In vitro evaluation of the antibacterial activity of five sealers used in root canal therapy

    PubMed Central

    Hasheminia, Mohsen; Razavian, Hamid; Mosleh, Hamid; Shakerian, Babak

    2017-01-01

    Background: Antibacterial activity is one of the important characteristics of an ideal root canal sealer. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of five different sealers against Enterococcus faecalis using two different methods. Materials and Methods: The mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) Fillapex, Tg-sealer, Endomethasone, AH-26, and RoekoSeal sealers were placed into the brain heart infusion (BHI) culture medium containing E. faecalis (PTCC1393). The diameter of the bacterial zone of inhibition was measured. In the direct contact test, a suspension containing grinded set sealers and E. faecalis bacteria was cultured in BHI after 6, 15, and 60 min. The number of colonies in milliliter was calculated. Data were subjected to one-way ANOVA and Tukey's multiple comparisons test (P < 0.05). Results: In the agar diffusion test, Endomethasone had the highest antibacterial activity against E. faecalis compared to other sealers (P < 0.001). In the direct test, the antibacterial effect of MTA Fillapex was significantly higher than that of all other sealers (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The technique and components of the tested sealers affect the antibacterial activity results. This study showed that all of sealers had antimicrobial effect. PMID:28348620

  3. Glycerol salicylate-based containing α-tricalcium phosphate as a bioactive root canal sealer.

    PubMed

    Portella, Fernando F; Collares, Fabrício M; Dos Santos, Luís A; dos Santos, Bruno P; Camassola, Melissa; Leitune, Vicente C B; Samuel, Susana M W

    2015-11-01

    The use of bioactive materials instead of inert materials to fill the root canal space could be an effective approach to achieve a hermetic seal and stimulate the healing of periapical tissues. The purpose of this study was to develop and characterize an endodontic sealer based on a glycerol salicylate resin and α-tricalcium phosphate (αTCP) at physical and chemical properties. Different sealers were formulated using 70% of a glycerol salicylate resin and 30% of a mixture of calcium hydroxide and αTCP (0, 5, 10, or 15%, in weight). Sealers formulated were characterized based on setting time, in vitro degradation over time, pH, cytotoxicity, and mineral deposition. Sealers presented setting time ranging from 240 to 405 min, and basic pH over 8.21 after 28 days. Higher αTCP concentration leads to sealers with low solubility. Cell viability after 48 h in direct contact with sealers was similar to a commercial sealer used as reference. The 10% and 15% αTCP sealers exhibited a calcium-phosphate layer on the surface after immersion in water and SBF for 7 days. Glycerol salicylate sealers with 10% and 15% α-tricalcium phosphate showed reliable physical-chemical properties and apatite-forming ability.

  4. Evaluation of the Apical Sealability of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate and Portland Cement as Root Canal Filling Cements: An in Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Rekab, M.S.; Ayoubi, H. Rushdi

    2010-01-01

    Objective: One of the principle purposes of root canal obturation is to obtain hermetic sealing of the root canal system. According to the development of technology, many materials are now used in root canal filling. An in vitro dye leakage study was performed to evaluate the apical sealability of White-colored Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Gray-colored Portland Cement (GPC) when used alone or as a sealer with gutta-percha points in root canal filling. Materials and Methods: Seventy-five single-rooted extracted human teeth were used in this study. After cleaning and shaping, the teeth were randomly divided into five equal groups of 15 teeth each based on the root canal filling material used; Group 1, (WMTA) alone; Group 2, (GPC) alone; Group 3, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA); Group 4, (Gutta-percha points + GPC); Group 5, (Gutta-percha points + AH26). Methylene blue was used to determine the apical leakage. After sectioning the teeth longitudinally, linear dye penetration was measured with a caliper under the stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and one-way ANOVA tests with (P ≤ 0.05) as the level of significance. Results: The results showed that there were no statistically significant differences among the materials of five groups. Conclusion: (WMTA) alone, (Gutta-percha points + WMTA), (GPC) alone and (Gutta-percha points + GPC) may be used in the root canal filling. PMID:21998797

  5. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, Baby; Priya, Geetha; Kumar, S

    2017-01-01

    Aim To evaluate the antimicrobial efficacy of diode laser, triphala, and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) against Enterococc-cus faecalis contaminated primary root canals. Materials and methods Forty-nine single-rooted human primary teeth were reduced up to cemento-enamel junction and biomechanically prepared. After sterilization, five teeth were selected as negative controls and remaining teeth were inoculated with E. faecalis. The teeth were then randomly divided into four groups. The first group was irradiated with diode laser, the second group was irrigated with sodium hypochlorite, and the third group with triphala solution. The fourth group served as the positive control. The antimicrobial efficacy was tested by collecting transfer fluid saline from the canals and counting the colony forming units (CFUs) of viable E. faecalis on agar plates. The Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results, using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software version 19. Results The results showed that mean bacterial CFU were 8.00 ± 7.87 for laser, 58.60 ± 16.63 for triphala, and 69.80 ± 19.57 for NaOCl. Laser group showed significant reduction in the colony count compared to the other groups. Triphala group showed better antibacterial activity than NaOCl, but the difference was not statistically significant. Conclusion Laser was most effective against E. faecalis and triphala can be used as an alternative disinfectant to NaOCl in primary root canals. How to cite this article Thomas S, Asokan S, John B, Priya G, Kumar S. Comparison of Antimicrobial Efficacy of Diode Laser, Triphala, and Sodium Hypochlorite in Primary Root Canals: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2017;10(1):14-17. PMID:28377648

  6. Apical microleakage of different root canal sealers after use of maleic acid and EDTA as final irrigants.

    PubMed

    Ulusoy, Ozgür Ilke; Nayir, Yelda; Celik, Kezban; Yaman, Sis Darendeliler

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and maleic acid (MA) on the sealing ability of various root canal sealers. Eighty root canals were instrumented and irrigated with either EDTA or MA. They were divided into eight experimental groups and obturated as follows: Group 1: MA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 2: EDTA + Hybrid Root SEAL/gutta-percha. Group 3: MA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 4: EDTA + iRoot SP/gutta-percha. Group 5: MA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 6: EDTA + EndoREZ/EndoREZ points. Group 7: MA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Group 8: EDTA + AH Plus/gutta-percha. Another ten roots were used as negative and positive controls. The microleakage of each sample was measured at 2-min intervals for 8 min using the fluid filtration method. Data were statistically analyzed with one-way ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey, and paired-samples t tests. The minimum microleakage values were obtained from the teeth obturated with AH Plus and EndoREZ selaers (p < 0.001). The samples with Hybrid Root SEAL showed the maximum leakage (p < 0.001). There were significant differences between the groups irrigated with MA or EDTA in terms of microleakage (p < 0.05). Use of MA resulted in higher microleakage values compared with those using EDTA. The type of final irrigation solution seems to influence the postobturation apical seal. Use of AH Plus and EndoREZ sealers showed better sealing ability compared with IRoot SP and Hybrid Root SEAL.

  7. A Comparative Study on Root Canal Repair Materials: A Cytocompatibility Assessment in L929 and MG63 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Yuqing; Zheng, Qinghua; Zhou, Xuedong; Gao, Yuan; Huang, Dingming

    2014-01-01

    Cytocompatibility of repair materials plays a significant role in the success of root canal repair. We conducted a comparative study on the cytocompatibility among iRoot BP Plus, iRoot FS, ProRoot MTA, and Super-EBA in L929 cells and MG63 cells. The results revealed that iRoot FS was able to completely solidify within 1 hour. iRoot BP Plus required 7-day incubation, which was much longer than expected (2 hours), to completely set. ProRoot MTA and Super-EBA exhibited a similar setting duration of 12 hours. All the materials except Super-EBA possessed negligible in vitro cytotoxicity. iRoot FS had the best cell adhesion capacity in both L929 and MG63 cells. With rapid setting, negligible cytotoxicity, and enhanced cell adhesion capacity, iRoot FS demonstrated great potential in clinical applications. Future work should focus on longer-term in vitro cytocompatibility and an in vivo assessment. PMID:24526893

  8. Comparative evaluation of antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Babaji, Prashant; Jagtap, Kiran; Lau, Himani; Bansal, Nandita; Thajuraj, S.; Sondhi, Priti

    2016-01-01

    Aim and Objectives: Successful root canal treatment involves the complete elimination of microorganism from the root canal and the three-dimensional obturation of the canal space. Enterococcus faecalis is the most commonly found bacteria in failed root canal. Chemical irrigation of canals along with biomechanical preparation helps in the elimination of microorganisms. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial effect of herbal root canal irrigants (Morinda citrifolia, Azadirachta indica extract, Aloe vera) with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl). Materials and Methods: The bacterial E. faecalis (ATCC) culture was grown overnight in brain heart infusion (BHI) broth and inoculated in Mueller–Hinton agar plates. Antibacterial inhibition was assessed using agar well diffusion method. All five study irrigants were added to respective wells in agar plates and incubated at 37°C for 24 h. Bacterial inhibition zone around each well was recorded. Results were tabulated and statistically analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences software for Windows, version 19.0. (IBM Corp., Armonk, NY. Results: Highest inhibitory zone against E. faecalis was seen in NaOCl fallowed by M. citrifolia and A. indica extract, and the least by A. vera extract. Conclusion: Tested herbal medicine (A. indica extract, M. citrifolia, A. vera) showed inhibitory zone against E. faecalis. Hence, these irrigants can be used as root canal irrigating solutions. PMID:27382533

  9. An in vitro comparative study of the adaptation and sealing ability of two carrier-based root canal obturators.

    PubMed

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability.

  10. In vitro Comparison of Apical Debris Extrusion Using Rotary and Reciprocating Systems in Severely Curved Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Delvarani, Abbas; Mohammadzadeh Akhlaghi, Nahid; Aminirad, Raana; Tour Savadkouhi, Sohrab; Vahdati, Seyed Aliakbar

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris after root canal preparation using rotary and reciprocating systems in severely curved root canals. Methods and Materials: Thirty six extracted human mandibular first molars with 25-35° curvature in their mesiobuccal (MB) canal (according to Schneider’s method) were cleaned and shaped with ProTaper and WaveOne systems. The extruded debris was collected and their net weight was calculated. To compare the efficiency of the two systems, the operation time was also measured. The data were analyzed with t-test. Results: The amount of extruded debris in WaveOne group was significantly greater in comparison with ProTaper group (26%). The operating time for ProTaper was however, significantly longer than WaveOne. Conclusion: Both root preparation systems caused some degree of debris extrusion through the apical foramen. However, this amount was greater in WaveOne instruments. PMID:28179921

  11. Preparation time and perceptions of Brazilian specialists and dental students regarding simulated root canals for endodontic teaching: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    dos S Luz, Diandra; de S Ourique, Fernanda; Scarparo, Roberta K; Vier-Pelisser, Fabiana V; Morgental, Renata D; Waltrick, Silvana B G; de Figueiredo, José A P

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the desirability of alternative models of artificial teeth versus extracted natural teeth for use in preclinical dental education. Specifically, the study was designed to compare the preparation time and perceptions of difficulty of undergraduate dental students and endodontists in carrying out root canal preparations on resin models (both clear and opaque) and extracted natural teeth. Twenty participants-ten fifth-year students at a Brazilian dental school and ten endodontists with at least five years' experience in the specialty-performed root canal instrumentation on two samples of each model. Preparation times were recorded, and the participants completed a questionnaire about the anatomical and physical characteristics of these models. The results showed that the time required for performing endodontic procedures in the natural teeth was higher than in the alternative models. The perceptions of the students and specialists regarding some topics on the questionnaire were significantly different. The students had more positive opinions about artificial teeth made of opaque resin, while the specialists had more positive opinions about simulated root canals in clear resin blocks. This study suggests that neither of the alternative models fulfilled requirements to replace natural teeth in endodontic teaching; improvements are still necessary to accomplish this goal.

  12. Er:YAG and alexandrite laser radiation propagation in the root canal and its effect on bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Duskova, Jana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shoji, Shigeru; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal

    1999-05-01

    The goal of the study was to verify differences between the alexandrite and Er:YAG laser energy distribution in the root canal and in the surrounding dentin and bone tissues. For the experiment, two lasers were prepared: the Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) with a delivery system fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide ended by a special sapphire tip and the alexandrite laser (λ=0.75 μm) with a silicon fiber. The Er:YAG laser was operated in a free-running mode, the length of the generated pulses was 250 μsec and the output energy ranged from 100 to 350 mJ. The pulse length of the free- running alexandrite laser was 70 μsec and the output energy was ranged from 80 up to 200 mJ. For the experiment prepared root canals of molars were used. It was ascertained that the radiation of the alexandrite laser passes through the root canal and hits the surrounding tissue. Nocardia asteroids, Filaments, Micrococcus albus, Lactobacillus sp and Streptococcus sanguis colonies were treated by the Er:YAG or alexandrite laser radiation. The surface was checked by scanning electron microscopy. From the result it follows that the Er:YAG laser destroyed microbial colonies but the differences is in the depth of the affected area.

  13. An In Vitro Comparative Study of the Adaptation and Sealing Ability of Two Carrier-Based Root Canal Obturators

    PubMed Central

    Alkahtani, Ahmed; Al-Subait, Sara; Anil, Sukumaran

    2013-01-01

    The study was done to assess the sealing ability and adaptation of RealSeal 1, and to compare it with Thermafil. 65 single-rooted extracted teeth were selected and root canal treatment was performed. Root canals were obturated with RealSeal 1 or Thermafil. A double chamber bacterial leakage model using E. faecalis was developed to assess the sealing ability. Samples were monitored daily for 60 days. After the bacterial leakage test, samples were embedded in resin and sectioned horizontally at 2 and 4 mm from the apical foramen. Specimens were examined under scanning electron microscope and digitally photographed. AutoCAD software was used to measure the gap between the canal surface and obturation material. Results were statistically analyzed using nonparametric Kaplan-Meier survival analysis for the bacterial leakage and t-test to compare the means of gap in RealSeal 1 and Thermafil at 2 and 4 mm. There was no significant difference between the RealSeal 1 and Thermafil with respect to leakage over time. At 2 mm and 4 mm, RealSeal 1 had significantly more gaps than Thermafil. From the observations it can be concluded that RealSeal 1 and Thermafil have comparable performance in terms of adaptation and sealing ability. PMID:23710141

  14. Different ultrasonic vibration protocols and their effects on retention of post-and-core to root canal.

    PubMed

    Braga, Neilor Mateus Antunes; Brito, Manoel; da Silva, Juliana Monteiro; Miranda, Lilian Souto; de Carvalho, Jacy Ribeiro; Faria-e-Silva, Andre Luis

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different ultrasonic vibration protocols on custom cast post-and-cores' retention to the root canal. Post holes were placed in the root canals of human maxillary canines, and post-and-core sets were luted, using zinc phosphate cement. The samples were divided into 5 groups (n = 8). Group 1 (control) received no ultrasonic vibration. For the other samples, the tip of the ultrasonic device was positioned either over the incisal face of the core (Group 2), over the lateral core surfaces and close to the incisal edge (Group 3), over the lateral face of the core but close to the line of cementation (Group 4), or over the lateral face of the core but with the end of the mouth mirror handle positioned on the opposite surface of the core (Group 5). After a tensile test, data were submitted to 2-way ANOVA and Tukey's tests (P < 0.05). The control group showed higher values than all of the groups that were submitted to ultrasonic vibration. Bond strength was similar for Groups 2 and 3. Bond strength was lower in Groups 4 and 5; no statistical difference was observed between these 2 groups. Based on these results, both positioning the tip of the ultrasonic device near the cement line and placing a mouth mirror handle on the opposite surface of the core, are effective ways to reduce the retention of a cast post-and-core within a root canal.

  15. Antibacterial substantivity of Carvacrol and sodium hypochlorite in infected bovine root dentin

    PubMed Central

    Sharifian, Mohammad Reza; Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Aligholi, Marzieh; Emaneini, Mohammad; Alizadeh, Javad

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Various methods commonly used for cleaning and shaping root canals have not been successful in completely eradicating bacteria due to anatomic complexity and root canals irregularities. Disinfecting the canals with intracanal irrigants in addition to proper cleaning and shaping can produce a successful outcome. Antimicrobials with sustained antibacterial activity would be desirable for irrigation. The purpose of this study was to compare the antimicrobial substantivity of Carvacrol and 5.25% NaOCl in infected bovine root dentin. MATERIALS AND METHODS: One hundred and twenty dentin tubes prepared from bovine incisors were infected in vitro for 14 days with Enterococcus (E) faecalis. The specimens were divided into four groups including 1) Carvacrol, 2) NaOCl, 3) infected dentin tubes (positive control); and 4) sterile dentin tubes (negative control). Dentin chips were collected at five intervals (days 0, 1, 3, 7 and 28) using round burs with sequentially increasing diameters (which includes five layers of dentin) into Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth. In order to compare the pre- and post-irrigation antimicrobial activity of the irrigants the colony-forming units (CFU) were counted and classified as ‘CFU-before’ and ‘CFU-after’. After culturing, the number of CFU with the various experimental time and dentinal layers was recounted. Two-way ANOVA test was used to analyze the effects of time and materials. One-way ANOVA and supplemental Tukey HSD test were used for pair comparison. RESULTS: CFU was significantly reduced in NaOCl group when compared to all other experimental groups (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: The substantivity of NaOCl was significantly greater than Carvacrol. Further studies are required to investigate and approve Carvacrol as a final irrigant. PMID:23940484

  16. In vitro study of the effect of aged eugenol on the flow, setting time and adhesion of Grossman root canal sealer.

    PubMed

    Mendonça, S C; de Carvalho Júnior, J R; Guerisoli, D M; Pécora, J D; de Sousa-Neto, M D

    2000-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of aged eugenol (up to 180 days) on the flow, setting time and adhesion of Grossman root canal sealer was evaluated, following the American Dental Association specification number 57 for root canal sealers. An Instron Universal testing machine 4444 was used for testing adhesion. There were statistically significant differences between groups, with a higher flow, lower setting time and adhesion for aged eugenol. It can be concluded that time affects eugenol, with consequent effects on Grossman sealer.

  17. In vitro study of the apical microleakage with resilon root canal filling using different final endodontic irrigants

    PubMed Central

    Lahor-Soler, Eduard; Brunet-Llobet, Lluís; Farré, Magí; Pumarola, Josep

    2015-01-01

    Background Endodontic microleakage or microfiltration refers to the percolation of fluids and micro-organisms at the interface of the obturation material and the walls of the root canal system. The aim of this in vitro study was to compare apical microfiltration of Resilon root canal filling by employing three different final irrigant solutions. Material and Methods 128 single-rooted teeth were employed. The crowns were sectioned horizontally at the cemento-enamel junction and instrumented with 5.25% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% EDTA gel to obtain an instrumented 040 apical caliber. An intermediate irrigation was performed with distilled water. The roots were then randomly assigned to three experimental groups with three different final irrigants: (A) 20% citric acid (CA); (B) 2% chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX); and (C) 5.25% NaOCl, plus two control groups (positive and negative). They were then dried, obturated with RealSeal™, and cleared by Robertson’s technique. Apical microleakage was measured by the dye penetration method and assessed with a 4.5x stereomicroscope. Data were statistically analyzed by one way ANOVA and post hoc analysis for multiple comparisons. Results Mean and standard deviations for apical microleakage were: 2% CHX (0.24 mm ± 0.22), 20% CA (0.25 mm ± 0.20), and 5.25% NaOCl (0.87 mm ± 0.32). Significant differences were reported among the group irrigated with NaOCl, CHX and CA (P<0.001). Conclusions A higher rate of apical microleakage was observed when the final irrigation was performed with NaOCl whilst lower rates were reported for CHX and CA. Key words:Apical filtration, endodontic irrigation, resin-based sealers, adhesion, root canal filling. PMID:26155335

  18. Effect of gaseous ozone and light-activated disinfection on the surface hardness of resin-based root canal sealers.

    PubMed

    Tuncay, Öznur; Er, Özgür; Demirbuga, Sezer; Zorba, Yahya Orçun; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan

    2016-01-01

    Although root canal instruments remove most of the content from the main root canal space, disinfection or irrigation plays an indispensable role in all areas of the root canal system, especially in parts that are inaccessible by instruments. The originality of this study was to investigate the effect of two novel disinfection techniques on the surface hardness of resin-based endodontic sealers using atomic force microscopy (AFM). Forty extracted single-rooted maxillary central human teeth were prepared and divided into four groups according to treatment methods. The first group was irrigated with saline and served as a control, other groups irrigated with sodium hypochlorite (NaClO); gaseous ozone; and light-activated disinfection (LAD). The groups were divided into two subgroups, according to the obturation method used: subgroup A: gutta-percha and AH plus; and subgroup B: EndoREZ/resin-coated cones. After obturation, atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurement was performed to analyze the surface hardness of the sealers. There was a significant difference between group 1A and group 3A (p < 0.05). Group 3B had the highest surface hardness values that were statistically different (p < 0.05). When disregarding the sealers, the ozone possessed statistically higher surface hardness values than the other groups in all root thirds (p < 0.05). The use of ozone and LAD may alter the surface hardness of resin-based sealers. The use of AFM can be considered an alternative hardness test techonology for sealing material.

  19. Fusarium solani fungal infection of the lateral line canal system in captive scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) in Hawaii.

    PubMed

    Crow, G L; Brock, J A; Kaiser, S

    1995-10-01

    Two of five scalloped hammerhead sharks (Sphyrna lewini) captured May 1987 in Hawaii (USA) developed granulomatous exudative mycotic dermatitis localized in the lateral line canal system. The lesion initially was noted in the cephalic canals, but over a period of months extended into the lateral canal. Fusarium solani and Vibrio spp. were isolated from the canal exudate of both sharks. Bacterial colonies were not observed in the canal walls or surrounding tissues. Fusarium solani infection resulted in a chronic physical and behavioral deterioration of the two sharks; one shark was euthanized in September 1988 and the other in July 1989. This is the first report of Fusarium solani infection in the lateral line canal system and the third account in hammerhead sharks.

  20. Anti bacterial Effectiveness of Electro- Chemically Activated (ECA) Water as a Root Canal Irrigant- An In-vitro Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Mohanty, Soumya Kanta; Pradhan, Prasanti Kumari; Patri, Gaurav; Sinha, Sachidananda Prasad; Agrawal, Pratik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Sodium hypochlorite, is the irrigant of choice for many clinicians, but its strong toxic and damaging effects on vital periapical tissues is always a matter of concern. So, the search for a root canal irrigant with a broad antimicrobial spectrum yet with a limited toxicity on vital tissues is always desirable. Aim The study evaluated antimicrobial efficacy of Electro-Chemically Activated (ECA) water as a root canal irrigant against E. faecalis. Materials and Methods Forty eight single rooted human teeth were decoronated to a length of 15mm. All teeth were divided into four test groups (group A – ECA anolyte, group B – 1% sodium hypochlorite, group C – 3% sodium hypochlorite, group D – distilled water) of 12 each. Only 1ml of Ringer’s solution and calibrated suspensio of E. faecalis was injected into each canal, aspirated and placed on agar plates and incubated aerobically at 37°C for two days. The suspension was aspirated and spread onto the blood agar plate and incubated. All samples were irrigated with four test solutions and Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) solution was injected into each canal then aspirated and spread onto blood agar and incubated. After inoculations Colony Forming Unit (CFU) and optical density was measured under a microscope and spectrophotometer. The data obtained were statistically analysed by one way ANOVA and Dunkan’s multiple range test. Results CFU reduction was not statistically significant between the test groups. The optical density showed statistically significant difference between the test groups (p≤0.001). Conclusion The antimicrobial efficacy of ECA was found to be comparable to sodium hypochlorite solutions. PMID:27891476

  1. The effect of irrigating solutions on the apical sealing ability of MTA Fillapex and Adseal root canal sealers

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Richa; Pushpa, Shankarappa; Arunagiri, Doraiswamy; Sawhny, Asheesh; Misra, Abhinav; Sujatha, Ramamurthy

    2016-01-01

    Background. Maximum sealing ability or adhesion of endodontic sealers can be achieved after effective removal of the smear layer. Endodontic irrigants assist in adequate removal of the smear layer, improving the retention mechanism. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two different root canal irrigation solutions (5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and QMix) on the apical sealing ability of two different root canal sealers (MTA Fillapex and Adseal). Methods. Forty-six single-canal teeth were divided into 4 experimental groups of 10 teeth each and a positive and negative group of 3 teeth each. The root canals were prepared using step-back technique. The teeth in groups 1 and 2 were irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl followed by 17% EDTA and the teeth in groups 3 and 4 were irrigated with QMix. Finally all the teeth were flushed with sterile saline and dried using paper points. Obturation was accomplished by gutta-percha using lateral condensation technique. MTA Fillapex sealer was used in groups 1 and 3 whereas Adseal was used in groups 2 and 4. Dye penetration method was used to evaluate apical leakage. Data were analyzed with Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests using SPSS 14. Statistical significance was set at P < 0.05. Results. Group 3 showed maximum amount of apical leakage (3.7±0.3 mm) whereas group 2 exhibited the least amount of apical leakage (2.1 ± 0.4 mm) among all the experimental groups. Significant differences were found in the amount of apical leakage between all the groups (P = 0.00001). Conclusion. Within the limitations of this study, 5.25% sodium hypochlorite followed by 17% EDTA and Adseal resulted in the best apical seal. PMID:28096952

  2. Photodynamic Inactivation of Root Canal Bacteria by Light Activation through Human Dental Hard and Simulated Surrounding Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Cieplik, Fabian; Pummer, Andreas; Leibl, Christoph; Regensburger, Johannes; Schmalz, Gottfried; Buchalla, Wolfgang; Hiller, Karl-Anton; Maisch, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Photodynamic inactivation of bacteria (PIB) may be a supportive antimicrobial approach for use in endodontics, but sufficient activation of photosensitizers (PS) in root canals is a critical point. Therefore, aim of this study was to evaluate the ability of PS absorbing blue (TMPyP) or red light (Methylene Blue; MB) for light activation through human dental hard and simulated surrounding tissue to inactivate root canal bacteria. Methods: A tooth model was fabricated with a human premolar and two molars in an acrylic resin bloc simulating the optical properties of a porcine jaw. The distal root canal of the first molar was enlarged to insert a glass tube (external diameter 2 mm) containing PS and stationary-phase Enterococcus faecalis. Both PS (10 μM) were irradiated for 120 s with BlueV (20 mW/cm2; λem = 400–460 nm) or PDT 1200L (37.8 mW/cm2; λem = 570–680 nm; both: Waldmann Medizintechnik), respectively. Irradiation parameters ensured identical numbers of photons absorbed by each PS. Three setups were chosen: irradiating the glass pipette only (G), the glass pipette inside the single tooth without (GT) and with (GTM) simulated surrounding tissues. Colony forming units (CFU) were evaluated. Transmission measurements of the buccal halves of hemisected mandibular first molars were performed by means of a photospectrometer. Results: PIB with both PS led to reduction by ≥ 5 log10 of E. faecalis CFU for each setup. From transmission measurements, a threshold wavelength λth for allowing an amount of light transmission for sufficient activation of PS was determined to be 430 nm. Conclusion: This study can be seen as proof of principle that light activation of given intra-canal PS from outside a tooth may be possible at wavelengths ≥ 430 nm, facilitating clinical application of PIB in endodontics. PMID:27379059

  3. Effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on smear layer removal from the root canals: A scanning electron microscope study

    PubMed Central

    Amin, Khalid; Masoodi, Ajaz; Nabi, Shahnaz; Ahmad, Parvaiz; Farooq, Riyaz; Purra, Aamir Rashid; Ahangar, Fayaz Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate the effect of diode laser and ultrasonics with and without ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) on the smear layer removal from root canals. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 mandibular premolars were decoronated to working the length of 12 mm and prepared with protaper rotary files up to size F3. Group A canals irrigated with 1 ml of 3% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group B canals irrigated with 1 ml of 17% EDTA followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group C canals lased with a diode laser. Group D canals were initially irrigated with 0.8 ml of 17% EDTA the remaining 0.2 ml was used to fill the root canals, and diode laser application was done. Group E canals were irrigated with 1 ml distilled water with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Group F canals were irrigated with 1 ml EDTA with passive ultrasonic activation, followed by 3 ml of 3% NaOCl. Scanning electron microscope examination of canals was done for remaining smear layer at coronal middle and apical third levels. Results: Ultrasonics with EDTA had the least smear layer scores. Conclusion: Diode laser alone performed significantly better than ultrasonics. PMID:27656060

  4. Frequency, Impact, and Predictors of Persistent Pain Following Root Canal Treatment: A National Dental PBRN Study

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Law, Alan S.; Lindquist, Kimberly; Reams, Gregory J.; Cole, Emery; Kanter, Keith; Nguyen, Ruby H.N.; Harris, D. Robert

    2015-01-01

    Root canal treatment (RCT) is commonly performed surgery and persistent pain is known to occur, but little is known about how these patients are affected by this pain. While biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be associated with the development of such pain, similar to persistent pain following surgery in other body sites, little is known about the baseline predictors for persistent pain. We assessed the frequency of persistent pain 6 months following RCT, measured the impact this pain had on patients, and determined predictive factors for persistent tooth pain in a multi-center prospective cohort study conducted within the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Of 708 patients enrolled, 651 (91.9%) provided follow-up data, with 65 (10.0%) meeting criteria for pain 6 months following RCT. On average, these patients reported their pain as mild to moderate in intensity, present for about 10 days in the preceding month, and minimally interfered with daily activities. After adjusting for type of dental practitioner and patient age, gender and household income, pain duration over the week prior to RCT significantly increased the risk of developing persistent pain (odds ratio [OR]=1.19 per 1 day increase in pain duration, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.07–1.33), whereas optimism about the procedure reduced the risk (OR=0.39, 95% CI: 0.22–0.67). Our data suggest that persistent pain following RCT is fairly common, but generally does not have a large impact on those experiencing it. Furthermore, patient age and gender did not predict persistent pain, while pre-operative pain duration and the patient’s expectation did. PMID:26335907

  5. Differential Diagnoses for Persistent Pain Following Root Canal Treatment: A Study in the National Dental PBRN

    PubMed Central

    Nixdorf, Donald R.; Law, Alan S.; John, Mike T.; Sobieh, Radwa M.; Kohli, Richie; Nguyen, Ruby H.N.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Pain present 6 months following root canal treatment (RCT) may be either of odontogenic or nonodontogenic origin. This is importance because treatments and prognoses are different; therefore the aim of this study was to provide specific diagnoses of patients reporting pain 6 months after receiving initial orthograde RCT. Methods We enrolled patients from the Midwest region of an existing prospective observational study of pain after RCT. Pain at 6 months was defined as ≥1 day of pain and average pain intensity of at least 1/10 over the preceding month. An Endodontist and an Orofacial Pain practitioner independently performed clinical evaluations, which included periapical and cone-beam CT radiographs, to determine diagnoses. Results Thirty-eight out of the 354 eligible patients in the geographic area (11%) met the pain criteria, with 19 (50%) consenting to be clinically evaluated. As the sole reason for pain, 7 patients (37%) were given odontogenic diagnoses (4 involving the RCT tooth, 3 involving an adjacent tooth). Eight patients (42%) were given nonodontogenic pain diagnoses (7 from referred temporomandibular disorder (TMD) pain, 1 from persistent dentoalveolar pain disorder (PDAP)). Two patients (11%) had both odontogenic and nonodontogenic diagnoses, while 2 (11%) no longer fit the pain criteria at the time of the clinical evaluation. Conclusion Patients reporting “tooth” pain 6 months following RCT had a nonodontogenic pain diagnosis accounting for some of this pain, with TMD being the most frequent nonodonotgenic diagnosis. Dentists should have the necessary knowledge to differentiate between these diagnoses to adequately manage their patients. PMID:25732400

  6. Frequency, impact, and predictors of persistent pain after root canal treatment: a national dental PBRN study.

    PubMed

    Nixdorf, Donald R; Law, Alan S; Lindquist, Kimberly; Reams, Gregory J; Cole, Emery; Kanter, Keith; Nguyen, Ruby H N; Harris, D Robert

    2016-01-01

    Root canal treatment (RCT) is commonly performed surgery and persistent pain is known to occur, but little is known about how these patients are affected by this pain. Although biopsychosocial mechanisms are thought to be associated with the development of such pain, similar to persistent pain after surgery in other body sites, little is known about the baseline predictors for persistent pain. We assessed the frequency of persistent pain 6 months after RCT, measured the impact this pain had on patients, and determined predictive factors for persistent tooth pain in a multicenter prospective cohort study conducted within the National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. Of 708 patients enrolled, 651 (91.9%) provided follow-up data, with 65 (10.0%) meeting criteria for pain 6 months after RCT. On average, these patients reported their pain as mild to moderate in intensity, present for approximately 10 days in the preceding month, and minimally interfered with daily activities. After adjusting for the type of dental practitioner and patient age, gender, and household income, pain duration over the week before RCT significantly increased the risk of developing persistent pain (odds ratio = 1.19 per 1 day increase in pain duration, 95% confidence interval: 1.07-1.33), whereas optimism about the procedure reduced the risk (odds ratio = 0.39, 95% confidence interval: 0.22-0.67). Our data suggest that persistent pain 6 months after RCT is fairly common, but generally does not have a large impact on those experiencing it. Furthermore, patient age and gender did not predict persistent pain, whereas preoperative pain duration and the patient's expectation did.

  7. Comparative in vitro SEM study of a novel root canal irrigant-MTAD and conventional root biomodifiers on periodontally involved human teeth

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Charu; Govila, Vivek; Pant, Vandana Aditya; Meenawat, Ajita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Smear layer removal and collagen fiber exposure may improve regeneration which can be accomplished by use of root biomodifiers. These enhance the degree of connective tissue attachment to denuded roots. The objective of this in vitro study was to evaluate and compare novel root canal irrigant and other root biomodifiers for smear layer removal on periodontally involved human teeth. Materials and Methods: Forty human teeth were collected and stored in saline. After scaling and root planing, two samples were obtained from each tooth. Thus, a total of 80 dentin blocks were randomly divided into four groups: Mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent (MTAD), tetracycline hydrochloride (TTC HCl), citric acid (CA), and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The agents were applied for 3 min by active burnishing. Immediately following treatment, the specimens were rinsed, dehydrated, fixed and prepared for scanning electron microscope and were examined at × 3500 magnification. Sampaio's index was evaluated by the previously trained blind examiner using photomicrographs. Groups were compared using analysis of variance followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. Results: Mixture of tetracycline, acid, and detergent is most efficacious in removing the smear layer and showed statistically significant dentinal tubules opening, followed by EDTA, TTC HCl, and CA. Conclusion: Mixture of tetracycline, acid and detergent and conventional root biomodifiers used in the study alters the dentin surface by smear layer removal and exposure of dentinal tubules. Hence, MTAD as a root biomodifier may have a significant role in periodontal regeneration. PMID:26229265

  8. Incidence of C-shaped root canal systems in mandibular second molars in the native Chinese population by analysis of clinical methods

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yan; Guo, Jing; Yang, Hai-Bing; Han, Xuan; Yu, Ying

    2012-01-01

    The aims of the study were to investigate the incidence of C-shaped root canal systems in mandibular second molars in a native Chinese population using radiography and clinical examination under microscope and to compare the relative efficacies of these methods. For the recognition of C-shaped root canal system, 1 146 mandibular second molars were selected and examined. Teeth with C-shaped canal systems were categorized by using the radiographic classification criteria and the modified Melton's method. C-shaped canals were identified in 397 (34.64%) mandibular second molars by radiography (type I, 31.23% type II, 38.29% type III, 30.48%). Clinical examination showed that 449 (39.18%) cases exhibited C-shaped canal systems (C1, 22.94% C2, 48.11% C3a, 15.59% C3b, 13.36%). As for the result of the radiographic and clinical combined examination, C-shaped root canals were found in 473 (41.27%) mandibular second molars (C1, 21.78% C2, 45.67% C3a, 16.70% C3b, 15.86%). The incidence of C-shaped root canal diagnosed by radiographic method was statistically different from that by clinical examination and the combined examination (P<0.05). The study indicated a high incidence of C-shaped canal system in a Chinese population. The combination of microscopic and radiographic examination is an effective method in identifying the C-shaped root canal system. PMID:22836759

  9. Influence of NiTi alloy on the root canal shaping capabilities of the ProTaper Universal and ProTaper Gold rotary instrument systems

    PubMed Central

    DUQUE, Jussaro Alves; VIVAN, Rodrigo Ricci; CAVENAGO, Bruno Cavalini; AMOROSO-SILVA, Pablo Andrés; BERNARDES, Ricardo Affonso; de VASCONCELOS, Bruno Carvalho; DUARTE, Marco Antonio Hungaro

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Objective This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the NiTi wire in Conventional NiTi (ProTaper Universal PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (ProTaper Gold PTG) instrument systems on the quality of root canal preparation. Material and Methods Twelve mandibular molars with separate mesial canals were scanned using a high-definition microcomputed tomography system. The PTU and PTG instruments were used to shape twelve mesial canals each. The canals were scanned after preparation with F2 and F3 instruments of the PTU and PTG systems. The analyzed parameters included the remaining dentin thickness at the apical and cervical levels, root canal volume and untouched canal walls. Data was analyzed for statistical significance by the Friedman and Dunn’s tests. For the comparison of data between groups, the Mann-Whitney test was used. Results In the pre-operative analysis, there were no statistically significant differences between the groups in terms of the area and volume of root canals (P>.05). There was also no statistically significant difference between the systems with respect to root canal volume after use of the F2 and F3 instruments. There was no statistical difference in the dentin thickness at the first apical level between, before and after instrumentation for both systems. At the 3 cervical levels, the PTG maintained centralization of the preparation on the transition between the F2 and F3 instruments, which did not occur with the PTU. Conclusion The Conventional NiTi (PTU) and Controlled Memory NiTi (PTG) instruments displayed comparable capabilities for shaping the straight mesial root canals of mandibular molars, although the PTG was better than the PTU at maintaining the centralization of the shape in the cervical portion. PMID:28198973

  10. 3D Analysis of D-RaCe and Self-Adjusting File in Removing Filling Materials from Curved Root Canals Instrumented and Filled with Different Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Simsek, Neslihan; Ahmetoglu, Fuat; Bulut, Elcin Tekin; Er, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of D-RaCe files and a self-adjusting file (SAF) system in removing filling material from curved root canals instrumented and filled with different techniques by using microcomputed tomography (micro-CT). The mesial roots of 20 extracted mandibular first molars were used. Root canals (mesiobuccal and mesiolingual) were instrumented with SAF or Revo-S. The canals were then filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral compaction or thermoplasticized injectable techniques. The root fillings were first removed with D-RaCe (Step 1), followed by Step 2, in which a SAF system was used to remove the residual fillings in all groups. Micro-CT scans were used to measure the volume of residual filling after root canal filling, reinstrumentation with D-RaCe (Step 1), and reinstrumentation with SAF (Step 2). Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests. There were no statistically significant differences between filling techniques in the canals instrumented with SAF (P = 0.292) and Revo-S (P = 0.306). The amount of remaining filling material was similar in all groups (P = 0.363); all of the instrumentation techniques left filling residue inside the canals. However, the additional use of SAF was more effective than using D-RaCe alone. PMID:25114976

  11. Measurement of the percentage of root filling in oval-shaped canals obturated with Thermafil Obturators and Beefill 2in1: In vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Collado-Castellanos, Nicolás; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Dolz-Solsona, María; Faus-Matoses, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to measure the percentage of root canal fillings in long oval canals obturated with thermoplasticized gutta-percha techniques, Beefill 2in1® and Thermafil Obturators®. Material and Methods Fifty four mandibular incisors were selected after bucco-lingual and mesio-distal radiographs showed at 5 mm from apex an internal long:short diameter ≥2. Teeth were instrumented with Protaper Universal and divided in two groups of 27. Group 1 was obturated with Thermafil Obturators® and group 2 with Beefill 2in1®. Two horizontal sections were cut at 5 and 7 mm from the apex and photographed in a stereo-microscope. The total area of the canal and filled canal in cross-sections were measured with AutoCad and the percentages of gutta-percha-sealer and voids in the canal were obtained. Results Both systems achieved high percentage of filled canal, Thermafil 96.8% and Beefill 2in1 98.9%. The percentages of voids in both groups were very low. No significant differences were found between the two groups . The percentage obtained at 5 and 7 mm from the apex in both groups showed no significant difference. Conclusions The percentages of filled canal (gutta-percha-sealer) were high and these two thermoplasticized techniques are suitable for long oval canals obturation. Key words:Long oval canal, oval canal, thermoplasticized obturation. PMID:26155350

  12. In vitro antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis in root canals

    PubMed Central

    VALERA, Marcia Carneiro; MAEKAWA, Lilian Eiko; de OLIVEIRA, Luciane Dias; JORGE, Antonio Olavo Cardoso; SHYGEI, Érika; CARVALHO, Cláudio Antonio Talge

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of auxiliary chemical substances and natural extracts on Candida albicans and Enterococcus faecalis inoculated in root canals. Material and Methods: Seventy-two human tooth roots were contaminated with C. albicans and E. faecalis for 21 days. The groups were divided according to the auxiliary chemical substance into: G1) 2.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl), G2) 2% chlorhexidine gel (CHX), G3) castor oil, G4) glycolic Aloe vera extract, G5) glycolic ginger extract, and G6) sterile saline (control). The samples of the root canal were collected at different intervals: confirmation collection, at 21 days after contamination; 1st collection, after instrumentation; and 2nd collection, seven days after instrumentation. Microbiological samples were grown in culture medium and incubated at 37º C for 48 hours. Results: The results were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn (5%) statistical tests. NaOCl and CHX completely eliminated the microorganisms of the root canals. Castor oil and ginger significantly reduced the number of CFU of the tested bacteria. Reduction of CFU/mL at the 1st and 2nd collections for groups G1, G2, G3 and G4 was greater in comparison to groups G5 and G6. Conclusion: It was concluded that 2.5% sodium hypochlorite and 2% chlorhexidine gel were more effective in eliminating C. albicans and E. faecalis, followed by the castor oil and glycolic ginger extract. The Aloe vera extract showed no antimicrobial activity. PMID:23739849

  13. A Successful Endodontic Outcome with Non-Obturated Canals

    PubMed Central

    Asgary, Saeed; Fazlyab, Mahta

    2015-01-01

    This case report represents the outcome of endodontic treatment in an infected mandibular molar with periradicular periodontitis and inherent poor prognosis of root canal treatment due to severe root curvature. The tooth was successfully treated by leaving the mesial root non-obturated, the canal orifices were coronally sealed with calcium enriched mixture cement and a definitive coronal amalgam restoration, was placed at the subsequent visit. PMID:26213546

  14. Antimicrobial effect of calcium hydroxide as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment: a literature review - Part I. In vitro studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The goal of endodontic treatment is the prevention and control of pulpal and periradicular infections. Calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)2) has been widely used in endodontics as an intracanal medicament to eliminate the remaining microorganisms after chemomechanical preparation. The purpose of this article is to review the antimicrobial properties of Ca(OH)2 as an intracanal medicament in root canal treatment. The first part of this review details the characteristics of Ca(OH)2 and summarizes the results of in vitro studies related to its antimicrobial effect. The antimicrobial effect of Ca(OH)2 results from the release of hydroxyl ions when it comes into contact with aqueous fluids. Ca(OH)2 has a wide range of antimicrobial effects against common endodontic pathogens, but is less effective against Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans. The addition of vehicles or other agents might contribute to the antimicrobial effect of Ca(OH)2. PMID:25383341

  15. Combination of an optic system and Er:YAG laser in root canal preparation: study in vivo and in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitale, Marina C.; Botticelli, Annibale R.; Zaffe, Davide; Cisternino, Aurelia; Scarpelli, Francesco

    2001-04-01

    The effect of Er:YAG laser in debris removing after conventional root preparation was tested by optical system in vivo and scanning electron microscope in vitro. The root canal of fifty permanent molars was cleaned in vivo and Er:YAG laser treated. Flexiscope system was used to evaluate the efficacy of laser cleansing at the different stages of endodontic therapy. Forty permanent teeth, extracted for orthodontic or periodontal purposes, were treated in vitro using the same technique an instruments. The in vitro treated teeth were also examined under the SEM. The result of our investigation show an effective improvement of the cleansing of the endodontic surface from pulpal remaining and a smear layer after laser irradiation in vivo and in vitro. The use of Er:YAG laser in organic debris removing and the consequent optical system analysis of the quality of root preparation in vivo seem to be a reliable technique particularly useful in clinical application.

  16. [Endodontic microbiology: antimicrobial canal medications].

    PubMed

    Seltzer, S; Farber, P A

    1989-06-01

    Medicaments used for reducing or eliminating microorganisms from infected root canals include: irrigating solutions, such as sodium hypochlorite, urea peroxide and hydrogen peroxide, chloramine, iodine-potassium-iodide solution, and chlorhexidine solution. In addition, various intracanal drugs, such as calcium hydroxide and antibiotics, are in use. The characteristics of these drugs are discussed.

  17. Prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies and its association with the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations in an adult urban Indian population

    PubMed Central

    Archana, Durvasulu; Gopikrishna, Velayutham; Gutmann, James L.; Savadamoorthi, Kamatchi Subramani; Kumar, Angambakkam Rajasekaran Pradeep; Narayanan, L. Lakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Aims: The aim of this cross-sectional study was to determine the prevalence of periradicular radiolucencies (PR) from an urban adult Indian population and to investigate the quality of root canal procedures and coronal restorations and their association with prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth. Settings and Design: Cross-sectional study. Material and Methods: A total of 1,340 subjects (18+ years of age) who reported for non-emergency dental care to 5 different dental care centers had their panoramic radiographs taken during the period from January to December 2013. The periradicular status of 30,098 teeth in these radiographs was evaluated using the Periapical Index Score (PAI). The assessment of the technical quality of the procedure was evaluated based on the criteria of root canal filling length and quality of coronal restoration. Statistical Analysis Used: The data was analyzed statistically by chi-squared test and odds ratio. Results: PR was found in 65% of subjects (n = 865) and 5.8% (n = 1,759) of the 30,098 teeth evaluated (4.30% untreated teeth and 1.53% were root-filled teeth). In all, 4.1% of the teeth (n = 1,234) had some filling material in the root canal(s) and the prevalence of PR in these root-filled teeth was 37.4%, while the remaining 62.6% of root canal-filled teeth showed no evidence of PR. PR occurred significantly more often in teeth where root canal filling was filled more than 2 mm short of radiographic apex or when root filling extruded through the apex. Conclusions: The prevalence of PR in teeth with untreated root canals in India is 4.30%, which is more than twice the weighted world average, while the prevalence of root-filled teeth (4.1%) is lower than the world average (9.6%). The prevalence of PR in root-filled teeth in India is comparable to that in other populations. Inadequate root canal treatment and poor quality of coronal restoration were associated with increased prevalence of PR. PMID:25657524

  18. Comparison of the shaping ability of RaCe, FlexMaster, and ProFile nickel-titanium instruments in severely curved root canals

    PubMed Central

    Burkhardt, Lea; Weidmann, Frank; Rüttermann, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Background This in vitro study compared the shaping ability of RaCe, FlexMaster, and ProFile rotary nickel-titanium instruments in severely curved root canals of extracted teeth. Material and Methods Sixty maxillary molars with curvatures ranging from 25° to 65° were embedded in a muffle system and portioned into five horizontal sections (thickness 1.2 mm), starting from the apex. Canals were divided into three groups (n = 20, each) and were prepared with RaCe, FlexMaster, or ProFile rotary nickel-titanium instruments and the TriAuto ZX handpiece using a crown-down preparation technique. We evaluated the difference between pre- and postoperative root canal cross-sections, loss of working length, instrument failure, and preparation time. The root canal area before and after the intervention was determined using an area-measuring software. The data were analyzed statistically using a one-way ANOVA followed by a Kruskal-Wallis multiple-comparison Z-value test. Results Specimens treated with FlexMaster showed the greatest change from preoperative cross-sections, followed by RaCe and ProFile. The cross-sectional changes induced by RaCe and FlexMaster preparation differed significantly from those produced by ProFile. Loss of working length, instrument failure, and preparation time did not differ significantly between the groups. Conclusions Root canal preparation with the three instruments did not lead to any significant alteration of the original root anatomy or working length. Thus, we conclude that RaCe, FlexMaster, and ProFile instruments are of comparable efficiency and usefulness in the preparation of severely curved root canals. Key words:Endodontics, root canal preparation, rotary, extracted teeth, nickel-titanium. PMID:27957264

  19. Root canal centering ability of rotary cutting nickel titanium instruments: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gundappa, Mohan; Bansal, Rashmi; Khoriya, Sarvesh; Mohan, Ranjana

    2014-01-01

    Aim: To systematically review articles on canal centering ability of endodontic rotary cutting Nickel-Titanium (Ni-Ti) instruments and subject results to meta-analysis. Materials and Methods: A comprehensive search was initiated on canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti files such as Protaper, Hero Shaper, K3, Mtwo, Race, Wave One by selecting articles published in peer reviewed journals during 1991-2013 using “Pub Med” database. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were established. A data was created by tabulating: Author name, publication year, sample size, number of experimental groups, methods to evaluate canal centering ability, instrument cross section, taper, tip design, rake angle, mean and standard deviation. The data generated was subjected to meta-analysis. Results: Maximum studies were found to be conducted on mesiobuccal canal of mandibular 1st molar with curvature ranging from 15-60°. The difference in canal centering ability of different rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments was not statistically significant. Conclusion: All endodontic rotary cutting Ni-Ti instruments are capable of producing centered preparations. Protaper depicted the best centering ability. Computed tomography is an effective method of evaluating canal centering ability. PMID:25506134

  20. Selected physical properties of a PEMA-based resin for possible use in a root canal filling material.

    PubMed

    Wanibe, Harumasa; Yamamoto, Mitsunori; Nakata, Kazuhiko; Kawai, Tatsushi; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the physical properties of PEMA-TA/HX-based resins including 20 to 100% ethanol, for a root canal filling material. The values of the elastic modulus in the samples including ethanol were more than 250 MPa, being higher than the approximately 40 MPa of Gutte-percha (GP). The values of compressive strain in the samples increased in an ethanol concentration-dependent manner. The weight of samples including ethanol decreased gradually. In the adhesiveness test, the values of PEMA-TA/HX-based resins including ethanol were significantly higher than that of GP (p<0.01). Cohesive fractures were observed in Super-Bond SEALER in the samples including ethanol except for 20%. The results suggest that the new PEMA-TA/HX-based resin cone in combination with resin-based sealer might facilitate "monoblock obturation". The new PEMA-TA/HX-based resin cone developed in the present study may be effective root canal filling material for vertical root fractures.

  1. Evaluation of dentinal defect formation after root canal preparation with two reciprocating systems and hand instruments: an in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Aydemir, Seda; Yilmaz, Ayca

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with hand instruments and two different reciprocating instruments. Sixty freshly extracted mandibular incisor teeth were selected for this in vitro study. On the basis of root length, mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions, the teeth were allocated into three identical experimental groups (n = 15) and one control group (n = 15). The teeth in the control group were left unprepared. The other groups were: stainless steel hand instruments, WaveOne® Primary instruments and RECIPROC® R25 instruments. The reciprocating instruments were used with a reciprocating gentle in-and-out motion in a torque-limited electric motor at the appropriate preset mode. Horizontal sections were made 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex. Samples were stained with methylene blue and viewed through a stereomicroscope. The presence of dentinal defects (fractures, incomplete cracks and craze lines) and their locations were investigated by two endodontists. These data were analysed statistically by Fisher's exact and chi-square tests. No defects were observed in the unprepared group. All instruments caused dentinal defects, with no significant differences between the instrument systems. All experimental groups demonstrated significantly more defects at the 3-mm level in comparison with the unprepared group (p = 0.032). At the other levels, there was no significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group. The use of hand or reciprocating instruments could induce the formation of dentinal defects during root canal preparation. PMID:26019654

  2. Effect of root canal sealer and artificial accelerated aging on fibreglass post bond strength to intraradicular dentin

    PubMed Central

    Santana, Fernanda-Ribeiro; Soares, Carlos-José; Ferreira, Josemar-Martins; Valdivi, Andréa-Dolores-Correia- Miranda; Souza, João-Batista-de

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate the effect of root canal sealers (RCS) and specimen aging on the bond strength of fibre posts to bovine intraradicular dentin. Material and Methods: 80 teeth were used according the groups - Sealapextm, Sealer 26®, AH Plus® and specimens aging - test with no aging and with aging. The canals prepared were filled using one of each RCS. The posts were cemented. Roots were cross-sectioned to obtain two slices of each third. Samples were submitted to push-out test. Failure mode was evaluated under a confocal microscope. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Tukey’s, and Dunnet tests (α = 0.05). Results: No significant difference was detected among RCS. Aged control presented higher bond strength than immediate control. The aging did not result significant difference. Adhesive cement-dentin failure was prevalent in all groups. Conclusions: RCS interfered negatively with bonding of fibreglass posts cemented with self-adhesive resin cement to intraradicular dentin. Key words:Fibreglass post, bond strength, root dentin, endodontic sealer, aging. PMID:25593655

  3. Effect of eugenol-based root canal sealers on retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al-Ali, Khalil

    2009-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the effect of two different eugenol-based root canal sealers on the retention of prefabricated metal posts luted with adhesive resin cement. Materials and methods Thirty prefabricated ParaPosts randomly divided among three groups of 10 each were luted into extracted single-rooted teeth with adhesive resin cement. Two of the groups had been obturated with Gutta–Percha and one of two eugenol-based root canal sealers (Endofil and Tubli-Seal), respectively. The third group was not obturated and served as the control. The forces required for dislodgment of posts from their prepared post spaces were recorded using a universal testing machine. Data were statistically analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s multiple range test was used to determine the mean differences. Results Endofil and Tubli-Seal groups demonstrated significantly reduced retention compared to the unobturated (control) group (P < 0.05). Conclusion Eugenol-based sealers significantly reduced the retention of prefabricated posts luted with adhesive resin cement. PMID:23960462

  4. Bioactivity, cytocompatibility and thermal properties of experimental Bioglass-reinforced composites as potential root-canal filling materials.

    PubMed

    Alhashimi, Raghad Abdulrazzaq; Mannocci, Francesco; Sauro, Salvatore

    2017-05-01

    To evaluate the bioactivity and the cytocompatibility of experimental Bioglass-reinforced polyethylene-based root-canal filling materials. The thermal properties of the experimental materials were also evaluated using differential scanning calorimetry, while their radiopacity was assessed using a grey-scale value (GSV) aluminium step wedge and a phosphor plate digital system. Bioglass 45S5 (BAG), polyethylene and Strontium oxide (SrO) were used to create tailored composite fibres. The filler distribution within the composites was assessed using SEM, while their bioactivity was evaluated through infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) after storage in simulated body fluid (SBF). The radiopacity of the composite fibres and their thermal properties were determined using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The cytocompatibility of the experimental composites used in this study was assessed using human osteoblasts and statistically analysed using the Pairwise t-test (p<0.05). Bioglass and SrO fillers were well distributed within the resin matrix and increased both the thermal properties and the radiopacity of the polyethylene matrix. The FTIR showed a clear formation of calcium-phosphates, while, MTT and AlamrBlue tests demonstrated no deleterious effects on the metabolic activity of the osteoblast-like cells. BAG-reinforced polyethylene composites may be suitable as obturation materials for endodontic treatment. Since their low melting temperature, such innovative composites may be easily removed in case of root canal retreatment. Moreover, their biocompatibility and bioactivity may benefit proliferation of human osteoblast cells at the periapical area of the root.

  5. An in vitro comparison of root canal length determination by DentaPort ZX and iPex apex locators

    PubMed Central

    Puri, Nikhil; Chadha, Rupali; Kumar, Pragya; Puri, Komal

    2013-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the present study is to evaluate and to compare the accuracy of two electronic apex locators (EALs): DentaPort ZX and iPex, at a position 0.5 mm short of the apical foramen. Materials and Methods: Thirty single-rooted, mandibular premolar teeth were selected. Standard access cavities were prepared and the actual length (AL) was calculated. The samples were then embedded in alginate and the electronic measurements were determined and recorded. Results: The results obtained showed that in determining the root canal length with a tolerance level of ±0.5 mm, i.e., AL ± 0.5 mm, DentaPort ZX was accurate in 93.3% of the samples and iPex was accurate in 90% of the samples at a position 0.5 mm short of the apical foramen. Conclusion: A strong correlation was seen between the two electronic methods and AL and also in between the two EALs, showing the possibility of their use to measure the root canal length. No statistically significant difference was found between both the apex locators. PMID:24347893

  6. Evaluation of dentinal defect formation after root canal preparation with two reciprocating systems and hand instruments: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Helvacioglu-Yigit, Dilek; Aydemir, Seda; Yilmaz, Ayca

    2015-03-04

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the presence of dentinal defects after root canal preparation with hand instruments and two different reciprocating instruments. Sixty freshly extracted mandibular incisor teeth were selected for this in vitro study. On the basis of root length, mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions, the teeth were allocated into three identical experimental groups (n = 15) and one control group (n = 15). The teeth in the control group were left unprepared. The other groups were: stainless steel hand instruments, WaveOne® Primary instruments and RECIPROC® R25 instruments. The reciprocating instruments were used with a reciprocating gentle in-and-out motion in a torque-limited electric motor at the appropriate preset mode. Horizontal sections were made 3, 6 and 9 mm from the apex. Samples were stained with methylene blue and viewed through a stereomicroscope. The presence of dentinal defects (fractures, incomplete cracks and craze lines) and their locations were investigated by two endodontists. These data were analysed statistically by Fisher's exact and chi-square tests. No defects were observed in the unprepared group. All instruments caused dentinal defects, with no significant differences between the instrument systems. All experimental groups demonstrated significantly more defects at the 3-mm level in comparison with the unprepared group (p = 0.032). At the other levels, there was no significant difference between the experimental groups and the control group. The use of hand or reciprocating instruments could induce the formation of dentinal defects during root canal preparation.

  7. The effect of root canal sealers and timing of cementation on the microlekage of the parapost luted with resin cement

    PubMed Central

    Al Kahtani, Ahmed M.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of the study were to study the effect of root canal sealers either eugenol or non-eugenol and timing of cementation on microleakage of the parapost luted with resin cement. Materials and methods Seventy extracted human, single-rooted teeth were instrumented using a crown-down technique. All teeth were instrumented up to a size 50 .04 taper ProFile followed by the use of Gates Glidden drills from size 2 up to 5. Following instrumentation, the teeth were randomly divided into four experimental groups of fifteen teeth each, based on type of root canal sealer (eugenol or non-eugenol sealer) and timing of post cementation (immediate or delayed). The remaining ten teeth were divided into two control groups with five teeth per group. All teeth were tested for microleakage using a fluid filtration method. Results The microleakage of the paraposts luted with resin cement increased over time, irrespective of sealer type or timing of post cementation. Immediate post cementation following obturation with AH26 (non-eugenol sealer) produced the least microleakage at all three time periods at 24 h, 2 months and 3 months. Conclusions The microleakage paraposts luted with resin cement was not influenced by either sealer type or timing of post placement. All experimental groups demonstrated a significant increase in microleakage over time as well as the presence of voids at the resin–dentin interface. PMID:24109165

  8. Residual antibacterial activity of chlorhexidine digluconate and camphorated p-monochlorophenol in calcium hydroxide-based root canal dressings.

    PubMed

    Soares, Janir Alves; Leonardo, Mario Roberto; Tanomaru Filho, Mário; Silva, Léa Assed Bezerra da; Ito, Izabel Yoko

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the residual antibacterial activity of several calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2]-based pastes, placed in root canals of dogs' teeth with induced chronic periapical lesions. Root canals were instrumented with the ProFile rotary system and filled with 4 pastes: G1 (n=16): Ca(OH)2 paste + anesthetic solution; G2 (n=20): Calen paste + camphorated p-monochlorophenol (CMCP); G3 (n=18): Calen; and G4 (n=18): Ca(OH)2 paste + 2% chlorhexidine digluconate. After 21 days, the pastes were removed with size 60 K-files and placed on Petri plates with agar inoculated with Micrococcus luteus ATCC 9341. Pastes that were not placed into root canals served as control. After pre-diffusion, incubation and optimization, the inhibition zones of bacterial growth were measured and analyzed by Mann-Whitney U test at 5% significance level. All pastes showed residual antibacterial activity. The control samples had larger halos (p<0.05). The mean residual antibacterial activity halos in G1, G2, G3 and G4 were 7.6; 10.4; 17.7 and 21.4 mm, respectively. The zones of bacterial growth of G4 were significantly larger than those of G1 and G2 (p<0.05). In conclusion, regardless of the vehicle and antiseptic, all Ca(OH)2-based pastes showed different degrees of measurable residual antibacterial activity. Furthermore, unlike CMCP, chlorhexidine increased significantly the antibacterial activity of Ca(OH)2.

  9. Efficacy of ProTaper and Mtwo Retreatment Files in Removal of Gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from Root Canals

    PubMed Central

    Khedmat, Sedigheh; Azari, Abbas; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza; Fadae, Mehdi; Bashizadeh Fakhar, Hoorieh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this in vitro study was to compare the efficacy of ProTaper retreatment (ProTaper R) and Mtwo retreatment (Mtwo R) files in removing gutta-percha and GuttaFlow from endodontically treated straight root canals. Methods and Materials: The root canals of 60 human mandibular single-rooted premolars were prepared and randomly divided into two groups (n=30). In groups A and B the root canals were obturated using lateral condensation of gutta-percha plus AH 26 and GuttaFlow, respectively. The canal orifices were temporarily sealed and the roots were incubated for 3 months at 37ºC and 100% humidity. Primary cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) images were taken after incubation period. The specimens in each group were randomly divided into two subgroups (n=15). ProTaper R files (D1, D2, and D3) were used in groups A1 and B1 while Mtwo R files (25/0.05 and 15/0.05) were used in groups A2 and B2. The time required to extirpate the root filling was also recorded. After retreatment, another CBCT scan was taken at the same position. The volume of remaining filling materials inside the canals was calculated before and after retreatment. The data was analyzed using the two-way ANOVA and independent t-test. Results: The remaining filling materials in the canals treated with ProTaper were less than Mtwo. The remaining volume of GuttaFlow was less than gutta-percha regardless of the system applied. Mtwo R files removed root fillings faster than ProTaper R. Conclusion: ProTaper R removed filling material more efficiently compared to Mtwo R which required less time to remove root filling material. PMID:27471528

  10. Comparison of dentin root canal permeability and morphology after irradiation with Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and diode lasers.

    PubMed

    Esteves-Oliveira, Marcella; de Guglielmi, Camila A B; Ramalho, Karen Müller; Arana-Chavez, Victor E; de Eduardo, Carlos Paula

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of Nd:YAG, Er:YAG, and diode lasers on the morphology and permeability of root canal walls. The three laser wavelengths mentioned interact differently with dentin and therefore it is possible that the permeability changes caused will determine different indications during endodontic treatment. Twenty-eight human single-rooted teeth were instrumented up to ISO 40 and divided into four groups: group C, control (GC), non-laser irradiated; group N (GN), irradiated with Nd:YAG laser; group E (GE), with Er:YAG laser and group D (GD) with diode laser. After that, the roots were filled with a 2% methylene blue dye, divided into two halves and then photographed. The images were analyzed using Image J software and the percentage of dye penetration in the cervical, middle, and apical root thirds were calculated. Additional scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analyses were also performed. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed significant permeability differences between all groups in the middle and cervical thirds (p < 0.05). The Tukey test showed that in the cervical third, GN presented means of dye penetration statistically significantly lower than all of the other groups. In the middle third, GE and GD showed statistically higher dye penetration means than GC and GN. SEM analysis showed melted surfaces for GN, clean wall surfaces with open dentinal tubules for GE, and mostly obliterated dentinal tubules for GD. Er:YAG (2,094 nm) laser and diode laser (808 nm) root canal irradiation increase dentinal permeability and Nd:YAG (1,064 nm) laser decreases dentin permeability, within the studied parameters.

  11. [Solvents for the removal of gutta-percha from root canals. 2. Side effects of chloroform, halothane and xylene].

    PubMed

    Schuur, A H B; Moorer, W R; Wesselink, P R

    2004-08-01

    High concentrations of organic solvents have adverse effects on the health of professional workers. In endodontics, halothane, chloroform and xylene are used to dissolve gutta-percha from root canals. It is therefore questioned whether the use of these solvents could affect the health of patients or of the dental team. It seems warranted to conclude that the amounts and concentrations of chloroform, xylene and halothane such as used in endodontic retreatment, are low and therefore are safe. However, the dentist should be aware of possible hypersensitivity induced by previous application of halothane as a narcotic.

  12. Effect of phosphate-buffered saline on push-out bond strength of a new bioceramic sealer to root canal dentin

    PubMed Central

    Shokouhinejad, Noushin; Hoseini, Atefeh; Gorjestani, Hedayat; Raoof, Maryam; Assadian, Hadi; Shamshiri, Ahmad Reza

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to compare push-out bond strength of a new bioceramic endodontic sealer, EndoSequence BC sealer (Brasseler USA, Savannah, GA), used with gutta-percha in the presence or absence of phosphate-buffered saline solution (PBS) within the root canals. Materials and Methods: Forty single-rooted human teeth were prepared and randomly divided into four groups. Samples in groups 1 and 2 were dried, but those in groups 3 and 4 were moistened with PBS before obturation. All root canals were obturated with gutta-percha/EndoSequence BC sealer. The specimens were stored in PBS for 7 days in groups 1 and 3 and for 2 months in groups 2 and 4. Push-out bond strength values and failure modes were evaluated. The data on push-out bond strength were analyzed using two-way ANOVA. Results: The mean value for the bond strength of the obturation material in moistened canals was significantly higher than that in dried ones at 1 week (P = 0.00). Contrarily, there was no significant difference between dried and moistened root canals at 2 months (P = 0.61). In dried canals, bond strength increased significantly with time but in moistened ones, the difference was not significant. Inspection of the specimens revealed the bond failure to be mainly cohesive for all groups. Conclusion: The presence of PBS within the root canals increased the bond strength of EndoSequence BC sealer/gutta-percha at 1 week. However, no difference was found between the bond strength of EndoSequence BC sealer/gutta-percha in the presence or absence of PBS in the root canals at 2 months. PMID:23559925

  13. Influence of root canal curvature on the accuracy of an electronic apex locator: An in vitro study

    PubMed Central

    Santhosh, Lekha; Raiththa, Pooja; Aswathanarayana, Srirekha; Panchajanya, Srinivas; Reddy, Jayakumar Thimmaraya; Susheela, Shwetha Rajanna

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This study investigated whether the canal curvature has an influence on the accuracy of Electronic Apex Locator. Materials and Methods: Sixty mandibular posterior teeth were decoronated. A number (No.) 10 file was inserted into the mesiobuccal canal and radiographs were taken to determine the degree of curvature by Schneider's method. Samples were divided into three groups of mild (<20°), moderate (20-36°) and severe curvature (>36°). After enlarging the orifice, the actual canal length was determined by introducing a file until the tip emerged through the major foramen when observed under 20X magnification. The teeth were embedded in an alginate model and the Root ZX was used to determine the electronic length. The data was analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney test. Results: The difference in measurement of Actual and Electronic working length was statistically significant between group 1 and 2 (P < 0.05) as well as between group 1 and group 3 (P < 0.05) with group 1 showing the lowest difference. Conclusion: Considering ± 0.5 mm as tolerance limit for accuracy, the device was 95% accurate for the mild curvature group and 80% accurate for moderate and severe groups. PMID:25506150

  14. Quality of Obturation Achieved by an Endodontic Core-carrier System with Crosslinked Gutta-percha Carrier in Single-rooted Canals

    PubMed Central

    Li, Guo-hua; Niu, Li-na; Selem, Lisa C.; Eid, Ashraf A.; Bergeron, Brian E.; Chen, Ji-hua; Pashley, David H.; Tay, Franklin R.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The present study examined the quality of obturation in root canals obturated by GuttaCore, a gutta-percha-based core-carrier system with a cross-linked thermoset gutta-percha carrier, by comparing the incidence of gaps and voids identified from similar canals obturated by cold lateral compaction or warm vertical compaction. Methods Thirty single-rooted premolars with oval-shaped canals were shaped and cleaned, and obturated with one of the three obturation techniques (N=10): GuttaCore, warm vertical compaction or cold lateral compaction. Filled canals were scanned with micro-computed tomography (micro-CT); reconstructed images were analysed for the volumetric percentage of gaps and voids at 3 canal levels (0-4 mm, 4-8 mm and 8-12 mm from working length). The roots were subsequently sectioned at the 4-mm, 8-mm and 12-mm levels for analyses of the percentage of interfacial gaps, and area percentage of interfacial and intracanal voids, using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to examine negative replicas of root sections. Data were analysed with parametric or non-parametric statistical methods at α=0.05. Results Both micro-CT and SEM data indicated that canals obturated with GuttaCore core-carriers had the lowest incidence of interfacial gaps and voids, although the results were not significantly different from canals obturated by warm vertical compaction. Both the GuttaCore and the warm vertical compaction groups, in turn, had significantly lower incidences of gaps and voids than the cold lateral compaction group. Conclusions Because of the similarity in obturation quality between GuttaCore and warm vertical compaction, practitioners may find the GuttaCore core-carrier technique a valuable alternative for obturation of oval-shaped canals. PMID:24769108

  15. Conditioning of root canals prior to dowel cementation with composite luting cement and two dentine adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Liberman, R; Ben-Amar, A; Urstein, M; Gontar, G; Fitzig, S

    1989-11-01

    Two hundred and forty root canals of extracted single-rooted teeth were prepared to the same dimension, and Dentatus posts of equal size were cemented without screwing them into the dentine. Five cleansing solutions and two dentine adhesive systems were evaluated prior to post-cementation using chemical-cure composite resin. 'Pull-out' tests were then conducted in order to evaluate the bond strength of these intra-pulpal posts. The use of Conclude (composite luting cement) alone, with or without the cleansing solutions, resulted in significantly lower pull-out forces. Scotchbond Dental Adhesive gave significantly better results, regardless of the cleansing solution used. Gluma Dentine Adhesive significantly increased the pull-out forces only when used with its supplied cleanser or Tubulicid.

  16. A micro-computed tomography study of the negotiation and anatomical feature in apical root canal of mandibular molars.

    PubMed

    Min, Yi; Ma, Jing-Zhi; Shen, Ya; Cheung, Gary Shun-Pan; Gao, Yuan

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical negotiation of various apical anatomic features of the mandibular first molars in a Chinese population using micro-computed tomography (micro-CT). A total of 152 mandibular first molars were scanned with micro-CT at 30 µm resolution. The apical 5 mm of root canal (ARC) was reconstructed three dimensionally and classified. Subsequently, the access cavity was prepared with the ARC anatomy blinded to the operator. The ARC was negotiated with a size 10 K file with or without precurve. Information on the ability to obtain a reproducible glide path was recorded. The anatomical classification of ARC was Type I with 68.45% in mandibular first molars. The negotiation result of ARC with Category i was 387 canals (74.00%). With a bent negotiating file, 96 canals were negotiated, including 88 reproducible glide paths (Category ii) and 8 irregular glide paths (Category iii). About 7.65% canals could not be negotiated with patency successfully (Category iv). The statistical analyze shown the anatomic feature of ARC had effect on the negotiation of ARC (p < 0.05). In conclusion, ARC anatomic variations had a strong potential impact on the negotiation. The category of negotiation in ARC would be helpful in the using of NiTi rotary instruments. Negotiation of ARC to the working length with patency should be careful and skillful because of the complexities of ARC. SCANNING 38:819-824, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. A comparative evaluation of gutta-percha filled areas in curved root canals obturated with different techniques.

    PubMed

    Schäfer, Edgar; Nelius, Birthe; Bürklein, Sebastian

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare different obturation techniques in severely curved canals in terms of the percentage of gutta-percha filled area and voids. The obturation times and the incidence of extrusion of filling material were also compared. Curved root canals (curvature, 25-35°) of 48 extracted human teeth were enlarged with Mtwo rotary NiTi instruments and obturated as follows: Group A: 0.04/35 matched-single-cone; Group B: cold lateral compaction with 0.04/35 gutta-percha master cone; Group C: warm vertical compaction; Group D: lateral compaction with standardized gutta-percha master cone. In all groups AHPlus was used as sealer. The teeth were sectioned horizontally at 2, 3, 4, 6 and 8 mm from the apex. The total area of each canal segment was measured and the areas of gutta-percha, sealer and voids were converted to percentages of the total area. Data were subjected to the Kruskal-Wallis and post hoc Dunn test. Obturation times were compared using ANOVA and post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The matched-single-cone obturation (group A) was significantly the fastest method while warm vertical compaction (group C) required significantly more time than all other techniques (p < 0.05). No significant differences were obtained between the groups in terms of percentage of voids at any level (p > 0.05). At all levels, groups B, C, and D produced significantly higher gutta-percha filled areas (p < 0.05) and lower sealer-filled areas (p < 0.05) than group A. No significant differences were found between groups B, C, and D (p > 0.05) regarding gutta-percha and sealer-filled areas. Within the limitations of the in vitro study, it can be concluded that lateral compaction of greater taper gutta-percha cones is a fast and efficient method for obturation of curved canals.

  18. Root Canal Transportation and Centering Ability of Nickel-Titanium Rotary Instruments in Mandibular Premolars Assessed Using Cone-Beam Computed Tomography

    PubMed Central

    Mamede-Neto, Iussif; Borges, Alvaro Henrique; Guedes, Orlando Aguirre; de Oliveira, Durvalino; Pedro, Fábio Luis Miranda; Estrela, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate, using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), transportation and centralization of different nickel-titanium (NiTi) rotary instruments. Methods: One hundred and twenty eight mandibular premolars were selected and instrumented using the following brands of NiTi files: WaveOne, WaveOne Gold, Reciproc, ProTaper Next, ProTaper Gold, Mtwo, BioRaCe and RaCe. CBCT imaging was performed before and after root canal preparation to obtain measurements of mesial and distal dentin walls and calculations of root canal transportation and centralization. A normal distribution of data was confirmed by the Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Levene tests, and results were assessed using the Kruskal-Wallis test. Statistical significance was set at 5%. Results: ProTaper Gold produced the lowest canal transportation values, and RaCe, the highest. ProTaper Gold files also showed the highest values for centering ability, whereas BioRaCe showed the lowest. No significant differences were found across the different instruments in terms of canal transportation and centering ability (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Based on the methodology employed, all instruments used for root canal preparation of mandibular premolars performed similarly with regard to canal transportation and centering ability. PMID:28357000

  19. Detection of leachables and cytotoxicity after exposure to methacrylate- and epoxy-based root canal sealers in vitro.

    PubMed

    Lodienė, Greta; Kopperud, Hilde M; Ørstavik, Dag; Bruzell, Ellen M

    2013-10-01

    Root canal sealing materials may have toxic potential in vitro depending on the cell line, cytotoxicity assay, material chemistry, and degree of polymer curing. The aims of the present study were to detect leaching components from epoxy- or methacrylate-based root canal sealers and to investigate the degree of cytotoxicity after exposure to extracts from these materials. Qualitative determination of substances released from the materials was performed by gas- and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Submandibular salivary gland acinar cell death (apoptosis/necrosis) was determined using a fluorescence staining/microscopy technique. The major leachable monomer from the epoxy-based material was bisphenol-A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), whereas leachables from the methacrylate-based materials were mainly triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA), hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA), and polyethyleneglycol dimethacrylate (PEGDMA). Exposure to diluted extracts of cured methacrylate-based materials caused a postexposure time-dependent increase in cell death. This effect was not demonstrated as a result of exposure to undiluted extract of cured epoxy-based material. Extracts of all fresh materials induced apoptosis significantly, but at lower dilutions of the epoxy- than the methacrylate-based materials. The degree of leaching, determined from the relative chromatogram peak heights of eluates from the methacrylate-based sealer materials, corresponded with the degree of cell death induced by extracts of these materials.

  20. Effect of root canal sealers and irrigation agents on retention of preformed posts luted with a resin cement.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J T; Windchy, A M; Goldsmith, L J; Gettleman, L

    2000-06-01

    This study examined the effect of three sealers and four irrigants on retention of Dentatus preformed posts luted with Panavia 21 resin cement. Gutta-percha with one of the following sealers--EWT, AH26, Nogenol, or no sealer (control)--was used to fill the root canals of 160 autoclaved incisor and premolar tooth roots. After 72 hr 8 mm post spaces were created with Dentatus Probos Pathfinders and Dentatus reamers. After irrigating the post spaces with saline, 5.25% NaOCl, 50% citric acid followed by NaOCl, or 40% H3PO4, followed by NaOCl, Panavia 21 TC cement was introduced into the canal on the Dentatus #4 stainless steel post's threads. An up-and-down and counterclockwise motion and then a forward twist seated the posts without engaging dentin. Mesiodistal and faciolingual radiographs visualized the chambers. After 72 hr posts were removed axially with an Instron at 5 mm/min. Surprisingly, using Nogenol sealer reduced post retention whereas EWT and AH26 increased retention compared with no sealer. Post retention improved after acid etchants, especially for AH26.

  1. The efficacy of the self-adjusting file and ProTaper for removal of calcium hydroxide from root canals

    PubMed Central

    FARIA, Gisele; KUGA, Milton Carlos; RUY, Alessandra Camila; ARANDA-GARCIA, Arturo Javier; BONETTI-FILHO, Idomeo; GUERREIRO-TANOMARU, Juliane Maria; LEONARDO, Renato Toledo

    2013-01-01

    Objective The goal of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of the Self-Adjusting File (SAF) and ProTaper for removing calcium hydroxide [Ca(OH)2] from root canals. Material and Methods Thirty-six human mandibular incisors were instrumented with the ProTaper system up to instrument F2 and filled with a Ca(OH)2-based dressing. After 7 days, specimens were distributed in two groups (n=15) according to the method of Ca(OH)2 removal. Group I (SAF) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl and SAF was used for 30 seconds under constant irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl using the Vatea irrigation device, followed by irrigation with 3 mL of EDTA and 5 mL of NaOCl. Group II (ProTaper) was irrigated with 5 mL of NaOCl, the F2 instrument was used for 30 seconds, followed by irrigation with 5 mL of NaOCl, 3 mL of EDTA, and 5 mL of NaOCl. In 3 teeth Ca(OH)2 was not removed (positive control) and in 3 teeth canals were not filled with Ca(OH)2 (negative control). Teeth were sectioned and prepared for the scanning electron microscopy. The amounts of residual Ca(OH)2 were evaluated in the middle and apical thirds using a 5-score system. Results None of the techniques completely removed the Ca(OH)2 dressing. No difference was observed between SAF and ProTaper in removing Ca(OH)2 in the middle (P=0.11) and the apical (P=0.23) thirds. Conclusion The SAF system showed similar efficacy to rotary instrument for removal of Ca(OH)2 from mandibular incisor root canals. PMID:24037074

  2. Evaluation Physical Characteristics and Comparison Antimicrobial and Anti-Inflammation Potentials of Dental Root Canal Sealers Containing Hinokitiol In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yin-Hua; Lin, Dan-Jae; Chang, Kuo-Wei; Hsia, Shih-Min; Ko, Shun-Yao; Lee, Shyh-Yuan; Hsue, Shui-Sang; Wang, Tong-Hong; Chen, Yi-Ling; Shieh, Tzong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Hinokitiol displays potent antimicrobial activity. It has been used in toothpaste and oral-care gel to improve the oral lichen planus and reduce halitosis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 3 different dental root canal sealers with hinokitiol (sealers+H) and their physical and biological effects. AH Plus (epoxy amine resin-based, AH), Apexit Plus (calcium-hydroxide-based, AP), and Canals (zinc-oxide-eugenol-based, CA), were used in this study. The original AH and CA exhibited strong anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (anti-MRSA) activity, but AP did not. The setting time, working time, flowability, film thickness, and solubility of each sealer+0.2%H complied with ISO 6876:2001. CA+0.2%H exhibited high cytotoxicity, but the others sealers+0.2%H did not. Because hinokitiol combined with Zn2+ in CA creates a synergistic effect. The physical tests of AP+0.5%–1%H complied with ISO 6876:2001, improved antimicrobial activity, inhibited inflammation genes cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) mRNA in MG-63 cells and human gingival fibroblasts (HGF), and down-regulated lysyl oxidase (LOX) mRNA of HGF. In summary, AH and CA demonstrated strong antimicrobial activity, but AP did not. Application of hinokitiol increases AH anti-MRSA activity should less than 0.2% for keep well flowability. AP+0.5%–1% hinokitiol exhibited strong physical, antibacterial, and anti-inflammation potentials, and inhibited S. aureus abscess formation. Applying an appreciable proportion of hinokitiol to epoxy-amine-resin-based and calcium-hydroxide-based root canal sealers is warranted, but the enhanced cytotoxicity and synergistic effect must be considered. PMID:24915566

  3. Radiographic method for anatomic study of the teat canal: characteristics related to resistance to new intramammary infection during lactation and the early dry period.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J S

    1975-10-01

    An in vivo radiographic method to determine teat canal anatomy has shown that resistant quarters had teat canals with a smaller diameter than that of susceptible quarters. The length of the teat canal did not appear to be related to resistance to new intramammary infections. These findings relate to new infection caused by Aerobacter aerogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, and Staphylococcus aureus. Quarters guarded by teat canals with larger diameter were less resistent to new infection during both lactation and the early dry period compared with quarters guarded by teat canals with small diameter.

  4. A Comparative Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Three Different Irrigating Solution on Microorganisms in the Root Canal: An Invivo Study

    PubMed Central

    Yeluri, Ramakrishna; Garg, Nishita; Mayall, Sandeep; Rallan, Mandeep; Gupta, Swarnika; Pathivada, Lumbini

    2015-01-01

    Introduction An infected root canal system either due to caries exposure or trauma cannot be eliminated by the host defense mechanisms alone or in combination with systemic antibiotic therapy. It can be treated through professional endodontic intervention using both chemical and mechanical procedures. Aim To suggest triple antibiotic solution containing tetracycline, ornidazole and ciprofloxacin as a new endodontic irrigant that may possess superior antibacterial activity in comparison with chlorhexidine solution. Materials and Methods This study was carried out on 60 teeth from 40 children with anterior tooth fracture, asymptomatic, non-vital and necrotic in nature. Patients were randomly divided into three groups of 20 teeth each depending upon the type of irrigant. After access opening microbial samples were obtained: a) Pre- irrigation i.e. sample after pulp extirpation and before irrigation, b) Post-irrigation i.e. sample after irrigation, stored in sterile containers and immediately transferred to microbiological laboratory. After incubation of samples aerobically at 370C for 24 hours, the samples were streaked on blood agar culture media and incubated for 48 hours. After 48 hours, the colony forming units were counted using a colony counter. Statistical analysis was carried out using Kruskal-Wallis test, Wilcoxson signed rank test and Mann-Whitney test. Results On intra group comparison, highly significant differences in the colony forming units were found between pre-irrigation and post-irrigation sample for all the three groups. On inter group comparison, statistical difference was found between saline and chlorhexidine (p ≤ 0.001), saline and triple antibiotic paste (p< 0.001). The greatest percentage decrease was obtained in samples treated with Chlorhexidine solution (Group 2) i.e.73.91. The triple antibiotic irrigating solution group showed percentage decrease of 66.22 followed by Group 1 (Saline) 15.04. The difference found amongst the groups was

  5. Endodontic and esthetic management of a dilacerated maxillary central incisor having two root canals using cone beam computed tomography as a diagnostic aid.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sarang; Grover, Shibani; Sharma, Vivek; Srivastava, Dhirendra; Mittal, Meenu

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic injuries to the primary dentition are quite common. When primary teeth are subjected to trauma, force transmission and/or invasion of the underlying tooth germs lying in close proximity can result in a variety of disturbances in the permanent successors. Few of these disturbances include hypoplasia, dilaceration, or alteration in the eruption sequence and pattern. Dilaceration is defined as an angulation or sharp bend or curve in the linear relationship of the crown of a tooth to its root. A rare case of maxillary left central incisor having crown dilaceration and Vertucci's type II canal configuration with symptomatic periapical periodontitis is reported. Cone beam computed tomography was used for better understanding of the anomaly and complicated root canal morphology. The tooth was successfully managed by nonsurgical root canal therapy and restoration with resin composite to restore esthetics.

  6. Comparison of the Antimicrobial Efficacy of Two Antibiotics Sparfloxacin and Augmentin as Experimental Root Canal Irrigating Solutions against Enterococcus faecalis - An Invitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Venigalla, Bhuvan Shome; Surakanti, Jayaprada Reddy; Thumu, Jayaprakash; Chennamaneni, Krishna Chaitanya; Kalluru, Rama S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction One of the main goals of endodontic treatment is root canal disinfection and to prevent subsequent chances of reinfection. Adjuvant to instrumentation, root canal irrigants are required to eliminate the bacteria found on the root canal walls and lateral canals within the dentinal tubules. Aim To measure and compare the antibacterial efficacy of two antibiotics as experimental root canal irrigating solutions against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis). Materials and Methods Fifteen Brain Heart Infusion agar plates were inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis-American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) 29212. 5 micrograms (mcg) Sparfloxacin discs, 30mcg Augmentin discs, and sterile paper test discs saturated with 2% Chlorhexidine (CHX), 3% Sodium Hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 5% NaOCl solutions were placed on agar plates. Sodium Chloride 0.9% (NaCl) paper discs were used as controls. Fifteen plates were incubated aerobically at 37°C. Results were expressed as per the terms of the diameter of the inhibition zone. Results Results suggested a statistically significant difference in the zones of inhibition between five irrigating solutions (p < 0.001). Conclusion Although, zones of inhibition were found in all the groups, 5mcg Sparfloxacin and 30mcg Augmentin showed maximum antimicrobial activity against E.faecalis. PMID:27135003

  7. Effect of glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical crack during the canal preparation using Reciproc, WaveOne, and ProTaper Next systems in curved root canals: A stereomicroscope study.

    PubMed

    Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Düzgün, Salih; Akpek, Firdevs; Topçuoğlu, Gamze

    2016-11-01

    This study evaluated the effect of creating a glide path and apical preparation size on the incidence of apical cracks during canal preparation in mandibular molar teeth with curved canals. One hundred and forty extracted teeth were used. The teeth were randomly assigned to one control group or six experimental groups (n = 20 per group) for canal preparation. No preparation was performed on teeth in the control group. In three of the six experimental groups, a glide path was not created; a glide path was created on the curved mesial canals of all teeth in the remaining three experimental groups. All teeth in experimental groups were then instrumented with the following systems: Reciproc, WaveOne (WO), and ProTaper Next (PTN). Digital images of the apical root surfaces of these teeth were recorded before preparation, after instrumentation with size 25 files, and after instrumentation with size 40 files. The images were then inspected for the presence of any new apical cracks and propagation. There was no significant difference between the experimental groups during canal preparation using size 25 files (p > 0.05). Reciproc and WO caused more new apical cracks than did PTN during canal preparation using size 40 files (p < 0.05). However, canal preparation using size 40 files did not cause propagation of existing cracks (p > 0.05). Performing a glide path prior to canal preparation did not change the incidence of apical crack during preparation. Additionally, increasing apical preparation size may increase the incidence of apical crack during canal preparation. SCANNING 38:585-590, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed ex vivo by dental students at Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Spain

    PubMed Central

    Faus-Matoses, Vicente; Alegre-Domingo, Teresa; Faus-Llácer, Vicente J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate radiographically the quality of root canal fillings and compare manual and rotary preparation performed on extracted teeth by undergraduate dental students. Study Design: A total of 561 premolars and molars extracted teeth were prepared using nickel-titanium rotary files or manual instrumentation and filled with gutta-percha using a cold lateral condensation technique, by 4th grade undergraduate students. Periapical radiographs were used to assess the technical quality of the root canal filling, evaluating three variables: length, density and taper. These data were recorded, scored and used to study the “technical success rate” and the “overall score”. The length of each root canal filling was classified as acceptable, short and overfilled, based on their relationship with the radiographic apex. Density and taper of filling were evaluated based on the presence of voids and the uniform tapering of the filling, respectively. Statistical analysis was used to evaluate the quality of root canal treatment, considering p < 0.05 as a statistical significant level. Results: The percentage of technical success was 44% and the overall score was 7.8 out of 10. Technical success and overall score were greater with rotary instruments (52% against 28% with a manual one, p < 0.001; 8.3 against 6.7 respectively, p < 0.001). Conclusions: It appears that inexperienced operators perform better root canal treatment (RCT) with the use of rotary instrumentation. Key words:Dental education, endodontics, rotary instrumentation, radiographs, root canal treatment, undergraduate students. PMID:24121911

  9. Adhesion to root canal dentine using one and two-step adhesives with dual-cure composite core materials.

    PubMed

    Foxton, R M; Nakajima, M; Tagami, J; Miura, H

    2005-02-01

    The regional tensile bond strengths of two dual-cure composite resin core materials to root canal dentine using either a one or two-step self-etching adhesive were evaluated. Extracted premolar teeth were decoronated and their root canals prepared to a depth of 8 mm and a width of 1.4 mm. In one group, a one-step self-etching adhesive (Unifil Self-etching Bond) was applied to the walls of the post-space and light-cured for 10 s. After which, the post-spaces were filled with the a dual-cure composite resin (Unifil Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. In the second group, a self-etching primer (ED Primer II) was applied for 30 s, followed by an adhesive resin (Clearfil Photo Bond), which was light-cured for 10 s. The post-spaces were filled with a dual-cure composite resin (DC Core) and then half the specimens were light-cured for 60 s and the other half placed in darkness for 30 min. Chemical-cure composite resin was placed on the outer surfaces of all the roots, which were then stored in water for 24 h. They were serially sliced perpendicular to the bonded interface into 8, 0.6 mm-thick slabs, and then transversely sectioned into beams, approximately 8 x 0.6 x 0.6 mm, for the microtensile bond strength test (muTBS). Data were divided into two (coronal/apical half of post-space) and analysed using three-way anova and Scheffe's test (P < 0.05). Failure modes were observed under an scanning electron microscope (SEM) and statistically analysed. Specimens for observation of the bonded interfaces were prepared in a similar manner as for bond strength testing, cut in half and embedded in epoxy resin. They were then polished to a high gloss, gold sputter coated, and after argon ion etching, observed under an SEM. For both dual-cure composite resins and curing strategies, there were no significant differences in muTBS between the coronal and apical regions (P > 0.05). In addition, both dual

  10. Cone-beam computed tomography study of prevalence and location of MB2 canal in the mesiobuccal root of the maxillary second molar

    PubMed Central

    Betancourt, Pablo; Navarro, Pablo; Cantín, Mario; Fuentes, Ramón

    2015-01-01

    The maxillary second molar (2 MM) has the most complex root canal system, and a high percentage of treatment failures is due to the impossibility of locating, instrumenting and obturating the second mesiobuccal canal (MB2). The aim of this study was to describe in vivo the prevalence and location of the MB2 canal in the mesiobuccal root of the permanent maxillary second molar through CBCT image analysis. Two hundred twenty five CBCT images of 2 MM were studied. In the presence of the MB2 canal, the floor of the coronal cavity was located and advanced every 1 mm apically to standardize observation. The geometric location in relation to the primary mesiobuccal (MB1) and palatal (P) canals was done by locating the central points of the canal and projecting a line between them, together with a perpendicular line between MB1-P (point T). The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, with a value of P < 0.05 being statistically significant. The MB2 canal was identified in 48% of the cases. It was located 2.2 ± 0.54 mm palatally and 0.98 ± 0.35 mesially to the MB1 canal. The average age of the subjects where it was found was 26.36 ± 10.85 years. Its location was more frequent in men (63%), and no differences were observed in its appearance in the hemi-arch. It is necessary to know the high probability of finding the MB2 canal in the maxillary second molar, and the CBCT is a good diagnostic tool for its detection and exploration. PMID:26309568

  11. Effects of endodontic irrigation solutions on mineral content of root canal dentin using ICP-AES technique.

    PubMed

    Ari, Hale; Erdemir, Ali

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate mineral content of root canal dentin after treatment with several endodontic irrigation solutions. Sixty mandibular anterior teeth extracted for periodontal reasons used. The crowns of the teeth were removed at the cemento-enamel junction. Pulp tissues were removed and the teeth were randomly divided into six groups including 10 teeth each. Root canals were enlarged with gates-glidden burs (# 1, 2, and 3). The groups were treated as follows: group 1, 0.2% chlorhexidine gluconate for 15 min; group 2, 3% H2O2 for 15 min; group 3, 17% EDTA for 15 min; group 4, 5.25% NaOCl for 15 min; group 5, 2.5% NaOCl for 15 min; and group 6, distilled water (control). Dentin chips were obtained using gates-glidden burs (# 4, 5, and 6). The levels of five elements calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, and sulfur in each specimens were analyzed using ICP-AES (Inductively Coupled Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry) technique. Changes in the levels of the chemical elements were recorded. The results were then statistically analyzed by one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests. There was a significant decrease in the calcium and phosphorus levels after treatment with all irrigation solutions except for 5.25% NaOCl when compared with the control group (p < 0.05). The K, Mg, and S level changes were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). It has been concluded that endodontic irrigation solutions have an effect on mineral contents of root dentin.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Three Newer Root Canal Obturating Materials Guttaflow, Resilon and Thermafil: An In Vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    H Bhandi, Shilpa; T S, Subhash

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Microleakage continues to be a main reason for failure of root canal treatment where the challenge has been to achieve an adequate seal between the internal structure and the main obturating material. The objective of this study is to compare the sealing ability of 3 newer obturating materials GuttaFlow, Resilon/Epiphany system (RES) and Thermafil, using silver nitrate dye and observing under stereomicroscope. Methodology: Thirty single rooted teeth were divided into following groups. Group I : GuttaFlow ;Group II : Resilon /Epiphany sealer Group III : Thermafil with AH-Plus sealer. Teeth were decoronated and instrumented with profile rotary system and obturated with specified materials. Apical seal was determined by dye penetration method using silver nitrate. Then the specimens were transversely sectioned at each mm till 3 mm from the apex. Dye leakage was determined using stereomicroscope. Statistical analysis of the results was performed using Kruskall-Wallis test. Results: The results showed that Group II i.e., Resilon with Epiphany sealer showed the least amount of microleakage when compared to Group I i.e., GuttaFlow and Group III i.e., Thermafil with AH-plus sealer. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that RES had higher sealing ability followed by Thermafil and GuttaFlow in vitro but further studies have to be carried out to make a direct correlation between these results and invivo situation. How to cite this article: Bhandi S H, Subhash T S. Comparative Evaluation of Sealing Ability of Three Newer Root Canal Obturating Materials Guttaflow, Resilon and Thermafil: An In Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(1):54-65. PMID:24155579

  13. Efficacy of Different Methods for Removing Root Canal Filling Material in Retreatment - An In-vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Mariswamy, Annapoorna Ballagere

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Although success of endodontic therapy has significantly improved in the last few decades due to the introduction of novel materials and techniques, failures of endodontic therapy requiring re-treatment still comprise a significant percentage of patients requiring root canal treatment. Aim To evaluate and compare the effective removal of gutta percha and sealer, amount of apical debris extrusion and time required for gutta percha removal using various endodontic files. Materials and Methods Total 48 extracted mandibular premolars were mounted on acrylic blocks and endodontic procedure was carried out using size 40 K file and obturated using guttapercha and zinc oxide eugenol sealer. After one month storage, samples were decoronated, mounted on screw capped vials and subjected to removal of obturated material by four instruments: H files, safe sided H files, protaper universal retreatment rotary system and ultrasonic retreatment tip, grouped as 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Only 2mm of obturated material from the coronal part was removed using no. 3 Gates Glidden drill, guttapercha was softened with a drop of xylene for 2 mins for each canal and retreatment was performed. The retreatment procedure was said to be complete when no visible debris were observed on the instrument flutes. The samples split into two halves and examined under stereomicroscope, photographed, assessed using AUTOCAD software and percentage of remaining filling material in coronal, middle, apical thirds of the canal was calculated in mm2. Retreatment time was recorded in seconds and apically extruded debris was assessed by microbalance in grams for each tooth. The data was analyzed by using descriptive statistics, ANOVA and Scheffe’s post hoc test through SPSS for windows (v 16.0). Results The ultrasonic retreatment tip had less percentage of residual guttapercha/sealer, shorter mean operating time and little apical extrusion with a significant difference (p<0.05) between the

  14. Effect of Resin Cement Pre-heating on the Push-out Bond Strength of Fiber Post to Root Canal Dentin

    PubMed Central

    Alizadeh Oskoee, Parnian; Nooroloyouni, Ahmad; Pornaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Sajjadi Oskoee, Jafar; Pirzadeh Ashraf, Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. Various factors influence the interfacial bond between the fiber posts and root canal dentin. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of pre-warming of resin cement on the push-out bond strength of fiber posts to various segments of root canal dentin. Materials and methods. In this in vitro study, 40 single-rooted human premolars were decoronated and underwent root canal treatment along with post space preparation. The samples were randomly divided into two groups: In group 1, Panavia F 2.0 cement was used at room temperature; in group 2, the same cement was warmed to 55‒60°C before mixing. After fiber posts were placed and cemented in the root canals, 3 dentin/post sections (coronal, middle and apical) with a thickness of 3 mm were prepared. A universal testing machine was used to measure push-out bond strength in MPa. Data was analyzed using two-factor ANOVA and a post hoc Tukey test at α=0.05. Results. The mean value of push-out bond strength was high at room temperature, and the differences in the means of push-out bond strength values between the resin cement temperatures and between different root segments in each temperature were significant (P<0.05). Conclusion. Pre-warming of Panavia F 2.0 resin cement up to 55-60°C reduced push-out bond strength to root canal dentin. In addition, in each temperature group bond strengths decreased from coronal to apical segments. PMID:26889360

  15. Comparative micro-computed tomography evaluation of apical root canal transportation with the use of ProTaper, RaCe and Safesider systems in human teeth.

    PubMed

    Ceyhanli, Kadir T; Erdilek, Necdet; Tatar, Ilkan; Cetintav, Bekir

    2014-04-01

    The aim of this study was to compare apical centring ability of nickel titanium (NiTi) ProTaper, RaCe and mainly stainless steel Safesider systems using micro-computed tomography. Thirty freshly extracted mandibular molars with two separate mesial canals and separate foramina were used for the study. Mesial roots were embedded in acrylic resin and instrumented with the ProTaper, RaCe or Safesider systems. Root canal transportation and centring ability of the instruments were evaluated using superimposed micro-computed tomography images of the apical 4 mm of the roots taken at 1 mm intervals. One-way analysis of variance and post hoc Tukey's tests were performed to compare apical transportations. Significant differences were observed between groups at the apical 1, 2 and 3 mm levels (P < 0.05). The reciprocating Safesider system transported root canals significantly more than the other two NiTi systems in the apical 1 mm level (P = 0.001) and more than RaCe system in the apical 2 mm level (P = 0.003). The ProTaper instruments caused more apical root canal transportation than did RaCe instruments at apical 3 mm (P = 0.045). NiTi instrumentation systems showed better centring ability than the mainly stainless steel Safesider system because of the flexible structure of the NiTi alloy.

  16. [Upper premolars: study of the number of roots and their canals].

    PubMed

    Sánchez Mercant, H; Mangarelli Vence, A A

    1989-08-01

    The number of roots and cannals were observed and studied in upper bicuspids. For the study of the root cannals was used a diafanization technique. The results were prosessed by stadistic analysis and compared with those published. By the observation, in this work, was stated that the first upper bicuspid has one root and two cannals in the most of the cases. This situation was confirmed by stadistic analysis. Conclusions were extracted refering them to the clinical application.

  17. Healing outcomes of root canal treatment for C-shaped mandibular second molars: a retrospective analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Hye-Ra; Moon, Young-Mi; Hong, Sung-Ok

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed to evaluate the healing rate of non-surgical endodontic treatment between C-shaped and non-C-shaped mandibular second molars. Materials and Methods Clinical records and radiological images of patients who had undergone endodontic treatment on mandibular second molars between 2007 and 2014 were screened. The periapical index scoring system was applied to compare healing outcomes. Information about preoperative and postoperative factors as well as the demographic data of the patients was acquired and evaluated using chi-square and multinomial logistic regression tests. Results The total healing rate was 68.4%. Healing rates for the mandibular second molar were 70.9% in C-shaped canals (n = 79) and 66.6% in non-C-shaped ones (n = 117). The difference was not statistically significant. Conclusions The presence of a C-shaped canal in the mandibular second molar did not have a significantly negative effect on healing after treatment. Instead, proper pulpal diagnosis and final restoration were indicated as having significantly greater influence on the healing outcomes of C-shaped and non-C-shaped canals, respectively. PMID:27847747

  18. Effect of root canal rinsing protocol on dentin bond strength of two resin cements using three different method of test

    PubMed Central

    Khoroushi, Maryam; Sheikhi, Mohammadreza; Soleimani, Bahram

    2016-01-01

    Background Different studies have used different tests to evaluate bond strength of resin cements to root dentin. In this in vitrostudy, three different tests were used to evaluate the bond strength of two resin cements to root dentin using two root dentin irrigation protocols. Material and Methods Ninety-six intact single-rooted teeth were selected for this study. Forty-eight teeth, with a root length of 15mm, were randomly divided into two groups and irrigated with normal saline or 2.5% sodium hypochlorite solutions during root canal preparation, respectively. For each 12 specimens from each group, fiber post #1 was bonded using an etch-and-rinse (Duo-Link) and a self-adhesive (BisCem) resin cement, respectively. After incubation, two specimens were prepared for the push-out test from the middle thirds of the roots. In another 24 teeth, after two 1.5-mm sections were prepared from the middle thirds of the prepared roots, sections of the post were bonded in two subgroups with each of the cements mentioned above and the samples were prepared for the pull-out test. For shear test, the crowns of 48 teeth were cut away, the dentin surfaces were prepared, the two irrigation solutions were used, and the resin cements were bonded. Data collected from the three tests were evaluated by ANOVA, post-hoc Tukey and Weibull tests (α=0.05). Results There were significant differences in the mean bond strength values between the three bond strength tests (P<0.001). Rinsing protocol and cement type resulted in similar variations in the mean bond strength in all tests (P>0.05). Conclusions Under the limitations of the present study, the method of the test used had an effect on the recorded bond strength between the resin cement and root dentin. Cement type and irrigation protocol resulted in similar variations with all the tests. Push-out and shear tests exhibited more coherent results. Key words:Bond strength, endodontically treated tooth, fiber post, resin cement, sodium

  19. Assessment Using AutoCAD Software of the Preparation of Dentin Walls in Root Canals Produced by 4 Different Endodontic Instrument Systems.

    PubMed

    Cabanillas, Cristina; Monterde, Manuel; Pallarés, Antonio; Aranda, Susana; Montes, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To compare the effectiveness of four instrument systems for preparing oval root canals: manual instrumentation (Step-Back technique), ProTaper Universal, ProTaper Next, and Wave One. Material and Methods. For the purpose of this assessment, 60 teeth extracted for orthodontic or periodontal reasons, specifically canines and premolars with full coronal and root anatomy, were used and 15 samples were assigned to each group. The section of the canals was c