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Sample records for infection historical review

  1. Roentgen therapy for infections: an historical review.

    PubMed Central

    Berk, L. B.; Hodes, P. J.

    1991-01-01

    Radiation was used extensively for the treatment of all types of infections before the advent of antibiotics. Although this mode of therapy is now in disrepute, radiation therapists of that era were firm believers in the ability of radiation to cure infections. A review of the literature suggests, but certainly does not prove, that low-dose local radiation, in the range of 75 to 300 roentgens, is an effective treatment modality for a wide variety of infections. Two then-prevailing rationales held that the effect was due either to radiation damage to the immune cells, causing stimulation of the immune response, or to the increase in local inflammation with resultant increased blood flow. Modern research has been limited but provides support for both arguments. Although there are no present indications for using radiation as therapy for infectious disease, a reasonable argument can be made from the available data that radiation is effective for the treatment of localized infections. The mechanisms of low-dose radiation as a treatment for infections remain unclear. The known and probable long-term sequelae of low-dose local irradiation preclude its common use for this condition. Nevertheless, it is hoped that this review will stimulate investigations into this relatively unexplored area of radiobiology. PMID:1750226

  2. Public health policy for management of hepatitis B virus infection: historical review of recommendations for immunization.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haeok; Park, Wanju

    2010-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is the leading cause of cirrhosis, liver failure, and liver cancer, and an estimated 620,000 persons die annually from HBV-related liver disease (Goldstein et al., 2005; World Health Organization, 2000). Immunization with the HBV vaccine is the most effective means of preventing HBV infection and its consequent acute and chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The HBV vaccine has been used against HBV in the United States since 1982 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1982); during the last 25 years, HBV vaccine policy continued to evolve in response to public health issues and epidemiologic data. Although the number of newly acquired HBV infections has substantially declined as a result of implementation of a national immunization program, the prevalence of chronic HBV infection remains high. The purpose of this article is to review the epidemiology of HBV, provide a historical review of health policies for HBV immunization, and summarize the recent evidence-based public health guidelines for management of HBV infection in the United States.

  3. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  4. Mineralogy: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…

  5. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Bargues, María Dolores; Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-02-01

    Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and epidemiological differences between Andean highlands and non

  6. [Historical aspects, maternity and HIV infection in women].

    PubMed

    de Carvalho, Fernanda Torres; Piccinini, Cesar Augusto

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this article was to examine historical aspects related to the feminine and to being a mother for deepening the comprehension of motherhood in the context of HIV/Aids infection. We reviewed the traditional role of the woman in society, showing the historical division between the mother, deserving respect and consideration, and the prostitute, marginalized and not worth of respect. In this context, we discuss the sexually transmitted diseases and the social reactions toward these infections in women, especially as refers to motherhood in the context of HIV/Aids infection. The paper emphasizes the presence of socially constructed beliefs about women's behaviors as a factor hampering an effective prevention of STD/HIV/AIDS in women and the great need for reflecting about the strategies for prevention and care.

  7. DNA multigene characterization of Fasciola hepatica and Lymnaea neotropica and its fascioliasis transmission capacity in Uruguay, with historical correlation, human report review and infection risk analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gayo, Valeria; Sanchis, Jaime; Artigas, Patricio; Khoubbane, Messaoud; Birriel, Soledad; Mas-Coma, Santiago

    2017-01-01

    Background Fascioliasis is a pathogenic disease transmitted by lymnaeid snails and recently emerging in humans, in part due to effects of climate changes, anthropogenic environment modifications, import/export and movements of livestock. South America is the continent presenting more human fascioliasis hyperendemic areas and the highest prevalences and intensities known. These scenarios appear mainly linked to altitude areas in Andean countries, whereas lowland areas of non-Andean countries, such as Uruguay, only show sporadic human cases or outbreaks. A study including DNA marker sequencing of fasciolids and lymnaeids, an experimental study of the life cycle in Uruguay, and a review of human fascioliasis in Uruguay, are performed. Methodology/Principal findings The characterization of Fasciola hepatica from cattle and horses of Uruguay included the complete sequences of the ribosomal DNA ITS-2 and ITS-1 and mitochondrial DNA cox1 and nad1. ITS-2, ITS-1, partial cox1 and rDNA 16S gene of mtDNA were used for lymnaeids. Results indicated that vectors belong to Lymnaea neotropica instead of to Lymnaea viator, as always reported from Uruguay. The life cycle and transmission features of F. hepatica by L. neotropica of Uruguay were studied under standardized experimental conditions to enable a comparison with the transmission capacity of F. hepatica by Galba truncatula at very high altitude in Bolivia. On this baseline, we reviewed the 95 human fascioliasis cases reported in Uruguay and analyzed the risk of human infection in front of future climate change estimations. Conclusions/Significance The correlation of fasciolid and lymnaeid haplotypes with historical data on the introduction and spread of livestock into Uruguay allowed to understand the molecular diversity detected. Although Uruguayan L. neotropica is a highly efficient vector, its transmission capacity is markedly lower than that of Bolivian G. truncatula. This allows to understand the transmission and

  8. Historical Review of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prashant, Prashant

    2007-03-01

    Quantum Mechanics is being taught for the last many decades at both undergraduate as well as post graduate levels in universities world over. Inclusion of historical background i.e. development of the subject in chronological order, description of Gedanken experiments, information regarding Solvay, Copenhagen Conferences and biographies of well known contributors in this field may definitely give a broader understanding of the subject. This may create an interest in understanding the new developments and this article is an attempt in that direction to highlight the rich past of Quantum Mechanics and how it got shaped by great minds to its present form. Keywords: Quantum mechanics, historical, Copenhagen, Solvay, Bohr, Einstein. note: http://www.arxiv.org/abs/physics/0512104

  9. Historical review of bone prefabrication.

    PubMed

    Di Bella, Claudia; Lucarelli, Enrico; Donati, Davide

    2008-09-01

    Prefabricated tissue represents a bridge between traditional reconstructive surgery and tissue engineering. Initially used in the 1960s in reconstructive plastic surgery, in the 1980s it was also used in orthopedics. The term "prefabricated" indicates a process of neovascularization of a tissue by implanting a vascular pedicle inside the tissue itself; this tissue can be then reimplanted either at a short distance through the pedicle itself, or as a free graft by microvascular anastomosis. The purpose of prefabrication is to build a tissue (muscle, bone, skin, or composite) with characteristics as similar as possible to those of the defect to fill, thus minimizing morbidity in the donor site and improving the reconstructive effectiveness. We present a review of the literature that includes the main experiments performed until now in which a bone segment has been reconstructed using scaffolds and growth factors in relationship to the local blood supply or to the use of a vascular pedicle.

  10. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry.

  11. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  12. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  13. An Observation: Historical Review of Indian Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gordon, Ruby D.

    Presenting an historical review of American Indian education, this document includes the following: (1) Introduction (identifies the educational anthropologist as one who investigates the learner's and the educator's cultural orientation to better facilitate the continuity of educational content and method); (2) Definition of Terms (culture,…

  14. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  15. Millimeter wave imaging: a historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Appleby, Roger; Robertson, Duncan A.; Wikner, David

    2017-05-01

    The SPIE Passive and Active Millimeter Wave Imaging conference has provided an annual focus and forum for practitioners in the field of millimeter wave imaging for the past two decades. To celebrate the conference's twentieth anniversary we present a historical review of the evolution of millimeter wave imaging over the past twenty years. Advances in device technology play a fundamental role in imaging capability whilst system architectures have also evolved. Imaging phenomenology continues to be a crucial topic underpinning the deployment of millimeter wave imaging in diverse applications such as security, remote sensing, non-destructive testing and synthetic vision.

  16. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  17. Controversies in nursing ethics: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Olsen, D P

    1992-09-01

    The author critiques the dialectic between justice-based ethics and an ethic of caring from a historical perspective (by analogy with the dialectic between agape and friendship). Justice-based ethics have been problematic for nursing because of the decontextualized approach. The ethic of caring is problematic because caring, being contextual, is particularistic and therefore can be based on morally irrelevant factors, such as liking. There is a tradition of writing which seeks to reconcile the particularistic obligations of friendship with the moral duty to all others equally. Ideas from the following authors are reviewed for relevance to nursing: Aristotle, Aelred of Rievaulx, Augustine, John Cassian, Cicero, George Berkeley, Immanuel Kant, Michel de Montaigne, Jeremy Taylor and Max Weber. The authors concludes by noting that both sides of the dialectic are synthesized in the lived experience of individuals. A synthesis in thought is called for on this basis.

  18. T cell responses in hepatitis C virus infection: historical overview and goals for future research.

    PubMed

    Holz, Lauren; Rehermann, Barbara

    2015-02-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-specific T cells are key factors in the outcome of acute HCV infection and in protective immunity. This review recapitulates the steps that immunologists have taken in the past 25years to dissect the role of T cell responses in HCV infection. It describes technical as well as disease-specific challenges that were caused by the inapparent onset of acute HCV infection, the difficulty to identify subjects who spontaneously clear HCV infection, the low frequency of HCV-specific T cells in the blood of chronically infected patients, and the lack of small animal models with intact immune systems to study virus-host interaction. The review provides a historical perspective on techniques and key findings, and identifies areas for future research.

  19. The oath of Hippocrates: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Davey, L M

    2001-09-01

    This presentation is designed to share with fellow neurosurgeons a topic, namely the oath of Hippocrates, that has been a subject of fascination to physicians, scholars, historians, and even the public for the past 2500 years. Its moral and ethical message has exhibited remarkable resiliency through the ages, in varied cultures. Although its language may appear odd, its precepts are as valid today as they were in Hippocrates' time. This can be best understood through an historical review of the oath's transmission and acceptance in different eras of western history. The longevity of the oath, however, is clearly attributable to its intrinsic merit, its high moral reverent tone, and a literary eloquence that placed Hippocrates among the best writers of antiquity. Despite the fame of its author, the oath has experienced a life of its own, from relative obscurity during the Dark Ages to reverential study since the Renaissance. Five aspects are considered in this discussion, i.e., 1) oaths in antiquity; 2) a biographical sketch of Hippocrates; 3) the chain of transmission from antiquity to modern times; 4) comments on other oaths, prayers, codes, and credos; and 5) an analysis and some personal views of the oath.

  20. Historical review of the causes of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  1. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ``R`` so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER.

  2. Research in Continuing Medical Education. An Historical Review (and) Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abrahamson, Stephen; Lloyd, John S.

    1984-01-01

    Includes an historical review of continuing medical education (CME) in the United States from 1909, when the Blackburn Plan began, to the post-World War II era, with the growth of instructional technology. Two earlier studies that reviewed evaluation research in CME are discussed. Lloyd's brief response disputes some of Abrahamson's points. (SK)

  3. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented. PMID:25932012

  4. Khadira (Acasia Catechu Linn.) - A medico-historical review.

    PubMed

    Narayana, A

    1996-01-01

    Indigenous Medical wisdom in India known as Ayurveda goes back to a hoary past. We find references in Vedas not only to medical science but to various drugs also. The medico-historical review of Khadira (Acasia Catechu linn.) including the historical perspectives, identity, varieties, formulae and therapeutic usage etc. is presented here, based on the classical treatises, medical lexicons, commentaries and other compilations, covering the from Vedic period to present times.

  5. Medico-historical review of drug Kustha.

    PubMed

    Prasad, P V V; Subhaktha, P K J P

    2002-01-01

    Kustha is well known for its cures since ancient times. Atharvaveda considers this as a potent plant next to Soma (a divine plant) in curing several diseases. It is also called Takmanashana (which cures fevers) in Atharvaveda. It grows in Himalayas and Kasmir. In Ayurveda, root of Kustha is used for fevers, skin diseases, headache etc. Almost all Nighantus carry the description of Kustha with several synonyms. Some scholars consider two varieties of Kustha i.e. sweetish and bitter, but one with bitter taste is the real Kustha. Pushkarmool (Inula recemosa Hook.f.) is available in the market as sweet variety of Kustha. Thus its medico-historical importance and other details have been presented in this article.

  6. Neuroinflammation and brain infections: historical context and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bentivoglio, Marina; Mariotti, Raffaella; Bertini, Giuseppe

    2011-01-07

    An overview of current concepts on neuroinflammation and on the dialogue between neurons and non-neuronal cells in three important infections of the central nervous systems (rabies, cerebral malaria, and human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness) is here presented. Large numbers of cases affected by these diseases are currently reported. In the context of an issue dedicated to Camillo Golgi, historical notes on seminal discoveries on these diseases are also presented. Neuroinflammation is currently closely associated with pathogenetic mechanisms of chronic neurodegenerative diseases. Neuroinflammatory signaling in brain infections is instead relatively neglected in the neuroscience community, despite the fact that the above infections provide paradigmatic examples of alterations of the intercellular crosstalk between neurons and non-neuronal cells. In rabies, strategies of immune evasion of the host lead to silencing neuroinflammatory signaling. In the intravascular pathology which characterizes cerebral malaria, leukocytes and Plasmodium do not enter the brain parenchyma. In sleeping sickness, leukocytes and African trypanosomes invade the brain parenchyma at an advanced stage of infection. Both the latter pathologies leave open many questions on the targeting of neuronal functions and on the pathogenetic role of non-neuronal cells, and in particular astrocytes and microglia, in these diseases. All three infections are hallmarked by very severe clinical pictures and relative sparing of neuronal structure. Multidisciplinary approaches and a concerted action of the neuroscience community are needed to shed light on intercellular crosstalk in these dreadful brain diseases. Such effort could also lead to new knowledge on non-neuronal mechanisms which determine neuronal death or survival.

  7. Commentary: A Historical Review of Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Antiviral Treatment and Postexposure Chemoprophylaxis Guidance for Human Infections With Novel Influenza A Viruses Associated With Severe Human Disease.

    PubMed

    Havers, Fiona P; Campbell, Angela P; Uyeki, Timothy M; Fry, Alicia M

    2017-09-15

    Human infections with novel influenza A viruses are of global public health concern, and antiviral medications have a potentially important role in treatment and prevention of human illness. Initial guidance was developed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention after the emergence of human infections with avian influenza A(H5N1) and has evolved over time, with identification of influenza A(H7N9) virus infections in humans, as well as detection of avian influenza viruses in birds in the United States. This commentary describes the historical context and current guidance for the use of influenza antiviral medications for treatment and post-exposure chemoprophylaxis of human infections with novel influenza A viruses associated with severe human illness, or with the potential to cause severe human disease, and provides the scientific rationale behind current recommendations. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-03

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  9. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine

    PubMed Central

    Shanks, G. Dennis

    2016-01-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds. PMID:27185766

  10. Congenital parasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Carlier, Yves; Truyens, Carine; Deloron, Philippe; Peyron, François

    2012-02-01

    This review defines the concepts of maternal-fetal (congenital) and vertical transmissions (mother-to-child) of pathogens and specifies the human parasites susceptible to be congenitally transferred. It highlights the epidemiological features of this transmission mode for the three main congenital parasitic infections due to Toxoplasma gondii, Trypanosoma cruzi and Plasmodium sp. Information on the possible maternal-fetal routes of transmission, the placental responses to infection and timing of parasite transmission are synthesized and compared. The factors susceptible to be involved in parasite transmission and development of congenital parasitic diseases, such as the parasite genotypes, the maternal co-infections and parasitic load, the immunological features of pregnant women and the capacity of some fetuses/neonates to overcome their immunological immaturity to mount an immune response against the transmitted parasites are also discussed and compared. Analysis of clinical data indicates that parasitic congenital infections are often asymptomatic, whereas symptomatic newborns generally display non-specific symptoms. The long-term consequences of congenital infections are also mentioned, such as the imprinting of neonatal immune system and the possible trans-generational transmission. The detection of infection in pregnant women is mainly based on standard serological or parasitological investigations. Amniocentesis and cordocentesis can be used for the detection of some fetal infections. The neonatal infection can be assessed using parasitological, molecular or immunological methods; the place of PCR in such neonatal diagnosis is discussed. When such laboratory diagnosis is not possible at birth or in the first weeks of life, standard serological investigations can also be performed 8-10 months after birth, to avoid detection of maternal transmitted antibodies. The specific aspects of treatment of T. gondii, T. cruzi and Plasmodium congenital infections are

  11. Roles of sunlight and natural ventilation for controlling infection: historical and current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Hobday, R A; Dancer, S J

    2013-08-01

    Infections caught in buildings are a major global cause of sickness and mortality. Understanding how infections spread is pivotal to public health yet current knowledge of indoor transmission remains poor. To review the roles of natural ventilation and sunlight for controlling infection within healthcare environments. Comprehensive literature search was performed, using electronic and library databases to retrieve English language papers combining infection; risk; pathogen; and mention of ventilation; fresh air; and sunlight. Foreign language articles with English translation were included, with no limit imposed on publication date. In the past, hospitals were designed with south-facing glazing, cross-ventilation and high ceilings because fresh air and sunlight were thought to reduce infection risk. Historical and recent studies suggest that natural ventilation offers protection from transmission of airborne pathogens. Particle size, dispersal characteristics and transmission risk require more work to justify infection control practices concerning airborne pathogens. Sunlight boosts resistance to infection, with older studies suggesting potential roles for surface decontamination. Current knowledge of indoor transmission of pathogens is inadequate, partly due to lack of agreed definitions for particle types and mechanisms of spread. There is recent evidence to support historical data on the effects of natural ventilation but virtually none for sunlight. Modern practice of designing healthcare buildings for comfort favours pathogen persistence. As the number of effective antimicrobial agents declines, further work is required to clarify absolute risks from airborne pathogens along with any potential benefits from additional fresh air and sunlight. Copyright © 2013 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An Historical Review of Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.

    Section I of this paper presents a brief history of liberal education and reviews some of the ideas that have been expressed about its origin, and some of the ideas that have influenced liberal education throughout history. The definition of the purpose of liberal education is Woodring's: "It is the education that liberates men from the bondage of…

  13. A Historical Review of WIPP Backfill Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Molecke, M.A.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-15

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. It's introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  14. Historical perspective of foamy virus epidemiology and infection.

    PubMed

    Meiering, C D; Linial, M L

    2001-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FV) are complex retroviruses which are widespread in many species. Despite being discovered over 40 years ago, FV are among the least well characterized retroviruses. The replication of these viruses is different in many interesting respects from that of all other retroviruses. Infection of natural hosts by FV leads to a lifelong persistent infection, without any evidence of pathology. A large number of studies have looked at the prevalence of primate foamy viruses in the human population. Many of these studies have suggested that FV infections are prevalent in some human populations and are associated with specific diseases. More recent data, using more rigorous criteria for the presence of viruses, have not confirmed these studies. Thus, while FV are ubiquitous in all nonhuman primates, they are only acquired as rare zoonotic infections in humans. In this communication, we briefly discuss the current status of FV research and review the history of FV epidemiology, as well as the lack of pathogenicity in natural, experimental, and zoonotic infections.

  15. Historical Perspective of Foamy Virus Epidemiology and Infection

    PubMed Central

    Meiering, Christopher D.; Maxine L. Linial

    2001-01-01

    Foamy viruses (FV) are complex retroviruses which are widespread in many species. Despite being discovered over 40 years ago, FV are among the least well characterized retroviruses. The replication of these viruses is different in many interesting respects from that of all other retroviruses. Infection of natural hosts by FV leads to a lifelong persistent infection, without any evidence of pathology. A large number of studies have looked at the prevalence of primate foamy viruses in the human population. Many of these studies have suggested that FV infections are prevalent in some human populations and are associated with specific diseases. More recent data, using more rigorous criteria for the presence of viruses, have not confirmed these studies. Thus, while FV are ubiquitous in all nonhuman primates, they are only acquired as rare zoonotic infections in humans. In this communication, we briefly discuss the current status of FV research and review the history of FV epidemiology, as well as the lack of pathogenicity in natural, experimental, and zoonotic infections. PMID:11148008

  16. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  17. Toxins as Weapons: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Romero, A

    2014-07-01

    This review article summarizes the use of toxins as weapons dating from the First World War until today, when there is a high concern of possible terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction. All through modern history, military programs and terrorist groups have favored toxins because of their high toxicity. However, difficulties of extraction or synthesis, as well as effective dissemination to cause a large number of casualties, have been the most important drawbacks. Special emphasis is focused on ricin and botulinum toxin, the most important toxins that have attracted the attention of military programs and terrorist groups. Other toxins like trichothecenes, saxitoxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are also discussed. A short section about anthrax is also included: Although Bacillus anthracis is considered a biological weapon rather than a toxin weapon, it produces a toxin that is finally responsible for the anthrax disease. Copyright © 2014 Central Police University.

  18. Anthropology and addiction: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Singer, Merrill

    2012-10-01

    This paper reviews the world anthropology of drugs and alcohol use literature, identifying key issues addressed by anthropologists, methods and theoretical models in use, trends in focus over time and future directions. Papers and books that comprise the literature were identified through computer search using the keywords: ethnography of drug use (and variants, e.g. drug ethnography, qualitative approaches in drug research), ethnography of drinking, anthropology and drug use, and anthropology and drinking. Search engines included Google Scholar, EBSCOHost, AnthroSource and PubMed. Identified sources were read and integrated into the review. The literature search identified a rich and growing literature on the anthropology of drinking and drug use. The research and published literature on the anthropology of drug use has grown and diversified since the 1970s, found acceptance in the wider multi-disciplinary domain of alcohol and drug studies and developed beyond the socio-cultural model to include life-style, critical medical anthropology and experiential explanatory models. Anthropological research has helped to shape the field of addiction science, e.g. ethnographic studies show that the lived worlds and self-identities of drug users have cultural order and socially constructed purpose and meaning, and experiential research shows that some addictions or aspects of addictions can be affirmative, creative and sustainable, at least at the individual level. The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome pandemic has significantly increased anthropological research on drug-related issues world-wide. © 2012 The Author, Addiction © 2012 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  19. Feral and Isolated Children: Historical Review and Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNeil, Mary Charles; And Others

    1984-01-01

    An historical review of the documented cases of feral and other environmentally deprived children is presented. Discussion focuses on four groups of atypically reared children: animal-reared children, children isolated in wilderness, children confined in isolation, and children confined with limited human contact. (Author/CL)

  20. DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Rex, A S; Aagaard, J; Fedder, J

    2017-07-01

    Sperm DNA Fragmentation has been extensively studied for more than a decade. In the 1940s the uniqueness of the spermatozoa protein complex which stabilizes the DNA was discovered. In the fifties and sixties, the association between unstable chromatin structure and subfertility was investigated. In the seventies, the impact of induced DNA damage was investigated. In the 1980s the concept of sperm DNA fragmentation as related to infertility was introduced as well as the first DNA fragmentation test: the Sperm Chromatin Structure Assay (SCSA). The terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labelling (TUNEL) test followed by others was introduced in the nineties. The association between DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa and pregnancy loss has been extensively investigated spurring the need for a therapeutic tool for these patients. This gave rise to an increased interest in the aetiology of DNA damage. The present decade continues within this research area. Some of the more novel methods recently submerging are sorting of cells with increased DNA fragmentation and hyaluronic acid (HA) binding techniques. The clinical value of these tests remains to be elucidated. In spite of half a century of research within the area, this analysis is not routinely implemented into the fertility clinics. The underlying causes are multiple. The abundance of methods has impeded the need for a clinical significant threshold. One of the most promising methods was commercialized in 2005 and has been reserved for larger licensed laboratories. Myriads of reviews and meta-analyses on studies using different assays for analysis of DNA fragmentation, different clinical Artificial Reproductive Treatments (ART), different definitions of successful ART outcome and small patient cohorts have been published. Although the area of DNA fragmentation in spermatozoa is highly relevant in the fertility clinics, the need for further studies focusing on standardization of the methods and clinical

  1. Patella instability: building bridges across the ocean a historic review.

    PubMed

    Arendt, Elizabeth A; Dejour, David

    2013-02-01

    The diagnosis of and treatment for musculoskeletal disease and injuries have seen an explosion of new knowledge. More precise imaging, correlative injury anatomy, more focused physical examination features, among others, have led this upsurge of current insight. Crucial to this knowledge revolution is the expansion of international knowledge, which is aided by an adoption of a universal scientific language, electronic transfer of information, and personal communication of surgeons and scientists across national boundaries. One area where this is particularly evident is in our knowledge and treatment for patellofemoral disorders. This article will review the developments in the management of patellar dislocations by tracing their historical roots. This is not meant to be a comprehensive review, but rather to give current readers a "historical memory" upon which to judge and interpret our present-day bridge of knowledge. Level of evidence V.

  2. Bioarchaeological research in Croatia--a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sikanjić, Petra Rajić

    2005-12-01

    The study of human skeletal remains from archaeological sites gives us the opportunity to answer important questions about the lifestyle of past populations. The discipline that studies human skeletal remains is known as bioarchaeology. This paper provides a historical review of bioarchaeological research in Croatia. It is based on the available published material that analyzes human skeletal remains from archaeological sites located on the Croatian territory covering time span from the Neolithic period to the late Middle Ages.

  3. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  4. Statistical Techniques Used in Published Articles: A Historical Review of Reviews

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skidmore, Susan Troncoso; Thompson, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to provide a historical account and metasynthesis of which statistical techniques are most frequently used in the fields of education and psychology. Six articles reviewing the "American Educational Research Journal" from 1969 to 1997 and five articles reviewing the psychological literature from 1948 to 2001…

  5. Diabetic foot infections: current concept review

    PubMed Central

    Hobizal, Kimberlee B.; Wukich, Dane K.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this manuscript is to provide a current concept review on the diagnosis and management of diabetic foot infections which are among the most serious and frequent complications encountered in patients with diabetes mellitus. A literature review on diabetic foot infections with emphasis on pathophysiology, identifiable risk factors, evaluation including physical examination, laboratory values, treatment strategies and assessing the severity of infection has been performed in detail. Diabetic foot infections are associated with high morbidity and risk factors for failure of treatment and classification systems are also described. Most diabetic foot infections begin with a wound and once an infection occurs, the risk of hospitalization and amputation increases dramatically. Early identification of infection and prompt treatment may optimize the patient's outcome and provide limb salvage. PMID:22577496

  6. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Chlamydial Infection in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shewen, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning chlamydial infection in birds and animals, particularly domestic animals is presented. Following a general discussion of the agent, the nature of chlamydial infection and diagnostic criteria, information regarding disease is summarized for each species. The possibility of zoonotic transmission is also discussed. PMID:6988075

  8. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Lohrer, Heinz; Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a historical consensus meeting in 1995 are to be revised. First, modern musculoskeletal ESWT is divided into focused and radial technology and the physical differences are about 100-fold with respect to the applied energy. Most lesions to be treated are easy to reach and clinical focusing plays a major role today. Lesion size is no longer a matter of concern. With the exception of nonunion fractures full, regional, or even local anesthesia is not helpful in musculoskeletal indications. Juvenile patients can also effectively be treated without risk of epiphyseal damage. Further research is needed to answer the question about if and which acute injuries can be managed effectively. Treatment parameters like the number of sessions are still relying on empirical data and have to be further elucidated.

  9. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a historical consensus meeting in 1995 are to be revised. First, modern musculoskeletal ESWT is divided into focused and radial technology and the physical differences are about 100-fold with respect to the applied energy. Most lesions to be treated are easy to reach and clinical focusing plays a major role today. Lesion size is no longer a matter of concern. With the exception of nonunion fractures full, regional, or even local anesthesia is not helpful in musculoskeletal indications. Juvenile patients can also effectively be treated without risk of epiphyseal damage. Further research is needed to answer the question about if and which acute injuries can be managed effectively. Treatment parameters like the number of sessions are still relying on empirical data and have to be further elucidated. PMID:27493955

  10. A historical review of the classification of Erebinae (Lepidoptera: Erebidae).

    PubMed

    Homziak, Nicholas T; Breinholt, Jesse W; Kawahara, Akito Y

    2016-11-10

    Erebidae is one of the most diverse families within the order Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths), with nearly 25,000 described species. The nominal subfamily Erebinae is among the most species rich and taxonomically complex. It reaches its highest diversity in the tropics, where much of the fauna remains undescribed. Species in this subfamily feed on a broad range of host plants, with associated radiations on grasses and legumes, and some species are pests of agriculture and forestry. The Erebinae, as defined today, comprises a large portion of the former noctuid subfamily Catocalinae. However, many lineages have tenuous or uncertain systematic placement. Here, we review the complex historical classification of Erebinae, and discuss the possible placement of some of these lineages in light of traditional morphological groupings and recent molecular phylogenetic analyses. We present an updated list of named erebine tribes and their relationships, and identify morphological traits from literature used to group genera within these tribes.

  11. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  12. A review of complications of odontogenic infections.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these "space infections" has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms "odontogenic infections," "complications," and "risk factors."

  13. Fungal infections in burns: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Struck, M.F.; Gille, J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Burn wound infections remain the most important factor limiting survival in burn intensive care units. Large wound surface, impaired immune systems, and broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy contribute to the growth of opportunistic fungal species. Faced with challenging fluid resuscitation, wound excision and cardiopulmonary stabilization, mycosis in burns are likely to be underestimated. Diagnostic performance can sometimes be delayed because clinical signs are unspecific and differentiation between colonization and infection is difficult. Therapeutic measures range from infection prophylaxis over treatment with antifungal agents towards radical amputation of infected limbs. New methods of early and reliable detection of fungal organisms, as well as the use of novel antifungal substances, are promising but require wider establishment to confirm the beneficial effects in burn patients. This review aims to highlight the main important aspects of fungal infections in burns including incidence, infection control, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, prognosis and outcomes. PMID:24563641

  14. A Review of Historical Naked-Eye Sungrazing Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.

    2013-10-01

    With the upcoming perihelion passage of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) in November 2013, there is considerable interest in sungrazing comets at present. However, given the infrequency with which such comets appear, there have been few systematic studies of their behavior near perihelion. Bright, sometimes even daytime-observable comets have been recorded by observers around the world for more than 2000 years. A number of authors have compiled records of possible historical sungrazing comets, e.g., Hasegawa 1979, Kronk 1999, Hasegawa & Nakano 2001, England 2002, and Strom 2002. We review this literature to estimate the frequency of arrival of naked-eye sungrazing comets and investigate if there are any trends in their behavior, such as between peak brightness and length of time a comet is observable. We will also review the “modern” observations of naked-eye sungrazing comets (primarily Kreutz group comets observed since 1800) to investigate the frequency of fragmentation near the Sun and the dependence of survivability on size (as inferred from brightness) and/or perihelion distance.

  15. Treatment of Hepatitis C Infections with Interferon: A Historical Perspective

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    hepatic cirrhosis and hepatocellular transformation [24]. The resistance of HCV to IFN resides in a nonstructural viral protein NS3/4A, a serine protease...and inactivated influenza virus system [1]. The inactivated virus induced a protein that had a broad spectrum of antiviral activity, which...leukemia viruses [9] prompted addi- tional studies employing interferon as therapy for human chronic hepatitis B virus ( HBV ) infections. These had very

  16. Self-closing aneurysm clip: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Dujovny, Manuel; Agner, Celso; Ibe, Onyekachi; Perlin, Alfred

    2010-12-01

    To analyse the self-closing aneurysm clip historical evolution. The authors reviewed the self-closing aneurysm clip's 50-year history. Major neurosurgical books, journals, testimonials, authors' personal experience, and scientific databases were analysed. Self-closing aneurysm clip malfunction was found to be related to different clip strengths (too strong or too weak) and clip's corrosion or fracture due to diverse stainless steel biocompatibility issues. It was found that 301, 401, 402, 58, and 17-7 PH alloys were not suitable for human implantation due to high risk of corrosion. In counterpart, 316MOSS, Elgiloy, Phynox, and titanium alloys were more biocompatible and less prone to corrosion. The last group showed no motion on the magnetic field. Titanium clip has shown to be artifact free on computerized tomography followed by high-grade cobalt-chromium clip all the other aneurysms clip present a significant artifact. The Federal Drugs and Administration/American Society of Testing and Materials (FDA/ASTM) was a major contributor on safety development of self-closing aneurysm clip. Our 36-year self-closing aneurysm clip experience is reported.

  17. Historical Review of the Fluid-Percussion TBI Model

    PubMed Central

    Lyeth, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce the concussive clinical syndrome in animals. The fluid-percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer-controlled systems. Of the many preclinical TBI models, the fluid-percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers who have led to today’s state of the art fluid-percussion animal models of TBI. PMID:27994570

  18. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-06-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  19. Historical literature review on waste classification and categorization

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Richmond, A.A.; Williams, J.P.

    1995-03-01

    The Staff of the Waste Management Document Library (WMDL), in cooperation with Allen Croff have been requested to provide information support for a historical search concerning waste categorization/classification. This bibliography has been compiled under the sponsorship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Chemical Technology Division to help in Allen`s ongoing committee work with the NRC/NRCP. After examining the search, Allen Croff saw the value of the search being published. Permission was sought from the database providers to allow limited publication (i.e. 20--50 copies) of the search for internal distribution at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and for Allen Croff`s associated committee. Citations from the database providers who did not grant legal permission for their material to be published have been omitted from the literature review. Some of the longer citations have been included in an abbreviated form in the search to allow the format of the published document to be shortened from approximately 1,400 pages. The bibliography contains 372 citations.

  20. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  1. Historical Review of the Fluid-Percussion TBI Model.

    PubMed

    Lyeth, Bruce G

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern worldwide. Laboratory studies utilizing animal models of TBI are essential for addressing pathological mechanisms of brain injury and development of innovative treatments. Over the past 75 years, pioneering head injury researchers have devised and tested a number of fluid percussive methods to reproduce the concussive clinical syndrome in animals. The fluid-percussion brain injury technique has evolved from early investigations that applied a generalized loading of the brain to more recent computer-controlled systems. Of the many preclinical TBI models, the fluid-percussion technique is one of the most extensively characterized and widely used models. Some of the most important advances involved the development of the Stalhammer device to produce concussion in cats and the later characterization of this device for application in rodents. The goal of this historical review is to provide readers with an appreciation for the time and effort expended by the pioneering researchers who have led to today's state of the art fluid-percussion animal models of TBI.

  2. Historical Review about Research on "Bonghan System" in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun-Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Shi, Hong; Chen, Shu-Ping; He, Wei; Bai, Wan-Zhu; Zhu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The meridian-collateral theory is the theoretical basis of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Professor Bonghan Kim, a professor of the Pyongyang Medical University of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, claimed that he found the anatomical structure of meridian-collaterals, named Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs) and Bonghan ducts (BHDs) system or primo vascular system (PVS), in 1962. From 1963 to 1965, researchers from our institute conducted a series of comparative anatomical experiments, trying to reproduce the so-called BHC- and BHD-like structures in different strains of animals. In the present paper, the authors introduced their research findings about BHC- and BHD-like structures in the young rabbit's umbilicus including its external appearance, ectoplasm and endoplasm, and about strip-like and node-like objects in the blood vessels and lymph vessels near the larger abdominal and cervical blood vessels and chromaffin tissue in the back wall of the rabbit's abdominal cavity and between the bilateral kidneys. In spite of existence of the BHC- and BHD-like structures in the rabbit, there has been no proved evidence for their association with the meridian-collateral system described in acupuncture medicine. In the present historical review, the authors also make a discussion about the significance of those findings.

  3. [Zika virus infection: A review].

    PubMed

    Guillier, A; Amazan, E; Aoun, A; Baubion, E; Derancourt, C

    Zika Virus (ZIKV), originally identified in 1947, is a re-emerging Flavivirus transmitted mainly through bites by Aedes mosquitos. Until the recent outbreaks in the Pacific islands and Central and South America, it was known to cause benign disease, in most cases asymptomatic or with mild and nonspecific symptoms (fever, rash, conjunctivitis, arthralgia, etc.). The unprecedented current epidemic has highlighted new modes of transmission (through blood, perinatally and sexually) as well as serious neurological complications such as congenital defects in the fetuses of infected mothers and Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults. This situation, coupled with the threat of worldwide spread, prompted the WHO to declare the ZIKV a public health emergency of international concern in February 2016. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  4. School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

  5. Animal models of henipavirus infection: a review.

    PubMed

    Weingartl, Hana M; Berhane, Yohannes; Czub, Markus

    2009-09-01

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) form a separate genus Henipavirus within the family Paramyxoviridae, and are classified as biosafety level four pathogens due to their high case fatality rate following human infection and because of the lack of effective vaccines or therapy. Both viruses emerged from their natural reservoir during the last decade of the 20th century, causing severe disease in humans, horses and swine, and infecting a number of other mammalian species. The current review summarises current published data relating to experimental infection of small and large animals, including the natural reservoir species, the Pteropus bat, with HeV or NiV. Susceptibility to infection and virus distribution in the individual species is discussed, along with the pathogenesis, pathological changes, and potential routes of transmission.

  6. Scandinavian mutation research in barley - a historical review.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Udda

    2014-12-01

    In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review.

  7. Reducing Surgical Site Infections: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Reichman, David E; Greenberg, James A

    2009-01-01

    Infection at or near surgical incisions within 30 days of an operative procedure contributes substantially to surgical morbidity and mortality each year. The prevention of surgical site infections encompasses meticulous operative technique, timely administration of appropriate preoperative antibiotics, and a variety of preventive measures aimed at neutralizing the threat of bacterial, viral, and fungal contamination posed by operative staff, the operating room environment, and the patient’s endogenous skin flora. It is the latter aspect of contamination, and specifically mechanical methods of prevention, on which this review focuses. PMID:20111657

  8. TOPICAL REVIEW: Electronic portal imaging devices: a review and historical perspective of contemporary technologies and research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonuk, Larry E.

    2002-03-01

    A review of electronic portal imaging devices (EPIDs) used in external beam, megavoltage radiation therapy is presented. The review consists of a brief introduction to the definition, role and clinical significance of portal imaging, along with a discussion of radiotherapy film systems and the motivations for EPIDs. This is followed by a summary of the challenges and constraints inherent to portal imaging along with a concise, historical review of the technologies that have been explored and developed. The paper then examines, in greater depth, the two first-generation technologies that have found widespread clinical use starting from the late 1980s. This is followed by a broad overview of the physics, operation, properties and advantages of active matrix, flat-panel, megavoltage imagers, presently being commercially introduced to clinical environments or expected to be introduced in the future. Finally, a survey of contemporary research efforts focused on improving portal imaging performance by addressing various weaknesses in existing commercial systems is presented.

  9. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern.

  10. Infected Cardiac Myxoma: an Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study aims to present an updated clinical picture of the infected cardiac myxoma. Revankar & Clark made a systematic review of infected cardiac myxoma based on the literature before 1998. Since then, there has not been any updated information describing its recent changing trends. METHODS A comprehensive literature search of infected cardiac myxoma was conducted on MEDLINE, Highwire Press and Google between 1998 and 2014. RESULTS In comparison with Revankar & Clark's series, the present series disclosed a significantly decreased overall mortality. It is believed that refinement of the prompt diagnosis and timely management (use of sensitive antibiotics and surgical resection of the infected myxoma) have resulted in better outcomes of such patients. CONCLUSION The present series of infected cardiac myxoma illustrated some aggravated clinical manifestations (relative more occasions of high-grade fever, multiple embolic events and the presence of refractory microorganisms), which should draw enough attention to careful diagnosis and treatment. In general, the prognosis of infected cardiac myxoma is relatively benign and the long-term survival is always promising. PMID:26735605

  11. Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions" examines the ways in which historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions have used the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) funds to enhance the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  12. Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions" examines the ways in which historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions have used the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) funds to enhance the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  13. A review of complications of odontogenic infections

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these “space infections” has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “odontogenic infections,” “complications,” and “risk factors.” PMID:27390486

  14. Supernatural impotence: historical review with anthropological and clinical implications.

    PubMed

    Margolin, J; Witztum, E

    1989-12-01

    The historical and cultural background of the belief in supernatural impotence is presented, emphasizing its possible implications for clinical practice. A brief historical survey of the concept in Judaism and Christianity is followed by a short anthropological survey of supernatural impotence in different ethnic subcultures in Israel. A case demonstration exemplifies the connection between understanding the patient's cultural background and beliefs and the clinical competence of the therapist. The relationship between the clinical-therapeutic process in psychiatric practice and knowledge of the patient's cultural background and beliefs is stressed.

  15. Microbiome alterations in HIV infection a review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Brett; Landay, Alan; Presti, Rachel M

    2016-05-01

    Recent developments in molecular techniques have allowed researchers to identify previously uncultured organisms, which has propelled a vast expansion of our knowledge regarding our commensal microbiota. Interest in the microbiome specific to HIV grew from earlier findings suggesting that bacterial translocation from the intestines is the cause of persistent immune activation despite effective viral suppression with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Studies of SIV infected primates have demonstrated that Proteobacteria preferentially translocate and that mucosal immunity can be restored with probiotics. Pathogenic SIV infection results in a massive expansion of the virome, whereas non-pathogenic SIV infection does not. Human HIV infected cohorts have been shown to have microbiota distinctive from that of HIV negative controls and efforts to restore the intestinal microbiome via probiotics have often had positive results on host markers. The microbiota of the genital tract may play a significant role in acquisition and transmission of HIV. Modification of commensal microbial communities likely represents an important therapeutic adjunct to treatment of HIV. Here we review the literature regarding human microbiome in HIV infection. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Widespread urbanization over the next 20 years has the potential to drastically change the risk of malaria within Africa. The burden of the disease, its management, risk factors and appropriateness of targeted intervention across varied urban environments in Africa remain largely undefined. This paper presents a combined historical and contemporary review of the clinical burden of malaria within one of Africa's largest urban settlements, Nairobi, Kenya. Methods A review of historical reported malaria case burdens since 1911 within Nairobi was undertaken using archived government and city council reports. Contemporary information on out-patient case burdens due to malaria were assembled from the National Health Management and Information System (HMIS). Finally, an audit of 22 randomly selected health facilities within Nairobi was undertaken covering 12 months 2009-2010. The audit included interviews with health workers, and a checklist of commodities and guidelines necessary to diagnose, treat and record malaria. Results From the 1930's through to the mid-1960's malaria incidence declined coincidental with rapid population growth. During this period malaria notification and prevention were a priority for the city council. From 2001-2008 reporting systems for malaria were inadequate to define the extent or distribution of malaria risk within Nairobi. A more detailed facility review suggests, however that malaria remains a common diagnosis (11% of all paediatric diagnoses made) and where laboratories (n = 15) exist slide positivity rates are on average 15%. Information on the quality of diagnosis, slide reading and whether those reported as positive were imported infections was not established. The facilities and health workers included in this study were not universally prepared to treat malaria according to national guidelines or identify foci of risks due to shortages of national first-line drugs, inadequate record keeping and a view among some health

  17. The clinical burden of malaria in Nairobi: a historical review and contemporary audit.

    PubMed

    Mudhune, Sandra A; Okiro, Emelda A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Zurovac, Dejan; Juma, Elizabeth; Ochola, Sam A; Snow, Robert W

    2011-05-20

    Widespread urbanization over the next 20 years has the potential to drastically change the risk of malaria within Africa. The burden of the disease, its management, risk factors and appropriateness of targeted intervention across varied urban environments in Africa remain largely undefined. This paper presents a combined historical and contemporary review of the clinical burden of malaria within one of Africa's largest urban settlements, Nairobi, Kenya. A review of historical reported malaria case burdens since 1911 within Nairobi was undertaken using archived government and city council reports. Contemporary information on out-patient case burdens due to malaria were assembled from the National Health Management and Information System (HMIS). Finally, an audit of 22 randomly selected health facilities within Nairobi was undertaken covering 12 months 2009-2010. The audit included interviews with health workers, and a checklist of commodities and guidelines necessary to diagnose, treat and record malaria. From the 1930's through to the mid-1960's malaria incidence declined coincidental with rapid population growth. During this period malaria notification and prevention were a priority for the city council. From 2001-2008 reporting systems for malaria were inadequate to define the extent or distribution of malaria risk within Nairobi. A more detailed facility review suggests, however that malaria remains a common diagnosis (11% of all paediatric diagnoses made) and where laboratories (n = 15) exist slide positivity rates are on average 15%. Information on the quality of diagnosis, slide reading and whether those reported as positive were imported infections was not established. The facilities and health workers included in this study were not universally prepared to treat malaria according to national guidelines or identify foci of risks due to shortages of national first-line drugs, inadequate record keeping and a view among some health workers (17%) that slide

  18. [Changes of historical Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Yongjia County].

    PubMed

    Zhou, Teng-Jian; Chen, Hai-Qiang; Hong, Jia-Lin

    2013-12-01

    To understand the changes of Paragonimus metacercaria infection rates of freshwater crabs in Paragonimus endemic areas and explore the causes in Yongjia County, Zhejiang Province, China. A field investigation was carried out. The freshwater crabs were collected and the metacercaria were separated from the crabs. The infection rates, infectiosities and infection indexes were calculated and the results were vertically compared with the historical findings. The causes of the changes were discussed. Compared with those in 1980, the average infection rate in original endemic areas decreased from 59.71% to 21.50% (P < 0.05), while the infection density decreased from 1.09/g to 0.23/g (P < 0.05). The infection index decreased obviously. In Hesheng Village, it decreased from 4.05 to 0.01 (P < 0.01), in Wuchi Village, it was from 37.90 to 2.91 (P <0.01), and in Daruoyan Scinic area,it was from 5.85 to 0.03 (P < 0.01). Two endemic areas disappeared but two new endemic areas (Sihai Village and Sunshan Village) were found, and in Sunshan Village, the metacercaria infection rate was 100%, the infection density and infection index were 21.30/g and 3 402.68 respectively, which meant it was a super high endemic focus. The Paragonimus metacercaria infection rate in crabs is lower than before in Yongjia County, but some super high epidemic focus of paragonimiasis still exists. Therefore, we still should strengthen the control measures.

  19. Treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Botelho-Nevers, Elisabeth; Socolovschi, Cristina; Raoult, Didier; Parola, Philippe

    2012-12-01

    Human rickettsioses caused by intracellular bacteria of the genus Rickettsia are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by arthropod vectors such as ticks, fleas, mites and lice. They have a wide range of manifestations from benign to life-threatening diseases. Mortality rates of up to 30% have been reported for some rickettsioses. Here, the authors will review in vitro and human studies of the various compounds that have been used for the treatment of Rickettsia spp. infections. The authors will also provide recommendations for the treatment of spotted fever and typhus group rickettsioses.

  20. MALE SEXUAL DISORDERS IN INDIAN TRADITIONAL MEDICINE- A HISTORICAL REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    Padhi, M.M.

    1989-01-01

    The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historically from vedic age up to the modern era. The present status of treatment and the role of Ayurveda in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions have been highlighted here. PMID:22557682

  1. Male sexual disorders in Indian traditional medicine- a historical review.

    PubMed

    Padhi, M M

    1989-10-01

    The description of male sexual disorders by ancient authors of Indian medicine is praiseworthy. Effort has been made to describe the standard of approach with reference to certain books on Ayurveda and astrology. The development of administration of mineral medicines has added a new aspect in their treatment, but the description regarding their forms, etiopathogenesis, prognosis and the principle of treatment has remained unchanged. The opinions of various authors have been presented historically from vedic age up to the modern era. The present status of treatment and the role of Ayurveda in the treatment of sexual dysfunctions have been highlighted here.

  2. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America―ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

  3. Cocoa and heart health: a historical review of the science.

    PubMed

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L

    2013-09-26

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés's first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America--ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa's bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health.

  4. Student Outcomes Assessment: A Historical Review and Guide to Program Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Serbrenia J.

    This book provides a brief historical review of outcomes assessment in higher education and a general guide to designing, implementing, and evaluating assessment programs. Chapter 1 provides several definitions of commonly used terms and a review of the major actors and the political context. It identifies factors contributing to the recent push…

  5. Historical and critical review of the development of nonholonomic mechanics: the classical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Bizyaev, Ivan A.

    2016-07-01

    In this historical review we describe in detail the main stages of the development of nonholonomic mechanics starting from the work of Earnshaw and Ferrers to the monograph of Yu. I.Neimark and N.A. Fufaev. In the appendix to this review we discuss the d'Alembert-Lagrange principle in nonholonomic mechanics and permutation relations.

  6. National Register Significance of Historic Farmsteads in Northeast Illinois: A Critical Review

    SciTech Connect

    Kullen, Douglas

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the development of significance criteria for historic farmsteads in northeast Illinois. Past and current trends are examined through a discussion of research questions, results derived from evaluation work, and a review of viable in-ground contexts for data acquisition. Previous work is summarized and directions for future research are presented.

  7. Historical review of pandemic influenza A in Taiwan, 2009.

    PubMed

    Ho, Tzong-Shiann; Wang, Shih-Min; Liu, Ching-Chuan

    2010-04-01

    Influenza is an important disease in children. In April 2009, human infections caused by a novel swine H1N1 virus were reported in Mexico, followed by a pandemic. As of 14 March 2010, more than 213 countries and overseas territories or communities have reported laboratory-confirmed cases of pandemic influenza H1N1 2009, including at least 16,813 deaths. This influenza pandemic is unique in many respects. Large outbreaks occurred outside the usual season for influenza infection. The virus also caused severe illnesses and deaths in younger people, with many deaths caused by severe pneumonia. A comprehensive approach to pandemic control has been launched, including infection control interventions, antiviral drugs and vaccines. Vaccination is the most efficient way to control morbidity and mortality resulting from influenza infections in humans. For the first time, an influenza vaccine against a pandemic strain became available before the winter. However, the initially smooth influenza vaccination program was disturbed by the fear of possible adverse events following immunization. In Taiwan, mistrust of the influenza vaccination has also caused significant social impacts towards the end of 2009. Lessons learned from this pandemic influenza H1N1 2009 might help health authorities and physicians shape their preparedness for the next pandemic.

  8. Management of urinary tract infections: historical perspective and current strategies: Part 2--Modern management.

    PubMed

    Nickel, J Curtis

    2005-01-01

    An understanding of the microbial origin of infectious diseases and the introduction of antimicrobial therapy stimulated more advances in the management of urinary tract infections (UTIs) in the 20th century than had occurred in the previous 5 centuries. Numerous resources were used to collect the information described in this review. Medical texts from the 19th and 20th century contain information regarding the traditional contemporary treatment of UTI during those eras. Early volumes of the Journal of Urology from the beginning of the 20th century describe the first attempts at chemotherapy for UTI. MEDLINE searches were used to collect appropriate information after 1969. Modern medical journals and modern medical texts were used to collect information on antimicrobial therapy since the late 1960s through today. Numerous advances in the diagnosis and management of UTI were made during the 20th century. Advances in microbiological and chemical assays have facilitated the development of historical uroscopy into modern day urinalysis and culture techniques, which are the cornerstone of UTI diagnosis. Imaging technologies, including x-ray, ultrasound, nuclear imaging, magnetic resonance and computerized tomography, have been particularly helpful in the diagnosis of complicated or recurrent UTIs. Major innovations in nonpharmacological therapy include noninvasive shock wave lithotripsy and percutaneous drainage of kidney abscesses. The most profound advance in UTI management during the 20th century was the discovery of antimicrobial agents. Nitrofurantoin was the first truly effective and safe antimicrobial therapy for UTI but its spectrum of activity is limited. Broad use of amoxicillin (and other beta-lactams) after its introduction in the 1970s led to the development of resistance to this antimicrobial, prompting a gradual change to trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) as first line therapy for UTI. However, wide use of TMP/SMX also resulted in the progressive

  9. Historical concepts of interactions, synergism and antagonism between nutrition and infection.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s textbooks of nutrition made little or no mention of a relation to infection. The same was true for treatises on infectious disease. Relevant studies in experimental animals and a number of classical clinical observations were available pointing out the role of infection in precipitating nutritional disorders. However, clinicians and nutritionists did not recognize the importance of the relationship. The field and metabolic studies of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) in the 1950s demonstrated that malnutrition and infection in humans are generally synergistic. These studies stimulated the review of available evidence that resulted in the 1968 WHO monograph on "Interactions of Nutrition and Infection." It provided extensive evidence for the role of infections in precipitating clinical malnutrition and for the impact of malnutrition on morbidity and mortality from infection. The high frequency of diarrhea in underprivileged young children led to intensive studies in many countries of its effect on nutritional status and to recognition of the high prevalence of "weanling diarrhea." The effects of infection on nutritional status were then extensively and elegantly investigated at Fort Detrick, MD, and hormonal and cytokine mechanisms identified. The subsequent explosion in knowledge of cell-mediated immune mechanisms has led to an understanding of how malnutrition lowers this resistance. Today, recognition of the synergistic relationship between nutrition and infection influences most public health interventions to prevent malnutrition.

  10. Investigating landslides caused by earthquakes - A historical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Post-earthquake field investigations of landslide occurrence have provided a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides. This paper traces the historical development of knowledge derived from these investigations. Before 1783, historical accounts of the occurrence of landslides in earthquake are typically so incomplete and vague that conclusions based on these accounts are of limited usefulness. For example, the number of landslides triggered by a given event is almost always greatly underestimated. The first formal, scientific post-earthquake investigation that included systematic documentation of the landslides was undertaken in the Calabria region of Italy after the 1783 earthquake swarm. From then until the mid-twentieth century, the best information on earthquake-induced landslides came from a succession of post-earthquake investigations largely carried out by formal commissions that undertook extensive ground-based field studies. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, when the use of aerial photography became widespread, comprehensive inventories of landslide occurrence have been made for several earthquakes in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Italy, El Salvador, Japan, and Taiwan. Techniques have also been developed for performing "retrospective" analyses years or decades after an earthquake that attempt to reconstruct the distribution of landslides triggered by the event. The additional use of Geographic Information System (GIS) processing and digital mapping since about 1989 has greatly facilitated the level of analysis that can applied to mapped distributions of landslides. Beginning in 1984, synthesis of worldwide and national data on earthquake-induced landslides have defined their general characteristics and relations between their occurrence and various geologic and seismic parameters. However, the number of comprehensive post-earthquake studies of landslides is still

  11. Predicting and reducing cranioplasty infections by clinical, radiographic and operative parameters - A historical cohort study.

    PubMed

    Kimchi, Gil; Stlylianou, Petros; Wohl, Anton; Hadani, Moshe; Cohen, Zvi R; Zauberman, Jacob; Feldman, Zeev; Spiegelmann, Roberto; Nissim, Ouzi; Zivly, Zion; Penn, Mark; Harnof, Sagi

    2016-12-01

    Cranioplasty is a relatively straightforward and common procedure, yet it carries a substantial rate of infection that causes major morbidity and mortality. The authors' objective was to assess the effect of various variables on the risk of developing post-cranioplasty infections, and to enable the prediction and reduction of its incidence, contributing to an improved patient-selection. The medical records, microbiologic cultures, imaging studies and operative reports of patients who have undergone cranioplasty between the years 2008-2014 at Sheba Medical Center, a tertiary care teaching hospital in Tel-Hashomer, Israel, were reviewed and evaluated for potential predictive factors of infection. Cox regression was applied for uni- as well as multi-variate analyses, and a Kaplan-Meier curve and Log-Rank test were used to describe the association between neurological deficit prior to operation and occurrence of infection. Eighty-eight patients who had undergone cranioplasties using autologous as well as various artificial materials were included in the study. The overall rate of infection was 13.6%; median time to infection was 30.5 days (interquartile range: 17.35-43.5). Pre-operative degree of neurological disability was the strongest predictor for infection in both uni- and multi-variate analyses (Hazard ratio [HR]=18.9, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9-187 p=0.014). Patients admitted due to trauma (HR=7.04 CI: 0.9-54.6, p=0.062) and autologous graft material (HR=2.88, 95% CI: 0.92-9.09, p=0.07) were associated with a trend toward a higher risk for infection. In conclusion, careful patient selection is a key concept in avoiding harmful post-cranioplasty infections. Modified Rankin Score yields a well-established tool that predicts the risk of infection.

  12. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  13. The dental water jet: a historical review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jahn, Carol A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide a broad overview of the predominant findings from research published on pulsating dental water jets over the last 45 years. The author performed a computerized MEDLINE search covering the years from 1962 to 2009, with 1962 chosen since it was the year the first dental water jet was introduced. Key words included "oral irrigator" and "oral irrigation." All past and current studies were reviewed and those that reflected original research were included. The article is not intended to provide an exhaustive detailed article review, but rather a broad review of predominant findings on currently available traditional pulsating dental water jets with no novelty features. The author makes no attempt to statistically analyze any of the data. Information reported in the article comes from the original investigator analysis and interpretation. The dental water jet is supported by a well-established body of evidence demonstrating the ability to remove plaque, reduce periodontal pathogens, gingivitis, bleeding and inflammatory mediators. The dental water jet is a viable tool for reducing bleeding and gingivitis in a wide variety of patients. Due to the extensive body of knowledge on this product, a meta-analysis or systematic review is warranted. Additional research is recommended to confirm plaque biofilm removal, its effectiveness in comparison to flossing and efficacy on patients with special oral or systemic health needs.

  14. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  15. A Historical Review of English in Japan (1600-1880).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the early history of the English language in Japan, from its introduction in the early 17th century through the 20th century, focusing on the role of English in regard to education, nationalism, and modernization. Also discussed is the current status of English instruction in Japan. (16 references) (MDM)

  16. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    SciTech Connect

    Stoddard, D.H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving /sup 252/Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  17. Historical review of californium-252 discovery and development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, D. H.

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving (252)Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed.

  18. Historical review of C-5A lift distribution control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Disney, T. E.; Eckholdt, D. C.

    1976-01-01

    Analytical and experimental development work on various load alleviation systems for the C-5A is reviewed to trace the development of the technical and hardware concepts to the present time. Variations in system objectives, means of implementation and effects on loads and airplane performance, stability and control are discussed.

  19. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  20. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  1. A half century historical review of the k-omega model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, David C.

    1991-01-01

    A brief historical review is presented tracing evolution of the k-omega two-equation turbulence model. The review compares the various k-omega models developed since 1942, and contrasts them to the well-known k-epsilon model. Straight-forward results based on perturbation analysis illustrate advantages offered by k-omega models for flows with adverse pressure gradient and for integration through the sublayer. As part of the historical perspective, the paper shows that Kolmogorov did remarkably well in formulating his model without the aid of a computer.

  2. Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Thomas P.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterial diseases in fish are caused by multiple bacterial species within the family Flavobacteriaceae and are responsible for devastating losses in wild and farmed fish stocks around the world. In addition to directly imposing negative economic and ecological effects, flavobacterial disease outbreaks are also notoriously difficult to prevent and control despite nearly 100 years of scientific research. The emergence of recent reports linking previously uncharacterized flavobacteria to systemic infections and mortality events in fish stocks of Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and North America is also of major concern and has highlighted some of the difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and chemotherapeutic treatment of flavobacterial fish diseases. Herein, we provide a review of the literature that focuses on Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium spp. and emphasizes those associated with fish. PMID:26257926

  3. HIV infection and HERV expression: a review

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    The human genome contains multiple copies of retrovirus genomes known as endogenous retroviruses (ERVs) that have entered the germ-line at some point in evolution. Several of these proviruses have retained (partial) coding capacity, so that a number of viral proteins or even virus particles are expressed under various conditions. Human ERVs (HERVs) belong to the beta-, gamma-, or spuma- retrovirus groups. Endogenous delta- and lenti- viruses are notably absent in humans, although endogenous lentivirus genomes have been found in lower primates. Exogenous retroviruses that currently form a health threat to humans intriguingly belong to those absent groups. The best studied of the two infectious human retroviruses is the lentivirus human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which has an overwhelming influence on its host by infecting cells of the immune system. One HIV-induced change is the induction of HERV transcription, often leading to induced HERV protein expression. This review will discuss the potential HIV-HERV interactions. Several studies have suggested that HERV proteins are unlikely to complement defective HIV virions, nor is HIV able to package HERV transcripts, probably due to low levels of sequence similarity. It is unclear whether the expression of HERVs has a negative, neutral, or positive influence on HIV-AIDS disease progression. A positive effect was recently reported by the specific expression of HERVs in chronically HIV-infected patients, which results in the presentation of HERV-derived peptides to CD8+ T-cells. These cytotoxic T-cells were not tolerant to HERV peptides, as would be expected for self-antigens, and consequently lysed the HIV-infected, HERV-presenting cells. This novel mechanism could control HIV replication and result in a low plasma viral load. The possibility of developing a vaccination strategy based on these HERV peptides will be discussed. PMID:22248111

  4. A prospective study of risk factors and historical trends in metronidazole failure for Clostridium difficile infection

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Mary Y.; Maroo, Seema; Kyne, Lorraine; Cloud, Jeffrey; Tummala, Sanjeev; Katchar, Kianoosh; Dreisbach, Valley; Noddin, Laura; Kelly, Ciarán P.

    2009-01-01

    Background & Aims Recent studies of C. difficile infection (CDI) indicate a dramatic increase in metronidazole failure. The aims of this study were to compare current and historical rates of metronidazole failure and identify risk factors for metronidazole failure. Methods 89 patients with CDI in 2004–2006 were followed for 60 days. Data were compared to a historical cohort of 63 CDI patients studied prospectively in 1998. Metronidazole failure was defined as persistent diarrhea after 10 days of therapy or a change of therapy to vancomycin. Stool samples were analyzed for the presence of NAP-1 strain. Results Metronidazole failure rates were 35% in both the 1998 and 2004–2006 cohorts. There was no difference in the median time to resolution of diarrhea (8 vs. 5 days, p = 0.52) or the proportion with more than 10 days of diarrhea (35% vs. 29%, p = 0.51). Risk factors for metronidazole failure included recent cephalosporin use (OR 32, 95% CI 5–219), CDI on admission (OR 23, 95% CI 3–156), and transfer from another hospital (OR 11, 95% CI 2–72). The frequency of NAP-1 infection in patients with and without metronidazole failure was similar (26% vs. 21%, p = 0.67). Conclusions We found no difference in metronidazole failure rates in 1998 and 2004–2006. Patients with recent cephalosporin use, CDI on admission, and transfer from another hospital were more likely to fail metronidazole and may benefit from early aggressive therapy. Infection with the epidemic NAP-1 strain was not associated with metronidazole failure in endemic CDI. PMID:19081526

  5. Historical trauma as public narrative: a conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health.

    PubMed

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B; Thai, Nghi D; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-04-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience.

  6. Historical trauma as public narrative: A conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B.; Thai, Nghi D.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774

  7. Genetic counseling and testing for Huntington's disease: A historical review.

    PubMed

    Nance, Martha A

    2017-01-01

    This manuscript describes the ways in which genetic counseling has evolved since John Pearson and Sheldon Reed first promoted "a genetic education" in the 1950s as a voluntary, non-directive clinical tool for permitting individual decision making. It reviews how the emergence of Huntington's disease (HD) registries and patient support organizations, genetic testing, and the discovery of a disease-causing CAG repeat expansion changed the contours of genetic counseling for families with HD. It also reviews the guidelines, outcomes, ethical and laboratory challenges, and uptake of predictive, prenatal, and preimplantation testing, and it casts a vision for how clinicians can better make use of genetic counseling to reach a broader pool of families that may be affected by HD and to ensure that genetic counseling is associated with the best levels of care. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Discoveries of rhythms in human biological functions: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Lemmer, Björn

    2009-08-01

    Though there are very early and ancient observations on the daily variation in physiological and pathophysiological functions (e.g., bronchial asthma), more detailed and scientific reports were not published until the beginning of the 17th century. The aim of this review is to bring those reports to the attention of researchers of chronobiology and chronopharmacology. The ancient books and their contents, which constitute the basis for this review, are part of the personal library collection of the author; numerous observations and reports on biologic rhythms in man are presented here for the first time. The intent of this review is to demonstrate that the fields of chronobiology and chronopharmacology are not only a new and modern branch of science, but that it stands on the shoulders of wonderful and insightful observations and explanations made by our scientific forefathers. It is the hope that the reader will enjoy the richness of the ancient reports that contribute to our present knowledge achieved through astute early biologic rhythm research.

  9. Historical review of surgical simulation--a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Satava, Richard M

    2008-02-01

    Although simulation is relatively new to surgical education, there is a long history in many other disciplines, such as military, aviation, and nuclear power plant operations, among others. In the late 1980s these technologies began to be adapted to the surgical world, along with the new technology of virtual reality. This is a review of the introduction of manikins, computers, and virtual reality into education and training for surgical skills. Two concomitant revolutions occurred: objective assessment of surgical skills and converting training from the apprenticeship model to one of criterion-based training. A personal perspective on these developments adds information not previously published.

  10. Determination of phosphorus in natural waters: A historical review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul; McKelvie, Ian; Monbet, Phil

    2016-04-28

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a virtual special issue that reviews the development of analytical approaches to the determination of phosphorus species in natural waters. The focus is on sampling and sample treatment, analytical methods and quality assurance of the data. The export of phosphorus from anthropogenic activities (from diffuse and point sources) can result in increased primary production and eutrophication, and potentially the seasonal development of toxic algal blooms, which can significantly impact on water quality. Therefore the quantification of phosphorus species in natural waters provides important baseline data for studying aquatic phosphorus biogeochemistry, assessing ecosystem health and monitoring compliance with legislation.

  11. Review of HIV Testing Efforts in Historically Black Churches

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470

  12. Water hammer with column separation: A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergant, A.; Simpson, A. R.; Tijsseling, A. S.

    2006-02-01

    Column separation refers to the breaking of liquid columns in fully filled pipelines. This may occur in a water-hammer event when the pressure in a pipeline drops to the vapor pressure at specific locations such as closed ends, high points or knees (changes in pipe slope). The liquid columns are separated by a vapor cavity that grows and diminishes according to the dynamics of the system. The collision of two liquid columns, or of one liquid column with a closed end, may cause a large and nearly instantaneous rise in pressure. This pressure rise travels through the entire pipeline and forms a severe load for hydraulic machinery, individual pipes and supporting structures. The situation is even worse: in one water-hammer event many repetitions of cavity formation and collapse may occur. This paper reviews water hammer with column separation from the discovery of the phenomenon in the late 19th century, the recognition of its danger in the 1930s, the development of numerical methods in the 1960s and 1970s, to the standard models used in commercial software packages in the late 20th century. A comprehensive survey of laboratory tests and field measurements is given. The review focuses on transient vaporous cavitation. Gaseous cavitation and steam condensation are beyond the scope of the paper.

  13. Overuse syndrome in musicians--100 years ago. An historical review.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J

    Overuse syndrome in musicians was extensively reported 100 years ago. The clinical features and results of treatment, which were recorded in considerable detail, match well the condition that is described today. The medical literature that is reviewed here extends from 1830 to 1911 and includes 21 books and 54 articles from the English language literature, apart from two exceptions; however, the writers of the day themselves reviewed French, German and Italian literature on the subject. The disorder was said to result from the overuse of the affected parts. Two theories of aetiology, not necessarily mutually exclusive, were argued. The central theory regarded the lesion as being in the central nervous system, the peripheral theory implied a primary muscle disorder. No serious case was put forward for a psychogenic origin, though emotional factors were believed to aggravate the condition. Advances in musical instrument manufacture--particularly the development of the concert piano and the clarinet--may have played a part in the prevalence of overuse syndrome in musicians. Total rest from the mechanical use of the hand was the only effective treatment recorded.

  14. Transportation during periods of mobilization: a historical review. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Middendorf, D.P.; Johnson, L.R.

    1984-07-01

    The effects of the US transportation system of military preparations for war are compounded by the concurrent transportation requirements of economic mobilization to support a war effort. Several studies of military logistics have concluded that the transportation system may be the limiting factor in determining whether there is a successful operation. The responsiveness of the US transportation system during recent military conflicts is reviewed, beginning with the Spanish-American War and continuing through the Korean War. The nature and scope of each war is characterized, and the associated mobilization is described. Technological developments and regulatory changes in the transportation system since World War II are also reviewed in terms of their implications for the response capability of the nation. The dominant theme that emerges from this study is the overriding need for close coordination between modes and appropriate setting of priorities for shipments. The lack of an efficient system ultimately results in severe congestion at ports and terminals. The critical importance of the merchant marine fleet in overseas conflicts during the previous wars is also identified.

  15. Selection of Journals for Index Medicus: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Karel, Leonard

    1967-01-01

    From the inception of the first Index Medicus, published in 1879, to the present, the National Library of Medicine has been concerned with the quality of journals in the Index. The Library has, therefore, sought advice repeatedly on how best to maintain currency of the Index without sacrificing quality and subject matter balance. Responding to suggestions, the Library decided in June 1964 to base its selection of journals on recommendations made by a panel consisting primarily of extramural consultants widely regarded as specialists in the totality of biomedical literature. Beginning with its first meeting in September 1964, this panel has been fortified in its reviews by advice from subject matter specialists. The panel, by its own wishes, which bear the endorsement of the Board of Regents of the Library, will continue to rely heavily on such expert advice in future evaluations of journals. PMID:6072093

  16. Federal incentives for industrial modernization: Historical review and future opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sandra C.; Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Concerns over the aging of the U.S. aerospace industrial base led DOD to introduce first its Technology Modernization (Tech Mod) Program, and more recently the Industrial Modernization Incentive Program (IMIP). These incentives include productivity shared savings rewards, contractor investment protection to allow for amortization of plant and equipment, and subcontractor/vendor participation. The purpose here is to review DOD IMIP and to evaluate whether a similar program is feasible for NASA and other non-DOD agencies. The IMIP methodology is of interest to industrial engineers because it provides a structured, disciplined approach to identifying productivity improvement opportunities and documenting their expected benefit. However, it is shown that more research on predicting and validating cost avoidance is needed.

  17. An Historic Encounter: Reviewing the Outreach around ESA's Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Rosetta mission is a milestone in terms of science and public outreach. The European Space Agency and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in particular did a marvellous job of sparking global public interest, driven by various events throughout the mission. In contrast, the actions of the Max Planck Society research group in charge of the high resolution Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System were, in my opinion, the cause of some concern and bring to light an important debate in the relationship between outreach and science. This article seeks to review the outreach that surrounded the Rosetta mission and to highlight both the best practice that made it a success and the bad practice that set some aspects behind.

  18. Historical Review of Glasses Used for Parenteral Packaging.

    PubMed

    Schaut, Robert A; Weeks, W Porter

    2017-01-01

    Glass has long been used for packaging precious liquids, in particular pharmaceuticals. Its unique combination of hermeticity, transparency, strength, and chemical durability make it the optimal material for such an important role. Today's life-saving drugs are stored in borosilicate glasses, which evolved from applications in microscope optics and thermometers. As the glass compositions improved, so did the methods used to shape them and the tests used to characterize them. While all of these advances improved the quality of the glass container and its ability to protect the contents, problems still exist such as delamination, cracks, and glass particulates. In addition to these issues, we review new developments in glass composition development, performance, and testing in the 21(st) century. © PDA, Inc. 2017.

  19. Historical Review of Piloted Simulation at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Seth B.

    1996-01-01

    This paper traces the conception and development of in-flight and ground based simulators at NASA Ames Research Center, starting in 1947 and continuing to the early 1990's. Problems with their development and operation and how limitations were handled are recounted. Advances needed in simulator equipment to improve performance and fidelity to gain pilot acceptance are discussed. The uses of these simulators in various aircraft research and development programs and their importance to aircraft design and flight testing are reviewed. Challenges remaining include a better understanding of the tradeoff between motion cues and visual cues, the importance of simulation sophistication when examining aircraft with marginal handling qualities characteristics, and the continuing need for upgrading simulation technology as more complex problems are encountered. Additional research is needed to understand the human behavior aspect in the pilot/simulator system.

  20. [Historical review on changes in the concept of COPD].

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2007-04-01

    A brief review of changes in the concept of COPD was made based on records of mile stone articles and prestigious international lung conferences. A major innovation in the definition of COPD was presented by the 'GOLD WORKSHOP REPORT' published in 2001. It introduced a concept of inflammatory response of the lung to toxic gas/particles as the most significant pathogenesis of the disease, eliminating the definition of COPD being a syndrome of 'emphysema plus chronic bronchitis'. Both CIBA Guest Symposium and Aspen Emphysema Conference contributed in the evolution of COPD concept. Also discussed in brief are the impacts of 'Small Airway Disease Theory' and British bronchitis hypothesis. The GOLD revision 2006 may be highly appreciated among practicing clinicians world wide with key features; 'COPD is preventable and treatable accompanied by significant systemic effects'.

  1. A Historical Review of Leadership Development in the FFA and 4-H

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoover, Tracy S.; Scholl, Jan F.; Dunigan, Anne H.; Mamontova, Nadezhda

    2007-01-01

    FFA and 4-H are two youth-based organizations that cite leadership development as a key foundational component. The purpose of this study was to review and document the historical development of leadership events and activities in both programs. Evidence can be found of leadership development in schools, conferences, and camps. Leadership-related…

  2. Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Elaine

    1986-01-01

    An historical review of the development and rejection of Freud's seduction theory. Freud's interpretation of seduction as real sexual acts gave way to his conclusion that his patients' reports derived from fantasy, though his view of the significance of childhood sexual trauma in the etiology of neurosis remained steady. Examines the relationship…

  3. 77 FR 71447 - Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Instructions. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) is revising the fees it charges for reviewing Historic... 67.11(a) (2011). This rule authorizes the NPS to make the changes it is now implementing. The NPS...) effectively balances these goals. It would preserve the long-standing NPS practice of not charging for the...

  4. Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Elaine

    1986-01-01

    An historical review of the development and rejection of Freud's seduction theory. Freud's interpretation of seduction as real sexual acts gave way to his conclusion that his patients' reports derived from fantasy, though his view of the significance of childhood sexual trauma in the etiology of neurosis remained steady. Examines the relationship…

  5. ATAXIA - TELANGIECTASIA – A HISTORICAL REVIEW AND A PROPOSAL FOR A NEW NAME: ATM SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Teive, Hélio A. G.; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Munhoz, Renato P.; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The authors review ataxia telangiectasia, emphasizing historical aspects, genetic discoveries and the clinical presentations of the classical and atypical forms. Our conclusion is that the term ataxia telangiectasia is a misnomer because it represents a multisystem entity with pleomorphic neurological and systemic manifestations. ATM syndrome is proposed as a more adequate designation for this entity. PMID:26050521

  6. Ataxia-telangiectasia - A historical review and a proposal for a new designation: ATM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Arruda, Walter O; Munhoz, Renato P; Raskin, Salmo; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2015-08-15

    The authors review ataxia telangiectasia, emphasizing historical aspects, genetic discoveries, and the clinical presentations of the classical and atypical forms. In fact, ataxia telangiectasia represents a multisystem entity with pleomorphic neurological and systemic manifestations. ATM syndrome is proposed as a more adequate designation for this entity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Post partum infections: A review for the non-OBGYN

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, E

    2014-01-01

    The epidemiology of infections in the puerperium (post partum period) is not well understood and remains underestimated because surveillance systems are often limited to the acute care setting. The most common source of persistent fever after delivery is genital tract infection for which diagnosis remains mostly clinical and antibiotic treatment empiric. This review will emphasize surgical site infections (SSIs) and endometritis. Septic thrombo-phlebitis, mastitis, urinary tract infections and rare infections will be covered in less detail. Puerperal sepsis will not be reviewed. PMID:27512432

  8. Post partum infections: A review for the non-OBGYN.

    PubMed

    Dalton, E; Castillo, E

    2014-09-01

    The epidemiology of infections in the puerperium (post partum period) is not well understood and remains underestimated because surveillance systems are often limited to the acute care setting. The most common source of persistent fever after delivery is genital tract infection for which diagnosis remains mostly clinical and antibiotic treatment empiric. This review will emphasize surgical site infections (SSIs) and endometritis. Septic thrombo-phlebitis, mastitis, urinary tract infections and rare infections will be covered in less detail. Puerperal sepsis will not be reviewed.

  9. Advancing the management and control of typhoid fever: a review of the historical role of human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Woodward, William E; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Typhoid infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in settings where lack of clean water and inadequate sanitation facilitate disease spread through faecal-oral transmission. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis, immune control and microbiology of Salmonella Typhi infection can help accelerate the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests necessary for disease control. S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen; therefore animal models are limited in their relevance to human infection. During the latter half of the 20th century, induced human infection ("challenge") studies with S. Typhi were used effectively to assess quantitatively the human host response to challenge and to measure directly the efficacy of typhoid vaccines in preventing clinical illness. Here, the findings of these historic challenge studies are reviewed, highlighting the pivotal role that challenge studies have had in improving our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, and illustrating issues relevant to modern typhoid challenge model design. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Historical review of computer-assisted cognitive retraining.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Bill

    2002-10-01

    This article details the introduction and development of the use of microcomputers as adjuncts to traditional cognitive rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. The initial application of video games as therapeutic recreation in the late 1970s was soon followed in the early 1980s by the use of the first personal computers and available educational software. By the mid-1980s, both the IBM PC and Macintosh platforms were established, along with simplified programming languages that allowed individuals without extensive technical expertise to develop their own software. Several rehabilitation clinicians began to produce and market specially written cognitive retraining software for one or the other platform. Their work was detailed and reviewed, as was recently released software from commercial sources. The latter discussion included the latest developments in the rehabilitation applications of personal digital assistants and related organizing, reminding, and dictation devices. A summary of research on the general and specific efficacy of computer-assisted cognitive retraining illustrated the lingering controversy and skepticism that have been associated with this field since its inception. Computer-assisted cognitive retraining (CACR) can be an effective adjunct to a comprehensive program of cognitive rehabilitation. Training needs to be focused, structured, monitored, and as ecologically relevant as possible for optimum effect. Transfer or training or generalizability of skills remains a key issue in the field and should be considered the key criterion in evaluating whether to initiate or continue CACR.

  11. Research ethics--a brief historical review to 1965.

    PubMed

    Lock, S

    1995-12-01

    Most discussions on modern research ethics--particularly the formation of research ethics committees (institutional review boards)--focus on the revelations of the dreadful practices in the Nazi concentration camps at the Nuremberg trial after the second world war, with the subsequent production of the Nuremberg and Helsinki Codes. In fact, however, these trials were not pivotal: there was a long history of such concerns, going back at least to the 1830s, when William Beaumont introduced a contract with his patient Alexis St Martin, as well as the later part of the century when the celebrated leprosy worker Hansen was prosecuted in Bergen for having experimented on a patient without her consent, losing his post as a result. Probably, had it not been for the entry of the USA into the First World War, public indignation at the growing number of reports of unethical experimentation in public hospitals would have resulted in regulations, while official codes were introduced in Prussia at the turn of the century and in Berlin again in 1931. Nevertheless, the impetus for modern developments came principally from the furore aroused by the proselytising of two physicians: Henry Beecher, an anesthesiologist at Harvard, and Maurice Pappworth in London, whose respective books Experimentation in Man and Human Guinea Pigs, documented case histories of egregiously less than ethical research practices that went largely unquestioned by other clinical research workers. Here I shall discuss the reactions to and influence of some of these episodes, as well as more recent developments.

  12. Global Childhood Deaths From Pertussis: A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Maria Yui Kwan; Khandaker, Gulam; McIntyre, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Impact of pertussis vaccines on mortality is a key World Health Organization indicator, and trends in mortality rates and age distribution can inform maternal immunization strategies. We systematically reviewed studies reporting pertussis mortality rates (PMRs) per million population, identifying 19 eligible studies. During a prevaccine observation period of ≥50 years in high-income countries (HICs), PMRs reduced in both infants and 1- to 4-year-olds by >80%, along with improvements in living conditions. In studies in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), PMRs resembled highest prevaccine HIC rates. Postvaccine in HICs, significant further reduction in deaths (>98%) occurred, but with a large left shift in age of onset among residual deaths. Postvaccine in LMICs, limited data also show large and rapid decreases in PMRs, first in older infants and children, but long-term data fully enumerating residual deaths are lacking. In Sweden, large increases in the prevalence of undetectable pertussis antibodies were found at 10 years after high childhood coverage of acellular pertussis vaccines. Such data are not available from LMICs using whole-cell vaccines in a primary schedule without boosters. Data on residual infant deaths and maternal seroprevalence would be valuable inputs into consideration of pertussis vaccination in pregnancy in LMIC settings, especially if more precise immune correlates of infant protection against death from pertussis were known. PMID:27838665

  13. Pitch Counts in Youth Baseball and Softball: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Feeley, Brian T; Schisel, Jessica; Agel, Julie

    2017-07-21

    Pitching injuries are getting increased attention in the mass media. Many references are made to pitch counts and the role they play in injury prevention. The original purpose of regulating the pitch count in youth baseball was to reduce injury and fatigue to pitchers. This article reviews the history and development of the pitch count limit in baseball, the effect it has had on injury, and the evidence regarding injury rates on softball windmill pitching. Literature search through PubMed, mass media, and organizational Web sites through June 2015. Pitch count limits and rest recommendations were introduced in 1996 after a survey of 28 orthopedic surgeons and baseball coaches showed injuries to baseball pitchers' arms were believed to be from the number of pitches thrown. Follow-up research led to revised recommendations with more detailed guidelines in 2006. Since that time, data show a relationship between innings pitched and upper extremity injury, but pitch type has not clearly been shown to affect injury rates. Current surveys of coaches and players show that coaches, parents, and athletes often do not adhere to these guidelines. There are no pitch count guidelines currently available in softball. The increase in participation in youth baseball and softball with an emphasis on early sport specialization in youth sports activities suggests that there will continue to be a rise in injury rates to young throwers. The published pitch counts are likely to positively affect injury rates but must be adhered to by athletes, coaches, and parents.

  14. Gyrodactylid developmental biology: historical review, current status and future trends.

    PubMed

    Cable, J; Harris, P D

    2002-03-01

    In the viviparous gyrodactylids, embryos develop one inside another within the parental uterus, a phenomenon with major implications for the biology of this species-rich group. Development occurs via two routes: first-born daughters develop at the centre of an embryo cluster in utero, whereas all other daughters develop from oocytes. The resulting offspring are, however, morphologically indistinguishable. We review here the history of gyrodactylid embryology in the context of current knowledge and, present additional cytogenetic and ultrastructural observations of embryonic development. These progenetic parasites are highly modified for viviparity; oocyte maturation and sperm storage occur in a single chamber, the Egg Cell Forming Region, and a mature oocyte passes into the uterus after the birth of the preceding, fully developed offspring. The uterus has a syncytial lining derived from anterior and posterior cap cells. These cells are the first to differentiate in the female reproductive system and may be involved in controlling development. Embryos receive nutrients via the uterus rather than from vitelline cells. Traditionally, development of the first-born daughter has been considered a form of polyembryony, although paedogenesis has also been suggested. In contrast to previous studies, we could not trace lineage of the first-born daughter to a single quiescent macromere. However, only mitotic divisions have been conclusively observed in the intraembryonic generation, indicating an asexual origin. All other daughters are formed from meiotically derived oocytes by sexual reproduction or automictic parthenogenesis. The latter may involve pre-meiotic doubling of chromosomes, but the precise mechanism and the relative proportion of sexual and parthenogenetic offspring are unknown. Exceptionally, cleavage in Gyrodactylus spp. occurs by duets rather than quartets (a pattern previously only recorded in acoels) and is characterised by extensive cell rearrangements

  15. Infection and childhood leukemia: review of evidence

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Raquel da Rocha Paiva; Wünsch, Victor

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze studies that evaluated the role of infections as well as indirect measures of exposure to infection in the risk of childhood leukemia, particularly acute lymphoblastic leukemia. METHODS A search in Medline, Lilacs, and SciELO scientific publication databases initially using the descriptors "childhood leukemia" and "infection" and later searching for the words "childhood leukemia" and "maternal infection or disease" or "breastfeeding" or "daycare attendance" or "vaccination" resulted in 62 publications that met the following inclusion criteria: subject aged ≤ 15 years; specific analysis of cases diagnosed with acute lymphoblastic leukemia or total leukemia; exposure assessment of mothers' or infants' to infections (or proxy of infection), and risk of leukemia. RESULTS Overall, 23 studies that assessed infections in children support the hypothesis that occurrence of infection during early childhood reduces the risk of leukemia, but there are disagreements within and between studies. The evaluation of exposure to infection by indirect measures showed evidence of reduced risk of leukemia associated mainly with daycare attendance. More than 50.0% of the 16 studies that assessed maternal exposure to infection observed increased risk of leukemia associated with episodes of influenza, pneumonia, chickenpox, herpes zoster, lower genital tract infection, skin disease, sexually transmitted diseases, Epstein-Barr virus, and Helicobacter pylori. CONCLUSIONS Although no specific infectious agent has been identified, scientific evidence suggests that exposure to infections has some effect on childhood leukemia etiology. PMID:24626555

  16. [25 years "Anesthesiology and Reanimation"--a historical review].

    PubMed

    Benad, G

    2000-01-01

    The 25th anniversary of the foundation of the journal "Anaesthesiology und Reanimation" seems to be a good occasion, first of all, to look back at the special situation regarding the opportunities open to East German anaesthetists for publishing anaesthesiological papers before and after the Berlin Wall was built and then to give a review of the history of this journal. As the author's own publication list shows, East Germans could publish papers in West German journals without any problems before a major reform of the universities, bringing drastic changes, was introduced in East Germany in 1969. It became practically impossible to publish papers in West German journals because the "Directorates of International Relations", which had been installed at all universities in 1969, supervised the entire correspondence with persons and institutions in all foreign countries, in particular West Germany, the other West European countries and the countries of North and South America. Thus, East German anaesthetists were forced to publish in non-anaesthesiological East German journals because there was no journal of anaesthesiology in East Germany until "Anaesthesiologie und Reanimation" was founded as journal of the "Society of Anaesthesiology and Reanimation of the GDR" in 1976. The problems arising from the introduction of this journal under socialist conditions, including political pressure and control through the "General Secretariat of the Medical Scientific Societies of the Ministry of Health of the GDR" as well as technical problems with the publisher and the printers, are described. In spite of all these problems, which were overcome by the editor-in-chief with the aid of his colleagues on the editorial board and the scientific advisory council, this journal was initially published with a circulation of 1,200 copies in 1976 and its circulation increased to 1,600 copies in 1989. The journal proved to be of great benefit to East German anaesthetists and anaesthetists

  17. Historical theses on nursing and caring sciences in Finland: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lukana, Anne; Leena, Salminen; Marjo, Kaartinen; Helena, Leino-Kilpi

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this literature review was to review the theses (masters, licentiate and doctoral theses) on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The research questions were as follows: 1.What is the number and characteristics of these historical theses (target groups, methods and sources) on nursing and caring sciences have been produced in Finland? 2.What periods of time have been under investigation in these theses? 3.What topics have been investigated in these theses? The theses on the history of nursing and caring sciences were retrieved from the theses index of the universities that offer education in nursing and caring sciences in Finland. The literature search covered the time period 1979-2010. Altogether, 58 theses were reviewed and analysed via content analysis. Of all of the theses (n = 3969) produced in nursing and caring sciences, 58 of them focused on historical topics (<2%). The most common target group was healthcare personnel. The most common research method was the traditional historical method. Primary and secondary sources were used both together and separately. Nearly all of the theses examined the history of the 1900s, whereas only a few of them examined time periods before that. The four main topics of the theses were nursing practice, nursing education, nursing management and philosophy of nursing. The most common topic was nursing practice, especially psychiatric nursing. Research on the history of nursing and caring sciences in Finland has received only marginal attention from researchers. This literature review offers a description of the historical research produced on nursing and caring sciences and the topics of interest. In future, it will be necessary to more closely examine several historical topics that have been neglected in the study of nursing and caring sciences. © 2012 The Authors Scandinavian Journal of Caring Sciences © 2012 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  18. Infections and their control: a historical perspective Swb Newsom Infections and their control: a historical perspective Sage/Infection Prevention Society £17.95 235pp 9781849204538 1849204535 [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    2010-10-27

    BILL NEWSOM, an eminent, but now retired, medical microbiologist, provides a personal but engaging review of infections and our attempts to control them. it is a fascinating social history of what has become an essential service, and Newsom highlights the need to be aware of past struggles and avoid repeating mistakes.

  19. Sylvatic Transmission of Trypanosoma cruzi Among Domestic and Wildlife Reservoirs in Texas, USA: A Review of the Historical Literature.

    PubMed

    Gunter, S M; Brown, E L; Gorchakov, R; Murray, K O; Garcia, M N

    2017-08-01

    Chagas disease (Trypanosoma cruzi infection) is one of the most important neglected tropical diseases affecting the Americas. The transmission dynamic of this parasite is a complicated process that involves three genera of Triatominae subfamily and over 100 known mammalian reservoirs composed of domestic, peridomestic and wildlife species. Understanding the complex relationship between vector species and mammalian hosts is important for preventing transmission to humans. We performed a historical literature review to assess the disease burden in the Texas wildlife and domestic animal population. Reports of sylvatic transmission in Texas date back to the 1940s. We found that up to 23 species can serve as reservoirs for T. cruzi in the state with wood rats, raccoons, and wild and domestic canine species most frequently reported as positive for the parasite. We finish with a discussion of the current research gaps, implications for high-risk populations and future directions for research. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  20. Does Infection Site Matter? A Systematic Review of Infection Site Mortality in Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Motzkus, Christine A; Luckmann, Roger

    2017-09-01

    Sepsis treatment protocols emphasize source control with empiric antibiotics and fluid resuscitation. Previous reviews have examined the impact of infection site and specific pathogens on mortality from sepsis; however, no recent review has addressed the infection site. This review focuses on the impact of infection site on hospital mortality among patients with sepsis. The PubMed database was searched for articles from 2001 to 2014. Studies were eligible if they included (1) one or more statistical models with hospital mortality as the outcome and considered infection site for inclusion in the model and (2) adult patients with sepsis, severe sepsis, or septic shock. Data abstracted included stage of sepsis, infection site, and raw and adjusted effect estimates. Nineteen studies were included. Infection sites most studied included respiratory (n = 19), abdominal (n = 19), genitourinary (n = 18), and skin and soft tissue infections (n = 11). Several studies found a statistically significant lower mortality risk for genitourinary infections on hospital mortality when compared to respiratory infections. Based on studies included in this review, the impact of infection site in patients with sepsis on hospital mortality could not be reliably estimated. Misclassification among infections and disease states remains a serious possibility in studies on this topic.

  1. Review of bacterial and viral zoonotic infections transmitted by dogs

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemzadeh, I; Namazi, SH

    2015-01-01

    Dogs are a major reservoir for zoonotic infections. Dogs transmit several viral and bacterial diseases to humans. Zoonotic diseases can be transmitted to human by infected saliva, aerosols, contaminated urine or feces and direct contact with the dog. Viral infections such as rabies and norovirus and bacterial infections including Pasteurella, Salmonella, Brucella, Yersinia enterocolitica, Campylobacter, Capnocytophaga, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Coxiella burnetii, Leptospira, Staphylococcus intermedius and Methicillin resistance staphylococcus aureus are the most common viral and bacterial zoonotic infections transmitted to humans by dogs. This review, focused on the mentioned infectious diseases by describing general information, signs and symptoms, transmission ways, prevention and treatment of the infection. As far as the infections are concerned, the increase of the knowledge and the awareness of dog owners and the general population regarding zoonotic infections could significantly mitigate zoonoses transmission and consequently their fatal complications. PMID:28316698

  2. Helicobacter pylori gastritis in HIV-infected patients: a review.

    PubMed

    Nevin, Daniel T; Morgan, Christopher J; Graham, David Y; Genta, Robert M

    2014-10-01

    The risk factors for acquiring Helicobacter pylori and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infections are different: H. pylori is transmitted by gastro- or fecal-oral routes and is associated with low socioeconomic conditions, while HIV is transmitted through sexual intercourse, infected body fluids, and transplacentally. If the host responses to these infections were independent, the prevalence of H. pylori should be similar in HIV-infected and non-infected patients. Yet, several studies have detected a lower prevalence of H. pylori in patients with HIV infection, whereas other studies found either no differences or greater rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-positive subjects. To review studies that addressed the issue of these two simultaneous infections and attempt to determine whether reliable conclusions can be drawn from this corpus of often contrasting evidence. Electronic literature search for relevant publications, followed by manual search of additional citations from extracted articles. The initial search yielded 44 publications; after excluding case reports, reviews, narrowly focused articles, and duplicate reports, there remained 29 articles, which are the corpus of this review. With one exception, all studies reported higher rates of H. pylori infection in HIV-negative subjects. Five studies also examined the CD4 lymphocyte counts and found an inverse correlation between the degree of immunosuppression and the prevalence of active H. pylori infection. Current evidence suggests that it is likely that H. pylori needs a functional immune system to successfully and persistently colonize the human gastric mucosa. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Health and wellness technology use by historically underserved health consumers: systematic review.

    PubMed

    Montague, Enid; Perchonok, Jennifer

    2012-05-31

    The implementation of health technology is a national priority in the United States and widely discussed in the literature. However, literature about the use of this technology by historically underserved populations is limited. Information on culturally informed health and wellness technology and the use of these technologies to reduce health disparities facing historically underserved populations in the United States is sparse in the literature. To examine ways in which technology is being used by historically underserved populations to decrease health disparities through facilitating or improving health care access and health and wellness outcomes. We conducted a systematic review in four library databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) to investigate the use of technology by historically underserved populations. Search strings consisted of three topics (eg, technology, historically underserved populations, and health). A total of 424 search phrases applied in the four databases returned 16,108 papers. After review, 125 papers met the selection criteria. Within the selected papers, 30 types of technology, 19 historically underserved groups, and 23 health issues were discussed. Further, almost half of the papers (62 papers) examined the use of technology to create effective and culturally informed interventions or educational tools. Finally, 12 evaluation techniques were used to assess the technology. While the reviewed studies show how technology can be used to positively affect the health of historically underserved populations, the technology must be tailored toward the intended population, as personally relevant and contextually situated health technology is more likely than broader technology to create behavior changes. Social media, cell phones, and videotapes are types of technology that should be used more often in the future. Further, culturally informed health information technology should be used more for chronic diseases

  4. Health and Wellness Technology Use by Historically Underserved Health Consumers: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Perchonok, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of health technology is a national priority in the United States and widely discussed in the literature. However, literature about the use of this technology by historically underserved populations is limited. Information on culturally informed health and wellness technology and the use of these technologies to reduce health disparities facing historically underserved populations in the United States is sparse in the literature. Objective To examine ways in which technology is being used by historically underserved populations to decrease health disparities through facilitating or improving health care access and health and wellness outcomes. Methods We conducted a systematic review in four library databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) to investigate the use of technology by historically underserved populations. Search strings consisted of three topics (eg, technology, historically underserved populations, and health). Results A total of 424 search phrases applied in the four databases returned 16,108 papers. After review, 125 papers met the selection criteria. Within the selected papers, 30 types of technology, 19 historically underserved groups, and 23 health issues were discussed. Further, almost half of the papers (62 papers) examined the use of technology to create effective and culturally informed interventions or educational tools. Finally, 12 evaluation techniques were used to assess the technology. Conclusions While the reviewed studies show how technology can be used to positively affect the health of historically underserved populations, the technology must be tailored toward the intended population, as personally relevant and contextually situated health technology is more likely than broader technology to create behavior changes. Social media, cell phones, and videotapes are types of technology that should be used more often in the future. Further, culturally informed health information

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Arora, Ankur; Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems.

  6. Subpopulation Differences in Performance on Tests of Mental Ability: Historical Review and Annotated Bibliography

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-08-01

    Xccoby and Jacklin, 1974. p. 68). Jensen (196O, p. 624) adds here that tests of general inteligence Lot constructed to minimize sex diff0ences (e.g...SSUBPOPULATION .IFFERENCES IN PERFORMANCE ON TESTS OF MENTAL ABILITY: Historical Review and Annotated Bibliographyo CMark J.IEitelberg...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES t9. KEY WORDS (Continuo on revere* aid* If nec~eeary and Identify by block number) Aptitude/Intelligence Testing Psychological

  7. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems. PMID:28074159

  8. Development of Conventional Transarterial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinomas in Japan: Historical, Strategic, and Technical Review.

    PubMed

    Horikawa, Masahiro; Miyayama, Shiro; Irie, Toshiyuki; Kaji, Tatsumi; Arai, Yasuaki

    2015-10-01

    This article reviews the development of transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) in Japan, particularly ethiodized oil-based conventional TACE, from historical, strategic, and technical points of view. We also present the current status of standardized conventional TACE. Conventional TACE has been developed toward a more-selective and hemodynamic-conscious method, along with technical innovation and knowledge accumulation. Standardization of this method is necessary for further scientific evaluation.

  9. A Historical Review of Brayton and Stirling Power Conversion Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic power conversion technologies, such as closed Brayton and free-piston Stirling, offer many advantages for space power applications including high efficiency, long life, and attractive scaling characteristics. This paper presents a historical review of Brayton and Stirling power conversion technology for space and discusses on-going development activities in order to illustrate current technology readiness. The paper also presents a forecast of potential future space uses of these power technologies.

  10. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. © 2016 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Inc.

  11. Candida infections in newborns: a review.

    PubMed

    Khoory, B J; Vino, L; Dall'Agnola, A; Fanos, V

    1999-10-01

    Despite adequate treatment, nosocomial fungal infections have become an increasingly important cause of morbidity, extended hospitalization, and mortality in critically ill newborn babies. Furthermore, the high incidence of central nervous system involvement in septic newborns frequently results in serious neurological damage and psychomotorial sequelae. The prevention of fungal colonization in the population at risk, together with prompt diagnosis and treatment, are an efficient combination which lead to a better outcome of neonatal fungal infections. New drugs characterized by great efficacy and tolerance have recently been employed in clinical practice. This article summarizes certain aspects of Candida spp. infections in the neonatal period with regard to multisystemic presentation and involvement.

  12. [Historical review on the development of medical parasitology in China during the years of 1871-2006].

    PubMed

    Qu, Feng-yi

    2007-08-01

    The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area.

  13. Infective Endocarditis by Aggregatibacter paraphrophilus: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Smita

    2013-01-01

    Aggregatibacter paraphrophilus (former name, Haemophilus paraphrophilus) is a normal inhabitant of the naso- and oropharynx and has been rarely reported as a cause of human infections. A case of infective endocarditis by this organism is being reported and literature of endocarditis cases caused by Aggregatibacter paraphrophilus is being reviewed. PMID:24392406

  14. A scoping review and prevalence analysis of soil-transmitted helminth infections in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical differences in STH prevalence and these findings

  15. A Scoping Review and Prevalence Analysis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Background Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Objectives Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Results Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. Conclusions This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical

  16. Spinal infections in children: A review.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul

    2016-12-01

    Spinal infections are uncommon but significant causes of morbidity and hospitalization in the paediatric population. These infections encompass a broad range of conditions, from discitis to osteomyelitis and spinal epidural and intramedullary abscesses. Paediatric spinal infections can be caused by a range of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic agents. Ultrastructural differences of the vertebrae and associated structures result in distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis of spinal infections in children compared to adults. The non-specific nature of symptoms produced by them can cause considerable diagnostic delays. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging can facilitate early identification of the disease, and distinguish it from other spinal pathologies. The association of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains from some of the cases appears worrisome; as is the increasing incidence of Kingella kingae infections causing spinal infections. Rest and immobilization are the general treatment, and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is warranted to ensure optimal clinical outcome. Most patients generally have a good prognosis; however, early identification and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is essential to achieve the best therapeutic response.

  17. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Wajiha J.; Sheheitli, Huda; Abdul Fattah, Maamoun; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous or atypical mycobacterial ocular infections have been increasing in prevalence over the past few decades. They are known to cause periocular, adnexal, ocular surface and intraocular infections and are often recalcitrant to medical therapy. These infections can potentially cause detrimental outcomes, in part due to a delay in diagnosis. We review 174 case reports and series on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and discuss etiology, microbiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these infections. History of interventions, trauma, foreign bodies, implants, contact lenses, and steroids are linked to NTM ocular infections. Steroid use may prolong the duration of the infection and cause poorer visual outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with multiple antibiotics are necessary to achieve the best visual outcome. PMID:26106601

  18. Literature Review and Case Histories of Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii Infections in HIV-infected Patients

    PubMed Central

    Loulergue, Pierre; Bastides, Frédéric; Baudouin, Véronique; Chandenier, Jacques; Mariani-Kurkdjian, Patricia; Dupont, Bertrand; Viard, Jean-Paul; Dromer, Françoise

    2007-01-01

    African histoplasmosis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum var. duboisii is an invasive fungal infection endemic in central and west Africa. Most of its ecology and pathogenesis remain unknown. H. capsulatum var. capsulatum is an AIDS-defining opportunistic infection in HIV-infected patients who are living in or have traveled to histoplasmosis-endemic areas. In contrast, reports concerning African histoplasmosis during HIV infection are rare, although both pathogens coexist in those regions. We report 3 cases of imported African histoplasmosis diagnosed in France in HIV-infected patients and a literature review on similar cases. PMID:18217546

  19. A review of the clinical implications of anti-infective biomaterials and infection-resistant surfaces.

    PubMed

    Campoccia, Davide; Montanaro, Lucio; Arciola, Carla Renata

    2013-11-01

    Infection is currently regarded as the most severe and devastating complication associated to the use of biomaterials. The important social, clinical and economic impacts of implant-related infections are promoting the efforts to obviate these severe diseases. In this context, the development of anti-infective biomaterials and of infection-resistant surfaces is being regarded as the main strategy to prevent the establishment of implant colonisation and biofilm formation by bacteria. In this review, the attention is focused on the biomaterial-associated infections, from which the need for anti-infective biomaterials originates. Biomaterial-associated infections differ markedly for epidemiology, aetiology and severity, depending mainly on the anatomic site, on the time of biomaterial application, and on the depth of the tissues harbouring the prosthesis. Here, the diversity and complexity of the different scenarios where medical devices are currently utilised are explored, providing an overview of the emblematic applicative fields and of the requirements for anti-infective biomaterials.

  20. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions.

    PubMed

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives.

  1. A Historical Review of Diachrony and Semantic Dimensions of Trace in Neurosciences and Lacanian Psychoanalysis

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Carolina; Ansermet, François; Magistretti, Pierre J.

    2017-01-01

    Experience leaves a trace in the nervous system through plasticity. However, the exact meaning of the mnesic trace is poorly defined in current literature. This article provides a historical review of the term trace in neuroscience and psychoanalysis literature, to highlight two relevant aspects: the diachronic and the semantic dimensions. There has been a general interest in diachrony, or a form of evolution of the trace, but its indissociable semantic dimension remains partially disregarded. Although frequently implied, the diachronic and semantic dimensions of the trace are rarely clearly articulated. We situate this discussion into the classical opposition of syntax, or rules of inscription of the trace in the nervous system, and semantics, or the content of the trace, which takes into consideration the attempt of the human being to build coherence. A general observation is that the study of the term trace follows trends of the thought of the given epoch. This historical analysis also reveals the decay of the idea that the trace is reliable to the experience. From the articulation between neurosciences and psychoanalysis in a historical perspective, this review shows that the trend is to consider trace as a production of the subject, resulting in a permanent rewriting in an attempt to give meaning to the experience. This trend is becoming increasingly evident in light of recent research in neurosciences and psychoanalysis. PMID:28690553

  2. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. PMID:27313875

  3. Review of adolescent urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Horowitz, Mark; Cohen, Jacob

    2007-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of adolescent urinary tract infection (UTI) share some of the clinical features seen in infections of the young and old. Whereas most infections in the young patient demand an extensive radiologic work-up, the teenager with a UTI is not so straightforward. The clinician must balance being too aggressive with being too conservative in the diagnosis and management of these patients. UTIs occur most frequently among adolescent females and are usually uncomplicated and not associated with underlying anatomic abnormalities. Smaller numbers of adolescent males suffer from UTIs, and the need to search for underlying abnormalities is not clear. Adolescent UTI is associated with nascent sexual activity and is also more common in voiding/elimination syndromes. Future studies examining UTI, specifically in the adolescent age group, will help provide clinicians with a more focused algorithm in the diagnosis and management of adolescent UTIs.

  4. Review article: Paediatric bone and joint infection.

    PubMed

    Stott, N Susan

    2001-06-01

    Paediatric musculoskeletal infection remains an important cause of morbidity. Methicillin sensitive Staphylococcus aureus is still the most common organism although the incidence of methicillin resistant S. aureus in the community is rising. Osteomyelitis and septic arthritis due to Haemophilus influenzae is decreasing in incidence secondary to immunisation and in some units has been replaced by infections with the gram negative bacillus, Kingella kingae. Recent prospective studies indicate that uncomplicated osteomyelitis can be treated by three to four weeks of antibiotics. However, there is still a small group of children who will have overwhelming disseminated infection. These children require aggressive surgical and medical intervention. Two recent reports have identified an increased incidence of septic arthritis in children who have hemophilia and are HIV positive.

  5. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  6. Utility of transesophageal echocardiography in infective endocarditis. A review.

    PubMed Central

    Jessurun, C; Mesa, A; Wilansky, S

    1996-01-01

    Despite recent diagnostic and therapeutic advances, infective endocarditis continues to be a very serious illness, with high patient morbidity and mortality rates. The diagnosis of infective endocarditis has been based primarily on clinical signs and positive blood cultures. Echocardiography is currently recognized as the technique of choice for the detection of valvular vegetations, which are the hallmark of endocarditis. We briefly review the use of echocardiography in the diagnosis of suspected infective endocarditis, with emphasis on transesophageal echocardiography. High-resolution imaging of the cardiac valves with transesophageal echocardiography has proved to be invaluable in the management of infective endocarditis. Images PMID:8792540

  7. Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

    2013-11-29

    Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, β-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses.

  8. Association between urticaria and virus infections: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Imbalzano, Egidio; Casciaro, Marco; Quartuccio, Sebastiano; Minciullo, Paola L; Cascio, Antonio; Calapai, Gioacchino; Gangemi, Sebastiano

    2016-01-01

    The association between urticaria and virus infections has rarely been reported in the literature. The lack of reported cases is probably due to the difficulty in establishing a cause-and-effect relationship. It is not possible to challenge the patient with an etiologic agent. The purpose of this work was to perform a systematic review on the association between urticaria and virus infections. This systematic review was conducted according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines. We searched for articles from January 1, 2008, through May 2015, by using two key terms related to urticaria and virus diseases, "urticaria" and one key term related to virus infections, "virus disease," then "urticaria" and the name of each virus family, and of the most representative virus serotypes. We reported cases of patients affected either by acute or chronic urticaria with a concurrent virus infection. Previous other causes of urticaria had to be excluded. Herpesviridae infections and urticaria were the most frequently reported associations in children. However, hepatitis virus infections would appear to be the most-frequent cause of urticaria in adults. Data obtained indicated viral infection as a potential trigger and sometimes as the main etiologic agent in causing acute or chronic urticaria. In every case, urticarial manifestation cleared up after either healing or controlling of the viral infection. However, prospective studies and well-structured research is needed to better clarify the role of viruses in the pathogenesis of urticaria and their relative prevalence.

  9. History of colorectal surgery: A comprehensive historical review from the ancient Egyptians to the surgical robot.

    PubMed

    Tebala, Giovanni Domenico

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal surgery has its roots in the early civilisations and its development followed a complex pathway never disjoined from the social and cultural environment where it took place. The most relevant historical sources have been evaluated. A comprehensive review of the history of colorectal surgery is presented, from the ancient Egyptian culture to the modern achievements. The development of surgery of colon, rectum and anus is reported with particular reference to the social environment and history; as the development of colorectal surgery parallels the occurrence of human historical events, the study of the former cannot be disjoined from the latter. Study and knowledge of the history of medicine--and, in particular, of colorectal surgery for those interested in this particular subject--is a privileged way to understand who we are nowadays and where we come from.

  10. Does the architecture of hospital facilities influence nosocomial infection rates? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dettenkofer, M; Seegers, S; Antes, G; Motschall, E; Schumacher, M; Daschner, F D

    2004-01-01

    To review the evidence regarding the effects of interventions to improve hospital design and construction on the occurrence of nosocomial infections. Systematic review of experimental and non-experimental, architectural intervention studies in intensive care units (ICUs), surgical departments, isolation units, and hospitals in general. The studies dated from 1975, and were in English, French, German, Italian, and Spanish. Regardless of format, the studies were identified through seven medical databases, reference lists, and expert consultation. One hundred seventy-eight scientific articles were identified; however, none of these described a meta-analysis, systematic review, or randomized, controlled trial. Most of the articles were categorized at the lowest level of evidence (expert judgment or consensus statements). Only 17 described completed concurrent or historical cohort studies matching the inclusion criteria (ICUs, 9; surgical departments, 4; isolation units, 2; hospitals in general, 2). The interventions generally included a move to other premises or renovation. However, in many studies, the staff-to-patient ratio was also improved. Some studies showed lower infection rates after intervention, but this finding cannot be generalized because of confounding and frequently small study populations. The lack of stringent evidence linking hospital design and construction with the prevention of nosocomial infection is partly attributable to the multifactorial nature of these infections, and some improvement will be seen if basic conditions such as the availability of sufficient space, isolation capacity, and facilities for handwashing are met. However, to our knowledge, other factors, especially the improper hand hygiene of medical staff, have greater impact.

  11. Treatment of oral fungal infections using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a systematic review of currently available evidence.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to review the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of oral fungal infections. To address the focused question "Should PDT be considered a possible treatment regimen for oral fungal infections?" PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1997 up to March 2014 using various combinations of the following key words: "Candida albicans"; "Candidiasis"; "Candidosis"; "denture stomatitis"; "oral" and "photodynamic therapy". Original studies, experimental studies and articles published solely in English language were sought. Letters to the editor, historic reviews and unpublished data were excluded. Pattern of the present literature review was customized to mainly summarize the pertinent information. Fifteen studies (3 clinical and 12 experimental) were included. All studies reported antimicrobial PDT to be an effective antifungal treatment strategy. One study reported PDT and azole therapy to be equally effective in the treatment of oral fungal infections. Methylene blue, toluidine blue and porphyrin derivative were the most commonly used photosensitizers. The laser wavelengths and power output ranged between ∼455 nm-660 nm and 30 mW-400 mW. The energy fluence ranged between 26-245 J cm(-2) and the duration or irradiation ranged between 10 seconds and 26 minutes. Clinical effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT as a potent therapeutic strategy for oral fungal infections requires further investigations.

  12. Historical overview and review of current day treatment in the management of acute variceal haemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Rajoriya, Neil; Tripathi, Dhiraj

    2014-01-01

    Variceal haemorrhage is one of the most devastating consequences of portal hypertension, with a 1-year mortality of 40%. With the passage of time, acute management strategies have developed with improved survival. The major historical treatment landmarks in the management of variceal haemorrhage can be divided into surgical, medical, endoscopic and radiological breakthroughs. We sought to provide a historical overview of the management of variceal haemorrhage and how treatment modalities over time have impacted on clinical outcomes. A PubMed search of the following terms: portal hypertension, variceal haemorrhage, gastric varices, oesophageal varices, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt was performed. To complement this, Google™ was searched with the aforementioned terms. Other relevant references were identified after review of the reference lists of articles. The review of therapeutic advances was conducted divided into pre-1970s, 1970/80s, 1990s, 2000-2010 and post-2010. Also, a summary and review on the pathophysiology of portal hypertension and clinical outcomes in variceal haemorrhage was performed. Aided by the development of endoscopic therapies, medication and improved radiological interventions; the management of variceal haemorrhage has changed over recent decades with improved survival from an often-terminating event in recent past. PMID:24914369

  13. Management of supraventricular tachycardia using the Valsalva manoeuvre: a historical review and summary of published evidence.

    PubMed

    Smith, Gavin

    2012-12-01

    Use of the Valsalva manoeuvre (VM) as a first-line management tool for the reversion of supraventricular tachycardia (SVT) in both emergency medicine and prehospital emergency-care settings has presented challenges, requiring continuous examination and refinement to define both its appropriateness and effectiveness. This report details the evolution of knowledge related to SVT and the historical evolution and controversies associated with VM; it also highlights the ongoing development of an evidence-based model of practice for the management of SVT in the emergency medicine and prehospital emergency-care settings. A two-part review of the literature using electronic medical databases was conducted. Other relevant texts or articles unavailable within the electronic search were also identified. Part 1 of the search criteria identified the historical evolution of the pathophysiology of SVT, whereas part 2 identified the use of VM for the clinical management of SVT. Part 1 of the review identified a total of 38 articles with eight meeting the inclusion criteria, and part 2 of the review identified a total of 44 articles with 17 meeting the inclusion criteria. An evidence-based model of practice requires clarification. The differentiation of nodal re-entrant tachycardias may, with further research, lead to identification of the specificity of VM in reversion of SVT during the early stages of arrhythmia. There is a need for further prehospital and emergency department research to quantify an evidence-based approach to VM.

  14. Sociopolitical development of the nursing profession in Iran: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Fooladi, Marjaneh; Parvizy, Soroor

    2016-01-01

    Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method. From the results, the 3 categories of the White Revolution, the Islamic Revolution, and Iran-Iraq war and 8 subcategories emerged, where participants identified factors that fundamentally changed the Iranian nursing profession. The nursing profession continues to develop and help revise policies to improve the healthcare system and quality of care. The findings of this study facilitate the better understanding of the influence of sociopolitical events on the nursing profession and guide the revision or development of new healthcare policies.

  15. Sociopolitical development of the nursing profession in Iran: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Raiesifar, Afsaneh; Firouzkouhi, Mohammadreza; Fooladi, Marjaneh; Parvizy, Soroor

    2016-01-01

    Significant sociopolitical changes in recent decades have not only influenced the nursing profession, but also the entire Iranian healthcare system. This study describes the historical evolution of the nursing profession within a sociopolitical context. This historical review of unpublished and published literature endorsed personal accounts of historic events by 14 of the oldest nurses in Iran chosen through purposive sampling method, as they shared their nursing experiences. Individual recollections were collected through in-depth and semi-structured interviews and later analyzed through oral history analysis method. From the results, the 3 categories of the White Revolution, the Islamic Revolution, and Iran-Iraq war and 8 subcategories emerged, where participants identified factors that fundamentally changed the Iranian nursing profession. The nursing profession continues to develop and help revise policies to improve the healthcare system and quality of care. The findings of this study facilitate the better understanding of the influence of sociopolitical events on the nursing profession and guide the revision or development of new healthcare policies. PMID:28050243

  16. Evaluation of historical factors influencing the occurrence and distribution of Mycobacterium bovis infection among wildlife in Michigan.

    PubMed

    Miller, Roseann; Kaneene, John B

    2006-04-01

    To determine historical events leading to establishment of bovine tuberculosis in the white-tailed deer population in the northeastern corner of the lower peninsula (NELP) of Michigan and describe factors relevant to the present outbreak of bovine tuberculosis in Michigan. Cattle and white-tailed deer in Michigan from 1920 to 1990. A search of extant historical documents (eg, scientific journals, books, public reports, and correspondence and internal reports from governmental agencies) was conducted. Factors investigated included the number of cattle and prevalence of tuberculosis, deer population and density levels, and changes in regional environments affecting the population and management of cattle and wild deer. High deer numbers and severe winter feed shortages resulting from habitat destruction in the NELP in 1930 contributed to the transmission of tuberculosis from cattle to deer. Starvation increased the susceptibility of deer to infection and modified behavior such that exposure to infected cattle was increased. Relocation of deer resulted in spread of infection to other sites, including locations at which spatial clusters of tuberculosis presently exist. Ribotyping of Mycobacterium bovis from a human patient suggests that the strain of M. bovis presently infecting white-tailed deer in the region is the same strain that affected cattle farms at that time. Feeding deer to maintain numbers above the normal carrying capacity of the NELP led to deer depending on consumption of livestock feed for survival during winter and increased contact with domestic cattle. This practice should be avoided.

  17. [Historical and medical review of syphilis-afflicted army leaders, rulers and statesmen].

    PubMed

    Marinković, Zivorad; Dukić, Slobodanka

    2011-01-01

    Syphilis has changed the course of history. It is a sexually transmitted disease caused by spiral-shaped bacterium, Treponema pallidum. The disease has been known under many names during history, and has had a prominent role in history and literature for the last several hundred years. Since its recognition in 15th-century Europe as a new disease, syphilis has been the subject of great mystery and legends. Many believe that syphilis was brought to Europe by Columbus and his sailors, and, thereafter, many famous persons, such as political figures (King Charles VIII, Queen Mary I, Catherine the Great, Paul I, Vladimir Lenin), musicians and literary greats suffered from syphilis. Syphilis is a chronic, multistage disease with diverse and wide-ranging manifestations. Congenital syphilis is of particular concern, where the lack of prenatal testing and antibiotic treatment of infected pregnant women results in congenital infection of the fetus. Syphilis exists even nowadays and according to the World Health Organization estimates, there are 12 million new cases of syphilis occurring each year. While syphilis eradication seems a biologically plausible goal, the major political, cultural, and logistic difficulties involved make it unlikely. Regrettably, rather than becoming an infection of historical significance, syphilis continues to challenge researchers and clinicians in the era of HIV.

  18. [Infective endocarditis: review of 36 cases].

    PubMed

    Lupis, Francesco; Giordano, Salvatore; Pampinella, Diego; Scarlata, Francesco; Romano, Amelia

    2009-09-01

    In a retrospective study of cases of infective endocarditis (IE) observed in adult patients, the data of patients hospitalized for definite IE in the Cardiosurgery Unit of ARNAS-Civico in Palermo (Italy) from March 2003 to September 2006 were analysed. All cases were classified according to the modified Duke criteria. In all, 36 immunocompetent patients with "definite" IE were included (20 males and 16 females with a median age of 54 years). The aortic valve (23/36, 64%) was the most commonly involved, followed by the mitral (19/36, 52.7%) and tricuspid valve (4/36, 11%). In 10 patients (27.7%), a double localization was observed. Blood culture yielded a positive result in 15 cases. Staphylococci and enterococci were the pathogens most commonly identified. Valvular diseases and previous cardiosurgical procedures were the risk factors most commonly noted. Four patients developed complications during the course of the disease, one of whom died. In patients with positive blood culture, antibiotics were prescribed on the basis of susceptibility test results. In patients with negative blood culture, empiric therapy was directed against Gram+ bacteria (glycopeptides, aminoglycosides and betalactams). Surgical therapy was necessary in 25 patients (69.4%). The patients were subsequently enrolled in a cardiological and infectivological follow-up. Our results showed that rapid diagnosis, correct antibiotic therapy and early surgical treatment improve the outcome in patients with infective endocarditis.

  19. A historical review of perceptions of key aspects of spirituality and religion within alcoholics anonymous.

    PubMed

    Feigenbaum, Janice Cooke

    2013-01-01

    This historical research aimed to develop an accurate perception of the role of spirituality and religion within the history of Alcoholics Anonymous. Primary and secondary sources were reviewed. The study identified that Bill W. and Dr. Bob established the format for the support group based on the ideas of William James, which formed the base for the Oxford Groups. Alcoholics Anonymous was clearly viewed as a spiritual group and not a religion. The review also showed that the two founders had each experienced one of the two types of spiritual awakenings that James had addressed. These findings will help nurses clarify their own perceptions of this organization so they may accurately educate individuals who they are encouraging to participate in this program while recovering from an addiction.

  20. A historical review of trauma-related diagnoses to reconsider the heterogeneity of PTSD.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Jennifer; Carter, Sarah; Folk, Johanna B; Kashdan, Todd B

    2014-12-01

    Based on the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are 636,120 ways for an individual to qualify for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Galatzer-Levy & Bryant, 2013). To unravel this heterogeneity, we examine the historical trajectory of trauma-related diagnoses. Our review addresses four traumas (i.e., combat, natural disaster, life-threatening accident and sexual assault) that have contributed the most to conceptual models of PTSD. Although these trauma types are all subsumed under the same diagnostic label, our literature review indicates that the psychological consequences of different traumatic experiences are traditionally studied in isolation. Indeed, most research addresses hypotheses regarding specific trauma types using samples of individuals selected for their experience with that specific event. We consider the possibility that PTSD is not a single, unified construct and what this means for future research and clinical applications. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A Detailed Historical Review of Propellant Management Devices for Low Gravity Propellant Acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hartwig, Jason W.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a comprehensive background and historical review of Propellant Management Devices (PMDs) used throughout spaceflight history. The purpose of a PMD is to separate liquid and gas phases within a propellant tank and to transfer vapor-free propellant from a storage tank to a transfer line en route to either an engine or receiver depot tank, in any gravitational or thermal environment. The design concept, basic flow physics, and principle of operation are presented for each type of PMD. The three primary capillary driven PMD types of vanes, sponges, and screen channel liquid acquisition devices are compared and contrasted. For each PMD type, a detailed review of previous applications using storable propellants is given, which include space experiments as well as space missions and vehicles. Examples of previous cryogenic propellant management are also presented.

  2. [Historical trauma. Systematic review of a different approach to armed conflict].

    PubMed

    Borda Bohigas, Juan Pablo; Carrillo, Juan O; Garzón, Daniel F; Ramírez, María P; Rodríguez, Nicolás

    2015-01-01

    Historical trauma (HT) is a collective trauma inflicted on a group of people who share an identity or affiliation, and is often characterized by the transgenerational legacy of traumatic experiences, and expressed through various psychological and social responses. This construct is proposed in contrast to post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) due to limitations identified with the latter diagnostic category when addressing collective trauma, especially in situations of political and social violence. The purpose of this article is to review the literature published so far on HT. A search was performed using the terms "historical trauma" and "mental health" or "trauma histórico" and "salud mental" in the scientific databases, EMBASE, Ebscohost, JSTOR, ProQuest, LILACS, SciELO, PsycARTICLES, ISI Web of Science and PubMed. The authors reviewed HT definition, paramount characteristics of its traumatic experience, and several theories of on the transgenerational succession if these experiences occur, as well as possible consequences of traumatic events at individual, family and social level. Common characteristics of different therapeutic models are highlighted, in addition to some recommendations for their application. PTSD has clear limitations in addressing community and cumulative traumatic experiences related to specific social and historical contexts. The authors discuss the potential utility of HT in this task. Finally, several gaps in current knowledge regarding this construct are mentioned, and some recommendations for future research are indicated. Copyright © 2014 Asociación Colombiana de Psiquiatría. Publicado por Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  3. The human impact of tsunamis: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event -the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life.

  4. The Human Impact of Tsunamis: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event –the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life. PMID:23857277

  5. The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. PMID:23857074

  6. The human impact of tropical cyclones: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones.

  7. Systems and Complexity Thinking in the General Practice Literature: An Integrative, Historical Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Sturmberg, Joachim P.; Martin, Carmel M.; Katerndahl, David A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past 7 decades, theories in the systems and complexity sciences have had a major influence on academic thinking and research. We assessed the impact of complexity science on general practice/family medicine. METHODS We performed a historical integrative review using the following systematic search strategy: medical subject heading [humans] combined in turn with the terms complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, systems biology, and systems theory, limited to general practice/family medicine and published before December 2010. A total of 16,242 articles were retrieved, of which 49 were published in general practice/family medicine journals. Hand searches and snowballing retrieved another 35. After a full-text review, we included 56 articles dealing specifically with systems sciences and general/family practice. RESULTS General practice/family medicine engaged with the emerging systems and complexity theories in 4 stages. Before 1995, articles tended to explore common phenomenologic general practice/family medicine experiences. Between 1995 and 2000, articles described the complex adaptive nature of this discipline. Those published between 2000 and 2005 focused on describing the system dynamics of medical practice. After 2005, articles increasingly applied the breadth of complex science theories to health care, health care reform, and the future of medicine. CONCLUSIONS This historical review describes the development of general practice/family medicine in relation to complex adaptive systems theories, and shows how systems sciences more accurately reflect the discipline’s philosophy and identity. Analysis suggests that general practice/family medicine first embraced systems theories through conscious reorganization of its boundaries and scope, before applying empirical tools. Future research should concentrate on applying nonlinear dynamics and empirical modeling to patient care, and to organizing and developing local practices, engaging in

  8. Systems and complexity thinking in the general practice literature: an integrative, historical narrative review.

    PubMed

    Sturmberg, Joachim P; Martin, Carmel M; Katerndahl, David A

    2014-01-01

    Over the past 7 decades, theories in the systems and complexity sciences have had a major influence on academic thinking and research. We assessed the impact of complexity science on general practice/family medicine. We performed a historical integrative review using the following systematic search strategy: medical subject heading [humans] combined in turn with the terms complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, systems biology, and systems theory, limited to general practice/family medicine and published before December 2010. A total of 16,242 articles were retrieved, of which 49 were published in general practice/family medicine journals. Hand searches and snowballing retrieved another 35. After a full-text review, we included 56 articles dealing specifically with systems sciences and general/family practice. General practice/family medicine engaged with the emerging systems and complexity theories in 4 stages. Before 1995, articles tended to explore common phenomenologic general practice/family medicine experiences. Between 1995 and 2000, articles described the complex adaptive nature of this discipline. Those published between 2000 and 2005 focused on describing the system dynamics of medical practice. After 2005, articles increasingly applied the breadth of complex science theories to health care, health care reform, and the future of medicine. This historical review describes the development of general practice/family medicine in relation to complex adaptive systems theories, and shows how systems sciences more accurately reflect the discipline's philosophy and identity. Analysis suggests that general practice/family medicine first embraced systems theories through conscious reorganization of its boundaries and scope, before applying empirical tools. Future research should concentrate on applying nonlinear dynamics and empirical modeling to patient care, and to organizing and developing local practices, engaging in community development, and influencing

  9. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives.

  10. Survey of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Peng; Zhang, Xi; Wang, Li Ang; Han, Lu Hong; Yang, Mei; Duan, Jiang Yang; Sun, Ge Ge; Qi, Xin; Liu, Ruo Dan; Wang, Zhong Quan; Cui, Jing

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the current situation of Trichinella infection from domestic pigs in the historical endemic areas of Henan province, central China. A total of 823 diaphragm samples from the indoor-raised pigs were collected in five cities of Henan during 2014-2015 and examined by artificial digestion method. The overall prevalence of Trichinella infection in pigs was 0.61 % (5/823). Trichinella larvae were detected in 0.91 % (5/550) of pigs from Nanyang city of Henan. The larval burden in infected animals was 0.03 larvae per gram (lpg) of muscles with a range from 0.02 to 0.05 lpg. The larvae were identified as Trichinella spiralis by multiple PCR. Our study confirms the existence of swine trichinellosis in Henan, but the infection level was under the minimum level for defining infectious sources for humans. However, the prevalence of swine Trichinella infection in Henan need to be further evaluated with a large scale of pork samples for ensuring meat food safety.

  11. Origin and classification of springs and historical review with current applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, C.; Wallace, M.

    1994-10-01

    Numerous geologic processes operate to form the many types of springs in existence today. Karst springs, glacial springs, and thermal springs are reviewed with examples from different parts of the world to emphasize the diversity of their origin. Since Meinzer's classification in 1927, the classification of springs has changed as our understanding of their origin and our scientific knowledge of springs have increased. Today several different classifications have been developed that concentrate on one or more specific characteristics such as size, mineral content, or temperature. A historic sketch of the classification of springs that documents the most common classifications in use is presented. From this historical perspective it is apparent how our understanding of springs, combined with technological advances, will affect future trends in the classification of springs. Eventually a definitive classification of springs, scientific as well as legal, combined with computer data bases, will aid not only in our academic understanding of springs, but in our practical usage. In the late 20th century, there has been increased demand for spring, mineral, and curative waters. Springs, specifically their origin, have become increasingly important. Legislation to protect the rights and safety of consumers regarding springs is forthcoming from state, federal, national, and international organizations. Some current legislation will be highlighted to provide some insight into how exactly these legal rulings affect our use and definitions of springs. The purpose of this paper is to establish the geological/ hydrogeological framework for the diversity of origin and form of springs in addition to providing a historical perspective on classification systems throughout the ages.

  12. Secondary infection as a risk factor for dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome: an historical perspective and role of antibody-dependent enhancement of infection.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Maria G; Alvarez, Mayling; Halstead, Scott B

    2013-07-01

    Today, dengue viruses are the most prevalent arthropod-borne viruses in the world. Since the 1960s, numerous reports have identified a second heterologous dengue virus (DENV) infection as a principal risk factor for severe dengue disease (dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome, DHF/DSS). Modifiers of dengue disease response include the specific sequence of two DENV infections, the interval between infections, and contributions from the human host, such as age, ethnicity, chronic illnesses and genetic background. Antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection has been proposed as the early mechanism underlying DHF/DSS. Dengue cross-reactive antibodies raised following a first dengue infection combine with a second infecting virus to form infectious immune complexes that enter Fc-receptor-bearing cells. This results in an increased number of infected cells and increased viral output per cell. At the late illness stage, high levels of cytokines, possibly the result of T cell elimination of infected cells, result in vascular permeability, leading to shock and death. This review is focused on the etiological role of secondary infections (SI) and mechanisms of ADE.

  13. [Historical development and current demands on medical training, further and advanced training in hygiene and infection prevention].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Kramer, A

    2012-11-01

    New risks in nosocomial infections and the dramatic increase in antibiotic-resistant pathogens in healthcare facilities have pointed to the urgent need for a good education of students and practitioners in the basics of hospital hygiene and infection prevention. On the other hand in the last 10 years a large number of institutes of hygiene in universities were closed with remarkable consequences concerning the decreased education in modern hygiene and public health. A broad historical overview over the last 200 years of teaching hygiene and public health at German universities is given which was integrated into the education of medical students. Nowadays many universities do not teach modern hygiene and public health. The demand of re-establishing new institutes of hygiene by the German Medical Council is discussed. The curriculum for the formation of hospital hygienists is presented.

  14. Computer validation in toxicology: historical review for FDA and EPA good laboratory practice.

    PubMed

    Brodish, D L

    1998-01-01

    The application of computer validation principles to Good Laboratory Practice is a fairly recent phenomenon. As automated data collection systems have become more common in toxicology facilities, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency have begun to focus inspections in this area. This historical review documents the development of regulatory guidance on computer validation in toxicology over the past several decades. An overview of the components of a computer life cycle is presented, including the development of systems descriptions, validation plans, validation testing, system maintenance, SOPs, change control, security considerations, and system retirement. Examples are provided for implementation of computer validation principles on laboratory computer systems in a toxicology facility.

  15. From A-4 to Explorer 1. [U.S. rocket and missile technology historical review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Debus, K. H.

    1973-01-01

    Historical review of the development of rocket and missile technology in the United States over the period from 1945 to 1958. Attention is given to the organization of activities, the launch facilities, and the scope of test rocket firings at the White Sands Proving Ground area during the initial phase of research with captured German V2 rockets. The development of the Redstone missiles is outlined by discussing aspects of military involvement, cooperation with industrial suppliers, details of ground support equipment, and results of initial test firings. Subsequent development of the Jupiter missiles is examined in a similar manner, and attention is given to activities involved in the launching of the Explorer 1 satellite.

  16. Sleep, dreaming, and mental health: a review of historical and neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming and their relationship to emotions have been studied since the beginning of recorded history. Earliest historical records show the predominant view to be that dreams were considered divine in origin and only later did dream theory become linked with the functioning of the brain, perhaps most famously in psychoanalytic theory. The development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era of the dream study and their relationship to mental health. In this review we outline the history of theories about the genesis and function of dreams and sleep and their relationship to mental illness from ancient mythic and religious views to the first tentative scientific approaches to the ascendency of psychoanalysis and ultimately to the modern era of neuroscience. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. A Brief Historical Review of Specific Religious Denominations: How History Influences Current Medical-Religious Partnerships.

    PubMed

    Galiatsatos, Panagis; Lehmijoki-Gardner, Maiju; Daniel Hale, W

    2016-04-01

    Improving health care in the twenty-first century will require new and creative approaches, with special attention given to health literacy and patient engagement since these two variables play a significant role in chronic health issues and their management. In order to better improve these key variables, strong partnerships between patients, their communities, and medical institutions must be developed. One way of facilitating these relationships is through medical-religious partnerships. Religious leaders are in regular contact with people who need education about and support with health issues. However, identifying the most effective way to approach specific congregations can pose a challenge to healthcare providers and institutions. In this paper, we provide a brief historical review of certain religious traditions and how their history plays a role in current medical-religious partnerships.

  18. Drug advertising, continuing medical education, and physician prescribing: a historical review and reform proposal.

    PubMed

    Rodwin, Marc A

    2010-01-01

    Through the 1960s, many people claimed that drug advertising was educational and physicians often relied on it. Continuing Medical Education (CME) was developed to provide an alternative. However, because CME relied on grants, industry funders chose the subjects offered. Now policymakers worry that drug firms support CME to promote sales and that commercial support biases prescribing and fosters inappropriate drug use. A historical review reveals parallel problems between advertising and industry-funded CME. To preclude industry influence and improve CME, we should ensure independent funding by taxing medical industries, facilities and physicians. Independent public and professional authorities should create CME curricula. An independent agency should allocate all funds to educational institutions for approved curricula. © 2010 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.

  19. Historical Review of Uncommanded Lateral-Directional Motions at Transonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of past experiences with uncommanded lateral-directional motions at transonic speeds during specific military aircraft programs. The effort was undertaken to provide qualitative and quantitative information on past airplane programs that might be of use to the participants in the joint NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. The AWS Program was initiated because of the experiences of the F/A-l8E/F development program, during which unexpected, severe wing-drop motions were encountered by preproduction aircraft at transonic conditions. These motions were judged to be significantly degrading to the primary mission requirements of the aircraft. Although the problem was subsequently solved for the production version of the F/A-l8E/F, a high-level review panel emphasized the poor understanding of such phenomena and issued a strong recommendation to: "Initiate a national research effort to thoroughly and systematically study the wing drop phenomena." A comprehensive, cooperative NASA/Navy/Air Force AWS Program was designed to respond to provide the required technology requirements. As part of the AWS Program, a work element was directed at a historical review of wing-drop experiences in past aircraft development programs at high subsonic and transonic speeds. In particular, information was requested regarding: specific aircraft configurations that exhibited uncommanded motions and the nature of the motions; geometric characteristics of the air- planes; flight conditions involved in occurrences; relevant data, including wind-tunnel, computational, and flight sources; figures of merit used for analyses; and approaches used to alleviate the problem. An attempt was also made to summarize some of the more important lessons learned from past experiences, and to recommend specific research efforts. In addition to providing technical information to assist the AWS research objectives, the study produced fundamental

  20. Historical Review of Uncommanded Lateral-Directional Motions At Transonic Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of past experiences with uncommanded lateral-directional motions at transonic speeds during specific military aircraft programs. The effort was undertaken to provide qualitative and quantitative information on past airplane programs that might be of use to the participants in the joint NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. The AWS Program was initiated because of the experiences of the F/A-18E/F development program, during which unexpected, severe wing-drop motions were encountered by preproduction aircraft at transonic conditions. These motions were judged to be significantly degrading to the primary mission requirements of the aircraft. Although the problem was subsequently solved for the production version of the F/A-l8E/F, a high-level review panel emphasized the poor understanding of such phenomena and issued a strong recommendation to: Initiate a national research effort to thoroughly and systematically study the wing drop phenomena. A comprehensive, cooperative NASA/Navy/Air Force AWS Program was designed to respond to provide the required technology requirements. As part of the AWS Program, a work element was directed at a historical review of wing-drop experiences in past aircraft development programs at high subsonic and transonic speeds. In particular, information was requested regarding: specific aircraft configurations that exhibited uncommanded motions and the nature of the motions; geometric characteristics of the air- planes; flight conditions involved in occurrences; relevant data, including wind-tunnel, computational, and flight sources; figures of merit used for analyses; and approaches used to alleviate the problem. An attempt was also made to summarize some of the more important lessons learned from past experiences, and to recommend specific research efforts. In addition to providing technical information to assist the AWS research objectives, the study produced fundamental information

  1. The Human Impact of Earthquakes: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Packer, Catherine; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Population growth and increasing urbanization in earthquake-prone areas suggest that earthquake impacts on human populations will increase in the coming decades. Recent large earthquakes affecting large populations in Japan, Haiti, Chile and New Zealand are evidence of this trend and also illustrate significant variations in outcomes such damage and mortality levels. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of earthquakes on human populations in terms of mortality, injury and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of earthquakes were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to mid 2009 of earthquake events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications, ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between earthquake mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. From 1980 through 2009, there were a total of 372,634 deaths (range 314,634-412,599), 995,219 injuries (range: 845,345-1,145,093), and more than 61 million people affected by earthquakes, and mortality was greatest in Asia. Inconsistent reporting across data sources suggests that the numbers injured and affected are likely underestimates. Findings from a systematic review of the literature indicate that the primary cause of earthquake-related death was trauma due to building collapse and, the very young and the elderly were at increased mortality risk, while gender was not consistently associated with mortality risk. Conclusions. Strategies to mitigate the impact of future earthquakes should include improvements to the built environment and a focus on populations most vulnerable to mortality and injury. PMID:23857161

  2. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  3. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections.

  4. Historical data decrease complete blood count reflex blood smear review rates without missing patients with acute leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Rabizadeh, Esther; Pickholtz, Itay; Barak, Mira; Froom, Paul

    2013-08-01

    The availability of historical data decreases the rate of blood smear review rates in outpatients, but we are unaware of studies done at referral centres. In the following study, we determined the effect of historical data on the rates of peripheral blood smears over a 3-month period and then the detection rate of patients with acute leukaemia. All results of complete blood counts (CBCs) tested on three ADVIA 120 analyzers at the regional Rabin Medical Centre, Beilinson Campus over a 3-month period were accessed on a computerised laboratory information system. Over a 3-month period, we determined the proportion of total CBC and patients with criteria for a manual differential count and the actual number of peripheral blood smears done. Finally, we determined the proportion of 100 consecutive patients with acute leukaemia detected using our criteria that included limiting reflex testing according to historical data. Over the 3-month period, there were 34,827 tests done in 12,785 patients. Without historical data, our smear rate would have been 24.5%, but with the availability of historical data, the blood smear review rate was 5.6%. The detection rate for cases of acute leukaemia was 100%. We conclude that the availability of previous test results significantly reduces the need for blood smear review without missing any patients with acute leukaemia.

  5. Integrating probabilistic models of perception and interactive neural networks: a historical and tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to establish a rapprochement between explicitly Bayesian models of contextual effects in perception and neural network models of such effects, particularly the connectionist interactive activation (IA) model of perception. The article is in part an historical review and in part a tutorial, reviewing the probabilistic Bayesian approach to understanding perception and how it may be shaped by context, and also reviewing ideas about how such probabilistic computations may be carried out in neural networks, focusing on the role of context in interactive neural networks, in which both bottom-up and top-down signals affect the interpretation of sensory inputs. It is pointed out that connectionist units that use the logistic or softmax activation functions can exactly compute Bayesian posterior probabilities when the bias terms and connection weights affecting such units are set to the logarithms of appropriate probabilistic quantities. Bayesian concepts such the prior, likelihood, (joint and marginal) posterior, probability matching and maximizing, and calculating vs. sampling from the posterior are all reviewed and linked to neural network computations. Probabilistic and neural network models are explicitly linked to the concept of a probabilistic generative model that describes the relationship between the underlying target of perception (e.g., the word intended by a speaker or other source of sensory stimuli) and the sensory input that reaches the perceiver for use in inferring the underlying target. It is shown how a new version of the IA model called the multinomial interactive activation (MIA) model can sample correctly from the joint posterior of a proposed generative model for perception of letters in words, indicating that interactive processing is fully consistent with principled probabilistic computation. Ways in which these computations might be realized in real neural systems are also considered. PMID:23970868

  6. The Human Impact of Floods: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Murray, Sarah; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Floods are the most common natural disaster and the leading cause of natural disaster fatalities worldwide. Risk of catastrophic losses due to flooding is significant given deforestation and the increasing proximity of large populations to coastal areas, river basins and lakeshores. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of flood events on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters Methods. Data on the impact of floods were compiled using two methods, a historical review of flood events from 1980 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate tests for associations and multinomial logistic regression of flood characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 539,811 deaths (range: 510,941 to 568,680), 361,974 injuries and 2,821,895,005 people affected by floods between 1980 and 2009. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of flood-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries being in a motor-vehicle and male gender are associated with increased mortality, whereas female gender may be linked to higher mortality in low-income countries. Conclusions. Expanded monitoring of floods, improved mitigation measures, and effective communication with civil authorities and vulnerable populations has the potential to reduce loss of life in future flood events. PMID:23857425

  7. The human impact of floods: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Murray, Sarah; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Background. Floods are the most common natural disaster and the leading cause of natural disaster fatalities worldwide. Risk of catastrophic losses due to flooding is significant given deforestation and the increasing proximity of large populations to coastal areas, river basins and lakeshores. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of flood events on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters Methods. Data on the impact of floods were compiled using two methods, a historical review of flood events from 1980 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate tests for associations and multinomial logistic regression of flood characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 539,811 deaths (range: 510,941 to 568,680), 361,974 injuries and 2,821,895,005 people affected by floods between 1980 and 2009. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of flood-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries being in a motor-vehicle and male gender are associated with increased mortality, whereas female gender may be linked to higher mortality in low-income countries. Conclusions. Expanded monitoring of floods, improved mitigation measures, and effective communication with civil authorities and vulnerable populations has the potential to reduce loss of life in future flood events.

  8. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  9. The Human Impact of Volcanoes: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts. PMID:23857374

  10. Review of the Management of Infected Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Dabdoub, Carlos B; Adorno, Juan Oscar; Urbano, Jair; Silveira, Elisabeth N; Orlandi, Bianca Maria M

    2016-03-01

    Infection of a subdural hematoma is an unusual cause of subdural empyema, with fewer than 50 cases reported in the literature. The appropriate surgical option for this entity has not been determined because of its rarity. We present a case report of a post-traumatic subdural hematoma infected with Escherichia coli that was successfully treated with craniotomy. In addition, we performed a PubMed search to comprehensively illustrate the causative organism, source of infection, clinical picture, surgical treatment, and outcome for this condition. This article presents an update on the condition. A 55-year-old man was admitted to our hospital complaining of headache, seizure, and urinary incontinence. He had a history of alcoholism and several hospitalizations for mild head trauma. Neuroimaging studies revealed a chronic hematic collection in the left frontal-parietal region. Laboratory tests showed increased C-reactive protein levels. In addition, surgical results revealed an infected subdural hematoma. A bacterial culture of the purulent specimen identified E. coli. In view of the urinary complaint and leukocyturia, the cause of the infected subdural hematoma was postulated as a urinary tract infection. Infected subdural hematoma is an unusual disorder. We must keep in mind the possibility of this complication when seeing a patient who presents with any of the 3 most common symptoms in this review. In these patients, craniotomy should be the method of surgical drainage, especially in adults. It ensures maximal drainage of the loculated pus and allows the total removal of the infected hematoma capsule. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Enterovirus Infections of the Central Nervous System Review

    PubMed Central

    Rhoades, Ross E.; Tabor-Godwin, Jenna M.; Tsueng, Ginger; Feuer, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    Enteroviruses (EV) frequently infect the central nervous system (CNS) and induce neurological diseases. Although the CNS is composed of many different cell types, the spectrum of tropism for each EV is considerable. These viruses have the ability to completely shut down host translational machinery and are considered highly cytolytic, thereby causing cytopathic effects. Hence, CNS dysfunction following EV infection of neuronal or glial cells might be expected. Perhaps unexpectedly given their cytolytic nature, EVs may establish a persistent infection within the CNS, and the lasting effects on the host might be significant with unanticipated consequences. This review will describe the clinical aspects of EV-mediated disease, mechanisms of disease, determinants of tropism, immune activation within the CNS, and potential treatment regimes. PMID:21251690

  12. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS. PMID:23983795

  13. Evaluation issues in the Swedish Two-County Trial of breast cancer screening: An historical review

    PubMed Central

    Tabar, Laszlo; Chen, Tony Hsiu-Hsi; Hsu, Chen-Yang; Wu, Wendy Yi-Ying; Yen, Amy Ming-Fang; Chen, Sam Li-Sheng; Chiu, Sherry Yueh-Hsia; Fann, Jean Ching-Yuan; Beckmann, Kerri; Smith, Robert A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To summarize debate and research in the Swedish Two-County Trial of mammographic screening on key issues of trial design, endpoint evaluation, and overdiagnosis, and from these to infer promising directions for the future. Methods A cluster-randomized controlled trial of the offer of breast cancer screening in Sweden, with a single screen of the control group at the end of the screening phase forms the setting for a historical review of investigations and debate on issues of design, analysis, and interpretation of results of the trial. Results There has been considerable commentary on the closure screen of the control group, ascertainment of cause of death, and cluster randomization. The issues raised were researched in detail and the main questions answered in publications between 1989 and 2003. Overdiagnosis issues still remain, but methods of estimation taking full account of lead time and of non-screening influences on incidence (taking place mainly before 2005) suggest that it is a minor phenomenon. Conclusion Despite resolution of issues relating to this trial in peer-reviewed publications dating from years, or even decades ago, issues that already have been addressed continue to be raised. We suggest that it would be more profitable to concentrate efforts on current research issues in breast cancer diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. PMID:27098311

  14. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future.

  15. Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  16. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eye Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  17. Competitive replication kinetics and pathogenicity in pigs co-infected with historical and newly invading classical swine fever viruses.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Liang; Deng, Ming-Chung; Tsai, Kuo-Jung; Liu, Hsin-Meng; Huang, Chin-Cheng; Wang, Fun-In; Chang, Chia-Yi

    2017-01-15

    Classical swine fever (CSF), an economically important and highly contagious disease of pigs, is caused by classical swine fever virus (CSFV). In Taiwan, CSFVs from field outbreaks belong to two distinct genotypes. The historical genotype 3.4 dominated from the 1920s to 1996, and since 1996, the newly invading genotype 2.1 has dominated. To explain the phenomenon of this virus shift in the field, representative viruses belonging to genotypes 2.1 and 3.4 were either inoculated alone (single infection) or co-inoculated (co-infection), both in vivo and in vitro, to compare the virus replication and pathogenesis. In pigs co-infected with the genotype 2.1 TD/96/TWN strain and the genotype 3.4 94.4/IL/94/TWN strain, the newly invading genotype 2.1 was detected earlier in the blood, oral fluid, and feces, and the viral loads were consistently and significantly higher than that of the historical genotype 3.4. In cell cultures, the ratio of secreted virus to cell-associated virus of the genotype 2.1 strain was higher than that of the genotype 3.4 strain. This study is the first to demonstrate a possible explanation of virus shift in the field, wherein the newly invading genotype 2.1 replicates more efficiently than did genotype 3.4 and outcompetes the replication and pathogenicity of genotype 3.4 in pigs in the field. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Consequence of Maternal Zika Virus Infection: A Narrative review.

    PubMed

    Niaz, Kamal; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-10-18

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a deadly flavivirus that has spread from Africa to Asia and European countries. The virus is associated with other viruses in the same genus or family, transmitted by the same mosquito species with known history of fatality. A sudden increase in the rate of infection from ZIKV has made it a global health concern, which necessitates close symptom monitoring, enhancing treatment options, and vaccine production. This paper reviewed current reports on birth defects associated with ZIKV, mode of transmission, body fluids containing the virus, diagnosis , possible preventive measures or treatments, and vaccine development. Google scholar was used as the major search engine for research and review articles, up to July, 2016. Search terms such as "ZIKV", "ZIKV infection", "ZIKV serotypes", "treatment of ZIKV infection", "co-infection with zika virus", "flavivirus", "microcephaly and zika", "birth defects and Zika", as well as "ZIKV vaccine" were used. ZIKV has been detected in several body fluids such as saliva, semen, blood, and amniotic fluid. This reveals the possibility of sexual and mother to child transmission. The ability of the virus to cross the placental barrier and the blood brain barrier (BBB) has been associated with birth defects such as microcephaly, ocular defects, and Guillian Barre syndrome (GBS). Preventive measures can reduce the spread and risk of the infection. Available treatments only target symptoms while vaccines are still under development. Birth defects are associated with ZIKV infection in pregnant women; hence the need for development of standard treatments, employment of strict preventive measures and development of effective vaccines.

  19. Bioactive glass for long bone infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Aurégan, Jean-Charles; Bégué, Thierry

    2015-12-01

    Long bone infection remains a challenging situation for the orthopaedic surgeon. For most, treatment comprises a thorough debridement of all the infected bone, the filling of the resultant cavity with a bone substitute, and general antibiotics for a certain time. However, the type of bone substitute to insert in the cavity is still debated. In this study, we aimed to systematically review the results of studies using bioactive glass for long bone infection in the clinical setting. We searched systematically Medline via Pubmed for studies published until August 2015 that report the results of bioactive glass for long bone infection in humans. Three studies, including a total of 41 patients, met the inclusion criteria. Mean age was 46.5 (16-84). Twenty-nine were male and twelve were female. Period of inclusion went from 2007 to 2013. All the patients had a clinically and radiologically diagnosed osteomyelitis. They all underwent a state of the art surgical procedure to address osteomyelitis. All the patients were implanted with BAG-S53P4 granules (BonAlive Biomaterials Ltd, Turku, Finland) to fill in the resultant cavity. Mean volume inserted was 16.8 milliliters (2-60). After a mean follow-up of 21 months (10-38), three cases of osteomyelitis recurred. In two cases, a new procedure was performed. No complication directly related to the bioactive glass was reported. Despite a limited use for long bone infection in humans, bioactive glass seems to be an interesting option as bone substitute after thorough bone debridement and skin coverage. It associates antibacterial activities, osteoconductive properties and vascular stimulation. From this review, bioactive glass seems to be a useful bone substitute for long bone infection in humans. Few recurrences occurred after its use. In these cases, the volume of bone glass to insert was frequently underestimated and/or the skin coverage not adequate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Health-care-associated infection in Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Bagheri Nejad, Sepideh; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Syed, Shamsuzzoha B; Ellis, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess the epidemiology of endemic health-care-associated infection (HAI) in Africa. Methods Three databases (PubMed, the Cochrane Library, and the WHO regional medical database for Africa) were searched to identify studies published from 1995 to 2009 on the epidemiology of HAI in African countries. No language restriction was applied. Available abstract books of leading international infection control conferences were also searched from 2004 to 2009. Findings The eligibility criteria for inclusion in the review were met by 19 articles, only 2 of which met the criterion of high quality. Four relevant abstracts were retrieved from the international conference literature. The hospital-wide prevalence of HAI varied between 2.5% and 14.8%; in surgical wards, the cumulative incidence ranged from 5.7% to 45.8%. The largest number of studies focused on surgical site infection, whose cumulative incidence ranged from 2.5% to 30.9%. Data on causative pathogens were available from a few studies only and highlighted the importance of Gram-negative rods, particularly in surgical site infection and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Conclusion Limited information is available on the endemic burden of HAI in Africa, but our review reveals that its frequency is much higher than in developed countries. There is an urgent need to identify and implement feasible and sustainable approaches to strengthen HAI prevention, surveillance and control in Africa. PMID:22084514

  1. Review: Prevalence and dynamics of Helicobacter pylori infection during childhood.

    PubMed

    Zabala Torrres, Beatriz; Lucero, Yalda; Lagomarcino, Anne J; Orellana-Manzano, Andrea; George, Sergio; Torres, Juan P; O'Ryan, Miguel

    2017-10-01

    Long-term persistent Helicobacter pylori infection has been associated with ulceropeptic disease and gastric cancer. Although H. pylori is predominantly acquired early in life, a clear understanding of infection dynamics during childhood has been obfuscated by the diversity of populations evaluated, study designs, and methods used. Update understanding of true prevalence of H. pylori infection during childhood, based on a critical analysis of the literature published in the past 5 years. Comprehensive review and meta-analysis of original studies published from 2011 to 2016. A MEDLINE(®) /PubMed(®) search on May 1, 2016, using the terms pylori and children, and subsequent exclusion, based on abstract review using predefined criteria, resulted in 261 citations. An Embase(®) search with the same criteria added an additional 8 citations. In healthy children, meta-analysis estimated an overall seroprevalence rate of 33% (95% CI: 27%-38%). Seven healthy cohort studies using noninvasive direct detection methods showed infection prevalence estimates ranging from 20% to 50% in children ≤5 and 38% to 79% in children >5 years. The probability of infection persistence after a first positive sample ranged from 49% to 95%. Model estimates of cross-sectional direct detection studies in asymptomatic children indicated a prevalence of 37% (95% CI: 30%-44%). Seroprevalence, but not direct detection rates increased with age; both decreased with increasing income. The model estimate based on cross-sectional studies in symptomatic children was 39% (95% CI: 35%-43%). The prevalence of H. pylori infection varied widely in the studies included here; nevertheless, model estimates by detection type were similar, suggesting that overall, one-third of children worldwide are or have been infected. The few cohort and longitudinal studies available show variability, but most studies, show infection rates over 30%. Rather surprisingly, overall infection prevalence in symptomatic

  2. Evolution in Educational Change: A Literature Review of the Historical Core of the "Journal of Educational Change"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia-Huidobro, Juan Cristobal; Nannemann, Allison; Bacon, Chris K.; Thompson, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    This literature review explored educational change trends as reflected in the first 15 years of the "Journal of Educational Change (JEC)", from 2000 to 2014. The examination of 52 articles accounting for 61% of the Journal's historical citations indicated that the "JEC" has evolved through five periods, which relate to…

  3. Education for Work: A Review Essay of Historical, Cross-Cultural, and Disciplinary Perspectives on Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this review essay, K. Peter Kuchinke uses three recent publications to consider the question of how to educate young people for work and career. Historically, this question has been central to vocational education, and it is receiving renewed attention in the context of concerns over the ability of schools to provide adequate preparation for…

  4. Education for Work: A Review Essay of Historical, Cross-Cultural, and Disciplinary Perspectives on Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this review essay, K. Peter Kuchinke uses three recent publications to consider the question of how to educate young people for work and career. Historically, this question has been central to vocational education, and it is receiving renewed attention in the context of concerns over the ability of schools to provide adequate preparation for…

  5. Review: clinical management of Helicobacter pylori infection in China.

    PubMed

    Xie, Chuan; Lu, Nong-Hua

    2015-02-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection has been associated with gastric disorders. The situation of H. pylori infection in China-where a high prevalence of H. pylori infection, a high incidence of gastric cancer, and widespread resistance to clarithromycin, metronidazole, and levofloxacin exist-is quite different from that in Western countries. In order for Chinese clinicians to better manage H. pylori infection, a Chinese Study Group on H. pylori published four consensus reports regarding the management of H. pylori infection in China between 1999 and 2012. The eradication rate with standard triple therapy was <80% in most areas of China. Bismuth is available in China, and bismuth-containing quadruple therapy has been shown to produce a high eradication rate; thus, bismuth quadruple therapy could be recommended both as an initial and as a rescue therapy in China. There is no advantage of sequential therapy over triple therapy in Chinese patients, but the efficacy of concomitant therapy must be studied further. This review introduces the epidemiology, diagnosis, indicators, and therapies for the eradication of H. pylori in China in recent years. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  7. [Conjugal leprosy infection in Japan--case report and review].

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Motoaki; Tomoda, Masakazu

    2012-04-01

    The authors reported a conjugal leprosy infection observed in Japan. The husband, index case, first noticed sensory disturbance at the lower right leg in his forties. He developed edematous swelling with redness of the right hand and forearm at the age of 72 (1989), and then developed multiple erythema and hypesthesia at the extremities. He was diagnosed as BL type leprosy (reactional stage) and treated with multi-drug therapy. His 71-year-old wife developed a few erythema at the right forearm in 1993. She was classified as BT type. The duration of their marriage life was over forty years. The couple did not have consanguinity. No other leprosy patients were found in their lineage. From their clinical courses the authors concluded that the husband infected his wife. According to Japanese literatures, the frequency of conjugal leprosy among new patients in Japan was approximately 1%. There were worldwide observations that the husband often infected the wife, and mostly the index case was multibacillary and the secondary case paucibacillary. The authors reviewed definition and frequency of conjugal leprosy, factors in conjugal infection and leprosy infection among the adults.

  8. Diagnostic value of imaging in infective endocarditis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Anna; Glaudemans, Andor W J M; Touw, Daan J; van Melle, Joost P; Willems, Tineke P; Maass, Alexander H; Natour, Ehsan; Prakken, Niek H J; Borra, Ronald J H; van Geel, Peter Paul; Slart, Riemer H J A; van Assen, Sander; Sinha, Bhanu

    2017-01-01

    Sensitivity and specificity of the modified Duke criteria for native valve endocarditis are both suboptimal, at approximately 80%. Diagnostic accuracy for intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection is even lower. Non-invasive imaging modalities could potentially improve diagnosis of infective endocarditis; however, their diagnostic value is unclear. We did a systematic literature review to critically appraise the evidence for the diagnostic performance of these imaging modalities, according to PRISMA and GRADE criteria. We searched PubMed, Embase, and Cochrane databases. 31 studies were included that presented original data on the performance of electrocardiogram (ECG)-gated multidetector CT angiography (MDCTA), ECG-gated MRI, (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose ((18)F-FDG) PET/CT, and leucocyte scintigraphy in diagnosis of native valve endocarditis, intracardiac prosthetic material-related infection, and extracardiac foci in adults. We consistently found positive albeit weak evidence for the diagnostic benefit of (18)F-FDG PET/CT and MDCTA. We conclude that additional imaging techniques should be considered if infective endocarditis is suspected. We propose an evidence-based diagnostic work-up for infective endocarditis including these non-invasive techniques. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  10. Infective endocarditis complicated by aortic graft infection and osteomyelitis: case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Zouein, Elie; Wetz, Robert; Mobarakai, Neville; Hassan, Samer; Tong, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Primary aortic graft infection early after aortic graft insertion is well described in the literature. Here, we present a unique case of late aortic graft infection 5 years after insertion secondary to mitral valve endocarditis, resulting from cellulitis in a patient with severe venous varicosities. A 63-year-old male presented for severe low back pain, constipation, and low-grade fever. An abdominal computed tomography scan with oral and intravenous contrast showed a normal spine and urinary tract. Blood and urine cultures, done at the same time, grew Staphylococcus aureus. A transesophageal echocardiogram confirmed the diagnosis of endocarditis. Subsequently, a gallium scan showed increased uptake in the vertebral bodies, aortic graft, left patella, and left ankle. After 3 months of antibiotic therapy, the patient’s low back pain resolved with normalization of his laboratory values. He remained free of infection at a 2-year follow-up. We reviewed the literature concerning the atypical presentation of infective endocarditis, with a focus on distant metastases at initial presentation, such as osteomyelitis and aortic graft infection, as well as the different treatment modalities. This report describes successful medical treatment with intravenous followed by oral antibiotics for an infected endovascular graft without any surgical intervention. PMID:22866008

  11. Cultures of control: A historical analysis of the development of infection control nursing in Ireland.

    PubMed

    McNamra, Martin S; Fealy, Gerard M; Geraghty, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Responses to the rise of antimicrobial resistance in Europe and North America included establishment of special hospital infection control teams of a microbiologist and a nurse. Based on the testimonies of seven infection control nurses in Irish hospitals appointed during 1979-1990, this article examines the early development and expressions of their disciplinary practice. Fairman's model of collaborative practice was used to examine the context in which the role emerged, the places practice was negotiated and mutually constructed, and exemplars of collaborative practice. Aspects of the relationship between theory and method in Wengraf's biographical narrative interpretive method (BNIM) used to generate the nurses' accounts of their early experiences in the role are highlighted. Practice was contingent on effective negotiation of places of practice, and disciplinary practice bore hallmarks of collaborative practice. The infection control nurse transitioned from conspicuous outsider and object of suspicion to valued resource for patients and staff. Infection control nursing came to be a prototype for new specialist nursing roles in hospitals.

  12. Systematic review: Asian patients with chronic hepatitis C infection.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, L H; Nguyen, M H

    2013-05-01

    Chronic hepatitis C (CHC) infection is a risk factor for both the development of end-stage liver disease and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Globally, approximately 170 million people are chronically infected with the hepatitis C virus (HCV), and the majority of these individuals come from the western Pacific and Southeast Asia regions (94.6 million persons combined). CHC is an understudied and underappreciated health problem in many Asian countries and in the US, where Asians represent one of the fastest growing groups of new Americans. To perform a systematic review of the current literature on the epidemiology, diagnosis and screening, clinical characteristics and response to anti-viral therapy of Asians with CHC. Using a PubMed search of 'hepatitis C' and 'Asia,' 341 original manuscripts published in peer-reviewed journals were identified, and 99 were selected based on their relevance. Many Asian CHC patients do not have easily identifiable risk factors and may be underdiagnosed. Rates of HCV infection in Asians on community screening in the US are unexpectedly high, and there is a high prevalence of HCV genotype 6 in Southeast Asia and Southern China. HCV-infected Asians tend to present at older age and may have higher risk of HCC; however, they respond better to anti-viral therapy than non-Asians across all HCV genotypes. Given the high HCV endemicity in Asia, lack of identifiable risk factors and favourable treatment response rates in Asians, we advocate the screening for HCV infection of all Asians who come from areas where HCV prevalence is ≥2%. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  13. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from <0.01 to 1 fibers/cc (depending on the task or time period), with higher concentrations observed during the use of powered tools, the mixing or sanding of drywall cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging

  14. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Smith, Steven E; Rowe, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  15. Von Helmholtz's ophthalmometer: historical review and experience with one of the last surviving original devices.

    PubMed

    Godefrooij, Daniel A; Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro

    2017-08-03

    Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894) was one of the most important scientists of the nineteenth century in optics and ophthalmology. One of his significant contributions in the field of vision sciences was the invention of the ophthalmometer in 1850, which was the precursor of the keratometers still used in clinical practice today. However, this development tends to be little recognized, and to be overshadowed by others of the achievements of this singular scientist. This review describes the historical setting behind the von Helmholtz's ophthalmometer and its mechanism. We also describe the modifications that were later made to the design. We report on our experience measuring a living human cornea with one of the last surviving devices in the world. The ophthalmometer by von Helmholtz marked the beginning of an era in the ophthalmology of the late nineteenth century, and although its original design was not broadly used in the clinical practice, and later abandoned, it opened the way for the development of practical systems very similar to the ones that we use even today. © 2017 Acta Ophthalmologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Fermented milks: a historical food with modern applications--a review.

    PubMed

    Tamime, A Y

    2002-12-01

    : This paper was presented at the symposium which was organized by Instituto Danone Mexico in May 2001, and it provides an overview of the current scientific knowledge on fermented milks concerning the historical developments, manufacturing stages, classification of such products, and nutritional aspects. Particular attention has been paid to the human health benefits associated with the consumption of these products, the use of probiotic starter cultures and their industrial applications, and the significance of using a trained sensory panel for the evaluation of probiotic fermented milks made with different commercial blends of starter cultures. The paper also highlights the future research areas for the exploitation of starter microflora (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Enterococcus species) in fermented milk products. : This review indicates that the complex metabolism of the starter cultures is well established; however, more information is still needed on specific microbial metabolites such as polymerization of milk sugars for the production of exopolysaccharides and the modification of the milk peptides and secretion of bacteriocins. More clinical studies are still required to establish the 'functional' health benefits of probiotic fermented milks to humans.

  17. A visual historical review of exposure to asbestos at puget sound naval shipyard (1962-1972).

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Clark, Katherine; Mangold, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    The study of occupational exposure to asbestos has been an ongoing activity for at least 75 years, dating back to the papers of Merewether and Price (1930). Since that time, literally tens of thousands of air samples have been collected in an attempt to characterize the concentration of asbestos associated with various activities. Many of the individuals who developed diseases from the 1970s to the current day were often exposed to very high airborne concentrations because of direct or indirect exposure to either raw asbestos fiber or insulation during the approximate 1940-1970 time period. Often, these high exposures were associated with work in shipyards during and after World War II and the Korean War, as well as with decommissioning, which continued into the mid-1970s. This study reviews the historical asbestos concentrations measured in shipyards and presents a visual illustration of typical conditions and work practices. A majority of the photographs presented in this article depict work conditions at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, circa 1940-1965, which is representative of other military shipyards of the time.

  18. Historical Review about Research on “Bonghan System” in China

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jun-Ling; Jing, Xiang-Hong; Shi, Hong; Chen, Shu-Ping; He, Wei; Bai, Wan-Zhu; Zhu, Bing

    2013-01-01

    The meridian-collateral theory is the theoretical basis of acupuncture-moxibustion therapy. Professor Bonghan Kim, a professor of the Pyongyang Medical University of the Democratic People's Republic of Korea, claimed that he found the anatomical structure of meridian-collaterals, named Bonghan corpuscles (BHCs) and Bonghan ducts (BHDs) system or primo vascular system (PVS), in 1962. From 1963 to 1965, researchers from our institute conducted a series of comparative anatomical experiments, trying to reproduce the so-called BHC- and BHD-like structures in different strains of animals. In the present paper, the authors introduced their research findings about BHC- and BHD-like structures in the young rabbit's umbilicus including its external appearance, ectoplasm and endoplasm, and about strip-like and node-like objects in the blood vessels and lymph vessels near the larger abdominal and cervical blood vessels and chromaffin tissue in the back wall of the rabbit's abdominal cavity and between the bilateral kidneys. In spite of existence of the BHC- and BHD-like structures in the rabbit, there has been no proved evidence for their association with the meridian-collateral system described in acupuncture medicine. In the present historical review, the authors also make a discussion about the significance of those findings. PMID:23861708

  19. Historical review: Molecular and cellular mechanisms of opiate and cocaine addiction.

    PubMed

    Nestler, Eric J

    2004-04-01

    The National Institute on Drug Abuse was founded in 1974, and since that time there have been significant advances in understanding the processes by which drugs of abuse cause addiction. The initial protein targets for almost all drugs of abuse are now known. Animal models that replicate key features of addiction are available, and these models have made it possible to characterize the brain regions that are important for addiction and other drug effects, such as physical dependence. A large number of drug-induced changes at the molecular and cellular levels have been identified in these brain areas and rapid progress is being made in relating individual changes to specific behavioral abnormalities in animal models of addiction. The current challenges are to translate this increasingly impressive knowledge of the basic neurobiology of addiction to human addicts, and to identify the specific genes that make some individuals either particularly vulnerable or resistant to addiction. In this article, I present a historical review of basic research on opiate and cocaine addiction.

  20. Timeline historical review of income and financial transactions: a reliable assessment of personal finances.

    PubMed

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-01-01

    The need for accurate and reliable information about income and resources available to individuals with psychiatric disabilities is critical for the assessment of need and evaluation of programs designed to alleviate financial hardship or affect finance allocation. Measurement of finances is ubiquitous in studies of economics, poverty, and social services. However, evidence has demonstrated that these measures often contain error. We compare the 1-week test-retest reliability of income and finance data from 24 adult psychiatric outpatients using assessment-as-usual (AAU) and a new instrument, the Timeline Historical Review of Income and Financial Transactions (THRIFT). Reliability estimates obtained with the THRIFT for Income (0.77), Expenses (0.91), and Debt (0.99) domains were significantly better than those obtained with AAU. Reliability estimates for Balance did not differ. THRIFT reduced measurement error and provided more reliable information than AAU for assessment of personal finances in psychiatric patients receiving Social Security benefits. The instrument also may be useful with other low-income groups.

  1. Exosomes in HIV infection: A review and critical look.

    PubMed

    Ellwanger, Joel Henrique; Veit, Tiago Degani; Chies, José Artur Bogo

    2017-09-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released into the extracellular medium by different cell types. These vesicles carry a variety of protein and RNA cargos, and have a central role in cellular signaling and regulation. A PubMed search using the term "exosomes" finds 67 articles published in 2006. Ten years later, the same search returns approximately 1200 results for 2016 alone. The growing interest in exosomes within the scientific community reflects the different roles exerted by extracellular vesicles in biological systems and diseases. However, the increase in academic production addressing the biological function of exosomes causes much confusion, especially where the focus is on the role of exosomes in pathological situations. In this review, we critically interpret the current state of the research on exosomes and HIV infection. It is plausible to assume that exosomes influence the pathogenesis of HIV infection through their biological cargo (primarily membrane proteins and microRNAs). On the other hand, evidence for a usurpation of the exosomal budding and trafficking machinery by HIV during infection is limited, although such a mechanism cannot be ruled out. This review also discusses several biological aspects of exosomal function in the immune system. Finally, the limitations of current exosome research are pointed out. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse: a historical review with emphasis on the anterior compartment.

    PubMed

    Lensen, E J M; Withagen, M I J; Kluivers, K B; Milani, A L; Vierhout, M E

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this work was to collect and summarize a detailed historical review of the surgical treatment of pelvic organ prolapse (POP) in which we specifically focused on the anterior compartment. A literature search in English, Dutch, and German was carried out using the keywords pelvic organ prolapse, anterior colporrhaphy, cystocele, and interposition operations in several databases (e.g., PubMed and HathiTrust Digital Library). Other relevant journal and textbook articles were found by retrieving references cited in previous articles and textbooks. Probably the first explanation of the treatment of POP dates from 1500 B.C. The Egyptians gave a description to "falling of the womb" in the Kahun Papyrus. More than a millennium later, Euryphon, a contemporary of Hippocrates (400 B.C.) described some interesting therapeutic options, from succussion (turning a women upside down for several minutes) to irrigating the displaced uterus with wine. A wide range of techniques has been attempted to repair the prolapsing anterior vaginal wall. By 1866, Sim had already performed a series of operations very similar to a modern anterior repair. The first reviews about the abdominal approach to correcting a cystocele were in 1890. The first description of using mesh to cystoceles was the use of tantalum mesh in 1955. In 1970, the first report of collagen mesh in urogynecology was described. Nowadays, robot-assisted surgery and cell-based tissue engineering are the latest interventions. Many surgeons have tried to find the ideal surgical therapy for anterior compartment prolapse, but to date, this has not been achieved.

  3. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  4. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  5. A systematic review of hepatitis E virus infection in children.

    PubMed

    Verghese, Valsan Philip; Robinson, Joan L

    2014-09-01

    A systematic review was conducted, seeking all literature relevant to the epidemiology, clinical and laboratory features, and outcome of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection in children. Transmission is thought to be primarily from fecal-oral transmission, with the role of transmission from animal reservoirs not being clear in children. Worldwide, seroprevalence is <10% up to 10 years of age, with the exception of 1 of 5 studies from India and the sole study from Egypt. Seroprevalence increases with age, but it is not clear if it is increasing over time. The clinical presentation of HEV infection has broad similarities to hepatitis A virus (HAV) infection, with most cases being subclinical. However, HEV differs from HAV in that infectivity is lower, perinatal transmission can result in neonatal morbidity and even mortality, and a chronic carrier state exists, accounting for chronic hepatitis in some pediatric solid organ transplant recipients. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Some historical aspects of the surgical treatment of the infected maxillary sinus.

    PubMed

    Tange, R A

    1991-06-01

    Sinus surgery probably originates from the time of the New Kingdom of ancient Egypt. Instruments were used to remove the brain through the nose as a part of the mummification process. The interest in the pathology of the maxillary sinus started to rise in the 17th century. Antral trephination for suppuration was the most common maxillary sinus operation in that period. An oro-antral fistula was often created by the extraction of a molar to drain the infected maxillary sinus daily. Later on the anterior wall of the maxillary sinus was opened through the canine fossa and was kept open for irrigation. Caldwell (1893), Scanes Spicer (1894) and later Luc in 1897 closed the canine fossa incision after an intranasal antrostomy and the removal of the infected mucosa. This so-called Caldwell-Luc procedure is still the most commonly used maxillary sinus operation today. After the introduction of the endoscopy in the beginning of this century endonasal surgery has been developed in the last decades into one of the important surgical procedures for maxillary sinus infections today.

  7. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  8. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  9. Treating cancer with infection: a review on bacterial cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Slavcev, R A

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing need for new cancer therapies. The antitumour effect of bacterial infection has been well observed and practiced throughout history. Bacteria are well-suited to serve as anticancer agents due to their intrinsic mobility, cell toxicity, immunogenicity, and preferential accumulation within the anoxic tumour environment. Furthermore, advances in biotechnology and molecular techniques have made it easier than ever to engineer bacteria as both therapeutic agents themselves and as therapeutic vectors. Here, we review bacteriolytic therapy and immunotherapy strategies, and examine the development of bacteria as vehicles for cell- and tissue-targeted delivery of genetic cancer therapeutics. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  10. A Review of Clinical Cases of Infection with Photorhabdus Asymbiotica.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, John G; Stevens, Robert P

    2017-03-17

    The three recognised Photorhabdus species are bioluminescent Gram-negative bacilli of the family Enterobacteriaceae. They are all pathogenic to insects and form a symbiotic relationship with nematodes of the genus Heterorhabditis. P. luminescens and P. temperata are both harmless to humans whilst P. asymbiotica, on the other hand, is a human pathogen that is a symbiont of the newly described nematode vector, Heterorhabditis gerrardi. In this chapter, we review the epidemiological and clinical features of eighteen human cases of P. asymbiotica infection including fifteen from the published literature and three previously unreported cases. Human infection has been reported in the USA and Australia and probably occurs in other parts of Asia where it remains undocumented. Infection occurs most commonly in warmer months particularly after rainfall. Patients may have a history of recent exposure to sand or sandy soil. P. asymbiotica causes both locally invasive soft tissue infection and disseminated disease with bacteraemia. Soft tissue infection may be multifocal with involvement of more than one limb and the trunk. The organism is sensitive to a number of antibiotics in vitro, but treatment failures have been associated with the use of beta-lactams and aminoglycosides. We suggest treatment with a four-week course of an oral fluoroquinolone such as ciprofloxacin. The organism grows readily on standard media from specimens such as wound swabs, pus, blood and even sputum and can be identified in a clinical microbiology laboratory but the diagnosis needs to be considered. The correct diagnosis is most likely to be made where there is close cooperation between clinician and microbiologist.

  11. [Historical consideration of the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus in Japan and use of a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause].

    PubMed

    Haga, Haruko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    About 75% of Japanese liver cancer is caused by hepatitis C. Widespread infection of the virus resulted from inadequate medical knowledge, as well as the political, economic and administrative conditions of the time. We investigated the association between the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and the historical events. We used a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause of widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and considered the issue from a historical standpoint. We found causes including treatment (medical care), transfusion (medicine), economy (expense) and people (infection route). These causes are explained in further detail below. 1) Treatment (medical care). The initial large-scale infection occurred following attempts to eradicate Schistosoma japonicum involving mass vaccination in schools and public health centers. 2) Transfusion (medicine). The use of non-heated fibrinogen for massive postpartum hemorrhage spread the virus further. In 1987, it resulted in a mass outbreak of hepatitis in Aomori Prefecture. 3) Economy (expense). Recognition of the benefit of disposable syringes was delayed. As a result, disposable syringes were too expensive to be widely available, and did not become low-priced. 4) People (infection route). The second wave of dissemination of the hepatitis C virus was stimulant abuse after World War II. Prior to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus, transmission resulted from repeated use of contaminated syringes. Although we initially thought that these four causes occurred independently on a historical chronology, associations between the causes were found when we investigated the problem with a fishbone diagram.

  12. Archival search for historical atypical scrapie in sheep reveals evidence for mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Chong, Angela; Kennedy, Iain; Goldmann, Wilfred; Green, Andrew; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Natural scrapie in sheep occurs in classical and atypical forms, which may be distinguished on the basis of the associated neuropathology and properties of the disease-associated prion protein on Western blots. First detected in 1998, atypical scrapie is known to have occurred in UK sheep since the 1980s. However, its aetiology remains unclear and it is often considered as a sporadic, non-contagious disease unlike classical scrapie which is naturally transmissible. Although atypical scrapie tends to occur in sheep of prion protein (PRNP) genotypes that are different from those found predominantly in classical scrapie, there is some overlap so that there are genotypes in which both scrapie forms can occur. In this search for early atypical scrapie cases, we made use of an archive of fixed and frozen sheep samples, from both scrapie-affected and healthy animals (∼1850 individuals), dating back to the 1960s. Using a selection process based primarily on PRNP genotyping, but also on contemporaneous records of unusual clinical signs or pathology, candidate sheep samples were screened by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and strain-typing methods using tg338 mice. We identified, from early time points in the archive, three atypical scrapie cases, including one sheep which died in 1972 and two which showed evidence of mixed infection with classical scrapie. Cases with both forms of scrapie in the same animal as recognizable entities suggest that mixed infections have been around for a long time and may potentially contribute to the variety of scrapie strains.

  13. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  14. The Eastern heart and Galen's ventricle: a historical review of the purpose of the brain.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza N; Chishty, Faheem; Immesoete, Phillip; Karas, Chris S

    2007-01-01

    The seat of consciousness has not always been thought to reside in the brain. Its "source" is as varied as the cultures of those who have sought it. At present, although most may agree that the central nervous system is held to be the root of individualism in much of Western philosophy, this has not always been the case, and this viewpoint is certainly not unanimously accepted across all cultures today. In this paper the authors undertook a literary review of ancient texts of both Eastern and Western societies as well as modern writings on the organic counterpart to the soul. The authors have studied both ancient Greek and Roman material as well as Islamic and Eastern philosophy. Several specific aspects of the human body have often been proposed as the seat of consciousness, not only in medical texts, but also within historical documents, poetry, legal proceedings, and religious literature. Among the most prominently proposed have been the heart and breath, favoring a cardiopulmonary seat of individualism. This understanding was by no means stagnant, but evolved over time, as did the role of the brain in the definition of what it means to be human. Even in the 21st century, no clear consensus exists between or within communities, scientific or otherwise, on the brain's capacity for making us who we are. Perhaps, by its nature, our consciousness--and our awareness of our surroundings and ourselves--is a function of what surrounds us, and must therefore change as the world changes and as we change.

  15. Paid-versus-volunteer blood donation in the United States: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Domen, R E

    1995-01-01

    Several points are clear from this historical review. Over 50 years ago the first indications that hepatitis could be transmitted from the serum or plasma of one human to another became evident. This was confirmed in human transfer experiments although the agent causing hepatitis was not known and there was no specific test for what eventually was presumed to be a virus. It soon became clear that hepatitis was a complication of blood and plasma transfusion. Over the course of 10 to 20 years (the 1950s and 1960s) the connection was made between posttransfusion hepatitis and certain high-risk donors and behaviors. Despite the availability of scientific data to support the idea that not all commercial or paid blood donors were associated with higher rates of post-transfusion hepatitis, public opinion and emotions seemed to be a major driving force behind increased government regulation of blood banking. Because there were commercial blood banks that continued to recruit, collect, and pay blood donors from low-income, skid row areas, despite the mounting evidence that such donors clearly harbored higher rates of hepatitis, all commercial blood banks were reduced to that common denominator. Clearly economic factors were also being thrown into the equation. Political and philosophical differences between the major professional organizations involved in blood procurement and recruitment were important factors favoring more government control. The public pressured politicians and government agencies for more regulation and many scientific and medical professionals requested greater regulation. By the early 1970s the die was cast for increased regulation by the federal government.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. The Role of Current and Historical Alcohol Use in Hepatic Fibrosis Among HIV-Infected Individuals.

    PubMed

    Kim, H Nina; Crane, Heidi M; Rodriguez, Carla V; Van Rompaey, Stephen; Mayer, Kenneth H; Christopoulos, Katerina; Napravnik, Sonia; Chander, Geetanjali; Hutton, Heidi; McCaul, Mary E; Cachay, Edward R; Mugavero, Michael J; Moore, Richard; Geng, Elvin; Eron, Joseph J; Saag, Michael S; Merrill, Joseph O; Kitahata, Mari M

    2016-12-29

    We examined risk factors for advanced hepatic fibrosis [fibrosis-4 (FIB)-4 >3.25] including both current alcohol use and a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder among HIV-infected patients. Of the 12,849 patients in our study, 2133 (17%) reported current hazardous drinking by AUDIT-C, 2321 (18%) had a diagnosis of alcohol use disorder, 2376 (18%) were co-infected with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV); 596 (5%) had high FIB-4 scores >3.25 as did 364 (15%) of HIV/HCV coinfected patients. In multivariable analysis, HCV (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 5.2-7.5), chronic hepatitis B (aOR 2.0, 95% CI 1.5-2.8), diabetes (aOR 2.3, 95% CI 1.8-2.9), current CD4 <200 cells/mm(3) (aOR 5.4, 95% CI 4.2-6.9) and HIV RNA >500 copies/mL (aOR 1.3, 95% CI 1.0-1.6) were significantly associated with advanced fibrosis. A diagnosis of an alcohol use disorder (aOR 1.9, 95% CI 1.6-2.3) rather than report of current hazardous alcohol use was associated with high FIB-4. However, among HIV/HCV coinfected patients, both current hazardous drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.1-2.4) and current non-drinkers (aOR 1.6, 95% CI 1.2-2.0) were more likely than non-hazardous drinkers to have high FIB-4, with the latter potentially reflecting the impact of sick abstainers. These findings highlight the importance of using a longitudinal measure of alcohol exposure when evaluating the impact of alcohol on liver disease and associated outcomes.

  17. Impact of nosocomial infections surveillance on nosocomial infection rates: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Ye; Gong, Zhenyu; Lu, Ye; Hu, Guoqing; Cai, Ran; Chen, Zhiping

    2017-06-01

    According to previously studies, nosocomial infections (NIs) surveillance could effectively reduce infection rates. As NIs surveillance systems have been implemented in some hospitals for several years, their impact on NIs need to be explored. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the tendency of NI rates during the surveillance period and the impact of surveillance on NI rates. A systematic literature search of the PubMed database to identify papers that evaluated effect of surveillance on NIs, all kinds of NIs occurred during hospitalization or discharged were included. Exclude articles investigated the surveillance combined with other infection control measures. Twenty-five articles were included. NI rates had different levels of reduction during surveillance period, the reduction were not limited by state, department, surveillance system, and NI type. Continuous surveillance had a positive impact on NI, OR/RR were ranged from 0.43 to 0.95. Participation in NI surveillance is associated with reducing infection rates, though RCTs need to further prove the effective role of surveillance. Hospitals may consider to perform NIs surveillance systems according to its own conditions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Mycoplasma hominis vertebral spine infection: Case report and a review of infections of bone and joints.

    PubMed

    Tyner, Harmony L; Virk, Abinash; Nassr, Ahmad; Razonable, Raymund

    2016-11-01

    Mycoplasma hominis (M. hominis) is a common commensal that colonizes the human urogenital tract, wherein it is also known to cause genito-urinary infections. It has rarely been reported to cause spinal infections. We describe the case of a 53-year old diabetic woman who developed spontaneous, culture-negative L3-4 osteomyelitis that progressed clinically and radiographically despite debridement, stabilization, and empiric broad-spectrum antimicrobial therapy. After her third debridement procedure, cultures of the multiple intraoperative specimens yielded M. hominis. A PubMed search identified a total of 4 reports of M. hominis causing spinal osteomyelitis and 22 other cases involving bones and joints. M. hominis is a rare cause of bone and joint infections. Because of low clinical suspicion for this pathogen, combined with its fastidious nature and the difficult growth characteristics of this organism, M. hominis infections may be unrecognized and untreated, resulting in high morbidity. In addition to bacterial culture, molecular tests are available to detect M. hominis in clinical samples. This case report and review of the literature suggest that, in some cases of purulent culture-negative osteomyelitis, especially if not responding to standard empiric antibacterial therapy, M. hominis should be considered as a potential pathogen. Copyright © 2016 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Peritonsillar and deep neck infections: a review of 330 cases.

    PubMed

    Martínez Pascual, Paula; Pinacho Martinez, Paloma; Friedlander, Eviatar; Martin Oviedo, Carlos; Scola Yurrita, Bartolome

    2017-04-09

    Deep neck infections (DNI) are defined as suppurative infectious processes of deep visceral spaces of the neck. The aim of this study is to review different factors that may influence peritonsillar and deep neck Infections (DNI) and may play a role as bad prognosis predictors. We present a retrospective study of 330 patients with DNI and peritonsillar infections who were admitted between January 2005 and December 2015 in a tertiary referral hospital. Statistical analysis of comorbidities, diagnostic and therapeutic aspects was performed with Excel and SPSS. There has been an increase in incidence of peritonsilar and DNI. Systemic comorbidities such as diabetes or hepatopathy are bad prognosis factors. The most common pathogen was S. viridans (32.1% of positive cultures). 100% of the patients received antibiotics and corticosteroids, 74.24% needed surgical treatment. The most common complications were mediastinitis (1.2%) and airway obstruction (0.9%). Systemic comorbidities are bad prognosis predictors. Nowadays mortality has decreased thanks to multidisciplinary attention and improvements in diagnosis and treatment. Copyright © 2017 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Antioxidant Therapy Against Trypanosome Infections: A Review Update.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Bindawa Isah, Murtala; Abdullahi Salman, Abdulmalik

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease that affects humans and animals resulting in heavy health and economic burdens. Disturbance of redox equilibrium represents a classical challenge for both the host and the parasite during infections with either extracellular African or intracellular American trypanosomes species. This is in spite of existing detoxification mechanisms in both the host and the parasite for maintaining oxidative balance. However, oxidative stress still plays vital roles in the induction of numerous host-associated pathological damages such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages as well as cardiomyopathy while on the other hand, drugs that specifically induce oxidative stress to the parasite have been effective. Therefore, antioxidants have been deemed to play a role in modulating trypanosome infections. This review provides a current update on most of the studies conducted on the potential use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents against trypanosomes. The most frequently studied plant-derived phenolic antioxidants are resveratrol, cucurmin, gallic acid and quercetin while other antioxidants such as vitamins (A, C, E) and trace elements (selenium and iron) have been investigated. Some of the investigations monitored the direct trypanocidal or trypanostatic effects of the antioxidants while others studied the potentials of the antioxidants as adjuncts to trypanocidal drugs. So far, none of these approaches has sufficient data to allow a definite statement on the actual therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the treatment of clinical trypanosomiasis. Therefore, suggestions are made on the most therapeutically and clinically relevant role of antioxidants in trypanosome infections.

  1. Epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in cattle in China: a review

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Chao; Cao, Xue-Feng; Deng, Lei; Li, Wei; Huang, Xiang-Ming; Lan, Jing-Chao; Xiao, Qi-Cheng; Zhong, Zhi-Jun; Feng, Fan; Zhang, Yue; Wang, Wen-Bo; Guo, Ping; Wu, Kong-Ju; Peng, Guang-Neng

    2017-01-01

    The present review discusses the findings of cryptosporidiosis research conducted in cattle in China and highlights the currently available information on Cryptosporidium epidemiology, genetic diversity, and distribution in China, which is critical to understanding the economic and public health importance of cryptosporidiosis transmission in cattle. To date, 10 Cryptosporidium species have been detected in cattle in China, with an overall infection rate of 11.9%. The highest rate of infection (19.5%) was observed in preweaned calves, followed by that in juveniles (10.69%), postweaned juveniles (9.0%), and adult cattle (4.94%). The dominant species were C. parvum in preweaned calves and C. andersoni in postweaned, juvenile, and adult cattle. Zoonotic Cryptosporidium species (C. parvum and C. hominis) were found in cattle, indicating the possibility of transmission between humans and cattle. Different cattle breeds had significant differences in the prevalence rate and species of Cryptosporidium. This review demonstrates an age-associated, breed-associated, and geographic-related occurrence of Cryptosporidium and provides references for further understanding of the epidemiological characteristics, and for preventing and controlling the disease. PMID:28098070

  2. A review of preventative methods against human leishmaniasis infection.

    PubMed

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85-90% of untreated cases. This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine.

  3. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  4. Surgical Immunology: A Historical Review of Its Role in the Armamentarium of the Surgical Oncologist

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Charlotte Rose

    1979-01-01

    Immunology is taking its place in multimodality therapy of malignant diseases—currently an adjuvant role. Historical development of this role and definition of terms and principles are herein presented in brief fashion. PMID:448752

  5. A historical review of the methods of determination of soil properties for soil quality and land degradation assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pulido, Manuel; Schnabel, Susanne; Francisco Lavado Contador, Joaquín; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Álvaro; Miralles, Isabel; Lozano-Parra, Javier; Antoneli, Valdemir; Brevik, Eric C.; Cerdà, Artemi

    2017-04-01

    Properly assessing soil quality and land degradation is one of the main concerns of soil scientists in recent decades. Nowadays there are several available assessment systems based mainly on indicators, i.e. on soil-related parameters, that allow one to determine the current state of natural soils at different scales. These systems vary depending on ecosystem type and soil function studied as well as the accuracy of the methods (techniques and tools) historically used in the determination of several soil parameters. In this study, we show a historical review of many methods of determining soil properties used regularly as soil quality and land degradation indicators. We have considered 5 worldwide historical periods: [1] The pioneers: before 1889, [2] USDA impulse: 1889 - 1945, [3] Productivity paradigm: 1946 - 1972, [4] Conservationist paradigm: 1973 - 2001, and [5] Current methodologies: 2002 - present. The limits of each period have been determined according to some key milestones, for humanity in general and soil science in particular, such as the creation of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) in 1889, the end of World War II in 1945 or the publication of relevant works such as The limits to growth in 1972. The development of the Soil Management Assessment Framework (SMAF) indexing tool by American soil scientists in 2001 marks a turning point from which new methodologies and paradigms began to be dominant among methods of determination. Finally, the methods historically used to determine more than 100 soil properties have been reviewed by consulting around 1,500 references published between 1305 and 2017. Approximately 10% of the references were key works to contextualize the first two historical periods, i.e. before 1945, and almost half of all references were published in the second half of the twentieth century (1946 - 2001). A logical tendency in gaining progressively accuracy in methods has been observed as well as a major boom in the

  6. The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bellos, Anna; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Qazi, Shamim A; Gayer, Michelle; Checchi, Francesco

    2010-02-11

    Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden.

  7. The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden. PMID:20181220

  8. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  9. A comprehensive review of disseminated Salmonella arizona infection with an illustrative case presentation.

    PubMed

    Hoag, Jeffrey B; Sessler, Curtis N

    2005-11-01

    Salmonella arizona is known to cause infection in reptiles and other animals. Disseminated human infection is rare, except in the setting of a deficient immune system. The following is a unique account of disseminated infection including pericardial involvement. Unusual features include nonreptile vector transmission and eastern seaboard (rather than southwestern) locale. A comprehensive literature review of disseminated S arizona infections is presented describing the types of infection, sources of exposure, underlying conditions, locale, treatments, and outcomes.

  10. [Roles of phosphatases in pathogen infection: a review].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Pei; Li, Xinqiang; Li, Zhenlun

    2012-02-01

    Phosphatases play a key role not only in cell physiological functions of an organism, but also in host-pathogen interactions. Many studies demonstrated that some Gram-negative pathogenic bacteria could evade host immunity and promote pathogenicity by injecting phosphatases into host cells through type III secretion system. However, there were few reports about pathogenic fungi evading the immunity of hosts. Our researches indicated that the entomogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae could dephosphorylate the signal transduction substance of locust humoral immunity specifically in vitro by secreting extracellular protein tyrosine phosphatase, which implied that the fungus might interfere with the immune defense of locust. To provide reference for further studies of the functions of phosphatases, we reviewed the types of phosphatases and their roles in pathogen infection.

  11. Clinical review: Update of avian influenza A infections in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, Christian; Kelly, Terra

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have a wide host range for infection, from wild waterfowl to poultry to humans. Recently, the cross-species transmission of avian influenza A, particularly subtype H5N1, has highlighted the importance of the non-human subtypes and their incidence in the human population has increased over the past decade. During cross-species transmission, human disease can range from the asymptomatic to mild conjunctivitis to fulminant pneumonia and death. With these cases, however, the risk for genetic change and development of a novel virus increases, heightening the need for public health and hospital measures. This review discusses the epidemiology, host range, human disease, outcome, treatment, and prevention of cross-transmission of avian influenza A into humans. PMID:17419881

  12. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR)-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC) are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC. PMID:23131123

  13. [Diagnostic tests for amniotic infection: review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Figueroa-Damián, R; Garduño-Espinosa, J

    1997-01-01

    The diagnosis of intraamniotic infection (IAI) is not difficult when clinical manifestations are present, but there are patients with subclinical infections, in these cases the examination of the amniotic fluid is the most important diagnostic procedure. We made a critical review of the medical literature of diagnostic tests of IAI, according to the analysis criterion of the medical articles of the Department of Clinical Epidemiology of the McMaster University. The articles were identified looking for in the MEDLINE-CD ROOM and INDEX MEDICUS from 1991 to 1995. We identified 19 articles, none of them complied with all of the analysis criterion, none of the studies were blinded nor independently compared with a gold standard test and only five articles studied a full spectrum of patients. The articles with better methodologic design were those that studied the interleukin-6 role as diagnostic test for IAI; they showed a sensibility between 75 to 89% and a specificity of 97 to 100%; nevertheless it is still necessary to standardize the cut-off point of the interleukin-6 levels.

  14. Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Karoney, Mercy Jelagat; Siika, Abraham Mogisi

    2013-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is a viral pandemic and a leading cause of chronic liver disease. This review highlights the epidemiology and management of Hepatitis C in Africa. We searched for articles on medline using the terms, "Hepatitis C", "Prevalence", "Epidemiology", "Africa" and "Treatment". The bibliographies of the articles found were used to find other references. We included articles published after 1995 only. The data was summarized and presented in tables and figures. Africa has the highest WHO estimated regional HCV prevalence (5.3%). Egypt has the highest prevalence (17.5%) of HCV in the world. Genotypes commonly found in Africa are 1, 4 and 5. Genotype 3 is found in Egypt and parts of Central Africa. Blood transfusion is a major means of acquisition of HCV infection. While treatment with peginterferon and ribavirin is recommended for patients with chronic HCV, no data were found on their use in Africa. Neither were there any data on definitive management (liver transplantation) for those with end stage disease. Data on HCV infection in Africa are scarce. This suggests that hepatitis C is still a neglected disease in many countries. Limited data exist in literature on HCV in Africa.

  15. Viral infections in workers in hospital and research laboratory settings: a comparative review of infection modes and respective biosafety aspects.

    PubMed

    Pedrosa, Pedro B S; Cardoso, Telma A O

    2011-06-01

    To compare modes and sources of infection and clinical and biosafety aspects of accidental viral infections in hospital workers and research laboratory staff reported in scientific articles. PubMed, Google Scholar, ISI Web of Knowledge, Scirus, and Scielo were searched (to December 2008) for reports of accidental viral infections, written in English, Portuguese, Spanish, or German; the authors' personal file of scientific articles and references from the articles retrieved in the initial search were also used. Systematic review was carried out with inclusion criteria of presence of accidental viral infection's cases information, and exclusion criteria of absence of information about the viral etiology, and at least probable mode of infection. One hundred and forty-one scientific articles were obtained, 66 of which were included in the analysis. For arboviruses, 84% of the laboratory infections had aerosol as the source; for alphaviruses alone, aerosol exposure accounted for 94% of accidental infections. Of laboratory arboviral infections, 15.7% were acquired percutaneously, whereas 41.6% of hospital infections were percutaneous. For airborne viruses, 81% of the infections occurred in laboratories, with hantavirus the leading causative agent. Aerosol inhalation was implicated in 96% of lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus infections, 99% of hantavirus infections, and 50% of coxsackievirus infections, but infective droplet inhalation was the leading mode of infection for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and the mucocutaneous mode of infection was involved in the case of infection with influenza B. For blood-borne viruses, 92% of infections occurred in hospitals and 93% of these had percutaneous mode of infection, while among laboratory infections 77% were due to infective aerosol inhalation. Among blood-borne virus infections there were six cases of particular note: three cases of acute hepatitis following hepatitis C virus infection with a short period of

  16. Economic healthcare costs of Clostridium difficile infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ghantoji, S S; Sail, K; Lairson, D R; DuPont, H L; Garey, K W

    2010-04-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is the leading cause of infectious diarrhoea in hospitalised patients. CDI increases patient healthcare costs due to extended hospitalisation, re-hospitalisation, laboratory tests and medications. However, the economic costs of CDI on healthcare systems remain uncertain. The purpose of this study was to perform a systematic review to summarise available studies aimed at defining the economic healthcare costs of CDI. We conducted a literature search for peer-reviewed studies that investigated costs associated with CDI (1980 to present). Thirteen studies met inclusion and exclusion criteria. CDI costs in 2008 US dollars were calculated using the consumer price index. The total and incremental costs for primary and recurrent CDI were estimated. Of the 13, 10 were from the USA and one each from Canada, UK, and Ireland. In US-based studies incremental cost estimates ranged from $2,871 to $4,846 per case for primary CDI and from $13,655 to $18,067 per case for recurrent CDI. US-based studies in special populations (subjects with irritable bowel disease, surgical inpatients, and patients treated in the intensive care unit) showed an incremental cost range from $6,242 to $90,664. Non-US-based studies showed an estimated incremental cost of $5,243 to $8,570 per case for primary CDI and $13,655 per case for recurrent CDI. Economic healthcare costs of CDI were high for primary and recurrent cases. The high cost associated with CDI justifies the use of additional resources for CDI prevention and control. Copyright (c) 2009 The Hospital Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  18. [Book review] The biogeography of fire in the San Bernardino Mountains of California---A historical study, by R.A. Minnich

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    1989-01-01

    Review of: The Biogeography of Fire in the San Bernardino Mountains of California--A Historical Study. By Richard A. Minnich. University of California Publications in Geography Volume 28, University of California Press, Berkeley. 120 pp. plus plates, soft cover.

  19. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  20. Historic Houses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Nancy

    1997-01-01

    Reviews some of the efforts of the Society for the Preservation of New England Antiquities (SPNEA) to preserve, conserve, and interpret historic houses to the public. Examines the history and some of the specific preservation problems concerning the Beauport Cottage, the Sayward-Wheeler House, and the Gropius House. (MJP)

  1. Waters and forests: from historical controversy to scientific debate [review article

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andréassian, Vazken

    2004-05-01

    This article presents an historical perspective of the controversy concerning the hydrological impact of forests, and shows how a mostly romantic and emotional confrontation finally evolved into a scientific debate. We first analyze the historical evolution of ideas, starting with the views of Pliny the Elder in the first century AD and ending with the debate on the 'Eaux et Forêts' in France in the 19th century. Then, we give an up-to-date overview of the paired-watershed experiments conducted throughout 20th century, and identify some research issues that should help forest hydrology science to move forward in the 21st century.

  2. Glass Science tutorial lecture No. 5: Historical review of USDOE tank waste management

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1995-02-01

    This is a two day course whose objective is to present an unbiased historical overview of the DOE tank waste activities. World events which impacted the US nuclear program (or vise versa) will be presented. Liquid, mostly tank waste, and sludge are the primary concerns of this course.

  3. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  4. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and... insurance maps, building department records, chain of title documents, and land use records. (b) Historical...

  5. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and... insurance maps, building department records, chain of title documents, and land use records. (b) Historical...

  6. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and... insurance maps, building department records, chain of title documents, and land use records. (b) Historical...

  7. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and... insurance maps, building department records, chain of title documents, and land use records. (b) Historical...

  8. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE POLLUTION FINANCIAL RESPONSIBILITY AND COMPENSATION OIL SPILL LIABILITY: STANDARDS FOR CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES UNDER THE INNOCENT LAND-OWNER DEFENSE Standards and... insurance maps, building department records, chain of title documents, and land use records. (b) Historical...

  9. Detection of hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Nandi, Srijita; Dutta, Shrinwanti; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review published methods for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A thorough search on Medline database was conducted to find original articles describing different methods or techniques of detection of HBV, which are published in English in last 10 years. Articles outlining methods of detection of mutants or drug resistance were excluded. Full texts and abstracts (if full text not available) were reviewed thoroughly. Manual search of references of retrieved articles were also done. We extracted data on different samples and techniques of detection of HBV, their sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp) and applicability. RESULTS: A total of 72 studies were reviewed. HBV was detected from dried blood/plasma spots, hepatocytes, ovarian tissue, cerumen, saliva, parotid tissue, renal tissue, oocytes and embryos, cholangiocarcinoma tissue, etc. Sensitivity of dried blood spot for detecting HBV was > 90% in all the studies. In case of seronegative patients, HBV DNA or serological markers have been detected from hepatocytes or renal tissue in many instances. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) are most commonly used serological tests for detection. CLIA systems are also used for quantitation. Molecular techniques are used qualitatively as well as for quantitative detection. Among the molecular techniques version 2.0 of the CobasAmpliprep/CobasTaqMan assay and Abbott’s real time polymerase chain reaction kit were found to be most sensitive with a lower detection limit of only 6.25 IU/mL and 1.48 IU/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: Serological and molecular assays are predominant and reliable methods for HBV detection. Automated systems are highly sensitive and quantify HBV DNA and serological markers for monitoring. PMID:26483870

  10. Reading habits of infection control coordinators in the United States: peer-reviewed or non-peer-reviewed evidence?

    PubMed

    Olmsted, Russell N; Kowalski, Christine P; Krein, Sarah L; Saint, Sanjay

    2006-12-01

    Because evidence-based health care is taking on increasing importance, we surveyed a national sample of infection control coordinators on their reading habits to discern which and how often various media are utilized. Infection control coordinators at 797 hospitals in the United States were mailed a survey asking which peer-reviewed journals and other publications they subscribe to, their perception of the quality of the infection control articles provided by each, and the extent to which they use various resources for their work. The survey response rate was 74%. Infection control coordinators spend a mean of 3.6 hours/week reading journals or periodicals. Resources identified as most useful included the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Web site (52%), the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. (APIC) text (11%), and the APIC e-mail list (8%). Proportion of subscribers was highest for the American Journal of Infection Control (84%) and Infection Control Today (72%). The top 3 journals ranked on a scale of 1 to 10 for quality of infection control articles were Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (8.0), the American Journal of Infection Control (7.5), and the New England Journal of Medicine (7.4). The American Journal of Infection Control (85%) and Infection Control & Hospital Epidemiology (72%) were the most frequently used peer-reviewed sources of information, whereas Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (85%) and Hospital Infection Control (63%) ranked at the top for non-peer-reviewed periodicals. Infection control coordinators devote limited time to reading and critically appraising published evidence and rely heavily on sources that provide rapid access to information or evidence summaries, suggesting a growing need for easy-to-read, reliable sources of information about evidence-based infection prevention and control practices.

  11. Foot Infection by Clostridium sordellii: Case Report and Review of 15 Cases in France

    PubMed Central

    Sautereau, Jean; Le Coustumier, Alain; Mory, Francine; Bouchier, Christiane; Popoff, Michel-R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of foot infection by Clostridium sordellii and review 15 human infections registered at a Reference Center in France during the period 1998 to 2011. All strains were found nontoxigenic, lacking the lethal toxin gene coding for TcsL. Like Clostridium septicum, several C. sordellii infections were associated with intestinal neoplasms. PMID:25609723

  12. Rudhe syndrome: reversible right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts--an historical review.

    PubMed

    Collins, Lee K; Levin, Terry L; Berdon, Walter E; Cowles, Robert A; Newman, Beverley

    2010-05-01

    In 1971, the Swedish radiologist Ulf Rudhe wrote a provocative paper on right middle lobe emphysema in infants with left-to-right shunts in which he suggested cardiac surgery rather than lung resection. At the time, this was counter to accepted medical practice. Earlier diagnosis and better medical management of ventricular septal defect in infants has proved Rudhe correct. However, two current cases of large left-to-right shunts in infants with emphysema of the right middle lobe prompt this historical review of what seemed a closed-episode in pediatric cardiac surgery.

  13. Historical review of academic concepts of dementia in the world and Japan: with a short history of representative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Expanding our knowledge of the history of dementia may be beneficial for its holistic understanding. This article aims to review the trajectory of the concepts of dementia in the world and Japan. Historical backgrounds of major dementia diseases are also addressed. The first reference to "imbecility" appeared in Greece in 6th century BC. A Japanese term "Mow-roku" (aged and devitalized) first appeared in 11th century, was replaced by "Chee-hou" (absent-minded imbecile) in 1960s, and then by "Ninchee-show" (cognitive impairment) in 2014 for humanistic reasons. In 1970s, dementia was delineated from normal aging, and the present concept of dementia was established.

  14. Modelling the transmission of healthcare associated infections: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field. This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. Methods MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL plus and Global Health databases were systematically searched for dynamic mathematical models of HCAI transmission and/or the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings. Results In total, 96 papers met the eligibility criteria. The main research themes considered were evaluation of infection control effectiveness (64%), variability in transmission routes (7%), the impact of movement patterns between healthcare institutes (5%), the development of antimicrobial resistance (3%), and strain competitiveness or co-colonisation with different strains (3%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly modelled HCAI (34%), followed by vancomycin resistant enterococci (16%). Other common HCAIs, e.g. Clostridum difficile, were rarely investigated (3%). Very few models have been published on HCAI from low or middle-income countries. The first HCAI model has looked at antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings using compartmental deterministic approaches. Stochastic models (which include the role of chance in the transmission process) are becoming increasingly common. Model calibration (inference of unknown parameters by fitting models to data) and sensitivity analysis are comparatively uncommon, occurring in 35% and 36% of studies respectively, but their application is increasing. Only 5% of models compared their predictions to external data. Conclusions Transmission models have been used to understand complex systems and to predict the impact of control policies. Methods have generally improved, with an increased use of stochastic models, and

  15. Modelling the transmission of healthcare associated infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    van Kleef, Esther; Robotham, Julie V; Jit, Mark; Deeny, Sarah R; Edmunds, William J

    2013-06-28

    Dynamic transmission models are increasingly being used to improve our understanding of the epidemiology of healthcare-associated infections (HCAI). However, there has been no recent comprehensive review of this emerging field. This paper summarises how mathematical models have informed the field of HCAI and how methods have developed over time. MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, CINAHL plus and Global Health databases were systematically searched for dynamic mathematical models of HCAI transmission and/or the dynamics of antimicrobial resistance in healthcare settings. In total, 96 papers met the eligibility criteria. The main research themes considered were evaluation of infection control effectiveness (64%), variability in transmission routes (7%), the impact of movement patterns between healthcare institutes (5%), the development of antimicrobial resistance (3%), and strain competitiveness or co-colonisation with different strains (3%). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly modelled HCAI (34%), followed by vancomycin resistant enterococci (16%). Other common HCAIs, e.g. Clostridum difficile, were rarely investigated (3%). Very few models have been published on HCAI from low or middle-income countries.The first HCAI model has looked at antimicrobial resistance in hospital settings using compartmental deterministic approaches. Stochastic models (which include the role of chance in the transmission process) are becoming increasingly common. Model calibration (inference of unknown parameters by fitting models to data) and sensitivity analysis are comparatively uncommon, occurring in 35% and 36% of studies respectively, but their application is increasing. Only 5% of models compared their predictions to external data. Transmission models have been used to understand complex systems and to predict the impact of control policies. Methods have generally improved, with an increased use of stochastic models, and more advanced methods for formal model

  16. Does the Congressional Budget Office underestimate savings from reform? A review of the historical record.

    PubMed

    Gabel, Jon R

    2010-01-01

    When the Congressional Budget Office (CBO) "scores" legislation, or assesses the likely cost impact, it requires substantial evidence that a cost-saving initiative has historically achieved savings. The agency has difficulty addressing the impact of multiple changes made simultaneously without historical precedent where there is an interaction effect among proposed changes. This study examines CBO scoring of major reform legislation enacted during each of the past three decades, including the prospective payment system for hospitals in the 1980s, the Balanced Budget Act of the 1990s, and the Medicare Modernization Act of 2003. In contrasting actual spending with predicted spending, CBO, in all three cases, substantially underestimated savings from these reform measures.

  17. Historical data review and source analysis of PCBs/Arochlors in the Lower Leon Creek Watershed.

    PubMed

    Shipley, Heather J; Sokoly, Diana; Johnson, Drew W

    2017-02-01

    PCBs have been banned since the late 1970s, but concentrations still exist in sediments and riverine fish and continue to exceed regulatory limits which can result in negative health effects. This study looks at historical records of PCB and Arochlor concentrations in surface water, sediments, and fish tissue for the Lower Leon Creek, Bexar County in Texas. Temporal analysis on the concentrations of PCBs and Arochlors was conducted for detection and exceedance of selected screening criteria. In addition, the half-lives of select PCB congeners were calculated for 2007-2012 data to ascertain differences in PCB concentrations with their hydrophobicity. Source analysis was conducted to determine the potential contributing sources of PCB contamination using source data (landfills, outfalls, etc.) and the PCB exceedance data. For sediment and fish tissue sampling results, historic data shows high concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the course of several decades. The historical data is characterized as being widely variable for detections in Arochlors and concentrations between years, with a dramatic drop in concentrations detected starting in 2009. Overall, the sampling locations adjacent to and downstream from the former Kelly Air Force Base have the highest concentrations of PCB/Arochlors over the longest period of time. The results of this work will aid regulatory agencies in addressing impairment.

  18. Wound infection: a review of diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Simmons, R L

    1982-01-01

    Surgical wounds can become infected by a variety of organisms, leading to a variety of clinical courses. In this article, several types of infections, therapies, prognoses and prophylaxes are discussed. Skin and subcutaneous tissues infect with a range of gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anerobic bacteria. Gangrenous infections, whether necrotizing fasciitis or bacterial synergistic gangrene, can be devastating or fatal. Gangrenous infection in the muscle is also discussed, and various treatments outlined. The intention is to familiarize readers with the predisposing conditions, clinical manifestations and therapeutic alternatives for these surgical infections.

  19. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A critical review and practical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia are common in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and are important prognostic landmarks in the natural history of cirrhosis. Notably, the incidence of infections from resistant bacteria has increased significantly in healthcare-associated settings. Serum biomarkers such as procalcitonin may help to improve the diagnosis of bacterial infection. Preventive measures (e.g., avoidance, antibiotic prophylaxis, and vaccination), early recognition, and proper management are required in order to minimize morbidity and mortality of infections in cirrhosis. PMID:26962397

  20. Pasteurella multocida infected total knee arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, KB; Bharadwaj, R; MacDonald, A; Syme, B

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. This infection generally follows significant animal contact, usually licks and scratches. We report a case of P multocida infection that was treated with linezolid with salvage of the implant. Linezolid is generally active against Gram-positive organisms only with the exception of Pasteurella, which is Gram-negative. We extensively review the previous reported cases of implant infection with P multocida. PMID:24780653

  1. Common infections in nursing homes: a review of current issues and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Montoya, Ana; Mody, Lona

    2012-01-01

    Over 1.5 million people live in 16,000 nursing homes in the USA and experience an average of 2 million infections a year. Infections have been associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, rehospitalization, extended hospital stay and substantial healthcare expenses. Emerging infections and antibiotic-resistant organisms in an institutional environment where there is substantial antimicrobial overuse and the population is older, frailer and sicker, create unique challenges for infection control. This review discusses the common infections, challenges, and a framework for a practical infection prevention program. PMID:23264804

  2. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. The immunopathogenesis of staphylococcal skin infections - A review.

    PubMed

    Hill, P B; Imai, A

    2016-12-01

    Staphylococcus aureus and S. pseudintermedius are the major causes of bacterial skin disease in humans and dogs. These organisms can exist as commensals on the skin, but they can also cause severe or even devastating infections. The immune system has evolved mechanisms to deal with pathogenic microorganisms and has strategies to combat bacteria of this type. What emerges is a delicate "peace" between the opposing sides, but this balance can be disrupted leading to a full blown "war". In the ferocious battle that ensues, both sides attempt to get the upper hand, using strategies that are comparable to those used by modern day armies. In this review article, the complex interactions between the immune system and the organisms are described using such military analogies. The process is described in a sequential manner, starting with the invasion itself, and progressing to the eventual battlezone in which there are heavy casualties on both sides. By the end, the appearance of a simple pustule on the skin surface will take on a whole new meaning.

  4. Pseudomonas Prosthetic Joint Infections: A Review of 102 Episodes.

    PubMed

    Shah, Neel B; Osmon, Douglas R; Steckelberg, James M; Sierra, Rafael J; Walker, Randall C; Tande, Aaron J; Berbari, Elie F

    2016-01-01

    Background: The outcome of patients with Pseudomonas prosthetic joint infection (PS PJI) has not been well studied. The aim of this retrospective cohort study was to assess the outcome of patients with Pseudomonas PJI and to review risk factors associated with failure of therapy. Methods: Between 1/1969 and 12/2012, 102 episodes of PS PJI in 91 patients were identified. Results: The mean age at the time of diagnosis was 67.4 years; forty three percent had knee involvement. Over 40 percent had either diabetes mellitus or a history of gastrointestinal or genitourinary surgery. Nearly half (48 out of 102 episodes) received aminoglycoside monotherapy, while 25% received an anti-pseudomonal cephalosporin. The 2-year cumulative survival free from failure was 69% (95% CI, 56%-82%). Patients treated with resection arthroplasty, two-stage exchange, and debridement with implant retention had a 2-year cumulative survival free from failure of 80% (95% CI, 66%-95%), 83% (95% CI, 60%-100%), and 26% (95% CI, 23%-29%) respectively (P=0.0001). Conclusions: PS PJI's are associated with a high failure rate. Patients treated with debridement and implant retention had a worse outcome.

  5. Male accessory gland infection and sperm parameters (review).

    PubMed

    La Vignera, S; Vicari, E; Condorelli, R A; D'Agata, R; Calogero, A E

    2011-10-01

    Male accessory gland infection (MAGI) has been identified among those diagnostic categories which have a negative impact on the reproductive function and fertility in males (Rowe et al., World Health Organization Manual for the Standardised Investigation and Diagnosis of the Infertile Couple, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 1993). MAGI is a hypernym which groups the following different clinical categories: prostatitis, prostate-vesiculitis and prostate-vesiculo-epididymitis. Some of the characteristics they share are: common diseases, mainly have a chronic course, rarely cause obstruction of the seminal pathways, can have an unpredictable intracanicular spread to one or more sexual accessory glands of the reproductive tract, as well as to one or both sides. In this review, we show that all components involving the inflammatory response (from the agents which first trigger it to each component of the inflammatory response dynamic) can deteriorate conventional and/or non-conventional sperm parameters arising from one or more of the following mechanisms: altered secretory function of the epididymis, seminal vesicles, and prostate which reduce the antioxidant properties or scavenging role of the seminal plasma; deterioration of spermatogenesis; and (unilateral or bilateral) organic or functional sub-obstruction of the seminal tract. © 2011 The Authors. International Journal of Andrology © 2011 European Academy of Andrology.

  6. The diagnosis of urinary tract infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Schmiemann, Guido; Kniehl, Eberhardt; Gebhardt, Klaus; Matejczyk, Martha M; Hummers-Pradier, Eva

    2010-05-01

    Urinary tract infections (UTI) are among the leading reasons for treatment in adult primary care medicine, accounting for a considerable percentage of antibiotic prescriptions. Because this problem is so common and so significant in routine clinical practice, a high level of diagnostic accuracy is essential. Antibiotics should not be prescribed excessively, particularly in view of the increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistance. Systematic review of relevant articles that were retrieved by a search of the Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Library databases. The recommendations of selected international guidelines were also taken into account, as were the German national quality standards for microbiological diagnosis. The diagnosis of UTI by clinical criteria alone has an error rate of approximately 33%. The use of refined diagnostic algorithms does not completely eliminate uncertainty. With the aid of a small number of additional diagnostic criteria, antibiotic treatment for UTI can be provided more specifically and thus more effectively. Differentiating UTI from asymptomatic bacteriuria, which usually requires no treatment, can lower the frequency of unnecessary antibiotic prescriptions.

  7. Hantavirus infection in North America: a clinical review.

    PubMed

    Hartline, James; Mierek, Chris; Knutson, Tristan; Kang, Christopher

    2013-06-01

    The recent outbreak of hantavirus in Yosemite National Park has attracted national attention, with 10 confirmed cases of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome and thousands of more people exposed. This article will review the epidemiology, presentation, workup, and treatment for this rare but potentially lethal illness. The possibility of infection with hantavirus deserves consideration in patients with severe respiratory symptoms with rodent exposure or rural/wilderness travel. Accurate diagnosis requires a high index of suspicion. Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome presents as a vague prodrome of fever, cough, myalgias, chills, and nausea followed by a rapidly worsening respiratory phase. Presumptive diagnosis can be made based on pulmonary interstitial edema on chest radiographs in association with leukocytosis, thrombocytopenia, and hemoconcentration. Suspected cases should be confirmed with a reference laboratory and reported to the appropriate public health authorities. Although treatment is primarily supportive, aggressive fluid administration should be avoided due to the risk of pulmonary edema. The cardiopulmonary phase of the disease can progress rapidly with catastrophic decompensation in as little as a few hours. Patients require rapid intensive care unit admission for monitoring, mechanical ventilation, vasoactive agents, and possibly extracorporeal mechanical ventilation. Emergency physicians should be aware of outbreaks and vigilant for hantavirus exposures, especially during the summer and early fall months. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  9. The incidence of deep brain stimulator hardware infection: the effect of change in antibiotic prophylaxis regimen and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Robin; Dalton, Arthur; Richards, Mike; Hopkins, Chris; Aziz, Tipu; Nandi, Dipankar

    2011-10-01

    The complication of hardware infection related to deep brain stimulator implantation (or revision) varies between 0 and 15.2% in the literature. However, no national guidelines exist at present to define an average or acceptable rate of infection associated with, nor the preferred antibiotic prophylaxis required for, this procedure. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of changing the antibiotic prophylaxis regimen used in a single neurosurgical centre on the incidence and outcome of hardware infection. A prospective cohort of 38 patients undergoing deep brain stimulation (DBS) implantation or internal pulse generator (IPG) replacement and receiving perioperative vancomycin (including intravenous gentamicin on induction) and pouch-installed gentamicin, was compared to a historical cohort of 35 patients receiving perioperative cefuroxime in the same unit. The infection rate over 2 years in the prospective group for DBS surgery was 0 compared to 1 (5.6%) in the historical cohort (p = 0.11, χ(2)); the infection rate for IPG replacements was 1(3.6%) in the prospective cohort, versus 3 (17.6%) in the historical (p = 0.44, χ(2)). In this article, we have also systematically reviewed the literature to date and derived an average infection rate of 4.7% (PI 0.9-22%, Random Effects Meta-analysis, Stata) for 35 studies comprising 3550 patients. There is no significant difference in infection rates between DBS procedures that are primarily internalised (n = 9) compared to those in which there is a period of electrode externalisation (n = 23) (p = 0.9, Meta-regression analysis, Stata).

  10. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  11. A Historical Review of Cermet Fuel Development and the Engine Performance Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand Cermet engine performance, examined historical material development reports two issues: High vaporization rate of UO2, High temperature chemical stability of UO2. Cladding and chemical stabilizers each result in large, order of magnitude improvements in high temperature performance. Few samples were tested above 2770 K. Results above 2770 K are ambiguous. Contemporary testing may clarify performance. Cermet sample testing during the NERVA Rover era. Important properties, melting temperature, vaporization rate, strength, Brittle-to-Ductile Transition, cermet sample test results, engine performance, location, peak temperature.

  12. Catatonia and autism: a historical review, with implications for electroconvulsive therapy.

    PubMed

    Dhossche, Dirk M; Reti, Irving M; Wachtel, Lee E

    2009-03-01

    Current autism research is historically separated from catatonia and other childhood psychotic disorders, although catatonia and autism share several common symptoms (mutism, echolalia, stereotypic speech and repetitive behaviors, posturing, grimacing, rigidity, mannerisms, and purposeless agitation). Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) effectively treats catatonia and catatonia-related conditions of intractable compulsions, tics, and self-injury in people with autism. We assess the incidence of catatonic symptoms in autism, examine emerging ECT indications in people with autism and related developmental disorders, and encourage ethical debate and legal-administrative action to assure equal access to ECT for people with autism.

  13. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio

  14. Culture Teaching in Historical Review: On the Occasion of ASOCOPI's Fiftieth Anniversary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meadows, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    This literature review surveys fifty years of English language teaching scholarship on the topic of culture teaching. The review segments the available literature according to decade and applies two guiding questions to each resource found: "How is culture defined" and "What does culture teaching look like." The report of…

  15. Ultrasonic-Based Nondestructive Evaluation Methods for Wood: A Primer and Historical Review

    Treesearch

    Adam C. Senalik; Greg Schueneman; Robert J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    The authors conducted a review of ultrasonic testing and evaluation of wood and wood products, starting with a description of basic ultrasonic inspection setups and commonly used equations. The literature review primarily covered wood research presented between 1965 and 2013 in the Proceedings of the Nondestructive Testing of Wood Symposiums. A table that lists the...

  16. Recent developments in spectroscopic imaging techniques for historical paintings - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfeld, M.; de Viguerie, L.

    2017-10-01

    This paper provides an overview over the application of scanning macro-XRF with mobile instruments for the investigation of historical paintings. The method is compared to synchrotron based macro-XRF imaging and Neutron Activation Auto-Radiography. Full-Field XRF imaging instruments, a potential future alternative to scanning macro-XRF, and confocal XRF, providing complementary depth profiles and developing into a 3D imaging technique itself, are described with the focus on investigations of historical paintings. Recent developments of X-ray radiography are presented and the investigation of cultural heritage objects other than paintings by MA-XRF is summarized. In parallel to XRF, hyperspectral imaging in the visible and range has developed into a technique with comparable capabilities, providing insight in chemical compounds, where XRF imaging identifies the distribution of elements. Due to the complementary nature of these techniques the latter is summarized. Further, progress and state of the art in data evaluation for spectroscopic imaging is discussed. In general it could be observed that technical capabilities in MA-XRF and hyperspectral imaging have reached a plateau and that with the availability of commercial instruments the focus of recent studies has shifted from the development of methods to applications of the instruments. Further, that while simple instruments are easily available with medium budgets only few groups have high-end instrumentation available, bought or in-house built.

  17. [Psychiatry and occupational diseases act in Chile: historical and critical review of a complex relationship].

    PubMed

    Almonte, Juan C; Mena, Cristián; Ortiz, Sofía; Osorio, Juan P

    2016-12-01

    The Work Accidents and Occupational Diseases Act exists in Chile since 1968. It uses a single model for the understanding and management of both somatic diseases like silicosis and psychiatric disorders. During the last decade in Chile, the consultation rates due to psychiatric conditions of probable labor origin has rose over 1,000%, a factor that underscored the deficiencies of this model. The aim of this paper is to analyze the consequences of the application of this act in the psychiatric field for almost 50 years after its promulgation. This article contains an historical overview and an epistemological debate based on the authors’ experience dealing with clinical and administrative work both in occupational psychiatry departments and in regulatory entities. The development of occupational mental health in Chile is examined as part of an historical process that initially did not consider the relationship between work and mental suffering as relevant. The application of a single causality model in psychiatry, as well as the effects of building a psychiatric nosology upon legal rather than medical criteria is contested.

  18. A review of renal disease in children with HIV infection.

    PubMed

    Jindal, Ankur Kumar; Tiewsoh, Karalanglin; Pilania, Rakesh Kumar

    2017-09-08

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection continues to be a leading cause of morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected individuals are now surviving for a relatively longer period and this is because of easy accessibility to antiretroviral therapy these days. As a result, chronic disease-related complications are now being recognized more often. Kidney disease in HIV-infected children can vary from glomerular to tubular-interstitial involvement. We searched the database to identify various kidney diseases seen in HIV-infected children. We describe the epidemiology, pathogenesis, pathology, clinical and laboratory manifestations, management and outcome of commonly seen kidney disease in HIV-infected children. We also provide a brief overview of toxicity of antiretroviral drugs seen in HIV-infected children. Kidney involvement in HIV-infected children may arise because of HIV infection per se, opportunistic infections, immune mediated injury and drug toxicity. HIV-associated nephropathy is perhaps the most common and most severe form of kidney disease. Proteinuria may be a cost-effective screening test in the long-term management of HIV-infected children, however, there are no definite recommendations for the same. Other important renal diseases are HIV immune complex kidney disease, thrombotic microangiopathy, interstitial nephritis and vasculitis.

  19. [Significance of infection control in dentistry: a review].

    PubMed

    Györfi, Adrienne; Fazekas, Arpad

    2007-08-01

    Dental care is a field of high priority regarding the risk of infections. Since many carriers are not aware of their infection, it may happen that the dentist meets a patient, in whom an earlier infection can be proven by serology, but the patient is not aware of it and the clinical signs and symptoms are missing, as well. For this reason, the dentist has to consider every patient potentially infected. On the other hand, health-care workers are not only susceptible persons to infections but they can also be sources of infections. In order to prevent the nosocomial infections the dentist has to ensure the hygienic protection of both the patients and the health-care workers. All the health-occupational measures have to be known and have to be kept by the dental personnel. The health personnel has to be informed on the risk and how to prevent infections. The essential importance of hygiene, the role of protective equipment and all the duties connected with should be emphasized. Furthermore, the continuing education of health-care workers is indispensable regarding the infectious diseases. In order to reduce the risk of nosocomial infections the authors summarize the state-of-the-art knowledge of infection control.

  20. Infections in Cancer Patients with Solid Tumors: A Review.

    PubMed

    Rolston, Kenneth V I

    2017-03-01

    Solid tumors are much more common than hematologic malignancies. Although severe and prolonged neutropenia is uncommon, several factors increase the risk of infection in patients with solid tumors, and the presence of multiple risk factors in the same patient is not uncommon. These include obstruction (most often caused by progression of the tumor), disruption of natural anatomic barriers such as the skin and mucosal surfaces, and treatment-related factors such as chemotherapy, radiation, diagnostic and/or therapeutic surgical procedures, and the increasing use of medical devices such as various catheters, stents, and prostheses. Common sites of infection include the skin and skin structures (including surgical site infections), the bloodstream (including infections associated with central venous catheters), the lungs, the hepato-biliary and intestinal tracts, and the urinary tract, and include distinct clinical syndromes such as post-obstructive pneumonia, obstructive uropathy, and neutropenic enterocolitis. The epidemiology of most of these infections is changing with resistant organisms [MRSA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing organisms] being isolated more often than in the past. Polymicrobial infections now predominate when deep tissue sites are involved. Conservative management of most of these infections (antibiotics, fluid and electrolyte replacement, bowel rest when needed) is generally effective, with surgical intervention being reserved for the drainage of deep abscesses, or to deal with complications such as intestinal obstruction or hemorrhage. Infected prostheses often need to be removed. Reactivation of certain viral infections (HBV, HCV, and occasionally CMV) has become an important issue, and screening, prevention and treatment strategies are being developed. Infection prevention, infection control, and antimicrobial stewardship are important strategies in the overall management of infections in patients with

  1. Meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus. A case report and a review of Bacillus infections.

    PubMed

    Siegman-Igra, Y; Lavochkin, J; Schwartz, D; Konforti, N

    1983-06-01

    A patient with meningitis and bacteremia due to Bacillus cereus is described. The patient had transsphenoidal hypophysectomy for chromophobe adenoma, complicated by rhinorrhea, which was corrected by subarachnoid drainage. Three weeks after removal of the drain, the patient presented with meningitis and died the following day. The causative organism was identified as B. cereus. The literature on Bacillus infections is reviewed with special attention to severe infections. A modified classification is proposed, dividing infections into superficial, closed-space and systemic ones. Sixty-one previously reported cases of systemic Bacillus infections are reviewed according to type of infection (endocarditis, meningitis or pulmonary infection), and the underlying conditions, ways of acquiring the infection, clinical picture and mortality are discussed.

  2. Experimental infections with the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis: a review.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies about Histomonas meleagridis, and more specifically about experiments in vivo involving H. meleagridis to investigate the pathogenicity and efficacy of drugs or vaccines, have been published. Together with older publications, a considerable amount of information about experimental infections with H. meleagridis exist, which is helpful for planning future animal studies and can reduce the number of birds used in such studies toward better animal welfare. One hundred sixty-seven publications describing experimental infections with H. meleagridis were published in scientific journals between 1920 and 2012. One hundred forty-two of these publications describe infections of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and 52 infections of chickens (Gallus gallus). In 18 studies, experiments involving other species were done. The most popular routes of infection were the intracloacal application of histomonal trophozoites from culture material, from lesions or from feces of infected birds, or using larvae of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum (83 studies) and the oral application of eggs or other stages of the cecal worm containing histomonal stages (83 studies). During the last 10 years, intracloacal application of trophozoites has become the most popular way to experimentally infect birds with H. meleagridis due to its high reproducibility and reliability. In most studies, infection doses of several 10,000 or 100,000 histomonal trophozoites were used for infection, and the resulting mortality in turkeys was more than 70 %. First mortality can occur as early as 6 days p.i.; peak mortality usually is 13-15 days p.i. Lower infection doses may delay mortality about 2 days. In chickens infected by the intracloacal route, mortality and clinical signs are rare, but infection rates are similar. Cecal lesions can be observed from 3 to 4 days p.i., lesions up to 3 weeks p.i.; liver lesions may be lacking completely or be present only in a small

  3. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  4. Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Drekonja, Dimitri; Reich, Jon; Gezahegn, Selome; Greer, Nancy; Shaukat, Aasma; MacDonald, Roderick; Rutks, Indy; Wilt, Timothy J

    2015-05-05

    The role of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is not well-known. To assess the efficacy, comparative effectiveness, and harms of FMT for CDI. MEDLINE (1980 to January 2015), Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov, followed by hand-searching references from systematic reviews and identified studies. Any study of FMT to treat adult patients with CDI; case reports were only used to report harms. Data were extracted by 1 author and verified by another; 2 authors independently assessed risk of bias and strength of evidence. Two randomized, controlled trials (RCTs); 28 case-series studies; and 5 case reports were included. Two RCTs and 21 case-series studies (516 patients receiving FMT) reported using FMT for patients with recurrent CDI. A high proportion of treated patients had symptom resolution; however, the role of previous antimicrobials is unclear. One RCT comparing FMT with 2 control groups (n = 43) reported resolution of symptoms in 81%, 31%, and 23% of the FMT, vancomycin, or vancomycin-plus-bowel lavage groups, respectively (P < 0.001 for both control groups vs. FMT). An RCT comparing FMT route (n = 20) reported no difference between groups (60% in the nasogastric tube group and 80% in the colonoscopy group; P = 0.63). Across all studies for recurrent CDI, symptom resolution was seen in 85% of cases. In 7 case-series studies of patients with refractory CDI, symptom resolution ranged from 0% to 100%. Among 7 patients treated with FMT for initial CDI, results were mixed. Most studies were uncontrolled case-series studies; only 2 RCTs were available for analysis. Fecal microbiota transplantation may have a substantial effect with few short-term adverse events for recurrent CDI. Evidence is insufficient on FMT for refractory or initial CDI treatment and on whether effects vary by donor, preparation, or delivery method. U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs.

  5. Systematic review of the treatment of upper respiratory tract infection

    PubMed Central

    Fahey, T.; Stocks, N.; Thomas, T.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—To assess the risks and benefits of antibiotic treatment in children with symptoms of upper respiratory tract infection (URTI).
DESIGN—Quantitative systematic review of randomised trials that compare antibiotic treatment with placebo.
DATA SOURCES—Twelve trials retrieved from a systematic search (electronic databases, contact with authors, contact with drug manufacturers, reference lists); no restriction on language.
MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES—The proportion of children in whom the clinical outcome was worse or unchanged; the proportion of children who suffered complications or progression of illness; the proportion of children who had side effects.
RESULTS—1699 children were randomised in six trials that contributed to the meta-analysis. Six trials were not used in the meta-analysis because of different outcomes or incomplete data. Clinical outcome was not improved by antibiotic treatment (relative risk 1.01,95% confidence interval (CI) 0.90 to 1.13), neither was the proportion of children suffering from complications or progression of illness (relative risk 0.71, 95% CI 0.45 to 1.12). Complications from URTI in the five trials that reported this outcome was low (range 2-15%). Antibiotic treatment was not associated with an increase in side effects compared with placebo (relative risk 0.8, 95% CI 0.54 to 1.21).
CONCLUSIONS—In view of the lack of efficacy and low complication rates, antibiotic treatment of children with URTI is not supported by current evidence from randomised trials.

 PMID:9875017

  6. [New drugs against tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacterial infections: a review].

    PubMed

    Amitani, R; Kuze, F

    1994-11-01

    The number of cases with tuberculosis is again increasing in many countries, and recently several nosocomial outbreaks of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis have occurred in the United States. The number of patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) infections in AIDS population, and patients with MAC pulmonary disease unassociated with HIV seem to be also increasing. It takes at least 6 to 9 months for an initial treatment of active tuberculosis due to drug-sensitive strains with the standard regimen which includes isoniazid (INH) and rifampicin (RFP). Treatment for the diseases caused by drug-resistant M. tuberculosis and MAC is much more time-consuming and more toxic than for the diseases caused by drug-sensitive strains, and often unsuccessful. For the reasons described above, the developments of new agents with potent antimycobacterial activities are highly desired. The new agents should also be useful for treating patients who have acquired resistance to many of the currently available drugs. In this review the new antimycobacterial drugs are summarized. Some of them have already been used clinically, but many are still in experimental evaluations. 1) Rifamycin derivatives: rifabutin (RBT), KRM-1648 (KRM), rifapentin (RPT), FCE-22250, FCE-22807, CGP-7040, SPA-S-565 and other rifamycin derivatives. New rifamycin derivatives including RBT, KRM have increased in vitro antimycobacterial activities. RBT and KRM are much more active in vitro and in vivo than RFP against both M. tuberculosis and MAC. KRM seems to be more potent than RBT against MAC in experimental studies.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  8. Infective Endocarditis Epidemiology Over Five Decades: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Slipczuk, Leandro; Codolosa, J. Nicolas; Davila, Carlos D.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Yun, Jeong; Pressman, Gregg S.; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology over the last 5 decades. Methods and Results We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. Data From Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients) met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients) staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05). Streptococcus viridans (SV) and culture negative (CN) IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001), while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01). Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001). Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients) no significant changes were found. Conclusion Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE. PMID:24349331

  9. [Some misunderstandings of deqi phenomenon: from historic review to experimental study].

    PubMed

    Huang, Tao; Kong, Jian; Huang, Xin; Xu, Yi-hui

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, the authors trace back to the historic source of deqi and needling sensation, and probe the misunderstanding course of the feeling of sourness, numbness, distension, aching or heaviness used as synonym of deqi, and explore and introduce the modern significance and experimental studies of deqi. Although there are arguments in relationship between the feeling of sourness, numbness, distension, aching or heaviness after acupuncture and effect of acupuncture at home and abroad, in fact, this is a misunderstanding of needling sensation replacing deqi. Sometimes acupuncture possibly does not induce sourness, numbness, distension, aching or heaviness, but it also induces patient's comfortable sensation and at the same time acupuncture practitioners possibly have a sensation under the hand, which is at the state of deqi. The two states will be detected by fMRI in experimental studies, so as to have indexes to be followed for deqi or needling sensation.

  10. Historical reconstruction of contamination using sediment cores: A review. Technical memo

    SciTech Connect

    Valette-Silver, N.

    1992-03-01

    Historical reconstructions of contamination using cored sediments have been performed in the United States and abroad, in marine as well as freshwater environments. Most studies have dealt with trace metals, while a few reported results for organic contaminants. With some exceptions, these studies show an increase in sediment contamination during the late 1800s, followed by an acceleration in the rate of contamination in the 1940s, and a plateau or a maximum in the 1960-1970s. Little is known about the trends of coastal pollution over the last decade, as only a few studies have been carried out since 1980. From these studies, however, it appears that Pb concentrations have decreased in most areas of the world following the implementation of laws regulating the use of leaded gasoline in automobiles.

  11. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  12. Getting From A to IRB: Developing an Institutional Review Board at a Historically Black University

    PubMed Central

    Howard, Daniel L.; Boyd, Carlton L.; Nelson, Daniel K.; Godley, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Shaw University, the oldest historically black college or university in the southern USA, recently partnered with the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, a major research institution in North Carolina, to further develop Shaw’s research infrastructure. One aim of the partnership involved establishing a human research ethics committee and an accompanying administrative structure and research ethics education program. This paper describes the process of developing an entire human research protection program de novo through collaboration with and mentoring by the members of the human research protection program at a nearby major research institution. This paper provides a detailed description of the aims, procedures, accomplishments, and challenges involved in such a project, which may serve as a useful model for other primarily teaching institutions wishing to develop research infrastructure and ethical capacity. PMID:20235865

  13. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Historical Review (1775 to Present).

    PubMed

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-09-01

    As a new school year approaches, nurses will find themselves faced with students with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Navigating the diagnostic label changes and numerous psychopharmacological treatment options can prove time-consuming and confusing. The current article explores the early years of symptom identification, various diagnostic labels, and subsequent psychopharmacological treatments from psychostimulants to non-stimulant alternatives (including a prescription medical food). The current article also serves as a discussion guide for nurses and clinicians when providing education to patients and their loved ones, teachers, coaches, and others who may question the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. This disorder can have a significant impact on one's ability to function within family, school, work, and social settings. A historical context is provided for the evolution of today's diagnostic criteria and the pharmacotherapy used in the treatment of ADHD. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(9), 10-16.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  14. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  15. Soil mapping and process modeling for sustainable land use management: a brief historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brevik, Eric C.; Pereira, Paulo; Muñoz-Rojas, Miriam; Miller, Bradley A.; Cerdà, Artemi; Parras-Alcántara, Luis; Lozano-García, Beatriz

    2017-04-01

    Basic soil management goes back to the earliest days of agricultural practices, approximately 9,000 BCE. Through time humans developed soil management techniques of ever increasing complexity, including plows, contour tillage, terracing, and irrigation. Spatial soil patterns were being recognized as early as 3,000 BCE, but the first soil maps didn't appear until the 1700s and the first soil models finally arrived in the 1880s (Brevik et al., in press). The beginning of the 20th century saw an increase in standardization in many soil science methods and wide-spread soil mapping in many parts of the world, particularly in developed countries. However, the classification systems used, mapping scale, and national coverage varied considerably from country to country. Major advances were made in pedologic modeling starting in the 1940s, and in erosion modeling starting in the 1950s. In the 1970s and 1980s advances in computing power, remote and proximal sensing, geographic information systems (GIS), global positioning systems (GPS), and statistics and spatial statistics among other numerical techniques significantly enhanced our ability to map and model soils (Brevik et al., 2016). These types of advances positioned soil science to make meaningful contributions to sustainable land use management as we moved into the 21st century. References Brevik, E., Pereira, P., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B., Cerda, A., Parras-Alcantara, L., Lozano-Garcia, B. Historical perspectives on soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management. In: Pereira, P., Brevik, E., Muñoz-Rojas, M., Miller, B. (eds) Soil mapping and process modelling for sustainable land use management (In press). Brevik, E., Calzolari, C., Miller, B., Pereira, P., Kabala, C., Baumgarten, A., Jordán, A. 2016. Historical perspectives and future needs in soil mapping, classification and pedological modelling, Geoderma, 264, Part B, 256-274.

  16. Fish-based remedies in Spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish-based therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems. Methods An overview of the ethnomedical and historical Spanish literature has been carried out. Automated searches in the most important national and international databases have been performed. All related works have been thorough examined. Results We examine the historical use of 54 medicinal fish species, 48 marine and six from inland waters. As useful, in Ancient times 39 species have been recorded (of which only 21 have been collected in subsequent periods), seven in the Middle Ages, 18 in Modern times and 17 in the contemporary period. Anguilla anguilla, Engraulis encrasicolus or Scyliorhinus canicula are species that have survived over time as an ingredient in Spanish folk remedies. Most remedies used in the last century and currently are empirical remedies based on the humorism theory and the principle of contraria contrariis curantur (74%), and the rest (26%) are magical type remedies that complete the popular therapeutic arsenal. Conclusions In the last century we find a progressive decrease in the number of fish species used in ethnomedicine. Only seven taxa have been documented as surviving therapeutic resources since centuries ago. The existence of a dynamic Spanish ethnomedicine has also been detected which has managed to generate new therapeutic resources in recent times. It is important to validate the remedies by ethnopharmacology and evidence-based medicine. In order to recover as much data as possible, it will be necessary to draw up an inventory of ethnoichthyological uses. PMID:24885245

  17. An historical review of malaria, kala-azar and filariasis in Bangladesh in relation to the Flood Action Plan.

    PubMed

    Birley, M H

    1993-08-01

    This paper reviews the evidence of a link between flood control and vector-borne disease in Bengal/Bangladesh. Malaria is historically associated with reduced flooding and embankment construction in the flood plains of Bengal. The land west and south of the Jamuna river was highly malarious in 1916 but is not so today. The lands east of the Jamuna now have a higher, though still small, risk. The reduction in health risk can be attributed to the intensification of land use and human population density. Although there are many mosquito species, the abundance of the former malaria vector appears to have declined as environmental change removed its breeding sites. Visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) is a serious disease which is fatal if left untreated. It occurs in irregular, periodic epidemics and is currently increasing in Bangladesh. In the past, malaria and kala-azar were confused and the prevalence of both may have been increased by embankment programmes. Both diseases are unstable and there is insufficient historical information to predict, with certainty, the consequences of environmental change. Reduced flooding accompanied by increased pollution will probably control the malaria vector. More information is needed about the response of the kala-azar vector to flooding. Bancroftian filariasis is non-fatal but causes chronic morbidity. It has had a widespread but usually low prevalence in Bangladesh, with both rural and urban foci. There are few recent data. Increasing organic pollution and drainage obstruction are expected to favour the vector and increase transmission.

  18. Infection control and prevention: a review of hospital-acquired infections and the economic implications.

    PubMed

    Reed, Deoine; Kemmerly, Sandra A

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare quality report cards and by taking strong action to curb healthcare spending. The Medicare Program has proposed changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year Rates: Proposed Rule CMS 1488-P-Healthcare-associated infection. Payment will be linked to performance. Under the new rule, payment will be withheld from hospitals for care associated with treating certain catheter-associated urinary tract infections, vascular catheter-associated infections, and mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infection-prevention strategies are essential. In the healthcare setting, the infection control department is categorized as non-revenue-producing. Funds dedicated to resources such as staff, educational programs, and prevention measures are vastly limited. Hospital leaders will need to balance the upfront cost needed to prevent hospital-related infections with the non-reimbursed expense accrued secondary to potentially preventable infections. The purpose of this paper is to present case studies and cost analysis of hospital-acquired infections and present strategies that reduce infections and cost.

  19. Infection Control and Prevention: A Review of Hospital-Acquired Infections and the Economic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Deoine; Kemmerly, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare quality report cards and by taking strong action to curb healthcare spending. The Medicare Program has proposed changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year Rates: Proposed Rule CMS 1488-P-Healthcare-associated infection. Payment will be linked to performance. Under the new rule, payment will be withheld from hospitals for care associated with treating certain catheter-associated urinary tract infections, vascular catheter-associated infections, and mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infection-prevention strategies are essential. In the healthcare setting, the infection control department is categorized as non-revenue-producing. Funds dedicated to resources such as staff, educational programs, and prevention measures are vastly limited. Hospital leaders will need to balance the upfront cost needed to prevent hospital-related infections with the non-reimbursed expense accrued secondary to potentially preventable infections. The purpose of this paper is to present case studies and cost analysis of hospital-acquired infections and present strategies that reduce infections and cost. PMID:21603406

  20. A historical review and bibliometric analysis of research on lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jie; Ma, Yuwei; Zhang, Liang; Gan, Fuxing; Ho, Yuh-Shan

    2010-03-01

    A bibliometric analysis based on Science Citation Index (SCI) published by Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) was carried out to identify the global research related to lead in drinking water field from 1991 to 2007 and to improve the understanding of research trends in the same period. The results from this analysis indicate that there have been an increasing number of annual publications mainly during two periods: from 1992 to 1997 and from 2004 to 2007. United States produced 37% of all pertinent articles followed by India with 8.0% and Canada with 4.8%. Science of the Total Environment published the most articles followed by Journal American Water Works Association and Toxicology. Summary of the most frequently used keywords are also provided. "Cadmium" was the most popular author keyword in the 17 years. Furthermore based on bibliometric results four research aspects were summarized in this paper and the historical research review was also presented.

  1. Stellate Ganglion Block in the Treatment of Post-traumatic Stress Disorder: A Review of Historical and Recent Literature.

    PubMed

    Summers, Mary R; Nevin, Remington L

    2017-04-01

    Concerns over the rising prevalence of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), particularly among military service members returning from combat, and over barriers that hinder individuals from seeking out or adhering to standard therapies have contributed to interest in alternative therapies for the disorder. A novel alternative therapy for PTSD-stellate ganglion block (SGB)-may be considered lacking in formal evidence of efficacy despite having shown considerable promise. This review of the recent and historical literature related to SGB finds evidence of substantial beneficial psychiatric effects and substantiates that this fast-acting, somatic treatment may provide positive results for patients with PTSD and may reduce barriers to therapy, particularly among military populations. © 2016 World Institute of Pain.

  2. Role of Combination Antimicrobial Therapy for Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococcus faecium Infections: Review of the Current Evidence.

    PubMed

    Yim, Juwon; Smith, Jordan R; Rybak, Michael J

    2017-03-08

    Enterococcus species are the second most common cause of nosocomial infections in the United States and are particularly concerning in critically ill patients with preexisting comorbid conditions. Rising resistance to antimicrobials that were historically used as front-line agents for treatment of enterococcal infections, such as ampicillin, vancomycin, and aminoglycosides, further complicates the treatment of these infections. Of particular concern are Enterococcus faecium strains that are associated with the highest rate of vancomycin resistance. The introduction of antimicrobial agents with specific activity against vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) faecium including daptomycin, linezolid, quinupristin-dalfopristin, and tigecycline did not completely resolve this clinical dilemma. In this review, the mechanisms of action and resistance to currently available anti-VRE antimicrobial agents including newer agents such as oritavancin and dalbavancin will be presented. In addition, novel combination therapies including β-lactams and fosfomycin, and the promising results from in vitro, animal studies, and clinical experience in the treatment of VRE faecium will be discussed. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. IMMUNOGENETIC FACTORS INFLUENCING CLINICAL COURSE OF HCV INFECTION (REVIEW).

    PubMed

    Kamkamidze, G; Butsashvili, M; Gendzekhadze, K

    2016-09-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remains one of the most important blood-borne diseases worldwide with about 130-170 million people chronically infected with hepatitis C virus, and more than 350 000 people die from hepatitis C-related liver diseases each year. Infection with HCV becomes chronic in approximately 80% of cases, while in up to 20% of cases hepatitis C virus is cleared from the human organism. Chronic infections of hepatitis C often leads to the end-stage liver diseases such as cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The clinical course and the outcome of the HCV infection is determined by the complex interplay between the viral replication and the host defense mechanisms. Several recent studies have shown that MHC class I and class II as well as natural killer (NK) cell's immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR) loci can be associated with the HCV protection and clearance as well as with disease progression and responsiveness to antiviral treatment. Current status of our knowledge about the influence of immunogenetic factors on the clinical course of HCV infection is presented in the paper. Plans to investigate these factors among HCV infected patients enrolled in the HCV Elimination Program (launched in April 2015 in Georgia) are discussed.

  4. Ecological research and management of intermittent rivers: an historical review and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivers and streams that do not flow permanently (herein intermittent rivers; IRs) make up a large proportion of the world's inland waters and are gaining widespread attention. We review the research on IRs from its early focus on natural history through to current application in ...

  5. James Clerk Maxwell and the Kinetic Theory of Gases: A Review Based on Recent Historical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1971-01-01

    Maxwell's four major papers and some shorter publications relating to kinetic theory and statistical mechanics are discussed in the light of subsequent research. Reviews Maxwell's ideas on such topics as velocity, distribution law, the theory of heat conduction, the mechanism of the radiometer effect, the ergodic hypothesis, and his views on the…

  6. The "American" (North American) Model of Constitutional Review: Historical Background and Early Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klishas, Andrey A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper explores the impact of the continental system exerted on the constitutional and political evolution of both the United States and individual states and tries to characterize the development of constitutional review phenomenon within the framework of the continental legal system and the Anglo-Saxon legal system. The research stands on the…

  7. A Historical Review of "Contemporary Educational Psychology" from 1995 to 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; McConnell, John Robert, III

    2012-01-01

    The major themes and trends represented by the articles published in "Contemporary Educational Psychology" (CEP) from 1995 to 2010 are reviewed in this paper. Included are the major topics, theoretical perspectives, participant characteristics, research methods and statistics used, and highly cited papers. The most frequently occurring topic…

  8. Historical review of lung counting efficiencies for low energy photon emitters

    DOE PAGES

    Jeffers, Karen L.; Hickman, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This publication reviews the measured efficiency and variability over time of a high purity planar germanium in vivo lung count system for multiple photon energies using increasingly thick overlays with the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. Furthermore, the measured variations in efficiency are compared with the current requirement for in vivo bioassay performance as defined by the American National Standards Institute Standard.

  9. A Historical Review of "Contemporary Educational Psychology" from 1995 to 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; McConnell, John Robert, III

    2012-01-01

    The major themes and trends represented by the articles published in "Contemporary Educational Psychology" (CEP) from 1995 to 2010 are reviewed in this paper. Included are the major topics, theoretical perspectives, participant characteristics, research methods and statistics used, and highly cited papers. The most frequently occurring topic…

  10. James Clerk Maxwell and the Kinetic Theory of Gases: A Review Based on Recent Historical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1971-01-01

    Maxwell's four major papers and some shorter publications relating to kinetic theory and statistical mechanics are discussed in the light of subsequent research. Reviews Maxwell's ideas on such topics as velocity, distribution law, the theory of heat conduction, the mechanism of the radiometer effect, the ergodic hypothesis, and his views on the…

  11. The Black Teacher Shortage: A Literature Review of Historical and Contemporary Trends

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madkins, Tia C.

    2011-01-01

    Desegregation marked the beginning of a long period of loss of Black teachers within the profession. First, Black teachers were not hired in desegregated schools, and then as other professional opportunities opened up in society, fewer Blacks entered the teacher pipeline. The purpose of this literature review is to synthesize research relevant to…

  12. Ecological research and management of intermittent rivers: an historical review and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivers and streams that do not flow permanently (herein intermittent rivers; IRs) make up a large proportion of the world's inland waters and are gaining widespread attention. We review the research on IRs from its early focus on natural history through to current application in ...

  13. Timing of Debridement and Infection Rates in Open Fractures of the Hand: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Ketonis, Constantinos; Dwyer, Joseph; Ilyas, Asif M

    2017-03-01

    Background: Literature on open fracture infections has focused primarily on long bones, with limited guidelines available for open hand fractures. In this study, we systematically review the available hand surgery literature to determine infection rates and the effect of debridement timing and antibiotic administration. Methods: Searches of the MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Cochrane computerized literature databases and manual bibliography searches were performed. Descriptive/quantitative data were extracted, and a meta-analysis of different patient cohorts and treatment modalities was performed to compare infection rates. Results: The initial search yielded 61 references. Twelve articles (4 prospective, 8 retrospective) on open hand fractures were included (1669 open fractures). There were 77 total infections (4.6%): 61 (4.4%) of 1391 patients received preoperative antibiotics and 16 (9.4%) of 171 patients did not receive antibiotics. In 7 studies (1106 open fractures), superficial infections (requiring oral antibiotics only) accounted for 86%, whereas deep infections (requiring operative debridement) accounted for 14%. Debridement within 6 hours of injury (2 studies, 188 fractures) resulted in a 4.2% infection rate, whereas debridement within 12 hours of injury (1 study, 193 fractures) resulted in a 3.6% infection rate. Two studies found no correlation of infection and timing to debridement. Conclusions: Overall, the infection rate after open hand fracture remains relatively low. Correlation does exist between the administration of antibiotics and infection, but the majority of infections can be treated with antibiotics alone. Timing of debridement, has not been shown to alter infection rates.

  14. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  15. Vectorcardiographic diagnostic & prognostic information derived from the 12-lead electrocardiogram: Historical review and clinical perspective.

    PubMed

    Man, Sumche; Maan, Arie C; Schalij, Martin J; Swenne, Cees A

    2015-01-01

    In the course of time, electrocardiography has assumed several modalities with varying electrode numbers, electrode positions and lead systems. 12-lead electrocardiography and 3-lead vectorcardiography have become particularly popular. These modalities developed in parallel through the mid-twentieth century. In the same time interval, the physical concepts underlying electrocardiography were defined and worked out. In particular, the vector concept (heart vector, lead vector, volume conductor) appeared to be essential to understanding the manifestations of electrical heart activity, both in the 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG) and in the 3-lead vectorcardiogram (VCG). Not universally appreciated in the clinic, the vectorcardiogram, and with it the vector concept, went out of use. A revival of vectorcardiography started in the 90's, when VCGs were mathematically synthesized from standard 12-lead ECGs. This facilitated combined electrocardiography and vectorcardiography without the need for a special recording system. This paper gives an overview of these historical developments, elaborates on the vector concept and seeks to define where VCG analysis/interpretation can add diagnostic/prognostic value to conventional 12-lead ECG analysis.

  16. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis: historical and biologic review and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Emtiaz, Shahram; Noroozi, Sohrab; Caramês, João; Fonseca, Luís

    2006-12-01

    Dental rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients with dental implants has become common practice in the last few decades, with reliable long-term results. However, local conditions of edentulous alveolar ridges may be unfavorable for implant placement. Vertically deficient alveolar ridges, in particular, may have insufficient bone volume to hold implants of adequate dimensions, making implant placement difficult or impossible. To correct this situation, a variety of surgical procedures have been proposed, including onlay bone grafts, vertical guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis is a biologic process of new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction. This process is initiated when a traction force is applied to the bone segments and continues as long as the callus tissues are stretched. This traction force, in turn, generates tension within the tissues that connect the bone segments, which stimulates new bone formation parallel to the vector of distraction. The aim of this article is to provide clinicians with the historical background of and biologic basis for the concept of distraction osteogenesis, which can be traced back to the 1800s. Finally, a clinical case is presented to demonstrate a step-by-step application of alveolar distraction osteogenesis as a treatment protocol in a partially edentulous ridge for improvement of esthetics.

  17. Disharmony between society and environmental carrying capacity: a historical review, with an emphasis on China.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shixiong; Chen, Li; Liu, Zhande

    2007-07-01

    Nature can survive without humans, but humans cannot survive without nature. Despite a clear understanding of this dependency, humans continue to exist in disharmony with nature, and our current environmental and human dilemmas reflect old problems with a long history. Societies have historically experienced many transitions from harmony between nature and society to a crisis of disharmony, followed by a subsequent transition from crisis to harmony. Such ecological crises arise when society no longer practices sustainable consumption of resources within the limits imposed by the environmental carrying capacity. Over the long term, the growth in human desires has always exceeded the growth in the environmental carrying capacity. Science, technology, and social institutions must all be improved to resolve the ecological crises that arise from this imbalance. This paper discusses how increasing understanding of the problem by the public and by decision makers is the key to minimizing the undesirable impacts of the coming bottleneck for sustainable development. Furthermore, we emphasize how this awareness must be translated into fundamental political and economic changes.

  18. [Historical review of the plague in South America: a little-known disease in Colombia].

    PubMed

    Faccini-Martínez, Álvaro A; Sotomayor, Hugo A

    2013-01-01

    The plague is an infectious disease that has transcended through history and has been responsible for three pandemics with high mortality rates. During the third pandemic that started in Hong Kong (1894), the disease spread through maritime routes to different regions in the world, including South America. In this region, approximately 16 million people are thought to be at risk in relation to this disease due to specific situations like human-rodent coexistence inside houses in rural areas, homes built with inadequate materials that are vulnerable to invasion by these animals, inappropriate storage of crops and an increase in rainfall and deforestation, which allows for the displacement of wild fauna and man invasion of the natural foci of the disease. Between 1994 and 1999, five countries: Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Peru and the United States of America, reported approximately 1,700 cases with 79 related deaths. In Colombia we have historical data about an "infectious pneumonia" with high mortality rates that occurred during the same months, for three consecutive years (1913 to 1915) in the departments of Magdalena, Atlántico and Bolívar, located in the Colombian Atlantic coast, which suggested plague, but could not be confirmed.

  19. Surgical site infection after hand surgery outside the operating theatre: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Jagodzinski, N A; Ibish, S; Furniss, D

    2017-03-01

    We carried out a systematic review to determine the incidence of infection for hand surgery done in settings other than the operating theatre. Databases were searched and a PRISMA chart created by three independent reviewers. From 1200 studies identified, 46 full text articles were reviewed and six were included (two Level 3 studies and four Level 4). In three studies there were no infections after surgery in an office, procedure room or emergency department. Two studies with a combined number of 1962 procedures reviewed carpal tunnel decompressions and reported identical infection rates of 0.4%. Although the current evidence is of poor quality, it suggests that some types of hand surgery may be done outside the operating theatre without increasing the risk of infection.

  20. Clinical manifestations of Kingella kingae infections: case report and review.

    PubMed

    Morrison, V A; Wagner, K F

    1989-01-01

    A patient with antecedent coccidioidal pulmonary cavitary disease who developed an empyema due to Kingella kingae prompted our analysis of the literature regarding this unusual bacterial pathogen. Formerly classified among other genera and considered a nonpathogen, K. kingae has been increasingly recognized as a cause of human infection. While the most commonly diagnosed infections due to this organism are endocarditis and septic arthritis, there have also been isolated reports of bacteremia, diskitis, abscesses, meningitis, and oropharyngeal infections. The treatment of choice is penicillin, to which K. kingae strains are uniformly susceptible. Recognition of the potential pathogenicity of this microorganism in appropriate clinical settings will probably result in more prompt and specific therapy.

  1. Foot infection by Clostridium sordellii: case report and review of 15 cases in France.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Philippe; Sautereau, Jean; Le Coustumier, Alain; Mory, Francine; Bouchier, Christiane; Popoff, Michel-R

    2015-04-01

    We report a case of foot infection by Clostridium sordellii and review 15 human infections registered at a Reference Center in France during the period 1998 to 2011. All strains were found nontoxigenic, lacking the lethal toxin gene coding for TcsL. Like Clostridium septicum, several C. sordellii infections were associated with intestinal neoplasms. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  2. Review: apoptotic mechanisms in bacterial infections of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Philipp, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the apoptotic mechanisms most frequently encountered in bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). We focus specifically on apoptosis of neural cells (neurons and glia), and provide first an overview of the phenomenon of apoptosis itself and its extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. We then describe apoptosis in the context of infectious diseases and inflammation caused by bacteria, and review its role in the pathogenesis of the most relevant bacterial infections of the CNS. PMID:23060884

  3. Human papillomavirus infection: a concise review of natural history.

    PubMed

    Huh, Warner K

    2009-07-01

    Persistent infection with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV), leading to precancerous lesions and potentially cervical cancer, is a serious health burden. The natural history of infection is one that enables the virus to remain immunoevasive within the cervical epithelium and persist for decades. Many studies have provided important information on why some women clear infection and why others do not. The infectious process of HPV may be affected by many cofactors, adding to the complexity of disease development. Vaccination against oncogenic HPV along with cervical screening are two methods that have been developed to provide protection and eliminate the overall burden of disease in women. This article highlights the natural history of oncogenic HPV infection of the cervix and the limitations that currently exist on the literature.

  4. Concept Maps in Nursing Education: A Historical Literature Review and Research Directions.

    PubMed

    Daley, Barbara J; Morgan, Sarah; Black, Sarah Beman

    2016-11-01

    Although concept mapping was created in the early 1980s, research in nursing education first appeared in 1992. This literature review analyzes the impact of concept mapping in nursing education. A total of 221 articles, books, and book chapters were reviewed on the topic of concept mapping in nursing education. Results indicate that concept-mapping research progressed from the emergence state, to an expansion and adaptation stage, to an established stage. Nursing education could benefit from further research on applying concept map scoring formulas, using concept maps with simulation, developing knowledge models, and creating concept map-centered learning environments. [J Nurs Educ. 2016;55(11):631-639.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  5. Computers in psychiatry: a review of past programs and an analysis of historical trends.

    PubMed

    Das, Amar K

    2002-01-01

    In a variety of clinical settings, computers are playing an increasing role in managing or retrieving clinical information. A recent survey of physician computer use suggests that psychiatrists, in comparison to other types of medical specialists, may be using computers less in routine care. In this paper, we present a literature review of 57 articles on computer programs in psychiatry that were published since 1966 in five major peer-reviewed journals. We divide the types of programs that have been developed into four categories: (1) diagnostic and decision support, (2) patient screening and therapy, (3) data collection and management, and (4) data modeling. Among the first three categories, we found trends in publications during the past three decades of research. We provide a discussion of representative computer programs. Our analysis of past programs reveals a number of design problems that may be a barrier to the more widespread use of computers in psychiatry.

  6. Glass/ceramic/refractory techniques, their development and introduction into dentistry: A historical literature review.

    PubMed

    Wildgoose, David G; Johnson, Anthony; Winstanley, Raymond B

    2004-02-01

    This review considered the development of glass, ceramic, refractory materials, and techniques over a period of 25,000 years, from the time of stone-age man to their introduction into dentistry. Currently a wide variety of all-ceramic dental restorations are provided using alumina-reinforced, leucite-forming, and novel glass and ceramic materials along with a range of refractory materials and associated techniques. However, some of the problems of dimensional and thermal change experienced by early craftsmen still persist during current laboratory fabrication techniques. Early English archaeological and dental publications were obtained through the Archaeology Education Department of the British Museum in London and the Archives of the British Dental Association Library. More recent peer-reviewed articles published from 1966 to the present were obtained through MEDLINE.

  7. Review of Helicobacter pylori infection and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Mitsushige; Yamaoka, Yoshio

    2011-02-01

    Chronic renal failure patients receiving hemodialysis and continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis often encounter gastrointestinal troubles over their long treatment period. Helicobacter pylori infection has close association with development of peptic ulcer, gastric cancer and gastric lymphoma, and is thought to be one of the major risk factors for gastrointestinal troubles in dialysis patients. However, it is unclear whether H. pylori infection is directly associated with progression of renal dysfunction and prognosis of chronic renal failure patients. Recent consensus shows that the prevalence of H. pylori infection in chronic renal failure patients is significantly lower than in subjects with normal renal function. In the natural history of H. pylori infection in hemodialysis patients, the prevalence of infection decreases as dialysis periods progressed, in particular within the first four years after the start of treatment. However, the chance of natural eradication becomes rare for patients receiving dialysis treatment for a long time. Moreover, chronic renal failure patients with H. pylori infection have a higher incidence of gastroduodenal diseases, and therefore, are recommended to receive eradication therapies, especially for those receiving treatment for a long time and with higher risks of complication. Intensive endoscopic check-ups for the prevention of gastrointestinal events and the discovery of peptic ulcer and neoplastic diseases at an early phase may be required.

  8. Chronic bacterial and parasitic infections and cancer: a review.

    PubMed

    Samaras, Vassilis; Rafailidis, Petros I; Mourtzoukou, Eleni G; Peppas, George; Falagas, Matthew E

    2010-06-03

    A relatively underestimated facet of infectious diseases is the association of chronic bacterial and parasitic infections with cancer development. Therefore, we sought to evaluate the evidence regarding the association of such infections with the development of malignancy, excluding the overwhelming evidence of the association of Helicobacter pylori and cancer. We searched Pubmed, Cochrane, and Scopus without time limits for relevant articles. There is evidence that some bacterial and parasitic infections are associated with cancer development. The level of evidence of this association varies from high to low; in any case, a long time interval is mandatory for the development of cancer. A high level of evidence exists for the association of Salmonella Typhi with gallbladder and hepatobiliary carcinoma; Opisthorchis viverrini and Clonorchis sinensis with cholangiocarcinoma; Schistosoma hematobium with bladder cancer; chronic osteomyelitis with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin; and hidradenitis suppurativa with squamous cell carcinoma of the skin. In contrast, the level of evidence regarding the association of Chlamydia spp. with cancer is low. Mycobacterium tuberculosis is associated with lung cancer, albeit probably not etiopathogenetically. A considerable number of bacterial infections and parasitic infections are associated with the development of cancer. Further research into recognizing additional associations of bacterial and parasitic infections with cancer is mandatory.

  9. Neuroimaging findings of Zika virus infection: a review article.

    PubMed

    Zare Mehrjardi, Mohammad; Keshavarz, Elham; Poretti, Andrea; Hazin, Adriano N

    2016-12-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus from the Flaviviridae family. It is usually transmitted by mosquito bite. There have been no reports of severe symptoms caused by ZIKV infection up until the last few years. In October 2013 an outbreak was reported in French Polynesia with severe neurological complications in some affected cases. In November 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil attributed the increased number of neonatal microcephaly cases in northeastern Brazil to congenital ZIKV infection. The rapid spread of the virus convinced the World Health Organization to announce ZIKV infection as a "Public Health Emergency of International Concern" in February 2016. The main neuroimaging findings in congenital ZIKV infection include microcephaly which is the hallmark of the disease, other malformations of cortical development (e.g., lissencephaly, heterotopia, etc.), parenchymal calcifications, unilateral or bilateral ventriculomegaly, enlarged extra-axial CSF spaces, dysgenesis of the corpus callosum, agenesis of the cavum septum pellucidum, cerebellar and brainstem hypoplasia, and ocular abnormalities. ZIKV infection may also cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and acute disseminated encephalomyelitis in adults. Familiarity with neuroimaging findings of congenital and acquired ZIKV infection is crucial to suspect this disease in residents of endemic regions and travelers to these areas.

  10. Damaged goods: return to sender. A review of the historical medical records of repatriated Chinese miners.

    PubMed

    Ndlovu, Ntombizodwa; Murray, Jill; Seopela, Simon

    2006-01-01

    After the Anglo-Boer (South African) War (1899-1902), there was a shortage of unskilled labor on the South African gold mines. Chinese men were imported to make up for the deficit. This article reviews the records of indentured Chinese mine workers examined for repatriation in 1905. The records tell of high proportions of social disorders, respiratory diseases, musculoskeletal disorders, opium addiction, and injury. These reflect the social and physical conditions to which these men were exposed in the mines.

  11. Asymmetric Bilateral Hip Dislocations: A Case Report and Historical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph; Westerlind, Brian; Karam, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Asymmetric bilateral hip dislocations are a rare injury pattern in which one hip dislocates posteriorly, and the contralateral hip dislocates anteriorly. We report a case of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations and provide a comprehensive review of all available reports, identifying 104 total cases, which is 70 more than previously reported. Purpose To review and evaluate the total body of literature regarding bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations. Methods Comprehensive literature review and analysis of all reports of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations with concurrent case report. Results and Conclusions Bilateral, asymmetric represent approximately 0.01%–0.02% of all joint dislocations. There has been a substantial increase in the number of case reports in the literature in the last 10 years. Males are more likely than females to incur this injury pattern and the most common mode of injury is motor vehicle accident Urgent closed reduction should be attempted in an efficient and safe manner to avoid potential complications, and open reduction should be considered in irreducible dislocations. Post reduction management should include stability assessment and CT to assess for associated injuries and intraarticular fragments; although no clear guidelines for post-reduction treatment emerged. Common complications include: nerve palsies, AVN and heterotopic ossification. PMID:26361448

  12. Fungal infection involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis: A review of 2 cases

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanyan; Zhao, Zheng; Lu, Hui; Zhang, Jianglin; Huang, Feng

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to analyze the imaging, clinical and pathological features of fungal infection involvement in primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) by retrospectively analyzing and reviewing the features of two patients with fungal infection involvement in PBC. Both patients were female. One patient had a confirmed diagnosis of PBC. The other patient had confirmed Sjogren syndrome and PBC. The two cases of PBC were infected with fungal infection after treatment with hormonal and immunosuppressive agents. RCR of sputum confirmed Pneumocystis spp. infection in the patient with PBC alone. The mucormycosis infection was confirmed in the other patient after pathological examination of a renal biopsy. The state of the illnesses progressed quickly and both patients ultimately succumbed to their conditions. The patient prognosis of fungal infection involvement PBC is poor. Patients treated with long-term hormone and immunosuppressive agents should be monitored. PMID:28352320

  13. Patient Report and Review of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infection after Cardiac Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Varun K; Hirsh, David S; Goswami, Neela D

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac implantable electronic devices are rare, but as more devices are implanted, these organisms are increasingly emerging as causes of early-onset infections. We report a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator pocket and associated bloodstream infection caused by an organism of the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, and we review the literature regarding mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac device implantations. Thirty-two such infections have been previously described; most (70%) were caused by rapidly growing species, of which M. fortuitum group species were predominant.When managing such infections, clinicians should consider the potential need for extended incubation of routine cultures or dedicated mycobacterial cultures for accurate diagnosis; combination antimicrobial drug therapy, even for isolates that appear to be macrolide susceptible, because of the potential for inducible resistance to this drug class; and the arrhythmogenicity of the antimicrobial drugs traditionally recommended for infections caused by these organisms.

  14. Current use of navigation system in ACL surgery: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Zaffagnini, S; Urrizola, F; Signorelli, C; Grassi, A; Di Sarsina, T Roberti; Lucidi, G A; Marcheggiani Muccioli, G M; Bonanzinga, T; Marcacci, M

    2016-11-01

    The present review aims to analyse the available literature regarding the use of navigation systems in ACL reconstructive surgery underling the evolution during the years. A research of indexed scientific papers was performed on PubMed and Cochrane Library database. The research was performed in December 2015 with no publication year restriction. Only English-written papers and related to the terms ACL, NAVIGATION, CAOS and CAS were considered. Two reviewers independently selected only those manuscripts that presented at least the application of navigation system for ACL reconstructive surgery. One hundred and forty-six of 394 articles were finally selected. In this analysis, it was possible to review the main uses of navigation system in ACL surgery including tunnel positioning for primary and revision surgery and kinematic assessment of knee laxity before and after different surgical procedures. In the early years, until 2006, navigation system was mainly used to improve tunnel positioning, but since the last decade, this tool has been principally used for kinematics evaluation. Increased accuracy of tunnel placement was observed using navigation surgery, especially, regarding femoral, 42 of 146 articles used navigation to guide tunnel positioning. During the following years, 82 of 146 articles have used navigation system to evaluate intraoperative knee kinematic. In particular, the importance of controlling rotatory laxity to achieve better surgical outcomes has been underlined. Several applications have been described and despite the contribution of navigation systems, its potential uses and theoretical advantages, there are still controversies about its clinical benefit. The present papers summarize the most relevant studies that have used navigation system in ACL reconstruction. In particular, the analysis identified four main applications of the navigation systems during ACL reconstructive surgery have been identified: (1) technical assistance for tunnel

  15. Titanium/titanium nitride temporomandibular joint prosthesis: historical background and a six-year clinical review.

    PubMed

    Bütow, K W; Blackbeard, G A; van der Merwe, A E

    2001-08-01

    The titanium/titanium nitride temporomandibular joint (TTN-TMJ) prosthesis, for the combined replacement of both the joint and the glenoid fossa, was developed in 1992 and introduced clinically in 1994. This joint prosthesis is manufactured from pure titanium and the condylar surfaces, as well as the fossa, are coated with titanium nitride for hardening of the contact surfaces. In two different research projects, the joint were first placed in experimental animals, before they were successfully placed in human subjects. Twenty seven joint prostheses used in human subjects have been analysed for this review.

  16. The development of drugs for treatment of sleeping sickness: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Only four drugs are available for the chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness; Suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine. The history of the development of these drugs is well known and documented. suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol were developed in the first half of the last century by the then recently established methods of medicinal chemistry. Eflornithine, originally developed in the 1970s as an anti-cancer drug, became a treatment of sleeping sickness largely by accident. This review summarises the developmental processes which led to these chemotherapies from the discovery of the first bioactive lead compounds to the identification of the final drugs. PMID:20219092

  17. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  18. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  19. Hepatitis C infection in hemodialysis patients: A review.

    PubMed

    Ozer Etik, Digdem; Ocal, Serkan; Boyacioglu, Ahmet Sedat

    2015-04-28

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who is treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation (KT). The survival rate for HCV-infected renal transplant recipients is better than that for HCV-infected hemodialysis patients on transplant waiting lists. Early diagnosis and treatment HCV infection prior to KT prevents complications post-transplantation and reduces mortality. In addition to screening for anti-HCV antibodies and detecting HCV RNA, percutaneous liver biopsy is particularly valuable for assessing the stage of liver damage in HCV-infected patients, because the stage of fibrosis is important determining optimal treatment for HCV. Studies have been demonstrated that with conventional interferon (IFN) monotherapy or pegylated IFN monotherapy are similar efficacy and safety in HCV-infected hemodialysis patients. Sustained viral responses (SVRs) with these monotherapies have ranged approximately 30% to 40%. Limited reports support the use of IFN and ribavirin combination therapy as antiviral treatment for ESRD patients or patients on hemodialysis. Ribavirin can be started at low dose and careful monitoring for side effects. Patients that show SVR after treatment are strong candidates for KT. It is also generally accepted that ESRD patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension should be referred to the liver transplant team for consideration of combined liver-KT.

  20. [A review on thyroid autoimmune disorders and HCV chronic infection].

    PubMed

    Di Domenicantonio, A; Politti, U; Marchi, S; De Bortoli, N; Giuggioli, D; Antonelli, A; Ferri, C

    2014-01-01

    Frequently, patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) chronic infection have high levels of serum anti-thyroperoxidase and/or anti-thyroglobulin autoantibodies, ultrasonographical signs of chronic autoimmune thyroiditis, and subclinical hypothyroidism, in female gender, vs healthy controls, or hepatitis B virus infected patients. In patients with "HCV-associated mixed cryoglobulinemia" (MC+HCV), a higher prevalence of autoimmune thyroid disorders was shown not only compared to controls, but also compared to HCV patients without cryoglobulinemia. Patients with MC+HCV or with HCV chronic infection, show an higher prevalence of papillary thyroid cancer than in controls, in particular in patients with autoimmune thyroiditis. Patients with HCV chronic infection, or with MC+HCV, in presence of autoimmune thyroiditis, show higher serum levels of T-helper (Th)1 (C-X-C motif) ligand 10 (CXCL10) chemokine than patients without thyroiditis. Probably, HCV thyroid infection acts by upregulating CXCL10 gene expression and secretion in thyrocytes recruiting Th1 lymphocytes, that secrete interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. These cytokines might induce a further CXCL10 secretion by thyrocytes, thus perpetuating the immune cascade, that may lead into the appearance of autoimmune thyroid disorders in genetically predisposed subjects. A careful monitoring of thyroid function and nodules are recommanded in HCV patients.

  1. Host response to Brucella infection: review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Elfaki, Mohamed G; Alaidan, Alwaleed Abdullah; Al-Hokail, Abdullah Abdulrahman

    2015-07-30

    Brucellosis is a zoonotic and contagious infectious disease caused by infection with Brucella species. The infecting brucellae are capable of causing a devastating multi-organ disease in humans with serious health complications. The pathogenesis of Brucella infection is influenced largely by host factors, Brucella species/strain, and the ability of invading brucellae to survive and replicate within mononuclear phagocytic cells, preferentially macrophages (Mf). Consequently, the course of human infection may appear as an acute fatal or progress into chronic debilitating infection with periodical episodes that leads to bacteremia and death. The existence of brucellae inside Mf represents one of the strategies used by Brucella to evade the host immune response and is responsible for treatment failure in certain human populations treated with anti-Brucella drugs. Moreover, the persistence of brucellae inside Mf complicates the diagnosis and may affect the host cell signaling pathways with consequent alterations in both innate and adaptive immune responses. Therefore, there is an urgent need to pursue the development of novel drugs and/or vaccine targets against human brucellosis using high throughput technologies in genomics, proteomics, and immunology.

  2. Hepatitis C infection in hemodialysis patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Ozer Etik, Digdem; Ocal, Serkan; Boyacioglu, Ahmet Sedat

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver disease is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who is treated with dialysis or kidney transplantation (KT). The survival rate for HCV-infected renal transplant recipients is better than that for HCV-infected hemodialysis patients on transplant waiting lists. Early diagnosis and treatment HCV infection prior to KT prevents complications post-transplantation and reduces mortality. In addition to screening for anti-HCV antibodies and detecting HCV RNA, percutaneous liver biopsy is particularly valuable for assessing the stage of liver damage in HCV-infected patients, because the stage of fibrosis is important determining optimal treatment for HCV. Studies have been demonstrated that with conventional interferon (IFN) monotherapy or pegylated IFN monotherapy are similar efficacy and safety in HCV-infected hemodialysis patients. Sustained viral responses (SVRs) with these monotherapies have ranged approximately 30% to 40%. Limited reports support the use of IFN and ribavirin combination therapy as antiviral treatment for ESRD patients or patients on hemodialysis. Ribavirin can be started at low dose and careful monitoring for side effects. Patients that show SVR after treatment are strong candidates for KT. It is also generally accepted that ESRD patients with decompensated cirrhosis and portal hypertension should be referred to the liver transplant team for consideration of combined liver-KT. PMID:25937865

  3. Pertussis immunisation and control in England and Wales, 1957 to 2012: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Amirthalingam, G; Gupta, S; Campbell, H

    2013-09-19

    This review summarises the epidemiology and control of pertussis in England and Wales since the introduction of routine immunisation and considers the implications for future control. Routine infant immunisation with a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine was introduced in 1957 and had a marked impact on the overall disease burden. Following a fall in vaccine coverage during the 1970s and 80s linked to a safety scare with wP vaccine, there was an extended period of high coverage and pertussis incidence fell dramatically. Incidence continued to decrease with the introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine in the pre-school booster in November 2001 and in the primary United Kingdom (UK) schedule in September 2004 but has increased since July 2011. In response to a high rate of pertussis in infants, a temporary vaccination programme for pregnant women was introduced in October 2012. The key aim of the programme is to protect vulnerable infants from birth in the first months of life, before they can be fully protected by routine infant immunisation. A review of the UK adolescent immunisation programme is currently ongoing and the inclusion of a pertussis booster is being considered.

  4. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  5. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome.

  6. Infections in patients with diabetes mellitus: A review of pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Casqueiro, Juliana; Casqueiro, Janine; Alves, Cresio

    2012-01-01

    In general, infectious diseases are more frequent and/or serious in patients with diabetes mellitus, which potentially increases their morbimortality. The greater frequency of infections in diabetic patients is caused by the hyperglycemic environment that favors immune dysfunction (e.g., damage to the neutrophil function, depression of the antioxidant system, and humoral immunity), micro- and macro-angiopathies, neuropathy, decrease in the antibacterial activity of urine, gastrointestinal and urinary dysmotility, and greater number of medical interventions in these patients. The infections affect all organs and systems. Some of these problems are seen mostly in diabetic people, such as foot infections, malignant external otitis, rhinocerebral mucormycosis, and gangrenous cholecystitis. In addition to the increased morbidity, infectious processes may be the first manifestation of diabetes mellitus or the precipitating factors for complications inherent to the disease, such as diabetic ketoacidosis and hypoglycemia. Immunization with anti-pneumococcal and influenza vaccines is recommended to reduce hospitalizations, deaths, and medical expenses. PMID:22701840

  7. Diabetic foot infections: a team-oriented review of medical and surgical management

    PubMed Central

    Capobianco, Claire M; Stapleton, John J

    2010-01-01

    As the domestic and international incidence of diabetes and metabolic syndrome continues to rise, health care providers need to continue improving management of the long-term complications of the disease. Emergency department visits and hospital admissions for diabetic foot infections are increasingly commonplace, and a like-minded multidisciplinary team approach is needed to optimize patient care. Early recognition of severe infections, medical stabilization, appropriate antibiotic selection, early surgical intervention, and strategic plans for delayed reconstruction are crucial components of managing diabetic foot infections. The authors review initial medical and surgical management and staged surgical reconstruction of diabetic foot infections in the inpatient setting. PMID:22396806

  8. The genetic analysis of tolerance to infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kause, Antti; Ødegård, Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    Tolerance to infections is defined as the ability of a host to limit the impact of a given pathogen burden on host performance. Uncoupling resistance and tolerance is a challenge, and there is a need to be able to separate them using specific trait recording or statistical methods. We present three statistical methods that can be used to investigate genetics of tolerance-related traits. Firstly, using random regressions, tolerance can be analyzed as a reaction norm slope in which host performance (y-axis) is regressed against an increasing pathogen burden (x-axis). Genetic variance in tolerance slopes is the genetic variance for tolerance. Variation in tolerance can induce genotype re-ranking and changes in genetic and phenotypic variation in host performance along the pathogen burden trajectory, contributing to environment-dependent genetic responses to selection. Such genotype-by-environment interactions can be quantified by combining random regressions and covariance functions. To apply random regressions, pathogen burden of individuals needs to be recorded. Secondly, when pathogen burden is not recorded, the cure model for time-until-death data allows separating two traits, susceptibility and endurance. Susceptibility is whether or not an individual was susceptible to an infection, whereas endurance denotes how long time it took until the infection killed a susceptible animal (influenced by tolerance). Thirdly, the normal mixture model can be used to classify continuously distributed host performance, such as growth rate, into different sub-classes (e.g., non-infected and infected), which allows estimation of host performance reduction specific to infected individuals. Moreover, genetics of host performance can be analyzed separately in healthy and affected animals, even in the absence of pathogen burden and survival data. These methods provide novel tools to increase our understanding on the impact of parasites, pathogens, and production diseases on host

  9. Pan-spinal infection: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kow, Chien Yew; Etherington, Greg; Ton, Lu; Liew, Susan; Cheng, Allen C.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Panspinal infection usually presents with fever, back pain, neurological deficit, and in advanced cases multi-organ failure and septic shock. The choice of treatment for panspinal infection is challenging because these patients are usually medically unstable with severe neurological compromise. The objective of this study is to review management and long term outcomes for patients with panspinal infection. Methods A retrospective review of patients with panspinal infection treated in our center over a 5-year period [Jan 2010–Dec 2014] and a review of the current published literatures was undertaken. Results We identified 4 patients with panspinal infection. One case was managed medically due to high perioperative risk, whilst the other three were managed surgically whilst on antibiotic therapy. All 3 cases managed surgically improved neurologically and infection subsided, whereas the patient managed medically did not change neurologically and infection subsided. Conclusions Patients with panspinal infection should be treated surgically unless the medical risk of surgery or anaesthesia is prohibitive. PMID:27757433

  10. What is a "periprosthetic shoulder infection"? A systematic review of two decades of publications.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Jason E; Somerson, Jeremy S; Vo, Kiet V; Matsen, Frederick A

    2017-04-01

    While as many as 50% of revision shoulder arthroplasties are culture positive, a consistent, clinically useful definition of a "periprosthetic shoulder infection" is lacking. We conducted a systematic review of the published literature with respect to (1) the definition of a "periprosthetic shoulder infection", (2) the pre-operative evaluation for possible infection, and (3) the harvesting and culturing of specimens at the time of surgical revision. Using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines, we identified 20 studies concerning infection at the time of revision shoulder arthroplasty. The review was registered in the international Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews. An explicit definition of infection was not present in six studies (27%). Classification systems used for periprosthetic hip and knee infections were used in three studies (14%). Clinical signs and symptoms were used in all definitions, but most studies did not report microbiologic results or culturing practices. Synthesis of the literature on failed arthroplasties with positive cultures is compromised by lack of standardization, leaving surgeons without secure evidence on which to base diagnostic and treatment decisions. These decisions would be better informed if authors used a consistent approach in the evaluation of failed arthroplasties with respect to the number and source of specimens submitted, the culture technique, the number of specimens that became culture positive, the bacteria identified, and the bacterial load recovered from the shoulder. This was a systematic review of reports of all levels.

  11. [Tsukamurella infections. Review of the literature apropos of a case].

    PubMed

    Rey, D; Fraisse, P; Riegel, P; Piemont, Y; Lang, J M

    1997-01-01

    The genus Tsukamurella belongs to the family Nocardiaceae, and is an environmental saprophyte. The type species is Tsukamurella paurometabola. Its microbiological identification and differentiation from the other species containing mycolic acids can be difficult. There has been a few cases of human infections reported, usually in patients with special conditions, such as chronic lung pathology, immuno-suppression (leukemia, solid tumors, maybe HIV-infection) or the long-term use of indwelling catheters. The treatment of choice, despite the lack of adequate guidelines, is an antibiotherapy combining a beta-lactam and an aminoglycoside; catheter removal appears to be essential for cure.

  12. From a historic review to horizons beyond: lithium-sulphur batteries run on the wheels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-04

    In terms of sustainable development and environmental issues, the design and fabrication of efficient energy storage devices will be more critical in the future than at any time in the past. Li-S batteries are promising candidates for such a purpose due to their high specific capacity and low environmental impact. This review has systematically retraced the advances in the field of Li-S batteries over the past half century and highlighted the main breakthroughs in a number of areas, covering the mechanism determination, cathode engineering, theoretical simulation, and electrolyte tailoring and anode protection. Furthermore, we discuss the remaining challenges towards their practical application. It is expected that Li-S batteries with 3D inter-connected or conformal assemblies will surpass new horizons in the coming years.

  13. A Historical Review of Cermet Fuel Development and the Engine Performance Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews test data for cermet fuel samples developed in the 1960's to better quantify Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) cermet engine performance, and to better understand contemporary fuel testing results. Over 200 cermet (W-UO2) samples were tested by thermally cycling to 2500 deg (2770 K) in hydrogen. The data indicates two issues at high temperatures: the vaporization rate of UO2 and the chemical stability of UO2. The data show that cladding and chemical stabilizers each result in large, order of magnitude improvements in high temperature performance, while other approaches yield smaller, incremental improvements. Data is very limited above 2770 K, and this complicates predictions of engine performance at high Isp. The paper considers how this material performance data translates into engine performance. In particular, the location of maximum temperature within the fuel element and the effect of heat deposition rate are examined.

  14. Major contributions towards finding a cure for cancer through chemotherapy: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Masood, Imran; Kiani, Maria H; Ahmad, Mahmood; Masood, Muhammed I; Sadaquat, Hadia

    2016-01-01

    The history of cancer chemotherapy is as old as cancer itself. With the increase in the complexities of cancer and the development of resistance towards existing anticancer agents, increased attention is now being paid to the advancement of chemotherapy. Some chemotherapeutic agents were discovered by accident or trial-and-error methods while others were found to be useful for neoplasia when they were being evaluated for some other purpose. Broadly, these agents have been classified as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, platinum compounds, antitumor antibiotics and natural products. Hormones and compounds interfering with hormone metabolism are widely used in cancer treatment, besides monoclonal antibodies and small molecules targeting angiogenesis. In this review an attempt is made to discuss the major breakthroughs that have shaped the course of cancer chemotherapy, helping to decrease the mortality as well as lessen the suffering of patients.

  15. Richter’s Hernia and Sir Frederick Treves: An Original Clinical Experience, Review, and Historical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Wolfgang; Zellweger, René

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical recognition, pathology, and management of Richter’s hernia and to review the relevant literature of the past 400 years. Summary Background Data The earliest known reported case of Richter’s hernia occurred in 1598 and was described by Fabricius Hildanus. The first scientific description of this particular hernia was given by August Gottlob Richter in 1778, who presented it as “the small rupture.” In 1887, Sir Frederick Treves gave an excellent overview on the topic and proposed the title “Richter’s hernia.” To his work—a cornerstone to modern understanding—hardly any new aspects can be added today. Since then, only occasional case reports or small series of retrospectively collected Richter’s hernias have been published. Methods The authors draw on their experience with 18 prospectively collected cases treated in the ICRC Lopiding Hospital for War Surgery in northern Kenya between February and December 1998 and review the relevant literature of the past 400 years. Results The classic features of Richter’s hernia were confirmed in all case studies of patients: only part of the circumference of the bowel is entrapped and strangulated in the hernial orifice. The involved segment may rapidly pass into gangrene, yet signs of intestinal obstruction are often absent. The death rate in the authors’ collective was 17%. Conclusion Richter’s hernia is a deceptive entity whose high death rate can be reduced by accurate diagnosis and early surgery. Considering the increasing incidence at laparoscope insertion sites, awareness of this special type of hernia with its misleading clinical appearance is important and of general interest. PMID:11066144

  16. Credible Leadership-In the Eyes of the Follower: A Historical Review of Leadership Theory throughout the Twentieth Century in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sharon C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review was to trace the credible leadership construct of trustworthiness, integrity, honesty, and consistency in leadership theory development during the last 100 years in the United States. Theory focus, key U.S. pivotal events, and follower importance influenced the construct's occurrence in leadership theory. …

  17. A Historical Review of the Representation of the Visual Field in Primary Visual Cortex with Special Reference to the Neural Mechanisms Underlying Macular Sparing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leff, Alexander

    2004-01-01

    This article comprises a historical review of the literature pertaining to the representation of the visual field in human primary visual cortex. A brief survey of the anatomy of the visual system is followed by a critical evaluation of the key studies that have informed both the issue of the disproportionate representation of central vision…

  18. Credible Leadership-In the Eyes of the Follower: A Historical Review of Leadership Theory throughout the Twentieth Century in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sharon C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review was to trace the credible leadership construct of trustworthiness, integrity, honesty, and consistency in leadership theory development during the last 100 years in the United States. Theory focus, key U.S. pivotal events, and follower importance influenced the construct's occurrence in leadership theory. …

  19. A systematic review of oral fungal infections in patients receiving cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Latortue, Marie C.; Hong, Catherine H.; Ariyawardana, Anura; D’Amato-Palumbo, Sandra; Fischer, Dena J.; Martof, Andrew; Nicolatou-Galitis, Ourania; Patton, Lauren L.; Elting, Linda S.; Spijkervet, Fred K. L.; Brennan, Michael T.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose The aims of this systematic review were to determine, in patients receiving cancer therapy, the prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization, to determine the impact on quality of life and cost of care, and to review current management strategies for oral fungal infections. Methods Thirty-nine articles that met the inclusion/exclusion criteria were independently reviewed by two calibrated reviewers, each using a standard form. Information was extracted on a number of variables, including study design, study population, sample size, interventions, blinding, outcome measures, methods, results, and conclusions for each article. Areas of discrepancy between the two reviews were resolved by consensus. Studies were weighted as to the quality of the study design, and recommendations were based on the relative strength of each paper. Statistical analyses were performed to determine the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection and fungal colonization. Results For all cancer treatments, the weighted prevalence of clinical oral fungal infection was found to be 7.5% pretreatment, 39.1% during treatment, and 32.6% after the end of cancer therapy. Head and neck radiotherapy and chemotherapy were each independently associated with a significantly increased risk for oral fungal infection. For all cancer treatments, the prevalence of oral colonization with fungal organisms was 48.2% before treatment, 72.2% during treatment, and 70.1% after treatment. The prophylactic use of fluconazole during cancer therapy resulted in a prevalence of clinical fungal infection of 1.9%. No information specific to oral fungal infections was found on quality of life or cost of care. Conclusions There is an increased risk of clinically significant oral fungal infection during cancer therapy. Systemic antifungals are effective in the prevention of clinical oral fungal infection in patients receiving cancer therapy. Currently available topical antifungal

  20. Historical review on the use of recombinant human erythropoietin in chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Winearls, C G

    1995-01-01

    The success of maintenance haemodialysis in the 1960s was blighted by the problem of anaemia. Treatment with iron, folic acid, androgens and transfusions did no more than minimize its effects. The need for a renewable source of erythropoietin was appreciated very early but the hope took 25 years to realize. Cloning and expression of the human gene was achieved in 1984 and clinical trials planned even before the descriptions of the recombinant hormone were published. The Amgen material was tested in parallel studies in Seattle and England and by the end of 1986 the efficacy of recombinant human erythropoietin (r-HuEPO) given in large intravenous bolus doses in reversing the anaemia of uraemia was established. The benefits were immediately obvious: relief from transfusion dependence was the unequivocal evidence but the effect on 'wellbeing' though subjective was remarkable. Large clinical trials were completed in Europe and the USA so that r-HuEPO was licensed as a therapeutic drug less than two years later. The pilot studies flagged a number of key issues: hypertension, sometimes with encephalopathy, occurred in patients whose blood pressure was labile before treatment; vascular access failure seemed more frequent and hyperkalaemia was thought to reflect less efficient dialysis. Failure to respond focused attention on iron balance as well as on factors such as infection, aluminium, and hyperparathyroidism. A more clear understanding of the pathogenesis of the anaemia of uraemia was made possible by dissection of the specific effects of the exogenous erythropoietin on erythroid function.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population - systematic review.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Viviane; Camargos, Paulo A M; Anchieta, Lêni M; Bouzada, Maria C F; Oliveira, Gabriela M de; Clemente, Wanessa T; Romanelli, Roberta M de C

    2017-08-30

    This was a systematic review of the incidence density and risk factors for central venous catheter-related infections in a neonatal population. The MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane, BDENF, SciELO, and LILACS databases were used without date or language restriction. Studies that analyzed risk factors for bloodstream infections in newborns were identified. A total of 134 articles were found that met the eligibility criteria. Of these articles, 14 were selected that addressed risk factors for central venous catheter-related infection in neonates. Catheter-related bloodstream infections remain an important complication, as shown by the incidence rates reported in the studies included in this review. The observed risk factors indicate that low birth weight, prematurity, and longer catheter permanence are related to a higher incidence of bloodstream infections. It has been observed that low rates of catheter-related infections, i.e., close to zero, are already a reality in health institutions in developed countries, since they use infection surveillance and control programs. Catheter-related bloodstream infections still show high incidence density rates in developing countries. The authors emphasize the need for further longitudinal studies and the need for better strategies to prevent risk factors, aiming at the reduction of catheter-related infections. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  2. Infections and inflammatory diseases as risk factors for venous thrombosis. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tichelaar, Y I G Vladimir; Kluin-Nelemans, Hanneke J C; Meijer, Karina

    2012-05-01

    Inflammation and venous thrombosis are intertwined. Only in the recent 15 years clinical epidemiological studies have focussed on inflammatory or infectious diseases as risk factors for venous thrombosis. Although a few reviews and many case reports or studies on these topic has been written, a review reporting relative or absolute risks for venous thrombosis has not been published yet. We performed a systematic review using Medline, Pubmed and Embase and found 31 eligible articles. Inflammatory bowel disease, ANCA-associated vasculitis, infections in general and more specifically, human immunodeficiency virus, pneumonia and urinary tract infections are associated with an increased risk of venous thrombosis.

  3. Mycobacterium abscessus ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Montero, Jose A; Alrabaa, Sally F; Wills, Todd S

    2016-04-01

    A 30-year-old man with history of neonatal hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement presented with Mycobacterium abscessus shunt infection despite no shunt manipulation over 10 years prior to presentation. Cure was not achieved until complete removal of all CNS shunt foreign body was performed despite initial adequate antimicrobial therapy.

  4. Fungal Infections of the Ear in Immunocompromised Host: a Review

    PubMed Central

    Viswanatha, Borlingegowda; Naseeruddin, Khaja

    2011-01-01

    Otomycosis is a fungal infection of the external ear; middle ear and open mastoid cavity.1 Meyer first described the fungal infection of the external ear canal in 1884. External ear canal has an ideal warm humid environment for the proliferation of fungus.2 Although this disease is rarely life threatening, it can presents a challenging and frustrating situation for the otologist and patients due to long term treatment and high rate of recurrence.3 Otomycosis is seen more frequently in immunocompromised patients as compared to immunocompetent persons. Recurrence rate is high in immunocompromised patients and they need longer duration treatment and complications are more frequent in immunocompromised patients. In the recent years; opportunistic fungal infections are gaining greater importance in human medicine as a result of possibly huge number of immunocompromised patients.4 In immunocompromised patients, it is important that the treatment of otomycosis be vigorous, to minimize complications such as hearing loss, tympanic membrane perforations and invasive temporal bone infection.5 Fungal cultures are essential to confirm the diagnosis. Hematological investigations play a very important role in confirming the diagnosis and immunity status of the patients. In diabetic patients with otomycosis, along with antifungal therapy, blood sugar levels should be controlled with medical therapy to prevent complications. PMID:21625307

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi infection: a review with emphasis on cutaneous manifestations

    PubMed Central

    Hemmige, Vagish; Tanowitz, Herbert; Sethi, Aisha

    2013-01-01

    Chagas disease, an infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by the Reduuvid insect vector, remains a major cause of morbidity in Central and South America over a century after its discovery in 1909. Though major advances in preventing the spread of this disease have been made in recent decades, millions of individuals remain chronically infected due to prior exposure to T. cruzi and are at risk for future complications from the disease. Dermatologic manifestations of acute infection may include localized swelling at the site of inoculation (chagoma), conjunctivitis (Romaña’s sign), and a generalized morbilliform eruption (schizotrypanides). Reactivation of quiescent infection in immunocompromised hosts due to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or organ transplantation can present with fever and skin lesions including panniculitis. The wide-spread emigration of chronic carriers of T. cruzi to North America, Europe, and Australia makes it imperative that dermatologists worldwide be familiar with this entity to ensure proper diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22515575

  6. Staphylococci and staphylococcal infections.

    PubMed

    Foster, Timothy J

    2010-12-01

    The International Symposium of Staphylococci and Staphylococcal Infections is a biennial conference that brings together clinicians who treat staphylococcal infections in the community and in hospitals, veterinary microbiologists who study staphylococcal infections in animals, and basic scientists who study pathogenesis of infection and the biology of staphylococci. Over 430 delegates from 24 countries met in the historic Assembly Rooms in Bath, UK. Sessions comprised keynote lectures along with short talks by junior investigators chosen from submitted abstracts. This article reviews several important developments in the field that were discussed at the conference.

  7. Behavioral Interventions for Preventing Sexually Transmitted Infections and Unintended Pregnancies: An Overview of Systematic Reviews.

    PubMed

    Macaya Pascual, A; Ferreres Riera, J R; Campoy Sánchez, A

    2016-05-01

    Countless sex education programs have been implemented worldwide in recent decades, but epidemiological data show no improvement in rates of sexually transmitted infections or unintended pregnancies. To summarize the evidence from higher-quality systematic reviews on the efficacy of behavioral interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies. We conducted an overview of reviews by selecting systematic reviews that met minimum quality criteria in terms of the design of the studies reviewed. We compared the results obtained when the effects of interventions were assessed on the basis of objective criteria (biological data) to those obtained when outcomes were assessed on the basis of subjective criteria (self-reports). The results of Cochrane and non-Cochrane reviews were also compared. We identified 55 systematic reviews. No overall effect on the sexual behavior of program participants was observed in 72.5% of the reviews that used objective criteria and in 48.1% of the reviews based on subjective criteria. In the Cochrane reviews, no evidence of an overall effect was observed in 86% of reviews based on objective variables and in 70.5% of those based on subjective variables. There is no evidence that behavioral interventions modify rates of sexually transmitted infections (including human immunodeficiency virus infections) or unintended pregnancies, particularly when effects are assessed using objective, biological data. Primary prevention strategies for sexually transmitted infections and unintended pregnancies need to be re-evaluated. Copyright © 2015 AEDV. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  8. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diversification during Infection Development in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most prevalent pathogen of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Its long persistence in CF airways is associated with sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including biofilm formation, resistance to antibiotics, hypermutability and customized pathogenicity in which virulence factors are expressed according the infection stage. CF adaptation is triggered by high selective pressure of inflamed CF lungs and by antibiotic treatments. Bacteria undergo genetic, phenotypic, and physiological variations that are fastened by the repeating interplay of mutation and selection. During CF infection development, P. aeruginosa gradually shifts from an acute virulent pathogen of early infection to a host-adapted pathogen of chronic infection. This paper reviews the most common changes undergone by P. aeruginosa at each stage of infection development in CF lungs. The comprehensive understanding of the adaptation process of P. aeruginosa may help to design more effective antimicrobial treatments and to identify new targets for future drugs to prevent the progression of infection to chronic stages. PMID:25438018

  9. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against murine Taenia crassiceps cysticercosis: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Our work of the last 25 yr was concerned with the development of a vaccine aimed to prevent porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis and was based on cross-reacting Taenia crassiceps antigens that had proved protective against experimental intraperitoneal murine T. crassiceps cysticercosis (EIMTcC). In recent times the efficacy of the vaccine has been considered in need of confirmation, and the use of EIMTcC has been questioned as a valid tool in screening for vaccine candidates among the many antigens possibly involved. A review of our work divided in 2 parts is presented at this point, the first dealing with EIMTcC and the second with porcine T. solium cysticercosis (presented in this issue). Herein, we revise our results using EIMTcC as a measure of the protective capacity of T. crassiceps complex antigen mixtures, of purified native antigens, and of S3Pvac anti-cysticercosis vaccine composed by 3 protective peptides: GK-1, KETc1, and KETc12 either synthetic or recombinantly expressed and collectively or separately, by diverse delivery systems when administered at different doses and by different routes. Statistical analyses of the data lead confidently to the strong inference that S3Pvac is indeed an effective vaccine against EIMTcC via specific and non-specific mechanisms of protection.

  10. Inhibin at 90: From Discovery to Clinical Application, a Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Makanji, Yogeshwar; Zhu, Jie; Mishra, Rama; Holmquist, Chris; Wong, Winifred P. S.; Schwartz, Neena B.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    When it was initially discovered in 1923, inhibin was characterized as a hypophysiotropic hormone that acts on pituitary cells to regulate pituitary hormone secretion. Ninety years later, what we know about inhibin stretches far beyond its well-established capacity to inhibit activin signaling and suppress pituitary FSH production. Inhibin is one of the major reproductive hormones involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Although the physiological role of inhibin as an activin antagonist in other organ systems is not as well defined as it is in the pituitary-gonadal axis, inhibin also modulates biological processes in other organs through paracrine, autocrine, and/or endocrine mechanisms. Inhibin and components of its signaling pathway are expressed in many organs. Diagnostically, inhibin is used for prenatal screening of Down syndrome as part of the quadruple test and as a biochemical marker in the assessment of ovarian reserve. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of our current understanding of the biological role of inhibin, its relationship with activin, its signaling mechanisms, and its potential value as a diagnostic marker for reproductive function and pregnancy-associated conditions. PMID:25051334

  11. Two Decades of HELINA Conferences: A Historical Review of Health Informatics in Africa.

    PubMed

    Korpela, M

    2013-01-01

    Review the history of health informatics in Africa as projected by the HELINA conferences, to draw inferences for the next phase. Summarising from the proceedings of HELINA 93, unpublished programmes and reports of later conferences, abstracts and presentations on the web sites of the most recent conferences, and personal recollections of all but one of the conferences. Analysing the e-health situation in Africa in 1993, 2007 and 2011 by mapping software applications presented in the respective conferences on a simplified model of potential spots for e-health use. The following phases were identified: Pre-phase from 1979; individual scientific papers. Phase 1, the 1993-1999 conferences; carried by the momentum of HELINA 93. Phase 2, interregnum; difficulty to find conference organisers. Phase 3, the 2007-2011 conferences; carried by the HELINA association as IMIA Africa Region. Currently most of the important spots for e-health use are being populated by appropriate software applications, mostly by collaborative open source projects. Phase 4 starting, characterised by the expansion of e-health practice on the continent, the HELINA association as a key organiser, and annual HELINA conferences becoming scientifically stronger and more visible. Key issues in making health informatics blossom in Africa include local development capacity, community orientation, collaborative design, international collaboration, government support, champions and organised continent-wide collaboration.

  12. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    PubMed

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  13. Cushing's disease, pseudo-Cushing states and the dexamethasone test: a historical and critical review.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, J

    2014-08-01

    The dexamethasone (DXM) test has been widely used for diagnosing Cushing's disease (CD). The purpose of this paper is to review its diagnostic merit based on calculation of data extracted from earlier publications. Studies presenting individual values for patients with CD and normal subjects were identified through PubMed searches and references in pertinent studies. Calculation of the retrieved data demonstrated huge variation in the relative suppressibility, negative suppression being common. Furthermore, in almost each study retrieved, the pre and post DXM values were closely correlated. Finally, the generally accepted view that DXM causes less suppression in Cushing's disease than in euadrenal controls appears unfounded. A central issue in the definition of so-called "pseudo-Cushing's states" is failure to suppress cortisol secretion with DXM. From analysis of the literature it appears quite possible that this does not reflect a specific endocrine deficit, but a physiological "stress" reaction. The above issues question the diagnostic value of the test, in particular in clinically and biochemically borderline cases.

  14. Field electron and ion emission from charged surfaces: a strategic historical review of theoretical concepts.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Richard G

    2003-01-01

    The field-electron (FE) and field-ion techniques directly observe and measure atomic-level surface processes that occur in very high electric fields. In theoretical terms, the high fields put large additional terms into Hamiltonians and free energies, and significantly modify many aspects of the surface physics and chemistry, as compared with the field-free situation. This paper presents a strategic review of the fundamental science of some of these high-field surface effects and processes, as developed in the context of the field electron and ion emission techniques. It outlines the main theoretical concepts developed, notes some twists of scientific history, and suggests useful contributions made to mainstream science. Topics covered are basic aspects of FE emission, surface field ionisation, localised field adsorption, charged surfaces theory, field-ion image contrast theory and associated imaging-gas kinetics, field evaporation, and aspects of the thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Despite many years of effort, important aspects of the theory remain incomplete. Some theoretical challenges are noted.

  15. The association between historical childhood sexual abuse and later parenting stress: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Hugill, Melanie; Berry, Katherine; Fletcher, Ian

    2017-04-01

    An individual's own experiences of childhood and being parented are likely to be key determinants of their later parenting experiences. Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is arguably the most toxic experience to occur in childhood and therefore may be particularly likely to impact on parenting stress in the context of parenting one's own children. This paper aims to review studies investigating associations between earlier CSA and later parenting to determine the size and consistency of the effects, identify any mediators and moderators of the relationship, and assess the quality of the evidence base. PsycINFO, Academic Search Complete, CINAHL, MEDLINE, Web of Science, PubMed and PILOTS were searched from date of inception until 4th March 2016 and 14 studies met the inclusion criteria. Seven studies indicated a degree of direct association between experiencing CSA and later parenting stress, two studies found no association and five studies suggest that other variables such as locus of control and current stressors may affect the relationship between CSA and parenting stress. Additionally, 10 studies suggest an indirect relationship between CSA and parenting stress through current level of depression. Results suggest the existence of a relationship between CSA and parenting stress though this association is mostly mediated by other variables, including depression and other stressors. Clearer definitions of CSA and use of validated questionnaires are essential to progress this field of research.

  16. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  17. Investigating Earthquake-induced Landslides­a Historical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefer, D. K.; Geological Survey, Us; Park, Menlo; Usa, Ca

    Although earthquake-induced landslides have been described in documents for more than 3700 years, accounts from earthquakes before the late eighteenth century are incomplete concerning landslide numbers and vague concerning landslide character- istics. They are thus typically misleading concerning the true abundance of landslides and range of landslide characteristics. Beginning with studies of the 1783 Calabria, Italy earthquake, more complete and precise data concerning the occurrence of land- slides in earthquakes have become available. The historical development of knowl- edge concerning landslides triggered by earthquakes can be divided into several peri- ods. The first period, from 1783 until the first application of aerial photography, was characterized by ground-based studies of earthquake effects, typically carried out by formal scientific commissions. These formal studies typically identified a large, but not necessarily comprehensive, sampling of localities where landslides had occurred. In some, but not all cases, landslide characteristics were also described in enough de- tail that the general range of landslide characteristics could begin to be determined. More recently, some nineteenth to mid-twentieth century earthquakes have been stud- ied using retrospective analyses, in which the landslide occurrences associated with the event are inferred years to decades later, using contemporary accounts, mapping from aerial photographs, statistical studies, and (or) geotechnical analyses. The first use of aerial photographs to map earthquake effects immediately after the event prob- ably occurred in 1948. Since that time, the use of aerial photography has greatly facil- itated the compilation of post-earthquake landslide inventories, although because of the limitations of aerial photography, ground-based field studies continue to be cru- cial in preparing accurate and comprehensive landslide maps. Beginning with a small California earthquake in 1957

  18. Methadone maintenance treatment (MMT): a review of historical and clinical issues.

    PubMed

    Joseph, H; Stancliff, S; Langrod, J

    2000-01-01

    Methadone maintenance has been evaluated since its development in 1964 as a medical response to the post-World War II heroin epidemic in New York City. The findings of major early studies have been consistent. Methadone maintenance reduces and/or eliminates the use of heroin, reduces the death rates and criminality associated with heroin use, and allows patients to improve their health and social productivity. In addition, enrollment in methadone maintenance has the potential toreduce the transmission of infectious diseases associated with heroin injection, such as hepatitis and HIV. The principal effects of methadone maintenance are to relieve narcotic craving, suppress the abstinence syndrome, and block the euphoric effects associated with heroin. A majority of patients require 80-120 mg/d of methadone, or more, to achieve these effects and require treatment for an indefinite period of time, since methadone maintenance is a corrective but not a curative treatment for heroin addiction. Lower doses may not be as effective or provide the blockade effect. Methadone maintenance has been found to be medically safe and nonsedating. It is also indicated for pregnant women addicted to heroin. Reviews issued by the Institute of Medicine and the National Institutes of Health have defined narcotic addiction as a chronic medical disorder and have claimed that methadone maintenance coupled with social services is the most effective treatment for this condition. These agencies recommend reducing governmental regulation to facilitate patients access to treatment. In addition, they recommend that the number of programs be expanded, and that new models of treatment be implemented,if the nationwide problem of addiction is to be brought under control. The National Institutes of Health also recommend that methadone maintenance be available to persons under legal supervision, such as probationers, parolees and the incarcerated. However, stigma and bias directed at the programs and the

  19. The cultural-bound disease "empacho" in Argentina. A comprehensive botanico-historical and ethnopharmacological review.

    PubMed

    Campos-Navarro, R; Scarpa, G F

    2013-07-09

    Empacho is one of the most recognized cultural-bound syndromes in Argentina. It is a digestive disorder with many causes, being excessive food intake the most frequent. It is easily diagnosed in household medicine and there are different treatments applied for releasing the obstruction of the gastrointestinal tract. Therapeutics includes the use of medicinal plants and abdominal maneuvers, as well as rituals of magical and/or religious nature. The aim of this work is to analyze the compiled literature, considering documents from the XVIIIth century up to present, related to the employed plant species for the treatment of empacho. The bibliographic and journal collections of several Argentinean and foreign libraries and bookstores were consulted, in addition to the comprehensive review of the specific information found online. Ninety (90) primary sources, spanning three hundred years (from 1710 to 2010) were found; most of them included ethnobotanical studies besides others of medical botany, pharmacobotanical and anthropological origin. A total of 152 plant species used to treat empacho were found in 360 total quotations, being Dysphania ambrosioides (L.) Mosyakin and Clemants; Alternanthera pungens Kunth; Ruta chalepensis L.; Clinopodium gilliesii (Benth.) Kuntze; Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Moldenke; Lippia turbinata Griseb., and Pluchea sagittalis (Lam.) Cabrera, the most frequently mentioned. The main therapeutic properties of the medicinal plants cited against empacho are stomachic, purgative, antispasmodic, bitter-tonic, carminative, and cholagogue-choleretic. The variety of regions - spanning most of the country - from which the information comes, as well as the great variety of therapeutic strategies used, diversity of plant species and knowledge related to the treatment of empacho, is directly associated with the great significance that this disorder has within the system of medical-nosologic representations of the Argentinean popular medicine. Copyright

  20. A descriptive and historical review of bibliometrics with applications to medical sciences.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis F; Walker, Cheri K

    2015-06-01

    The discipline of bibliometrics involves the application of mathematical and statistical methods to scholarly publications. The first attempts at systematic data collection were provided by Alfred Lotka and Samuel Bradford, who subsequently established the foundational laws of bibliometrics. Eugene Garfield ushered in the modern era of bibliometrics with the routine use of citation analysis and systematized processing. Key elements of bibliometric analysis include database coverage, consistency and accuracy of the data, data fields, search options, and analysis and use of metrics. A number of bibliometric applications are currently being used in medical science and health care. Bibliometric parameters and indexes may be increasingly used by grant funding sources as measures of research success. Universities may build benchmarking standards from bibliometric data to determine academic achievement through promotion and tenure guidelines in the future. This article reviews the history, definition, laws, and elements of bibliometric principles and provides examples of bibliometric applications to the broader health care community. To accomplish this, the Medline (1966-2014) and Web of Science (1945-2014) databases were searched to identify relevant articles; select articles were also cross-referenced. Articles selected were those that provided background, history, descriptive analysis, and application of bibliometric principles and metrics to medical science and health care. No attempt was made to cover all areas exhaustively; rather, key articles were chosen that illustrate bibliometric concepts and enhance the reader's knowledge. It is important that faculty and researchers understand the limitations and appropriate uses of bibliometric data. Bibliometrics has considerable potential as a research area for health care scientists and practitioners that can be used to discover new information about academic trends, pharmacotherapy, disease, and broader health sciences

  1. Historical benchmarks for medical therapy trials in surgery- and radiation-refractory meningioma: a RANO review

    PubMed Central

    Kaley, Thomas; Barani, Igor; Chamberlain, Marc; McDermott, Michael; Panageas, Katherine; Raizer, Jeffrey; Rogers, Leland; Schiff, David; Vogelbaum, Michael; Weber, Damien; Wen, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    Background The outcomes of patients with surgery- and radiation-refractory meningiomas treated with medical therapies are poorly defined. Published reports are limited by small patient numbers, selection bias, inclusion of mixed histologic grades and stages of illness, and World Health Organization (WHO) criteria changes. This analysis seeks to define outcome benchmarks for future clinical trial design. Methods A PubMed literature search was performed for all English language publications on medical therapy for meningioma. Reports were tabulated and analyzed for number of patients, histologic grade, prior therapy, overall survival, progression-free survival (PFS), and radiographic response. Results Forty-seven publications were identified and divided by histology and prior therapies, including only those that treated patients who were surgery and radiation refractory for further analysis. This included a variety of agents (hydroxyurea, temozolomide, irinotecan, interferon-α, mifepristone, octreotide analogues, megestrol acetate, bevacizumab, imatinib, erlotinib, and gefitinib) from retrospective, pilot, and phase II studies, exploratory arms of other studies, and a single phase III study. The only outcome extractable from all studies was the PFS 6-month rate, and a weighted average was calculated separately for WHO grade I meningioma and combined WHO grade II/III meningioma. For WHO I meningioma, the weighted average PFS-6 was 29% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 20.3%–37.7%). For WHO II/III meningioma, the weighted average PFS-6 was 26% (95% CI: 19.3%–32.7%). Conclusions This comprehensive review confirms the poor outcomes of medical therapy for surgery- and radiation-refractory meningioma. We recommend the above PFS-6 benchmarks for future trial design. PMID:24500419

  2. Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Dore, M P; Sechi, G P; Errigo, A; Canelada, A; Poulain, M

    2015-04-01

    The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, which has been carefully reviewed and compared. Up to a short time ago, the LBZ population depended mostly upon livestock rearing, and consumption of animal-derived foods was relatively higher than in the rest of the island. The nutrition transition (NT) in urbanized and lowland areas began in the mid-1950s, fueled by economic development, whereas in the LBZ it started later owing to prolonged resistance to change by a society organized around a rather efficient pastoral economy. Even nowadays a large proportion of the population in this area still follows the traditional diet based on cereal-derived foods and dairy products. The LBZ cohorts comprising individuals who were of a mature age when NT began may have benefited both from the high-quality, albeit rather monotonous, traditional diet to which they had been exposed most of their life and from the transitional diet, which introduced positive changes such as more variety, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate meat intake. It could be speculated that these changes may have brought substantial health benefits to this particular aging group, which was in need of nutrient-rich food at this specific time in life, thereby resulting in a decreased mortality risk and, in turn, life-span extension.

  3. Chronic Infections of the Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Otunu, Oghenetejiri; Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between recurrent urinary tract infections and urinary bladder carcinoma risk has been inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review of observational studies to ascertain if there is any association between chronic urinary tract infection and urinary bladder carcinoma. A total of 10 databases were searched using Boolean: CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, SCIRUS, Cochrane, UK PubMed central, NHS evidence and WHO-website. The search yielded an initial hit of 3,518 articles and after screening and critical appraisal, seven studies were included for this review. Four articles reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer while three concluded a weak or no association at least in one gender. Main findings in this review were that most of the studies reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. However, inferences about the causal association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk should be drawn cautiously considering the methodological limitations of case-control studies included in this review. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the causal nature of relationships between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk.

  4. The impact of electronic healthcare associated infection surveillance software on infection prevention resources: A systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Russo, Philip L; Shaban, Ramon Z; MacBeth, Deborough; Carter, Abigail; Mitchell, Brett G

    2017-09-08

    Surveillance of healthcare-associated infections is fundamental for infection prevention. The methods and practices for surveillance have evolved as technology becomes more advanced. The availability of electronic surveillance software (ESS) has increased, and yet adoption of ESS is slow. It is argued that ESS deliver savings through automation, particularly in terms of human resourcing and infection prevention (IP) staff time. This paper describes the findings of a systematic review on the impact of ESS on IP resources. A systematic search was conducted of electronic databases Medline and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature published between 1st January 2006 and 31(st) December 2016 with analysis using Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 2832 articles were reviewed of which 16 studies met the inclusion criteria. IP resources were identified as time undertaken on surveillance. A reduction in IP staff time to undertake surveillance was demonstrated in 13 studies. The reduction proportion ranged from 12.5% - 98.4% (mean 73.9%). The remaining three did not allow for any estimation of the effect in terms of IP staff time. None of the studies demonstrated an increase in IP staff time. The results of this review demonstrate that adopting ESS yield considerable dividends in IP staff time relating to data collection and case ascertainment whilst maintaining high levels of sensitivity and specificity. This has the potential to enable reinvestment into other components of IP to maximise efficient use of scare IP resources. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Sandoval, Hugo; Akle, Nassim; Figueroa, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive – and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome. PMID:27403401

  6. Noncongenital central nervous system infections in children: radiology review.

    PubMed

    Acosta, Jorge Humberto Davila; Rantes, Claudia Isabel Lazarte; Arbelaez, Andres; Restrepo, Feliza; Castillo, Mauricio

    2014-06-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) are a very common worldwide health problem in childhood with significant morbidity and mortality. In children, viruses are the most common cause of CNS infections, followed by bacterial etiology, and less frequent due to mycosis and other causes. Noncomplicated meningitis is easier to recognize clinically; however, complications of meningitis such as abscesses, infarcts, venous thrombosis, or extra-axial empyemas are difficult to recognize clinically, and imaging plays a very important role on this setting. In addition, it is important to keep in mind that infectious process adjacent to the CNS such as mastoiditis can develop by contiguity in an infectious process within the CNS. We display the most common causes of meningitis and their complications.

  7. Surgical management of recurrent urinary tract infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bergamin, Paul A.

    2017-01-01

    There are many causes of recurrent urinary tract infections (rUTI) which are amenable to surgical management. This usually follows a lengthy trial of conservative management. Aetiological classification of rUTI requiring surgical management may be divided into congenital or acquired. Predisposing factors are classified into two groups; those providing a source for organisms, or by maintaining favourable conditions for the proliferation of organisms. Sources of infections include calculi, fistulae or abscesses. Conditions which predispose to bacterial proliferation include malignancies, foreign bodies, high post void residuals, and neuropathic bladders. Removal of identified sources, treating the obstruction, and improving urinary drainage, are all goals of surgical management. Surgical options for rUTI management can range from minimally invasive procedures such as endoscopic or percutaneous, through to more invasive requiring laparoscopic or an open approach. Surgery remains a very important and viable solution. PMID:28791234

  8. Ciclopirox for the treatment of superficial fungal infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Skinner, Alayne R

    2003-09-01

    Ciclopirox is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that also exhibits anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. The lotion and cream formulations of ciclopirox are effective in many types of infection, including tinea corporis/cruris, tinea pedis, cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, and seborrheic dermatitis. The new ciclopirox gel 0.77% formulation is also indicated for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, interdigital tinea pedis and tinea corporis.

  9. [A collective review of Vibrio vulnificus infection in Japan].

    PubMed

    Oishi, Hirotaka; Ura, Yukiko; Mitsumizo, Shinji; Nakashima, Mikio

    2006-11-01

    Vibrio vulnificus is found globally in marine coastal waters. Infection with this organism, via ingestion of raw shellfish or exposure to marine water, can cause necrotizing fasciitis and sepsis, which have high mortality and short latency. In Japan, many cases have been reported since 1980, mainly from hospitals in western prefectures. However, because of the sporadic nature of infection outbreaks, a thorough epidemiologic survey has not been done. We studied the epidemiological and clinical characteristics of Vibrio vulnificus infections reported in Japan from 1975 to 2005. We identified 185 cases using the medical article search engines Ichushi (Japan Medical Abstracts Society), CiNii (Citation Information by National Institute of Informatics), and PubMed over 30 years. The median age of patients was 59. The number of male patients was eight times the number of female patients; however, no significant difference in mortality was found between genders. In yearly distributions of patients, 20 cases were reported in 2001, a year in which we experienced more rainfall and a longer rainy season in Northern Kyushu. In monthly distribution, about 80% of cases were reported from July to September when sea water temperatures rise. About 40% of cases were reported in four prefectures around the Ariake Sea. The underlying disease indicated liver dysfunction in 90% of patients, but mortality was the same regardless of the infection pathway (oral ingestion or wound). Because of its rapid aggravation and high mortality rate, public education is important to prevent new cases. It is also highly recommended that patients with preexisting liver dysfunction avoid raw fish and limit exposure to marine water during the summer.

  10. Phage treatment of human infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T; Kuhl, Sarah J; Blasdel, Bob G

    2011-01-01

    Phages as bactericidal agents have been employed for 90 years as a means of treating bacterial infections in humans as well as other species, a process known as phage therapy. In this review we explore both the early historical and more modern use of phages to treat human infections. We discuss in particular the little-reviewed French early work, along with the Polish, US, Georgian and Russian historical experiences. We also cover other, more modern examples of phage therapy of humans as differentiated in terms of disease. In addition, we provide discussions of phage safety, other aspects of phage therapy pharmacology, and the idea of phage use as probiotics. PMID:22334863

  11. Diagnosis and prognosis of congenital CMV infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Gabrielli, Liliana; Guerra, Brunella; Cervi, Francesca; Piccirilli, Giulia; Simonazzi, Giuliana; Chiereghin, Angela; Bellini, Francesca; Landini, Maria Paola

    2014-01-01

    Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection is the leading non-genetic cause of sensori-neural hearing loss and neurodevelopmental sequelae. Despite these alarming facts, the general public healthcare system is often not aware of CMV and not enough is done to prevent congenital CMV infection.We describe the clinical and laboratory monitoring of a case with primary CMV infection occurring before the first trimester of gestation. Specific literature review is included in order to point out major goals achieved in the diagnosis and prognosis of congenital CMV infection and the many questions still unanswered. Serological diagnosis of primary CMV infection was performed based on serum-CMV specific-IgM antibodies, combined with low avidity anti-CMV IgG antibodies. The maternal infection was asymptomatic, as it is for most infections in immunocompetent patients. Therefore, disclosing primary infection depended on specific serological tests during the initial period of pregnancy (before weeks 12-16 of gestation). The invasive (amniocentesis) and non-invasive (ultrasonographic examination) prenatal tests, carried out at 21 weeks gestation, revealed a severe CMV infection in a fetus small for gestational age with ventriculomegaly. The presence of overt ultrasound abnormalities combined with high viral load in the amniotic fluid sampled at the appropriate times was highly suggestive of an unfavourable prognosis. The autopsy performed on the fetus confirmed severe disseminated CMV infection with histological brain damage.

  12. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection

    PubMed Central

    Eby, Joshua C.; Hoffman, Casandra L.; Gonyar, Laura A.; Hewlett, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10–14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28–35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors. PMID:26432818

  13. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Eby, Joshua C; Hoffman, Casandra L; Gonyar, Laura A; Hewlett, Erik L

    2015-12-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10-14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28-35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors. © FEMS 2015. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Association between Bacterial Infection and Peripheral Vascular Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Budzyński, Jacek; Wiśniewska, Joanna; Ciecierski, Marek; Kędzia, Anna

    2015-01-01

    There are an increasing number of data showing a clinically important association between bacterial infection and peripheral artery disease (PAD). Bacteria suspected of being involved in PAD pathogenesis are: periodontal bacteria, gut microbiota, Helicobacter pylori, and Chlamydia pneumoniae. Infectious agents may be involved in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis via activation of a systemic or local host immunological response to contamination of extravascular tissues or the vascular wall, respectively. A systemic immunological reaction may damage vascular walls in the course of autoimmunological cross-reactions between anti-pathogen antibodies and host vascular antigens (immunological mimicry), pathogen burden mechanisms (nonspecific activation of inflammatory processes in the vascular wall), and neuroendocrine-immune cross-talk. Besides activating the inflammatory pathway, bacterial infection may trigger PAD progression or exacerbation by enhancement of platelet reactivity, by a stimulatory effect on von Willebrand factor binding, factor VIII, fibrinogen, P-selectin activation, disturbances in plasma lipids, increase in oxidative stress, and resistance to insulin. Local inflammatory host reaction and induction of atherosclerotic plaque progression and/or instability result mainly from atherosclerotic plaque colonization by microorganisms. Despite these premises, the role of bacterial infection in PAD pathogenesis should still be recognized as controversial, and randomized, controlled trials are required to evaluate the outcome of periodontal or gut bacteria modification (through diet, prebiotics, and probiotics) or eradication (using antibiotics) in hard and surrogate cardiovascular endpoints. PMID:26900306

  15. Year in review 2013: Critical Care--respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Niederman, Michael S

    2014-10-29

    Infectious complications, particularly in the respiratory tract of critically ill patients, are related to increased mortality. Severe infection is part of a multiple system illness and female patients with severe sepsis have a worse prognosis compared to males. Kallistatin is a protective hormokine released during monocyte activation and low levels in the setting of septic shock can predict adverse outcomes. Presepsin is another biomarker that was recently evaluated and is elevated in patients with severe sepsis patients at risk of dying. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has introduced new definitions for identifying patients at risk of ventilator-associated complications (VACs), but several other conditions, such as pulmonary edema and acute respiratory distress syndrome, may cause VACs, and not all patients with VACs may have ventilator-associated pneumonia. New studies have suggested strategies to identify patients at risk for resistant pathogen infection and therapies that optimize efficacy, without the overuse of broad-spectrum therapy in patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia. Innovative strategies using optimized dosing of antimicrobials, maximizing the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties of drugs in critically ill patients, and newer routes of drug delivery are being explored to combat drug-resistant pathogens. We summarize the major clinical studies on respiratory infections in critically ill patients published in 2013.

  16. Demyelination in canine distemper virus infection: a review.

    PubMed

    Vandevelde, Marc; Zurbriggen, Andreas

    2005-01-01

    Canine distemper virus (CDV) causes severe immunosuppression and neurological disease in dogs, associated with demyelination, and is a model for multiple sclerosis in man. In the early stage of the infection, demyelination is associated with viral replication in the white matter. In acute demyelinating lesions there is massive down-regulation of myelin transcription and metabolic impairment of the myelin-producing cells, but there is no evidence that these cells are undergoing apoptosis or necrosis. Oligodendroglial change is related to restricted infection of these cells (transcription but no translation) and marked activation of microglial cells in acute lesions. Concomitant with immunological recovery during the further course of the disease, inflammation occurs in the demyelinating plaques with progression of the lesions in some animals. A series of experiments in vitro suggests that chronic inflammatory demyelination is due to a bystander mechanism resulting from interactions between macrophages and antiviral antibodies. Autoimmune reactions are also observed, but do not correlate with the course of the disease. The progressive or relapsing course of the disease is associated with viral persistence in the nervous system. Persistence of CDV in the brain appears to be favored by non-cytolytic selective spread of the virus and restricted infection, in this way escaping immune surveillance in the CNS. The CDV Fusion protein appears to play an important role in CDV persistence. Similarities between canine distemper and rodent models of virus-induced demyelination are discussed.

  17. A review of historic and future hydrological changes in the Murray-Darling Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leblanc, Marc; Tweed, Sarah; Van Dijk, Albert; Timbal, Bertrand

    2012-01-01

    The Murray-Darling Basin is Australia's food bowl and home to many iconic water bodies that are culturally and ecologically highly valued. The recent Millennium Drought (from mid-1990s to 2009) was the most severe hydrological drought since records started in the late 19th century. It severely impacted on the basin and for many acted as a wake-up call. To address the ongoing declines in water resources and environmental conditions and to prepare the region for climate change, Australia's Governments are currently attempting to introduce a new comprehensive, and integrated approach to the management of the basin's water resources. In this paper, long-term time series of climate, hydrological and environmental data are used to analyze how compounding stresses have gradually affected the hydrological system and its services. Major hydroclimatic stresses considered in this paper include salinity, water use, droughts, and climate change. Other, more localized or minor stresses exist (groundwater extraction, farm dams, afforestation, bush fires, cyanobacterial blooms and pollutants) and are reviewed more briefly. The history of water policy and planning shows that Government actions have been strongly influential on the basin. A shift in the strategic goals from water development to the protection and restoration of environmental assets is noticeable since the mid 1990s. Median climate change projections by 2030 indicate smaller reductions in rainfall and runoff than those observed during the recent Millennium Drought, but have a relatively high uncertainty attached to them. The use of regional approaches to reduce that uncertainty, such as statistical downscaling, points to a sizeable decline in rainfall by the end of the century. Most climate projections used for planning consider greenhouse emission scenarios that have smaller global emission trends than the one observed over the last decade. Other, 'less optimistic' scenarios have to be considered for long-term water

  18. A Historical Look at the First Reported Cases of Lassa Fever: IgG Antibodies 40 Years After Acute Infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2012-12-31

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever.

  19. A historical look at the first reported cases of Lassa fever: IgG antibodies 40 years after acute infection.

    PubMed

    Bond, Nell; Schieffelin, John S; Moses, Lina M; Bennett, Andrew J; Bausch, Daniel G

    2013-02-01

    Lassa fever is an acute and sometimes severe viral hemorrhagic illness endemic in West Africa. One important question regarding Lassa fever is the duration of immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody after infection. We were able to locate three persons who worked in Nigeria dating back to the 1940s, two of whom were integrally involved in the early outbreaks and investigations of Lassa fever in the late 1960s, including the person from whom Lassa virus was first isolated. Two persons had high titers of Lassa virus-specific IgG antibody over 40 years after infection, indicating the potential for long-term duration of these antibodies. One person was likely infected in 1952, 17 years before the first recognized outbreak. We briefly recount the fascinating stories of these three pioneers and their important contribution to our understanding of Lassa fever.

  20. Methods for acquiring data on terrain geomorphology, course geometry and kinematics of competitors' runs in alpine skiing: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Erdmann, Włodzimierz S; Giovanis, Vassilis; Aschenbrenner, Piotr; Kiriakis, Vaios; Suchanowski, Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    This paper aims at the description and comparison of methods of topographic analysis of racing courses at all disciplines of alpine skiing sports for the purposes of obtaining: terrain geomorphology (snowless and with snow), course geometry, and competitors' runs. The review presents specific methods and instruments according to the order of their historical appearance as follows: (1) azimuth method with the use of a compass, tape and goniometer instruments; (2) optical method with geodetic theodolite, laser and photocells; (3) triangulation method with the aid of a tape and goniometer; (4) image method with the use of video cameras; (5) differential global positioning system and carrier phase global positioning system methods. Described methods were used at homologation procedure, at training sessions, during competitions of local level and during International Ski Federation World Championships or World Cups. Some methods were used together. In order to provide detailed data on course setting and skiers' running it is recommended to analyse course geometry and kinematics data of competitors' running for all important competitions.

  1. Direct calorimetry: a brief historical review of its use in the study of human metabolism and thermoregulation.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Glen P; Notley, Sean R; Gagnon, Daniel

    2017-07-08

    Direct calorimetry is the gold standard means of measuring human metabolic rate and its use has been fundamental for understanding metabolism in health and disease. While metabolic rate is now more commonly estimated indirectly from measures of the oxygen consumed during respiration, direct calorimetry provides the user with the unique capacity to quantify the heat produced from aerobic and anaerobic metabolism by measuring heat exchange between the body and the environment. This review provides a brief historical overview of the fundamental concepts which underlie direct calorimetry, of pioneer scientists which developed these concepts into functional pieces of equipment and the subsequent use of direct calorimetry to advance our understanding of energy balance, nutrition, and the pathogenesis of metabolic diseases. Attention is directed to seminal studies that successfully employed direct calorimetry to verify that the law of energy conservation also applies to human beings and to establish the validity of indirect calorimetry. Finally, we discuss the more recent use of direct calorimetry for the measurement of whole-body heat exchange and body heat storage in the study of human thermoregulation.

  2. A historical review of additives and modifiers used in paving asphalt refining processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Adams, Robert C; Marano, Kristin M

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. asphalt paving industry has evolved over time to meet various performance specifications for liquid petroleum asphalt binder (known as bitumen outside the United States). Additives to liquid petroleum asphalt produced in the refinery may affect exposures to workers in the hot mix paving industry. This investigation documented the changes in the composition and distribution of the liquid petroleum asphalt products produced from petroleum refining in the United States since World War II. This assessment was accomplished by reviewing documents and interviewing individual experts in the industry to identify current and historical practices. Individuals from 18 facilities were surveyed; the number of facilities reporting use of any material within a particular class ranged from none to more than half the respondents. Materials such as products of the process stream, polymers, elastomers, and anti-strip compounds have been added to liquid petroleum asphalt in the United States over the past 50 years, but modification has not been generally consistent by geography or time. Modifications made to liquid petroleum asphalt were made generally to improve performance and were dictated by state specifications.

  3. Comparing historical and modern methods of sea surface temperature measurement - Part 1: Review of methods, field comparisons and dataset adjustments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, J. B. R.

    2013-07-01

    Sea surface temperature (SST) has been obtained from a variety of different platforms, instruments and depths over the past 150 yr. Modern-day platforms include ships, moored and drifting buoys and satellites. Shipboard methods include temperature measurement of seawater sampled by bucket and flowing through engine cooling water intakes. Here I review SST measurement methods, studies analysing shipboard methods by field or lab experiment and adjustments applied to historical SST datasets to account for variable methods. In general, bucket temperatures have been found to average a few tenths of a °C cooler than simultaneous engine intake temperatures. Field and lab experiments demonstrate that cooling of bucket samples prior to measurement provides a plausible explanation for negative average bucket-intake differences. These can also be credibly attributed to systematic errors in intake temperatures, which have been found to average overly-warm by >0.5 °C on some vessels. However, the precise origin of non-zero average bucket-intake differences reported in field studies is often unclear, given that additional temperatures to those from the buckets and intakes have rarely been obtained. Supplementary accurate in situ temperatures are required to reveal individual errors in bucket and intake temperatures, and the role of near-surface temperature gradients. There is a need for further field experiments of the type reported in Part 2 to address this and other limitations of previous studies.

  4. [Care bundle to reduce central venous catheter-related bloodstream infection: an integrative review].

    PubMed

    Brachine, Juliana Dane Pereira; Peterlini, Maria Angélica Sorgini; Pedreira, Mavilde da Luz Gonçalves

    2012-12-01

    This is an integrative review of literature aimed to identify evidence-based interventions which make up care bundles to reduce central venous catheter-related or associated bloodstream infections. To collect data in Brazilian and international databases were used the key word bundle and the descriptors catheter-related infection, infection control and central venous catheterization, resulting in fifteen articles, after inclusion criteria application. This work showed five interventions as those commonly employed in the bundles methods: hand hygiene, chlorhexidine gluconate for skin antisepsis, use of maximal sterile barrier precaution during the catheter insertion, avoid the femoral access and daily review of catheter necessity with prompt removal as no longer essential. The majority of the studies showed a significant reduction in bloodstream infection related to or associated with central venous catheters.

  5. 50th Anniversary of the first successful permanent pacemaker implantation in the United States: historical review and future directions.

    PubMed

    Beck, Hiroko; Boden, William E; Patibandla, Sushmitha; Kireyev, Dmitriy; Gutpa, Vipul; Campagna, Franklin; Cain, Michael E; Marine, Joseph E

    2010-09-15

    June 2010 marks the 50th anniversary of the first successful human cardiac pacemaker implantation in the United States. On June 6, 1960, in Buffalo, New York, Dr. William Chardack implanted a pacemaker, designed and built by Wilson Greatbatch, an electrical engineer and inventor, in a 77-year old man with complete atrioventricular block, extending the patient's life by 18 months. This landmark event ushered in a new era of implantable cardiac pacemakers with batteries and leads of high reliability and increasing durability. Over the past half century, the field of electrophysiology and implantable devices for the management of cardiac conduction disturbances has evolved dramatically. Today's pacemakers include increasingly complex features such as telemetry monitoring, auto programmability, and hemodynamic sensors. New-generation leads present a sophisticated design with improved geometry and steroid-eluting tips to reduce chronic inflammation, maintaining a low pacing threshold and high sensing capability. The lithium iodide battery remains the mainstay of implantable pacemaker systems, exhibiting a multiple-year lifespan, slow terminal decay, and a reduced size and cost of production. Although Greatbatch's first successful pacemaker implantation remains a seminal scientific contribution to modern cardiovascular disease management, emerging developments in this field may challenge its preeminence. Important challenges such as imaging compatibility, lead durability, and infection prevention are being addressed. Novel concepts such as leadless and biologic pacing are under active investigation. In conclusion, Greatbatch's historic achievement 50 years ago reminds us that technologic progress is timeless, as efforts to enhance clinical outcomes and the quality of life continue unimpeded into the 21st century. © 2010 Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Corynebacterium diphtheriae in a free-roaming red fox: case report and historical review on diphtheria in animals.

    PubMed

    Sing, Andreas; Konrad, Regina; Meinel, Dominik M; Mauder, Norman; Schwabe, Ingo; Sting, Reinhard

    2016-08-01

    Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the classical causative agent of diphtheria, is considered to be nearly restricted to humans. Here we report the first finding of a non-toxigenic C. diphtheriae biovar belfanti strain in a free-roaming wild animal. The strain obtained from the subcutis and mammary gland of a dead red fox (Vulpes vulpes) was characterized by biochemical and molecular methods including MALDI-TOF and Multi Locus Sequence Typing. Since C. diphtheriae infections of animals, usually with close contact to humans, are reported only very rarely, an intense review comprising also scientific literature from the beginning of the 20th century was performed. Besides the present case, only 11 previously reported C. diphtheriae animal infections could be verified using current scientific criteria. Our report is the first on the isolation of C. diphtheriae from a wildlife animal without any previous human contact. In contrast, the very few unambiguous publications on C. diphtheriae in animals referred to livestock or pet animals with close human contact. C. diphtheriae carriage in animals has to be considered as an exceptionally rare event.

  7. Infections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Eye Infections Pinkeye (Conjunctivitis) Styes Fungal Infections (Ringworm, Yeast, etc.) Diaper Rash Infections That Pets Carry Oral ... Pneumonia Tinea (Ringworm, Jock Itch, Athlete's Foot) Vaginal Yeast Infections Immunizations Do My Kids Need Vaccines Before ...

  8. Review: phage therapy: a modern tool to control bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  9. Unusual oral complications of herpes zoster infection: report of a case and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manoj Kumar; Manjunath, K S; Jagadish, S N

    2010-11-01

    A case of herpes zoster infection with unusual oral complications involving the mandibular division of the trigeminal nerve is presented. The post-herpetic complications of osteonecrosis, spontaneous exfoliation of teeth, and subsequent pathologic fracture of mandible in the absence of concurrent predisposing factors in a 65-year-old man are demonstrated. Forty-one cases with osteonecrosis and spontaneous exfoliation of teeth previously presented in the literature are reviewed. This is the first report of pathologic fracture after herpes zoster infection.

  10. Psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Qian; Ding, Wenyuan; Yang, Dalong

    2014-01-01

    Psoas abscesses are classified into primary or secondary according to infectious etiology. However, the psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection is very rare. Here we report a case of psoas abscess caused by actinomycete together with Escherichia coli infection in a young woman. The disease was treated successfully. A literature review of psoas abscess in relation to its etiology, identification, and difficulties in the treatment is also presented. PMID:25356161

  11. The Impact of Infectious Disease Specialist Consultation for Staphylococcus aureus Bloodstream Infections: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, Julie; Solligård, Erik; Damås, Jan Kristian; DeWan, Andrew; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav; Bracken, Michael B

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a common cause of severe bloodstream infection. We performed a systematic review to assess whether consultation with infectious disease specialists decreased all-cause mortality or rate of complications of S aureus bloodstream infections. The review also assessed parameters associated with the quality of management of the infection. We searched for eligible studies in PubMed, Embase, Scopus, and clinical trials.gov as well as the references of included studies. We identified 22 observational studies and 1 study protocol for a randomized trial. A meta-analysis was not performed because of the high risk of bias in the included studies. The outcomes are reported in a narrative review. Most included studies reported survival benefit, in the adjusted analysis. Recommended management strategies were carried out significantly more often among patients seen by an infectious disease specialist. Trials, such as cluster-randomized controlled trials, can more validly assess the studies at low risk of bias.

  12. Computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures: systematic review of historical background, current status, and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bidra, Avinash S; Taylor, Thomas D; Agar, John R

    2013-06-01

    Computer-aided technology is an emerging method for fabricating complete dentures. Consolidated information about historical background, current status, and scope for the future is lacking. The purpose of this systematic review was to analyze the existing literature on computer-aided technology for fabricating complete dentures and provide the reader with a historical background, current status, and future perspectives on this emerging technology. An electronic search of the English language literature between the periods of January 1957 and June 2012 was performed by using PubMed/MEDLINE with the following specific search terms: CAD-CAM complete dentures, digital complete dentures, computer dentures, designed dentures, machined dentures, manufactured dentures, milled dentures, and rapid prototyping dentures. Additionally, the search terms were used on the Google search engine to identify current commercial manufacturers and their protocols. A total of 1584 English language titles were obtained from the electronic database, and the systematic application of exclusion criteria resulted in the identification of 8 articles pertaining to computer-aided technology for complete dentures. Since the first published report in 1994, multiple authors have described different theoretical models and protocols for fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided technology. Although no clinical trials or clinical reports were identified in the scientific literature, the Google search engine identified 2 commercial manufacturers in the United States currently fabricating complete dentures with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology for clinicians world-wide. These manufacturers have definitive protocols in place and offer exclusive dental materials, techniques, and laboratory support. Their protocols contrast with conventional paradigms for fabricating complete dentures and allow the fabrication of complete dentures in 2 clinical appointments

  13. Association between Helicobacter spp. infections and hepatobiliary malignancies: A review

    PubMed Central

    Segura-López, Fany Karina; Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Torres, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cancers are highly lethal cancers that comprise a spectrum of invasive carcinomas originating in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma, the bile ducts intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the gallbladder and the ampulla of Vater (collectively known as biliary tract cancers). These tumors account for approximately 13% of all annual cancer-related deaths worldwide and for 10%-20% of deaths from hepatobiliary malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease that displays a poor survival rate for which few therapeutic options are available. Population genetics, geographical and environmental factors, cholelithiasis, obesity, parity, and endemic infection with liver flukes have been identified as risk factors that influence the development of biliary tract tumors. Other important factors affecting the carcinogenesis of these tumors include chronic inflammation, obstruction of the bile ducts, and impaired bile flow. It has been suggested that CCA is caused by infection with Helicobacter species, such as Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus, in a manner that is similar to the reported role of Helicobacter pylori in distal gastric cancer. Due to the difficulty in culturing these Helicobacter species, molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, or immunologic assays have become the methods of choice for diagnosis. However, clinical studies of benign or malignant biliary tract diseases revealed remarkable variability in the methods and the findings, and the use of uniform and validated techniques is needed. PMID:25663761

  14. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias may unpredictably regress, may remain stable, or may progress to carcinoma. There is a greater risk of carcinomatous transformation of idiopathic leukoplakia, of non-homogenous leukoplakia, of leukoplakia affecting the floor of the mouth; the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the maxillary retromolar and adjoining soft palate (collectively called high-risk sites), of leukoplakia with high-grade epithelial dysplasia, and of leukoplakia in which the keratinocytes carry cytogenetic alterations associated with carcinomatous transformation. Although there appears to be some link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral leukoplakia, there is little evidence to support a causal relationship either between HPV infection and oral leukoplakia or between HPV-infected leukoplakic keratinocytes and their carcinomatous transformation. PMID:22505902

  15. Clostridium difficile infection: a review of current and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ofosu, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the most common cause of ­healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals. The epidemic strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 accounts for outbreaks worldwide, with increasing mortality and severity. CDI is acquired from an endogenous source or from spores in the environment, most easily acquired during the hospital stay. The use of antimicrobials disrupts the intestinal microflora enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon and produce toxins. Clinical diagnosis in symptomatic patients requires toxin detection from stool specimens and rarely in combination with stool culture to increase sensitivity. However, stool culture is essential for epidemiological studies. Oral metronidazole is the recommended therapy for milder cases of CDI and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for more severe cases. Treatment of first recurrence involves the use of the same therapy used in the initial CDI. In the event of a second recurrence oral vancomycin often given in a tapered dose or intermittently, or fidaxomicin may be used. Fecal transplantation is playing an immense role in therapy of recurrent CDI with remarkable results. Fulminant colitis and toxic megacolon warrant surgical intervention. Novel approaches including new antibiotics and immunotherapy against CDI or its toxins appear to be of potential value. PMID:27065726

  16. Prosthetic joint infection caused by Granulicatella adiacens: a case series and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Quénard, Fanny; Seng, Piseth; Lagier, Jean-Christophe; Fenollar, Florence; Stein, Andreas

    2017-06-23

    Bone and joint infection involving Granulicatella adiacens is rare, and mainly involved in cases of bacteremia and infectious endocarditis. Here we report three cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that were successfully treated with surgery and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. We also review the two cases of prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens that are reported in the literature. Not all five cases of prosthetic joint infection caused by G. adiacens were associated with bacteremia or infectious endocarditis. Dental care before the onset of infection was observed in two cases. The median time delay between arthroplasty implantation and the onset of infection was of 4 years (ranging between 2 and 10 years). One of our cases was identified with 16srRNA gene sequencing, one case with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and one case with both techniques. Two literature cases were diagnosed by 16srRNA gene sequencing. All five cases were cured after surgery including a two-stage prosthesis exchange in three cases, a one-stage prosthesis exchange in one case, and debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis in one case, and prolonged antimicrobial treatment. Prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens is probably often dismissed due to difficult culture or misdiagnosis, in particular in the cases of polymicrobial infection. Debridement, antibiotics, irrigation, and retention of the prosthesis associated with prolonged antimicrobial treatment (≥ 8 weeks) should be considered as a treatment strategy for prosthetic joint infection involving G. adiacens.

  17. Plants used to treat diabetes in Sri Lankan Siddha Medicine - An ethnopharmacological review of historical and modern sources.

    PubMed

    Sathasivampillai, Saravanan V; Rajamanoharan, Pholtan R S; Munday, Michael; Heinrich, Michael

    2017-02-23

    In recent decades diabetes mellitus has become a considerable health problem in countries like Sri Lanka and results in an increasing economic burden hampering the social and economic development of these countries. About 60% to 70% of the rural population in Sri Lanka rely on indigenous medicinal systems as their main source for primary health care. Siddha (Tamil) Medicine is one of the four Sri Lankan traditional medicinal systems and it is practised mostly in the eastern and northern provinces of Sri Lanka where the majority of Tamils reside. The foundation of this study is a documentation of plant species recorded in historical and modern Sri Lankan Siddha Medical documents used to treat diabetes. Based on the systematic documentation and analysis of Siddha concepts about diabetes and its signs and preparations used to treat diabetes in Sri Lankan Siddha Medicine, the plant species included in these preparations (excluding globally or very widely used, very well studied species) were evaluated in terms of the current state-of-the-art about these species' pharmacology and effectiveness in order to lay a foundation for their further development. Historic and modern Sri Lankan university texts books in Tamil were used as sources for information on diabetes Siddha concepts and antidiabetic Sri Lankan Siddha Medicine preparations. Information on the known antidiabetic effects of extracts and compounds obtained from these species were used in order to assess the current state of the art of these species. Information of ingredients, preparation methods, amount of ingredients used, and dosages of 60 antidiabetic Sri Lankan Siddha Medicine preparations were obtained. Animal parts including marine organisms, inorganic substances, and plants are the three types of ingredients used. Overall 171 plant species in 73 families were documented. Senna auriculata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae) was identified as the most frequently cited species. Globally distributed and very well studied

  18. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin-Xu; Zhou, Xiao-Nong

    2013-03-22

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host's immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host's immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

  19. Role of Probiotics in Managing of Helicobacter Pylori Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kafshdooz, Taiebeh; Akbarzadeh, Abolfazl; Majdi Seghinsara, Abbas; Pourhassan, Moghadam; Nasrabadi, Hamid Tayefi; Milani, Morteza

    2017-02-01

    Background:Helicobacter pylori is a prevalent pathogen which is considered as an etiological cause for gastroduodenal ulcers, and a substantial risk factor for gastric malignancies. The vital factor to take into account is that roughly half of the world's population is infected with this bacterium. However, most subjects colonized remain asymptomatic and do not require any treatment. Several antimicrobial agents such as amoxicillin, clarithromycin and metronidazole are used to eradicate the infection. However, these drug regiments do not eradicate H. pylori in all patients because of the anti-drug resistance. Aim: In this review we aim to discuss the role and mechanisms of probiotics, as supportive medicines, in management of H. pylori infection. Methods: We have reviewed the published articles in PubMed and Medline databases. Also, abstracts presented in international conferences on the management of H. pylori infections and treatment protocol, have been thoroughly reviewed. Results: The overall trend in the literature indicates the usefulness of probiotics in controlling H. pylori infection. This bacterium is among the most studied human pathogens regarding the efficacy of probiotics for treating its infection. Nevertheless, some studies suggest that probiotics do not efficiently eradicate H. pylori but retain the number of this bacterium at low levels inside the human stomach. Conclusion: The analyzed literature suggest that when probiotics are consumed in conjunction with antibiotics, the eradication rate may be improved through modulating the immune response and decreasing the adverse effects of routine drugs leading to gastroprotection. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23522098

  1. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Methods Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. Results From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. Discussion A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. Registration number CRD42015028042. PMID:27907205

  2. Household Air Pollution and Acute Lower Respiratory Infections in Adults: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Jary, Hannah; Simpson, Hope; Havens, Deborah; Manda, Geoffrey; Pope, Daniel; Bruce, Nigel; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Household air pollution from solid fuel burning kills over 4 million people every year including half a million children from acute lower respiratory infections. Although biologically plausible, it is not clear whether household air pollution is also associated with acute lower respiratory infections in adults. We systematically reviewed the literature on household air pollution and acute lower respiratory infection in adults to identify knowledge gaps and research opportunities. Ten bibliographic databases were searched to identify studies of household air pollution and adult acute lower respiratory infection. Data were extracted from eligible studies using standardised forms. From 4617 titles, 513 abstracts and 72 full-text articles were reviewed. Eight studies met the inclusion criteria of which 2 found a significant adjusted increased risk of acute lower respiratory infection, 2 identified a univariate association whilst 4 found no significant association. Study quality was generally limited. Heterogeneity in methods and findings precluded meta-analysis. A systematic review of the literature found limited evidence for an association between household air pollution and risk of acute lower respiratory infection in adults. Additional research, with carefully defined exposure and outcome measures, is required to complete the risk profile caused by household air pollution in adults. CRD42015028042.

  3. Rare Gastric Lesions Associated with Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Histopathological Review.

    PubMed

    Joo, Mee

    2017-07-01

    Helicobacter pylori infection is associated with chronic gastritis, peptic ulcer disease, gastric adenocarcinoma, and mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma. However, some rare gastric lesions exhibiting distinctive histological features may also be associated with H. pylori infection, including lymphocytic gastritis, granulomatous gastritis, Russell body gastritis, or crystal-storing histiocytosis. Although diverse factors can contribute to their development, there is convincing evidence that H. pylori infection may play a pathogenic role. These findings are mainly based on studies in patients with these lesions who exhibited clinical and histological improvements after H. pylori eradication therapy. Thus, H. pylori eradication therapy might be indicated in patients with no other underlying disease, particularly in countries with a high prevalence of H. pylori infection. This review describes the characteristic histological features of these rare lesions and evaluates the evidence regarding a causative role for H. pylori infection in their pathogenesis.

  4. Hospital Staffing and Health Care–Associated Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Patricia W.; Pogorzelska, Monika; Kunches, Laureen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R.

    2009-01-01

    In the past 10 years, many researchers have examined relationships between hospital staffing and patients’ risk of health care–associated infection (HAI). To gain understanding of this evidence base, a systematic review was conducted, and 42 articles were audited. The most common infection studied was bloodstream infection (n=18; 43%). The majority of researchers examined nurse staffing (n=38; 90%); of these, only 7 (18%) did not find a statistically significant association between nurse staffing variable(s) and HAI rates. Use of nonpermanent staff was associated with increased rates of HAI in 4 studies (P < .05). Three studies addressed infection control professional staffing with mixed results. Physician staffing was not found to be associated with patients’ HAI risk (n=2). The methods employed and operational definitions used for both staffing and HAI varied; despite this variability, trends were apparent. Research characterizing effective staffing for infection control departments is needed. PMID:18767987

  5. Gonococcal arthritis in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients. Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sena Corrales, Gabriel; Mora Navas, Laura; Palacios Muñoz, Rosario; García López, Victoria; Márquez Solero, Manuel; Santos González, Jesús

    We report a case of gonococcal arthritis in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and review 17 previously published cases; only one patient presented urethritis, and blood cultures were positive in one case. Gonococcal arthritis is rare in HIV-infected patients and is not usually associated with other symptoms. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acute arthritis in patients with HIV infection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  6. A Review of the Value of Procalcitonin as a Marker of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Adriana; Kelly, Steven; Simpson, Michael; Mabey, Jordan

    2017-01-01

    Septicemia is a growing problem within the United States (US), which increases mortality and the cost of care. Procalcitonin is a pro-inflammatory marker that could be useful in the diagnosis of infection. In the past, procalcitonin levels have been evaluated to diagnose sepsis or guide antibiotic therapy, but it was not determined if it would differentiate between sepsis and other causes of inflammation. Studies reviewed here showed procalcitonin to be a useful biomarker as an indication of bacterial infection. Infections can be diagnosed earlier and managed appropriately to avoid progression to septicemia, reduce mortality, and overall medical costs. PMID:28497010

  7. Multicentric Castleman Disease in an HHV8-Infected Child Born to Consanguineous Parents With Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moshous, Despina; Cassar, Olivier; Reguerre, Yves; Byun, Minji; Pedergnana, Vincent; Canioni, Danielle; Gessain, Antoine; Oksenhendler, Eric; Fieschi, Claire; Mahlaoui, Nizar; Rivière, Jean-Pierre; Herbigneaux, Rose-Marie; Muszlak, Matthias; Arnaud, Jean-Pierre; Fischer, Alain; Picard, Capucine; Blanche, Stéphane; Plancoulaine, Sabine

    2012-01-01

    Childhood multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) is a rare and unexplained lymphoproliferative disorder. We report a human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)-infected child, born to consanguineous Comorian parents, who displayed isolated MCD in the absence of any known immunodeficiency. We also systematically review the clinical features of the 32 children previously reported with isolated and unexplained MCD. The characteristics of this patient and the geographic areas of origin of most previous cases suggest that pediatric MCD is associated with HHV-8 infection. Moreover, as previously suggested for Kaposi sarcoma, MCD in childhood may result from inborn errors of immunity to HHV-8 infection. PMID:22157133

  8. The neurology of HIV infection--a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Imam, I

    2005-01-01

    The nervous system is widely involved in the course of infection with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The manifestation may be a direct effect of the virus, the result of opportunistic infections or secondary malignancies, or a result of the therapy of various aspects of the disease. This review looks at these neurological consequences of HIV infection. The review was sourced mainly by Medline search using the search terms HIV, AIDS and neurology. Relevant journals were subsequently studied. The major neurological manifestations of HIV infection are toxoplasmosis, cryptococcal meningitis, AIDS dementia complex, primary lymphoma, tuberculosis, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy, herpes zoster, Bells palsy, peripheral neuropathy, and vacuolar myelopathy. The overall effect of these is the acceleration of progression of the disease. About 30% of the mortality in HIV infection is attributed to neurological diseases. The nervous system is significantly affected in HIV infection and the impact on morbidity and mortality is profound. All effort should be made to ensure early recognition and amelioration of the various nervous systems complications of HIV infection.

  9. A systematic review of nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and mothers.

    PubMed

    Moffa, Michelle; Guo, Wilson; Li, Trudy; Cronk, Ryan; Abebe, Lydia S; Bartram, Jamie

    2017-08-09

    Water is an important, overlooked, and controllable source of nosocomial infection. Hospitalized neonates and their mothers are particularly vulnerable to nosocomial waterborne infections. Our objectives through this systematic review were to: investigate water sources, reservoirs, and transmission routes that lead to nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers; establish patient risk factors; compile measures for controlling outbreaks and recommended strategies for prevention; and identify information gaps to improve guidelines for reporting future outbreaks. We searched PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, and clinicaltrials.gov. Peer-reviewed studies reporting contaminated water as a route of transmission to neonates and/or their mothers were included. Twenty-five studies were included. The most common contaminated water sources in healthcare facilities associated with infection transmission were tap water, sinks, and faucets. Low birthweights, preterm or premature birth, and underlying disease increased neonatal risk of infection. Effective control measures commonly included replacing or cleaning faucets and increased or alternative methods for hand disinfection, and recommendations for prevention of future infections highlighted the need for additional surveillance. The implementation of control measures and recommended prevention strategies by healthcare workers and managing authorities of healthcare facilities and improved reporting of future outbreaks may contribute to a reduction in the incidence of nosocomial waterborne infections in neonates and their mothers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Review of macrolides and ketolides: focus on respiratory tract infections.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, G G; Dueck, M; Hoban, D J; Vercaigne, L M; Embil, J M; Gin, A S; Karlowsky, J A

    2001-01-01

    The first macrolide, erythromycin A, demonstrated broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity and was used primarily for respiratory and skin and soft tissue infections. Newer 14-, 15- and 16-membered ring macrolides such as clarithromycin and the azalide, azithromycin, have been developed to address the limitations of erythromycin. The main structural component of the macrolides is a large lactone ring that varies in size from 12 to 16 atoms. A new group of 14-membered macrolides known as the ketolides have recently been developed which have a 3-keto in place of the L-cladinose moiety. Macrolides reversibly bind to the 23S rRNA and thus, inhibit protein synthesis by blocking elongation. The ketolides have also been reported to bind to 23S rRNA and their mechanism of action is similar to that of macrolides. Macrolide resistance mechanisms include target site alteration, alteration in antibiotic transport and modification of the antibiotic. The macrolides and ketolides exhibit good activity against gram-positive aerobes and some gram-negative aerobes. Ketolides have excellent activity versus macrolide-resistant Streptococcus spp. Including mefA and ermB producing Streptococcus pneumoniae. The newer macrolides, such as azithromycin and clarithromycin, and the ketolides exhibit greater activity against Haemophilus influenzae than erythromycin. The bioavailability of macrolides ranges from 25 to 85%, with corresponding serum concentrations ranging from 0.4 to 12 mg/L and area under the concentration-time curves from 3 to 115 mg/L x h. Half-lives range from short for erythromycin to medium for clarithromycin, roxithromycin and ketolides, to very long for dirithromycin and azithromycin. All of these agents display large volumes of distribution with excellent uptake into respiratory tissues and fluids relative to serum. The majority of the agents are hepatically metabolised and excretion in the urine is limited, with the exception of clarithromycin. Clinical trials involving

  11. A review of the literature: antibiotic usage and its relevance to the infection in periodontal flaps.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yiying; Duan, Dingyu; Xin, Yuejiao; Bai, Lin; Li, Tianyu; Li, Chuwen; Xu, Yi

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the systemic antibiotic usage in the perioperative period of periodontal flaps and its relevance to the infection after surgeries through reviewing the papers of the last decade. A search was conducted for the studies of randomized clinical trials between 2005 and 2014 that reported periodontal flaps in chronic periodontitis patients. Data were extracted and the rate of the systemic antibiotic use, the infection rate after surgeries and the number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one infected case were calculated. The impact of antibiotic use and materials used in surgeries on the infection was evaluated. Eighty-three trials were included. Antibiotics were used in 73.7% of the patients and 75.4% of the flaps. Infection occurred in only five flaps where enamel matrix proteins (EMD) or EMD + bone grafts were used in intrabony defects. Only 0.170% of the surgeries got infected in total. When all kinds of surgeries were included for analysis, the infection rate was 0.073% for the surgeries using antibiotics, which was lower than the infection rate 0.693% for the surgeries not using antibiotics (p < .05). The infection rate was very low in general. NNT was 203 when all the surgeries were included for analysis. Therefore, the difference of the infection rates between using antibiotics and not might lack clinical significance. Considering the very low incidence of the infection and the disadvantages of the systemic antibiotic use, we suggest not using systemic antibiotics in the perioperative period of periodontal flaps to prevent infection.

  12. Clostridium difficile Infection and Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sinh, Preetika; Barrett, Terrence A.; Yun, Laura

    2011-01-01

    The incidence of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) has significantly increased in the last decade in the United States adding to the health care burden of the country. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a higher prevalence of CDI and worse outcomes. In the past, the traditional risk factors for CDI were exposure to antibiotics and hospitalizations in elderly people. Today, it is not uncommon to diagnose CDI in a pregnant women or young adult who has no risk factors. C. difficile can be detected at the initial presentation of IBD, during a relapse or in asymptomatic carriers. It is important to keep a high index of suspicion for CDI in IBD patients and initiate prompt treatment to minimize complications. We summarize here the changing epidemiology, pathogenesis, risk factors, clinical features, and treatment of CDI in IBD. PMID:21915178

  13. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  14. Sequence-based genotyping clarifies conflicting historical morphometric and biological data for 5 Eimeria species infecting turkeys.

    PubMed

    El-Sherry, S; Ogedengbe, M E; Hafeez, M A; Sayf-Al-Din, M; Gad, N; Barta, J R

    2015-02-01

    Unlike with Eimeria species infecting chickens, specific identification and nomenclature of Eimeria species infecting turkeys is complicated, and in the absence of molecular data, imprecise. In an attempt to reconcile contradictory data reported on oocyst morphometrics and biological descriptions of various Eimeria species infecting turkey, we established single oocyst derived lines of 5 important Eimeria species infecting turkeys, Eimeria meleagrimitis (USMN08-01 strain), Eimeria adenoeides (Guelph strain), Eimeria gallopavonis (Weybridge strain), Eimeria meleagridis (USAR97-01 strain), and Eimeria dispersa (Briston strain). Short portions (514 bp) of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene (mt COI) from each were amplified and sequenced. Comparison of these sequences showed sufficient species-specific sequence variation to recommend these short mt COI sequences as species-specific markers. Uniformity of oocyst features (dimensions and oocyst structure) of each pure line was observed. Additional morphological features of the oocysts of these species are described as useful for the microscopic differentiation of these Eimeria species. Combined molecular and morphometric data on these single species lines compared with the original species descriptions and more recent data have helped to clarify some confusing, and sometimes conflicting, features associated with these Eimeria spp. For example, these new data suggest that the KCH and KR strains of E. adenoeides reported previously represent 2 distinct species, E. adenoeides and E. meleagridis, respectively. Likewise, analysis of the Weybridge strain of E. adenoeides, which has long been used as a reference strain in various studies conducted on the pathogenicity of E. adenoeides, indicates that this coccidium is actually a strain of E. gallopavonis. We highly recommend mt COI sequence-based genotyping be incorporated into all studies using Eimeria spp. of turkeys to confirm species identifications and so

  15. Annual Historical Review.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    commented on large portions of the text. While much of the credit for producing this history belongs to the above, the responsibility cor the conclusions...This plan was . forwarded to USAREUR and returned with final comments . All coordination between USAREUR and the personnel wlho would be performing...draft MOA, PM-Smoke/Obscurants comments , and finalization in the second quarter. Implementation withiut additional resources occarrel ii March 1936

  16. [Embryotomy. A historical review].

    PubMed

    Thiery, M; Goossens, N

    1993-01-01

    Destructive operations are the oldest type of bloody operation in obstetrics and possibly in the (written) history of Medicine. The name "embryotomy" is already mentioned in the hippocratic literature. The indication and technique of this "two-tempi" operation (embryotomy or reduction of the fetus and embryulcia or extraction of the reduced foetus) were thoroughly mentioned, described and coded for the first time by Soranos of Ephesos. Soranos was also the first to mention clearly by their names the instruments used. Only the Arabic physicians, especially Albucasim, transmitted to us the first image of their collection of instruments. The author elucidates the many--medical and ethical--aspects relating to embryotomy, which has been practised till after W.W.II.

  17. Safety of licensed vaccines in HIV-infected persons: a systematic review protocol

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Safety of vaccines remains a cornerstone of building public trust on the use of these cost-effective and life-saving public health interventions. In some settings, particularly Sub-Saharan Africa, there is a high prevalence of HIV infection and a high burden of vaccine-preventable diseases. There is evidence suggesting that the immunity induced by some commonly used vaccines is not durable in HIV-infected persons, and therefore, repeated vaccination may be considered to ensure optimal vaccine-induced immunity in this population. However, some vaccines, particularly the live vaccines, may be unsafe in HIV-infected persons. There is lack of evidence on the safety profile of commonly used vaccines among HIV-infected persons. We are therefore conducting a systematic review to assess the safety profile of routine vaccines administered to HIV-infected persons. Methods/Design We will select studies conducted in any setting where licensed and effective vaccines were administered to HIV-infected persons. We will search for eligible studies in PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Scopus, Africa-Wide, PDQ-Evidence and CINAHL as well as reference lists of relevant publications. We will screen search outputs, select studies and extract data in duplicate, resolving discrepancies by discussion and consensus. Discussion Globally, immunisation is a major public health strategy to mitigate morbidity and mortality caused by various infectious disease-causing agents. In general, there are efforts to increase vaccination coverage worldwide, and for these efforts to be successful, safety of the vaccines is paramount, even among people living with HIV, who in some situations may require repeated vaccination. Results from this systematic review will be discussed in the context of the safety of routine vaccines among HIV-infected persons. From the safety perspective, we will also discuss whether repeat vaccination strategies may be

  18. [Rational management of antibiotherapy in ORL infections in children: critical review of the best scientific evidences].

    PubMed

    González de Dios, J; Ochoa Sangrador, C; Alvarez Calatayud, G

    2006-02-01

    Upper respiratory tract infections are the more prevalent infections in childhood and it is important to know the use and overuse of antibiotics. The objective of this article is to make a systematic and critical review of the best scientific evidence in bibliography in order to use antibiotics rationally in otorhinolaryngology (ORL) infections. Systematic and structured review of the articles regarding antibiotherapy in ORL infections (pharyngitis, tonsillitis, otitis, sinusitis and laryngitis) in childhood published in secondary (Cochrane Collaboration, clinical practice guidelines, health technology assessment database, etc) and primary (bibliographic databases, biomedical journals, books, etc.) publications and critical appraisal by means of methodology of the Evidence-Based Medicine Working Group. We selected the publications with the main scientific evidence in therapeutical articles (clinical trial, systematic review, meta-analysis and clinical practice guideline). study design, population, intervention, outcomes, main results and applicability in clinical practice. The main secondary information is found in The Cochrane Library and in Clinical practice guideline clearinghouses. The documents in Cochrane Library are, basically, clinical trials, systematic reviews and/or meta-analysis, mainly about otitis (13 documents), sinusitis/rhinosinusitis (6), pharyngitis/tonsillitis (3) and nasopharyngitis (3). We found 17 guidelines, mainly for otitis (8 guidelines), pharyngitis/tonsillitis (5), sinusitis (3) and laryngitis (1). Also, we found some relevant articles in Pubmed database, complementary to secondary publications. There are a high number of quality scientific studies who support an evidence-based decision making in clinical practice about the rational use of antibiotics in ORL infections in childhood, mainly in otitis, tonsillitis and sinusitis. Every decision in this field will have to be based on a systematic appraisal of the best evidence available in

  19. Prevalence and correlates of HIV and syphilis infections among men who have sex with men in seven provinces in China with historically low HIV prevalence.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yan; Sun, Jiangping; Li, Chunmei; Lu, Fan; Allen, Katherine L; Vermund, Sten H; Jia, Yujiang

    2010-02-01

    To assess HIV and syphilis infection among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Chinese regions with historically low HIV prevalence. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 20 cities or districts across 4 provinces, 2 autonomous regions, and a municipality. Socioeconomic/behavioral risk factors were measured. Blood samples were tested for HIV via enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and Western blot confirmation and syphilis via rapid plasma reagin and passive particle agglutination test for detection of Treponema pallidum Antibodies. Of 4983 MSM participants, 2.9% were HIV infected (range: 0%-15.1%) and 9.8% were syphilis infected (1.3%-29.3%). Syphilis infection was associated with older age [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.9; 95% confidence interval (CI): 2.0 to 4.3], not being married or cohabiting (AOR = 0.7; 95% CI: 0.5-0.9), less education (AOR = 1.3; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.7), inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men (AOR = 1.4; 95% CI: 1.0 to 1.8), and living in inner Mongolia (AOR = 23.9; 95% CI: 9.7 to 58.6), Jilin (AOR = 7.9; 95% CI: 3.4 to 18.3), Heilongjiang (AOR = 7.1; 95% CI: 3.1 to 16.6), Liaoning (AOR = 6.1; 95% CI: 2.6 to 14.2), or Chongqing (AOR = 5.9; 95% CI: 2.5 to 13.9). HIV infection was associated with older age (AOR = 3.7; 95% CI: 2.0 to 6.7), less education (AOR = 2.9; 95% CI: 1.8 to 4.7), inconsistent condom use during anal sex with men (AOR = 1.9; 95% CI: 1.2 to 3.2), syphilis infection (AOR = 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3 to 3.4), and living either in Liaoning (AOR = 8.2; 95% CI: 1.1 to 61.4) or Chongqing (AOR = 57.2; 95% CI: 7.9 to 414.4). HIV and syphilis have reached alarming rates in China's MSM population, thus, appropriate responses are urgently needed.

  20. Use of locally delivered dequalinium chloride in the treatment of vaginal infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Mendling, Werner; Weissenbacher, Ernst Rainer; Gerber, Stefan; Prasauskas, Valdas; Grob, Philipp

    2016-03-01

    Vaginal infections are responsible for a large proportion of gynaecological outpatient visits. Those are bacterial vaginosis (BV), vulvovaginal candidosis (VVC), aerobic vaginitis (AV) associated with aerobic bacteria, and mixed infections. Usual treatments show similar acceptable short-term efficacy, but frequent recurrences and increasing microbial resistance are unsolved issues. Furthermore, vaginal infections are associated with a variety of serious adverse outcomes in pregnancy and generally have a major impact on quality of life. Identifying the correct therapy can be challenging for the clinician, particularly in mixed infections. Dequalinium chloride (DQC) is an anti-microbial antiseptic agent with a broad bactericidal and fungicidal activity. Systemic absorption after vaginal application of DQC is very low and systemic effects negligible. Vaginal DQC (Fluomizin vaginal tablets) has been shown to have equal clinical efficacy as clindamycin in the treatment of BV. Its broad antimicrobial activity makes it appropriate for the treatment of mixed vaginal infections and in case of uncertain diagnosis. Moreover, resistance of pathogens is unlikely due to its multiple mode of action, and vaginal DQC provides also a reduced risk for post-treatment vaginal infections. Vaginal DQC (10 mg) as 6-day therapy offers a safe and effective option for empiric therapy of different vaginal infections in daily practice. This review summarizes the available and relevant pharmacological and clinical data for the therapy of vaginal infections with vaginal DQC and provides the rationale for its use in daily gynaecologic practice.

  1. Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy: a review and management considerations for filovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Bebell, Lisa M; Riley, Laura E

    2015-06-01

    The largest-ever recorded outbreak of viral hemorrhagic fever is ongoing. As a result of the epidemic and rural nature of outbreaks, little is published about the Filovirus infections Ebola virus disease and Marburg disease in pregnancy. This review of viral hemorrhagic fever focusing on Marburg and Ebola uses knowledge of disease in nonpregnant individuals and pregnancy-specific data to inform management for pregnant women. Filovirus infection presentation is similar between pregnant and nonpregnant patients, although infections may be more severe in pregnancy. Although labeled as hemorrhagic fevers, Marburg and Ebola do not commonly cause gross bleeding and should be conceptualized as diseases of high gastrointestinal losses. Early, aggressive supportive care is the mainstay of Filovirus infection management with massive fluid resuscitation as the key management principle. Patients often require 5-10 L or more per day of intravenous or oral fluid to maintain circulating blood volume in the setting of ongoing gastrointestinal loss. Fluid shifts warrant aggressive monitoring and correction of potassium levels and acid-base disturbances to prevent life-threatening arrhythmias and metabolic complications. Regardless of maternal survival, fetal loss rates are nearly 100% in Filovirus infection, likely resulting from unchecked transplacental and hematogenous viral spread. High fetal loss rates support the placenta as a difficult-to-eradicate Filovirus infection reservoir. In conclusion, the management of Filovirus infection in pregnancy should focus on stabilizing the mother with intensive monitoring and aggressive fluid and electrolyte repletion as well as maintaining strict infection control to minimize transmission to others.

  2. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior.

  3. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  4. A critical review of the fluoroquinolones: focus on respiratory infections.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Ennis, Kelly; Vercaigne, Lavern; Walkty, Andrew; Gin, Alfred S; Embil, John; Smith, Heather; Hoban, Daryl J

    2002-01-01

    The new fluoroquinolones (clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, grepafloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin) offer excellent activity against Gram-negative bacilli and improved Gram-positive activity (e.g. against Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) over ciprofloxacin. Ciprofloxacin still maintains the best in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Clinafloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, sitafloxacin, sparfloxacin and trovafloxacin display improved activity against anaerobes (e.g. Bacteroides fragilis) versus ciprofloxacin. All of the new fluoroquinolones display excellent bioavailability and have longer serum half-lives than ciprofloxacin allowing for once daily dose administration. Clinical trials comparing the new fluoroquinolones to each other or to standard therapy have demonstrated good efficacy in a variety of community-acquired respiratory infections (e.g. pneumonia, acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis and acute sinusitis). Limited data suggest that the new fluoroquinolones as a class may lead to better outcomes in community-acquired pneumonia and acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis versus comparators. Several of these agents have either been withdrawn from the market, had their use severely restricted because of adverse effects (clinafloxacin because of phototoxicity and hypoglycaemia; grepafloxacin because of prolongation of the QTc and resultant torsades de pointes; sparfloxacin because of phototoxicity; and trovafloxacin because of hepatotoxicity), or were discontinued during developmental phases. The remaining fluoroquinolones such as gatifloxacin, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin have adverse effect profiles similar to ciprofloxacin. Extensive post-marketing safety surveillance data (as are available with ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin) are required for all new fluoroquinolones before safety can be definitively established. Drug interactions are limited

  5. Deaf scholars on reading: a historical review of 40 years of dissertation research (1973-2013): implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jean F; Byrne, Andrew; Clark, M Diane

    2015-01-01

    Taking a historical view, the authors reviewed 40 years of dissertation research by deaf scholars (1973-2013) related to reading. Using a qualitative interpretive analysis approach (J. Smith & Osborn, 2003), the authors selected 31 dissertations as primary texts, reviewing them for themes over five time periods. The first finding was a trend of themes on communication methodology in the 1970s (first period), to English reading skills in the 1980s (second period), to American Sign Language/English bilingualism to support acquisition of English literacy during the third, fourth and fifth periods (1990-2013). The second finding was that most of the dissertations used a combination of qualitatively similar and qualitatively different epistemologies in their research. These two findings are related to (a) the role of the deaf reading researcher, (b) historical and current trends in reading research, and (c) the qualitative similarity hypothesis (Paul, Wang, & Williams, 2013).

  6. Prisoners co-infected with tuberculosis and HIV: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Edge, Chantal L; King, Emma J; Dolan, Kate; McKee, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Almost from the beginning of the HIV epidemic in 1981, an association with tuberculosis (TB) was recognized. This association between HIV and TB co-infection has been particularly evident amongst prisoners. However, despite this, few studies of TB in prisons have stratified results by HIV status. Given the high prevalence of HIV-positive persons and TB-infected persons in prisons and the documented risk of TB in those infected with HIV, it is of interest to determine how co-infection varies amongst prison populations worldwide. For this reason we have undertaken a systematic review of studies of co-infected prisoners to determine the incidence and/or prevalence of HIV/TB co-infection in prisons, as well as outcomes in this group, measured as treatment success or death. Methods A literature search was undertaken using the online databases PubMed, Embase, IBSS, Scopus, Web of Science, Global Health and CINAHL Plus. No restrictions were set on language or publication date for article retrieval, with articles included if indexed up to 18 October 2015. A total of 1975 non-duplicate papers were identified. For treatment and outcome data all eligible papers were appraised for inclusion; for incidence/prevalence estimates papers published prior to 2000 were excluded from full text review. After full text appraisal, 46 papers were selected for inclusion in the review, 41 for incidence/prevalence estimates and nine for outcomes data, with four papers providing evidence for both outcomes and prevalence/incidence. Results Very few studies estimated the incidence of TB in HIV positive prisoners, with most simply reporting prevalence of co-infection. Co-infection is rarely explicitly measured, with studies simply reporting HIV status in prisoners with TB, or a cross-sectional survey of TB prevalence amongst prisoners with HIV. Estimates of co-infection prevalence ranged from 2.4 to 73.1% and relative risks for one, given the other, ranged from 2.0 to 10.75, although

  7. Pasteurella multocida infections. Report of 34 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Weber, D J; Wolfson, J S; Swartz, M N; Hooper, D C

    1984-05-01

    Pasteurella multocida, a small, gram-negative coccobacillus , is part of the normal oral flora of many animals, including the dog and cat. P. multocida is the etiologic agent in a variety of infectious disease syndromes. We have reported 34 cases of infection caused by P. multocida and have reviewed the English literature. P. multocida infections may be divided into three broad groups: 1. Infections resulting from animal bites and scratches : The most common infections caused by P. multocida are local wound infections following animal bites or scratches . Cats are the source of infection in 60 to 80% of cases and dogs in the great majority of the remainder. Local infections are characterized by the rapid appearance of erythema, warmth, tenderness, and frequently purulent drainage. The most common local complications are abscess formation and tenosynovitis. Serious local complications include septic arthritis proximal to bites or scratches , osteomyelitis resulting from direct inoculation or extension of cellulitis, and the combination of septic arthritis and osteomyelitis, most commonly involving a finger or hand after a cat bite. 2. Isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract: The isolation of P. multocida from the respiratory tract must be interpreted differently than its isolation from other systemic sites. Most commonly P. multocida found in the respiratory tract is a commensal organism in patients with underlying pulmonary disease, but serious respiratory tract infections including pneumonia, empyema, and lung abscesses may develop. Most patients with respiratory tract colonization or infection have a history of animal exposure. 3. Other systemic infections: P. multocida is recognized as a pathogen in a variety of systemic infections including bacteremia, meningitis, brain abscess, spontaneous bacterial peritonitis, and intra-abdominal abscess. P. multocida often acts as an opportunistic pathogen with a predilection for causing bacteremia in patients

  8. Review of cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa.

    PubMed

    Grønborg, Helene Ladefoged; Jespersen, Sanne; Hønge, Bo Langhoff; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Wejse, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection among HIV-infected individuals may cause end-organ disease, which is an AIDS-defining condition. Evidence from high-income countries suggests that CMV may alter the outcome of HIV infection, other than causing end-organ diseases. We reviewed literature on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa. Systematic review of published studies on HIV and CMV coinfection in Africa using the PubMed database. High CMV seroprevalence was found throughout Africa, exceeding 90% in most populations. Retinitis, pneumonia, and colitis were the most commonly reported CMV manifestations in HIV-infected individuals. Among patients with pulmonary symptoms, the prevalence of CMV pneumonitis varied from 20% to over 60%, whereas CMV was found in 0% to 14% of patients with gastrointestinal manifestations. Cytomegalovirus retinitis was found in 0% to 2.6% of examined HIV-infected individuals. The diagnostics of CMV end-organ diseases were found complex and difficult to interpret in African settings. Cytomegalovirus viremia was correlated with significantly lower CD4 cell count and increase in activated and apoptosis vulnerable T-lymphocytes. Also, CMV coinfection was found to be associated with increased transmission and progression of HIV infection. Moreover, detectable CMV DNA was an independent predictor of HIV transmission and mortality among HIV-infected individuals. Cytomegalovirus is highly prevalent in Africa and a common cause of disease manifestations in HIV-infected individuals among all age groups. Cytomegalovirus coinfection in HIV-infected individuals in Africa is associated with increased transmission and mortality of HIV, but it is a neglected area of research. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  10. Review: Environmental mycobacteria as a cause of human infection.

    PubMed

    Halstrom, Samuel; Price, Patricia; Thomson, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are recognized as a problem in immunodeficient individuals and are increasingly common in older people with no known immune defects. NTM are found in soil and water, but factors influencing transmission from the environment to humans are mostly unknown. Studies of the epidemiology of NTM disease have matched some clinical isolates of NTM with isolates from the patient's local environment. Definitive matching requires strain level differentiation based on molecular analyses, including partial sequencing, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, repetitive element (rep-) PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of large restriction fragments. These approaches have identified hospital and residential showers and faucets, hot-tubs and garden soil as sources of transmissible pathogenic NTM. However, gaps exist in the literature, with many clinical isolates remaining unidentified within environments that have been tested, and few studies investigating NTM transmission in developing countries. To understand the environmental reservoirs and transmission routes of pathogenic NTM, different environments, countries and climates must be investigated. Copyright © 2015 Asian African Society for Mycobacteriology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Qualitative Evaluation of Historical and Relational Factors Influencing Pregnancy and Sexually Transmitted Infection Risks in Foster Youth

    PubMed Central

    Ahrens, Kym R.; Spencer, Renee; Bonnar, Mavis; Coatney, Alexis; Hall, Tyson

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To explore how attitudes, norms, behaviors, responses to early life experiences, and protective factors influence pregnancy and sexually transmitted infection risks from the perspectives of current and former foster youth to inform the development of prevention strategies. Methods We conducted semi-structured individual qualitative interviews with a diverse sample of 22 current/former foster youth aged 15–21 years (63% female; average age = 18.6 years). We then used Theoretical Thematic Analysis to systematically analyze the data for key themes related to sexual health in four categories: 1) norms and attitudes, 2) responses to early life experiences, 3) protective factors, and 4) youth-driven intervention ideas. Results Participants reported a range of sexual experience levels, varied sexual orientations, and also reported varied life experiences prior to and during foster care. We detected several norms and attitudes that likely contribute to risks of early pregnancies and sexually transmitted infections. These included that one can tell by looking whether a partner is trustworthy or has a sexually transmitted infection, that condoms aren’t necessary with long-term or infrequent partners or if birth control is used, and that teen pregnancy is an inevitable event. With respect to responses to early life experiences, youth frequently described difficulties dealing with strong emotions in the context of romantic and/or sexual relationships; many attributed these difficulties to early experiences with biological family members or in foster care. Participants linked emotion regulation difficulties with struggles in trust appraisal, effective communication, and impulsive behaviors. Youth also described a variety of protective factors that they felt helped them prevent sexual risk behaviors or improved their lives in other respects. Finally, participants endorsed factors likely to improve intervention acceptability and efficacy, including an open, non

  12. Incidence and Predictors of Antiretroviral Treatment Modification in HIV-Infected Adults: A Brazilian Historical Cohort from 2001 to 2010

    PubMed Central

    Pinto Mendicino, Cássia Cristina; Reis, Edna Afonso; Carmo, Ricardo Andrade; Menezes de Pádua, Cristiane

    2017-01-01

    This study estimated the incidence of and time to first antiretroviral therapy (ART) modification. This longitudinal analysis comprised a sample of 236 patients from three HIV/AIDS referral centers in Belo Horizonte, Brazil—part of a major historical cohort. Inclusion criteria were as follows: having been treatment-naive patient ≥18 years old who initiated ART between 2001 and 2005 in these three referral centers. The main endpoint was time to first ART modification. Patients were followed up for five years, covering the period 2001–2010, during which time Pearson's chi-square test was performed to compare ART modification between groups. Kaplan-Meier inverse survival curves were employed to describe the probability of ART modification and Cox proportional hazard regression was used to estimate the adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of ART modification. Among 247 patients from the major cohort, 236 were eligible. Median follow-up time was 37.2 months and the contribution in person-months was 7,615.4 months. A total of 108 (45.8%) patients had their ART regimen modified at least once (incidence rate: 1.42 per 100 person-months). Adverse drug reactions were the main reason for ART modification. Women (aHR = 1.62; p = 0.022) and patients on protease inhibitor- (PI-) based regimens (aHR = 2.70; p < 0.001) were at higher risk of ART modification. PMID:28348602

  13. Clostridium tetani infections in newborn infants: a tetanus neonatorum review.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Andréia Patrícia; Freitas, Brunnella Alcantara Chagas de; Rodrigues, Denise Cristina; Silveira, Guilherme Lobo da; Tavares, Walter; Siqueira-Batista, Rodrigo

    2011-12-01

    Although tetanus is a preventable disease by vaccination, it continues to claim lives around the world. Whereas cases of accidental origin reflect insufficient population immunization, tetanus neonatorum reveals a double-nature fault-poor vaccination coverage of adults coupled with difficulties accessing appropriate prenatal care; this situation is aggravated by the extreme severity of tetanus in this age group in which the mortality rate can reach up to 80%. The early detection of tetanus in neonates is essential for immediately initiating the proper therapy. Therefore, although reaching an early diagnosis of tetanus is important, the most relevant aspect is related to the appropriate management and prophylaxis of this disease. Consequently, the aim of this article is to review neonatorum tetanus with an emphasis on its therapy and prevention.

  14. Abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri infection: three case reports and a literature review.

    PubMed

    Lin, Shih-Yi; Ho, Mao-Wang; Yang, Ya-Fei; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wang, I-Kuan; Lin, Shin-Huang; Huang, Chiu-Ching

    2011-01-01

    In this report, we present 3 cases of abscess caused by Citrobacter koseri. All infected patients recovered after initial empirical antibiotic treatment and percutaneous drainage of the abscess. We reviewed the literature and found 9 adult cases of C. koseri abscess. Most of these patients recovered after timely antibiotic treatment and drainage.

  15. Costs of infection prevention practices in long-term care settings: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Catherine C.; Choi, Yoon Jeong; Stone, Patricia W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to identify and evaluate cost estimates reported in scientific literature regarding practices to prevent infection among residents and staff of long-term care facilities. Included papers represent diverse study designs and low methodological transparency. PMID:27055307

  16. Informing the Historical Record of Experimental Nonhuman Primate Infections with Ebola Virus: Genomic Characterization of USAMRIID Ebola Virus/H.sapiens-tc/COD/1995/Kikwit-9510621 Challenge Stock R4368 and Its Replacement R4415

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-20

    1 Informing the historical record of experimental nonhuman primate 1 infections with Ebola virus: genomic characterization of 2 USAMRIID Ebola ...Characterization 2 Keywords: Ebola ; Ebola virus; ebolavirus; EBOV; filovirid; Filoviridae; filovirus; Kikwit; 22 Zaire ebolavirus. 23 24...countermeasures against Select Agents such as Ebola 43 virus (EBOV) is critically dependent on the use of standardized reagents, assays, and animal 44 models

  17. Management of Infected Mesh After Abdominal Hernia Repair: Systematic Review and Single-Institution Experience.

    PubMed

    Shubinets, Valeriy; Carney, Martin J; Colen, David L; Mirzabeigi, Michael N; Weissler, Jason M; Lanni, Michael A; Braslow, Benjamin M; Fischer, John P; Kovach, Stephen J

    2017-06-01

    Mesh infection after abdominal hernia repair is a devastating complication that affects general and plastic surgeons alike. The purpose of this study was 3-fold: (1) to determine current evidence for treatment of infected abdominal wall mesh via systematic review of literature, (2) to analyze our single-institution experience with treatment of infected mesh patients, and (3) to establish a framework for how to approach this complex clinical problem. Literature search was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis guidelines, followed by single-institution retrospective analysis of infected mesh patients. A total of 3565 abstracts and 92 full-text articles were reviewed. For qualitative and quantitative assessment, articles were subdivided on the basis of treatment approach: "conservative management," "excision of mesh with primary closure," "single-stage reconstruction," "immediate staged repair," and "repair in contaminated field." Evidence for each treatment approach is presented. At our institution, most patients (40/43) were treated by excision of infected mesh and single-stage reconstruction with biologic mesh. When the mesh was placed in a retrorectus or underlay fashion, 21.4% rate of hernia recurrence was achieved. Bridged repairs were highly prone to recurrence (88.9%; P = 0.001), but the bridging biologic mesh seemed to maintain domain and potentially contribute to a more effective repair in the future. Of the patients who underwent additional ("secondary") repairs after recurrence, 75% were eventually able to achieve "hernia-free" state. This study reviews the literature and our single-institution experience regarding treatment of infected abdominal wall mesh. Framework is developed for how to approach this complex clinical problem.

  18. The role of hormones on Toxoplasma gondii infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Galván-Ramírez, María de la Luz; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Verduzco-Grijalva, Fabiola; Jiménez, Judith Marcela Dueñas

    2014-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world's population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: (a) congenital transmission, (b) parasite reproduction, (c) strain virulence, (d) levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection, and (e) participation of hormone receptors in T. gondii infection. Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection? A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley, and Google Scholar) dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Thirty studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and 17β-estradiol. Type I (RH and BK) and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49, T45, P78, and T38) were the most frequent experimental strains. Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding T. gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate T. gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the T. gondii infectious process.

  19. The role of hormones on Toxoplasma gondii infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Ramírez, María de la Luz; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Verduzco-Grijalva, Fabiola; Jiménez, Judith Marcela Dueñas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world's population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: (a) congenital transmission, (b) parasite reproduction, (c) strain virulence, (d) levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection, and (e) participation of hormone receptors in T. gondii infection. Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection? A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley, and Google Scholar) dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: Thirty studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and 17β-estradiol. Type I (RH and BK) and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49, T45, P78, and T38) were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding T. gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate T. gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the T. gondii infectious process. PMID:25346725

  20. The Surgeon General's Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities: historical review, rationale, and implications 5 years after publication.

    PubMed

    Carmona, Richard H; Giannini, Margaret; Bergmark, Brian; Cabe, Jennifer

    2010-10-01

    This article reviews much of the history of the Surgeon General's Call to Action to Improve the Health and Wellness of Persons with Disabilities and its implications 5 years after publication. This article also reviews historical trends related to disability legislation such as the Social Security Act, the Civil Rights Era and the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990, and the New Freedom Initiative. Most Americans will have a disability at some point in their lives. The etiologies of disabilities are many, including genetic, congenital, traumatic, or due to chronic illnesses or the aging process. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.