Science.gov

Sample records for infection historical review

  1. Nonhuman primate models of encephalitic alphavirus infection: historical review and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    Dupuy, Lesley C; Reed, Douglas S

    2012-06-01

    Venezuelan, western, and eastern equine encephalitis viruses are New World alphaviruses that are recognized as potential agents of biowarfare and bioterrorism owing to their morbidity and mortality in humans, ease of production, considerable stability, and high infectivity in aerosols. As a result, these encephalitic alphaviruses are defined as category B select agents. Studies involving infection of nonhuman primates have been instrumental in gaining an understanding of the in vivo pathogenesis of these viruses and have provided relevant models to evaluate the efficacy of candidate human vaccines. Recent advances have led to refinement and further characterization of these models toward the goal of utility in the licensure of next-generation alphavirus vaccines and therapeutics for use in humans by the Animal Rule. PMID:22709522

  2. Diagnosis of children’s attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its association with cytomegalovirus infection with ADHD: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Rui; Xia, Qun; Shen, Huaiyun; Yang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Yongli; Xu, Jiali

    2015-01-01

    As the most common mental disorder identified in children and teenagers, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects millions of children and their families, making it a critical health issue worldwide. This article reviewed the historical opinions about the diagnosis of ADHD and defined different subtypes of this disorder. It also summarized the current diagnostic criteria and available medications. After re-visiting the etiology of ADHD in the sense of both genetic and environment factors, it was further hypothesized that viral infection might be involved in ADHD pathogenesis. Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection may be associated with ADHD, although both clinical observations and animal studies need to be performed for validation. PMID:26550354

  3. Mineralogy: A Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Robert M.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews changing concepts of the origins, properties, and classification of minerals. Emphasis is placed on developments of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, during which time the interwoven advances of chemistry, physics, crystallography, and high-temperature, high-pressure studies transformed mineralogy from a qualitative to a…

  4. Cloze Procedure. An Historical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wardell, David

    Cloze procedure, a testing method which systematically deletes words in written prose and then measures the accuracy of the information is reviewed from a historical viewpoint. Redundancy is placed in a verbal context and can be noted on three separate levels of language: (1) surface syntactic structure; (2) deep syntactic structure; and (3)…

  5. Indians of British Columbia (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    An historical review is presented of the 6 major groups of Indians of the coastal region of British Columbia: the Coast Salish, Nootka, Kwakiutl, Bella Coola, Tsimshian, and Haida. Characteristics of each tribe are contrasted in the following 7 sections of the review: (1) Introduction--the life style, sociocultural factors, and unique…

  6. Internal fixation: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Greenhagen, Robert M; Johnson, Adam R; Joseph, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Internal fixation has become a pillar of surgical specialties, yet the evolution of these devices has been relatively short. The first known description of medical management of a fracture was found in the Edwin Smith Papyrus of Ancient Egypt (circa 2600 bc). The first description of internal fixation in the medical literature was in the 18th century. The advancement of techniques and technology over the last 150 years has helped to preserve both life and function. The pace of advancement continues to accelerate as surgeons continue to seek new technology for osseous fixation. The authors present a thorough review of the history of internal fixation and the transformation into a multibillion dollar industry. PMID:21944395

  7. Historical Review of Environmental Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qing, Tian

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the historical review of environmental education in China. As China's economy began to grow, environmental pollution and ecological destruction initially appeared locally in the early 1980s. These local environmental issues were primarily managed and controlled by state and local environmental protection agencies. In…

  8. Indians of Ontario (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    The booklet presents an historical review and a description of the 2 cultural groups of Indians--Iroquoian and Algonkian--which inhabited Ontario in pre-European times. According to the document, the Iroquoian culture evolved over a period of at least 2000 years in the fertile land of the eastern Great Lakes region; the Algonkians inhabited the…

  9. Intrauterine infections: a literature review.

    PubMed

    França, Cristiane Miranda; Mugayar, Leda R F

    2004-01-01

    During gestation, many microorganisms can infect the fetus, causing severe birth defects. Such organisms and the resulting clinical syndromes have been categorized as TORCH infections, a useful acronym referring to Toxoplasma gondii, other microorganisms (like syphilis), rubella virus, cytomegalovirus, and herpesviruses. Since dental patients typically report pregnancy or previous infections as part of their health history, and TORCH infections can manifest oral symptoms, the dentist is in a position to act as an educator and screener for these infections. This article reviews TORCH agents for dentists to help the clinician in educating pregnant patients about the risks these infections pose to the fetus. The authors also note oral symptoms related to these infections. PMID:15552342

  10. Mendelian controversies: a botanical and historical review.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, D J; Rytting, B

    2001-05-01

    Gregor Mendel was a 19(th) century priest and botanist who developed the fundamental laws of inheritance. The year 2000 marked a century since the rediscovery of those laws and the beginning of genetics. Although Mendel is now recognized as the founder of genetics, significant controversy ensued about his work throughout the 20(th) century. In this paper, we review five of the most contentious issues by looking at the historical record through the lens of current botanical science: (1) Are Mendel's data too good to be true? (2) Is Mendel's description of his experiments fictitious? (3) Did Mendel articulate the laws of inheritance attributed to him? (4) Did Mendel detect but not mention linkage? (5) Did Mendel support or oppose Darwin?A synthesis of botanical and historical evidence supports our conclusions: Mendel did not fabricate his data, his description of his experiments is literal, he articulated the laws of inheritance attributed to him insofar as was possible given the information he had, he did not detect linkage, and he neither strongly supported nor opposed Darwin.

  11. Historical monthly energy review, 1973--1992

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-08-01

    The Historical Monthly Energy Review (HMER) presents monthly and annual data from 1973 through 1992 on production, consumption, stocks, imports, exports, and prices of the principal energy commodities in the United States. Also included are data on international production of crude oil, consumption of petroleum products, petroleum stocks, and production of electricity from nuclear-powered facilities. This edition of the HMER extends the original HMER in several ways: (1) Four additional years of monthly data, 1989--1992, have been added. (2) This report fully replaces the earlier one; each data cell that has been revised since the original HMER is marked with an ``R`` so that changes can be quickly noted. (3) Section 1 has been expanded to include Tables 1.7--1.13, which were not available in the first HMER. (4) Tables 3.9 on propane and Table 4.3 on natural gas trade, which have been added to the MER since the release of the first HMER, are included in this edition. In addition, Table 10.4 on nuclear electricity gross generation has been reorganized to align more closely with the current presentation in the MER.

  12. Historical review of the causes of cancer.

    PubMed

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-02-10

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  13. Historical review of the causes of cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blackadar, Clarke Brian

    2016-01-01

    In the early 1900s, numerous seminal publications reported that high rates of cancer occurred in certain occupations. During this period, work with infectious agents produced only meager results which seemed irrelevant to humans. Then in the 1980s ground breaking evidence began to emerge that a variety of viruses also cause cancer in humans. There is now sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity in humans for human T-cell lymphotrophic virus, human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, human papillomavirus, Epstein-Barr virus, and human herpes virus 8 according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). Many other causes of cancer have also been identified by the IARC, which include: Sunlight, tobacco, pharmaceuticals, hormones, alcohol, parasites, fungi, bacteria, salted fish, wood dust, and herbs. The World Cancer Research Fund and the American Institute for Cancer Research have determined additional causes of cancer, which include beta carotene, red meat, processed meats, low fibre diets, not breast feeding, obesity, increased adult height and sedentary lifestyles. In brief, a historical review of the discoveries of the causes of human cancer is presented with extended discussions of the difficulties encountered in identifying viral causes of cancer. PMID:26862491

  14. 4. Photocopy of photograph (from cover of Historical Review of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (from cover of Historical Review of Berks County, XXXVI, Summer, 1971) 1971, George M. Meiser IX, photographer FRONT FACADES - George Stoudt House, Eight Cornered House Road (Penn Township), Mount Pleasant, Berks County, PA

  15. Historic evidence to support a causal relationship between spirochetal infections and Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Miklossy, Judith

    2015-01-01

    Following previous observations a statistically significant association between various types of spirochetes and Alzheimer’s disease (AD) fulfilled Hill’s criteria in favor of a causal relationship. If spirochetal infections can indeed cause AD, the pathological and biological hallmarks of AD should also occur in syphilitic dementia. To answer this question, observations and illustrations on the detection of spirochetes in the atrophic form of general paresis, which is known to be associated with slowly progressive dementia, were reviewed and compared with the characteristic pathology of AD. Historic observations and illustrations published in the first half of the 20th Century indeed confirm that the pathological hallmarks, which define AD, are also present in syphilitic dementia. Cortical spirochetal colonies are made up by innumerable tightly spiraled Treponema pallidum spirochetes, which are morphologically indistinguishable from senile plaques, using conventional light microscopy. Local brain amyloidosis also occurs in general paresis and, as in AD, corresponds to amyloid beta. These historic observations enable us to conclude that chronic spirochetal infections can cause dementia and reproduce the defining hallmarks of AD. They represent further evidence in support a causal relationship between various spirochetal infections and AD. They also indicate that local invasion of the brain by these helically shaped bacteria reproduce the filamentous pathology characteristic of AD. Chronic infection by spirochetes, and co-infection with other bacteria and viruses should be included in our current view on the etiology of AD. Prompt action is needed as AD might be prevented. PMID:25932012

  16. Historical Review: Problematic Malaria Prophylaxis with Quinine.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2016-08-01

    Quinine, a bitter-tasting, short-acting alkaloid drug extracted from cinchona bark, was the first drug used widely for malaria chemoprophylaxis from the 19th century. Compliance was difficult to enforce even in organized groups such as the military, and its prophylaxis potential was often questioned. Severe adverse events such as blackwater fever occurred rarely, but its relationship to quinine remains uncertain. Quinine prophylaxis was often counterproductive from a public health viewpoint as it left large numbers of persons with suppressed infections producing gametocytes infective for mosquitoes. Quinine was supplied by the first global pharmaceutical cartel which discouraged competition resulting in a near monopoly of cinchona plantations on the island of Java which were closed to Allied use when the Japanese Imperial Army captured Indonesia in 1942. The problems with quinine as a chemoprophylactic drug illustrate the difficulties with medications used for prevention and the acute need for improved compounds.

  17. [Historical review of algodystrophy: part I].

    PubMed

    Zyluk, A

    1997-01-01

    The history of algodystrophy discerning, its recognition as a separate clinical entity and evolution of ideas about its nature is presented on the basis of historical and scientific literature. First cases resembling algodystrophy were described as early as in XVI and XVIII century. A more detailed description of limb dystrophy that followed gunshot injuries was reported by American surgeon Weir Mitchell in 1864, who coined this condition as "causalgia". In the year 1900 Paul Sudeck of Germany described radiological changes secondary, as he believed, to inflammatory process within the limb as patchy osteoporosis. His name is still attached to this syndrome in German and Polish literature. French neurosurgeon Rene Leriche believed, that the syndrome was caused by increased activity of the sympathetic nervous system and introduced a surgical periarterial sympathectomy. Oscar Steinbrocker of the United States separated particular form of algodystrophy known as shoulder-hand syndrome; later, he introduced the treatment of this condition with steroids. PMID:9377976

  18. An Historical Review of Liberal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoerner, James L.

    Section I of this paper presents a brief history of liberal education and reviews some of the ideas that have been expressed about its origin, and some of the ideas that have influenced liberal education throughout history. The definition of the purpose of liberal education is Woodring's: "It is the education that liberates men from the bondage of…

  19. A Historical Review of WIPP Backfill Development

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, L.H.; Krumhansl, J.L.; Molecke, M.A.; Papenguth, H.W.

    1999-07-15

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. It's introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  20. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  1. Historical and Critical Review on Biophysical Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adigüzel, Yekbun

    2016-07-01

    Biophysical economics is initiated with the long history of the relation of economics with ecological basis and biophysical perspectives of the physiocrats. It inherently has social, economic, biological, environmental, natural, physical, and scientific grounds. Biological entities in economy like the resources, consumers, populations, and parts of production systems, etc. could all be dealt by biophysical economics. Considering this wide scope, current work is a “biophysical economics at a glance” rather than a comprehensive review of the full range of topics that may just be adequately covered in a book-length work. However, the sense of its wide range of applications is aimed to be provided to the reader in this work. Here, modern approaches and biophysical growth theory are presented after the long history and an overview of the concepts in biophysical economics. Examples of the recent studies are provided at the end with discussions. This review is also related to the work by Cleveland, “Biophysical Economics: From Physiocracy to Ecological Economics and Industrial Ecology” [C. J. Cleveland, in Advances in Bioeconomics and Sustainability: Essay in Honor of Nicholas Gerogescu-Roegen, eds. J. Gowdy and K. Mayumi (Edward Elgar Publishing, Cheltenham, England, 1999), pp. 125-154.]. Relevant parts include critics and comments on the presented concepts in a parallelized fashion with the Cleveland’s work.

  2. A historic review of canard configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, S. B.; Feistel, T. W.

    1985-01-01

    The first human-powered flight was achieved by a canard-configured aircraft (Wright Brothers). Although other canard concepts were flown with varying degrees of success over the years, the tail-aft configuration has dominated the aircraft market for both military and civil use. This paper reviews the development of canard aircraft with emphasis on stability and control, handling qualities, and operating problems. The results show that early canard concepts suffered adversely in flight behavior because of a lack of understanding of the sensitivities of these concepts to basic stability and control principles. Modern canard designs have been made competitive with tail-aft configurations by using appropriate handling qualities design criteria.

  3. Epiphyseal plate transplantation: an historical review.

    PubMed

    Boyer, M I; Bray, P W; Bowen, C V

    1994-12-01

    Non-vascularized and vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate autografts have been performed both clinically and experimentally for over 100 years. However, the ultimate clinical goal of vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate allografts for paediatric extremity reconstruction remains elusive, due primarily to the lack of suitably nontoxic techniques to prevent graft rejection. We have summarized the published clinical and experimental investigations of vascularized epiphyseal plate transplantation, and organized the experiments and clinical operations into four main groups: (1) local vascular studies on unmanipulated epiphyseal plates, (2) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after orthotopic replantation, (3) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after heterotopic transplantation, and (4) studies of epiphyseal plate behaviour after allograft transplantation. Prior investigations into the non-vascularized transplantation of epiphyseal plate autografts and allografts are presented as background. These groups of studies serve as the building blocks for the more clinically applicable experimental investigations outlined in the final section of this review. PMID:7697285

  4. Toxins as Weapons: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Romero, A

    2014-07-01

    This review article summarizes the use of toxins as weapons dating from the First World War until today, when there is a high concern of possible terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction. All through modern history, military programs and terrorist groups have favored toxins because of their high toxicity. However, difficulties of extraction or synthesis, as well as effective dissemination to cause a large number of casualties, have been the most important drawbacks. Special emphasis is focused on ricin and botulinum toxin, the most important toxins that have attracted the attention of military programs and terrorist groups. Other toxins like trichothecenes, saxitoxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are also discussed. A short section about anthrax is also included: Although Bacillus anthracis is considered a biological weapon rather than a toxin weapon, it produces a toxin that is finally responsible for the anthrax disease. PMID:26227025

  5. Toxins as Weapons: A Historical Review.

    PubMed

    Pita, R; Romero, A

    2014-07-01

    This review article summarizes the use of toxins as weapons dating from the First World War until today, when there is a high concern of possible terrorist attacks with weapons of mass destruction. All through modern history, military programs and terrorist groups have favored toxins because of their high toxicity. However, difficulties of extraction or synthesis, as well as effective dissemination to cause a large number of casualties, have been the most important drawbacks. Special emphasis is focused on ricin and botulinum toxin, the most important toxins that have attracted the attention of military programs and terrorist groups. Other toxins like trichothecenes, saxitoxin, and Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) are also discussed. A short section about anthrax is also included: Although Bacillus anthracis is considered a biological weapon rather than a toxin weapon, it produces a toxin that is finally responsible for the anthrax disease.

  6. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... Practices § 137.50 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must... (b). Historical documents and records may include, but are not limited to, aerial photographs,...

  7. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... Practices § 137.50 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must... (b). Historical documents and records may include, but are not limited to, aerial photographs,...

  8. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... Practices § 137.50 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must... (b). Historical documents and records may include, but are not limited to, aerial photographs,...

  9. Chlamydial Infection in Animals: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shewen, Patricia E.

    1980-01-01

    A review of the literature concerning chlamydial infection in birds and animals, particularly domestic animals is presented. Following a general discussion of the agent, the nature of chlamydial infection and diagnostic criteria, information regarding disease is summarized for each species. The possibility of zoonotic transmission is also discussed. PMID:6988075

  10. 40 CFR 312.24 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES Standards and Practices § 312.24 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must be reviewed for the purposes of achieving...

  11. 40 CFR 312.24 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES Standards and Practices § 312.24 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must be reviewed for the purposes of achieving...

  12. 40 CFR 312.24 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES Standards and Practices § 312.24 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must be reviewed for the purposes of achieving...

  13. 40 CFR 312.24 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Reviews of historical sources of... CONDUCTING ALL APPROPRIATE INQUIRIES Standards and Practices § 312.24 Reviews of historical sources of information. (a) Historical documents and records must be reviewed for the purposes of achieving...

  14. Anthropometric Studies on the Turkish Population - A Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Neyzi, Olcay; Saka, Hatice Nurçin; Kurtoğlu, Selim

    2013-01-01

    A historical review of anthropometric studies conducted on Turkish children and adults is presented. In view of observed differences in growth status between children of different societies, the need for local reference standards and the methodology to be used for such studies have been stressed. The importance of local studies in reflecting the state of health and nutrition both in children and adults has also been mentioned. While a number of studies in children cited in this paper are designed to compare the growth of children from different socioeconomic levels, other studies aim to establish local reference data for Turkish children. While the historical studies in adults aim to define racial characteristics, the more recent studies aim to bring out nutritional characteristics with emphasis on increasing frequency of obesity. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23419421

  15. Historical Images and Reviews of Substance Use and Substance Abuse in the Teaching of Addiction Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stolberg, Victor B.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss how images and historical reviews of substance use and abuse from different time periods can be used to provide a better understanding of the historical background of the discipline. Historical reviews of various substances, as well as approaches to addressing substance abuse at different time periods, and…

  16. The naming of the cranial nerves: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Davis, Matthew C; Griessenauer, Christoph J; Bosmia, Anand N; Tubbs, R Shane; Shoja, Mohammadali M

    2014-01-01

    The giants of medicine and anatomy have each left their mark on the history of the cranial nerves, and much of the history of anatomic study can be viewed through the lens of how the cranial nerves were identified and named. A comprehensive literature review on the classification of the cranial names was performed. The identification of the cranial nerves began with Galen in the 2nd century AD and evolved up through the mid-20th century. In 1778, Samuel Sömmerring, a German anatomist, classified the 12 cranial nerves as we recognize them today. This review expands on the excellent investigations of Flamm, Shaw, and Simon et al., with discussion of the historical identification as well as the process of naming the human cranial nerves.

  17. Historical ESWT Paradigms Are Overcome: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Nauck, Tanja; Korakakis, Vasileios; Malliaropoulos, Nikos

    2016-01-01

    Extracorporeal Shock Wave Therapy (ESWT) is a conservative treatment modality with still growing interest in musculoskeletal disorders. This narrative review aims to present an overview covering 20-year development in the field of musculoskeletal ESWT. Eight historical paradigms have been identified and put under question from a current perspective: energy intensity, focus size, anesthesia, imaging, growth plates, acuteness, calcifications, and number of sessions. All paradigms as set in a historical consensus meeting in 1995 are to be revised. First, modern musculoskeletal ESWT is divided into focused and radial technology and the physical differences are about 100-fold with respect to the applied energy. Most lesions to be treated are easy to reach and clinical focusing plays a major role today. Lesion size is no longer a matter of concern. With the exception of nonunion fractures full, regional, or even local anesthesia is not helpful in musculoskeletal indications. Juvenile patients can also effectively be treated without risk of epiphyseal damage. Further research is needed to answer the question about if and which acute injuries can be managed effectively. Treatment parameters like the number of sessions are still relying on empirical data and have to be further elucidated. PMID:27493955

  18. A review of complications of odontogenic infections.

    PubMed

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these "space infections" has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms "odontogenic infections," "complications," and "risk factors." PMID:27390486

  19. Balloon Dilators for Labor Induction: a Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Smith, James Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent articles attribute the origin of the use of cervical balloon dilation in the induction of labor to either Barnes in the 1860s or Embrey and Mollison in the 1960s. This review examines the historical record and reveals that, based on current practice attribution should rather be made to two contemporaries of Barnes: the Storer and Mattei. More importantly, Storer’s warning about the rubber used in dilators was ignored, leading to decades of possibly unnecessary deaths following childbirth. To conduct this study key search terms for PubMed, Google Scholar and the website of the University of Ryerson were utilized as “Barnes”, “Woodman”, “balloon dilation”, “balloon catheter”, “foley”, “colpeurynter”, “cervix uteri” and “induction.” Subsequent analysis was done on downloaded articles using BibDesk. PMID:24427487

  20. Balloon dilators for labor induction: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Smith, James Andrew

    2013-01-01

    A number of recent articles attribute the origin of the use of cervical balloon dilation in the induction of labor to either Barnes in the 1860s or Embrey and Mollison in the 1960s. This review examines the historical record and reveals that, based on current practice attribution should rather be made to two contemporaries of Barnes: the Storer and Mattei. More importantly, Storer's warning about the rubber used in dilators was ignored, leading to decades of possibly unnecessary deaths following childbirth. To conduct this study key search terms for PubMed, Google Scholar and the website of the University of Ryerson were utilized as "Barnes", "Woodman", "balloon dilation", "balloon catheter", "foley", "colpeurynter", "cervix uteri" and "induction." Subsequent analysis was done on downloaded articles using BibDesk.

  1. Historical review of die drool phenomenon during plastics extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Musil, Jan; Zatloukal, Martin

    2013-04-01

    Die drool phenomenon is defined as unwanted spontaneous accumulation of extruded polymer melt on open faces of extrusion die during extrusion process. Such accumulated material builds up on the die exit and frequently or continually sticks onto the extruded product and thus damages it. Since die drool appears, extrusion process must be shut down and die exit must be manually cleaned which is time and money consuming. Although die drool is complex phenomenon and its formation mechanism is not fully understood yet, variety of proposed explanations of its formation mechanism and also many ways to its elimination can be found in open literature. Our review presents in historical order breakthrough works in the field of die drool research, shows many ways to suppress it, introduces methods for its quantitative evaluation and composition analysis and summarizes theories of die drool formation mechanism which can be helpful for extrusion experts.

  2. Nosocomial urinary tract infections: A review.

    PubMed

    Iacovelli, Valerio; Gaziev, Gabriele; Topazio, Luca; Bove, Pierluigi; Vespasiani, Giuseppe; Finazzi Agrò, Enrico

    2014-01-01

    Nosocomial urinary tract infections are a common complication in healthcare systems worldwide. A review of the literature was performed in June 2014 using the Medical Literature Analysis and Retrieval System Online (MEDLINE) database, through either PubMed or Ovid as a search engine, to identify publications regarding nosocomial urinary tract infections (NUTIs) definition, epidemiology, etiology and treatment.According to current definitions, more than 30% of nosocomial infections are urinary tract infections (UTIs). A UTI is defined 'nosocomial' (NUTI) when it is acquired in any healthcare institution or, more generally, when it is related to patient management. The origin of nosocomial bacteria is endogenous (the patient's flora) in two thirds of the cases. Patients with indwelling urinary catheters, those undergoing urological surgery and manipulations, long-stay elderly male patients and patients with debilitating diseases are at high risk of developing NUTIs. All bacterial NUTIs should be treated, whether the patient is harboring a urinary catheter or not. The length of treatment depends on the infection site. There is abundance of important guidance which should be considered to reduce the risk of NUTIs (hand disinfection with instant hand sanitizer, wearing non-sterile gloves permanently, isolation of infected or colonized catheterized patients). Patients with asymptomatic bacteriuria can generally be treated initially with catheter removal or catheter exchange, and do not necessarily need antimicrobial therapy. Symptomatic patients should receive antibiotic therapy. Resistance of urinary pathogens to common antibiotics is currently a topic of concern. PMID:25451882

  3. A Review of Historical Naked-Eye Sungrazing Comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knight, Matthew M.

    2013-10-01

    With the upcoming perihelion passage of Comet ISON (C/2012 S1) in November 2013, there is considerable interest in sungrazing comets at present. However, given the infrequency with which such comets appear, there have been few systematic studies of their behavior near perihelion. Bright, sometimes even daytime-observable comets have been recorded by observers around the world for more than 2000 years. A number of authors have compiled records of possible historical sungrazing comets, e.g., Hasegawa 1979, Kronk 1999, Hasegawa & Nakano 2001, England 2002, and Strom 2002. We review this literature to estimate the frequency of arrival of naked-eye sungrazing comets and investigate if there are any trends in their behavior, such as between peak brightness and length of time a comet is observable. We will also review the “modern” observations of naked-eye sungrazing comets (primarily Kreutz group comets observed since 1800) to investigate the frequency of fragmentation near the Sun and the dependence of survivability on size (as inferred from brightness) and/or perihelion distance.

  4. A review of complications of odontogenic infections

    PubMed Central

    Bali, Rishi Kumar; Sharma, Parveen; Gaba, Shivani; Kaur, Avneet; Ghanghas, Priya

    2015-01-01

    Life-threatening infections of odontogenic or upper airway origin may extend to potential spaces formed by fascial planes of the lower head and upper cervical area. Complications include airway obstruction, mediastinitis, necrotizing fascitis, cavernous sinus thrombosis, sepsis, thoracic empyema, Lemierre's syndrome, cerebral abscess, orbital abscess, and osteomyelitis. The incidence of these “space infections” has been greatly reduced by modern antibiotic therapy. However, serious morbidity and even fatalities continue to occur. This study reviews complications of odontogenic infections. The search done was based on PubMed and Google Scholar, and an extensive published work search was undertaken. Advanced MEDLINE search was performed using the terms “odontogenic infections,” “complications,” and “risk factors.” PMID:27390486

  5. Device-related infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Vinh, Donald C; Embil, John M

    2005-01-01

    device implantation that signs and symptoms develop can assist in the selection of empiric antimicrobial therapy. Optimal diagnostic microbiologic specimens are paramount in tailoring the antimicrobial therapy, which almost always has to be given for a prolonged period of time. Surgical removal of the device is usually necessary. Some studies of limited types of device-related infections, however, have defined indications for which salvage therapy may be warranted. In addition, some patients are not candidates for, or may not want, further surgical interventions, in which case indefinite suppressive antimicrobial therapy may be considered. This review provides an overview of infections related to various neurosurgical, cardiac, and orthopedic devices, as well as those related to cochlear, breast, and penile prostheses, with discussion of definitions of such infections, along with microbiology, pathogenesis, and management guidelines, including the limited indications for salvage techniques.

  6. Toxoplasma gondii infection in horses. A review.

    PubMed

    Tassi, P

    2007-06-01

    This review updates those written by Dubey and Beattie in 1988 (1988a) and by Tenter et al in 2000, on pathological and epidemiological aspects of Toxoplasma infection in horses. Under natural conditions, seroprevalence may variate from 0% up to 90%. This wide variation may be due to the sensitivity of the serological methods, to the age of animals, to the geographical area, and even to the hygienic condition of the farms and farm management. With few exceptions, horses are considered one of the less sensitive specie to the pathogenic effect of Toxoplasma gondii. In fact, neither under experimental nor under natural condition a genuine pathologic picture related to the toxoplasmic infection has been described. In one occasion the organism has been isolated from an eye condition and in others a connection between a higher frequency of unspecified pathological conditions and a positive response to serological test for Toxoplasma has been speculated. Diaplacental transmission and the following abortion have been only occasionally reported, and at least in one case in a quite trustworthy way, therefore it must be considered possible, though rare. Although infection of humans due to the consumption of horse meat has never been reported, the existence of a possible risk arouses by the demonstration of the presence of parasite stages in either naturally or experimentally infected horses, which resulted to be infective for mice and/or cats.

  7. Microwave Interferometric Radiometry in Remote Sensing: an Invited Historical Review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-01-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  8. Microwave interferometric radiometry in remote sensing: An invited historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martín-Neira, M.; LeVine, D. M.; Kerr, Y.; Skou, N.; Peichl, M.; Camps, A.; Corbella, I.; Hallikainen, M.; Font, J.; Wu, J.; Mecklenburg, S.; Drusch, M.

    2014-06-01

    The launch of the Soil Moisture and Ocean Salinity (SMOS) mission on 2 November 2009 marked a milestone in remote sensing for it was the first time a radiometer capable of acquiring wide field of view images at every single snapshot, a unique feature of the synthetic aperture technique, made it to space. The technology behind such an achievement was developed, thanks to the effort of a community of researchers and engineers in different groups around the world. It was only because of their joint work that SMOS finally became a reality. The fact that the European Space Agency, together with CNES (Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales) and CDTI (Centro para el Desarrollo Tecnológico e Industrial), managed to get the project through should be considered a merit and a reward for that entire community. This paper is an invited historical review that, within a very limited number of pages, tries to provide insight into some of the developments which, one way or another, are imprinted in the name of SMOS.

  9. A historical review of artificial cornea research in Japan.

    PubMed

    Chirila, Traian V; Chirila, Mika; Ikada, Yoshito; Eguhi, Hiroshi; Shiota, Hiroshi

    2005-01-01

    Little is known or understood about the history of artificial cornea (keratoprosthesis) in Japan, mainly because of the unavailability and linguistic inaccessibility of the relevant publications. Rather strangely also, the Japanese scholars themselves have manifested only slight interest in reviewing the topic, even in their own language. As a result, the research on artificial cornea in Japan showed in fact the same pattern of historical development as that seen in the Western world. After audacious beginnings in the 19th century, an interlude of about half a century followed, when the interest of ophthalmologists was deflected to penetrating keratoplasty as a means to fight corneal blindness. The introduction in medical use of man-made polymeric materials in the 1950s triggered a revival of research on artificial cornea in Japan, and the next two decades were rich in ideas, achievements, and a plethora of reports, all published in Japanese. In the 1980s, the developmental work on keratoprosthesis became incorporated into the field of biomaterials, and the creation of materials able to mimic the corneal tissue was established as a leading concept, resulting in original designs with some sophistication. At the same time. the English language started to be used extensively for dissemination of results. These trends have continued to date. Based on rigorous documentation, we traced the history of research on artificial cornea in Japan from its origin to our time.

  10. Historical literature review on waste classification and categorization

    SciTech Connect

    Croff, A.G.; Richmond, A.A.; Williams, J.P.

    1995-03-01

    The Staff of the Waste Management Document Library (WMDL), in cooperation with Allen Croff have been requested to provide information support for a historical search concerning waste categorization/classification. This bibliography has been compiled under the sponsorship of Oak Ridge National Laboratory`s Chemical Technology Division to help in Allen`s ongoing committee work with the NRC/NRCP. After examining the search, Allen Croff saw the value of the search being published. Permission was sought from the database providers to allow limited publication (i.e. 20--50 copies) of the search for internal distribution at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory and for Allen Croff`s associated committee. Citations from the database providers who did not grant legal permission for their material to be published have been omitted from the literature review. Some of the longer citations have been included in an abbreviated form in the search to allow the format of the published document to be shortened from approximately 1,400 pages. The bibliography contains 372 citations.

  11. Advancing the management and control of typhoid fever: a review of the historical role of human challenge studies.

    PubMed

    Waddington, Claire S; Darton, Thomas C; Woodward, William E; Angus, Brian; Levine, Myron M; Pollard, Andrew J

    2014-05-01

    Typhoid infection causes considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide, particularly in settings where lack of clean water and inadequate sanitation facilitate disease spread through faecal-oral transmission. Improved understanding of the pathogenesis, immune control and microbiology of Salmonella Typhi infection can help accelerate the development of improved vaccines and diagnostic tests necessary for disease control. S. Typhi is a human-restricted pathogen; therefore animal models are limited in their relevance to human infection. During the latter half of the 20th century, induced human infection ("challenge") studies with S. Typhi were used effectively to assess quantitatively the human host response to challenge and to measure directly the efficacy of typhoid vaccines in preventing clinical illness. Here, the findings of these historic challenge studies are reviewed, highlighting the pivotal role that challenge studies have had in improving our understanding of the host-pathogen interaction, and illustrating issues relevant to modern typhoid challenge model design.

  12. School Climate: Historical Review, Instrument Development, and School Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zullig, Keith J.; Koopman, Tommy M.; Patton, Jon M.; Ubbes, Valerie A.

    2010-01-01

    This study's purpose is to examine the existing school climate literature in an attempt to constitute its definition from a historical context and to create a valid and reliable student-reported school climate instrument. Five historically common school climate domains and five measurement tools were identified, combined, and previewed by the…

  13. Historical perspective of sexually transmitted infections and their control in Peru.

    PubMed

    García, P J

    2010-04-01

    In designing an effective national response to sexually transmitted infections (STIs), one must incorporate a historical perspective of previous efforts that have addressed different aspects of STIs. One must understand who have been the key players, what aspects of STIs were the focus of efforts (prevention, treatment or control), and which, if any, societal subgroups were targeted (i.e. sex workers, military, men who have sex with men [MSM], etc.). In addition, one must consider historical and modern attitudes towards sex, sexuality and STIs, especially in terms of taboos and stigmas that may be attached to each. Most importantly, one must recognize which efforts have succeeded, which have failed, and why. This paper presents a historical overview of the perceptions of and responses to STIs at different points in Peru's history, and discusses current efforts to build upon past successes and avoid repeating previous failures that could be helpful for other countries in the Latin American region. PMID:20378893

  14. Fitness to be sentenced: a historical, comparative and practical review.

    PubMed

    Manson, Allan

    2006-01-01

    A Canadian judicial decision recently held that a person convicted of a criminal offence who suffered a substantial deterioration in mental condition since the trial could be found unfit to be sentenced. The court based its conclusion on both historical arguments and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. There are compelling justifications for recognizing this concept. The paper looks at the history of fitness and how the sentencing phase became disconnected from claims of unfitness in the late 19th century. It then considers theoretical justifications based on fairness, viewing sentencing as a moral discourse, and the effect of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Because of the number of practical questions that need to be addressed before implementing a concept of unfitness at the sentencing stage, the paper looks at some common law jurisdictions for guidance: Australia, New Zealand, and the American states of New York, Illinois, Connecticut, and Ohio. From these comparisons comes the idea of a "provisional cap". That is, the recognition of unfitness at the sentencing stage should be followed by a form of sentencing that takes into account the gravity of the offence, the prosecutor's position, any relevant aggravating or mitigating factors that can be adduced, and then results in a "provisional" sentence, whether custodial or community-based, which stays in effect until the offender becomes fit. The paper ends with a model that incorporates this approach while providing both that offenders will be confined, if necessary, in hospitals and not prisons, and also that the dispositions will be reviewed annually to ensure that the least restrictive and least onerous sanctions are imposed.

  15. Scandinavian mutation research in barley - a historical review.

    PubMed

    Lundqvist, Udda

    2014-12-01

    In 1928, the Swedish geneticists Hermann Nilsson-Ehle and Åke Gustafsson started on their suggestion experiments with induced mutations using the barley crop. In 1953, at the instigation of the Swedish Government, the 'Group for Theoretical and Applied Mutation Research' was established. Its aim was to study basic research problems in order to influence and improve methods for breeding cultivated plants. The research was non-commercial, even if some mutants were of practical importance. The peaks of activities occurred during the 1950s, 1960s and 1970s. Applying X-rays and UV-irradiation very soon the first chlorophyll mutations were obtained followed by the first viable mutations 'Erectoides'. Soon the X-ray experiments expanded with other types of irradiation such as neutrons etc. and finally with chemical mutagens, starting with mustard gas and concluding with the sodium azide. The research brought a wealth of observations of general biological importance, high increased mutation frequencies, difference in the mutation spectrum and to direct mutagenesis for specific genes. A rather large collection of morphological and physiological mutations, about 12 000 different mutant alleles, with a very broad variation were collected and incorporated into the Nordic Genetic Resource Center (NordGen) Sweden. Barley, the main experimental crop has become one of the few higher plants in which biochemical genetics and molecular biological studies are now feasible. The collection is an outstanding material for mapping genes and investigating the barley genome. Several characters have been studied and analyzed in more detail and are presented in this historical review.

  16. Vertical dengue infection: case reports and review.

    PubMed

    Sirinavin, Sayomporn; Nuntnarumit, Pracha; Supapannachart, Sarayuth; Boonkasidecha, Suppawat; Techasaensiri, Chonnamet; Yoksarn, Sutee

    2004-11-01

    Two vertical dengue infection cases are presented, and 15 others are reviewed. Twelve mothers had fever 0-9 (median, 2) days antepartum. The fevers of 17 neonates occurred at 1-11 (median, 4) days of life and lasted for 1-5 (median, 3) days. Neonatal thrombocytopenia was detected at 1-11 (median, 6) days of life and lasted for 3-18 (median, 6) days; the lowest platelet counts were 5-75 x 10(3) (median, 19 x 10 (3))/mm3. One neonate died.

  17. The association between varicella (chickenpox) and group A streptococcus infections in historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Coleman, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the research is to investigate the historical relationship between varicella and Streptococcus pyogenes infections. In the past few decades, varicella has been identified as a risk factor for invasive group A streptococcus infections. The question is whether this relationship also existed between varicella and scarlet fever in the historical era. Methods: The analysis begins with a search of historical medical reports on the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever epidemics in the late 19th and early 20th century, as well as in more recent empirical studies. Correlations and cross-correlations between varicella and scarlet fever are analyzed using weekly public health case reports from 1924 to 1932 for Boston, Chicago, New York City, and Philadelphia. Regression models are used to estimate the relationship between varicella and scarlet fever after controlling for seasonal forcing. Results: Historical records give limited support for a causal relationship between varicella and scarlet fever but indicate that these diseases often occurred close in time to each other. Likewise, statistical analysis shows that varicella and scarlet fever epidemics are closely aligned with each other, and varicella has a strong relationship with scarlet fever. The relationship is stronger than reported in any previous research on the two diseases. Conclusion: The close correspondence of the two diseases likely depends on multiple factors, including seasonal forcing, a causal relationship, and co-infections. The results raise questions about whether this close relationship might have had a synergistic effect or a role in the evolution of S. pyogenes from the virulent, high incidence epidemics of the 19th century to the relatively benign scarlet fever of the 1950s. PMID:27504182

  18. Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academies Press, 2014

    2014-01-01

    "Review of Army Research Laboratory Programs for Historically Black Colleges and Universities and Minority Institutions" examines the ways in which historically black colleges and universities and minority institutions have used the Army Research Laboratory (ARL) funds to enhance the science, technology, engineering, and mathematics…

  19. An Historical Review of Women, Smoking and Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Holly

    1984-01-01

    Historical data were examined to observe the relationship between anti-smoking publicity, growth in cigarette advertisers' appeal to women, and change in proportion of women smokers. These relationships provide insight as to what interventions might be successful in reducing the growing number of women smokers. (Author/DF)

  20. Emerging flavobacterial infections in fish: A review

    PubMed Central

    Loch, Thomas P.; Faisal, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Flavobacterial diseases in fish are caused by multiple bacterial species within the family Flavobacteriaceae and are responsible for devastating losses in wild and farmed fish stocks around the world. In addition to directly imposing negative economic and ecological effects, flavobacterial disease outbreaks are also notoriously difficult to prevent and control despite nearly 100 years of scientific research. The emergence of recent reports linking previously uncharacterized flavobacteria to systemic infections and mortality events in fish stocks of Europe, South America, Asia, Africa, and North America is also of major concern and has highlighted some of the difficulties surrounding the diagnosis and chemotherapeutic treatment of flavobacterial fish diseases. Herein, we provide a review of the literature that focuses on Flavobacterium and Chryseobacterium spp. and emphasizes those associated with fish. PMID:26257926

  1. Historical concepts of interactions, synergism and antagonism between nutrition and infection.

    PubMed

    Scrimshaw, Nevin S

    2003-01-01

    In the 1950s textbooks of nutrition made little or no mention of a relation to infection. The same was true for treatises on infectious disease. Relevant studies in experimental animals and a number of classical clinical observations were available pointing out the role of infection in precipitating nutritional disorders. However, clinicians and nutritionists did not recognize the importance of the relationship. The field and metabolic studies of the Institute of Nutrition of Central America and Panama (INCAP) in the 1950s demonstrated that malnutrition and infection in humans are generally synergistic. These studies stimulated the review of available evidence that resulted in the 1968 WHO monograph on "Interactions of Nutrition and Infection." It provided extensive evidence for the role of infections in precipitating clinical malnutrition and for the impact of malnutrition on morbidity and mortality from infection. The high frequency of diarrhea in underprivileged young children led to intensive studies in many countries of its effect on nutritional status and to recognition of the high prevalence of "weanling diarrhea." The effects of infection on nutritional status were then extensively and elegantly investigated at Fort Detrick, MD, and hormonal and cytokine mechanisms identified. The subsequent explosion in knowledge of cell-mediated immune mechanisms has led to an understanding of how malnutrition lowers this resistance. Today, recognition of the synergistic relationship between nutrition and infection influences most public health interventions to prevent malnutrition. PMID:12514318

  2. Historical Review of Tsunamigenic Earthquakes on the Jalisco Coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo, R.; Ramirez-Herrera, M.

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to discuss, interpret and map in a GIS database, historical data gathered from archives, scientific reports and newspapers, of earthquakes generated along the Jalisco and Colima coasts, to achieve a better understanding of epicenters location and the distribution of earthquake damage. Emphasis is placed on earthquakes that caused or may have caused tsunamis. This coastal area runs parallel to the Rivera's plate subduction, along an active convergent margin. The tectonic setting favors the generation of earthquakes with magnitude Ms≥6.5, causing damages locally and regionally. At least five tsunamis (23/02/1875, 03/06/1932, 22/06/1932, 19/06/1995 and 22/01/2003) have originated locally, two of them of great intensity. Historical data are available since the 16th century, but are scarce since this coast had few populated places. Early chronicles from 16th century described populated villages at Bahía de Banderas, Tomatlán and Barra de Navidad, though in the 18th century the western pacific coast of Jalisco (Nueva Galicia) was almost deserted. Between the 18th century and first half of the 20th century, this section of the Pacific coast experienced a slow occupation process, accelerated over the course of the last fifty years. Historical data analysis and GIS database are necessary in order to answer the questions on: 1) which ones were the most intense earthquakes and tsunamis that originated in the area, and 2) what kind of information is available for each one. This information is relevant to earthquake and tsunami hazard assessment and vulnerability of this area.

  3. Cocoa and Heart Health: A Historical Review of the Science

    PubMed Central

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L.

    2013-01-01

    The medicinal use of cocoa has a long history dating back almost five hundred years when Hernán Cortés’s first experienced the drink in Mesoamerica. Doctors in Europe recommended the beverage to patients in the 1700s, and later American physicians followed suit and prescribed the drink in early America―ca. 1800s. This article delineates the historic trajectory of cocoa consumption, the linkage between cocoa’s bioactive-mechanistic properties, paying special attention to nitric oxides role in vasodilation of the arteries, to the current indicators purporting the benefits of cocoa and cardiovascular health. PMID:24077240

  4. Historical Note: Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST). Early Historical Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilprin, Laurence B.

    1988-01-01

    Traces the history of the Annual Review of Information Science and Technology (ARIST), from the founding of the American Documentation Institute and National Science Foundation, through the founding of ARIST and its development. The future of the publication is also briefly discussed. (12 notes with references) (CLB)

  5. Historical and critical review of the development of nonholonomic mechanics: the classical period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borisov, Alexey V.; Mamaev, Ivan S.; Bizyaev, Ivan A.

    2016-07-01

    In this historical review we describe in detail the main stages of the development of nonholonomic mechanics starting from the work of Earnshaw and Ferrers to the monograph of Yu. I.Neimark and N.A. Fufaev. In the appendix to this review we discuss the d'Alembert-Lagrange principle in nonholonomic mechanics and permutation relations.

  6. Genitourinary tuberculosis: historical and basic science review: past and present

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Genitourinary tuberculosis (GUTB) usually results from the reactivation of old, dormant tuberculous diseases by pathogens of the mycobacterium tuberculosis complex. GUTB is the second most common form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis, with more than 90% of cases occurring in developing countries. In GUTB, the kidneys are the most common sites of infection and are infected through hematogenous spread of the bacilli, which then spread through the renal and urinary tract. Patients with genital and urethral TB present with a superficial tuberculous ulcer on the penis or in the female genital tract develop mainly due to primary contact with mycobacterium exposure during intercourse or inoculation via goods or chattels contaminated with mycobacterium. The diagnosis of TB of the urinary tract is based on the case history, the finding of pyuria in the absence of infection as judged by culture on routine media, and by radiological imaging. However, a positive yellow egg culture and/or histological analysis of biopsy specimens, possibly combined with the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), is still required in most patients to establish a definitive diagnosis of GUTB. The standard antituberculous drug treatment should be administered initially for two months during the intensive phase with three or four drugs daily followed by dual continuation therapy for four months. Surgery as a treatment option in GUTB might be indicated in complicated urinary tuberculosis. After antituberculous treatment of GUTB, surveillance with regular follow-up visits over the next five years is recommended. In cases of drug resistance, additional drugs and prolonged treatment are required. Furthermore, increasing rates of drug-resistant cases and co-infection with HIV pose challenges in the treatment GUTB and other forms of TB. PMID:24578959

  7. Investigating landslides caused by earthquakes - A historical review

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keefer, D.K.

    2002-01-01

    Post-earthquake field investigations of landslide occurrence have provided a basis for understanding, evaluating, and mapping the hazard and risk associated with earthquake-induced landslides. This paper traces the historical development of knowledge derived from these investigations. Before 1783, historical accounts of the occurrence of landslides in earthquake are typically so incomplete and vague that conclusions based on these accounts are of limited usefulness. For example, the number of landslides triggered by a given event is almost always greatly underestimated. The first formal, scientific post-earthquake investigation that included systematic documentation of the landslides was undertaken in the Calabria region of Italy after the 1783 earthquake swarm. From then until the mid-twentieth century, the best information on earthquake-induced landslides came from a succession of post-earthquake investigations largely carried out by formal commissions that undertook extensive ground-based field studies. Beginning in the mid-twentieth century, when the use of aerial photography became widespread, comprehensive inventories of landslide occurrence have been made for several earthquakes in the United States, Peru, Guatemala, Italy, El Salvador, Japan, and Taiwan. Techniques have also been developed for performing "retrospective" analyses years or decades after an earthquake that attempt to reconstruct the distribution of landslides triggered by the event. The additional use of Geographic Information System (GIS) processing and digital mapping since about 1989 has greatly facilitated the level of analysis that can applied to mapped distributions of landslides. Beginning in 1984, synthesis of worldwide and national data on earthquake-induced landslides have defined their general characteristics and relations between their occurrence and various geologic and seismic parameters. However, the number of comprehensive post-earthquake studies of landslides is still

  8. Group A Streptococcus invasive infections: a review

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Karl A.; Laverdière, Michel

    1997-01-01

    The incidence of group A Streptococcus (GAS) invasive infections has been increasing worldwide, and there is no obvious explanation for this phenomenon. In 1993, a working group on severe GAS infections was established to define accurately what constitutes an invasive infection. Three types of infection are particularly feared: necrotizing fasciitis, myositis and a newly defined entity, named streptococcal toxic shock syndrome (STSS) because of a certain analogy with its staphylococcal counterpart. GAS produces many toxins responsible for its clinical manifestations. Some of them, labelled streptococcal pyrogenic exotoxins, have been characterized as superantigens. These proteins play a key role in initiating the immune response to GAS and are mostly responsible for the precipitous course of invasive infections. Death rates are high in streptococcal invasive infections, ranging from about 20% for necrotizing fasciitis to almost 100% for myositis. Therapy consists mainly of high doses of antibiotic combinations, aggressive surgery, and intravenous administration of immunoglobulins for STSS. PMID:9030079

  9. Indians of Quebec and the Maritime Provinces (An Historical Review).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, Ottawa (Ontario).

    Giving the history of the Indians of Quebec and the maritime provinces (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, the Prince Edward Island), this document covers the period from the arrival of European explorers in the New World to 1967. Reviewing the history of these Indians, sections are devoted to (1) colonization of Acadia, (2) colonization of Quebec, (3)…

  10. Historical Review of Californium-252 Discovery and Development

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Stoddard, D. H.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the discovery and history of californium 252. This isotope may be synthesized by irradiating plutonium 239, plutonium 242, americium 243, or curium 244 with neutrons in a nuclear reactor. Various experiments and inventions involving Cf conducted at the Savannah River Plant are discussed. The evolution of radiotherapy using californium 252 is reviewed. (PLG)

  11. A Historical Review of English in Japan (1600-1880).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ike, Minoru

    1995-01-01

    Reviews the early history of the English language in Japan, from its introduction in the early 17th century through the 20th century, focusing on the role of English in regard to education, nationalism, and modernization. Also discussed is the current status of English instruction in Japan. (16 references) (MDM)

  12. A historical review of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant backfill development

    SciTech Connect

    KRUMHANSL,JAMES L.; MOLECKE,MARTIN A.; PAPENGUTH,HANS W.; BRUSH,LAURENCE H.

    2000-06-05

    Backfills have been part of Sandia National Laboratories' [Sandia's] Waste Isolation Pilot Plant [WIPP] designs for over twenty years. Historically, backfill research at Sandia has depended heavily on the changing mission of the WIPP facility. Early testing considered heat producing, high level, wastes. Bentonite/sand/salt mixtures were evaluated and studies focused on developing materials that would retard brine ingress, sorb radionuclides, and withstand elevated temperatures. The present-day backfill consists of pure MgO [magnesium oxide] in a pelletized form and is directed at treating the relatively low contamination level, non-heat producing, wastes actually being disposed of in the WIPP. Its introduction was motivated by the need to scavenging CO{sub 2} [carbon dioxide] from decaying organic components in the waste. However, other benefits, such as a substantial desiccating capacity, are also being evaluated. The MgO backfill also fulfills a statutory requirement for assurance measures beyond those needed to demonstrate compliance with the US Environmental Protection Agency [EPA] regulatory release limits. However, even without a backfill, the WIPP repository design still operates within EPA regulatory release limits.

  13. Review of historical monitoring data on Techa River contamination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vorobiova, M. I.; Degteva, M. O.; Burmistrov, D. S.; Safronova, N. G.; Kozheurov, V. P.; Anspaugh, L. R.; Napier, B. A.; Neta, P. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    The Mayak Production Association was the first Russian site for the production and separation of plutonium. The extensive increase in plutonium production during 1948-1955, as well as the absence of reliable waste-management technology, resulted in significant releases of liquid radioactive effluent into the rather small Techa River. This resulted in chronic external and internal exposure of about 30,000 residents of riverside communities; these residents form the cohort of an epidemiologic investigation. Analysis of the available historical monitoring data indicates that the following reliable data sets can be used for reconstruction of doses received during the early periods of operation of the Mayak Production Association: Temporal pattern of specific beta activity of river water for several sites in the upper Techa region since July 1951; average annual values of specific beta activity of river water and bottom sediments as a function of downstream distance for the whole river since 1951; external gamma-exposure rates near the shoreline as a function of downstream distance for the whole Techa River since 1952; and external gamma-exposure rate as a function of distance from the shoreline for several sites in the upper and middle Techa since 1951.

  14. Historical aspects and applications of barbituric acid derivatives. A review.

    PubMed

    Guillén Sans, R; Guzmán Chozas, M

    1988-12-01

    This review considers the pharmacological and other applications of barbituric and 2-thiobarbituric acid derivatives. A chronological description about the discovery, structural studies and first clinical assays are given. Therapeutic expectations as anticonvulsant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, antiinflammatory, antitumoral and some other effects of 5,5-disubstituted barbituric acids and alkylidene- or arylidenebarbituric acids are overviewed. A considerable amount of these types of compounds have been proposed as industrial dyes and pigments, photosensitizers and thermosensitive materials. PMID:3073393

  15. Historical trauma as public narrative: A conceptual review of how history impacts present-day health

    PubMed Central

    Mohatt, Nathaniel Vincent; Thompson, Azure B.; Thai, Nghi D.; Tebes, Jacob Kraemer

    2014-01-01

    Theories of historical trauma increasingly appear in the literature on individual and community health, especially in relation to racial and ethnic minority populations and groups that experience significant health disparities. As a consequence of this rapid growth, the literature on historical trauma comprises disparate terminology and research approaches. This critical review integrates this literature in order to specify theoretical mechanisms that explain how historical trauma influences the health of individuals and communities. We argue that historical trauma functions as a public narrative for particular groups or communities that connects present-day experiences and circumstances to the trauma so as to influence health. Treating historical trauma as a public narrative shifts the research discourse away from an exclusive search for past causal variables that influence health to identifying how present-day experiences, their corresponding narratives, and their health impacts are connected to public narratives of historical trauma for a particular group or community. We discuss how the connection between historical trauma and present-day experiences, related narratives, and health impacts may function as a source of present-day distress as well as resilience. PMID:24561774

  16. Nosocomial infections due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: review of recent trends.

    PubMed

    Cross, A; Allen, J R; Burke, J; Ducel, G; Harris, A; John, J; Johnson, D; Lew, M; MacMillan, B; Meers, P

    1983-01-01

    The role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in nosocomial infections occurring since 1975 is reviewed. Data from the National Nosocomial Infections Study conducted by the Centers for Disease Control, from individual medical centers, and from the literature were used to compare the relative frequency of occurrence of nosocomial infection caused by P. aeruginosa with that of infection caused by other gram-negative bacilli. The relative frequency of P. aeruginosa as a nosocomial pathogen has increased, although wide variations are seen among individual medical centers. P. aeruginosa continues to be a major pathogen among patients with immunosuppression, cystic fibrosis, malignancy, and trauma. While Staphylococcus aureus has become the predominant pathogen in some large burn centers, P. aeruginosa is the most important gram-negative pathogen. Periodic review of the epidemiology of P. aeruginosa infection is warranted in view of the changing incidence of infection caused by this organism.

  17. Determination of phosphorus in natural waters: A historical review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul; McKelvie, Ian; Monbet, Phil

    2016-04-28

    The aim of this paper is to introduce a virtual special issue that reviews the development of analytical approaches to the determination of phosphorus species in natural waters. The focus is on sampling and sample treatment, analytical methods and quality assurance of the data. The export of phosphorus from anthropogenic activities (from diffuse and point sources) can result in increased primary production and eutrophication, and potentially the seasonal development of toxic algal blooms, which can significantly impact on water quality. Therefore the quantification of phosphorus species in natural waters provides important baseline data for studying aquatic phosphorus biogeochemistry, assessing ecosystem health and monitoring compliance with legislation. PMID:27046205

  18. Radionuclide Imaging of Musculoskeletal Infection: A Review.

    PubMed

    Palestro, Christopher J

    2016-09-01

    There are numerous imaging tests for diagnosing musculoskeletal infection. Radiographs are routinely performed, because even when not diagnostic, they provide an anatomic overview of the region of interest that could influence subsequent procedure selection and interpretation. MRI is sensitive and provides superb anatomic detail. Bone scintigraphy accurately diagnoses osteomyelitis in bones not affected by underlying conditions. (67)Ga is used primarily for spondylodiskitis. Although in vitro labeled leukocyte imaging is the radionuclide test of choice for complicating osteomyelitis such as diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection, it is not useful for spondylodiskitis. Antigranulocyte antibodies and antibody fragments have limitations and are not widely available. (111)In-biotin is useful for spondylodiskitis. Radiolabeled synthetic fragments of the antimicrobial peptide ubiquicidin are promising infection-specific agents. (18)F-FDG is the radiopharmaceutical of choice for spondylodiskitis. Its role in diabetic pedal osteomyelitis and prosthetic joint infection is not established. Preliminary data suggest (68)Ga may be useful in musculoskeletal infection. (124)I-fialuridine initially showed promise as an infection-specific radiopharmaceutical, but subsequent investigations were disappointing. The development of PET/CT and SPECT/CT imaging systems, which combine anatomic and functional imaging, has revolutionized diagnostic imaging. These hybrid systems are redefining the diagnostic workup of patients with suspected or known infection and inflammation by improving diagnostic accuracy and influencing patient management. PMID:27390160

  19. Overuse syndrome in musicians--100 years ago. An historical review.

    PubMed

    Fry, H J

    Overuse syndrome in musicians was extensively reported 100 years ago. The clinical features and results of treatment, which were recorded in considerable detail, match well the condition that is described today. The medical literature that is reviewed here extends from 1830 to 1911 and includes 21 books and 54 articles from the English language literature, apart from two exceptions; however, the writers of the day themselves reviewed French, German and Italian literature on the subject. The disorder was said to result from the overuse of the affected parts. Two theories of aetiology, not necessarily mutually exclusive, were argued. The central theory regarded the lesion as being in the central nervous system, the peripheral theory implied a primary muscle disorder. No serious case was put forward for a psychogenic origin, though emotional factors were believed to aggravate the condition. Advances in musical instrument manufacture--particularly the development of the concert piano and the clarinet--may have played a part in the prevalence of overuse syndrome in musicians. Total rest from the mechanical use of the hand was the only effective treatment recorded.

  20. Review of HIV Testing Efforts in Historically Black Churches

    PubMed Central

    Pichon, Latrice Crystal; Powell, Terrinieka Williams

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to critically assess the state of HIV testing in African American churches. A comprehensive review of peer-reviewed publications on HIV testing in church-based settings was conducted by two independent coders. Twenty-six papers published between 1991 and 2015, representing 24 unique projects, were identified addressing at least one dimension of HIV testing. Thirteen faith-based projects have implemented HIV testing events or had clergy promote the importance of testing and knowing one’s HIV status, but empirical data and rigorous study designs were limited. Only eight papers reported onsite HIV testing in churches. Less than 5% of the studies reported the percentage of congregants who returned for their test results. Finally, no study has examined at baseline or post-intervention behavioral intentions to be screened for HIV. Future research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of HIV testing in churches and to explore the possibilities of the role of the church and leadership structure in the promotion of HIV treatment and care. PMID:26030470

  1. [Historical review on changes in the concept of COPD].

    PubMed

    Fukuchi, Yoshinosuke

    2007-04-01

    A brief review of changes in the concept of COPD was made based on records of mile stone articles and prestigious international lung conferences. A major innovation in the definition of COPD was presented by the 'GOLD WORKSHOP REPORT' published in 2001. It introduced a concept of inflammatory response of the lung to toxic gas/particles as the most significant pathogenesis of the disease, eliminating the definition of COPD being a syndrome of 'emphysema plus chronic bronchitis'. Both CIBA Guest Symposium and Aspen Emphysema Conference contributed in the evolution of COPD concept. Also discussed in brief are the impacts of 'Small Airway Disease Theory' and British bronchitis hypothesis. The GOLD revision 2006 may be highly appreciated among practicing clinicians world wide with key features; 'COPD is preventable and treatable accompanied by significant systemic effects'.

  2. Federal incentives for industrial modernization: Historical review and future opportunities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Sandra C.; Batson, Robert G.

    1987-01-01

    Concerns over the aging of the U.S. aerospace industrial base led DOD to introduce first its Technology Modernization (Tech Mod) Program, and more recently the Industrial Modernization Incentive Program (IMIP). These incentives include productivity shared savings rewards, contractor investment protection to allow for amortization of plant and equipment, and subcontractor/vendor participation. The purpose here is to review DOD IMIP and to evaluate whether a similar program is feasible for NASA and other non-DOD agencies. The IMIP methodology is of interest to industrial engineers because it provides a structured, disciplined approach to identifying productivity improvement opportunities and documenting their expected benefit. However, it is shown that more research on predicting and validating cost avoidance is needed.

  3. An Historic Encounter: Reviewing the Outreach around ESA's Rosetta Mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenzen, D.

    2016-03-01

    The Rosetta mission is a milestone in terms of science and public outreach. The European Space Agency and the Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt in particular did a marvellous job of sparking global public interest, driven by various events throughout the mission. In contrast, the actions of the Max Planck Society research group in charge of the high resolution Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System were, in my opinion, the cause of some concern and bring to light an important debate in the relationship between outreach and science. This article seeks to review the outreach that surrounded the Rosetta mission and to highlight both the best practice that made it a success and the bad practice that set some aspects behind.

  4. Bisphosphonate osteonecrosis of the jaw: a historical and contemporary review.

    PubMed

    McLeod, Niall M H; Brennan, Peter A; Ruggiero, Salvatore L

    2012-02-01

    The use of bisphosphonate drugs has been popularised in the late 20th century for the management of many conditions associated with abnormalities of bone turnover, particularly metastatic and haematogenous malignancy and osteopenia. The increase in indications for the use of bisphosphonates was supported by what was thought to be a very good safety profile. However in 2003 cases of osteonecrosis related to the use of bisphosphonates were first described. The pathogenesis, and with this the explanation of why it only appears to affect the maxillofacial skeleton, and the best way of managing this problem remains unknown. In this review we examine the process of identification of this pathology and the development of guidelines from medical societies and professional bodies on the management of patients before commencing bisphosphonate therapy, requiring dental treatment whilst on therapy, or with a diagnosis of bisphosphonate associated osteonecrosis of the jaws.

  5. Spinal infections in children: A review.

    PubMed

    Tyagi, Rahul

    2016-12-01

    Spinal infections are uncommon but significant causes of morbidity and hospitalization in the paediatric population. These infections encompass a broad range of conditions, from discitis to osteomyelitis and spinal epidural and intramedullary abscesses. Paediatric spinal infections can be caused by a range of bacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic agents. Ultrastructural differences of the vertebrae and associated structures result in distinct mechanisms of pathogenesis of spinal infections in children compared to adults. The non-specific nature of symptoms produced by them can cause considerable diagnostic delays. Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging can facilitate early identification of the disease, and distinguish it from other spinal pathologies. The association of antimicrobial resistant bacterial strains from some of the cases appears worrisome; as is the increasing incidence of Kingella kingae infections causing spinal infections. Rest and immobilization are the general treatment, and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is warranted to ensure optimal clinical outcome. Most patients generally have a good prognosis; however, early identification and prompt initiation of antimicrobial therapy is essential to achieve the best therapeutic response. PMID:27408498

  6. Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Ocular Infections: A Systematic Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kheir, Wajiha J.; Sheheitli, Huda; Abdul Fattah, Maamoun; Hamam, Rola N.

    2015-01-01

    Nontuberculous or atypical mycobacterial ocular infections have been increasing in prevalence over the past few decades. They are known to cause periocular, adnexal, ocular surface and intraocular infections and are often recalcitrant to medical therapy. These infections can potentially cause detrimental outcomes, in part due to a delay in diagnosis. We review 174 case reports and series on nontuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) ocular infections and discuss etiology, microbiology, risk factors, diagnosis, clinical presentation, and treatment of these infections. History of interventions, trauma, foreign bodies, implants, contact lenses, and steroids are linked to NTM ocular infections. Steroid use may prolong the duration of the infection and cause poorer visual outcomes. Early diagnosis and initiation of treatment with multiple antibiotics are necessary to achieve the best visual outcome. PMID:26106601

  7. Bronchopulmonary Infection of Lophomonas blattarum: A Case and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jian; Li, Ying-Li; Yu, Xue-Mei; Li, Dai-Kun; Liu, Ming-Fang; Qiu, Jing-Fu

    2014-01-01

    Human infections with Lophomonas blattarum are rare. However, the majority of the infections occurred in China, 94.4% (136 cases) of all cases in the world. This infection is difficult to differentiate from other pulmonary infections with similar symptoms. Here we reported a case of L. blattarum infection confirmed by bronchoalveolar lavage fluid smear on the microscopic observations. The patient was a 21-year-old female college student. The previous case which occurred in Chongqing was 20 years ago. We briefly reviewed on this infection reported in the world during the recent 20 years. The epidemiological characteristics, possible diagnostic basis, and treatment of this disease is discussed in order to provide a better understanding of recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of L. blattarum infection. PMID:25352701

  8. A retrospective review of streptococcal infections in pediatric atopic dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Sugarman, Jeffrey L; Hersh, Adam L; Okamura, Tessie; Howard, Renee; Frieden, Ilona J

    2011-01-01

    In order to assess the clinical characteristics and impact of group A streptococcal infection in children with atopic dermatitis, a retrospective review was performed in children diagnosed with atopic dermatitis who had a skin culture. Culture results and clinical characteristics of those with group A streptococcus were compared with those with Staphlococcus aureus. Infection with group A streptococcus was present in 16%; infection with Staphlococcus aureus was present in 72%, and 14% had mixed cultures. Patients infected with group A streptococcus were more likely to be febrile, to have facial and periorbital involvement, and to be hospitalized compared with those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone (p ≤ 0.01 for all comparisons). Bacteremia and cellulitis were significantly more common in those infected with group A streptococcus than in those infected with Staphlococcus aureus. Retrospective design and review of only those patients receiving bacterial cultures may select for greater severity than in the general atopic dermatitis population. Group A streptococcus appears to be a significant skin pathogen infecting children with atopic dermatitis. Children with atopic dermatitis and group A streptococcal infection are more likely to have invasive disease and complications than those infected with Staphlococcus aureus alone.

  9. President's Committee on Mental Retardation: A Historical Review 1966-1985.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krause, Fred J.

    Recommendations of the President's Committee on Mental Retardation to encourage collaboration among government, voluntary, individual, community, and private sector efforts are reported in this publication which presents a historical review of the Committee from 1966 through 1986. The background and establishment of the Committee are discussed in…

  10. Freud on Sexual Trauma: An Historical Review of Seduction and Betrayal.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westerlund, Elaine

    1986-01-01

    An historical review of the development and rejection of Freud's seduction theory. Freud's interpretation of seduction as real sexual acts gave way to his conclusion that his patients' reports derived from fantasy, though his view of the significance of childhood sexual trauma in the etiology of neurosis remained steady. Examines the relationship…

  11. Ataxia-telangiectasia - A historical review and a proposal for a new designation: ATM syndrome.

    PubMed

    Teive, Hélio A G; Moro, Adriana; Moscovich, Mariana; Arruda, Walter O; Munhoz, Renato P; Raskin, Salmo; Ashizawa, Tetsuo

    2015-08-15

    The authors review ataxia telangiectasia, emphasizing historical aspects, genetic discoveries, and the clinical presentations of the classical and atypical forms. In fact, ataxia telangiectasia represents a multisystem entity with pleomorphic neurological and systemic manifestations. ATM syndrome is proposed as a more adequate designation for this entity.

  12. A Scoping Review and Prevalence Analysis of Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infections in Honduras

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Ana Lourdes; Gabrie, José Antonio; Rueda, María Mercedes; Mejia, Rosa Elena; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Canales, Maritza

    2014-01-01

    Background Honduras is endemic for soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infections, but critical information gaps still remain on the prevalence and intensity of these infections as well as on their spatial distribution at subnational levels. Objectives Firstly, to review the research activity on STH infections in Honduras and secondly, to carry out a national prevalence analysis and map the geographical distribution of these infections in children. Methods A systematic search was conducted of the published and grey literature to identify scientific work on the impact and prevalence of STH infections done between May 1930 and June 30, 2012. International databases and Honduran journals were searched. Grey literature was gleaned from local libraries and key informants. Select studies conducted between 2001 and 2012 were used to produce prevalence maps and to investigate association between STH prevalence and socio-economic and environmental factors. Results Of 257 identified studies, 211 (21.4% peer-reviewed) were retained for analysis and categorized as clinical research (10.9%), treatment efficacy studies (8.1%) or epidemiological studies (81%). Prevalence analysis and geographical mapping included 36 epidemiological studies from Honduras's 18 departments and 23% of its municipalities. Overall STH prevalence was >50% in 40.6% of municipalities. Prevalences above 20% for each trichuriasis, ascariasis, and hookworm infection were found in 68%, 47.8%, and 7.2% of studied municipalities, respectively. Municipalities with lower human development index, less access to of potable water, and with higher annual precipitation showed higher STH prevalences. Conclusions This is the first study to provide a comprehensive historic review of STH research activity and prevalence in Honduras, revealing important knowledge gaps related to infection risk factors, disease burden, and anti-parasitic drug efficacy, among others. Our decade-long prevalence analysis reveals geographical

  13. [Botulinum toxin: from poison to drug. A historical review].

    PubMed

    Kreyden, O P; Geiges, M L; Böni, R; Burg, G

    2000-10-01

    Botulinumtoxin (BTX) is a neurotoxin produced from Clostridium botulinum under anaerobic conditions and is responsible for botulism, a notifiable, bacterial form of food poisoning. The first case of botulism is believed to have occurred in 1735. An epidemic in Southern Germany in 1793 claimed the death of over the half of those patients who had become ill through eating uncooked blood sausages. The term "pharmakon" is Greek and implicates that a drug originates from poison (potion, remedy). Theophrastus Bombast von Hohenheim known as Paracelsus (1493/94-1541) first described this duality with his dictum "alle ding sind gift und nichts on gift; alein die dosis macht das ein ding kein gift ist" (only the dose makes a remedy poisonous). In Baden-Württemberg in 1817, the poet and physician Dr. Justinus Christian Kerner described the symptoms of botulism, so that at this time botulism was also called Kerner disease. Until the turn of the century the reason for poisoning was not known. Van Ermengem succeeded in isolating the anaerobic bacterium causing botulism, but the specific mechanism of BTX was only established after the second World War. In the late seventies the ophthalmologist Dr. Alan Scott used BTX the first time in the treatment of strabismus. The drug was then used in the treatment of several muscle spasticities such as, for example, torticollis or hemifacial spasm. Only recently BTX has been successfully used for focal hyperhidrosis. We review the history of botulinum toxin from its discovery in the nineteenth century and the research into its effect in the middle of the 20th century up to its clinical use at the present time.

  14. Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Sherman, Shany; Eytan, Ori

    2014-01-01

    Thrombosis associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection has been reported many times in the literature since the mid 1980s – mainly in case reports and in small case series, but also in four controlled studies. Still, many physicians are unaware of this association although acute cytomegalovirus infection diagnosis in a thrombosis patient may warrant antiviral therapy and may affect anticoagulation therapy duration. Accordingly, the clinical characteristics of patients with thrombosis and acute cytomegalovirus infection are reviewed, and the current knowledge concerning this unique association is presented herein. We believe it is time to add acute cytomegalovirus infection to the list of thrombosis triggers. PMID:25624857

  15. Virus-induced secondary bacterial infection: a concise review

    PubMed Central

    Hendaus, Mohamed A; Jomha, Fatima A; Alhammadi, Ahmed H

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory diseases are a very common source of morbidity and mortality among children. Health care providers often face a dilemma when encountering a febrile infant or child with respiratory tract infection. The reason expressed by many clinicians is the trouble to confirm whether the fever is caused by a virus or a bacterium. The aim of this review is to update the current evidence on the virus-induced bacterial infection. We present several clinical as well in vitro studies that support the correlation between virus and secondary bacterial infections. In addition, we discuss the pathophysiology and prevention modes of the virus–bacterium coexistence. A search of the PubMed and MEDLINE databases was carried out for published articles covering bacterial infections associated with respiratory viruses. This review should provide clinicians with a comprehensive idea of the range of bacterial and viral coinfections or secondary infections that could present with viral respiratory illness. PMID:26345407

  16. Clostridium difficile infection in horses: a review.

    PubMed

    Diab, S S; Songer, G; Uzal, F A

    2013-11-29

    Clostridium difficile is considered one of the most important causes of diarrhea and enterocolitis in horses. Foals and adult horses are equally susceptible to the infection. The highly resistant spore of C. difficile is the infectious unit of transmission, which occurs primarily via the fecal-oral route, with sources of infection including equine feces, contaminated soil, animal hospitals, and feces of other animals. Two major risk factors for the development of C. difficile associated disease (CDAD) in adult horses are hospitalization and antimicrobial treatment, although sporadically, cases of CDAD can occur in horses that have not received antimicrobials or been hospitalized. The most common antibiotics associated with CDAD in horses are erythromycin, trimethoprim/sulfonamides, β-lactam antimicrobials, clindamycin, rifampicin, and gentamicin. Clinical signs and intestinal lesions of CDAD infection are not specific and they cannot be used to distinguish infections by C. difficile from infections by other agents, such as Clostridium perfringens or Salmonella sp. The distribution of lesions throughout the intestinal tract seems to be age-dependent. Small intestine is invariably affected, and colon and cecum may or may not have lesions in foals<1-month old. Naturally acquired disease in older foals and adult horses has a more aboral distribution, affecting colon and sometimes cecum, but rarely the small intestine. Detection of toxin A, toxin B or both in intestinal contents or feces is considered the most reliable diagnostic criterion for CDAD in horses. Isolation of toxigenic strains of C. difficile from horses with intestinal disease is highly suggestive of CDAD. A better understanding of pathogenesis, reservoirs of infection, and vaccines and other methods of control is needed. Also further studies are recommended to investigate other possible predisposing factors and/or etiological agents of enteric diseases of horses. PMID:23642413

  17. Foot-and-mouth disease: susceptibility of domestic poultry and free-living birds to infection and to disease--a review of the historical and current literature concerning the role of birds in spread of foot-and-mouth disease viruses.

    PubMed

    Kaleta, E F

    2002-09-01

    Ruminants and pigs are the dominant natural hosts of food-and-mouth disease (FMD) viruses. Approximately 70 additional mammalian species are found to be susceptible under natural or experimental conditions. Reptilia, amphibia, and fish are probably naturally resistant to infection. According to the reviewed literature, domestic birds (chickens, turkeys, guinea fowl, ducks and geese) have been experimentally infected with some strains of FMD viruses and may develop lesions suggestive of FMD such as vesicular lesions on the comb, wattles, eye lids, and feet. Since chickens are to some extent coprophagous, chickens get infected by ingestion of virus under conditions of natural exposure or their plumage gets contaminated in an infectious environment. Thus, domestic birds kept in free-run systems may serve as virus vectors for short distances. Free-living birds, especially starlings (Sturnus vulgaris), sea gulls (Larus canus), house-sparrows (Passer domesticus) have been successfully experimentally infected and developed vesicular lesions on the skin and mucosal membranes of the mouth. During epizootics of FMD the plumage of these free-living birds can be contaminated with FMD viruses and the virus is spread over long distances during migration periods in spring and autumn. Thus migrating birds may assume an active role in long distance dissemination of FMD viruses. PMID:12395578

  18. Treatment of oral fungal infections using antimicrobial photodynamic therapy: a systematic review of currently available evidence.

    PubMed

    Javed, Fawad; Samaranayake, Lakshman P; Romanos, Georgios E

    2014-05-01

    The aim was to review the efficacy of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (PDT) in the treatment of oral fungal infections. To address the focused question "Should PDT be considered a possible treatment regimen for oral fungal infections?" PubMed/Medline and Google-Scholar databases were searched from 1997 up to March 2014 using various combinations of the following key words: "Candida albicans"; "Candidiasis"; "Candidosis"; "denture stomatitis"; "oral" and "photodynamic therapy". Original studies, experimental studies and articles published solely in English language were sought. Letters to the editor, historic reviews and unpublished data were excluded. Pattern of the present literature review was customized to mainly summarize the pertinent information. Fifteen studies (3 clinical and 12 experimental) were included. All studies reported antimicrobial PDT to be an effective antifungal treatment strategy. One study reported PDT and azole therapy to be equally effective in the treatment of oral fungal infections. Methylene blue, toluidine blue and porphyrin derivative were the most commonly used photosensitizers. The laser wavelengths and power output ranged between ∼455 nm-660 nm and 30 mW-400 mW. The energy fluence ranged between 26-245 J cm(-2) and the duration or irradiation ranged between 10 seconds and 26 minutes. Clinical effectiveness of antimicrobial PDT as a potent therapeutic strategy for oral fungal infections requires further investigations. PMID:24686309

  19. Mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Jasti, Anisha; Ojha, Suvash Chandra; Singh, Yengkokpam Ibotomba

    2007-03-01

    Whether parasitic diseases-and in particular helminth infections because they are extensive and widespread--have an effect on mental functions and educational attainment is by no mean a new question. Concern about the possibility was evident in the early decades of the century, and the results of investigations designed to discover whether the effects of parasite infections had consequences on school children. Many species of helminth have been reported as causing infections in humans. Of the nematode infections, both soil transmitted helminthiasis and lymphatic filariasis are public health problem in the country. Any of these infections may result in morbidity, malnutrition, and iron-deficiency anaemia. Their possible contribution to impaired cognitive function and educational achievement is by the association between iron deficiency anaemia and malnutrition. Research on the effects of parasitic infection has focused on school-age children. Not only are these children the most vulnerable to parasitic infections--they are also the population group most likely to experience the impact of infection on cognitive function. This review paper discusses the mental and behavioral effects of parasitic infection on child's health. Infected children are less active; their behavior is said to be sluggish and both mental and physical activities and processes appear dulled and slow. A reduction in available energy is likely to cause a cascade of effects running through most aspects of the host's daily mental life and behavior.

  20. [Infections due to Mycobacterium marinum: a review].

    PubMed

    Nenoff, P; Klapper, B-M; Mayser, P; Paasch, U; Handrick, W

    2011-04-01

    Mycobacterium marinum belongs to the non-tuberculous or "atypical" mycobacteria. The reservoirs for these ubiquitous and slowly growing bacteria are both fresh water and salt water. In particular, aquaria should be considered as important source of hobby-related infections especially of fingers, hands and forearms. Affected are both immunosuppressed patients and persons with an intact immune system. Distinctive are erythematous plaques and nodules with tendency for hyperkeratosis, crusting, and superficial ulcerations, sometimes as sporotrichoid lymphocutaneous infection. The histology shows non-caseation granulomas containing epithelioid cells and Langhans giant cells. Using the Ziehl Neelsen staining, typical acid-fast rods are not always detectable. The molecular biological detection of mycobacterial DNA using polymerase chain reaction represents the standard method of diagnosis. Cryotherapy is frequently used as first treatment. For the often long-term tuberculostatic therapy, rifampicin, ethambutol, and clarithromycin are the most used agents.

  1. Overwhelming post splenectomy infection syndrome - review study.

    PubMed

    Sinwar, Prabhu Dayal

    2014-12-01

    The spleen has an abundance of lymphoid tissue, including splenic macrophages that attack encapsulated organisms. Overwhelming post-splenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious disease that can progress from a mild flu-like illness to fulminant sepsis in a short time period. However, recognition and clinical management of OPSI is not well established. Patients who are asplenic or hyposplenic are at an increased risk for infection and death from encapsulated organisms and other dangerous pathogens. Although relatively rare, it has a high mortality rate with delayed or inadequate treatment, and therefore it is important for Emergency Physicians to be familiar with it. Durations between Splenectomy and onset of OPSI ranged from less than 1 wk to more than 20 years. Although the mortality rate from OPSI has been reduced by appropriate vaccination and education. The precise pathogenesis and a suitable therapeutic strategy remain to be elucidated. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection (OPSI) is a serious fulminant process that carries a high mortality rate. PMID:25463041

  2. Uncommon opportunistic fungal infections of oral cavity: A review

    PubMed Central

    Deepa, AG; Nair, Bindu J; Sivakumar, TT; Joseph, Anna P

    2014-01-01

    The majority of opportunistic oral mucosal fungal infections are due to Candida albicans and Aspergillus fumigatus species. Mucor and Cryptococcus also have a major role in causing oral infections, whereas Geotrichum, Fusarium, Rhodotorula, Saccharomyces and Penicillium marneffei are uncommon pathogens in the oral cavity. The broad spectrum of clinical presentation includes pseudo-membranes, abscesses, ulcers, pustules and extensive tissue necrosis involving bone. This review discusses various uncommon opportunistic fungal infections affecting the oral cavity including their morphology, clinical features and diagnostic methods. PMID:25328305

  3. Severe meningococcal infection: a review of epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.

    PubMed

    Campsall, Paul A; Laupland, Kevin B; Niven, Daniel J

    2013-07-01

    Neisseria meningitidis, also known as meningococcus, is a relatively uncommon cause of invasive infection, but when it occurs it is frequently severe and potentially life threatening. Meningococcus should be considered and investigated promptly as a potentially etiologic pathogen in any patient with meningitis, or sepsis accompanied by a petechial rash. Suspected patients should receive early appropriate antimicrobial therapy concomitantly with confirmatory invasive diagnostic tests. Vaccines have reduced the incidence of infection with certain non-B meningococcal serogroups, and new serotype B vaccines are on the horizon. This article reviews the epidemiology, diagnosis, and management of severe meningococcal infections. PMID:23830646

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections. A review of 35 infections in 32 patients.

    PubMed

    Forward, K R; Fewer, H D; Stiver, H G

    1983-09-01

    The authors have reviewed the clinical manifestations and therapy of hydrocephalus shunt infections in 32 patients with a total of 35 shunt infections. These 35 infections accounted for 43 hospital admissions. First infections usually developed within 2 months following surgery. At the time of diagnosis, 89% of patients were febrile. Fever and cough as a symptom complex characterized the initial clinical presentation in six of 19 episodes of infection complicating ventriculoatrial (VA) shunts, as compared with none of 21 episodes in which infection complicated ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. Seven of 21 infectious episodes occurring in patients with VP shunts in situ were associated with significant abdominal pain and tenderness. These patients usually had no other clinical features to suggest shunt infection. Both of these symptom complexes often led to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Causative organisms included Staphylococcus epidermidis in 21, Staphylococcus aureus in seven, Gram-negative aerobic bacilli in seven, diphtheroids in five, Streptococcus species in four, and anaerobes in three. Five infections were polymicrobial in nature. Positive blood cultures were seen in 13 of 17 infectious episodes complicating VA shunts, as compared with only three of 13 other infections. When the shunt was completely removed, with or without replacement, all 13 patients were cured. When intravenous antibiotics were administered in conjunction with incomplete shunt removal, only eight of 15 courses resulted in cure. Intraventricular antibiotics were administered in four patients and all were cured. Therapy of shunt infections with parenteral antibiotics and incomplete shunt removal is associated with an unacceptably high failure rate.

  5. A Historical Review of Brayton and Stirling Power Conversion Technologies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mason, Lee S.; Schreiber, Jeffrey G.

    2007-01-01

    Dynamic power conversion technologies, such as closed Brayton and free-piston Stirling, offer many advantages for space power applications including high efficiency, long life, and attractive scaling characteristics. This paper presents a historical review of Brayton and Stirling power conversion technology for space and discusses on-going development activities in order to illustrate current technology readiness. The paper also presents a forecast of potential future space uses of these power technologies.

  6. A review of Nipah and Hendra viruses with an historical aside.

    PubMed

    Ksiazek, Thomas G; Rota, Paul A; Rollin, Pierre E

    2011-12-01

    The emergence of Hendra and Nipah viruses in the 1990s has been followed by the further emergence of these viruses in the tropical Old World. The history and current knowledge of the disease, the viruses and their epidemiology is reviewed in this article. A historical aside summarizes the role that Dr. Brian W.J. Mahy played at critical junctures in the early stories of these viruses.

  7. Health and Wellness Technology Use by Historically Underserved Health Consumers: Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Perchonok, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Background The implementation of health technology is a national priority in the United States and widely discussed in the literature. However, literature about the use of this technology by historically underserved populations is limited. Information on culturally informed health and wellness technology and the use of these technologies to reduce health disparities facing historically underserved populations in the United States is sparse in the literature. Objective To examine ways in which technology is being used by historically underserved populations to decrease health disparities through facilitating or improving health care access and health and wellness outcomes. Methods We conducted a systematic review in four library databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, Web of Science, and Engineering Village) to investigate the use of technology by historically underserved populations. Search strings consisted of three topics (eg, technology, historically underserved populations, and health). Results A total of 424 search phrases applied in the four databases returned 16,108 papers. After review, 125 papers met the selection criteria. Within the selected papers, 30 types of technology, 19 historically underserved groups, and 23 health issues were discussed. Further, almost half of the papers (62 papers) examined the use of technology to create effective and culturally informed interventions or educational tools. Finally, 12 evaluation techniques were used to assess the technology. Conclusions While the reviewed studies show how technology can be used to positively affect the health of historically underserved populations, the technology must be tailored toward the intended population, as personally relevant and contextually situated health technology is more likely than broader technology to create behavior changes. Social media, cell phones, and videotapes are types of technology that should be used more often in the future. Further, culturally informed health information

  8. [Historical review on the development of medical parasitology in China during the years of 1871-2006].

    PubMed

    Qu, Feng-yi

    2007-08-01

    The present review deals with the representative research papers on human parasites and parasitic diseases in China over the past hundred years (1871-2006). As the views focused on the development of the medical parasitology, the historical background and progressive characters in the period of fermentation, origination, and expansion have been discussed. The check list of the first cases of human parasitic diseases reported in China during 1871-2006 contained 128 species of parasitic pathogens, and among them 38 species were the newly revisional records. The citation from Faust's paper (1923) proved that previous record of "the first case of Eurytrema pancreaticum from Hongkong" was an absurdly mistake. The human infections of Diphyllobothrium latum, Toxocara canis, and Triodontophorus minor discovered by Lin (1924) from Beijing were the first records in the country. A doubtful malaria case reported from Chongqing by Hung (1944) should be revised as the first case of babesiosis in China. The above-presented examples suggest that the truthful record of parasitic pathogens is an important base for the discovery history of parasitic diseases. With comments on the research progress of human parasitic diseases in different historical stages, it seems that the trends of medical parasitology development in China have been synchronous with the research activities in the area.

  9. A historical perspective: infection from cadaveric dissection from the 18th to 20th centuries.

    PubMed

    Shoja, Mohammadali M; Benninger, Brion; Agutter, Paul; Loukas, Marios; Tubbs, R Shane

    2013-03-01

    Today, the study of human anatomy utilizing the ultimate study guide, the cadaver, is relatively safe. In the past, however, human dissection was dangerous. Prior to the germ theory, antibiotics, and the use of gloves, cadavers were often life threatening to dissectors including both the teacher and the student. Medical students who graduated in the United States before 1880 were unlikely to practice antisepsis in the dissecting room. In the present article, we review human cadaveric dissection in Europe and the United States primarily from the 1700s to the early 1900s in regard to its potential for transmission of infection to the dissector. A brief account of the infectious hazards of human cadavers in general and those of cadavers used for dissection in particular is given.

  10. [Chikungunya virus infection: review through an epidemic].

    PubMed

    Pialoux, G; Gaüzère, B-A; Strobel, M

    2006-05-01

    The Chikungunya virus is an alpha arbovirus, first identified in 1953, transmitted by Aedes, mosquitoes, responsible for a little documented uncommon acute specifically tropical disease. Its main symptoms are fever, a rash, and debilitating arthralgia. An unprecedented Chikungunya epidemic is ongoing on the Reunion Island (775,000 inhabitants) with over 244,000 reported and 205 deaths (directly or indirectly linked) as of April 20 2006. Aedes albopictus, long present on the island, is the assumed vector. It had already been identified as the vector for type 2 Dengue fever in 1997-1978 (200,000 cases) for type 1 Dengue fever in 2004 (300 cases). After the Grande Comore Island epidemic, the first cases were reported in the Reunion Island in March 2005. The epidemic was a surprise because of its unexpected emergence, its magnitude, and clinical cases rarely or never described before: severe forms, central neurological involvement, hepatic cytolyse, severe lymphopenia, severe dermatological involvement, deaths, and neonatal infections. This is the first manifestation of the intrusion CHK virus on the island, which benefits from a sub-tropical climate, but also of an occidental healthcare environment, with a non-immune population. This is also the first time that a Chikungunya epidemic is described in this part of the world.

  11. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions.

    PubMed

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of "reference and standard tables" of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. PMID:27313875

  12. For Researchers on Obesity: Historical Review of Extra Body Weight Definitions

    PubMed Central

    Komaroff, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Rationale. The concept of obesity has been known since ancient world; however, the current standard definition of obesity was endorsed only about a decade ago. There is a need for researches to understand multiple approaches to defining obesity and how and why the standard definition was developed. The review will help to grasp the complexity of the problem and can lead to novel hypotheses in obesity research. Objective. This paper focuses on the objective to understand historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Methods. A systematic literature review was performed to chronologically summarize the definition of body weight from time of Hippocrates till the year of 2010. Conclusion. This paper presents the historical background on the development of “reference and standard tables” of weight as a platform for normal versus abnormal body weight definition. Knowledge of historical approaches to the concept of obesity can motivate researchers to find new hypotheses and utilize the appropriate obesity assessments to address their objectives. PMID:27313875

  13. Presidents' perceptions: an historic review of fifty years of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association.

    PubMed

    Richman, L C

    1993-11-01

    This historic review of the American Cleft Palate-Craniofacial Association was written by the Historian charged by the ACPA Executive Council for the purpose of updating the history of the organization in honor of its 50th Anniversary. The data base for this review was the previously published 36-year history by Historian Charlotte Wells, the minutes of ACPA Executive Council meetings from 1979 to 1993, and a questionnaire survey of the 32 living Past Presidents (with a 90% return rate). This review highlights the important issues and critical decisions as recalled by Past Presidents. It also includes the recollection of humorous anecdotes, since the scholarly debate of this interdisciplinary organization is often brought to a positive interpersonal level through the good natured humor of many of its members.

  14. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations.

  15. Coxiella burnetii infections in sheep or goats: an opinionated review.

    PubMed

    Van den Brom, R; van Engelen, E; Roest, H I J; van der Hoek, W; Vellema, P

    2015-12-14

    Q fever is an almost ubiquitous zoonosis caused by Coxiella burnetii, which is able to infect several animal species, as well as humans. Cattle, sheep and goats are the primary animal reservoirs. In small ruminants, infections are mostly without clinical symptoms, however, abortions and stillbirths can occur, mainly during late pregnancy. Shedding of C. burnetii occurs in feces, milk and, mostly, in placental membranes and birth fluids. During parturition of infected small ruminants, bacteria from birth products become aerosolized. Transmission to humans mainly happens through inhalation of contaminated aerosols. In the last decade, there have been several, sometimes large, human Q fever outbreaks related to sheep and goats. In this review, we describe C. burnetii infections in sheep and goats, including both advantages and disadvantages of available laboratory techniques, as pathology, different serological tests, PCR and culture to detect C. burnetii. Moreover, worldwide prevalences of C. burnetii in small ruminants are described, as well as possibilities for treatment and prevention. Prevention of shedding and subsequent environmental contamination by vaccination of sheep and goats with a phase I vaccine are possible. In addition, compulsory surveillance of C. burnetii in small ruminant farms raises awareness and hygiene measures in farms help to decrease exposure of people to the organism. Finally, this review challenges how to contain an infection of C. burnetii in small ruminants, bearing in mind possible consequences for the human population and probable interference of veterinary strategies, human risk perception and political considerations. PMID:26315774

  16. Actinomyces meyeri infection: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Fazili, Tasaduq; Blair, Donald; Riddell, Scott; Kiska, Deanna; Nagra, Shehzadi

    2012-10-01

    Actinomyces meyeri is an uncommon cause of actinomycosis. We present a patient with pneumonia and empyema due to A. meyeri. The patient underwent open thoracotomy with decortication and was discharged home on a twelve-month course of oral penicillin. Review of the English literature revealed thirty-two cases of infection due to A. meyeri. The majority of patients were male, and a significant number had poor dental hygiene and a history of alcoholism. More than other Actinomyces species, A. meyeri causes pulmonary infection and has a predilection for dissemination. Prognosis is favorable with prolonged penicillin therapy combined with surgical debridement, if needed.

  17. Infection.

    PubMed

    Miclau, Theodore; Schmidt, Andrew H; Wenke, Joseph C; Webb, Lawrence X; Harro, Janette M; Prabhakara, Ranjani; Shirtliff, Mark E

    2010-09-01

    Musculoskeletal infection is a clinical problem with significant direct healthcare costs. The prevalence of infection after closed, elective surgery is frequently estimated to be less than 2%, but in severe injuries, posttraumatic infection rates have been reported as 10% or greater. Although clinical infections are found outside the realm of medical devices, it is clear that the enormous increase of infections associated with the use of implants presents a major challenge worldwide. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding, diagnosis, and treatment of musculoskeletal infections.

  18. The 1932 Macau epidemic of cerebrospinal meningitis: a historical perspective and critical review of the data.

    PubMed

    Buchillet, Dominique; de Lamballerie, Xavier

    2010-10-01

    Since the first clinical description by Vieusseux (1805) of the epidemic form of meningitis known today as cerebrospinal meningitis, numerous epidemic outbreaks of the disease were reported globally during the nineteenth and early twentieth century. Historical medical data confirmed that clinical disease may occur either sporadically or in an epidemic form. Moreover, it may afflict children, young military recruits and/or populations living under crowded conditions. In 1932, an epidemic of meningitis occurred in Macau. The disease was sufficiently unusual to justify the publication of a special report by the Portuguese physician in charge of the control services of the epidemic. Here we present a critical review of the Macau epidemic data.

  19. Galanin in the brain: chemoarchitectonics and brain cartography--a historical review.

    PubMed

    Jacobowitz, David M; Kresse, Adelheid; Skofitsch, Gerhard

    2004-03-01

    We present a review of galanin in the brain from a historical perspective of the development of "chemoarchitectonics" and "brain cartography" accomplished in the Histopharmacology Section at the National Institutes of Health. It was the mapping of potential brain neuroregulators that served as a springboard of ideas from which behavioral studies emanate. The integration of the known localization of neurotransmitter/neuromodulatory nerves ("chemoarchitectonic maps") and receptor binding sites with biochemical data derived from brain micropunches coupled with behavioral analysis at the level of discrete brain allows one to define the anatomical circuits which support behavioral changes and which ultimately will improve our understanding of mental disorders.

  20. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives.

  1. Bacterial, Fungal, and Parasitic Infections of the Central Nervous System: Radiologic-Pathologic Correlation and Historical Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Shih, Robert Y; Koeller, Kelly K

    2015-01-01

    Despite remarkable progress in prevention and treatment, infectious diseases affecting the central nervous system remain an important source of morbidity and mortality, particularly in less-developed countries and in immunocompromised persons. Bacterial, fungal, and parasitic pathogens are derived from living organisms and affect the brain, spinal cord, or meninges. Infections due to these pathogens are associated with a variety of neuroimaging patterns that can be appreciated at magnetic resonance imaging in most cases. Bacterial infections, most often due to Streptococcus, Haemophilus, and Neisseria species, cause significant meningitis, whereas the less common cerebritis and subsequent abscess formation have well-documented progression, with increasingly prominent altered signal intensity and corresponding contrast enhancement. Atypical bacterial infections are characterized by the development of a granulomatous response, classically seen in tuberculosis, in which the tuberculoma is the most common parenchymal form of the disease; spirochetal and rickettsial diseases are less common. Fungal infections predominate in immunocompromised hosts and are caused by yeasts, molds, and dimorphic fungi. Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common fungal infection, whereas candidiasis is the most common nosocomial infection. Mucormycosis and aspergillosis are characterized by angioinvasiveness and are associated with high morbidity and mortality among immunocompromised patients. In terms of potential exposure in the worldwide population, parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis, toxoplasmosis, echinococcosis, malaria, and schistosomiasis, are the greatest threat. Rare amebic infections are noteworthy for their extreme virulence and high mortality. The objective of this article is to highlight the characteristic neuroimaging manifestations of bacterial, fungal, and parasitic diseases, with emphasis on radiologic-pathologic correlation and historical perspectives

  2. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Eye Diseases: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  3. Helicobacter pylori infection and eye diseases: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Saccà, Sergio Claudio; Vagge, Aldo; Pulliero, Alessandra; Izzotti, Alberto

    2014-12-01

    The connection between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection and eye diseases has been increasingly reported in the literature and in active research. The implication of this bacterium in chronic eye diseases, such as blepharitis, glaucoma, central serous chorioretinopathy and others, has been hypothesized. Although the mechanisms by which this association occurs are currently unknown, this review describes shared pathogenetic mechanisms in an attempt to identify a lowest common denominator between eye diseases and Hp infection. The aim of this review is to assess whether different studies could be compared and to establish whether or not Hp infection and Eye diseases share common pathogenetic aspects. In particular, it has been focused on oxidative damage as a possible link between these pathologies. Text word search in Medline from 1998 to July 2014. 152 studies were included in our review. Were taken into considerations only studies that related eye diseases more frequent and/or known. Likely oxidative stress plays a key role. All of the diseases studied seem to follow a common pattern that implicates a cellular response correlated with a sublethal dose of oxidative stress. These alterations seem to be shared by both Hp infections and ocular diseases and include the following: decline in mitochondrial function, increases in the rate of reactive oxygen species production, accumulation of mitochondrial DNA mutations, increases in the levels of oxidative damage to DNA, proteins and lipids, and decreases in the capacity to degrade oxidatively damaged proteins and other macromolecules. This cascade of events appears to repeat itself in different diseases, regardless of the identity of the affected tissue. The trabecular meshwork, conjunctiva, and retina can each show how oxidative stress may acts as a common disease effector as the Helicobacter infection spreads, supported by the increased oxidative damage and other inflammation. PMID:25526440

  4. The Human Impact of Tsunamis: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event –the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life. PMID:23857277

  5. The human impact of tsunamis: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Introduction. Although rare, tsunamis have the potential to cause considerable loss of life and injury as well as widespread damage to the natural and built environments. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of tsunamis on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of tsunamis were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1900 to mid 2009 of tsunami events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review to October 2012 of publications. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between tsunami mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were 255,195 deaths (range 252,619-275,784) and 48,462 injuries (range 45,466-51,457) as a result of tsunamis from 1900 to 2009. The majority of deaths (89%) and injuries reported during this time period were attributed to a single event -the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. Findings from the systematic literature review indicate that the primary cause of tsunami-related mortality is drowning, and that females, children and the elderly are at increased mortality risk. The few studies that reported on tsunami-related injury suggest that males and young adults are at increased injury-risk. Conclusions. Early warning systems may help mitigate tsunami-related loss of life.

  6. A historical review of trauma-related diagnoses to reconsider the heterogeneity of PTSD.

    PubMed

    DiMauro, Jennifer; Carter, Sarah; Folk, Johanna B; Kashdan, Todd B

    2014-12-01

    Based on the 5th edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, there are 636,120 ways for an individual to qualify for a diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) (Galatzer-Levy & Bryant, 2013). To unravel this heterogeneity, we examine the historical trajectory of trauma-related diagnoses. Our review addresses four traumas (i.e., combat, natural disaster, life-threatening accident and sexual assault) that have contributed the most to conceptual models of PTSD. Although these trauma types are all subsumed under the same diagnostic label, our literature review indicates that the psychological consequences of different traumatic experiences are traditionally studied in isolation. Indeed, most research addresses hypotheses regarding specific trauma types using samples of individuals selected for their experience with that specific event. We consider the possibility that PTSD is not a single, unified construct and what this means for future research and clinical applications. PMID:25261838

  7. A community psychology of men and masculinity: historical and conceptual review.

    PubMed

    Mankowski, Eric S; Maton, Kenneth I

    2010-03-01

    This paper introduces the special section by presenting a historical and conceptual review of theory and research on the psychology of men and masculinity and then introducing the section's papers. Men have power because of their gender, but differ in access to power based on other individual characteristics such as social class, income, education, ethnicity, sexual orientation, or physical strength. Men typically have been studied as generic rather than gendered beings in psychology. In contrast, a gendered analysis of men highlights the ways in which men's experience, masculinity, and behavior contribute to health and social problems and to resources commonly addressed by community psychologists. Our gendered analysis suggests ways of working with men in group, organizational, and community settings to create positive individual and social change. Crucial to this analysis is the paradox that enacting masculinity both privileges and damages men. A second paradox stems from men having power as a group over women while individual men feel powerless or victimized by women as a group. The papers in this volume illustrate key themes of our historical and conceptual review through studies of adolescent and adult men as fathers, patients, partner abusers, support group participants and community members, and through examination of the impact of their gendered identities and behavior on health, well being, and justice.

  8. Review: Occult hepatitis C virus infection: still remains a controversy.

    PubMed

    Vidimliski, Pavlina Dzekova; Nikolov, Igor; Geshkovska, Nadica Matevska; Dimovski, Aleksandar; Rostaing, Lionel; Sikole, Aleksandar

    2014-09-01

    Occult hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is characterized by the presence of HCV RNA in the liver cells or peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the patients whose serum samples test negative for HCV RNA, with or without presence of HCV antibodies. The present study reviews the existing literature on the persistence of occult hepatitis C virus infection, with description of the clinical characteristics and methods for identification of occult hepatitis C. Occult hepatitis C virus infection was detected in patients with abnormal results of liver function tests of unknown origin, with HCV antibodies and HCV RNA negativity in serum, and also in patients with spontaneous or treatment-induced recovery from hepatitis C. The viral replication in the liver cells and/or peripheral blood mononuclear cells was present in all clinical presentations of occult hepatitis C. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells represent an extra-hepatic site of HCV replication. The reason why HCV RNA was not detectable in the serum of patients with occult hepatitis C, could be the low number of circulating viral particles not detectable by the diagnostic tests with low sensitivity. It is uncertain whether occult hepatitis C is a different clinical entity or just a form of chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Data accumulated over the last decade demonstrated that an effective approach to the diagnosis of HCV infection would be the implementation of more sensitive HCV RNA diagnostic assays, and also, examination of the presence of viral particles in the cells of the immune system.

  9. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  10. Human parasitic protozoan infection to infertility: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shiadeh, Malihe Nourollahpour; Niyyati, Maryam; Fallahi, Shirzad; Rostami, Ali

    2016-02-01

    Protozoan parasitic diseases are endemic in many countries worldwide, especially in developing countries, where infertility is a major burden. It has been reported that such infections may cause infertility through impairment in male and female reproductive systems. We searched Medline, PubMed, and Scopus databases and Google scholar to identify the potentially relevant studies on protozoan parasitic infections and their implications in human and animal model infertility. Literature described that some of the protozoan parasites such as Trichomonas vaginalis may cause deformities of the genital tract, cervical neoplasia, and tubal and atypical pelvic inflammations in women and also non-gonoccocal urethritis, asthenozoospermia, and teratozoospermia in men. Toxopalasma gondii could cause endometritis, impaired folliculogenesis, ovarian and uterine atrophy, adrenal hypertrophy, vasculitis, and cessation of estrus cycling in female and also decrease in semen quality, concentration, and motility in male. Trypanosoma cruzi inhibits cell division in embryos and impairs normal implantation and development of placenta. Decrease in gestation rate, infection of hormone-producing glands, parasite invasion of the placenta, and overproduction of inflammatory cytokines in the oviducts and uterine horns are other possible mechanisms induced by Trypanosoma cruzi to infertility. Plasmodium spp. and Trypanosoma brucei spp. cause damage in pituitary gland, hormonal disorders, and decreased semen quality. Entamoeba histolytica infection leads to pelvic pain, salpingitis, tubo-ovarian abscess, and genital ulcers. Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis can induce genital lesion, testicular amyloidosis, inflammation of epididymis, prostatitis, and sperm abnormality in human and animals. In addition, some epidemiological studies have reported that rates of protozoan infections in infertile patients are higher than healthy controls. The current review indicates that protozoan parasitic

  11. The human impact of tropical cyclones: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-04-16

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones.

  12. The Human Impact of Tropical Cyclones: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Dick, Anna; Daniels, Amy; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Cyclones have significantly affected populations in Southeast Asia, the Western Pacific, and the Americas over the past quarter of a century. Future vulnerability to cyclones will increase due to factors including population growth, urbanization, increasing coastal settlement, and global warming. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of cyclones on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of cyclones were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to 2009 of cyclone events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between cyclone characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 412,644 deaths, 290,654 injured, and 466.1 million people affected by cyclones between 1980 and 2009, and the mortality and injury burden was concentrated in less developed nations of Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of cyclone-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries male gender was associated with increased mortality risk, whereas females experienced higher mortality in less developed countries. Conclusions. Additional attention to preparedness and early warning, particularly in Asia, can lessen the impact of future cyclones. PMID:23857074

  13. Systems and Complexity Thinking in the General Practice Literature: An Integrative, Historical Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Sturmberg, Joachim P.; Martin, Carmel M.; Katerndahl, David A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE Over the past 7 decades, theories in the systems and complexity sciences have had a major influence on academic thinking and research. We assessed the impact of complexity science on general practice/family medicine. METHODS We performed a historical integrative review using the following systematic search strategy: medical subject heading [humans] combined in turn with the terms complex adaptive systems, nonlinear dynamics, systems biology, and systems theory, limited to general practice/family medicine and published before December 2010. A total of 16,242 articles were retrieved, of which 49 were published in general practice/family medicine journals. Hand searches and snowballing retrieved another 35. After a full-text review, we included 56 articles dealing specifically with systems sciences and general/family practice. RESULTS General practice/family medicine engaged with the emerging systems and complexity theories in 4 stages. Before 1995, articles tended to explore common phenomenologic general practice/family medicine experiences. Between 1995 and 2000, articles described the complex adaptive nature of this discipline. Those published between 2000 and 2005 focused on describing the system dynamics of medical practice. After 2005, articles increasingly applied the breadth of complex science theories to health care, health care reform, and the future of medicine. CONCLUSIONS This historical review describes the development of general practice/family medicine in relation to complex adaptive systems theories, and shows how systems sciences more accurately reflect the discipline’s philosophy and identity. Analysis suggests that general practice/family medicine first embraced systems theories through conscious reorganization of its boundaries and scope, before applying empirical tools. Future research should concentrate on applying nonlinear dynamics and empirical modeling to patient care, and to organizing and developing local practices, engaging in

  14. Origin and classification of springs and historical review with current applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfaro, C.; Wallace, M.

    1994-10-01

    Numerous geologic processes operate to form the many types of springs in existence today. Karst springs, glacial springs, and thermal springs are reviewed with examples from different parts of the world to emphasize the diversity of their origin. Since Meinzer's classification in 1927, the classification of springs has changed as our understanding of their origin and our scientific knowledge of springs have increased. Today several different classifications have been developed that concentrate on one or more specific characteristics such as size, mineral content, or temperature. A historic sketch of the classification of springs that documents the most common classifications in use is presented. From this historical perspective it is apparent how our understanding of springs, combined with technological advances, will affect future trends in the classification of springs. Eventually a definitive classification of springs, scientific as well as legal, combined with computer data bases, will aid not only in our academic understanding of springs, but in our practical usage. In the late 20th century, there has been increased demand for spring, mineral, and curative waters. Springs, specifically their origin, have become increasingly important. Legislation to protect the rights and safety of consumers regarding springs is forthcoming from state, federal, national, and international organizations. Some current legislation will be highlighted to provide some insight into how exactly these legal rulings affect our use and definitions of springs. The purpose of this paper is to establish the geological/ hydrogeological framework for the diversity of origin and form of springs in addition to providing a historical perspective on classification systems throughout the ages.

  15. Review of diagnostic plaque reduction neutralization tests for flavivirus infection.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Akihiko; Maeda, Junko

    2013-01-01

    Flavivirus infections (including Japanese encephalitis, West Nile encephalitis and dengue fever/severe dengue) present a worldwide public health problem. Recent climate change may affect the geographical distribution of the arthropod vectors for these viruses and so the risk of flavivirus epidemics may increase. Many methods have been developed for the serological diagnosis of flavivirus infections, such as haemagglutination inhibition assay, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and immunofluorescence in staining. However, the specificity of these assays varies. The plaque reduction neutralizing test (PRNT) using live viruses is currently the 'gold standard' for the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. The specificity of results obtained with PRNT is better than that for other protocols and many laboratories apply the PRNT protocol to the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses. Here, recent refinements to the PRNT protocols with genetically modified recombinant viruses or reporter-harbouring virus-like particles are reviewed. Further, the problems associated with the differential serodiagnosis of flaviviruses using PRNT are discussed.

  16. The human impact of earthquakes: a historical review of events 1980-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Packer, Catherine; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Population growth and increasing urbanization in earthquake-prone areas suggest that earthquake impacts on human populations will increase in the coming decades. Recent large earthquakes affecting large populations in Japan, Haiti, Chile and New Zealand are evidence of this trend and also illustrate significant variations in outcomes such damage and mortality levels. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of earthquakes on human populations in terms of mortality, injury and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of earthquakes were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to mid 2009 of earthquake events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications, ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between earthquake mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. From 1980 through 2009, there were a total of 372,634 deaths (range 314,634-412,599), 995,219 injuries (range: 845,345-1,145,093), and more than 61 million people affected by earthquakes, and mortality was greatest in Asia. Inconsistent reporting across data sources suggests that the numbers injured and affected are likely underestimates. Findings from a systematic review of the literature indicate that the primary cause of earthquake-related death was trauma due to building collapse and, the very young and the elderly were at increased mortality risk, while gender was not consistently associated with mortality risk. Conclusions. Strategies to mitigate the impact of future earthquakes should include improvements to the built environment and a focus on populations most vulnerable to mortality and injury.

  17. The Human Impact of Earthquakes: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Packer, Catherine; Dick, Anna; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Population growth and increasing urbanization in earthquake-prone areas suggest that earthquake impacts on human populations will increase in the coming decades. Recent large earthquakes affecting large populations in Japan, Haiti, Chile and New Zealand are evidence of this trend and also illustrate significant variations in outcomes such damage and mortality levels. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of earthquakes on human populations in terms of mortality, injury and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of earthquakes were compiled using two methods, a historical review from 1980 to mid 2009 of earthquake events from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications, ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between earthquake mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. From 1980 through 2009, there were a total of 372,634 deaths (range 314,634-412,599), 995,219 injuries (range: 845,345-1,145,093), and more than 61 million people affected by earthquakes, and mortality was greatest in Asia. Inconsistent reporting across data sources suggests that the numbers injured and affected are likely underestimates. Findings from a systematic review of the literature indicate that the primary cause of earthquake-related death was trauma due to building collapse and, the very young and the elderly were at increased mortality risk, while gender was not consistently associated with mortality risk. Conclusions. Strategies to mitigate the impact of future earthquakes should include improvements to the built environment and a focus on populations most vulnerable to mortality and injury. PMID:23857161

  18. Sleep, dreaming, and mental health: a review of historical and neurobiological perspectives.

    PubMed

    Palagini, Laura; Rosenlicht, Nicholas

    2011-06-01

    Theories as to the function of sleep and dreaming and their relationship to emotions have been studied since the beginning of recorded history. Earliest historical records show the predominant view to be that dreams were considered divine in origin and only later did dream theory become linked with the functioning of the brain, perhaps most famously in psychoanalytic theory. The development of sleep laboratory techniques ushered in a new era of the dream study and their relationship to mental health. In this review we outline the history of theories about the genesis and function of dreams and sleep and their relationship to mental illness from ancient mythic and religious views to the first tentative scientific approaches to the ascendency of psychoanalysis and ultimately to the modern era of neuroscience.

  19. Development of the S3Pvac vaccine against porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Sciutto, Edda; Fragoso, Gladis; Hernández, Marisela; Rosas, Gabriela; Martínez, José J; Fleury, Agnès; Cervantes, Jacquelynne; Aluja, Aline; Larralde, Carlos

    2013-08-01

    Herein we present a review of our research dealing with vaccination against experimental and naturally acquired porcine Taenia solium cysticercosis using Taenia crassiceps-derived antigens. Results strongly support that the different versions of S3Pvac vaccine are indeed effective against porcine T. solium cysticercosis. Immunological results related to vaccination prove that protection is at least partially mediated by specific immunity. The data also support the validity of T. crassiceps murine cysticercosis as an effective tool to identify vaccine candidates against some metacestode infections.

  20. Background review for diagnostic test development for Zika virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Charrel, Rémi N; Leparc-Goffart, Isabelle; Pas, Suzan; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Koopmans, Marion; Reusken, Chantal

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To review the state of knowledge about diagnostic testing for Zika virus infection and identify areas of research needed to address the current gaps in knowledge. Methods We made a non-systematic review of the published literature about Zika virus and supplemented this with information from commercial diagnostic test kits and personal communications with researchers in European preparedness networks. The review covered current knowledge about the geographical spread, pathogen characteristics, life cycle and infection kinetics of the virus. The available molecular and serological tests and biosafety issues are described and discussed in the context of the current outbreak strain. Findings We identified the following areas of research to address current knowledge gaps: (i) an urgent assessment of the laboratory capacity and capability of countries to detect Zika virus; (ii) rapid and extensive field validation of the available molecular and serological tests in areas with and without Zika virus transmission, with a focus on pregnant women; (iii) monitoring the genomic diversity of circulating Zika virus strains; (iv) prospective studies into the virus infection kinetics, focusing on diagnostic sampling (specimen types, combinations and timings); and (v) developing external quality assessments for molecular and serological testing, including differential diagnosis for similar viruses and symptom clusters. The availability of reagents for diagnostic development (virus strains and antigens, quantified viral ribonucleic acid) needs to be facilitated. Conclusion An international laboratory response is needed, including preparation of protocols for prospective studies to address the most pressing information needs. PMID:27516635

  1. Nocardia infections among immunomodulated inflammatory bowel disease patients: A review

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, Cândida; Rocha-Pereira, Nuno; Sarmento, António; Magro, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Human nocardiosis, caused by Nocardia spp., an ubiquitous soil-borne bacteria, is a rare granulomatous disease close related to immune dysfunctions. Clinically can occur as an acute life-threatening disease, with lung, brain and skin being commonly affected. The infection was classically diagnosed in HIV infected persons, organ transplanted recipients and long term corticosteroid treated patients. Currently the widespread use of immunomodulators and immunossupressors in the treatment of inflammatory diseases changed this scenario. Our purpose is to review all published cases of nocardiosis in immunomodulated patients due to inflammatory diseases and describe clinical and laboratory findings. We reviewed the literature concerning human cases of nocardiosis published between 1980 and 2014 in peer reviewed journals. Eleven cases of nocardiosis associated with anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF) prescription (9 related with infliximab and 2 with adalimumab) were identified; 7 patients had inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), 4 had rheumatological conditions; nocardia infection presented as cutaneous involvement in 3 patients, lung disease in 4 patients, hepatic in one and disseminated disease in 3 patients. From the 10 cases described in IBD patients 7 were associated with anti-TNF and 3 with steroids and azathioprine. In conclusion, nocardiosis requires high levels of clinical suspicion and experience of laboratory staff, in order to establish a timely diagnosis and by doing so avoid worst outcomes. Treatment for long periods tailored by the susceptibility of the isolated species whenever possible is essential. The safety of restarting immunomodulators or anti-TNF after the disease or the value of prophylaxis with cotrimoxazole is still debated. PMID:26074688

  2. Historical Review of Uncommanded Lateral-Directional Motions At Transonic Conditions (Invited)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of past experiences with uncommanded lateral-directional motions at transonic speeds during specific military aircraft programs. The effort was undertaken to provide qualitative and quantitative information on past airplane programs that might be of use to the participants in the joint NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. The AWS Program was initiated because of the experiences of the F/A-18E/F development program, during which unexpected, severe wing-drop motions were encountered by preproduction aircraft at transonic conditions. These motions were judged to be significantly degrading to the primary mission requirements of the aircraft. Although the problem was subsequently solved for the production version of the F/A-l8E/F, a high-level review panel emphasized the poor understanding of such phenomena and issued a strong recommendation to: Initiate a national research effort to thoroughly and systematically study the wing drop phenomena. A comprehensive, cooperative NASA/Navy/Air Force AWS Program was designed to respond to provide the required technology requirements. As part of the AWS Program, a work element was directed at a historical review of wing-drop experiences in past aircraft development programs at high subsonic and transonic speeds. In particular, information was requested regarding: specific aircraft configurations that exhibited uncommanded motions and the nature of the motions; geometric characteristics of the air- planes; flight conditions involved in occurrences; relevant data, including wind-tunnel, computational, and flight sources; figures of merit used for analyses; and approaches used to alleviate the problem. An attempt was also made to summarize some of the more important lessons learned from past experiences, and to recommend specific research efforts. In addition to providing technical information to assist the AWS research objectives, the study produced fundamental information

  3. Historical Review of Uncommanded Lateral-Directional Motions at Transonic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chambers, Joseph R.; Hall, Robert M.

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a survey of past experiences with uncommanded lateral-directional motions at transonic speeds during specific military aircraft programs. The effort was undertaken to provide qualitative and quantitative information on past airplane programs that might be of use to the participants in the joint NASA/Navy/Air Force Abrupt Wing Stall (AWS) Program. The AWS Program was initiated because of the experiences of the F/A-l8E/F development program, during which unexpected, severe wing-drop motions were encountered by preproduction aircraft at transonic conditions. These motions were judged to be significantly degrading to the primary mission requirements of the aircraft. Although the problem was subsequently solved for the production version of the F/A-l8E/F, a high-level review panel emphasized the poor understanding of such phenomena and issued a strong recommendation to: "Initiate a national research effort to thoroughly and systematically study the wing drop phenomena." A comprehensive, cooperative NASA/Navy/Air Force AWS Program was designed to respond to provide the required technology requirements. As part of the AWS Program, a work element was directed at a historical review of wing-drop experiences in past aircraft development programs at high subsonic and transonic speeds. In particular, information was requested regarding: specific aircraft configurations that exhibited uncommanded motions and the nature of the motions; geometric characteristics of the air- planes; flight conditions involved in occurrences; relevant data, including wind-tunnel, computational, and flight sources; figures of merit used for analyses; and approaches used to alleviate the problem. An attempt was also made to summarize some of the more important lessons learned from past experiences, and to recommend specific research efforts. In addition to providing technical information to assist the AWS research objectives, the study produced fundamental

  4. Treating cancer with infection: a review on bacterial cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, S; Slavcev, R A

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing need for new cancer therapies. The antitumour effect of bacterial infection has been well observed and practiced throughout history. Bacteria are well-suited to serve as anticancer agents due to their intrinsic mobility, cell toxicity, immunogenicity, and preferential accumulation within the anoxic tumour environment. Furthermore, advances in biotechnology and molecular techniques have made it easier than ever to engineer bacteria as both therapeutic agents themselves and as therapeutic vectors. Here, we review bacteriolytic therapy and immunotherapy strategies, and examine the development of bacteria as vehicles for cell- and tissue-targeted delivery of genetic cancer therapeutics.

  5. The human impact of volcanoes: a historical review of events 1900-2009 and systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts.

  6. The Human Impact of Volcanoes: a Historical Review of Events 1900-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Dooling, Shayna; Gorokhovich, Yuri

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. More than 500 million people live within the potential exposure range of a volcano. The risk of catastrophic losses in future eruptions is significant given population growth, proximities of major cities to volcanoes, and the possibility of larger eruptions. The objectives of this review are to describe the impact of volcanoes on the human population, in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters. Methods. Data on the impact of volcanoes were compiled using two methods, a historical review of volcano events from 1900 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics and bivariate tests for associations between volcano mortality and characteristics using STATA 11. Findings. There were a total of 91,789 deaths (range: 81,703-102,372), 14,068 injuries (range 11,541-17,922), and 4.72 million people affected by volcanic events between 1900 and 2008. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of numbers injured and affected. The primary causes of mortality in recent volcanic eruptions were ash asphyxiation, thermal injuries from pyroclastic flow, and trauma. Mortality was concentrated with the ten deadliest eruptions accounting for more than 80% of deaths; 84% of fatalities occurred in four locations (the Island of Martinique (France), Colombia, Indonesia, and Guatemala). Conclusions. Changes in land use practices and population growth provide a background for increasing risk; in conjunction with increasing urbanization in at risk areas, this poses a challenge for future volcano preparedness and mitigation efforts. PMID:23857374

  7. The Human Impact of Floods: a Historical Review of Events 1980-2009 and Systematic Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Doocy, Shannon; Daniels, Amy; Murray, Sarah; Kirsch, Thomas D.

    2013-01-01

    Background. Floods are the most common natural disaster and the leading cause of natural disaster fatalities worldwide. Risk of catastrophic losses due to flooding is significant given deforestation and the increasing proximity of large populations to coastal areas, river basins and lakeshores. The objectives of this review were to describe the impact of flood events on human populations in terms of mortality, injury, and displacement and, to the extent possible, identify risk factors associated with these outcomes. This is one of five reviews on the human impact of natural disasters Methods. Data on the impact of floods were compiled using two methods, a historical review of flood events from 1980 to 2009 from multiple databases and a systematic literature review of publications ending in October 2012. Analysis included descriptive statistics, bivariate tests for associations and multinomial logistic regression of flood characteristics and mortality using Stata 11.0. Findings. There were 539,811 deaths (range: 510,941 to 568,680), 361,974 injuries and 2,821,895,005 people affected by floods between 1980 and 2009. Inconsistent reporting suggests this is an underestimate, particularly in terms of the injured and affected populations. The primary cause of flood-related mortality is drowning; in developed countries being in a motor-vehicle and male gender are associated with increased mortality, whereas female gender may be linked to higher mortality in low-income countries. Conclusions. Expanded monitoring of floods, improved mitigation measures, and effective communication with civil authorities and vulnerable populations has the potential to reduce loss of life in future flood events. PMID:23857425

  8. Integrating probabilistic models of perception and interactive neural networks: a historical and tutorial review

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, James L.

    2013-01-01

    This article seeks to establish a rapprochement between explicitly Bayesian models of contextual effects in perception and neural network models of such effects, particularly the connectionist interactive activation (IA) model of perception. The article is in part an historical review and in part a tutorial, reviewing the probabilistic Bayesian approach to understanding perception and how it may be shaped by context, and also reviewing ideas about how such probabilistic computations may be carried out in neural networks, focusing on the role of context in interactive neural networks, in which both bottom-up and top-down signals affect the interpretation of sensory inputs. It is pointed out that connectionist units that use the logistic or softmax activation functions can exactly compute Bayesian posterior probabilities when the bias terms and connection weights affecting such units are set to the logarithms of appropriate probabilistic quantities. Bayesian concepts such the prior, likelihood, (joint and marginal) posterior, probability matching and maximizing, and calculating vs. sampling from the posterior are all reviewed and linked to neural network computations. Probabilistic and neural network models are explicitly linked to the concept of a probabilistic generative model that describes the relationship between the underlying target of perception (e.g., the word intended by a speaker or other source of sensory stimuli) and the sensory input that reaches the perceiver for use in inferring the underlying target. It is shown how a new version of the IA model called the multinomial interactive activation (MIA) model can sample correctly from the joint posterior of a proposed generative model for perception of letters in words, indicating that interactive processing is fully consistent with principled probabilistic computation. Ways in which these computations might be realized in real neural systems are also considered. PMID:23970868

  9. A review of vaccine research and development: human enteric infections.

    PubMed

    Girard, Marc P; Steele, Duncan; Chaignat, Claire-Lise; Kieny, Marie Paule

    2006-04-01

    Worldwide, enteric infections rank third among all causes of disease burden, being responsible for some 1.7-2.5 million deaths per year, mostly in young children and infants in developing countries. The main infectious agents responsible for human enteric infections include several viruses (enteric adenoviruses, astroviruses, human caliciviruses (HuCV), rotaviruses (RV)) and several bacterial agents, such as Campylobacter jejuni, a variety of pathogenic Escherichia coli strains including enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), several Shigella species, various Salmonella strains including S. typhi and S. paratyphi, the agents of typhoid fever, and Vibrio cholerae, the agent of cholera. While effective vaccines are available at present against typhoid fever and cholera, no vaccine is available against illnesses caused by HuCV, Campylobacter, ETEC or the Shigellae. Rotavirus vaccines have had more success, although RV disease prevention suffered a major setback in 1999 with the withdrawal of a live simian-human reassortant RV vaccine less than a year after its introduction. New live oral RV vaccines have now been developed and are or should presently be ready for licensure. This article reviews the state of the art in vaccine R&D against human viral and bacterial enteric infections of public health importance.

  10. Year in review 2012: Critical Care - respiratory infections

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Over the last two decades, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of disease mechanisms and infection control strategies related to infections, particularly pneumonia, in critically ill patients. Patient-centered and preventative strategies assume paramount importance in this era of limited health-care resources, in which effective targeted therapy is required to achieve the best outcomes. Risk stratification using severity scores and inflammatory biomarkers is a promising strategy for identifying sick patients early during their hospital stay. The emergence of multidrug-resistant pathogens is becoming a major hurdle in intensive care units. Cooperation, education, and interaction between multiple disciplines in the intensive care unit are required to limit the spread of resistant pathogens and to improve care. In this review, we summarize findings from major publications over the last year in the field of respiratory infections in critically ill patients, putting an emphasis on a newer understanding of pathogenesis, use of biomarkers, and antibiotic stewardship and examining new treatment options and preventive strategies. PMID:24438847

  11. Antioxidant Therapy Against Trypanosome Infections: A Review Update.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal; Bindawa Isah, Murtala; Abdullahi Salman, Abdulmalik

    2016-01-01

    Trypanosomiasis is a serious parasitic disease that affects humans and animals resulting in heavy health and economic burdens. Disturbance of redox equilibrium represents a classical challenge for both the host and the parasite during infections with either extracellular African or intracellular American trypanosomes species. This is in spite of existing detoxification mechanisms in both the host and the parasite for maintaining oxidative balance. However, oxidative stress still plays vital roles in the induction of numerous host-associated pathological damages such as anemia, hepatic and renal damages as well as cardiomyopathy while on the other hand, drugs that specifically induce oxidative stress to the parasite have been effective. Therefore, antioxidants have been deemed to play a role in modulating trypanosome infections. This review provides a current update on most of the studies conducted on the potential use of antioxidants as therapeutic agents against trypanosomes. The most frequently studied plant-derived phenolic antioxidants are resveratrol, cucurmin, gallic acid and quercetin while other antioxidants such as vitamins (A, C, E) and trace elements (selenium and iron) have been investigated. Some of the investigations monitored the direct trypanocidal or trypanostatic effects of the antioxidants while others studied the potentials of the antioxidants as adjuncts to trypanocidal drugs. So far, none of these approaches has sufficient data to allow a definite statement on the actual therapeutic potential of antioxidants in the treatment of clinical trypanosomiasis. Therefore, suggestions are made on the most therapeutically and clinically relevant role of antioxidants in trypanosome infections. PMID:27072713

  12. A Review of Preventative Methods against Human Leishmaniasis Infection

    PubMed Central

    Stockdale, Lisa; Newton, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Background Leishmaniasis is an intracellular parasitic infection transmitted to humans via the sandfly. Approximately 350 million people are at risk of contracting the disease and an estimated 1.6 million new cases occur annually. Of the two main forms, visceral and cutaneous, the visceral form is fatal in 85–90% of untreated cases. Aims This literature review aims to identify and evaluate the current evidence base for the use of various preventative methods against human leishmaniasis. Methods A literature search was performed of the relevant database repositories for primary research conforming to a priori inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results A total of 84 controlled studies investigating 12 outcome measures were identified, implementing four broad categories of preventative interventions: animal reservoir control, vector population control, human reservoir control and a category for multiple concurrently implemented interventions. The primary studies investigated a heterogeneous mix of outcome measures using a range of different methods. Conclusions This review highlights an absence of research measuring human-specific outcomes (35% of the total) across all intervention categories. The apparent inability of study findings to be generalizable across different geographic locations, points towards gaps in knowledge regarding the biology of transmission of Leishmania in different settings. More research is needed which investigates human infection as the primary outcome measure as opposed to intermediate surrogate markers, with a focus on developing a human vaccine. PMID:23818997

  13. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future. PMID:26455698

  14. Spa treatment (balneotherapy) for fibromyalgia-a qualitative-narrative review and a historical perspective.

    PubMed

    Ablin, Jacob N; Häuser, Winfried; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms "Spa therapy," "Balneotherapy," and "Fibromyalgia" between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS.

  15. Spa Treatment (Balneotherapy) for Fibromyalgia—A Qualitative-Narrative Review and a Historical Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Ablin, Jacob N.; Buskila, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Aim. To perform a narrative review of spa therapy for management of the fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS), evaluating this traditional time-honored form of therapy in a historical perspective. Methods. Medline was searched using the terms “Spa therapy,” “Balneotherapy,” and “Fibromyalgia” between 1990 (year of ACR fibromyalgia criteria publication) and April 2013. The Cochrane database was also searched. Publications relating to the implementation of spa therapy and related practices over the centuries were identified through references, searched, and reviewed. Results. Reports of balneotherapy were described from diverse locations throughout Europe and Asia, and various forms of water-related therapy have been incorporated for many musculoskeletal indications. In the management of FMS, spa therapy has generally been shown to be well accepted and moderately effective for symptom reduction. Conclusion. While achieving high-quality evidence-based conclusions is difficult for complex natural therapies such as spa therapy, the existing evidence indicates a positive effect in management of FMS. In view of the long history of this modality in the management of rheumatic pain as well as the inherent difficulties related to pharmacological treatment, the role of spa therapy should currently be recognized as part of a therapeutic program for FMS. PMID:23983795

  16. [Empacho: An historical review of popular Chilean childhood disease (1674-2014)].

    PubMed

    Campos Navarro, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    "Empacho" (abdominal pain and bloating), "mal de ojo" (evil eye), "los aires" (illnesses said to be caught by catching draughts), "el susto" or "espanto" (fright or panic), are the principal and most well-known popular Latin American illnesses. As regards empacho, the medical, historical and ethnographic information is extensive and detailed, since there documents recording it from the 16th century until recent times (2014), and in the case of Chile since 1674. For this review, 109 source documents from libraries in Chile, including some foreign ones, were consulted. It was found that the illness is known all over the country. It is a digestive system disorder caused by over-eating and the ingestion of products difficult to digest or indigestible, which cause problems in gastrointestinal transit. The most significant clinical data are gastralgia, diarrhoea or constipation, vomiting, fever, and other discomforts. The illness is treated at home, and if necessary, popular specialists are employed, with a visit to a qualified doctor being exceptional. There are many complex and combined treatments, which go from herbal products to ritual elements, not forgetting the so-called "quebradura del empacho". This review summary of empacho in Chile should enable the paediatrician to enter the world of popular knowledge and practices with the aim of improving the care of child patients and their families. It should also lead to the serious and systematic study of this nosological condition that will continue to exist in the future.

  17. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Riddle, Mark S.; Savarino, Stephen J.; Sanders, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis. PMID:26350450

  18. Gastrointestinal Infections in Deployed Forces in the Middle East Theater: An Historical 60 Year Perspective.

    PubMed

    Riddle, Mark S; Savarino, Stephen J; Sanders, John W

    2015-11-01

    Infectious diarrhea has been among the most common maladies of military deployments throughout time. The U.S. military experienced a significant burden from this disease in the middle eastern and north African campaigns of World War II (WWII). This article compares patterns of disease experienced in WWII with the recent military deployments to the same region for Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom (OIF/OEF). Remarkable similarities in the prevalence and risk factors were noted, which belie the assumed improvements in prevention against these infections. In both campaigns, peaks of diarrhea occurred shortly after arrival of new personnel, which were seasonally associated and were linked to initial lapses in field sanitation and hygiene. It is important to reassess current strategies, especially, in light of emerging evidence of the chronic sequelae of these common infections to include a reemphasis on or reexamination of vaccine development, rapid field diagnostics, treatment algorithms, and antimicrobial prophylaxis.

  19. Education for Work: A Review Essay of Historical, Cross-Cultural, and Disciplinary Perspectives on Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchinke, K. Peter

    2013-01-01

    In this review essay, K. Peter Kuchinke uses three recent publications to consider the question of how to educate young people for work and career. Historically, this question has been central to vocational education, and it is receiving renewed attention in the context of concerns over the ability of schools to provide adequate preparation for…

  20. A review of historical exposures to asbestos among skilled craftsmen (1940-2006).

    PubMed

    Williams, Pamela R D; Phelka, Amanda D; Paustenbach, Dennis J

    2007-01-01

    This article provides a review and synthesis of the published and selected unpublished literature on historical asbestos exposures among skilled craftsmen in various nonshipyard and shipyard settings. The specific crafts evaluated were insulators, pipefitters, boilermakers, masons, welders, sheet-metal workers, millwrights, electricians, carpenters, painters, laborers, maintenance workers, and abatement workers. Over 50 documents were identified and summarized. Sufficient information was available to quantitatively characterize historical asbestos exposures for the most highly exposed workers (insulators), even though data were lacking for some job tasks or time periods. Average airborne fiber concentrations collected for the duration of the task and/or the entire work shift were found to range from about 2 to 10 fibers per cubic centimeter (cm3 or cc) during activities performed by insulators in various nonshipyard settings from the late 1960s and early 1970s. Higher exposure levels were observed for this craft during the 1940s to 1950s, when dust counts were converted from millions of particles per cubic foot (mppcf) to units of fibers per cubic centimeter (fibers/cc) using a 1:6 conversion factor. Similar tasks performed in U.S. shipyards yielded average fiber concentrations about two-fold greater, likely due to inadequate ventilation and confined work environments; however, excessively high exposure levels were reported in some British Naval shipyards due to the spraying of asbestos. Improved industrial hygiene practices initiated in the early to mid-1970s were found to reduce average fiber concentrations for insulator tasks approximately two- to five-fold. For most other crafts, average fiber concentrations were found to typically range from <0.01 to 1 fibers/cc (depending on the task or time period), with higher concentrations observed during the use of powered tools, the mixing or sanding of drywall cement, and the cleanup of asbestos insulation or lagging

  1. Archival search for historical atypical scrapie in sheep reveals evidence for mixed infections.

    PubMed

    Chong, Angela; Kennedy, Iain; Goldmann, Wilfred; Green, Andrew; González, Lorenzo; Jeffrey, Martin; Hunter, Nora

    2015-10-01

    Natural scrapie in sheep occurs in classical and atypical forms, which may be distinguished on the basis of the associated neuropathology and properties of the disease-associated prion protein on Western blots. First detected in 1998, atypical scrapie is known to have occurred in UK sheep since the 1980s. However, its aetiology remains unclear and it is often considered as a sporadic, non-contagious disease unlike classical scrapie which is naturally transmissible. Although atypical scrapie tends to occur in sheep of prion protein (PRNP) genotypes that are different from those found predominantly in classical scrapie, there is some overlap so that there are genotypes in which both scrapie forms can occur. In this search for early atypical scrapie cases, we made use of an archive of fixed and frozen sheep samples, from both scrapie-affected and healthy animals (∼1850 individuals), dating back to the 1960s. Using a selection process based primarily on PRNP genotyping, but also on contemporaneous records of unusual clinical signs or pathology, candidate sheep samples were screened by Western blot, immunohistochemistry and strain-typing methods using tg338 mice. We identified, from early time points in the archive, three atypical scrapie cases, including one sheep which died in 1972 and two which showed evidence of mixed infection with classical scrapie. Cases with both forms of scrapie in the same animal as recognizable entities suggest that mixed infections have been around for a long time and may potentially contribute to the variety of scrapie strains.

  2. [Historical consideration of the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus in Japan and use of a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause].

    PubMed

    Haga, Haruko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    About 75% of Japanese liver cancer is caused by hepatitis C. Widespread infection of the virus resulted from inadequate medical knowledge, as well as the political, economic and administrative conditions of the time. We investigated the association between the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and the historical events. We used a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause of widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and considered the issue from a historical standpoint. We found causes including treatment (medical care), transfusion (medicine), economy (expense) and people (infection route). These causes are explained in further detail below. 1) Treatment (medical care). The initial large-scale infection occurred following attempts to eradicate Schistosoma japonicum involving mass vaccination in schools and public health centers. 2) Transfusion (medicine). The use of non-heated fibrinogen for massive postpartum hemorrhage spread the virus further. In 1987, it resulted in a mass outbreak of hepatitis in Aomori Prefecture. 3) Economy (expense). Recognition of the benefit of disposable syringes was delayed. As a result, disposable syringes were too expensive to be widely available, and did not become low-priced. 4) People (infection route). The second wave of dissemination of the hepatitis C virus was stimulant abuse after World War II. Prior to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus, transmission resulted from repeated use of contaminated syringes. Although we initially thought that these four causes occurred independently on a historical chronology, associations between the causes were found when we investigated the problem with a fishbone diagram. PMID:22164687

  3. [Historical consideration of the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus in Japan and use of a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause].

    PubMed

    Haga, Haruko; Fukushima, Noriko

    2011-01-01

    About 75% of Japanese liver cancer is caused by hepatitis C. Widespread infection of the virus resulted from inadequate medical knowledge, as well as the political, economic and administrative conditions of the time. We investigated the association between the widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and the historical events. We used a fishbone diagram to investigate the cause of widespread infection of the hepatitis C virus and considered the issue from a historical standpoint. We found causes including treatment (medical care), transfusion (medicine), economy (expense) and people (infection route). These causes are explained in further detail below. 1) Treatment (medical care). The initial large-scale infection occurred following attempts to eradicate Schistosoma japonicum involving mass vaccination in schools and public health centers. 2) Transfusion (medicine). The use of non-heated fibrinogen for massive postpartum hemorrhage spread the virus further. In 1987, it resulted in a mass outbreak of hepatitis in Aomori Prefecture. 3) Economy (expense). Recognition of the benefit of disposable syringes was delayed. As a result, disposable syringes were too expensive to be widely available, and did not become low-priced. 4) People (infection route). The second wave of dissemination of the hepatitis C virus was stimulant abuse after World War II. Prior to the discovery of the hepatitis C virus, transmission resulted from repeated use of contaminated syringes. Although we initially thought that these four causes occurred independently on a historical chronology, associations between the causes were found when we investigated the problem with a fishbone diagram.

  4. Infections With Biologics in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Related Conditions: a Scoping Review of Serious or Hospitalized Infections in Observational Studies.

    PubMed

    Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-10-01

    Biologic use is a major advance in the treatment of several autoimmune conditions, including rheumatoid arthritis. In this review, we summarize key studies of serious/hospitalized infections in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA is a risk factor for infections. High RA disease activity is associated with higher risk of serious infection. The risk of serious infections with tumor necrosis factor inhibitor (TNFi) biologics is increased in the first 6 months of initiating therapy, and this risk was higher compared to the use of traditional disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARDs). Emerging data also suggest that biologics may differ from each other regarding the risk of serious or hospitalized infections. Past history of serious infections, glucocorticoid dose, and older age were other important predictors of risk of serious infections in patients treated with biologics. PMID:27613285

  5. The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Keystone Meeting Review

    PubMed Central

    Bird, Sara W.; Kirkegaard, Karla; Agbandje-McKenna, Mavis; Freed, Eric O.

    2014-01-01

    Newly observed mechanisms for viral entry, assembly, and exit are challenging our current understanding of the replication cycle of different viruses. To address and better understand these mechanisms, a Keystone Symposium was organized in the snowy mountains of Colorado (“The Ins and Outs of Viral Infection: Entry, Assembly, Exit, and Spread”; 30 March–4 April 2014, Beaver Run Resort, Breckenridge, Colorado, organized by Karla Kirkegaard, Mavis Agbandje-McKenna, and Eric O. Freed). The meeting served to bring together cell biologists, structural biologists, geneticists, and scientists expert in viral pathogenesis to discuss emerging mechanisms of viral ins and outs. The conference was organized around different phases of the viral replication cycle, including cell entry, viral assembly and post-assembly maturation, virus structure, cell exit, and virus spread. This review aims to highlight important topics and themes that emerged during the conference. PMID:25256395

  6. Clinical review: Update of avian influenza A infections in humans

    PubMed Central

    Sandrock, Christian; Kelly, Terra

    2007-01-01

    Influenza A viruses have a wide host range for infection, from wild waterfowl to poultry to humans. Recently, the cross-species transmission of avian influenza A, particularly subtype H5N1, has highlighted the importance of the non-human subtypes and their incidence in the human population has increased over the past decade. During cross-species transmission, human disease can range from the asymptomatic to mild conjunctivitis to fulminant pneumonia and death. With these cases, however, the risk for genetic change and development of a novel virus increases, heightening the need for public health and hospital measures. This review discusses the epidemiology, host range, human disease, outcome, treatment, and prevention of cross-transmission of avian influenza A into humans. PMID:17419881

  7. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR)-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC) are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC. PMID:23131123

  8. A review of methods for detect human Papillomavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Abreu, André L P; Souza, Raquel P; Gimenes, Fabrícia; Consolaro, Marcia E L

    2012-11-06

    Human Papillomavirus (HPV) is the most common sexually transmitted virus. Worldwide, the most common high-risk (HR)-HPV are -16/18, and approximately 70% of cervical cancers (CC) are due to infection by these genotypes. Persistent infection by HR-HPV is a necessary but not sufficient cause of this cancer, which develops over a long period through precursor lesions, which can be detected by cytological screening. Although this screening has decreased the incidence of CC, HPV-related cervical disease, including premalignant and malignant lesions, continues to be a major burden on health-care systems. Although not completely elucidated, the HPV-driven molecular mechanisms underlying the development of cervical lesions have provided a number of potential biomarkers for both diagnostic and prognostic use in the clinical management of women with HPV-related cervical disease, and these biomarkers can also be used to increase the positive predictive value of current screening methods. In addition, they can provide insights into the biology of HPV-induced cancer and thus lead to the development of nonsurgical therapies. Considering the importance of detecting HPV and related biomarkers, a variety of methods are being developed for these purposes. This review summarizes current knowledge of detection methods for HPV, and related biomarkers that can be used to discriminate lesions with a high risk of progression to CC.

  9. Timeline historical review of income and financial transactions: a reliable assessment of personal finances.

    PubMed

    Black, Anne C; Serowik, Kristin L; Ablondi, Karen M; Rosen, Marc I

    2013-01-01

    The need for accurate and reliable information about income and resources available to individuals with psychiatric disabilities is critical for the assessment of need and evaluation of programs designed to alleviate financial hardship or affect finance allocation. Measurement of finances is ubiquitous in studies of economics, poverty, and social services. However, evidence has demonstrated that these measures often contain error. We compare the 1-week test-retest reliability of income and finance data from 24 adult psychiatric outpatients using assessment-as-usual (AAU) and a new instrument, the Timeline Historical Review of Income and Financial Transactions (THRIFT). Reliability estimates obtained with the THRIFT for Income (0.77), Expenses (0.91), and Debt (0.99) domains were significantly better than those obtained with AAU. Reliability estimates for Balance did not differ. THRIFT reduced measurement error and provided more reliable information than AAU for assessment of personal finances in psychiatric patients receiving Social Security benefits. The instrument also may be useful with other low-income groups.

  10. Mucin-producing pancreatic tumors: historical review of its nosological concept.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, M; Manabe, T

    1994-08-01

    A brief historic outline of the problem of mucin-producing pancreatic tumors is presented. Based on the authors' observations, clinical aspects and pathomorphology of these tumors have been described. The authors propose their own classification of this tumor type which is based on the literature published so far. Their classification also takes into account the localization of lesions. Reference is made to the concept described by the term "mucinous ductetatic/cystic lesions" (MDCL) and it is also pointed out that mucinous carcinoma may develop on the background of MDCL. Since the appearance of the term "mucus secreting pancreatic cancer" or "mucin-producing pancreatic tumor", many similar and/or related conditions have been described especially in Japan under the same or different names. However, there seems to be some confusion about the concept of this condition not only among clinicians but also among pathologists. In addition, another entity, mucinous cystic neoplasms of the pancreas, was proposed and may have provided some overlap with the former conditions in its concept. Furthermore, definitions of these two conditions varied according to the authors. In this paper, therefore, we review and critically analyze cases of mucin-producing pancreatic tumor (MPPT) as well as mucinous cystic neoplasm (MCN) of the pancreas, and intend to classify them under a generic term, i.e. "mucinous ductectatic/cystic lesions (MDCL) of the pancreas". PMID:7947630

  11. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2013-08-05

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194.

  12. A visual historical review of exposure to asbestos at puget sound naval shipyard (1962-1972).

    PubMed

    Hollins, Dana M; Paustenbach, Dennis J; Clark, Katherine; Mangold, Carl A

    2009-02-01

    The study of occupational exposure to asbestos has been an ongoing activity for at least 75 years, dating back to the papers of Merewether and Price (1930). Since that time, literally tens of thousands of air samples have been collected in an attempt to characterize the concentration of asbestos associated with various activities. Many of the individuals who developed diseases from the 1970s to the current day were often exposed to very high airborne concentrations because of direct or indirect exposure to either raw asbestos fiber or insulation during the approximate 1940-1970 time period. Often, these high exposures were associated with work in shipyards during and after World War II and the Korean War, as well as with decommissioning, which continued into the mid-1970s. This study reviews the historical asbestos concentrations measured in shipyards and presents a visual illustration of typical conditions and work practices. A majority of the photographs presented in this article depict work conditions at the Puget Sound Naval Shipyard, circa 1940-1965, which is representative of other military shipyards of the time. PMID:19235622

  13. Fissile material holdup measurement systems: an historical review of hardware and software

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Jeffrey Allen; Smith, Steven E; Rowe, Nathan C

    2015-01-01

    The measurement of fissile material holdup is accomplished by passively measuring the energy-dependent photon flux and/or passive neutron flux emitted from the fissile material deposited within an engineered process system. Both measurement modalities--photon and neutron--require the implementation of portable, battery-operated systems that are transported, by hand, from one measurement location to another. Because of this portability requirement, gamma-ray spectrometers are typically limited to inorganic scintillators, coupled to photomultiplier tubes, a small multi-channel analyzer, and a handheld computer for data logging. For neutron detection, polyethylene-moderated, cadmium-back-shielded He-3 thermal neutron detectors are used, coupled to nuclear electronics for supplying high voltage to the detector, and amplifying the signal chain to the scaler for counting. Holdup measurement methods, including the concept of Generalized Geometry Holdup (GGH), are well presented by T. Douglas Reilly in LA-UR-07-5149 and P. Russo in LA-14206, yet both publications leave much of the evolutionary hardware and software to the imagination of the reader. This paper presents an historical review of systems that have been developed and implemented since the mid-1980s for the nondestructive assay of fissile material, in situ. Specifications for the next-generation holdup measurements systems are conjectured.

  14. The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden. PMID:20181220

  15. The burden of acute respiratory infections in crisis-affected populations: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bellos, Anna; Mulholland, Kim; O'Brien, Katherine L; Qazi, Shamim A; Gayer, Michelle; Checchi, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    Crises due to armed conflict, forced displacement and natural disasters result in excess morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. Historically, acute respiratory infections (ARIs) have received relatively little attention in the humanitarian sector. We performed a systematic review to generate evidence on the burden of ARI in crises, and inform prioritisation of relief interventions. We identified 36 studies published since 1980 reporting data on the burden (incidence, prevalence, proportional morbidity or mortality, case-fatality, attributable mortality rate) of ARI, as defined by the International Classification of Diseases, version 10 and as diagnosed by a clinician, in populations who at the time of the study were affected by natural disasters, armed conflict, forced displacement, and nutritional emergencies. We described studies and stratified data by age group, but did not do pooled analyses due to heterogeneity in case definitions. The published evidence, mainly from refugee camps and surveillance or patient record review studies, suggests very high excess morbidity and mortality (20-35% proportional mortality) and case-fatality (up to 30-35%) due to ARI. However, ARI disease burden comparisons with non-crisis settings are difficult because of non-comparability of data. Better epidemiological studies with clearer case definitions are needed to provide the evidence base for priority setting and programme impact assessments. Humanitarian agencies should include ARI prevention and control among infants, children and adults as priority activities in crises. Improved data collection, case management and vaccine strategies will help to reduce disease burden. PMID:20181220

  16. Detection of hepatitis B virus infection: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ghosh, Mallika; Nandi, Srijita; Dutta, Shrinwanti; Saha, Malay Kumar

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To review published methods for detection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection. METHODS: A thorough search on Medline database was conducted to find original articles describing different methods or techniques of detection of HBV, which are published in English in last 10 years. Articles outlining methods of detection of mutants or drug resistance were excluded. Full texts and abstracts (if full text not available) were reviewed thoroughly. Manual search of references of retrieved articles were also done. We extracted data on different samples and techniques of detection of HBV, their sensitivity (Sn), specificity (Sp) and applicability. RESULTS: A total of 72 studies were reviewed. HBV was detected from dried blood/plasma spots, hepatocytes, ovarian tissue, cerumen, saliva, parotid tissue, renal tissue, oocytes and embryos, cholangiocarcinoma tissue, etc. Sensitivity of dried blood spot for detecting HBV was > 90% in all the studies. In case of seronegative patients, HBV DNA or serological markers have been detected from hepatocytes or renal tissue in many instances. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and Chemiluminescent immunoassay (CLIA) are most commonly used serological tests for detection. CLIA systems are also used for quantitation. Molecular techniques are used qualitatively as well as for quantitative detection. Among the molecular techniques version 2.0 of the CobasAmpliprep/CobasTaqMan assay and Abbott’s real time polymerase chain reaction kit were found to be most sensitive with a lower detection limit of only 6.25 IU/mL and 1.48 IU/mL respectively. CONCLUSION: Serological and molecular assays are predominant and reliable methods for HBV detection. Automated systems are highly sensitive and quantify HBV DNA and serological markers for monitoring. PMID:26483870

  17. Historical Empathy in the Social Studies Classroom: A Review of the Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    In the field of history education, researchers and practitioners frequently demonstrate a keen interest in historical empathy. However, very little consensus exists concerning the meaning of the term. In an effort to make sense of the continuing debate, this article explores the competing conceptualizations of historical empathy found in the…

  18. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: implications for the prevention of blood borne infections.

    PubMed

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900's and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana.

  19. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    PubMed Central

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  20. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO).

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-A; Kang, Seong-Kyu

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers' diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen's compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker's compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  1. Historical review of the List of Occupational Diseases recommended by the International Labour organization (ILO)

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The list of occupational diseases established in the international and national legal system has played important roles in both prevention of and compensation for workers’ diseases. This report reviewed the historical development in the ILO list of occupational diseases and suggested implications of the trends. Since the first establishment of the ILO list of occupational diseases in 1925, the list has played a key role in harmonizing the development of policies on occupational diseases at the international level. The three occupational diseases (anthrax, lead poisoning, and mercury poisoning) in the first ILO list of occupational diseases, set up in 1925 as workmen’s compensation convention represented an increase of occupational diseases from the Industrial Revolution. Until the 1960s, 10 occupational diseases had been representative compensable occupational diseases listed in Convention No. 121, which implies that occupational diseases in this era were equated to industrial poisoning. Since 1980, with advancements in diagnostic techniques and medical science, noise-induced hearing loss, and several bronchopulmonary diseases have been incorporated into the ILO occupational list. Since 2002, changes in the structure of industries, emerging new chemicals, and advanced national worker’s compensation schemes have provoked the ILO to revise the occupational disease list. A new format of ILO list appended in Recommendation 194 (R194) was composed of two dimensions (causes and diseases) and subcategories. Among 50 member states that had provided their national lists of occupational diseases, until 2012 thirty countries were found to have the list occupational diseases having similar structure to ILO list in R194. PMID:24472440

  2. The Eastern heart and Galen's ventricle: a historical review of the purpose of the brain.

    PubMed

    Baig, Mirza N; Chishty, Faheem; Immesoete, Phillip; Karas, Chris S

    2007-01-01

    The seat of consciousness has not always been thought to reside in the brain. Its "source" is as varied as the cultures of those who have sought it. At present, although most may agree that the central nervous system is held to be the root of individualism in much of Western philosophy, this has not always been the case, and this viewpoint is certainly not unanimously accepted across all cultures today. In this paper the authors undertook a literary review of ancient texts of both Eastern and Western societies as well as modern writings on the organic counterpart to the soul. The authors have studied both ancient Greek and Roman material as well as Islamic and Eastern philosophy. Several specific aspects of the human body have often been proposed as the seat of consciousness, not only in medical texts, but also within historical documents, poetry, legal proceedings, and religious literature. Among the most prominently proposed have been the heart and breath, favoring a cardiopulmonary seat of individualism. This understanding was by no means stagnant, but evolved over time, as did the role of the brain in the definition of what it means to be human. Even in the 21st century, no clear consensus exists between or within communities, scientific or otherwise, on the brain's capacity for making us who we are. Perhaps, by its nature, our consciousness--and our awareness of our surroundings and ourselves--is a function of what surrounds us, and must therefore change as the world changes and as we change.

  3. Vitamin C, Gastritis, and Gastric Disease: a historical review and update

    PubMed Central

    Aditi, Anupam; Graham, David Y.

    2013-01-01

    The discovery of Helicobacter pylori as the cause of gastritis and peptic ulcers ushered in the modern era of research into gastritis and into acid-peptic diseases and rekindled interest in the role of ascorbic acid in the pathophysiology and treatment of gastritis and peptic ulcer disease. Here, we review historic and modern studies on ascorbic acid and gastric diseases with an emphasis on H. pylori gastritis and its sequelae. The relationship of ascorbic acid and gastritis and peptic ulcer and its complications was extensively studied during the 1930’s through the 1950’s. Much of this extensive literature has been effectively “lost”. Ascorbic acid deficiency was associated with all forms of gastritis (e.g., autoimmune, chemical, and infectious) due in varying degrees to insufficient intake, increased metabolic requirements, and destruction within the GI tract. Importantly, gastritis-associated abnormalities in gastric ascorbic acid metabolism are reversed by H. pylori eradication and potentially worsened by proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Diets rich in naturally occuring ascorbic acid are associated with protection of the gastric corpus from atrophy and a reduction in the incidence of gastric cancer possibly through the ability of ascorbic acid to reduce oxidative damage to the gastric mucosa by scavenging carcinogenic N-nitroso compounds and free radicals and attenuating the H. pylori-induced inflammatory cascade. Ascorbic acid supplementation was possibly associated with a decreased incidence of bleeding from peptic ulcer disease. Pharmacologic doses of ascorbic acid also may improve the effectiveness of H. pylori eradication therapy. Occasionally, looking back can help plot the way forward. PMID:22543844

  4. Historical review of uranium-vanadium in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona

    SciTech Connect

    Chenoweth, W.L.

    1980-03-01

    This report is a brief review of the uranium and/or vanadium mining in the eastern Carrizo Mountains, San Juan County, New Mexico and Apache County, Arizona. It was prepared at the request of the Navajo Tribe, the New Mexico Energy and Minerals Department, and the Arizona Bureau of Geology and Mineral Technology. This report deals only with historical production data. The locations of the mines and the production are presented in figures and tables.

  5. Infection.

    PubMed

    Saigal, Gaurav; Nagornaya, Natalya; Post, M Judith D

    2016-01-01

    Imaging is useful in the diagnosis and management of infections of the central nervous system. Typically, imaging findings at the outset of the disease are subtle and nonspecific, but they often evolve to more definite imaging patterns in a few days, with less rapidity than for stroke but faster than for neoplastic lesions. This timing is similar to that of noninfectious inflammatory brain disease, such as multiple sclerosis. Fortunately, imaging patterns help to distinguish the two kinds of processes. Other than for sarcoidosis, the meninges are seldom involved in noninfectious inflammation; in contrast, many infectious processes involve the meninges, which then enhance with contrast on computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, brain infection causes a vast array of imaging patterns. Although CT is useful when hemorrhage or calcification is suspected or bony detail needs to be determined, MRI is the imaging modality of choice in the investigation of intracranial infections. Imaging sequences such as diffusion-weighted imaging help in accurately depicting the location and characterizing pyogenic infections and are particularly useful in differentiating bacterial infections from other etiologies. Susceptibility-weighted imaging is extremely useful for the detection of hemorrhage. Although MR spectroscopy findings can frequently be nonspecific, certain conditions such as bacterial abscesses show a relatively specific spectral pattern and are useful in diagnosing and constituting immediate therapy. In this chapter we review first the imaging patterns associated with involvement of various brain structures, such as the epidural and subdural spaces, the meninges, the brain parenchyma, and the ventricles. Involvement of these regions is illustrated with bacterial infections. Next we illustrate the patterns associated with viral and prion diseases, followed by mycobacterial and fungal infections, to conclude with a review of imaging findings

  6. Pasteurella multocida infected total knee arthroplasty: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Ferguson, KB; Bharadwaj, R; MacDonald, A; Syme, B

    2014-01-01

    Pasteurella multocida is a rare cause of prosthetic joint infection. This infection generally follows significant animal contact, usually licks and scratches. We report a case of P multocida infection that was treated with linezolid with salvage of the implant. Linezolid is generally active against Gram-positive organisms only with the exception of Pasteurella, which is Gram-negative. We extensively review the previous reported cases of implant infection with P multocida. PMID:24780653

  7. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A critical review and practical guidance

    PubMed Central

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia are common in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and are important prognostic landmarks in the natural history of cirrhosis. Notably, the incidence of infections from resistant bacteria has increased significantly in healthcare-associated settings. Serum biomarkers such as procalcitonin may help to improve the diagnosis of bacterial infection. Preventive measures (e.g., avoidance, antibiotic prophylaxis, and vaccination), early recognition, and proper management are required in order to minimize morbidity and mortality of infections in cirrhosis. PMID:26962397

  8. Bacterial infections in cirrhosis: A critical review and practical guidance.

    PubMed

    Bunchorntavakul, Chalermrat; Chamroonkul, Naichaya; Chavalitdhamrong, Disaya

    2016-02-28

    Bacterial infection is common and accounts for major morbidity and mortality in cirrhosis. Patients with cirrhosis are immunocompromised and increased susceptibility to develop spontaneous bacterial infections, hospital-acquired infections, and a variety of infections from uncommon pathogens. Once infection develops, the excessive response of pro-inflammatory cytokines on a pre-existing hemodynamic dysfunction in cirrhosis further predispose the development of serious complications such as shock, acute-on-chronic liver failure, renal failure, and death. Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis and bacteremia are common in patients with advanced cirrhosis, and are important prognostic landmarks in the natural history of cirrhosis. Notably, the incidence of infections from resistant bacteria has increased significantly in healthcare-associated settings. Serum biomarkers such as procalcitonin may help to improve the diagnosis of bacterial infection. Preventive measures (e.g., avoidance, antibiotic prophylaxis, and vaccination), early recognition, and proper management are required in order to minimize morbidity and mortality of infections in cirrhosis. PMID:26962397

  9. Review of tenofovir use in HIV-infected children.

    PubMed

    Aurpibul, Linda; Puthanakit, Thanyawee

    2015-04-01

    Tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) is approved by the Food and Drug Administration for use in children ages 2 years and older and is recommended by the World Health Organization for use as a preferred first-line nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor in adults and adolescents ages 10 years and older. The simplicity of once daily dosing, few metabolic side effects and efficacy against hepatitis B virus make TDF suitable for use in a large scale program. Unlike thymidine analoge nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs); tenofovir does not induce multi-NRTI resistance mutations, so more NRTI options are available for future second-line-regimens. Fixed-dose combinations of TDF with other ARVs as a single tablet regimen are now widely available for adults and adolescents, but none are available for young children. Current information on TDF including the pharmacokinetics, safety and tolerability in children and adolescents was reviewed. A dosing regimen according to body-weight-band has been established for pediatric use. Safety concerns of TDF mainly relate to its effects on renal function and bone mineral density. Regular monitoring of renal function in high-risk patients, including those on other nephrotoxic drugs, may be warranted to detect adverse renal effects. Long-term-data on renal and bone outcomes among HIV-infected children is needed. Lessons learned from clinical studies will help clinicians balance the risks and benefits of TDF and design appropriate antiretroviral regimens for children in different circumstances. PMID:25247583

  10. A review of the economics of treating Clostridium difficile infection.

    PubMed

    Mergenhagen, Kari A; Wojciechowski, Amy L; Paladino, Joseph A

    2014-07-01

    Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) is a costly result of antibiotic use, responsible for an estimated 14,000 deaths annually in the USA according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Annual costs attributable to CDI are in excess of $US 1 billion. This review summarizes appropriate utilization of prevention and treatment methods for CDI that have the potential to reduce the economic and humanistic costs of the disease. Some cost-effective strategies to prevent CDI include screening and isolation of hospital admissions based on C. difficile carriage to reduce transmission in the inpatient setting, and probiotics, which are potentially efficacious in preventing CDI in the appropriate patient population. The most extensively studied agents for treatment of CDI are metronidazole, vancomycin, and fidaxomicin. Most economic comparisons between metronidazole and vancomycin favor vancomycin, especially with the emergence of metronidazole-resistant C. difficile strains. Metronidazole can only be recommended for mild disease. Moderate to severe CDI should be treated with vancomycin, preferably the compounded oral solution, which provides the most cost-effective therapeutic option. Fidaxomicin offers a clinically effective and potentially cost-effective alternative for treating moderate CDI in patients who do not have the NAP1/BI/027 strain of C. difficile. Probiotics and fecal microbiota transplant have variable efficacy and the US FDA does not currently regulate the content; the potential economic advantages of these treatment modalities are currently unknown.

  11. Risk Factors of HIV and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections in China: A Systematic Review of Reviews

    PubMed Central

    Wong, William Chi Wai

    2015-01-01

    Background Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) are a global challenge. China, once said to have eradicated STIs, is now facing a rapid rise in the prevalence of HIV/STIs. This review of reviews aims to map HIV/STI risk factors among the Chinese population, with the objective of identifying risk factors to inform the formulation of effective prevention strategies. Methods A systematic search using key terms related to HIV/STIs, risk factors and the Chinese population in both English and Chinese databases (PubMed, PsycINFO, the Cochrane Library; Wanfang data, CNKI, VIP and SINOMED) was conducted, and peer-reviewed systematic reviews on the topic from 1991 to 2014 were selected. Identified risk factors were grouped into different level determinants based on the HIV Social Epidemiology Model, and then evaluated and reported based on the PRISMA checklist. Findings Of the twenty-eight reviews included, the majority were focused on well-established, individual level risk factors within key populations, with some highlighting the complexity of interacting factors (e.g., alcohol use and higher income in male migrants). While twenty-two reviews covered individual factors, only ten mentioned social factors and five had contents on structural factors. There are gaps in the evidence on social and structural level impacts of HIV/STIs, such as on stigma, discrimination, health policy, access to care, and illicit drug control policies. Migration and social expectation appear to pose a significant threat in aggravating the HIV/STI situation in China; for example, incarceration patterns indicated a significant risk of HIV/STIs for female sex workers. Conclusions Since international guidelines recommend an integrated and multi-level approach to HIV/STI prevention, a comprehensive approach targeting interventions at all levels along the continuum of care is needed to effectively curtail HIV/STI transmission in China. More research is needed to better understand the impact of socio

  12. Experimental infections with the protozoan parasite Histomonas meleagridis: a review.

    PubMed

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Hafez, Hafez M

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a number of studies about Histomonas meleagridis, and more specifically about experiments in vivo involving H. meleagridis to investigate the pathogenicity and efficacy of drugs or vaccines, have been published. Together with older publications, a considerable amount of information about experimental infections with H. meleagridis exist, which is helpful for planning future animal studies and can reduce the number of birds used in such studies toward better animal welfare. One hundred sixty-seven publications describing experimental infections with H. meleagridis were published in scientific journals between 1920 and 2012. One hundred forty-two of these publications describe infections of turkeys (Meleagris gallopavo) and 52 infections of chickens (Gallus gallus). In 18 studies, experiments involving other species were done. The most popular routes of infection were the intracloacal application of histomonal trophozoites from culture material, from lesions or from feces of infected birds, or using larvae of the cecal worm Heterakis gallinarum (83 studies) and the oral application of eggs or other stages of the cecal worm containing histomonal stages (83 studies). During the last 10 years, intracloacal application of trophozoites has become the most popular way to experimentally infect birds with H. meleagridis due to its high reproducibility and reliability. In most studies, infection doses of several 10,000 or 100,000 histomonal trophozoites were used for infection, and the resulting mortality in turkeys was more than 70 %. First mortality can occur as early as 6 days p.i.; peak mortality usually is 13-15 days p.i. Lower infection doses may delay mortality about 2 days. In chickens infected by the intracloacal route, mortality and clinical signs are rare, but infection rates are similar. Cecal lesions can be observed from 3 to 4 days p.i., lesions up to 3 weeks p.i.; liver lesions may be lacking completely or be present only in a small

  13. Staphylococcus intermedius infections: case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Nancy; Neilan, Anne M; Klompas, Michael

    2013-01-22

    Staphylococcus intermedius is part of the normal skin and oral flora of dogs. Case reports of human infections are rare, but the true incidence is unknown because the pathogen is frequently misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. Reported cases range from soft tissue infections to brain abscess. Most reported cases in humans have been related to dog exposure. We report a case of a 73 year old female with S. intermedius surgical wound infection one month following a left elbow total arthroplasty. This is the first reported human case of S. intermedius infection of a mechanical prosthesis. The presumed source of infection was the patient's dog. The patient was treated with vancomycin, then switched to cefazolin and rifampin once susceptibilities were known. Case reports suggest that patients generally respond well to tailored antibiotics with complete or near-complete recovery. S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis of invasive infection amongst patients with close contact with dogs.

  14. Staphylococcus Intermedius Infections: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Nancy; Neilan, Anne M.; Klompas, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus intermedius is part of the normal skin and oral flora of dogs. Case reports of human infections are rare, but the true incidence is unknown because the pathogen is frequently misidentified as Staphylococcus aureus. Reported cases range from soft tissue infections to brain abscess. Most reported cases in humans have been related to dog exposure. We report a case of a 73 year old female with S. intermedius surgical wound infection one month following a left elbow total arthroplasty. This is the first reported human case of S. intermedius infection of a mechanical prosthesis. The presumed source of infection was the patient’s dog. The patient was treated with vancomycin, then switched to cefazolin and rifampin once susceptibilities were known. Case reports suggest that patients generally respond well to tailored antibiotics with complete or near-complete recovery. S. intermedius should be included in the differential diagnosis of invasive infection amongst patients with close contact with dogs. PMID:24470954

  15. Antibiotic prophylaxis in children with relapsing urinary tract infections: review.

    PubMed

    Mangiarotti, P; Pizzini, C; Fanos, V

    2000-04-01

    Recurrent urinary tract infections (UTIs) are observed in 30-50% of children after the first UTI. Of these, approximately 90% occur within 3 months of the initial episode. The basic aim of antibiotic prophylaxis in children with malformative uropathy and/or recurrent UTIs, is to reduce the frequency of UTIs. The bacteria most frequently responsible for UTI are gram-negative organisms, with Escherichia coli accounting for 80% of urinary tract pathogens. In children with recurrent UTIs and in those treated with antibiotic prophylaxis there is a greater incidence of UTI due to Proteus spp., Klebsiella spp. and Enterobacter spp., whereas Pseudomonas spp., Serratia spp. and Candida spp. are more frequent in children with urogenital abnormalities and/or undergoing invasive instrumental investigations. Several factors are involved in the pathogenesis of UTI, the main ones being circumcision, periurethral flora, micturition disorders, bowel disorders, local factors and hygienic measures. Several factors facilitate UTI relapse: malformative uropathies, particularly of the obstructive type; vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR); previous repeated episodes of cystitis and/or pyelonephritis (3 or more episodes a year), even in the absence of urinary tract abnormalities; a frequently catheterized neurogenic bladder; kidney transplant. The precise mechanism of action of low-dose antibiotics is not yet fully known. The characteristics of the ideal prophylactic agent are presented in this review, as well as indications, dosages, side effects, clinical data of all molecules. While inappropriate use of antibiotic prophylaxis encourages the emergence of microbial resistance, its proper use may be of great value in clinical practice, by reducing the frequency and clinical expression of UTIs and, in some cases such as VUR, significantly helping to resolve the underlying pathology.

  16. Infective Endocarditis Epidemiology Over Five Decades: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Slipczuk, Leandro; Codolosa, J. Nicolas; Davila, Carlos D.; Romero-Corral, Abel; Yun, Jeong; Pressman, Gregg S.; Figueredo, Vincent M.

    2013-01-01

    Aims To Assess changes in infective endocarditis (IE) epidemiology over the last 5 decades. Methods and Results We searched the published literature using PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE from inception until December 2011. Data From Einstein Medical Center, Philadelphia, PA were also included. Criteria for inclusion in this systematic review included studies with reported IE microbiology, IE definition, description of population studied, and time frame. Two authors independently extracted data and assessed manuscript quality. One hundred sixty studies (27,083 patients) met inclusion criteria. Among hospital-based studies (n=142; 23,606 patients) staphylococcal IE percentage increased over time, with coagulase-negative staphylococcus (CNS) increasing over each of the last 5 decades (p<0.001) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) in the last decade (21% to 30%; p<0.05). Streptococcus viridans (SV) and culture negative (CN) IE frequency decreased over time (p<0.001), while enterococcal IE increased in the last decade (p<0.01). Patient age and male predominance increased over time as well. In subgroup analysis, SA frequency increased in North America, but not the rest of the world. This was due, in part, to an increase in intravenous drug abuse IE in North America (p<0.001). Among population-based studies (n=18; 3,477 patients) no significant changes were found. Conclusion Important changes occurred in IE epidemiology over the last half-century, especially in the last decade. Staphylococcal and enterococcal IE percentage increased while SV and CN IE decreased. Moreover, mean age at diagnosis increased together with male:female ratio. These changes should be considered at the time of decision-making in treatment of and prophylaxis for IE. PMID:24349331

  17. Management of hepatitis C virus infection in HIV/HCV co-infected patients: Clinical review

    PubMed Central

    Singal, Ashwani K; Anand, Bhupinderjit S

    2009-01-01

    Nearly one fourth of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection have hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection in the US and Western Europe. With the availability of highly active antiretroviral therapy and the consequent reduction in opportunistic infections, resulting in the prolongation of the life span of HIV-infected patients, HCV co-infection has emerged as a significant factor influencing the survival of HIV patients. Patients with HIV/HCV co-infection have a faster rate of fibrosis progression resulting in more frequent occurrences of cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanism of interaction between the two viruses is not completely understood. The treatment for HCV in co-infected patients is similar to that of HCV mono-infection; i.e., a combination of pegylated interferon and ribavirin. The presence of any barriers to anti-HCV therapy should be identified and eliminated in order to recruit all eligible patients. The response to treatment in co-infected patients is inferior compared to the response in patients with HCV mono-infection. The sustained virologic response rate is only 38% for genotype-1 and 75% for genotype-2 and -3 infections. Liver transplantation is no longer considered a contraindication for end-stage liver disease in co-infected patients. However, the 5 year survival rate is lower in co-infected patients compared to patients with HCV mono-infection (33% vs 72%, P = 0.07). A better understanding of liver disease in co-infected patients is needed to derive new strategies for improving outcome and survival. PMID:19673011

  18. Clinical Disease Severity of Respiratory Viral Co-Infection versus Single Viral Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Asner, Sandra A.; Science, Michelle E.; Tran, Dat; Smieja, Marek; Merglen, Arnaud; Mertz, Dominik

    2014-01-01

    Background Results from cohort studies evaluating the severity of respiratory viral co-infections are conflicting. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the clinical severity of viral co-infections as compared to single viral respiratory infections. Methods We searched electronic databases and other sources for studies published up to January 28, 2013. We included observational studies on inpatients with respiratory illnesses comparing the clinical severity of viral co-infections to single viral infections as detected by molecular assays. The primary outcome reflecting clinical disease severity was length of hospital stay (LOS). A random-effects model was used to conduct the meta-analyses. Results Twenty-one studies involving 4,280 patients were included. The overall quality of evidence applying the GRADE approach ranged from moderate for oxygen requirements to low for all other outcomes. No significant differences in length of hospital stay (LOS) (mean difference (MD) −0.20 days, 95% CI −0.94, 0.53, p = 0.59), or mortality (RR 2.44, 95% CI 0.86, 6.91, p = 0.09) were documented in subjects with viral co-infections compared to those with a single viral infection. There was no evidence for differences in effects across age subgroups in post hoc analyses with the exception of the higher mortality in preschool children (RR 9.82, 95% CI 3.09, 31.20, p<0.001) with viral co-infection as compared to other age groups (I2 for subgroup analysis 64%, p = 0.04). Conclusions No differences in clinical disease severity between viral co-infections and single respiratory infections were documented. The suggested increased risk of mortality observed amongst children with viral co-infections requires further investigation. PMID:24932493

  19. The prevalence of infections and patient risk factors in home health care: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jingjing; Ma, Chenjuan; Poghosyan, Lusine; Dowding, Dawn; Stone, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Background Home health care (HHC) has been the fastest growing health care sector for the past 3 decades. The uncontrolled home environment, increased use of indwelling devices, and the complexity of illnesses among HHC patients lead to increased risk for infections. Methods A systematic review of studies evaluating infection prevalence and risk factors among adult patients who received HHC services was conducted and guided by the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. Literature was searched using Medline, PubMed, and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health as well as hand searching. Two reviewers independently assessed study quality using validated quality assessment checklists. Results Twenty-five studies met the inclusion criteria and were reviewed. The infection rates and identified risk factors for infections varied dramatically between studies. In general, patients receiving home parental nutrition treatments had higher infection rates than patients receiving home infusion therapy. The identified risk factors were limited by small sample sizes and other methodologic flaws. Conclusions Establishing a surveillance system for HHC infections, identifying patients at high risk for infections, tailoring HHC and patient education based on patient living conditions, and facilitating communication between different health care facilities will enhance infection control in HHC settings. Future studies should use a nationally representative sample and multivariate analysis for the identification of risk factors for infections. PMID:24656786

  20. Historic and pre-historic tsunamis in the Mediterranean and its connected seas: a review on documentation, geological signatures, generation mechanisms and coastal impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papadopoulos, Gerassimos; Gràcia, Eulàlia; Urgeles, Roger; Sallares, Valenti; De Martini, Paolo Marco; Pantosti, Daniela; González, Mauricio; Yalciner, Ahmet C.; Mascle, Jean; Sakellariou, Dimitris; Salamon, Amos; Tinti, Stefano; Fokaefs, Anna; Camerlenghi, Angelo; Novikova, Tatyana; Papageorgiou, Antonia

    2013-04-01

    The origin of tsunamis in the Mediterranean region and its connected seas is reviewed. A variety of historical documentary sources combined with evidence from on-shore and off-shore geological signatures, geomorphological imprints, observations from selected coastal archaeological sites, as well as from instrumental records, clearly indicate that seismic and non-seismic (e.g. volcanism, landslides) tsunami sources can be found in all the seas of the region. Local, regional and basin-wide tsunamis have been documented. An improved map of 22 tsunamigenic zones and their relative potential for tsunami generation is presented. From west to east, the most tsunamigenic zones are situated offshore SW Iberia, in North Algeria, in the Tyrrhenian Calabria and Messina Straits, in the western and eastern segments of the Hellenic Arc, in Corinth Gulf (Central Greece), in the Levantine Sea off-shore the Dead Sea Transform Fault and in the eastern Marmara Sea. The mean recurrence of large (intensity≥8) tsunamis in the entire region is ~90 yrs and in the Mediterranean basin ~102 yrs. However, for most of the historical events it is still doubtful which one was the causative seismic fault and if the tsunami was caused by co-seismic fault dislocation or by earthquake-triggered submarine landslides or by a combined source mechanism (e.g. Lisbon 1755). Instrumentally recorded seismic tsunamis (e.g. Messina 1908, S. Aegean 1956) are still with debatable sources. Calculation of seismic slip slowness factor does not indicate that the 1908 and 1956 events were "tsunami earthquakes". In pre-historical times large tsunamis were caused by volcanic processes in Thera and Etna. A tsunami was supposedly generated in the Holocene by the so-called BIG'95 large submarine landslide in W. Mediterranean. The AD 1650 eruption of the submarine Columbo volcano, off-shore Thera, caused an important tsunami but very little is known about its source mechanism. We concluded that investigating further the

  1. Infection Control and Prevention: A Review of Hospital-Acquired Infections and the Economic Implications

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Deoine; Kemmerly, Sandra A.

    2009-01-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 2 million patients suffer from hospital-acquired infections every year and nearly 100,000 of them die. Most of these medical errors are preventable. Hospital-acquired infections result in up to $4.5 billion in additional healthcare expenses annually. The U.S. government has responded to this financial loss by focusing on healthcare quality report cards and by taking strong action to curb healthcare spending. The Medicare Program has proposed changes to the Hospital Inpatient Prospective Payment System and Fiscal Year Rates: Proposed Rule CMS 1488-P-Healthcare-associated infection. Payment will be linked to performance. Under the new rule, payment will be withheld from hospitals for care associated with treating certain catheter-associated urinary tract infections, vascular catheter-associated infections, and mediastinitis after coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Infection-prevention strategies are essential. In the healthcare setting, the infection control department is categorized as non-revenue-producing. Funds dedicated to resources such as staff, educational programs, and prevention measures are vastly limited. Hospital leaders will need to balance the upfront cost needed to prevent hospital-related infections with the non-reimbursed expense accrued secondary to potentially preventable infections. The purpose of this paper is to present case studies and cost analysis of hospital-acquired infections and present strategies that reduce infections and cost. PMID:21603406

  2. On Applications of Rasch Models in International Comparative Large-Scale Assessments: A Historical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Heike; Bos, Wilfried; Goy, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Several current international comparative large-scale assessments of educational achievement (ICLSA) make use of "Rasch models", to address functions essential for valid cross-cultural comparisons. From a historical perspective, ICLSA and Georg Rasch's "models for measurement" emerged at about the same time, half a century ago. However, the…

  3. Glass Science tutorial lecture No. 5: Historical review of USDOE tank waste management

    SciTech Connect

    McDaniel, E.W.

    1995-02-01

    This is a two day course whose objective is to present an unbiased historical overview of the DOE tank waste activities. World events which impacted the US nuclear program (or vise versa) will be presented. Liquid, mostly tank waste, and sludge are the primary concerns of this course.

  4. 40 CFR 312.24 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS INNOCENT LANDOWNERS, STANDARDS FOR... objectives and performance factors of § 312.20(e) and (f). Historical documents and records may include, but... § 312.20(e) and (f), the environmental professional may exercise professional judgment in context of...

  5. 77 FR 37708 - Notice of Intent To Modify Schedule of Fees for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-22

    ... costs to the government of administering the Historic Preservation Tax Incentives Program. Current fees do not cover the full costs of administering the program. What is the authority for this action? The... must be fair and must be based on the costs to the Government, the value of the service or thing to...

  6. Skin infections in young people (aged 14-18 years): an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Lambe, Catherine I; Hoare, Karen J

    2014-06-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature specific to young people aged 14-18 years is therefore timely. Integrative review using the methods described by Whittemore and Knafl was undertaken. Electronic databases of Medline, CINAHL, Scopus, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, and Google databases were searched for English-language articles published after 1990. Twenty primary studies were included and the findings are reported here. Data analysis revealed factors influencing skin infections in young people may be host-, transmission-, or pathogen-specific. Strategies to address host and transmission factors may be effective in controlling skin infection rates in young people. PMID:23945044

  7. Hepatitis C Viral Infection in Children: Updated Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is a major medical challenge affecting around 200 million people worldwide. The main site of HCV replication is the hepatocytes of the liver. HCV is a positive enveloped RNA virus from the flaviviridae family. Six major HCV genotypes are implicated in the human infection. In developed countries the children are infected mainly through vertical transmission during deliveries, while in developing countries it is still due to horizontal transmission from adults. Minimal nonspecific and brief symptoms are initially found in approximately 15% of children. Acute and chronic HCV infection is diagnosed through the recognition of HCV RNA. The main objective for treatment of chronic HCV is to convert detected HCV viremia to below the detection limit. Children with chronic HCV infection are usually asymptomatic and rarely develop severe liver damage. Therefore, the benefits from current therapies, pegylated-Interferon plus ribavirin, must be weighed against their adverse effects. This combined treatment offers a 50-90% chance of clearing HCV infection according to several studies and on different HCV genotype. Recent direct acting antiviral (DAA) drugs which are well established for adults have not yet been approved for children and young adults below 18 years. The most important field for the prevention of HCV infection in children would be the prevention of perinatal and parenteral transmission. There are areas of focus for new lines of research in pediatric HCV-related disease that can be addressed in the near future. PMID:27437184

  8. Review: apoptotic mechanisms in bacterial infections of the central nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Parthasarathy, Geetha; Philipp, Mario T.

    2012-01-01

    In this article we review the apoptotic mechanisms most frequently encountered in bacterial infections of the central nervous system (CNS). We focus specifically on apoptosis of neural cells (neurons and glia), and provide first an overview of the phenomenon of apoptosis itself and its extrinsic and intrinsic pathways. We then describe apoptosis in the context of infectious diseases and inflammation caused by bacteria, and review its role in the pathogenesis of the most relevant bacterial infections of the CNS. PMID:23060884

  9. A historical review of portable health physics instruments and their use in radiation protection programs at Hanford, 1944 through 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Howell, W.P.; Kenoyer, J.L.; Kress, M.L.; Swinth, K.L.; Corbit, C.D.; Zuerner, L.V.; Fleming, D.M.; DeHaven, H.W.

    1989-09-01

    This historical review covers portable health physics instruments at Hanford from an applications viewpoint. The review provides information on specific instruments and on the general kinds of facility work environments in which the instruments have been and are being used. It provides a short, modestly technical explanation of the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of nuclear radiations, the way radiation units are quantified, and the types of detection media used in portable health physics instruments. This document does not, however, cover the history of the entire Hanford program that was required to develop and/or modify the subject instruments. 11 refs., 34 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Cytomegalovirus infection following liver transplantation: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kanj, S S; Sharara, A I; Clavien, P A; Hamilton, J D

    1996-03-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) remains a major cause of problems following solid organ transplantation, accounting for a significant increase in morbidity and affiliated costs. Infection with CMV following orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) is commonly seen as a result of marked cell-mediated immunosuppression and is an independent risk factor for opportunistic and fungal infections. The role of CMV infection in acute cellular or chronic rejection remains unclear. Recent advances in diagnostic modalities, particularly the use of the antigenemia assay and the polymerase chain reaction, have provided ways to quantitate viral load during infection or disease, as well as providing a useful marker of response to therapy. Ganciclovir remains the best antiviral agent for the treatment of CMV disease, but the use of combination therapy with other antivirals or CMV immunoglobulin may improve outcome for patients with severe disease. The ideal prophylactic therapy for patients undergoing OLT remains to be identified, as tested regimens have shown variable efficacy when analyzed with regard to defined risk groups. The use of risk group-specific prophylaxis may prove to be most successful, however, in terms of efficacy and cost savings. Future advances in basic CMV virology and transplant immunology will be essential in defining rational approaches to control and prevention of CMV infection and disease following liver transplantation. PMID:8852975

  11. Historical review of long-term soil sampling for environmental surveillance at the Hanford Site and vicinity

    SciTech Connect

    Price, K.R.; Rickard, W.H.

    1997-08-01

    Soil samples have been collected routinely from the environs of the Hanford Site and analyzed since 1971. Correct interpretation of results depends on samples being collected from the same locations, the locations remaining relatively undisturbed, and collection and analytical procedures remaining the same or being equivalent. Historical files, documents, and annual environmental reports were reviewed to evaluate these factors. It was determined that 20 soil sampling locations, 11 onsite and 9 offsite, were established between 1971 and 1977 and represent long-term sampling locations. Sample collection and analytical procedures have remained essentially the same since 1971. The physical ecological attributes of each long-term soil sampling location were evaluated. During the review of historical records, a few results for 1970, 1971, and 1972 were noted as previously unreported in annual or special reports. These results are included in Appendix A. To complete the record, results previously reported in annual environmental reports are given in Appendix B. Global Positioning System (GPS) reading for 20 long-term soil sampling locations are provided in Appendix C.

  12. Pan-spinal infection: a case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Kow, Chien Yew; Etherington, Greg; Ton, Lu; Liew, Susan; Cheng, Allen C.; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Panspinal infection usually presents with fever, back pain, neurological deficit, and in advanced cases multi-organ failure and septic shock. The choice of treatment for panspinal infection is challenging because these patients are usually medically unstable with severe neurological compromise. The objective of this study is to review management and long term outcomes for patients with panspinal infection. Methods A retrospective review of patients with panspinal infection treated in our center over a 5-year period [Jan 2010–Dec 2014] and a review of the current published literatures was undertaken. Results We identified 4 patients with panspinal infection. One case was managed medically due to high perioperative risk, whilst the other three were managed surgically whilst on antibiotic therapy. All 3 cases managed surgically improved neurologically and infection subsided, whereas the patient managed medically did not change neurologically and infection subsided. Conclusions Patients with panspinal infection should be treated surgically unless the medical risk of surgery or anaesthesia is prohibitive.

  13. Fungal Infections of the Central Nervous System: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Olivas Chacon, Cristina Ivette; Hakim, Nawar; Palacios, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the central nervous system (CNS) pose a threat to especially immunocompromised patients and their development is primarily determined by the immune status of the host. With an increasing number of organ transplants, chemotherapy, and human immunodeficiency virus infections, the number of immunocompromised patients as susceptible hosts is growing and fungal infections of the CNS are more frequently encountered. They may result in meningitis, cerebritis, abscess formation, cryptococcoma, and meningeal vasculitis with rapid disease progression and often overlapping symptoms. Although radiological characteristics are often nonspecific, unique imaging patterns can be identified through computer tomography as a first imaging modality and further refined by magnetic resonance imaging. A rapid diagnosis and the institution of the appropriate therapy are crucial in helping prevent an often fatal outcome. PMID:27403402

  14. Historical Review of Electric Household Appliances using Induction-Heating and Future Challenging Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirota, Izuo; Yamashita, Hidekazu; Omori, Hideki; Nakaoka, Mutsuo

    This paper presents historical progress on technology evolution of the electric and electronic household appliances using the inverter, especially for Induction-Heating applications, which have been put in practical use as the desk-top cooker for the first time at home in 1974 until being applied to the rice cooker and the multi-burner cooking heater. It also describes the future innovative evolution of the power semiconductor switching devices and the inverter circuit topologies supporting its progressive developments. Looking back its progress, the future trends on consumer power electronics is discussed on the practical problem in the future.

  15. A Historical Review of Cermet Fuel Development and the Engine Performance Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E.

    2015-01-01

    To better understand Cermet engine performance, examined historical material development reports two issues: High vaporization rate of UO2, High temperature chemical stability of UO2. Cladding and chemical stabilizers each result in large, order of magnitude improvements in high temperature performance. Few samples were tested above 2770 K. Results above 2770 K are ambiguous. Contemporary testing may clarify performance. Cermet sample testing during the NERVA Rover era. Important properties, melting temperature, vaporization rate, strength, Brittle-to-Ductile Transition, cermet sample test results, engine performance, location, peak temperature.

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diversification during Infection Development in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs-A Review.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most prevalent pathogen of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Its long persistence in CF airways is associated with sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including biofilm formation, resistance to antibiotics, hypermutability and customized pathogenicity in which virulence factors are expressed according the infection stage. CF adaptation is triggered by high selective pressure of inflamed CF lungs and by antibiotic treatments. Bacteria undergo genetic, phenotypic, and physiological variations that are fastened by the repeating interplay of mutation and selection. During CF infection development, P. aeruginosa gradually shifts from an acute virulent pathogen of early infection to a host-adapted pathogen of chronic infection. This paper reviews the most common changes undergone by P. aeruginosa at each stage of infection development in CF lungs. The comprehensive understanding of the adaptation process of P. aeruginosa may help to design more effective antimicrobial treatments and to identify new targets for future drugs to prevent the progression of infection to chronic stages. PMID:25438018

  17. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Diversification during Infection Development in Cystic Fibrosis Lungs—A Review

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Ana Margarida; Pereira, Maria Olívia

    2014-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is the most prevalent pathogen of cystic fibrosis (CF) lung disease. Its long persistence in CF airways is associated with sophisticated mechanisms of adaptation, including biofilm formation, resistance to antibiotics, hypermutability and customized pathogenicity in which virulence factors are expressed according the infection stage. CF adaptation is triggered by high selective pressure of inflamed CF lungs and by antibiotic treatments. Bacteria undergo genetic, phenotypic, and physiological variations that are fastened by the repeating interplay of mutation and selection. During CF infection development, P. aeruginosa gradually shifts from an acute virulent pathogen of early infection to a host-adapted pathogen of chronic infection. This paper reviews the most common changes undergone by P. aeruginosa at each stage of infection development in CF lungs. The comprehensive understanding of the adaptation process of P. aeruginosa may help to design more effective antimicrobial treatments and to identify new targets for future drugs to prevent the progression of infection to chronic stages. PMID:25438018

  18. The pituri story: a review of the historical literature surrounding traditional Australian Aboriginal use of nicotine in Central Australia

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    The harmful outcomes of nicotine self administration have been the focus of sustained global health education campaigns that have targeted tobacco smoking and to a lesser extent, smokeless tobacco use. 'Smokeless tobacco' infers that the nicotine is not burnt, and administration can be through a range of methods including chewing. The chewing of wild tobacco plants (Nicotiana spp.) is practiced across a broad inland area of Central Australia by traditional Aboriginal groups. Collectively these plants are known by a variety of names - one common name being 'pituri'. This is the first paper to examine the historical literature and consider the linkage between pituri use and health outcomes. Using a narrative approach, this paper reviews the literature generated since 1770 surrounding the term pituri and the behaviours associated with its use. The review examines the scientific literature, as well as the diaries and journals of nineteenth century explorers, expedition notes, and early Australian novels to expound the scientific evidence and broaden the sense of understanding related to pituri, particularly the behavioural elements. The evaluation considers the complexities of ethnobotany pertaining to language and distance and the ethnopharmacology of indigenous plant usage. The review compares the use of burnt and smokeless tobacco to pituri and establishes the foundation for research into the clinical significance and health outcomes of pituri use. Additionally, this review provides contemporary information for clinicians providing care for patients who chew pituri. PMID:20831827

  19. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... documents and records reviewed must cover a period of time as far back in the history of the real property..., commercial, industrial, or governmental purposes. The environmental professional may exercise...

  20. 33 CFR 137.50 - Reviews of historical sources of information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... documents and records reviewed must cover a period of time as far back in the history of the real property..., commercial, industrial, or governmental purposes. The environmental professional may exercise...

  1. Chronic Infections of the Urinary Tract and Bladder Cancer Risk: a Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Anderson-Otunu, Oghenetejiri; Akhtar, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Literature on the relationship between recurrent urinary tract infections and urinary bladder carcinoma risk has been inconsistent. Therefore, we carried out this systematic review of observational studies to ascertain if there is any association between chronic urinary tract infection and urinary bladder carcinoma. A total of 10 databases were searched using Boolean: CINAHL, PUBMED, Google Scholar, Medline, Science Direct, SCIRUS, Cochrane, UK PubMed central, NHS evidence and WHO-website. The search yielded an initial hit of 3,518 articles and after screening and critical appraisal, seven studies were included for this review. Four articles reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer while three concluded a weak or no association at least in one gender. Main findings in this review were that most of the studies reported an association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. However, inferences about the causal association between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk should be drawn cautiously considering the methodological limitations of case-control studies included in this review. Therefore, more empirical evidence is needed to determine the causal nature of relationships between chronic urinary tract infections and bladder cancer risk. PMID:27644620

  2. The quality of measurement of surgical wound infection as the basis for monitoring: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Bruce, J; Russell, E M; Mollison, J; Krukowski, Z H

    2001-10-01

    Comparison of postoperative surgical wound infection rates between institutions and over time is only valid if standard, valid and reliable definitions are used. The aim of this review was to assess evidence of validity and reliability of the definition and measurement of surgical wound infection. A systematic review was undertaken of prospective studies of surgical wound infection published over a seven-year period; 1993-1999. The information extracted from individual studies included: definition of surgical wound infection; details of wound assessment scale, scoring or grading scale systems; and evidence of assessment of validity, reliability and feasibility of identified definitions and grading systems. Two independent reviewers appraised 112 prospective studies, 90 of which were eligible for inclusion; eight studies assessed validity and/or reliability. Forty-one different definitions of surgical wound infection were identified, five of which were 'standard' definitions proposed by multi-disciplinary groups. Presence of pus was the most frequently used single component of any definition; the CDC definitions of 1988 and 1992 were the most widely implemented standard definitions; and the ASEPSIS wound assessment scale was the most frequently used quantitative grading tool. Only two formal validations of a definition were found, and six studies of reliability. This review highlights the extent of variation in definition of surgical wound infection used in clinical practice, and the need for validation of both content and organization of a surveillance system. However, realistically, there will have to be a balance between the quality of the measurement and the practicality of surveillance.

  3. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review

    PubMed Central

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Sandoval, Hugo; Akle, Nassim; Figueroa, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive – and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome. PMID:27403401

  4. Insights into airway infections by enterococci: a review.

    PubMed

    Savini, Vincenzo; Gherardi, Giovanni; Astolfi, Daniela; Polilli, Ennio; Dicuonzo, Giordano; D'Amario, Claudio; Fazii, Paolo; D'Antonio, Domenico

    2012-04-01

    Enterococcus is an uncommon but emerging agent of upper and lower airway diseases, including sinuses, trachea, bronchi, lung and pleural infections. In particular, pneumonia and thoracic empyema may jeopardize the clinical outcome of compromised, hospitalized hosts, as well as affect outpatients. Treatment may feel the effects of inherent and acquired resistances such organisms show to commonly used drugs, with the spread of glycopeptide/vancomycin resistant enterococci (GRE/VRE, respectively) being of serious concern. With this work, we want to unearth the impact of members of the genus in the ambit of respiratory infections, and to increase the consciousness of their role as resourceful pathogens for human airways. Also, we are revising patents of interest aiming to timely screen GRE and soon provide clinicians with speciation and glycopeptide resistances. PMID:22044357

  5. Sinonasal Fungal Infections and Complications: A Pictorial Review.

    PubMed

    Gavito-Higuera, Jose; Mullins, Carola Birgit; Ramos-Duran, Luis; Sandoval, Hugo; Akle, Nassim; Figueroa, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Fungal infections of the nose and paranasal sinuses can be categorized into invasive and non-invasive forms. The clinical presentation and course of the disease is primarily determined by the immune status of the host and can range from harmless or subtle presentations to life threatening complications. Invasive fungal infections are categorized into acute, chronic or chronic granulomatous entities. Immunocompromised patients with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus, HIV and patients receiving chemotherapy or chronic oral corticosteroids are mostly affected. Mycetoma and Allergic Fungal Rhinosinusitis are considered non-invasive forms. Computer tomography is the gold-standard in sinonasal imaging and is complimented by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as it is superior in the evaluation of intraorbital and intracranial extensions. The knowledge and identification of the characteristic imaging patterns in invasive - and non- invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is crucial and the radiologist plays an important role in refining the diagnosis to prevent a possible fatal outcome. PMID:27403401

  6. Physician training in aerospace medicine--an historical review in the United States.

    PubMed

    Doarn, Charles R; Mohler, Stanley R

    2013-02-01

    The training of U.S. physicians in aviation medicine closely followed the development of reliable airplanes. This training has matured as aviation and space travel have become more routine over the past several decades. In the U.S., this training began in support of military pilots who were flying increasingly complex aircraft in the early part of the 20th century. As individuals reached into the stratosphere, low Earth orbit, and eventually to the Moon, physicians were trained not only through military efforts but in academic settings as well. This paper provides an historical summary of how physician training in aerospace medicine developed in the U.S., citing both the development of the military activities and, more importantly, the perspectives of the academic programs. This history is important as we move forward in the development of commercial space travel and the needs that such a business model will be required to meet.

  7. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein. PMID:27556221

  8. Science communication in Brazil: A historical review and considerations about the current situation.

    PubMed

    Massarani, Luisa; Moreira, Ildeu DE Castro

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we present a historical overview of the science communication activities in Brazil since the nineteenth century and we analyze the current situation and its main concerns. The principal scopes and tools for science communication discussed here are the following: science centers and museums, mass media and large public events for communicating science and technology (S&T). In recent years, such activities have had a significant breakthrough in Brazil. Yet, there is still a long way to go in order to deliver a quality and extensive science and technology communication to the Brazilians as well as to achieve a suitable level of social appropriation of knowledge on S&T by the Brazilian society. Some of the main challenges that we are facing are discussed herein.

  9. Fish-based remedies in Spanish ethnomedicine: a review from a historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Fish-based therapeutics is fundamentally based on a dietary use, but these vertebrates have also been employed in the treatment of infectious and parasitic diseases, during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum and to deal with diseases of the different systems. Methods An overview of the ethnomedical and historical Spanish literature has been carried out. Automated searches in the most important national and international databases have been performed. All related works have been thorough examined. Results We examine the historical use of 54 medicinal fish species, 48 marine and six from inland waters. As useful, in Ancient times 39 species have been recorded (of which only 21 have been collected in subsequent periods), seven in the Middle Ages, 18 in Modern times and 17 in the contemporary period. Anguilla anguilla, Engraulis encrasicolus or Scyliorhinus canicula are species that have survived over time as an ingredient in Spanish folk remedies. Most remedies used in the last century and currently are empirical remedies based on the humorism theory and the principle of contraria contrariis curantur (74%), and the rest (26%) are magical type remedies that complete the popular therapeutic arsenal. Conclusions In the last century we find a progressive decrease in the number of fish species used in ethnomedicine. Only seven taxa have been documented as surviving therapeutic resources since centuries ago. The existence of a dynamic Spanish ethnomedicine has also been detected which has managed to generate new therapeutic resources in recent times. It is important to validate the remedies by ethnopharmacology and evidence-based medicine. In order to recover as much data as possible, it will be necessary to draw up an inventory of ethnoichthyological uses. PMID:24885245

  10. Ciclopirox for the treatment of superficial fungal infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Aditya K; Skinner, Alayne R

    2003-09-01

    Ciclopirox is a broad-spectrum antifungal agent that also exhibits anti-inflammatory and antibacterial activity. The lotion and cream formulations of ciclopirox are effective in many types of infection, including tinea corporis/cruris, tinea pedis, cutaneous candidiasis, pityriasis (tinea) versicolor, and seborrheic dermatitis. The new ciclopirox gel 0.77% formulation is also indicated for the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis of the scalp, interdigital tinea pedis and tinea corporis.

  11. Infective endocarditis in intravenous drug users: a review article.

    PubMed

    Colville, Thomas; Sharma, Vishal; Albouaini, Khaled

    2016-02-01

    Approximately 10% of infective endocarditis (IE) involves the right side of the heart with the majority of these cases occurring in intravenous drug users. Patients are less likely to present with classical IE signs of a new murmur and peripheral stigmata, are more frequently immunocompromised and often have significant social difficulties. These factors result in both diagnostic and therapeutic challenges in this patient group that are not often seen in other patient populations with IE.

  12. Review of the neutrophil response to Bordetella pertussis infection.

    PubMed

    Eby, Joshua C; Hoffman, Casandra L; Gonyar, Laura A; Hewlett, Erik L

    2015-12-01

    The nature and timing of the neutrophil response to infection with Bordetella pertussis is influenced by multiple virulence factors expressed by the bacterium. After inoculation of the host airway, the recruitment of neutrophils signaled by B. pertussis lipooligosaccharide (LOS) is suppressed by pertussis toxin (PTX). Over the next week, the combined activities of PTX, LOS and adenylate cyclase toxin (ACT) result in production of cytokines that generate an IL-17 response, promoting neutrophil recruitment which peaks at 10-14 days after inoculation in mice. Arriving at the site of infection, neutrophils encounter the powerful local inhibitory activity of ACT, in conjunction with filamentous hemagglutinin. With the help of antibodies, neutrophils contribute to clearance of B. pertussis, but only after 28-35 days in a naïve mouse. Studies of the lasting, antigen-specific IL-17 response to infection in mice and baboons has led to progress in vaccine development and understanding of pathogenesis. Questions remain about the mediators that coordinate neutrophil recruitment and the mechanisms by which neutrophils overcome B. pertussis virulence factors.

  13. A Report of Three Cases and Review of Intrauterine Herpes Simplex Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marquez, Lucila; Levy, Moise L.; Munoz, Flor M.; Palazzi, Debra L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Intrauterine herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection often is omitted from descriptions of neonatal HSV disease. Previous characterizations of intrauterine HSV infection limit manifestations to the triad of cutaneous, central nervous system (CNS), and ophthalmologic findings. We report 3 cases of intrauterine HSV infection and provide a contemporary literature review of this disease. Methods Cases published between 1963 and January 2009 were identified. Selected cases fit the clinical description of intrauterine HSV infection, had manifestations present at birth, and had virologic confirmation of infection. Results This review yielded 64 cases, 3 of which were our own, of intrauterine HSV infection. Less than one-third fit the typical triad. Of the patients with cutaneous findings at birth, 24 (44%) had manifestations other than vesicles or bullae. Confirmation of HSV infection by culture of cutaneous lesions present at birth was delayed beyond 72 hours after birth in 15 patients and occurred at a median of 10 days of age. Nine of these patients had lesions at birth that were neither vesicles nor bullae, and 14 cases were confirmed by culture of new vesicles. Conclusions More than two-thirds of reported cases do not present with the typical triad. Cutaneous findings are not limited to vesicles or bullae. A high index of suspicion and recognition of varied cutaneous manifestations is necessary to diagnose infants with intrauterine HSV infection. PMID:20811312

  14. Epidemiology and management of chronic hepatitis E infection in solid organ transplantation: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinying; de Man, Robert A; de Knegt, Robert J; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2013-09-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection has emerged as a global public health issue. Although it often causes an acute and self-limiting infection with low mortality rates in the western world, it bears a high risk of developing chronic hepatitis in immunocompromised patients with substantial mortality rates. Organ transplant recipients who receive immunosuppressive medication to prevent rejection are thought to be the main population at risk for chronic hepatitis E. Therefore, there is an urgent need to properly evaluate the clinical impact of HEV in these patients. This article aims to review the prevalence, infection course, and management of HEV infection after solid organ transplantation by performing a comprehensive literature review. In addition, an in-depth emphasis of this clinical issue and a discussion of future development are also presented. PMID:23813631

  15. Historical review of academic concepts of dementia in the world and Japan: with a short history of representative diseases.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Toshiya

    2015-01-01

    Expanding our knowledge of the history of dementia may be beneficial for its holistic understanding. This article aims to review the trajectory of the concepts of dementia in the world and Japan. Historical backgrounds of major dementia diseases are also addressed. The first reference to "imbecility" appeared in Greece in 6th century BC. A Japanese term "Mow-roku" (aged and devitalized) first appeared in 11th century, was replaced by "Chee-hou" (absent-minded imbecile) in 1960s, and then by "Ninchee-show" (cognitive impairment) in 2014 for humanistic reasons. In 1970s, dementia was delineated from normal aging, and the present concept of dementia was established. PMID:24601750

  16. Ecological research and management of intermittent rivers: an historical review and future directions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rivers and streams that do not flow permanently (herein intermittent rivers; IRs) make up a large proportion of the world's inland waters and are gaining widespread attention. We review the research on IRs from its early focus on natural history through to current application in ...

  17. 77 FR 71447 - Notice of Fee Schedule for Reviewing Historic Preservation Certification Applications and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... the proposed revised fee schedule (77 FR 37708) to solicit public comment. A notice published July 6, 2012, corrected the addresses for submitting comments and extended the comment period (77 FR 40080... Instructions. SUMMARY: The National Park Service (NPS) is revising the fees it charges for reviewing...

  18. James Clerk Maxwell and the Kinetic Theory of Gases: A Review Based on Recent Historical Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brush, Stephen G.

    1971-01-01

    Maxwell's four major papers and some shorter publications relating to kinetic theory and statistical mechanics are discussed in the light of subsequent research. Reviews Maxwell's ideas on such topics as velocity, distribution law, the theory of heat conduction, the mechanism of the radiometer effect, the ergodic hypothesis, and his views on the…

  19. A Historical Review of "Contemporary Educational Psychology" from 1995 to 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitchell, Anita Witt; McConnell, John Robert, III

    2012-01-01

    The major themes and trends represented by the articles published in "Contemporary Educational Psychology" (CEP) from 1995 to 2010 are reviewed in this paper. Included are the major topics, theoretical perspectives, participant characteristics, research methods and statistics used, and highly cited papers. The most frequently occurring topic…

  20. A Historical Review of the Evolution of Early Childhood Care and Education in the Caribbean.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Rose

    This paper reviews the development of early childhood care and education in the Caribbean region since World War II. Despite the growth of private early childhood facilities throughout the region in the immediate post-war period, supply was inadequate to satisfy demand. Governments, pressured by rising social and economic problems, were to varying…

  1. Softform for facial rejuvenation: historical review, operative techniques, and recent advances.

    PubMed

    Miller, P J; Levine, J; Ahn, M S; Maas, C S; Constantinides, M

    2000-01-01

    The deep nasolabial fold and other facial furrows and wrinkles have challenged the facial plastic surgeon. A variety of techniques have been used in the past to correct these troublesome defects. Advances in the last five years in new materials and design have created a subcutaneous implant that has excellent properties. This article reviews the development and use of Softform facial implant.

  2. Historical review of lung counting efficiencies for low energy photon emitters

    DOE PAGES

    Jeffers, Karen L.; Hickman, David P.

    2014-03-01

    This publication reviews the measured efficiency and variability over time of a high purity planar germanium in vivo lung count system for multiple photon energies using increasingly thick overlays with the Lawrence Livermore Torso Phantom. Furthermore, the measured variations in efficiency are compared with the current requirement for in vivo bioassay performance as defined by the American National Standards Institute Standard.

  3. A Historical Review and Contemporary Reassessment of Free Will Concepts in Psychological Humanism and Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilks, Duffy; Ratheal, Juli D'Ann

    2010-01-01

    The authors review the history of the concept of freedom in humanistic counseling theory and present a contemporary rationale for including certain negative implications of existential indeterminate free will in the theoretical foundations of the profession. Implications for counseling and a table of definitions that clarifies unique constructs…

  4. Review: phage therapy: a modern tool to control bacterial infections.

    PubMed

    Qadir, Muhammad Imran

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of antibiotic-resistant in bacteria has aggravated curiosity in development of alternative therapy to conventional drugs. One of the emerging drugs that can be used alternative to antibiotics is bacteriophage therapy. The use of living phages in the cure of lethal infectious life threatening diseases caused by Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria has been reported. Another development in the field of bacteriophage therapy is the use of genetically modified and non replicating phages in the treatment of bacterial infection. Genetically engineered bacteriophages can be used as adjuvant along with antibiotic therapy. Phages encoded with lysosomal enzymes are also effectual in the treatment of infectious diseases.

  5. Intestinal parasitic infections and micronutrient deficiency: a review.

    PubMed

    Hesham, M S; Edariah, A B; Norhayati, M

    2004-06-01

    Malnutrition including vitamin A and iron deficiency and parasitic diseases have a strikingly similar geographical distribution with the same people experiencing both insults together for much of their lives. Parasitic infections are thought to contribute to child malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency through subtle reduction in digestion and absorption, chronic inflammation and loss of nutrients. Parasites may affect the intake of food; it's subsequent digestion and absorption, metabolism and the maintenance of nutrient pools. The most important parasites related to nutritional status are intestinal parasites especially soil transmitted helminthes, Giardia duodenalis, Entamoeba histolytica, followed by other parasites such as the coccidia, Schistosoma sp. and malarial parasites.

  6. Penicillium marneffei Infection with β-D-glucan Elevation: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Yukihiro; Sakamoto, Yohei; Lee, Kwangyeol; Amano, Yuichiro; Tachikawa, Natsuo

    2016-01-01

    We herein report a case of Penicillium marneffei infection (PMI) in a Japanese man who was infected with human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1), who was diagnosed on the basis of a bone marrow culture and who was effectively treated with itraconazole. Our review of the PMI cases reported in Japan suggests that increased serum (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels are a useful diagnostic tool in cases of suspected PMI. PMID:27580558

  7. Historical review of citrus flavor research during the past 100 years.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Russell L; Ruiz Perez-Cacho, Pilar; Jabalpurwala, Fatima

    2009-09-23

    Citrus juices are a complex mixture of flavor and taste components. Historically, the contributions of taste components such as sugar (sweet) and acid (sour) components were understood before impactful aroma volatiles because they existed at higher concentrations and could be measured with the technologies of the 1920s and 1930s. The advent of gas chromatography in the 1950s allowed citrus researchers to separate and tentatively identify the major citrus volatiles. Additional volatiles were identified when mass spectrometry was coupled to capillary GC. Unfortunately, the major citrus volatiles were not major influences of citrus flavor. The major aroma impact compounds were found at trace concentrations. With the advent of increasingly more sensitive instrumental techniques, juice sample size shrank from 2025 L in the 1920s to 10 mL today and detection limits fell from percent to micrograms per liter. Currently gas chromatography-olfactometry is the technique of choice to identify which volatiles in citrus juices possess aroma activity, determine their relative aroma strength, and characterize their aroma quality but does not indicate how they interact together or with the juice matrix. Flavor equations based primarily on nonvolatiles and other physical measurements have been largely unsuccessful. The most successful flavor prediction equations that employ instrumental concentration values are based on a combination of aroma active volatiles and degrees Brix (sugar) values. PMID:19719125

  8. [Earthquakes--a historical review, environmental and health effects, and health care measures].

    PubMed

    Nola, Iskra Alexandra; Doko Jelinić, Jagoda; Žuškin, Eugenija; Kratohvil, Mladen

    2013-06-01

    Earthquakes are natural disasters that can occur at any time, regardless of the location. Their frequency is higher in the Circum-Pacific and Mediterranean/Trans-Asian seismic belt. A number of sophisticated methods define their magnitude using the Richter scale and intensity using the Mercani-Cancani-Sieberg scale. Recorded data show a number of devastating earthquakes that have killed many people and changed the environment dramatically. Croatia is located in a seismically active area, which has endured a series of historical earthquakes, among which several occurred in the Zagreb area. The consequences of an earthquake depend mostly on the population density and seismic resistance of buildings in the affected area. Environmental consequences often include air, water, and soil pollution. The effects of this kind of pollution can have long-term health effects. The most dramatic health consequences result from the demolition of buildings. Therefore, quick and efficient aid depends on well-organized health professionals as well as on the readiness of the civil defence, fire department, and Mountain Rescue Service members. Good coordination among these services can save many lives Public health interventions must include effective control measures in the environment as secondary prevention methods for health problems caused by unfavourable environmental factors. The identification and control of long-term hazards can reduce chronic health effects. The reduction of earthquake-induced damages includes setting priorities in building seismically safe buildings.

  9. Alveolar vertical distraction osteogenesis: historical and biologic review and case presentation.

    PubMed

    Emtiaz, Shahram; Noroozi, Sohrab; Caramês, João; Fonseca, Luís

    2006-12-01

    Dental rehabilitation of partially or totally edentulous patients with dental implants has become common practice in the last few decades, with reliable long-term results. However, local conditions of edentulous alveolar ridges may be unfavorable for implant placement. Vertically deficient alveolar ridges, in particular, may have insufficient bone volume to hold implants of adequate dimensions, making implant placement difficult or impossible. To correct this situation, a variety of surgical procedures have been proposed, including onlay bone grafts, vertical guided bone regeneration, and alveolar distraction osteogenesis. Distraction osteogenesis is a biologic process of new bone formation between the surfaces of bone segments that are gradually separated by incremental traction. This process is initiated when a traction force is applied to the bone segments and continues as long as the callus tissues are stretched. This traction force, in turn, generates tension within the tissues that connect the bone segments, which stimulates new bone formation parallel to the vector of distraction. The aim of this article is to provide clinicians with the historical background of and biologic basis for the concept of distraction osteogenesis, which can be traced back to the 1800s. Finally, a clinical case is presented to demonstrate a step-by-step application of alveolar distraction osteogenesis as a treatment protocol in a partially edentulous ridge for improvement of esthetics.

  10. Hospital staffing and health care-associated infections: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Stone, Patricia W; Pogorzelska, Monika; Kunches, Laureen; Hirschhorn, Lisa R

    2008-10-01

    In the past 10 years, many researchers have examined relationships between hospital staffing and patients' risk of health care-associated infection (HAI). To gain understanding of this evidence base, a systematic review was conducted, and 42 articles were audited. The most common infection studied was bloodstream infection (n=18; 43%). The majority of researchers examined nurse staffing (n=38; 90%); of these, only 7 (18%) did not find a statistically significant association between nurse staffing variable(s) and HAI rates. Use of nonpermanent staff was associated with increased rates of HAI in 4 studies (P<.05). Three studies addressed infection control professional staffing with mixed results. Physician staffing was not found to be associated with patients' HAI risk (n=2). The methods employed and operational definitions used for both staffing and HAI varied; despite this variability, trends were apparent. Research characterizing effective staffing for infection control departments is needed.

  11. Review of fungal outbreaks and infection prevention in healthcare settings during construction and renovation.

    PubMed

    Kanamori, Hajime; Rutala, William A; Sickbert-Bennett, Emily E; Weber, David J

    2015-08-01

    Hospital construction and renovation activities are an ever-constant phenomenon in healthcare facilities, causing dust contamination and possible dispersal of fungal spores. We reviewed fungal outbreaks that occurred during construction and renovation over the last 4 decades as well as current infection prevention strategies and control measures. Fungal outbreaks still occur in healthcare settings, especially among patients with hematological malignancies and those who are immunocompromised. The causative pathogens of these outbreaks were usually Aspergillus species, but Zygomycetes and other fungi were occasionally reported. Aspergillus most commonly caused pulmonary infection. The overall mortality of construction/renovation-associated fungal infection was approximately 50%. The minimal concentration of fungal spores by air sampling for acquisition of fungal infections remains to be determined. Performing infection control risk assessments and implementing the recommended control measures is essential to prevent healthcare-associated fungal outbreaks during construction and renovation.

  12. Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Co-infection of tuberculosis and parasitic diseases in humans is an important public problem in co-endemic areas in developing countries. However, there is a paucity of studies on co-infection and even fewer reviews. This review examines 44 appropriate papers by PRISMA from 289 papers searched in PubMed via the NCBI Entrez system (no grey literature) up to December 2012 in order to analyze the factors that influence epidemic and host’s immunity of co-infection. The limited evidence in this review indicates that most common parasite species are concurrent with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in multiple organs; socio-demographics such as gender and age, special populations with susceptibility such as renal transplant recipients, patients on maintenance haemodialysis, HIV positive patients and migrants, and living in or coming from co-endemic areas are all likely to have an impact on co-infection. Pulmonary tuberculosis and parasitic diseases were shown to be risk factors for each other. Co-infection may significantly inhibit the host’s immune system, increase antibacterial therapy intolerance and be detrimental to the prognosis of the disease; in addition, infection with parasitic diseases can alter the protective immune response to Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:23522098

  13. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe. PMID:6716555

  14. Clostridium difficile infection: a review of current and emerging therapies

    PubMed Central

    Ofosu, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Clostridium difficile (C. difficile) infection (CDI) is the most common cause of ­healthcare-associated infections in US hospitals. The epidemic strain NAP1/BI/ribotype 027 accounts for outbreaks worldwide, with increasing mortality and severity. CDI is acquired from an endogenous source or from spores in the environment, most easily acquired during the hospital stay. The use of antimicrobials disrupts the intestinal microflora enabling C. difficile to proliferate in the colon and produce toxins. Clinical diagnosis in symptomatic patients requires toxin detection from stool specimens and rarely in combination with stool culture to increase sensitivity. However, stool culture is essential for epidemiological studies. Oral metronidazole is the recommended therapy for milder cases of CDI and oral vancomycin or fidaxomicin for more severe cases. Treatment of first recurrence involves the use of the same therapy used in the initial CDI. In the event of a second recurrence oral vancomycin often given in a tapered dose or intermittently, or fidaxomicin may be used. Fecal transplantation is playing an immense role in therapy of recurrent CDI with remarkable results. Fulminant colitis and toxic megacolon warrant surgical intervention. Novel approaches including new antibiotics and immunotherapy against CDI or its toxins appear to be of potential value. PMID:27065726

  15. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias may unpredictably regress, may remain stable, or may progress to carcinoma. There is a greater risk of carcinomatous transformation of idiopathic leukoplakia, of non-homogenous leukoplakia, of leukoplakia affecting the floor of the mouth; the ventrolateral surface of the tongue and the maxillary retromolar and adjoining soft palate (collectively called high-risk sites), of leukoplakia with high-grade epithelial dysplasia, and of leukoplakia in which the keratinocytes carry cytogenetic alterations associated with carcinomatous transformation. Although there appears to be some link between human papillomavirus (HPV) and oral leukoplakia, there is little evidence to support a causal relationship either between HPV infection and oral leukoplakia or between HPV-infected leukoplakic keratinocytes and their carcinomatous transformation. PMID:22505902

  16. Association between Helicobacter spp. infections and hepatobiliary malignancies: A review

    PubMed Central

    Segura-López, Fany Karina; Güitrón-Cantú, Alfredo; Torres, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatobiliary cancers are highly lethal cancers that comprise a spectrum of invasive carcinomas originating in the liver hepatocellular carcinoma, the bile ducts intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and extrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the gallbladder and the ampulla of Vater (collectively known as biliary tract cancers). These tumors account for approximately 13% of all annual cancer-related deaths worldwide and for 10%-20% of deaths from hepatobiliary malignancies. Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a devastating disease that displays a poor survival rate for which few therapeutic options are available. Population genetics, geographical and environmental factors, cholelithiasis, obesity, parity, and endemic infection with liver flukes have been identified as risk factors that influence the development of biliary tract tumors. Other important factors affecting the carcinogenesis of these tumors include chronic inflammation, obstruction of the bile ducts, and impaired bile flow. It has been suggested that CCA is caused by infection with Helicobacter species, such as Helicobacter bilis and Helicobacter hepaticus, in a manner that is similar to the reported role of Helicobacter pylori in distal gastric cancer. Due to the difficulty in culturing these Helicobacter species, molecular methods, such as polymerase chain reaction and sequencing, or immunologic assays have become the methods of choice for diagnosis. However, clinical studies of benign or malignant biliary tract diseases revealed remarkable variability in the methods and the findings, and the use of uniform and validated techniques is needed. PMID:25663761

  17. Anaplasma infections in wild and domestic ruminants: a review.

    PubMed

    Kuttler, K L

    1984-01-01

    Anaplasma marginale can be transmitted, will grow and can survive in a large number of domestic and wild animals. It is pathogenic in cattle, and usually produces nonapparent or mild infections in other species. Anaplasma marginale has been recovered from cattle, sheep, goats, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis), white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus hemionus), black-tailed deer (Odocoileus hemionus columbianus), pronghorn (Antilocapra americana americana), Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni), bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis canadensis), black wildebeest (Connochaetes gnu), blesbuck (Damaliscus albifrons), and duiker (Sylvicapra grimmi grimmi). Unidentified anaplasms have been seen in, and in some instances isolated from, Cape buffalo (Syncerus caffer), giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis), wildebeest (Connochaetes taurinus), Cokes hartebeest (Alcelaphus buselaphus cokii), Thompson's gazelle (Gazella thompsonii), waterbuck (Kobus ellipsiprymnus), and sable antelope (Hippotragus niger), with serological evidence of Anaplasma infection in an even wider range of wild ruminant species. Anaplasma ovis, A. centrale, or other as yet unidentified anaplasms may well occur in other ruminants. With the exception of black-tailed deer, the epidemiologic significance of anaplasmosis in wildlife has yet to be determined. The only wild animal in which Anaplasma is reported to produce serious clinical disease is the giraffe.

  18. Diabetic foot infection: a critical review of recent randomized clinical trials on antibiotic therapy.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, J; Lavigne, J P; Richard, J L; Sotto, A

    2011-09-01

    Controlled clinical trials are essential tools for evaluating the efficacy of antibiotic treatment against infection, but the results of such trials critically depend on sensitive, reproducible, and feasible outcome measures. We reviewed randomized controlled trials on the antibiotic treatment of diabetic foot infection published between 1999 and 2009 in terms of quality and endpoints. Discrepancies in study design, inclusion criteria, statistical methodology, and the varying definitions of both clinical and microbiological endpoints between the published studies, make it difficult to compare them, as well as to determine which regimen may be the most appropriate for patients with diabetic foot infection.

  19. Phage treatment of human infections

    PubMed Central

    Abedon, Stephen T; Kuhl, Sarah J; Blasdel, Bob G

    2011-01-01

    Phages as bactericidal agents have been employed for 90 years as a means of treating bacterial infections in humans as well as other species, a process known as phage therapy. In this review we explore both the early historical and more modern use of phages to treat human infections. We discuss in particular the little-reviewed French early work, along with the Polish, US, Georgian and Russian historical experiences. We also cover other, more modern examples of phage therapy of humans as differentiated in terms of disease. In addition, we provide discussions of phage safety, other aspects of phage therapy pharmacology, and the idea of phage use as probiotics. PMID:22334863

  20. Eponymous cardiovascular surgeries for congenital heart diseases--imaging review and historical perspectives.

    PubMed

    Buethe, Ji; Ashwath, Ravi C; Rajiah, Prabhakar

    2015-01-01

    Advances in pediatric cardiology and cardiac surgical techniques over the past few decades have revolutionized the management of the patients with congenital heart disease, and many now survive into adulthood. Several eponymous surgical procedures performed for congenital heart disease have been named after eminent surgeons. In this article, we provide a short biography of the surgeons associated with these eponymous surgical procedures along with their other important scientific contributions. This is followed by a review of these surgical procedures and their most common complications. Imaging appearances of these surgical procedures along with common complications are described and illustrated, with particular emphasis on magnetic resonance imaging. The surgical procedures described in this review include Blalock-Taussig, Potts, Waterston, Glenn, Fontan, Kawashima, Norwood, Sano, Damus-Kaye-Stansel, Mustard, Senning, Jatene, LeCompte, Rastelli, Rashkind, Ross, and Waldenhausen.

  1. Asymmetric Bilateral Hip Dislocations: A Case Report and Historical Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Buckwalter, Joseph; Westerlind, Brian; Karam, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Background Asymmetric bilateral hip dislocations are a rare injury pattern in which one hip dislocates posteriorly, and the contralateral hip dislocates anteriorly. We report a case of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations and provide a comprehensive review of all available reports, identifying 104 total cases, which is 70 more than previously reported. Purpose To review and evaluate the total body of literature regarding bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations. Methods Comprehensive literature review and analysis of all reports of bilateral asymmetric hip dislocations with concurrent case report. Results and Conclusions Bilateral, asymmetric represent approximately 0.01%–0.02% of all joint dislocations. There has been a substantial increase in the number of case reports in the literature in the last 10 years. Males are more likely than females to incur this injury pattern and the most common mode of injury is motor vehicle accident Urgent closed reduction should be attempted in an efficient and safe manner to avoid potential complications, and open reduction should be considered in irreducible dislocations. Post reduction management should include stability assessment and CT to assess for associated injuries and intraarticular fragments; although no clear guidelines for post-reduction treatment emerged. Common complications include: nerve palsies, AVN and heterotopic ossification. PMID:26361448

  2. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic. PMID:27487603

  3. REVIEW OF CONTROL OF HUMAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS INFECTION IN NIGERIA.

    PubMed

    Dami, N; Shehu, N Y; Dami, S; Iroezindu, M O

    2015-01-01

    The global scourge of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is inundating, especially in sub-Saharan Africa and in particular Nigeria which is home to 10% of the world's HIV-infected persons. The target of the millennium development goal 6 is to halt and reverse the spread of HIV/AIDS by 2015. HIV control in Nigeria was initially shrouded in denial and apathy. Subsequently, a more pragmatic approach was launched during the tenure of President Olusegun Obasanjo. Several policies were formulated. The national prevalence of HIV witnessed some progressive decline and is currently 4.1%. There is now improvement in both HIV awareness and counselling and testing. Greater access to antiretroviral therapy and other support services have also been witnessed with over 300,000 persons currently on drugs. Notable achievements have been recorded in prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTC). However, with increased access to antiretroviral therapy, antiretroviral drug resistance has become inevitable. Acquired drug resistance is high-82% and transmitted drug resistance ranges between 0.7 and 4.5%. The achievements were largely facilitated by international partnerships which have become more streamlined in recent years. A sustained shift to indigenously sourced financial and manpower resource has become imperative. It is also important to integrate HIV facilities with other existing health care facilities for sustainability and cost-effectiveness. In an attempt to strengthen the national response, President Goodluck Ebele Jonathan launched the President's Comprehensive Response Plan for HIV/AIDS in Nigeria. It is hoped that this well-articulated policy would be well implemented to significantly reverse the epidemic.

  4. Clinical review: A review and analysis of heart rate variability and the diagnosis and prognosis of infection

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Bacterial infection leading to organ failure is the most common cause of death in critically ill patients. Early diagnosis and expeditious treatment is a cornerstone of therapy. Evaluating the systemic host response to infection as a complex system provides novel insights: however, bedside application with clinical value remains wanting. Providing an integrative measure of an altered host response, the patterns and character of heart rate fluctuations measured over intervals-in-time may be analysed with a panel of mathematical techniques that quantify overall fluctuation, spectral composition, scale-free variation, and degree of irregularity or complexity. Using these techniques, heart rate variability (HRV) has been documented to be both altered in the presence of systemic infection, and correlated with its severity. In this review and analysis, we evaluate the use of HRV monitoring to provide early diagnosis of infection, document the prognostic implications of altered HRV in infection, identify current limitations, highlight future research challenges, and propose improvement strategies. Given existing evidence and potential for further technological advances, we believe that longitudinal, individualized, and comprehensive HRV monitoring in critically ill patients at risk for or with existing infection offers a means to harness the clinical potential of this bedside application of complex systems science. PMID:20017889

  5. The development of drugs for treatment of sleeping sickness: a historical review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Only four drugs are available for the chemotherapy of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness; Suramin, pentamidine, melarsoprol and eflornithine. The history of the development of these drugs is well known and documented. suramin, pentamidine and melarsoprol were developed in the first half of the last century by the then recently established methods of medicinal chemistry. Eflornithine, originally developed in the 1970s as an anti-cancer drug, became a treatment of sleeping sickness largely by accident. This review summarises the developmental processes which led to these chemotherapies from the discovery of the first bioactive lead compounds to the identification of the final drugs. PMID:20219092

  6. Historical Research in the Atmospheric Sciences: The Value of Literature Reviews, Libraries, and Librarians.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, David M.

    2004-07-01

    Based on a talk given at the sixth annual meeting of the Atmospheric Science Librarians International, this paper explores the author's experiences performing reviews of the scientific literature as a tool to advancing meteorology and studying the history of science. Three phases of performing literature searches with varying degrees of interaction with a research librarian are considered: do it yourself, librarian assisted, and librarian as collaborator. Examples are given for each phase: occluded fronts, conditional symmetric instability, and static instability terminology, respectively. Electronic availability of information is changing the relationship between scientists and librarians. Yet, despite these changes, books on library shelves and knowledgeable human librarians remain essential to the scientific enterprise.

  7. Tick-borne relapsing fever in Colorado. Historical review and report of cases.

    PubMed

    Edell, T A; Emerson, J K; Maupin, G O; Barnes, A M; Vernon, T M

    1979-05-25

    Since 1915 the front range of the Colorado Rocky Mountains has been postulated as a focus of endemic tick-borne relapsing fever. However, the disease has rarely been identified: only two cases have been reported in Colorado since 1944. Three sporadic cases in 1977--tightly grouped geographically and temporally--prompted an epidemiologic review. Tick-borne relapsing fever should be considered in the differential diagnosis of recurrent paroxysmal fever--with or without known presence of ticks--whenever exposure in an endemic area is part of a patient's history. PMID:374757

  8. Task-specific dystonias: historical review--a new look at the classics.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Ruiz, Pedro J

    2013-03-01

    Although task-specific dystonias (TSD) have been described for almost two centuries, few entities have been characterised so variously as TSD. Over time TSD have been described as pure motor phenomena, "neurasthenic" symptoms, occupational hazards akin to repetitive strain, hysterical symptoms and finally… back to pure motor phenomena. A review of the classic literature can shed light on this subject and show that the same disease can be classified of different ways according to the dominant contemporary concepts over time. In any case, classic authors already defined TSD as motor phenomena of central origin. PMID:23052605

  9. [Dietary intake and dyslipidemia arising from combination antiretroviral therapy for HIV infection: a systematic review].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Luara Bellinghausen; Giudici, Kelly Virecoulon; Jaime, Patricia Constante

    2009-07-01

    To review and synthesize the available scientific evidence on the relationship between dietary intake and dyslipidemias in HIV-infected patients in combination antiretroviral therapy (ART). A systematic review of literature was carried out. Original and published studies were investigated and two categories of dietary exposure were considered: energy and nutrient intake, and consumption of a test diet. A narrative review of included studies was conducted. The findings were summarized according to category of metabolic outcomes (effect on total cholesterol and LDL-c, effect on HDL-c and effect on triglycerides). Twenty original studies were included in this review, being 13 clinical trials and 7 observational studies. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation led to a significant decrease in triglycerides. There was very little evidence on the effectiveness of dietary interventions for the prevention and control of dyslipidemias in HIV-infected patients receiving ART.

  10. Review and Current Status of Opisthorchis viverrini Infection at the Community Level in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Kaewpitoon, Natthawut; Kootanavanichpong, Nusorn; Kompor, Ponthip; Chavenkun, Wasugree; Kujapun, Jirawoot; Norkaew, Jun; Ponphimai, Sukanya; Matrakool, Likit; Tongtawee, Taweesak; Panpimanmas, Sukij; Rujirakul, Ratana; Padchasuwan, Natnapa; Pholsripradit, Poowadol; Eksanti, Thawatchai; Phatisena, Tanida; Loyd, Ryan A; Kaewpitoon, Soraya J

    2015-01-01

    Opisthorchis viverrini is remains a public health problem in Thailand, particularly in the northeast and north regions which have the highest incidences of chonalgiocarcinoma (CCA). O. viverrini causes the disease opithorchiasis, and its has been classified as a group 1 biological carcinogen. Humans, dogs, and cats become infected with O. viverrini by ingesting raw or undercooked fish containing infective metacercariae. The first human cases of O. viverrini infection were reported in Thailand 100 years ago, and it's still a problem at the community level. Based on data for the year 2009, more than 6 million people were infected with O. viverrini. Associated medical care and loss of wages in Thailand costs about $120 million annually. This review highlights the current status of O. viverrini infection in communities of Thailand through active surveillance for the five years period from 2010 and 2015. A total of 17 community-based surveys were conducted, most in the northeast region. Some 7 surveys demonstrated a high prevalence over 20%, and the highest was 45.7%. Most commonly infection was found in age group of 35 years and older, males, and agricultural workers. Although, the national prevalence may be decreasing but the results show that the O. viverrini infection is still high in communities of the northeast region. Therefore, the focus in populations living in northeast Thailand should be screening of infection and changing their eating behavior. PMID:26514452

  11. [Safety of rice grains and mycotoxins - a historical review of yellow rice mycotoxicoses].

    PubMed

    Udagawa, Shun-ichi; Tatsuno, Takashi

    2004-01-01

    Aflatoxins, the most powerful mycotoxins, were brought to the attention fo the people in the early 1960s with the outbreak of the turkey "X" disease in England. However, the history of mycotoxin research in Japan began 100 years ago. In 1891, Sakaki demonstrated that moldy, unpolished rice was fatal to experimental animals, with symptoms indicating paralysis of the central nervous system (Shoshin-kakke). In 1920, Prof. I. Miyake and Dr. Takada first reported that Penicillium commune, which was known as a causal agent of "Mossy diseased rice" was found to be toxic to experimental animals by feeding the moldy rice to rabbits and rats.With such a historical background, taking the idea of "rice, fungus and toxin" as a working hypothesis, Miyake and his co-workers discovered the first sample of yellow rice grains from Taiwanese and domestic rice, from which was isolated a species of Penicillium and later identified it with P. citreonigrum (=P. toxicarium). The fungus produced a highly toxic metabolite, citreoviridin. Unfortunately because this study was published during wartime, it failed to alert the world to the potential or actual dangers of the toxicity of common molds. After World War II, Japanese people suffered for some years from a shortage in domestic rice production and depended on foreign countries to supply rice, which led to the toxicological screening on fungal isolates from polluted rice grains by Dr. Tsunoda and his co-workers. AMong the isolates from imported rice, there were two species of Penicillium which were particularly associated with high toxicity; P. islandicum responsible for brownish discolored rice, and P. citrinum responsible for yellowish rice. P. islandicum produces two hepatotoxic metabolites: luteoskyrin and cyclochlorotine, while a nephrotoxic of P. citrinum is citrinin. These toxicological characters, including the induction of cancer and chemical structures, were studied by Profs. uraguchi, Saito, Shibata, Tatsuno and their co

  12. Pertussis immunisation and control in England and Wales, 1957 to 2012: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Amirthalingam, G; Gupta, S; Campbell, H

    2013-09-19

    This review summarises the epidemiology and control of pertussis in England and Wales since the introduction of routine immunisation and considers the implications for future control. Routine infant immunisation with a whole-cell pertussis (wP) vaccine was introduced in 1957 and had a marked impact on the overall disease burden. Following a fall in vaccine coverage during the 1970s and 80s linked to a safety scare with wP vaccine, there was an extended period of high coverage and pertussis incidence fell dramatically. Incidence continued to decrease with the introduction of an acellular pertussis vaccine in the pre-school booster in November 2001 and in the primary United Kingdom (UK) schedule in September 2004 but has increased since July 2011. In response to a high rate of pertussis in infants, a temporary vaccination programme for pregnant women was introduced in October 2012. The key aim of the programme is to protect vulnerable infants from birth in the first months of life, before they can be fully protected by routine infant immunisation. A review of the UK adolescent immunisation programme is currently ongoing and the inclusion of a pertussis booster is being considered.

  13. An integrative review of guidelines for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Wells, Jessica S; Holstad, Marcia M; Thomas, Tami; Bruner, Deborah Watkins

    2014-07-01

    HIV-infected individuals are 28 times more likely than the general population to be diagnosed with anal cancer. An integrative review of recommendations and guidelines for anal cancer screening was performed to provide a succinct guide to inform healthcare clinicians. The review excluded studies that were of non-HIV populations, redundant articles or publications, non-English manuscripts, or nonclinical trials. The review found no formal national or international guidelines exist for routine screening of anal cancer for HIV-infected individuals. To date, no randomized control trial provides strong evidence supporting efficaciousness and effectiveness of an anal cancer screening program. The screening recommendations from seven international-, national-, and state-based reports were reviewed and synthesized in this review. These guidelines suggest anal cancer screening, albeit unproven, may be beneficial at decreasing the incidence of anal cancer. This review highlights the paucity of screening-related research and is an area of need to provide clear direction and to define standard of care for anal cancer screening in HIV-infected persons.

  14. Food Allergy and Helicobacter pylori Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zheng Feei; Majid, Noorizan A.; Yamaoka, Yoshio; Lee, Yeong Yeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Based on the hygiene hypothesis, a low prevalence of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection may explain the recent high prevalence of allergic diseases including food allergy. However, there are very few studies that investigate the relationship between H. pylori and food allergy. Summary: We searched for PubMed, Ovid Medline and the Cochrane library for relevant articles published in English from inception to November 2015. The inverse relationship between H. pylori and food allergy remains unproven because of contradictory and limited evidence at the moment. Likewise, only limited studies have examined the relationship between CagA; one of H. pylori virulence factor and food allergy. On the other hand, in vitro evidence seems to point out a role of H. pylori in the causation of food allergy. The inconsistent results from epidemiological data may be due to small sample size, heterogeneous populations and unstandardised methods or food allergens. Conclusion: Available studies do not support the role of H. pylori in food allergy. PMID:27047479

  15. Review: Environmental mycobacteria as a cause of human infection.

    PubMed

    Halstrom, Samuel; Price, Patricia; Thomson, Rachel

    2015-06-01

    Pulmonary infections with nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are recognized as a problem in immunodeficient individuals and are increasingly common in older people with no known immune defects. NTM are found in soil and water, but factors influencing transmission from the environment to humans are mostly unknown. Studies of the epidemiology of NTM disease have matched some clinical isolates of NTM with isolates from the patient's local environment. Definitive matching requires strain level differentiation based on molecular analyses, including partial sequencing, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis, random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) PCR, repetitive element (rep-) PCR and pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) of large restriction fragments. These approaches have identified hospital and residential showers and faucets, hot-tubs and garden soil as sources of transmissible pathogenic NTM. However, gaps exist in the literature, with many clinical isolates remaining unidentified within environments that have been tested, and few studies investigating NTM transmission in developing countries. To understand the environmental reservoirs and transmission routes of pathogenic NTM, different environments, countries and climates must be investigated.

  16. A Historical Review of Cermet Fuel Development and the Engine Performance Implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, Mark E. M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper reviews test data for cermet fuel samples developed in the 1960's to better quantify Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) cermet engine performance, and to better understand contemporary fuel testing results. Over 200 cermet (W-UO2) samples were tested by thermally cycling to 2500 deg (2770 K) in hydrogen. The data indicates two issues at high temperatures: the vaporization rate of UO2 and the chemical stability of UO2. The data show that cladding and chemical stabilizers each result in large, order of magnitude improvements in high temperature performance, while other approaches yield smaller, incremental improvements. Data is very limited above 2770 K, and this complicates predictions of engine performance at high Isp. The paper considers how this material performance data translates into engine performance. In particular, the location of maximum temperature within the fuel element and the effect of heat deposition rate are examined.

  17. A historical review of the concept of vascular dementia: lessons from the past for the future.

    PubMed

    Román, G C

    1999-01-01

    The history of senile dementia begins in the Greco-Roman period with basic concepts of senility by Pythagoras and Hippocrates. During the Middle Ages, the main contribution was by Roger Bacon in 1290. The first textbook of neurology, De cerebri morbis, by Jaso de Pratis (1549), included a chapter on dementia ("De memoriae detrimento"). In the 17th century, Thomas Willis recognized intellectual loss with aging. In the 19th century, Philippe Pinel removed chains from the mentally ill; his student Esquirol wrote the first modern classification of mental disease, including senile dementia. In 1860, Morel recognized brain atrophy with aging. The modern history of vascular dementia began in 1896, when Emil Kraepelin in his textbook Psychiatrie included "arteriosclerotic dementia" among the senile dementias, following the ideas of Otto Binswanger and Alois Alzheimer, who had differentiated clinically and pathologically arteriosclerotic brain lesions from senile dementia and from neurosyphilitic general paresis of the insane. Binswanger's and Alzheimer's contributions are reviewed in detail.

  18. From a historic review to horizons beyond: lithium-sulphur batteries run on the wheels.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renjie; Zhao, Teng; Wu, Feng

    2015-01-01

    In terms of sustainable development and environmental issues, the design and fabrication of efficient energy storage devices will be more critical in the future than at any time in the past. Li-S batteries are promising candidates for such a purpose due to their high specific capacity and low environmental impact. This review has systematically retraced the advances in the field of Li-S batteries over the past half century and highlighted the main breakthroughs in a number of areas, covering the mechanism determination, cathode engineering, theoretical simulation, and electrolyte tailoring and anode protection. Furthermore, we discuss the remaining challenges towards their practical application. It is expected that Li-S batteries with 3D inter-connected or conformal assemblies will surpass new horizons in the coming years.

  19. [Historical review of the distribution of Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi (Diptera: Culicidae) in the Peruvian Amazon].

    PubMed

    Fernández, Roberto; Vera, Hubert; Calderón, Guillermo

    2014-04-01

    Anopheles (Nyssorhynchus) darlingi has been reported since 1931 in border areas of the department of Loreto, mainly along the borders with Brazil and Colombia. In 1994, during an outbreak of malaria, An. darlingi was found in neighboring towns to Iquitos. At present, its distribution has expanded considerably in Loreto. This paper reviews literature available for all possible information on the distribution of mosquitoes, particularly anopheline in the Amazon region of the country, with special emphasis on An darlingi. Entomological collections were also conducted in the departments of Madre de Dios and Ucayali in order to know and verify the distribution of An. darlingi. At present, the distribution of the species is confined to localities in southeastern Peru with Bolivia border towns, in a town near the Abujao River in the department of Ucayali, and widely in the northeastern region of the Amazon basin of Loreto in Peru. PMID:25123872

  20. Major contributions towards finding a cure for cancer through chemotherapy: a historical review.

    PubMed

    Masood, Imran; Kiani, Maria H; Ahmad, Mahmood; Masood, Muhammed I; Sadaquat, Hadia

    2016-01-01

    The history of cancer chemotherapy is as old as cancer itself. With the increase in the complexities of cancer and the development of resistance towards existing anticancer agents, increased attention is now being paid to the advancement of chemotherapy. Some chemotherapeutic agents were discovered by accident or trial-and-error methods while others were found to be useful for neoplasia when they were being evaluated for some other purpose. Broadly, these agents have been classified as alkylating agents, antimetabolites, platinum compounds, antitumor antibiotics and natural products. Hormones and compounds interfering with hormone metabolism are widely used in cancer treatment, besides monoclonal antibodies and small molecules targeting angiogenesis. In this review an attempt is made to discuss the major breakthroughs that have shaped the course of cancer chemotherapy, helping to decrease the mortality as well as lessen the suffering of patients.

  1. Historical approaches to the treatment of Adductor-Type Spasmodic Dysphonia (ADSD): review and tutorial.

    PubMed

    Pearson, Erin J; Sapienza, Christine M

    2003-01-01

    Adductor-type spasmodic dysphonia (ADSD) is a voice disorder of uncertain, though likely neurogenic origin. Symptoms of the disorder include mild to profound "strain and strangle" sensations during voiced speech tasks that, in the most severe form, are physically and psychologically debilitating. Over the years, treatment approaches have evolved from behavioral attempts at voice modification, to surgical and, most recently, pharmacological treatments involving partial and temporary paralysis of muscle fibers within the larynx following injection of botulinum toxin or Botox. The most current research hints at the potential benefits of a multi-faceted approach to symptom management, combining behavioral with pharmacological treatments. The following is intended as a review and tutorial of treatment approaches for ADSD. The tutorial is intended for practicing clinical professionals with an interest in the treatment of neurogenic disorders of voice and speech.

  2. Richter’s Hernia and Sir Frederick Treves: An Original Clinical Experience, Review, and Historical Overview

    PubMed Central

    Steinke, Wolfgang; Zellweger, René

    2000-01-01

    Objective To describe the clinical recognition, pathology, and management of Richter’s hernia and to review the relevant literature of the past 400 years. Summary Background Data The earliest known reported case of Richter’s hernia occurred in 1598 and was described by Fabricius Hildanus. The first scientific description of this particular hernia was given by August Gottlob Richter in 1778, who presented it as “the small rupture.” In 1887, Sir Frederick Treves gave an excellent overview on the topic and proposed the title “Richter’s hernia.” To his work—a cornerstone to modern understanding—hardly any new aspects can be added today. Since then, only occasional case reports or small series of retrospectively collected Richter’s hernias have been published. Methods The authors draw on their experience with 18 prospectively collected cases treated in the ICRC Lopiding Hospital for War Surgery in northern Kenya between February and December 1998 and review the relevant literature of the past 400 years. Results The classic features of Richter’s hernia were confirmed in all case studies of patients: only part of the circumference of the bowel is entrapped and strangulated in the hernial orifice. The involved segment may rapidly pass into gangrene, yet signs of intestinal obstruction are often absent. The death rate in the authors’ collective was 17%. Conclusion Richter’s hernia is a deceptive entity whose high death rate can be reduced by accurate diagnosis and early surgery. Considering the increasing incidence at laparoscope insertion sites, awareness of this special type of hernia with its misleading clinical appearance is important and of general interest. PMID:11066144

  3. Benzene and human health: A historical review and appraisal of associations with various diseases.

    PubMed

    Galbraith, David; Gross, Sherilyn A; Paustenbach, Dennis

    2010-11-01

    Over the last century, benzene has been a well-studied chemical, with some acute and chronic exposures being directly associated with observed hematologic effects in humans and animals. Chronic heavy exposures to benzene have also been associated with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) in humans. Other disease processes have also been studied, but have generally not been supported by epidemiologic studies of workers using benzene in the workplace. Within occupational cohorts with large populations and very low airborne benzene exposures (less than 0.1–1.0 ppm), it can be difficult to separate background disease incidence from those occurring due to occupational exposures. In the last few decades, some scientists and physicians have suggested that chronic exposures to various airborne concentrations of benzene may increase the risk of developing non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) (Savitz and Andrews, 1997, Am J Ind Med 31:287–295; Smith et al., 2007, Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev 16:385–391), multiple myeloma (MM) (Goldstein, 1990, Ann NY Acad Sci 609:225–230; Infante, 2006, Ann NY Acad Sci 1076:90–109), and various other hematopoietic disorders. We present a state-of-the-science review of the medical and regulatory aspects regarding the hazards of occupational exposure to benzene. We also review the available scientific and medical evidence relating to benzene and the risk of developing various disorders following specific levels of exposure. Our evaluation indicates that the only malignant hematopoietic disease that has been clearly linked to benzene exposure is AML. Information from the recent "Benzene 2009," a symposium of international experts focusing on the health effects and mechanisms of toxicity of benzene, hosted by the Technical University of Munich, has been incorporated and referenced.

  4. Infection of the Beard area. Kerion: a review of 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Wall, D; Fraher, M; O'Connell, B; Watson, R; Timon, C; Stassen, L F A; Barnes, L

    2014-01-01

    Folliculitis barbae is a common condition of both infective and non-infectious aetiology. It most frequently presents as a superficial folliculitis, with fine pustules appearing at the opening of hair follicles in the beard area, often associated with shaving; known as Bockhart impetigo and usually due to infection caused by Staphylococcus aureus. If untreated, the infection and inflammation can progress, leading to a more deeply seated infection known as sycosis barbae. Perifollicular nodules, termed furuncles, may appear and when these are multiple and coalesce, a deep-seated, communicating, pustulating plaque called a carbuncle develops, often with associated systemic upset. Such an appearance, which can prompt incision and drainage, should not, however, be assumed to be solely due to staphylococcal infection. Particularly in the context of a history of close animal contact or a lack of response to antibiotic treatment, a diagnosis of tinea barbae should be considered and investigated. Prompt treatment with antifungal agents and often systemic steroids is required once the diagnosis is made. This will help reduce an exacerbation of the pronounced destruction that results from the immune response to the fungal infection, known as a kerion, which would be compounded by surgical intervention. In this article, we review two such cases and review the investigation and management of the disease. PMID:25226722

  5. Splenic abscess due to Brucella infection: is the splenectomy necessary? Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Del Arco, Alfonso; De La Torre-Lima, Javier; Prada, José Luís; Aguilar, Josefa; Ruiz-Mesa, Juan Diego; Moreno, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    The case of a woman with splenic abscess due to Brucella is reported. There was no response with antibiotics and surgical treatment was required. On the basis of this case and the literature review we consider that surgical treatment must be considered in patients with splenic abscess due to Brucella infection.

  6. In vivo modeling of biofilm-infected wounds: a review.

    PubMed

    Seth, Akhil K; Geringer, Matthew R; Hong, Seok J; Leung, Kai P; Mustoe, Thomas A; Galiano, Robert D

    2012-11-01

    Chronic wounds continue to represent a difficult and complex problem for both patients and healthcare providers. Bacterial biofilms represent a critical component of nonhealing wounds, utilizing several different mechanisms to inhibit innate inflammatory pathways and resist traditional therapeutics. Although in vitro biofilm systems have been well described and studied, understanding the intricacies of wound biofilm pathology requires appropriate in vivo models to understand the interactions between bacteria and host. In an effort to clarify the available literature, this review describes and critically evaluates all of the in vivo wound biofilm models currently published to-date, including model advantages and clinical applicability. We will also address the need for continued therapeutic development and testing using these currently available in vivo models.

  7. Credible Leadership-In the Eyes of the Follower: A Historical Review of Leadership Theory throughout the Twentieth Century in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffman, Sharon C.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this historical review was to trace the credible leadership construct of trustworthiness, integrity, honesty, and consistency in leadership theory development during the last 100 years in the United States. Theory focus, key U.S. pivotal events, and follower importance influenced the construct's occurrence in leadership theory. …

  8. The claustrum: a historical review of its anatomy, physiology, cytochemistry and functional significance.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, L R; Denaro, F J

    2004-09-01

    The claustrum (Cl) is a subcortical structure located in the basolateral telencephalon of the mammalian brain. It has been a subject of inquiry since the mid-nineteenth century. The Cl can be identified in a number of species, and appears as a phylogenetically related nucleus in Insectivores, Prosimians and Marsupials. Ontogenetic investigations have been the subject of much debate over the years. There are three hypotheses for claustral development. To date, the "hybrid theory" has garnered the most support. Pathological conditions specifically associated with the Cl, while few in number, are of interest from a functional perspective. Several cases of claustral agenesis have been reported. The implications of these clinical reports are discussed. Claustral neuroanatomy at the light-microscopic and electron-microscopic level is reviewed. The morphology of the claustral neuron consists of several types, which roughly corresponds to the neuron's location within distinct claustral subdivisions. The interconnectivity of the Cl with the cerebral cortex is rather complex and reflective of complex functional interrelationships. Several researchers have investigated the angioarchitecture of the Cl. It appears that vessels permeating the insula also vascularize the Cl. Literature investigating the neurotransmitters and overall chemical neuroanatomy of the Cl is extensive. These studies clearly demonstrate that the Cl is richly innervated with a wide and diverse array of neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Lesion, stimulation and recording experiments demonstrate that the functional and physiologic capacity of the Cl is quite robust. A recurring theme of claustral function appears to be its involvement in sensorimotor integration. This may be expected of the Cl, given the degree ofheterotopic, heterosensory convergence and its interconnectivity with the key subcortical nuclei and sensory cortical areas. The Cl remains a poorly understood and under investigated nucleus

  9. The role of hormones on Toxoplasma gondii infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Galván-Ramírez, María de la Luz; Gutiérrez-Maldonado, Adrián Fernando; Verduzco-Grijalva, Fabiola; Jiménez, Judith Marcela Dueñas

    2014-01-01

    Background: Toxoplasma gondii is the causal agent of toxoplasmosis in which one third of the world's population has been infected. In pregnant women, it may cause abortion and severe damage to the fetal central nervous system. During pregnancy, the prevalence of toxoplasmosis increases throughout the second and third quarter of gestation, simultaneously progesterone and 17β-estradiol also increase. Thus, it has been suggested that these hormones can aggravate or reduce parasite reproduction. The aim of this study was reviewing the relationship between hormones and infection caused by T. gondii in several experimental animal models and humans, focused mainly on: (a) congenital transmission, (b) parasite reproduction, (c) strain virulence, (d) levels of hormone in host induced by T. gondii infection, and (e) participation of hormone receptors in T. gondii infection. Are the hormones specific modulators of T. gondii infection? A systematic review methodology was used to consult several databases (Pub Med, Lilacs, Medline, Science direct, Scielo, Ebsco, Sprinker, Wiley, and Google Scholar) dated from September, 2013 to March, 2014. Results: Thirty studies were included; eight studies in humans and 22 in animals and cell cultures. In the human studies, the most studied hormones were testosterone, progesterone, prolactin, and 17β-estradiol. Type I (RH and BK) and Type II (Prugniaud, SC, ME49, T45, P78, and T38) were the most frequent experimental strains. Conclusions: Thirty-five years have passed since the first studies regarding T. gondii infection and its relationship with hormones. This systematic review suggests that hormones modulate T. gondii infection in different animal models. However, given that data were not comparable, further studies are required to determine the mechanism of hormone action in the T. gondii infectious process. PMID:25346725

  10. Honey in the Prevention and Treatment of Infection in the CKD Population: A Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Francis, Anna; Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W

    2015-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiresistant organisms are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the CKD population. Unfortunately, the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance has not been mirrored by innovation in new antibiotic agents. Novel treatments are therefore urgently needed. Honey has garnered much interest due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties based on extensive experimental data. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey has an added advantage as it appears to avoid inducing antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of action and role of honey in infection management in the general population, epidemiology and special challenges of infections in CKD populations, and the clinical trial evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of honey for the prevention and treatment of infections in CKD population. PMID:26167189

  11. Honey in the Prevention and Treatment of Infection in the CKD Population: A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Francis, Anna; Cho, Yeoungjee; Johnson, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Infection is a major cause of morbidity and mortality at all stages of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Multiresistant organisms are becoming increasingly common, particularly in the CKD population. Unfortunately, the rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance has not been mirrored by innovation in new antibiotic agents. Novel treatments are therefore urgently needed. Honey has garnered much interest due to its broad-spectrum antibacterial properties based on extensive experimental data. Unlike conventional antibiotics, honey has an added advantage as it appears to avoid inducing antimicrobial resistance in bacteria. This review discusses the potential mechanisms of action and role of honey in infection management in the general population, epidemiology and special challenges of infections in CKD populations, and the clinical trial evidence pertaining to the safety and efficacy of honey for the prevention and treatment of infections in CKD population. PMID:26167189

  12. Invasive Aspergillus Sinusitis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, John M.; Walsh, Thomas J.; Gulick, Roy M.

    2016-01-01

    Invasive Aspergillus (IA) sinusitis is a life-threatening opportunistic infection in immunocompromised individuals, but it is uncommon in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. To gain a better understanding of the characteristics of IA sinusitis in this population, we present a unique case of chronic IA sinusitis in an HIV-infected patient taking antiretroviral therapy and review the literature summarizing published cases of invasive aspergillosis of the paranasal (n = 41) and mastoid (n = 17) sinuses in HIV-infected individuals. Among these cases, only 4 were reported after 1999, and 98% of patients had acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Orbital invasion occurred in 54% of paranasal sinus cases, whereas intracranial invasion was reported in 53% of mastoid sinus cases. The overall mortality was 79%. We also discuss various clinical and immunologic factors that may play a role in the development of IA and consider the changing epidemiology of aspergillosis in the era of effective antiretroviral therapy. PMID:27800523

  13. Efficacy of antiadhesive, antibiotic and antiseptic coatings in preventing catheter-related infections: review.

    PubMed

    Donelli, G; Francolini, I

    2001-12-01

    In recent years, central venous catheters (CVCs) are increasingly used in clinical practice. However, complications such as local or systemic infections are frequent for both temporary and indwelling vascular catheters. Annually, in the United States of America there are more than 200,000 cases of nosocomial bloodstream infections (BSIs), of which 90% are related to the use of an intravascular device. These infections are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, prolonged hospitalization and growing medical costs. Technological treatments of polymer surfaces including coating the catheter with antimicrobial substances may be promising tools for prevention of catheter-associated infections. A large number of surface-treated central venous catheters are now commercially available. In this paper the features and the clinical efficacy of different antimicrobial coatings are reviewed.

  14. Late infections of total joint prostheses. A review and recommendations for prevention.

    PubMed

    Maderazo, E G; Judson, S; Pasternak, H

    1988-04-01

    The incidence of late infection of total joint prostheses is 0.6%. Because this incidence has increased from 0.08% in 1978, the authors reviewed their experience and the literature in search of pathogenetic and preventative measures. The most common pathogen responsible for late prosthetic joint infections was staphylococcus (54%; both Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), even when infection was of dental origin. The three most common origins of infection were skin and soft tissue (46%), dental (15%), and urinary (13%). Escherichia coli was the most common pathogen when the source was the urinary tract. Mortality and cost calculations indicate that chemoprophylaxis is justified for dental procedures and probably also for other surgical procedures in organs containing microflora. Prophylaxis must include antistaphylococcal drugs. The first generation cephalosporin antibiotics are recommended. PMID:3280197

  15. The Truro Murders in retrospect: a historical review of the identification of the victims.

    PubMed

    Brown, K A

    1993-01-01

    Rated among the most bizarre crimes in Australia's criminal history, the Truro Murders, like the Albury "Pyjama Girl" case in 1934, attracted widespread national interest and depended heavily on forensic odontology for the identification of the victims, and the subsequent apprehension of an offender. The serial killings of seven young women from various suburbs of Adelaide, South Australia, was revealed after their skeletonised remains were discovered near the rural township of Truro, South Australia, and two other locations, about two years after their disappearance in 1976-77. Prompt identification of the victims permitted an early start to be made on the investigation of these crimes. Comparison with dental records provided positive identification for five of the seven victims, and dental evidence supported the identification of two victims whose dental records previously had been destroyed. Cranio-facial video superimposition was used to complement the identification of all seven. This paper reviews the main events in the context of history, with particular emphasis on the problems encountered in the identification of the victims from dental records and discusses the impact of the case on the development of forensic odontology in Australia.

  16. Inhibin at 90: From Discovery to Clinical Application, a Historical Review

    PubMed Central

    Makanji, Yogeshwar; Zhu, Jie; Mishra, Rama; Holmquist, Chris; Wong, Winifred P. S.; Schwartz, Neena B.; Mayo, Kelly E.

    2014-01-01

    When it was initially discovered in 1923, inhibin was characterized as a hypophysiotropic hormone that acts on pituitary cells to regulate pituitary hormone secretion. Ninety years later, what we know about inhibin stretches far beyond its well-established capacity to inhibit activin signaling and suppress pituitary FSH production. Inhibin is one of the major reproductive hormones involved in the regulation of folliculogenesis and steroidogenesis. Although the physiological role of inhibin as an activin antagonist in other organ systems is not as well defined as it is in the pituitary-gonadal axis, inhibin also modulates biological processes in other organs through paracrine, autocrine, and/or endocrine mechanisms. Inhibin and components of its signaling pathway are expressed in many organs. Diagnostically, inhibin is used for prenatal screening of Down syndrome as part of the quadruple test and as a biochemical marker in the assessment of ovarian reserve. In this review, we provide a comprehensive summary of our current understanding of the biological role of inhibin, its relationship with activin, its signaling mechanisms, and its potential value as a diagnostic marker for reproductive function and pregnancy-associated conditions. PMID:25051334

  17. Chemical burns--an historical comparison and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hardwicke, Joseph; Hunter, Thomas; Staruch, Robert; Moiemen, Naiem

    2012-05-01

    Chemical burns represent a small proportion of cutaneous burn with an incidence of up to 10.7%, but have been reported to account for up to 30% of all burn deaths. A review of the literature shows incidences ranging from 2.4% to 10.7%, with a substantial predominance in males. Adult patients with a burn referred to our Regional Burns Centre, over an eight-year period, were identified. 185 chemical burns were recorded (7.9%). The mean age of patient was 40 years (range 16-81 years) and male to female ratio was 6.4:1. Over three-quarters of chemical injuries occurred in the domestic or industrial setting. Acids caused 26% of all chemical burns and alkalis caused 55%. A previous study from the same centre highlights a change in the demographics of chemical burn over the last 25 years. The proportion of chemical burns has risen from 2.7% to 7.9%. Chemical burns occurring in an industrial setting, have dropped, whilst the number of domestic chemical burns has increased by over three times. This change reflects the improved industrial health and safety policy in recent years. The move from the industrial setting to the domestic has implications for future regulations.

  18. The birth control pill, thromboembolic disease, science and the media: a historical review of the relationship.

    PubMed

    Lackie, Elyse; Fairchild, Amy

    2016-10-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill (the Pill) in 1960 revolutionized the options for contraception, sparking vibrant discussion in the scientific and social science literature and in the media. Much attention focused on issues of women's rights, including ethics and personal choice. But the Pill also introduced new questions about risk. Shortly after its introduction, the risk of thromboembolic disease was recognized [1]. After more than half a century, controversies about the relationship between the Pill and thromboembolic disease have persisted. The scientific and media communities have been active in the discussion, debate and delivery of information about this risk. Scientific and public attention to thromboembolism and the Pill has had dramatic consequences, both good and bad. The spotlight on risk has helped to change norms regarding the public's right to know and assess dangers; it has sparked Pill scares linked to increased unplanned pregnancy, birth and abortion rates; and it has led to a change in federally mandated policies regarding how new contraceptive products are studied and brought to market. This paper charts the narrative of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill from its introduction in 1960 until today and reviews the corresponding media response to this history. How does the story of the thromboembolic risk of the Pill - explored through the lens of science, media and contemporary social dynamics - frame contemporary understanding of risk for researchers, clinicians, individuals and the public?

  19. Salt balance: From space experiments to revolutionizing new clinical concepts on earth - A historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerzer, Rupert

    2014-11-01

    For a long time, sodium balance appeared to be a “done deal” and was thought to be well understood. However, experiments in preparation of space missions showed that the concept of osmotic sodium storage and close correlations of sodium with water balance are only part of the regulatory mechanisms of body salt. By now it has turned out that the human skin is an important storage place and regulator for sodium, that sodium storage involves macrophages which in turn salt-dependently co-regulate blood pressure, that body sodium also strongly influences bone and protein metabolism, and that immune functions are also strongly influenced by sodium. In addition, the aging process appears to lead to increased body sodium storage, which in turn might influence the aging process of the human body. The current review article summarizes the developments that have led to these revolutionizing new findings and concepts as well as consequences deriving from these findings. Therefore, it is not intended in this article to give a complete literature overview over the whole field but to focus on such key literature and considerations that led to the respective developments.

  20. Field electron and ion emission from charged surfaces: a strategic historical review of theoretical concepts.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Richard G

    2003-01-01

    The field-electron (FE) and field-ion techniques directly observe and measure atomic-level surface processes that occur in very high electric fields. In theoretical terms, the high fields put large additional terms into Hamiltonians and free energies, and significantly modify many aspects of the surface physics and chemistry, as compared with the field-free situation. This paper presents a strategic review of the fundamental science of some of these high-field surface effects and processes, as developed in the context of the field electron and ion emission techniques. It outlines the main theoretical concepts developed, notes some twists of scientific history, and suggests useful contributions made to mainstream science. Topics covered are basic aspects of FE emission, surface field ionisation, localised field adsorption, charged surfaces theory, field-ion image contrast theory and associated imaging-gas kinetics, field evaporation, and aspects of the thermodynamics of charged surfaces. Despite many years of effort, important aspects of the theory remain incomplete. Some theoretical challenges are noted.

  1. Disseminated Mycobacterium abscessus Infection Following Septic Arthritis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Shoichi; Sekiya, Noritaka; Takizawa, Yasunobu; Morioka, Hiroshi; Kato, Hirofumi; Aono, Akio; Chikamatsu, Kinuyo; Mitarai, Satoshi; Kobayashi, Satomi; Kamei, Satoshi; Setoguchi, Keigo

    2015-05-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus is a rapidly growing mycobacterium found mainly in patients with respiratory or cutaneous infections, but it rarely causes disseminated infections. Little is known about the clinical characteristics, treatment, and prognosis of disseminated M abscessus infection. A 75-year-old Japanese woman who had been treated for 17 years with a corticosteroid for antisynthetase syndrome with antithreonyl-tRNA synthetase antibody developed swelling of her right elbow. X-ray of her right elbow joint showed osteolysis, and magnetic resonance imaging revealed fluid in her right elbow joint. M abscessus grew in joint fluid and blood cultures. She was diagnosed with a disseminated M abscessus infection following septic arthritis. Antimicrobial treatment by clarithromycin, amikacin, and imipenem/cilastatin combined with surgical debridement was administered. Although blood and joint fluid cultures became negative 1 week later, the patient died at 6 weeks from starting antimicrobial treatment. We reviewed 34 cases of disseminated M abscessus infections from the literature. Most of the patients had immunosuppressive backgrounds such as transplantation, use of immunosuppressive agents, hematological malignancy, and end stage renal disease. The duration from onset of symptoms to diagnosis was over 3 months in half of the cases. All fatal cases had positive blood cultures or use of immunosuppressive agents. Clinicians should bear in mind that mycobacterial infections including M abscessus are one of the differential diagnoses in patients with subacute arthritis and soft tissue infections.

  2. Pathology and tissue tropism of natural West Nile virus infection in birds: a review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a globally distributed arthropod-borne flavivirus capable of infecting a wide variety of vertebrates, with birds as its natural reservoir. Although it had been considered a pathogen of little importance for birds, from the 1990’s, and especially after its introduction in the North American continent in 1999, thousands of birds have succumbed to West Nile infection. This review summarizes the pathogenesis and pathology of WNV infection in birds highlighting differences in lesion and antigen distribution and severity among bird orders and families. Despite significant species differences in susceptibility to infection, WNV associated lesions and viral antigen are present in the majority of organs of infected birds. The non-progressive, acute or more prolonged course of the disease accounts for part of the differences in lesion and viral antigen distribution and lesion severity. Most likely a combination of host variables and environmental factors in addition to the intrinsic virulence and pathogenicity of the infecting WNV strain influence the pathogenesis of the infection. PMID:23731695

  3. Prevention of infective endocarditis: a review of the medical and dental literature.

    PubMed

    Barco, C T

    1991-08-01

    This paper is a review of what is presently known about the cause and prevention of infective endocarditis. Systemic antibiotics alone are not always enough for an effective prevention of infective endocarditis. Non-streptococcus bacteria frequently found in the periodontal pocket are now reported as causing infective endocarditis; these bacteria are not uniformly susceptible to the antibiotics recommended for prophylaxis. Animal studies indicate that periodontal disease does increase the incidence of infective endocarditis and that the number of microbes entering the blood stream may not be as important in the production of infective endocarditis as other qualities, such as the microbe's ability to adhere. Antibiotics may affect the ability of a microorganism to adhere to tissues of the heart, but this association is yet unclear and may vary with the antibiotic and species of bacteria. Reduction of inflammation of the periodontal tissues is of the utmost importance in the prevention of infective endocarditis; however, mouthrinses have a very limited effect in a periodontal pocket of more than 3 mm in depth and irrigation of a periodontal pocket may create a dangerous bacteremia. Nevertheless, in addition to systemic antibiotics, local antimicrobial agents followed by routine dental treatment and maintenance show promise as an effective means for the prevention of infective endocarditis. Future research in the prevention of infective endocarditis should include placement of antimicrobials in the periodontal pocket and systemic agents that reduce platelet adhesion. The suggestions presented in this review are only recommendations for further research and are not to be construed as a substitute for the current guidelines.

  4. Boceprevir in chronic hepatitis C infection: a perspective review.

    PubMed

    Ascione, Antonio

    2012-05-01

    Boceprevir (Victrelis), from the oral α-ketoamide class of slow-binding reversible hepatitis C virus (HCV)-NS3 protease inhibitors, creates a new class of drugs: direct acting antivirals (DDAs). Boceprevir is highly selective against HCV serine protease. Its use is restricted to genotype 1 HCV infection and it must not be used as monotherapy. Boceprevir is given orally, rapidly absorbed, reaching plasma peak concentration within 1-2 h and is metabolized by aldo-ketoreductase and partly by the cytochrome P450 enzyme CYP3A4/5. Administration with drugs that induce or inhibit CYP3A4/5 could decrease or increase its plasma concentration. The optimal dosage is 800 mg three times daily; capsules should be taken with food. Boceprevir was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration and the European Medicines Agency and is indicated in combination with peginterferon plus ribavirin for the treatment of patients with genotype 1 HCV who have not received previous treatment or whose condition has failed to respond to previous therapy. In the Serine Protease Inhibitor Therapy 2 (SPRINT-2) trial (treatment-naïve patients) and RESPOND-2 trial (patients whose condition relapsed or did not respond to previous treatment), the boceprevir-containing regimen was always more effective than standard of care (SOC). Adverse events were similar in the treatment groups, but in the boceprevir treated group, anemia was more frequent, requiring erythropoietin in nearly 40% of cases. Discontinuation of therapy because of adverse events was identical in all treated groups. As for cost effectiveness, two studies showed that boceprevir plus SOC is cost effective with regard to the lifetime incidence of liver complications, quality of life years, and the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio. The management of this therapy is more complex than before for physicians and patients. The educational role of the physician is crucial for successful therapy and counseling should be carefully given

  5. Preventing infection from reusable medical equipment: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Sopwith, Will; Hart, Tony; Garner, Paul

    2002-01-01

    Background In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) had eight sets of conflicting recommendations for decontaminating medical equipment. We conducted a systematic review of observational studies to assist WHO in reconciling the various guidelines. This paper summarises the methods developed and illustrates the results for three procedures – alcohol, bleach and povidone iodine. Methods We developed a Medline search strategy and applied inclusion criteria specifying the decontamination procedures of interest and an outcome of microbial destruction for a set of marker organisms. We developed protocols to assess the quality of studies and categorised them according to the reliability of the methods used. Through an iterative process we identified best practice for the decontamination methods and key additional factors required to ensure their effectiveness. We identified 88 published papers for inclusion, describing 135 separate studies of decontamination. Results For disinfection with alcohol, best practice was identified from 23 studies as an exposure to 70–80% ethanol or isopropanol for at least 5 minutes. Bleach was effective for sterilization at a concentration of 5000 ppm for 5 minutes and for disinfection at 1000 ppm for 10 minutes (33 studies). Povidone iodine was only partially effective for disinfection at a concentration of 1% for 15 minutes (15 studies). Conclusions Our findings provide an evidence base for WHO guidelines on decontaminating medical equipment. The results support the recommended use of bleach and show that alcohol could be used more widely than current guidelines suggest, provided best practice is followed. The effectiveness of povidone iodine is uncertain. PMID:11916458

  6. Electrical field: a historical review of its application and contributions in wastewater sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Mahmoud, Akrama; Olivier, Jérémy; Vaxelaire, Jean; Hoadley, Andrew F A

    2010-04-01

    Electric field-assisted dewatering, also called electro-dewatering, is a technology in which a conventional dewatering mechanism such a pressure dewatering is combined with electrokinetic effects to realize an improved liquid/solids separation, to increase the final dry solids content and to accelerate the dewatering process with low energy consumption compared to thermal drying. Electro-dewatering is not a new idea, but the practical industrial applications have been limited to niche areas in soil mechanics, civil engineering, and the ceramics industry. Recently, it has received great attention, specially, in the fields of fine-particle sludge, gelatinous sludge, sewage sludge, pharmaceutical industries, food waste and bull kelp, which could not be successfully dewatered with conventional mechanical methods. This review focuses on the scientific and practical aspects of the application of an electrical field in laboratory/industrial dewatering, and discusses this in relation to conventional dewatering techniques. A comprehensive bibliography of research in the electro-dewatering of wastewater sludges is included. As the fine-particle suspensions possess a surface charge, usually negative, they are surrounded by a layer with a higher density of positive charges, the electric double layer. When an electric field is applied, the usually negative charged particles move towards the electrode of the opposite charge. The water, commonly with cations, is driven towards the negative electrode. Electro-dewatering thus involves the well-known phenomena of electrophoresis, electro-osmosis, and electromigration. Following a detailed outline of the role of the electric double layer and electrokinetic phenomena, an analysis of the components of applied voltage and their significance is presented from an electrochemical viewpoint. The aim of this elementary analysis is to provide a fundamental understanding of the different process variables and configurations in order to

  7. [Sudeck syndrome of the hand. Historical review, treatment concept and results].

    PubMed

    von Rothkirch, T; Blauth, W; Helbig, B

    1989-05-01

    The literature on the etiology, pathogenesis, and therapy of Sudeck's atrophy is reviewed. The authors present their treatment regimen for reflex dystrophic hands that has been used successfully for more than twenty years. This program consists of a combination including drugs as well as physical and occupational therapy. Patients have to be guided psychologically. In-patient treatment is preferred. The ultimate aim of therapy is to restore the functional integrity of the affected hand. The choice of therapy depends on the stage of the disease. Removing pain and edema is the most important aim in stage I. This is achieved by immobilization of the affected extremity in an upward position, cooling the hand with ice, and careful physiotherapy supported by antiphlogistic drugs. In stage II the physiotherapy has to be intensified and should be supplemented by special balneologic (bathing) measures and functional splints. The ipsilateral shoulder can be affected and has to be treated adequately. In stage III additional surgical treatment might be helpful such as arthrolysis, arthroplasty, or arthrodesis of finger joints. The authors report on their results in seventy-seven dystrophic hands in a long-term follow-up between one and fourteen years. The results depend on the begin of the treatment in the different stages of the disease. Eighty-three percent of the patients were cured in stage I, only thirty-one percent in stage II, and no patient in stage III. The authors' experience using Calcitone shows that it has no influence on the functional results. Comparing their results to those obtained by others, the authors conclude that physical and occupational therapy are decisive in dealing with dystrophic hands. PMID:2472312

  8. Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Dore, M P; Sechi, G P; Errigo, A; Canelada, A; Poulain, M

    2015-04-01

    The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, which has been carefully reviewed and compared. Up to a short time ago, the LBZ population depended mostly upon livestock rearing, and consumption of animal-derived foods was relatively higher than in the rest of the island. The nutrition transition (NT) in urbanized and lowland areas began in the mid-1950s, fueled by economic development, whereas in the LBZ it started later owing to prolonged resistance to change by a society organized around a rather efficient pastoral economy. Even nowadays a large proportion of the population in this area still follows the traditional diet based on cereal-derived foods and dairy products. The LBZ cohorts comprising individuals who were of a mature age when NT began may have benefited both from the high-quality, albeit rather monotonous, traditional diet to which they had been exposed most of their life and from the transitional diet, which introduced positive changes such as more variety, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate meat intake. It could be speculated that these changes may have brought substantial health benefits to this particular aging group, which was in need of nutrient-rich food at this specific time in life, thereby resulting in a decreased mortality risk and, in turn, life-span extension. PMID:25369832

  9. Male longevity in Sardinia, a review of historical sources supporting a causal link with dietary factors.

    PubMed

    Pes, G M; Tolu, F; Dore, M P; Sechi, G P; Errigo, A; Canelada, A; Poulain, M

    2015-04-01

    The identification of a hot spot of exceptional longevity, the Longevity Blue Zone (LBZ), in the mountain population of Sardinia has aroused considerable interest toward its traditional food as one of the potential causal factors. This preliminary study on the traditional Sardinian diet has been supported by the literature available, which has been carefully reviewed and compared. Up to a short time ago, the LBZ population depended mostly upon livestock rearing, and consumption of animal-derived foods was relatively higher than in the rest of the island. The nutrition transition (NT) in urbanized and lowland areas began in the mid-1950s, fueled by economic development, whereas in the LBZ it started later owing to prolonged resistance to change by a society organized around a rather efficient pastoral economy. Even nowadays a large proportion of the population in this area still follows the traditional diet based on cereal-derived foods and dairy products. The LBZ cohorts comprising individuals who were of a mature age when NT began may have benefited both from the high-quality, albeit rather monotonous, traditional diet to which they had been exposed most of their life and from the transitional diet, which introduced positive changes such as more variety, increased consumption of fruits and vegetables and moderate meat intake. It could be speculated that these changes may have brought substantial health benefits to this particular aging group, which was in need of nutrient-rich food at this specific time in life, thereby resulting in a decreased mortality risk and, in turn, life-span extension.

  10. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review.

  11. A review of the infection-associated cancers in North African countries.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Wafaa Mohamed; Anwar, Wagida A; Attaleb, Mohammed; Mazini, Loubna; Försti, Asta; Trimbitas, Roxana-Delia; Khyatti, Meriem

    2016-01-01

    Cancer is typically classified as a leading non-communicable disease; however, infectious agents, such as Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human papilloma virus (HPV), contribute significantly to the pathogenesis of various cancers. Less developed countries, including countries of the North African (NA) region, endure the highest burden of infection-related cancers. The five most common infection-associated cancers in NA in order of incidence are bladder cancer, cervical cancer, liver cancer, stomach cancer, and nasopharyngeal carcinoma. This review aims to outline the epidemiologic pattern of infection-associated cancers in five NA countries (namely: Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya and Egypt) highlighting the similarities and differences across the region. The present study employed an initial literature review of peer-reviewed articles selected from PubMed, ScienceDirect and World Health Organization (WHO) databases based on key word searches without restriction on publication dates. Original research articles and reports written in French, as well as data from institutional reports and regional meeting abstracts were also included in this extensive review. Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria and Morocco were selected to be the focus of this review. PMID:27512409

  12. Influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The relationship between nutrition and soil-transmitted helminthiasis is complex and warrants further investigation. We conducted a systematic review examining the influence of nutrition on infection and re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths (i.e. Ascaris lumbricoides, hookworm, Trichuris trichiura and Strongyloides stercoralis) in humans. Emphasis was placed on the use of nutritional supplementation, alongside anthelminthic treatment, to prevent re-infection with soil-transmitted helminths. Methods We searched eight electronic databases from inception to 31 July 2013, with no restriction of language or type of publication. For studies that met our inclusion criteria, we extracted information on the soil-transmitted helminth species, nutritional supplementation and anthelminthic treatment. Outcomes were presented in forest plots and a summary of findings (SoF) table. An evidence profile (EP) was generated by rating the evidence quality of the identified studies according to the GRADE system. Results Fifteen studies met our inclusion criteria; eight randomised controlled trials and seven prospective cohort studies. Data on A. lumbricoides were available from all studies, whereas seven and six studies additionally contained data on T. trichiura and hookworm, respectively. None of the studies contained data on S. stercoralis. Positive effects of nutritional supplementation or the host’s natural nutritional status on (re-)infection with soil-transmitted helminths were reported in 14 studies, while negative effects were documented in six studies. In terms of quality, a high, low and very low quality rating was assigned to the evidence from four, six and five studies, respectively. Conclusions Our findings suggest that the current evidence-base is weak, precluding guidelines on nutrition management as a potential supplementary tool to preventive chemotherapy targeting soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Moreover, several epidemiological, immunological and

  13. Intestinal Infections Among Febrile Hospitalized Patients in the Republic of Armenia: A Retrospective Chart Review.

    PubMed

    Zardaryan, Eduard; Paronyan, Lusine; Bakunts, Vahe; Gevorgyan, Zaruhi; Asoyan, Vigen; Apresyan, Hripsime; Hovhannisyan, Alvard; Palayan, Karo; Kuchuloria, Tinatin; Rivard, Robert G; Bautista, Christian T

    2016-10-01

    In the past, several enteric outbreaks in 1996, 1998, 1999, and 2003 caused by Salmonella typhi, a Gram-negative bacterium, have occurred in Armenia. This study describes the demographic, epidemiological, and clinical characteristics of febrile hospitalized patients with intestinal infections in Armenia. Using a chart review study design, medical data from adult patients who were hospitalized at the Nork hospital during 2010-2012 were reviewed. A total of 600 medical charts were reviewed. Of these, 51 % were diagnosed with intestinal infections. Among these patients, 59 % had an intestinal infection of known etiology, with three main pathogens identified: Salmonella sp. (32 %), Shigella sp. (32 %), and Staphylococcus aureus (18 %). After controlling for the calendar year, age in years, and gender, patients detected with Salmonella sp. were more likely to reported the presence of a family member with similar signs or symptoms [odds ratio (OR) 9.0; 95 % CI 2.4-33.7] and the lack of a water tap at home (OR 3.9; 95 % CI 1.7-9.5). Evidence indicates that Salmonella sp., Shigella sp., and S. aureus as the most common etiologies reported among febrile hospitalized patients. A high percentage of patients had intestinal infections of unknown etiology; thus, improvement in laboratory capacity (enabling more advanced tests, such as polymerase chain reaction) would increase the identification of the enteropathogens causing disease in Armenia. PMID:26992893

  14. A historical review of additives and modifiers used in paving asphalt refining processes in the United States.

    PubMed

    Mundt, Diane J; Adams, Robert C; Marano, Kristin M

    2009-11-01

    The U.S. asphalt paving industry has evolved over time to meet various performance specifications for liquid petroleum asphalt binder (known as bitumen outside the United States). Additives to liquid petroleum asphalt produced in the refinery may affect exposures to workers in the hot mix paving industry. This investigation documented the changes in the composition and distribution of the liquid petroleum asphalt products produced from petroleum refining in the United States since World War II. This assessment was accomplished by reviewing documents and interviewing individual experts in the industry to identify current and historical practices. Individuals from 18 facilities were surveyed; the number of facilities reporting use of any material within a particular class ranged from none to more than half the respondents. Materials such as products of the process stream, polymers, elastomers, and anti-strip compounds have been added to liquid petroleum asphalt in the United States over the past 50 years, but modification has not been generally consistent by geography or time. Modifications made to liquid petroleum asphalt were made generally to improve performance and were dictated by state specifications.

  15. Maraviroc: a review of its use in HIV infection and beyond

    PubMed Central

    Woollard, Shawna M; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters target cells by binding its envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and/or coreceptors such as C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5; R5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4; X4), and R5-tropic viruses predominate during the early stages of infection. CCR5 antagonists bind to CCR5 to prevent viral entry. Maraviroc (MVC) is the only CCR5 antagonist currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission, Health Canada, and several other countries for the treatment of patients infected with R5-tropic HIV-1. MVC has been shown to be effective at inhibiting HIV-1 entry into cells and is well tolerated. With expanding MVC use by HIV-1-infected humans, different clinical outcomes post-approval have been observed with MVC monotherapy or combination therapy with other antiretroviral drugs, with MVC use in humans infected with dual-R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, infected with different HIV-1 genotype or infected with HIV-2. This review discuss the role of CCR5 in HIV-1 infection, the development of the CCR5 antagonist MVC, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug–drug interactions, and the implications of these interactions on treatment outcomes, including viral mutations and drug resistance, and the mechanisms associated with the development of resistance to MVC. This review also discusses available studies investigating the use of MVC in the treatment of other diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26491256

  16. Maraviroc: a review of its use in HIV infection and beyond.

    PubMed

    Woollard, Shawna M; Kanmogne, Georgette D

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1) enters target cells by binding its envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the CD4 receptor and/or coreceptors such as C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5; R5) and C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4; X4), and R5-tropic viruses predominate during the early stages of infection. CCR5 antagonists bind to CCR5 to prevent viral entry. Maraviroc (MVC) is the only CCR5 antagonist currently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, the European Commission, Health Canada, and several other countries for the treatment of patients infected with R5-tropic HIV-1. MVC has been shown to be effective at inhibiting HIV-1 entry into cells and is well tolerated. With expanding MVC use by HIV-1-infected humans, different clinical outcomes post-approval have been observed with MVC monotherapy or combination therapy with other antiretroviral drugs, with MVC use in humans infected with dual-R5- and X4-tropic HIV-1, infected with different HIV-1 genotype or infected with HIV-2. This review discuss the role of CCR5 in HIV-1 infection, the development of the CCR5 antagonist MVC, its pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, drug-drug interactions, and the implications of these interactions on treatment outcomes, including viral mutations and drug resistance, and the mechanisms associated with the development of resistance to MVC. This review also discusses available studies investigating the use of MVC in the treatment of other diseases such as cancer, graft-versus-host disease, and inflammatory diseases. PMID:26491256

  17. Epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii Infection in Africa: A OneHealth Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vanderburg, Sky; Rubach, Matthew P.; Halliday, Jo E. B.; Cleaveland, Sarah; Reddy, Elizabeth A.; Crump, John A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Q fever is a common cause of febrile illness and community-acquired pneumonia in resource-limited settings. Coxiella burnetii, the causative pathogen, is transmitted among varied host species, but the epidemiology of the organism in Africa is poorly understood. We conducted a systematic review of C. burnetii epidemiology in Africa from a “One Health” perspective to synthesize the published data and identify knowledge gaps. Methods/Principal Findings We searched nine databases to identify articles relevant to four key aspects of C. burnetii epidemiology in human and animal populations in Africa: infection prevalence; disease incidence; transmission risk factors; and infection control efforts. We identified 929 unique articles, 100 of which remained after full-text review. Of these, 41 articles describing 51 studies qualified for data extraction. Animal seroprevalence studies revealed infection by C. burnetii (≤13%) among cattle except for studies in Western and Middle Africa (18–55%). Small ruminant seroprevalence ranged from 11–33%. Human seroprevalence was <8% with the exception of studies among children and in Egypt (10–32%). Close contact with camels and rural residence were associated with increased seropositivity among humans. C. burnetii infection has been associated with livestock abortion. In human cohort studies, Q fever accounted for 2–9% of febrile illness hospitalizations and 1–3% of infective endocarditis cases. We found no studies of disease incidence estimates or disease control efforts. Conclusions/Significance C. burnetii infection is detected in humans and in a wide range of animal species across Africa, but seroprevalence varies widely by species and location. Risk factors underlying this variability are poorly understood as is the role of C. burnetii in livestock abortion. Q fever consistently accounts for a notable proportion of undifferentiated human febrile illness and infective endocarditis in cohort studies, but

  18. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI.

  19. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI. PMID:27433385

  20. [Review of Safety Management from Infection Control Perspectives--Chairmen's Introductory Remarks].

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Hiroshi; Koshiba, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The Japanese Society of Laboratory Medicine has been running its own Medical Safety Committee, and holding a symposium on medical safety during the annual meeting every year. Adopting a team approach to medicine plays a critical role in the development of medical safety culture and advancing medical safety in clinical practice. The infection control team plays a major role in team medical care. This time, the review of safety management from infection control perspective was discussed in the medical safety symposium, which is hoped will help advance medical and patient safety, leading to improvements in the quality of medical care. PMID:27363225

  1. Staphylococcus saprophyticus Bacteremia originating from Urinary Tract Infections: A Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Hur, Jaehyung; Lee, Anna; Hong, Jeongmin; Jo, Won-Yong; Cho, Oh-Hyun; Kim, Sunjoo; Bae, In-Gyu

    2016-06-01

    Staphylococcus saprophyticus is a common pathogen of acute urinary tract infection (UTI) in young females. However, S. saprophyticus bacteremia originating from UTI is very rare and has not been reported in Korea. We report a case of S. saprophyticus bacteremia from UTI in a 60-year-old female with a urinary stone treated successfully with intravenous ciprofloxacin, and review the cases of S. saprophyticus bacteremia reported in the literature. Thus, the microorganism may cause invasive infection and should be considered when S. saprophyticus is isolated from blood cultures in patients with UTI. PMID:27433385

  2. Review of the Occurrence of Anti-infectives in Contaminated Wastewaters and Natural and Drinking Waters

    PubMed Central

    Segura, Pedro A.; François, Matthieu; Gagnon, Christian; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2009-01-01

    Objective Anti-infectives are constantly discharged at trace levels in natural waters near urban centers and agricultural areas. They represent a cause for concern because of their potential contribution to the spread of anti-infective resistance in bacteria and other effects on aquatic biota. We compiled data on the occurrence of anti-infectives published in the last 24 years in environmental water matrices. The collected information was then compared with the available ecotoxicologic values to evaluate potential environmental concerns. Data sources We used Web of Science and Google Scholar to search for articles published in peer-reviewed journals written in the English language since 1984. Data extraction Information on compound concentrations in wastewaters and natural and drinking waters, the source of contamination, country of provenance of the samples, year of publication, limits of quantification, and method of analysis was extracted. Data synthesis From the 126 different substances analyzed in environmental waters, 68 different parent compounds and 10 degradation products or metabolites have been quantified to date. Environmental concentrations vary from about 10−1 to 109 ng/L, depending on the compound, the matrix, and the source of contamination. Conclusions Detrimental effects of anti-infectives on aquatic microbiota are possible with the constant exposure of sensitive species. Indirect impact on human health cannot be ruled out when considering the potential contribution of high anti-infective concentrations to the spreading of anti-infective resistance in bacteria. PMID:19479007

  3. Sexually Transmitted Infections and Male Circumcision: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Van Howe, Robert S.

    2013-01-01

    The claim that circumcision reduces the risk of sexually transmitted infections has been repeated so frequently that many believe it is true. A systematic review and meta-analyses were performed on studies of genital discharge syndrome versus genital ulcerative disease, genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, gonorrhea, chlamydia, genital ulcerative disease, chancroid, syphilis, herpes simplex virus, human papillomavirus, and contracting a sexually transmitted infection of any type. Chlamydia, gonorrhea, genital herpes, and human papillomavirus are not significantly impacted by circumcision. Syphilis showed mixed results with studies of prevalence suggesting intact men were at great risk and studies of incidence suggesting the opposite. Intact men appear to be of greater risk for genital ulcerative disease while at lower risk for genital discharge syndrome, nonspecific urethritis, genital warts, and the overall risk of any sexually transmitted infection. In studies of general populations, there is no clear or consistent positive impact of circumcision on the risk of individual sexually transmitted infections. Consequently, the prevention of sexually transmitted infections cannot rationally be interpreted as a benefit of circumcision, and any policy of circumcision for the general population to prevent sexually transmitted infections is not supported by the evidence in the medical literature. PMID:23710368

  4. Pathological and Clinical Correlation between Celiac Disease and Helicobacter Pylori Infection; a Review of Controversial Reports.

    PubMed

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Javad Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad; Assadzadeh, Hamid; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ierardi, Enzo; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Zojaji, Homayon; Alizadeh, Amirhoshang Mohammad; Naderi, Nosratollah; Sadeghi, Amir; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    There are overwhelming reports and descriptions about celiac associated disorders. Although there is a clear genetic association between celiac disease (CD) and some gastrointestinal disorders, there are controversial reports claiming an association between CD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Different studies indicated the possible association between lymphocytic gastritis and both CD and H. pylori infection, although this evidence is not consistently accepted. Also it was shown that an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes count is associated with both H. pylori infection and celiac disease. Therefore the following questions may raise: how far is this infection actually related to CD?, which are the underlying patho-mechanisms for these associations? what are the clinical implications? what is the management? and what would be the role of gluten free diet in treating these conditions? PubMed (PubMed Central), Ovid, ISI of web knowledge, and Google scholar were searched for full text articles published between 1985 and 2015. The associated keywords were used, and papers described particularly the impact of pathological and clinical correlation between CD and H. pylori infection were identified. In this review we tried to answer the above questions and discussed some of the recent developments in the pathological and clinical aspects of CD and H. pylori infection. PMID:27252814

  5. Pathological and Clinical Correlation between Celiac Disease and Helicobacter Pylori Infection; a Review of Controversial Reports

    PubMed Central

    Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Javad Ehsani-Ardakani, Mohammad; Assadzadeh, Hamid; Shahbazkhani, Bijan; Ierardi, Enzo; Losurdo, Giuseppe; Zojaji, Homayon; Alizadeh, Amirhoshang Mohammad; Naderi, Nosratollah; Sadeghi, Amir; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    There are overwhelming reports and descriptions about celiac associated disorders. Although there is a clear genetic association between celiac disease (CD) and some gastrointestinal disorders, there are controversial reports claiming an association between CD and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection. Different studies indicated the possible association between lymphocytic gastritis and both CD and H. pylori infection, although this evidence is not consistently accepted. Also it was shown that an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes count is associated with both H. pylori infection and celiac disease. Therefore the following questions may raise: how far is this infection actually related to CD?, which are the underlying patho-mechanisms for these associations? what are the clinical implications? what is the management? and what would be the role of gluten free diet in treating these conditions? PubMed (PubMed Central), Ovid, ISI of web knowledge, and Google scholar were searched for full text articles published between 1985 and 2015. The associated keywords were used, and papers described particularly the impact of pathological and clinical correlation between CD and H. pylori infection were identified. In this review we tried to answer the above questions and discussed some of the recent developments in the pathological and clinical aspects of CD and H. pylori infection. PMID:27252814

  6. Invasive Fungal Infections Acquired from Contaminated Food or Nutritional Supplements: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Benedict, Kaitlin; Chiller, Tom M; Mody, Rajal K

    2016-07-01

    Fungi are an integral part of the natural environment and, therefore, play many roles in relation to food: some fungi are used in food production, some are food sources themselves, and some are agents of food spoilage. Some fungi that contaminate food can also be harmful to human health. The harmful but noninfectious health consequences of mycotoxins have been well-characterized, but the extent to which fungi in food pose a risk for invasive infections is unknown. We conducted a literature review to identify cases of invasive fungal infections (IFIs) believed to have resulted from ingestion or inhalation of food, beverages, or dietary supplements (excluding Saccharomyces infections). We identified 11 publications describing cases or small outbreaks of IFIs related to foods or beverages and three describing IFIs related to dietary supplements. These food-associated IFIs were predominantly mold infections, and the few yeast infections were associated with dairy products. Suspected foodborne IFIs appear to be rare, but are increasingly described in the electronically searchable literature. They are associated with a variety of foods, are due to a variety of fungal pathogens, and primarily occur in persons with immunosuppressive conditions or other predisposing factors. Various guidelines for high-risk patients recommend avoidance of certain food products that may contain high levels of fungi, but further work is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these restrictive diets in preventing fungal infections. The relationships between food spoilage, food insecurity, and IFI risk are another area that may warrant further exploration. PMID:27074753

  7. HUMAN TOXOPLASMOSIS OUTBREAKS AND THE AGENT INFECTING FORM. FINDINGS FROM A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

    PubMed Central

    MEIRELES, Luciana Regina; EKMAN, Claudio Cesar Jaguaribe; de ANDRADE, Heitor Franco; LUNA, Expedito José de Albuquerque

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Toxoplasmosis, a worldwide highly prevalent zoonotic infection, is transmitted either by the oocysts, from water and soil, or the tissue cysts, in raw or undercooked infected meat, of Toxoplasma gondii. An ongoing debate is whether there are differences between the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the outbreaks due to one or the other infective form of the agent. We performed a systematic review, recovering 437 reported outbreaks of which 38 were selected. They were complete reports containing ascribedToxoplasma infecting form, and clinical and demographic data. There was no gender or age group selection in the outbreaks, which were described more often in the Americas. A large number of individuals were affected when oocysts, associated with soil and water contaminated with cat feces, were considered the transmission source. Onset of symptoms occurred early when the infection was ascribed to meat tissue cysts (11.4 ± 6.7 days) with sharpened temporal distribution of cases, while a broader and prolonged appearance of new cases was observed when oocysts in water were the source of the infection (20 ± 7 days, p < 0.001). Such information may be useful in the design and implementation of control strategies. PMID:26603222

  8. A review of neosporosis and pathologic findings of Neospora caninum infection in wildlife

    PubMed Central

    Donahoe, Shannon L.; Lindsay, Scott A.; Krockenberger, Mark; Phalen, David; Šlapeta, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Neospora caninum is an apicomplexan parasite that is the etiologic agent of neosporosis, a devastating infectious disease regarded as a major cause of reproductive loss in cattle and neuromuscular disease in dogs worldwide. This protozoan pathogen is maintained in the environment by a heteroxenous life cycle that involves a definitive canid host and a wide range of intermediate hosts. In recent years, a number of wildlife species have been investigated for their possible involvement in the N. caninum life cycle and many have been implicated as intermediate hosts. However, in many instances these studies have utilized serological and molecular techniques to detect infection in clinically normal animals, and investigation of possible associated morbidity, mortality, and pathology has been neglected. As such, the occurrence and importance of Neospora-associated disease in wildlife species are unknown. In order to improve our understanding of the significance of N. caninum infection in nondomestic species, the present review provides an up-to-date summary of clinical neosporosis and N. caninum-associated pathologic lesions in naturally and experimentally infected wildlife species. We provide a list of all free-ranging and captive wildlife species identified with N. caninum infection to date using currently available diagnostic tools. The advantages and disadvantages of diagnostic methods in wildlife are addressed in order to recommend optimal diagnosis of confirming N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species. Although current data would suggest that N. caninum infection does not adversely impact wildlife populations, there is a need for greater international uniformity in the diagnosis of N. caninum infection and neosporosis in nondomestic species in order to assess the true consequences of parasite infection. PMID:25973393

  9. Human infection with Shewanella putrefaciens and S. algae: report of 16 cases in Martinique and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Vignier, Nicolas; Barreau, Morgane; Olive, Claude; Baubion, Emilie; Théodose, Rafaelle; Hochedez, Patrick; Cabié, André

    2013-07-01

    Shewanella spp. are saprophytic bacteria that are part of the marine microflora in warm climates and are rarely pathogenic. However, Shewanella spp. infections are being increasingly reported, and there has been no comprehensive review of the literature describing these infections. This article reports 16 cases of Shewanella spp. infections in Martinique since 1997 and reviews another 239 cases reported in the literature since 1973. Patients experienced soft tissue infections, ear infection, or abdominal and biliary tract infections. A skin or mucosal portal of entry was found for 53% of the patients and exposure to the marine environment was reported for 44%; 79% of patients had an underlying condition. Bacteriema were frequent (28%). Most (87%) patients recovered, although ear infections can become chronic. Death occurred in 13% of the patients. Most Shewanella spp. isolates are susceptible to cefotaxime (95%), piperacillin and tazobactam (98%), gentamicin (99%), and ciprofloxacin (94%).

  10. The microbiologic profile of diabetic foot infections in Turkey: a 20-year systematic review: diabetic foot infections in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Hatipoglu, M; Mutluoglu, M; Uzun, G; Karabacak, E; Turhan, V; Lipsky, B A

    2014-06-01

    The causative pathogens in diabetic foot infections differ in studies of European compared with Asian populations. The purpose of this study was to determine the causative microorganisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns in diabetic patients with a foot infection in Turkey, a country at the crossroads of these two continents. We performed a comprehensive literature search to identify all published studies pertaining to DFIs in patients cared for in Turkey. To assess changes in causative organisms and their antibiotic sensitivity patterns over time, we compared the results of just the most recent 5 years (2007-2011) with those of the past 20-years (1989-2011). We identified 31 studies meeting our inclusion criteria. Overall, these studies reported 2,097 patients, from whom 1,974 microorganisms were isolated. The total percentage of gram-negative and gram-positive aerobic bacteria were similar in each of the assessed periods. The rate of isolation of Staphylococcus aureus during the entire period, compared with just the past 5 years, was 23.8% and 19.1%, respectively, while the rate of methicillin-resistant S. aureus was 7.8% and 5.7%, respectively. The isolation rate of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was 13.7% for the entire period and 14.9% for the past 5 years. While linezolid, vancomycin and teicoplanin were the most active agents against gram-positive microorganisms, imipenem and cefoperazone-sulbactam were the most active against gram-negative microorganisms. This systematic review demonstrated few substantial changes in diabetic foot microbiology over the past 20 years. The data may help develop and update local clinical guidelines regarding antibiotic therapy for diabetic foot infections in Turkey. Further studies, especially with optimal culture methods, would be useful to validate these findings.

  11. Trichuris trichiura infection diagnosed by colonoscopy: case reports and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Ok, Kyung-Sun; Kim, You-Sun; Song, Jung-Hoon; Lee, Jin-Ho; Ryu, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Moon, Jeong-Seop; Whang, Dong-Hee; Lee, Hye-Kyung

    2009-09-01

    Trichuris trichiura, commonly referred to as a whipworm, has a worldwide distribution, particularly among countries with warm, humid climates. In Korea, trichuriasis was a highly prevalent soil-transmitted helminthiasis until the 1970s. However, the nationwide prevalence decreased to 0.02% in 2004 as a result of national control activities and improvement in the socioeconomic status of Koreans. Most infected individuals have no distinct symptoms, if lightly infected. The diagnosis is typically confirmed by detection of T. trichiura eggs on examination of a stool sample; few reports have described detection of the parasite during colonoscopy. Recently, we managed 4 patients with trichuriasis who were diagnosed by detection of the parasite on colonoscopy, and we reviewed the literature on the colonoscopic diagnosis of T. trichiura in Korea. We suggest that colonoscopy might be a useful diagnostic tool, especially when infected by only a few male worms with no eggs in the stool.

  12. Multiple Liver Abscesses Associated with Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Infection: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tae Ki

    2013-01-01

    Liver abscess following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunting occurs very rarely. We report an unusual case of multiple liver abscesses caused by Staphylococcus capitis in a 50-year-old compromised woman due to a complicating VP shunt infection. We reviewed the nine cases of VP shunt complications reported in the English literature, and speculated that the most likely pathogenetic mechanism in our case is an infected peritoneal tip that migrated to and penetrated the liver, which subsequently caused the formation of multiple liver abscesses. The patient was successfully treated with percutaneous aspiration, drainage of the abscesses, intravenous antibiotics, and shunt revision. Awareness and vigilance of the possibility of liver abscess formation caused by VP shunt infection will help establish an early accurate diagnosis and therapeutic strategy. PMID:24379956

  13. A Comprehensive, Model-Based Review of Vaccine and Repeat Infection Trials for Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Morris, C. Paul; Evans, Holly; Larsen, Sasha E.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Filarial worms cause highly morbid diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides have been made toward developing vaccines that could block transmission, decrease pathological sequelae, or decrease susceptibility to infection. In this review, we have organized, to the best of our ability, all published filaria vaccine trials and reviewed them in the context of the animal models used. Additionally, we provide information on the life cycle, disease phenotype, concomitant immunity, and natural immunity during primary and secondary infections for 24 different filaria models. PMID:23824365

  14. A comprehensive, model-based review of vaccine and repeat infection trials for filariasis.

    PubMed

    Morris, C Paul; Evans, Holly; Larsen, Sasha E; Mitre, Edward

    2013-07-01

    SUMMARY Filarial worms cause highly morbid diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. Since the 1940s, researchers have conducted vaccine trials in 27 different animal models of filariasis. Although no vaccine trial in a permissive model of filariasis has provided sterilizing immunity, great strides have been made toward developing vaccines that could block transmission, decrease pathological sequelae, or decrease susceptibility to infection. In this review, we have organized, to the best of our ability, all published filaria vaccine trials and reviewed them in the context of the animal models used. Additionally, we provide information on the life cycle, disease phenotype, concomitant immunity, and natural immunity during primary and secondary infections for 24 different filaria models.

  15. [Microbial endocrinology: impact of interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones on infection--a review].

    PubMed

    Xu, Fuzhou; Wu, Cun; Lin, Jun

    2013-09-01

    Microbial endocrinology is a crossdisciplinary field representing the intersection of microbiology with mammalian endocrinology and neurophysiology. In this review, effects of catecholamine on bacteria were used as an example to demonstrate the interactions between microbes and neuroendocrine hormones. Catecholamine modulates bacterial infectivity by stimulation of bacteria growth and augmentation of host tissue attachment and invasion. Moreover, the bacterial adrenergic receptors recognized by catecholamine and its relationship with quorum sensing signals were also addressed. This review will be helpful for understanding the interactions between microorganism and host as well as health breeding and food safety in animal industries.

  16. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change.

  17. Microbial infection and its control in cases of symptomatic apical periodontitis: a review.

    PubMed

    Skucaite, Neringa; Peciuliene, Vytaute; Maciulskiene, Vita

    2009-01-01

    Apical periodontitis is an inflammation of dental periapical tissues developed as a response to colonization of microorganisms in root canal system. Etiology of periapical pathology is associated with different species of microorganisms that are not fully defined yet. The changes in the composition of root canal microbiota as well as other factors, such as host resistance to various infections and concomitant viral infection, etc., can influence development of the symptomatic apical periodontitis. Etiology of disease is reviewed in this article. The purpose of treatment of symptomatic apical periodontitis is to eliminate the infection in root canal system and to obtain relief of symptoms. It can be done by conventional root canal therapy, which can be combined with anti-inflammatory medication. Indications for antibiotic therapy in such cases are limited to particular occasions, which are considered in article. Nevertheless, findings show that usually dentists prescribe antibiotics improperly in clinical practice. It can render drugs ineffective against diseases of dental origin as well as against potentially fatal infectious diseases. Selection of antibiotics for the treatment of root canal infections is reviewed in this article. Importance of antimicrobial susceptibility testing is emphasized. There is a need for more research on microbial causes and interactions in different forms of apical periodontitis to improve diagnosis and treatment.

  18. Progress in the Discovery of Treatments for C. difficile Infection: A Clinical and Medicinal Chemistry Review

    PubMed Central

    Tsutsumi, Lissa S.; Owusu, Yaw B.; Hurdle, Julian G.; Sun, Dianqing

    2014-01-01

    Clostridium difficile is an anaerobic, Gram-positive pathogen that causes C. difficile infection, which results in significant morbidity and mortality. The incidence of C. difficile infection in developed countries has become increasingly high due to the emergence of newer epidemic strains, a growing elderly population, extensive use of broad spectrum antibiotics, and limited therapies for this diarrheal disease. Because treatment options currently available for C. difficile infection have some drawbacks, including cost, promotion of resistance, and selectivity problems, new agents are urgently needed to address these challenges. This review article focuses on two parts: the first part summarizes current clinical treatment strategies and agents under clinical development for C. difficile infection; the second part reviews newly reported anti-difficile agents that have been evaluated or reevaluated in the last five years and are in the early stages of drug discovery and development. Antibiotics are divided into natural product inspired and synthetic small molecule compounds that may have the potential to be more efficacious than currently approved treatments. This includes potency, selectivity, reduced cytotoxicity, and novel modes of action to prevent resistance. PMID:24236721

  19. Invasive Nattrassia mangiferae infections: case report, literature review, and therapeutic and taxonomic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Sigler, L; Summerbell, R C; Poole, L; Wieden, M; Sutton, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Aguirre, M; Estes, G W; Galgiani, J N

    1997-02-01

    We report on a case of subcutaneous infection of the arm caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae (formerly Hendersonula toruloidea) in a steroid-dependent diabetic man with chronic obstructive lung disease. The man was a resident of Arizona, where the fungus is known to be endemic on Eucalyptus camaldulensis and on citrus trees. Diagnosis of fungal infection was made by observation of narrow hyphal filaments by histopathology of biopsy specimens and isolation of a fast-growing black mold which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum). The formation of pycnidia, which at maturity expressed conidia with a central median dark band, allowed for the confirmation of the isolate as N. mangiferae. Remission of the lesions occurred following intravenous therapy with amphotericin B, followed by topical clotrimazole treatment. We use this patient's case report as an opportunity to review the literature on cases of deep infection caused by Scytalidium species, to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of a spectrum of Scytalidium isolates, and to review the taxonomy of Scytalidium species isolated from human infections.

  20. Invasive Nattrassia mangiferae infections: case report, literature review, and therapeutic and taxonomic appraisal.

    PubMed Central

    Sigler, L; Summerbell, R C; Poole, L; Wieden, M; Sutton, D A; Rinaldi, M G; Aguirre, M; Estes, G W; Galgiani, J N

    1997-01-01

    We report on a case of subcutaneous infection of the arm caused by the coelomycetous fungus Nattrassia mangiferae (formerly Hendersonula toruloidea) in a steroid-dependent diabetic man with chronic obstructive lung disease. The man was a resident of Arizona, where the fungus is known to be endemic on Eucalyptus camaldulensis and on citrus trees. Diagnosis of fungal infection was made by observation of narrow hyphal filaments by histopathology of biopsy specimens and isolation of a fast-growing black mold which demonstrated hyphae and arthroconidia of varying widths typical of the Scytalidium synanamorph (S. dimidiatum). The formation of pycnidia, which at maturity expressed conidia with a central median dark band, allowed for the confirmation of the isolate as N. mangiferae. Remission of the lesions occurred following intravenous therapy with amphotericin B, followed by topical clotrimazole treatment. We use this patient's case report as an opportunity to review the literature on cases of deep infection caused by Scytalidium species, to evaluate the antifungal susceptibilities of a spectrum of Scytalidium isolates, and to review the taxonomy of Scytalidium species isolated from human infections. PMID:9003611

  1. Endotipsitis: A case report with a literature review on an emerging prosthetic related infection

    PubMed Central

    Navaratnam, Annalan MD; Grant, Matthew; Banach, David B

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the etiology and management of a poorly understood complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt; “endotipsitis”. METHODS: A MEDLINE database search was carried out, reviewing all papers with specific words in the title or abstract, and excluding appropriately. Of 283 papers that were reviewed, 22 papers reporting 53 cases in total were included in the analyses. RESULTS: No predominant etiology for endotipsitis was identified, but gram-positive organisms were more common among early-onset infections (P < 0.01). A higher mortality rate was associated with Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp infections (P < 0.01). There was no trend in choice of antibiotic based on the microorganisms isolated and treatment varied from the guidelines of other vegetative prosthetic infections. In endotipsitis “high risk” organisms have been identified, emphasizing the importance of ensuring optimal antimicrobial therapy and adjunctive management strategies. CONCLUSION: Higher mortality rate was associated with Staphylococcus aureus and Candida spp infections. A prospective multicenter trial is needed before specific treatment can be recommended. PMID:25866608

  2. Climate Variability and the Occurrence of Human Puumala Hantavirus Infections in Europe: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Roda Gracia, J; Schumann, B; Seidler, A

    2015-09-01

    Hantaviruses are distributed worldwide and are transmitted by rodents. In Europe, the infection usually manifests as a mild form of haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) known as nephropathia epidemica (NE), which is triggered by the virus species Puumala. Its host is the bank vole (Myodes glareolus). In the context of climate change, interest in the role of climatic factors for the disease has increased. A systematic review was conducted to investigate the association between climate variability and the occurrence of human Puumala hantavirus infections in Europe. We performed a literature search in the databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and Web of Science. Studies that investigated Puumala virus infection and climatic factors in any European country with a minimum collection period of 2 years were included. The selection of abstracts and the evaluation of included studies were performed by two independent reviewers. A total of 434 titles were identified in the databases, of which nine studies fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The majority of studies were conducted in central Europe (Belgium, France and Germany), while only two came from the north (Sweden) and one from the south (Bosnia). Strong evidence was found for a positive association between temperature and NE incidence in central Europe, while the evidence for northern Europe so far appears insufficient. Results regarding precipitation were contradictory. Overall, the complex relationships between climate and hantavirus infections need further exploration to identify specific health risks and initiate appropriate intervention measures in the context of climate change. PMID:25557350

  3. Invasive Trichosporon Infection: a Systematic Review on a Re-emerging Fungal Pathogen

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Júnior, João N.; Hennequin, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This review aimed to better depict the clinical features and address the issue of therapeutic management of Trichosporon deep-seated infections. Methods: We comprehensively reviewed the cases of invasive Trichosporon infection reported in the literature from 1994 (date of taxonomic modification) to 2015. Data from antifungal susceptibility testing (AST) studies were also analyzed. Results: Two hundred and three cases were retained and split into four groups: homeopathy (n = 79), other immunodeficiency conditions (n = 41), miscellaneous (n = 58) and newborns (n = 25). Trichosporon asahii was the main causative species (46.7%) and may exhibit cross-resistance to different antifungal classes. The unfavorable outcome rate was at 44.3%. By multivariate analysis, breakthrough infection (OR 2.45) was associated with unfavorable outcome, whilst the use of an azole-based therapy improved the prognosis (OR 0.16). Voriconazole-based treatment was associated with favorable outcome in hematological patients (73.6 vs. 41.8%; p = 0.016). Compiled data from AST demonstrated that (i) T. asahii exhibits the highest MICs to amphotericin B and (ii) voriconazole has the best in vitro efficacy against clinical isolates of Trichosporon spp. Conclusions: Trichosporon infection is not only restricted to hematological patients. Analysis of compiled data from AST and clinical outcome support the use of voriconazole as first line therapy. PMID:27799926

  4. A comprehensive review on host genetic susceptibility to human papillomavirus infection and progression to cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, Koushik

    2011-01-01

    Cervical cancer is the second most common cancer in women worldwide. This is caused by oncogenic types of human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Although large numbers of young sexually active women get HPV-infected, only a small fraction develop cervical cancer. This points to different co-factors for regression of HPV infection or progression to cervical cancer. Host genetic factors play an important role in the outcome of such complex or multifactor diseases such as cervical cancer and are also known to regulate the rate of disease progression. The aim of this review is to compile the advances in the field of host genetics of cervical cancer. MEDLINE database was searched using the terms, ‘HPV’, ‘cervical’, ‘CIN’, ‘polymorphism(s)’, ‘cervical’+ *the name of the gene* and ‘HPV’+ *the name of the gene*. This review focuses on the major host genes reported to affect the progression to cervical cancer in HPV infected individuals. PMID:22345983

  5. Association between Liver Fluke Infection and Hepatobiliary Pathological Changes: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Jing; Jiang, Shi-chen; Peng, Hong-Juan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To provide information about the role of liver fluke infection as a risk factor for hepatobiliary pathological changes and promote awareness among the people living in endemic areas, a systematic review and meta-analysis based on published studies was conducted to examine the association between liver fluke infection and hepatobiliary pathological changes. Methods Relevant original literature was searched in multiple literature databases, including PubMed, Cochrane, Clinical Evidence, Trip Database, Clinical Trials, Current Controlled Trials, Web of Science, the China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) database, and the Wanfang academic journal full-text database. Studies were selected based on strict screening with inclusion and exclusion criteria. Tests of heterogeneity, sensitivity and publication bias were performed with the Review Manager software, version 5.3, and meta-regression analyses were performed with the Stata software, version 11.0 (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX, USA). Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and odds ratios (ORs) with their 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were calculated and used to evaluate the risk of hepatobiliary pathological changes resulting from liver fluke infection. Linear trend analyses were conducted to determine the dose-response relationship using IBM SPSS Statistics 20.0. Result A total of 36 studies were included in the meta-analysis. Significant associations were found between liver fluke infection and cholangitis or cholecystitis (RR: 7.80, P<0.001; OR: 15.98, P<0.001), cholelithiasis (RR: 2.42, P = 0.03; OR: 4.96, P = 0.03), hepatocellular carcinoma (OR: 4.69, P<0.001) and cholangiocarcinoma (RR: 10.43, P<0.001; OR: 4.37, P<0.001). In addition, heavier infection was significantly associated with higher incidence of hepatobiliary pathological changes (P<0.05). However, cirrhosis was not significantly associated with liver fluke infection (RR: 3.50, P = 0.06; OR: 5.79, P = 0.08). The statistical

  6. [Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon) and urinary tract infections: study model and review of literature].

    PubMed

    Lavigne, J-P; Bourg, G; Botto, H; Sotto, A

    2007-11-01

    Cranberries (Vaccinium macrocarpon) have long been the focus of interest for their beneficial effects in preventing urinary tract infections. Among cranberry compounds, a group of proanthocyanidins (PACs) with A-type linkages were isolated which exhibit bacterial anti-adhesion activity against uropathogenic Escherichia coli strains. These PAC inhibit P-fimbriae synthesis and induce a bacterial deformation. This activity was demonstrated on both antibiotic susceptible and resistant bacteria. This review focused on the last discoveries in the knowledge of cranberry effects.

  7. Common Infection Control Practices in the Emergency Department: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Eileen J.; Pouch, Stephanie M.; Larson, Elaine L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Healthcare associated infections (HAIs) are a major health concern, despite being largely avoidable. The emergency department (ED) is an essential component of the healthcare system and subject to workflow challenges, which may hinder ED personnel adherence to guideline based infection prevention practices. Aim The purpose of this review was to examine published literature regarding adherence rates among ED personnel to selected infection control practices, including hand hygiene (HH) and aseptic technique during the placement of central venous catheters and urinary catheters. We also reviewed studies reporting rates of ED equipment contamination. Methods PubMed was searched for studies that included adherence rates among ED personnel to HH during routine patient care, aseptic technique during the placement of central venous catheters and urinary catheters, and rates of equipment contamination. Findings A total of 853 studies were screened and 589 abstracts reviewed. The full texts of 36 papers were examined and 22 articles were identified as meeting inclusion criteria. Eight studies used various scales to measure HH compliance, which ranged from 7.7–89.7%. Seven articles examined central venous catheters inserted in the ED or by emergency medicine residents. Detail of aseptic technique practices during urinary catheterization was lacking. Four papers described equipment contamination in the ED. Conclusion Standardized methods and definitions of compliance monitoring are needed in order to compare results across settings. PMID:25179326

  8. Implications of Modern Non-Equilibrium Thermodynamics for Georgescu-Roegen's Macro-Economics: lessons from a comprehensive historical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poisson, Alexandre

    2011-12-01

    In the early 1970s, mathematician and economist Nicolas Georgescu-Roegen developed an alternative framework to macro-economics (his hourglass model) based on two principles of classical thermodynamics applied to the earth-system as a whole. The new model led him to the radical conclusion that "not only growth, but also a zero-growth state, nay, even a declining state which does not converge toward annihilation, cannot exist forever in a finite environment" (Georgescu-Roegen 1976, p.23). Georgescu-Roegen's novel approach long served as a devastating critique of standard neoclassical growth theories. It also helped establish the foundations for the new trans-disciplinary field of ecological economics. In recent decades however, it has remained unclear whether revolutionary developments in "modern non-equilibrium thermodynamics" (Kondepudi and Prigogine 1998) refute some of Georgescu-Roegen's initial conclusions and provide fundamentally new lessons for very long-term macro-economic analysis. Based on a broad historical review of literature from many fields (thermodynamics, cosmology, ecosystems ecology and economics), I argue that Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass model is largely based on old misconceptions and assumptions from 19th century thermodynamics (including an out-dated cosmology) which make it very misleading. Ironically, these assumptions (path independence and linearity of the entropy function in particular) replicate the non-evolutionary thinking he seemed to despise in his colleagues. In light of modern NET, I propose a different model. Contrary to Georgescu-Roegen's hourglass, I do not assume the path independence of the entropy function. In the new model, achieving critical free energy rate density thresholds can abruptly increase the level of complexity and maximum remaining lifespan of stock-based civilizations.

  9. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements. PMID:22081274

  10. Radioactive iodine (131I) therapy for differentiated thyroid cancer in Japan: current issues with historical review and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Tatsuya; Kudo, Takashi; Kinuya, Seigo

    2012-02-01

    Radioactive iodine (RAI, (131)I) has been used as a therapeutic agent for differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) with over 50 years of history. Recently, it is now attracting attention in medical fields as one of the molecular targeting therapies, which is known as targeted radionuclide therapy. Radioactive iodine therapy (RIT) for DTC, however, is now at stake in Japan, because Japan is confronting several problems, including the recent occurrence of the Great East Japan Disaster (GEJD) in March 2011. RIT for DTC is strictly limited in Japan and requires hospitalization. Because of strict regulations, severe lack of medical facilities for RIT has become one of the most important medical problems, which results in prolonged waiting time for Japanese patients with DTC, including those with distant metastasis, who wish to receive RIT immediately. This situation is also due to various other factors, such as prolonged economic recession, super-aging society, and subsequent rapidly changing medical environment. In addition, due to the experience of atomic bombings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japanese people have strong feeling of "radiophobia". There is fear that GEJD and related radiation contamination may worsen this feeling, which might be reflected in more severe regulation of RIT. To overcome these difficulties, it is essential to collect and disclose all information about the circumstances around this therapy in Japan. In this review, we would like to look at this therapy through several lenses, including historical, cultural, medical, and socio-economic points of view. We believe that clarifying the problems is sure to lead to the resolution of this complicated situation. We have also included several recommendations for future improvements.

  11. Systematic review of the pharmacological treatment of alcohol use disorders in individuals infected with hepatitis C.

    PubMed

    Thibault, Alexis; Brissette, Suzanne; Jutras-Aswad, Didier

    2015-01-01

    Treating alcohol use disorders (AUD) is critical in individuals suffering from hepatitis C infection (HCV). Aside from psychosocial interventions, pharmacological treatment is effective for decreasing alcohol consumption and promoting abstinence. However, unique factors belonging to HCV-infected individuals, such as baseline hepatic vulnerability and possible ongoing hepatitis C treatment, complicate AUD drug therapy. The goal of this review is to systematically identify, summarize, and evaluate the existing evidence on the pharmacological management of AUD in HCV-infected individuals. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched for English- and French-language articles published from 1993 to December 2013. The search criteria focused on clinical trials and observational studies assessing the efficacy and/or safety of pharmacological management of AUD in patients infected with HCV. Of 421 identified studies, three were included for analysis. Two were observational studies assessing the safety of disulfiram. One was a randomized controlled trial assessing the efficacy and safety of baclofen. There is paucity of data regarding the efficacy and safety of pharmacological treatment of AUD in HCV-infected individuals, with studies being small series and showing significant heterogeneity. No strong recommendations can be made based on the current studies as to which pharmacological option should be preferred in this sub-population. PMID:25928362

  12. Host genetics and susceptibility to congenital and childhood cytomegalovirus infection: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Gelemanović, Andrea; Dobberpuhl, Katie; Krakar, Goran; Patarčić, Inga; Kolčić, Ivana; Polašek, Ozren

    2016-01-01

    Aim To summarize available evidence on the role of host genetics in the susceptibility to congenital and childhood cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections by conducting a systematic review of published studies. Methods We searched online databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Scopus and HuGe Navigator) for relevant studies with well-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria and assessed the risk of bias using novel Confounding-Selection-Information bias score (CSI). Results 5105 studies were initially identified, but only 5 met all the inclusion criteria and were analyzed in detail. Polymorphisms of the toll-like receptors (TLRs) and mannose-binding lectin (MBL) genes were shown to have an impact on the CMV infection in infants. Polymorphisms of the TLR2 (rs3804100, rs1898830), TLR4 (rs4986791), and TLR9 (rs352140) were shown to have a role in congenital CMV infection. Low MBL levels were associated with CMV infection in Chinese individuals, a finding that was not replicated in Caucasians. The overall credibility of evidence was weak. Conclusions Based on currently available very limited amount of evidence, it is uncertain whether congenital and childhood CMV infections are under host genetic control. Additional primary studies are needed with more specific research hypotheses that will enable gradual understanding of specific mechanisms of the CMV pathogenesis. More genetic studies in the future will facilitate better understanding of host susceptibility and likely enable novel preventative and curative measures. PMID:27586547

  13. Lights and Shadows about the Effectiveness of IVF in HIV Infected Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Marques, Catarina; Guerreiro, Cristina; Soares, Sérgio Reis

    2015-01-01

    Background. HIV infected women have higher rates of infertility. Objective. The purpose of this literature review is to evaluate the effectiveness of fresh IVF/ICSI cycles in HIV infected women. Materials and Methods. A search of the PubMed database was performed to identify studies assessing fresh nondonor oocyte IVF/ICSI cycle outcomes of serodiscordant couples with an HIV infected female partner. Results and Discussion. Ten studies met the inclusion criteria. Whenever a comparison with a control group was available, with the exception of one case, ovarian stimulation cancelation rate was higher and pregnancy rate (PR) was lower in HIV infected women. However, statistically significant differences in both rates were only seen in one and two studies, respectively. A number of noncontrolled sources of bias for IVF outcome were identified. This fact, added to the small size of samples studied and heterogeneity in study design and methodology, still hampers the performance of a meta-analysis on the issue. Conclusion. Prospective matched case-control studies are necessary for the understanding of the specific effects of HIV infection on ovarian response and ART outcome. PMID:26778910

  14. A Review of Evidence-Based Care of Symptomatic Trichomoniasis and Asymptomatic Trichomonas vaginalis Infections.

    PubMed

    Meites, Elissa; Gaydos, Charlotte A; Hobbs, Marcia M; Kissinger, Patricia; Nyirjesy, Paul; Schwebke, Jane R; Secor, W Evan; Sobel, Jack D; Workowski, Kimberly A

    2015-12-15

    Trichomonas vaginalis is the most prevalent nonviral sexually transmitted infection, affecting an estimated 3.7 million women and men in the United States. Health disparities are prominent in the epidemiology of this infection, which affects 11% of women aged ≥40 years and a disproportionately high percentage of black women. Particularly high prevalences have been identified among sexually transmitted disease (STD) clinic patients and incarcerated individuals. This article reviews and updates scientific evidence in key topic areas used for the development of the 2015 STD Treatment Guidelines published by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Current evidence is presented regarding conditions associated with Trichomonas vaginalis infection, including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and pregnancy complications such as preterm birth. Nucleic acid amplification tests and point-of-care tests are newly available diagnostic methods that can be conducted on a variety of specimens, potentially allowing highly sensitive testing and screening of both women and men at risk for infection. Usually, trichomoniasis can be cured with single-dose therapy of an appropriate nitroimidazole antibiotic, but women who are also infected with HIV should receive therapy for 7 days. Antimicrobial resistance is an emerging concern.

  15. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium

    PubMed Central

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  16. Ross River Virus Transmission, Infection, and Disease: a Cross-Disciplinary Review

    PubMed Central

    Harley, David; Sleigh, Adrian; Ritchie, Scott

    2001-01-01

    Ross River virus (RRV) is a fascinating, important arbovirus that is endemic and enzootic in Australia and Papua New Guinea and was epidemic in the South Pacific in 1979 and 1980. Infection with RRV may cause disease in humans, typically presenting as peripheral polyarthralgia or arthritis, sometimes with fever and rash. RRV disease notifications in Australia average 5,000 per year. The first well-described outbreak occurred in 1928. During World War II there were more outbreaks, and the name epidemic polyarthritis was applied. During a 1956 outbreak, epidemic polyarthritis was linked serologically to a group A arbovirus (Alphavirus). The virus was subsequently isolated from Aedes vigilax mosquitoes in 1963 and then from epidemic polyarthritis patients. We review the literature on the evolutionary biology of RRV, immune response to infection, pathogenesis, serologic diagnosis, disease manifestations, the extraordinary variety of vertebrate hosts, mosquito vectors, and transmission cycles, antibody prevalence, epidemiology of asymptomatic and symptomatic human infection, infection risks, and public health impact. RRV arthritis is due to joint infection, and treatment is currently based on empirical anti-inflammatory regimens. Further research on pathogenesis may improve understanding of the natural history of this disease and lead to new treatment strategies. The burden of morbidity is considerable, and the virus could spread to other countries. To justify and design preventive programs, we need accurate data on economic costs and better understanding of transmission and behavioral and environmental risks. PMID:11585790

  17. Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infections: a study of 12 consecutive cases and review.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Caroline; Fevre, Cindy; Travier, Laetitia; Cazenave, Benoît; Bracq-Dieye, Hélène; Podevin, Juliette; Assomany, Daher; Guilbert, Lydie; Bossard, Céline; Carpentier, Françoise; Cales, Valérie; Leclercq, Alexandre; Lecuit, Marc

    2014-10-01

    At present, little is known regarding Listeria monocytogenes-associated biliary tract infection, a rare form of listeriosis.In this article, we will study 12 culture-proven cases reported to the French National Reference Center for Listeria from 1996 to 2013 and review the 8 previously published cases.Twenty cases were studied: 17 cholecystitis, 2 cholangitis, and 1 biliary cyst infection. Half were men with a median age of 69 years (32-85). Comorbidities were present in 80%, including cirrhosis, rheumatoid arthritis, and diabetes. Five patients received immunosuppressive therapy, including corticosteroids and anti-tumor necrosis factor biotherapies. Half were afebrile. Blood cultures were positive in 60% (3/5). Gallbladder histological lesions were analyzed in 3 patients and evidenced acute, chronic, or necrotic exacerbation of chronic infection. Genoserogroup of the 12 available strains were IVb (n=6), IIb (n=5), and IIa (n=1). Their survival in the bile was not enhanced when compared with isolates from other listeriosis cases. Adverse outcome was reported in 33% (5/15): 3 deaths, 1 recurrence; 75% of the patients with adverse outcome received inadequate antimicrobial therapy (P=0.033).Biliary tract listeriosis is a severe infection associated with high mortality in patients not treated with appropriate therapy. This study provides medical relevance to in vitro and animal studies that had shown Listeria monocytogenes ability to survive in bile and induce overt biliary infections. PMID:25319439

  18. Infections Caused by Actinomyces neuii: A Case Series and Review of an Unusual Bacterium.

    PubMed

    Zelyas, Nathan; Gee, Susan; Nilsson, Barb; Bennett, Tracy; Rennie, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Background. Actinomyces neuii is a Gram-positive bacillus rarely implicated in human infections. However, its occurrence is being increasingly recognized with the use of improved identification systems. Objective. To analyse A. neuii infections in Alberta, Canada, and review the literature regarding this unusual pathogen. Methods. Cases of A. neuii were identified in 2013-2014 in Alberta. Samples were cultured aerobically and anaerobically. A predominant catalase positive Gram-positive coryneform bacillus with no branching was isolated in each case. Testing was initially done with API-CORYNE® (bioMérieux) and isolates were sent to the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health for further testing. Isolates' identities were confirmed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry microbial identification system (MALDI-TOF MS MIS; bioMérieux) and/or DNA sequencing. Results. Six cases of A. neuii infection were identified. All patients had soft tissue infections; typically, incision and drainage were done followed by a course of antibiotics. Agents used included cephalexin, ertapenem, ciprofloxacin, and clindamycin. All had favourable outcomes. Conclusions. While A. neuii is infrequently recognized, it can cause a diverse array of infections. Increased use of MALDI-TOF MS MIS is leading to increased detection; thus, understanding the pathogenicity of this bacterium and its typical susceptibility profile will aid clinical decision-making. PMID:27366175

  19. Prevalence of Hepatitis B Co-Infection among HIV Positive Patients: Narrative Review Article

    PubMed Central

    ASKARI, Azam; HAKIMI, Hamid; NASIRI AHMADABADI, Behzad; HASSANSHAHI, Gholamhossein; KAZEMI ARABABADI, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is the most prevalent viral infection and is among the leading causes of human liver diseases. Nearly 360 millions of people are world widely infected with prolonged forms of hepatitis B including active and inactive chronic forms. Chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is associated with cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients suffering from congenital and/or acquired immunodeficiency and also following immunosuppressive therapy. The target cell of human acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is CD4 positive T cells. These cells play central role(s) in both cellular and humoral immunity so that the HIV attack of CD4 positive T cells causes suppression of both cell-mediated and humoral immune responses. One of the frequent complications in HIV positive patients is HBV co-infection and as a result, the co-transmission of these viral diseases is common. Due to the paramount importance of the co-infection of HBV and HIV, it is noteworthy to investigate the prevalence of hepatitis B in these patients for planning of an effective therapeutic strategy. Based on these considerations, the main aim of this review article was to collect and analyze the recent and relevant studies regarding the prevalence rate of hepatitis B co-infection among HIV positive patients world widely. PMID:26110141

  20. Advance Care Planning and HIV Infection in the Era of Antiretroviral Therapy: A Review.

    PubMed

    Sangarlangkarn, Aroonsiri; Merlin, Jessica S; Tucker, Rodney O; Kelley, Amy S

    In the era of antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has become a chronic illness with associated multimorbidity, and practitioners are faced with an emerging population of HIV-infected patients with evolving needs for advance care planning (ACP), defined as communication between individuals and their proxies to plan for future health care decisions. This article provides a review of original research studies on ACP in HIV-infected adults in the era of antiretroviral therapy (1996-present) from PubMed, EMBASE, and PsycINFO. Eleven studies conducted between 1996 and 2015 met the selection criteria, with study sizes ranging from 9 to 2864 participants. Most studies consisted of white men in outpatient settings and had poorly defined definitions of ACP. Prevalence of ACP was variable (36%-54% had end-of-life communication, 8%-47% had advance directives). Lack of ACP was most commonly associated with low income, followed by lower severity of illness, low education level, black or Hispanic race, female sex, younger age, injection drug use, and social isolation. Practitioners reported limited time or energy and inadequate preparation or training as barriers to ACP. Existing literature on ACP in the era of antiretroviral therapy is limited, but shows that ACP prevalence in HIV-infected individuals is variable depending on socioeconomic factors, severity of illness, and practitioner resources and training. More research is needed to increase ACP among HIV-infected individuals. PMID:27398771

  1. A review of Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections in the Republic of Korea.

    PubMed

    Lee, S H; Chai, J Y

    2001-06-01

    Studies on Gymnophalloides seoi (Digenea: Gymnophallidae) and human infections are briefly reviewed. This minute intestinal fluke was first discovered from a Korean woman suffering from acute pancreatitis and gastrointestinal troubles. It was described as a new species by Lee, Chai and Hong in 1993. The southwestern coastal village where the patient resided was found to be a highly endemic area, and additional endemic areas have been identified. The parasite is very small, 0.33-0.50 mm long and 0.23-0.33 mm wide, and characterized by the presence of a ventral pit. The first intermediate host remains unknown, but the second intermediate host has been found to be the oyster Crassostrea gigas. Man and the Palearctic oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus have been shown to be natural definitive hosts, and wading birds including the Kentish plover Charadrius alexandrinus are highly susceptible to experimental infection. Gerbils, hamsters, cats, and several strains of mice were also susceptible laboratory hosts. In experimentally infected mice, the parasites inhabit the small intestine, pinching and sucking the root of villi with their large oral suckers, but they did not invade beyond the mucosa in immunocompetent mice. However, they were found to invade the submucosa in immunosuppressed mice. Human G. seoi infections have been found in at least 25 localities; 23 islands on the Yellow Sea or the South Sea, and 2 western coastal villages. The highest prevalence was found in a village on Aphaedo, Shinan-gun (49% egg positive rate); other areas showed 0.8-25.3% prevalence. Infected people complained of variable degrees of gastrointestinal troubles and indigestion. The infection can be diagnosed by recovery of eggs in the feces; however, an expert is needed to identify the eggs. Praziquantel, 10 mg/kg in single dose, is effective for treatment of human infections. Eating raw oysters in endemic areas should be avoided.

  2. Decreases in human immunodeficiency virus infection rates in Kombolcha, Ethiopia: a 10-year data review

    PubMed Central

    Shiferaw, Melashu Balew; Gebregergs, Gebremedhin Berhe; Sinishaw, Mulusew Alemneh; Yesuf, Yohannes Amede

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is one of the most serious public health and development challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, including Ethiopia. A particular challenge for prevention strategies has been the emergence of hotspot areas. Therefore, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome programs should not be based on national level statistics, but need to be more focused geographically. Kombolcha is one of the high spot areas with different projects and development corridors. Hence, the aim of this study is to assess the trend of HIV infection rates among patients who visited Africa Service Committee clinic from 2005 to 2014. Methods An institutional-based cross-sectional study was conducted from January 1 to January 30, 2016. All records of new patients enrolled from February 8, 2005 to December 31, 2014 were reviewed. Data on sociodemographic information, risky sexual behavior, and HIV test result were collected from each study participant using data collection format. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.0. A multivariate logistic regression model was used to identify risk factors of HIV infection. Results The overall HIV infection was 10.8% (2,233/20,674). The rate of infection varied from 13.3% in 2005 to 4.5% in 2014, and its trend had significantly declined from 2008 to 2014. Urban residence (adjusted odds ratio [AOR]: 2.53; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.22–5.25), patients who ever had intercourse with penetration (AOR: 5.62; 95% CI: 1.11–28.57), and those who had marriage experience (AOR: 11.65; 95% CI: 4.2–32.3) were more infected with HIV. Conclusion The trend of HIV infection significantly reduced in the last 10 years in Kombolcha area. However, the HIV infection still remains high (4.5%) that needs intervention of those who had marriage experience, risky sexual behavior, and urban dwellers. PMID:27462177

  3. Deaf scholars on reading: a historical review of 40 years of dissertation research (1973-2013): implications for research and practice.

    PubMed

    Andrews, Jean F; Byrne, Andrew; Clark, M Diane

    2015-01-01

    Taking a historical view, the authors reviewed 40 years of dissertation research by deaf scholars (1973-2013) related to reading. Using a qualitative interpretive analysis approach (J. Smith & Osborn, 2003), the authors selected 31 dissertations as primary texts, reviewing them for themes over five time periods. The first finding was a trend of themes on communication methodology in the 1970s (first period), to English reading skills in the 1980s (second period), to American Sign Language/English bilingualism to support acquisition of English literacy during the third, fourth and fifth periods (1990-2013). The second finding was that most of the dissertations used a combination of qualitatively similar and qualitatively different epistemologies in their research. These two findings are related to (a) the role of the deaf reading researcher, (b) historical and current trends in reading research, and (c) the qualitative similarity hypothesis (Paul, Wang, & Williams, 2013).

  4. Extra-hepatic manifestations associated with hepatitis E virus infection: a comprehensive review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bazerbachi, Fateh; Haffar, Samir; Garg, Sushil K; Lake, John R

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims: Hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection is a significant public health problem that afflicts almost 20 million individuals annually and causes acute liver injury in 3.5 million, with approximately 56 000 deaths. As with other viral hepatitides, extra-hepatic manifestations could represent an important aspect of this infection. The spectrum of these manifestations is still emerging. Acute pancreatitis and neurological, musculoskeletal, hematological, renal, and other immune-mediated manifestations have been described. The aim of this article is to comprehensively review the published literature of extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. Data sources: We searched the PubMed database using the MeSH term “hepatitis E” and each of the extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection. No language or date restrictions were set in these searches. Searches retrieving articles with non-A, non-B hepatitis were excluded. Additional articles were identified through the reference lists of included articles. Results: Several extra-hepatic manifestations associated with HEV infection have been published. The temporal association between some extra-hepatic manifestations and HEV infection and the exclusion of other possible etiologies suggests that HEV infection could have caused some of them. According to the available data, HEV infection appears to be strongly associated with acute pancreatitis, neurological disorders (with primarily dominant peripheral nerve involvement, most commonly manifested as Guillain-Barré syndrome, followed by neuralgic amyotrophy), hematological diseases (hemolytic anemia due to glucose phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, and severe thrombocytopenia), glomerulonephritis, and mixed cryoglobulinemia. More data are needed to clarify whether an association exists with musculoskeletal or other immune-mediated manifestations. Conclusions: HEV infection should be considered in patients with acute pancreatitis

  5. A historical review of nomenclature and high-level classification of praying mantises (Mantodea), including a provisional checklist of the names associated to suprageneric ranks.

    PubMed

    Roy, Roger

    2014-05-21

    The history of high-level classification of praying mantids is presented. The various historical stages that helped to construct our current knowledge on Mantodea taxonomy and systematic are highlighted through an extensive literature review, from pre-Linnaean times to the present. A provisional checklist of the names associated to suprageneric ranks (family, subfamily and tribe) is also provided, in addition to some remarks on the future efforts that need to be conducted in Mantodea research.

  6. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  7. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species.

    PubMed

    Dutari, Larissa C; Loaiza, Jose R

    2014-05-11

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama.

  8. American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Panama: a historical review of entomological studies on anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    We review existing information on the epidemiology of American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis (ACL) in Panama, with emphasis on the bionomics of anthropophilic Lutzomyia sand fly species. Evidence from Panamanian studies suggests that there are six anthropophilic species in the country: Lutzomyia trapidoi, Lu. panamensis, Lu. gomezi, Lu. ylephiletor, Lu. sanguinaria and Lu. pessoana (Henceforth Lu. carrerai thula). In general, these taxa are abundant, widespread and feed opportunistically on their hosts, which make them potential transmitters of pathogens to a broad range of wildlife, domesticated animals and humans. Furthermore, nearly all man-biting species in Panama (with the exception of Lu. gomezi) expand demographically during the rainy season when transmission is likely higher due to elevated Leishmania infection rates in vector populations. Despite this, data on the distribution and prevalence of ACL suggest little influence of vector density on transmission intensity. Apart from Lu. trapidoi, anthropophilic species seem to be most active in the understory, but vertical stratification, as well as their opportunistic feeding behavior, could vary geographically. This in turn seems related to variation in host species composition and relative abundance across sites that have experienced different degrees of human alteration (e.g., deforestation) in leishmaniasis endemic regions of Panama. PMID:24886629

  9. Dengue viral infections in Pakistan and other Asian countries: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Zubair, Muhammad; Ashraf, Muhammad; Ahsan, Aitezaz; Nazir, Noor-Ul-Ain; Hanif, Hina; Khan, Haider Ali

    2016-07-01

    Infections due to Dengue virus are widespread throughout the world. Disease starts with mild flu like sickness to a severe intricate condition which results in the death of the patient. Dengue illness has high morbidity and mortality in Pakistan as well as in other Asian countries. The Review article is a discourse analysis that explores the facts about the history, emergence and impact of dengue in Pakistan and other Asian countries. Data was collected from internet sources, mainly using Science Direct and PubMed. The final literature was reviewed and summarised. About 150 articles were identified and 47 articles were shortlisted for final review. Aedesaegypti was found to be a major vector for the transmission and spread of dengue illness. Treatment comprises supportive therapy as no specific treatment was available. During the last couple of years, the incidence of dengue fever was extraordinary in metropolitan cities of Pakistan. PMID:27427141

  10. A review of studies that examine the impact of infection on the normal wound-healing process.

    PubMed

    Penhallow, K

    2005-03-01

    Wound infection disrupts the normal healing process, although to what extent is not proven. This review explores controversies in the literature surrounding the bacterial load of the chronic wound and its impact, if any, on this process.

  11. Management and prevention of varicella-zoster virus infection in pregnancy: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Noce, Nikki; Berger, Emily M; Pomeranz, Miriam K

    2013-08-01

    Primary infection with varicella-zoster virus (VZV) during pregnancy can lead to devastating outcomes for both the mother and fetus. We describe a case of VZV infection in a pregnant woman who presented at 38 weeks' gestation. We also review the literature regarding management and prevention. Varicella-zoster virus-associated pneumonia in the mother is important to recognize. Outcomes in the newborn largely are dependent on gestational age at the time of infection. Prevention is paramount to management.

  12. A comparative review of HLA associations with hepatitis B and C viral infections across global populations

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Rashmi; Kaul, Rashmi; Kaul, Anil; Khan, Khalid

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) viral infection or co-infection leads to risk of development of chronic infection, cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Immigration and globalization have added to the challenges of public health concerns regarding chronic HBV and HCV infections worldwide. The aim of this study is to review existing global literature across ethnic populations on HBV and HCV related human leukocyte antigen (HLA) associations in relation to susceptibility, viral persistence and treatment. Extensive literature search was conducted to explore the HLA associations in HBV and HCV infections reported across global populations over the past decade to understand the knowledge status, weaknesses and strengths of this information in different ethnic populations. HLA DR13 is consistently associated with HBV clearance globally. HLADRB1*11/*12 alleles and DQB1*0301 are associated with HBV persistence but with HCV clearance worldwide. Consistent association of DRB1*03 and *07 is observed with HCV susceptibility and non-responsiveness to HBV vaccination across the population. HLA DR13 is protective for vertical HBV and HCV transmission in Chinese and Italian neonates, but different alleles are associated with their susceptibility in these populations. HLA class Imolecule interactions with Killer cell immunoglobulin like receptors (KIR) of natural killer (NK) cells modulate HCV infection outcome via regulating immune regulatory cells and molecules. HLA associations with HBV vaccination, interferon therapy in HBV and HCV, and with extra hepatic manifestations of viral hepatitis are also discussed. Systematic studies in compliance with global regulatory standards are required to identify the HLA specific viral epitope, stage specific T cell populations interacting with different HLA alleles during disease progression and viral clearance of chronic HBV or HCV infections among different ethnic populations. These studies would facilitate stage specific

  13. Economic Evaluation of Interventions for Prevention of Hospital Acquired Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Kwetkat, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Objective This systematic review sought to assess the costs and benefits of interventions preventing hospital-acquired infections and to evaluate methodological and reporting quality. Methods We systematically searched Medline via PubMed and the National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database from 2009 to 2014. We included quasi-experimental and randomized trails published in English or German evaluating the economic impact of interventions preventing the four most frequent hospital-acquired infections (urinary tract infections, surgical wound infections, pneumonia, and primary bloodstream infections). Characteristics and results of the included articles were extracted using a standardized data collection form. Study and reporting quality were evaluated using SIGN and CHEERS checklists. All costs were adjusted to 2013 US$. Savings-to-cost ratios and difference values with interquartile ranges (IQRs) per month were calculated, and the effects of study characteristics on the cost-benefit results were analyzed. Results Our search returned 2067 articles, of which 27 met the inclusion criteria. The median savings-to-cost ratio across all studies reporting both costs and savings values was US $7.0 (IQR 4.2–30.9), and the median net global saving was US $13,179 (IQR 5,106–65,850) per month. The studies’ reporting quality was low. Only 14 articles reported more than half of CHEERS items appropriately. Similarly, an assessment of methodological quality found that only four studies (14.8%) were considered high quality. Conclusions Prevention programs for hospital acquired infections have very positive cost-benefit ratios. Improved reporting quality in health economics publications is required. PMID:26731736

  14. Non-anti-infective effects of antimicrobials and their clinical applications: a review.

    PubMed

    Sadarangani, Sapna P; Estes, Lynn L; Steckelberg, James M

    2015-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are undoubtedly one of the key advances in the history of modern medicine and infectious diseases, improving the clinical outcomes of infection owing to their inhibitory effects on microbial growth. However, many antimicrobial agents also have biological activities stemming from their interactions with host receptors and effects on host inflammatory responses and other human or bacterial cellular biological pathways. These result in clinical uses of antimicrobial drugs that are distinct from their direct bacteriostatic or bactericidal properties. We reviewed the published literature regarding non-anti-infective therapeutic properties and proposed clinical applications of selected antimicrobials, specifically, macrolides, tetracyclines, sulfonamides, and ketoconazole. The clinical applications reviewed were varied, and we focused on uses that were clinically relevant (in terms of importance and burden of disease) and where published evidence exists. Such uses include chronic inflammatory pulmonary and skin disorders, chronic periodontitis, gastrointestinal dysmotility, rheumatoid arthritis, and cancer. Most of these potential therapeutic uses are not Food and Drug Administration approved. Clinicians need to weigh the use of antimicrobial agents for their non-anti-infective benefits, considering potential adverse effects and long-term effect on microbial resistance. PMID:25440726

  15. Review on the impact of pregnancy and obesity on influenza virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Karlsson, Erik A.; Marcelin, Glendie; Webby, Richard J.; Schultz‐Cherry, Stacey

    2012-01-01

    Please cite this paper as: Karlsson et al. (2012) Review on the impact of pregnancy and obesity on influenza virus infection. Influenza and Other Respiratory Viruses 6(6), 449–460. A myriad of risk factors have been linked to an increase in the severity of the pandemic H1N1 2009 influenza A virus [A(H1N1)pdm09] including pregnancy and obesity where death rates can be elevated as compared to the general population. The goal of this review is to provide an overview of the influence of pregnancy and obesity on the reported cases of A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection and of how the concurrent presence of these factors may have an exacerbating effect on infection outcome. Also, the hypothesized immunologic mechanisms that contribute to A(H1N1)pdm09 virus severity during pregnant or obese states are outlined. Identifying the mechanisms underlying the increased disease severity in these populations may result in improved therapeutic approaches and future pandemic preparedness. PMID:22335790

  16. Gastrointestinal nematode infection in small ruminants in Ethiopia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Asmare, Kassahun; Sheferaw, Desie; Aragaw, Kassaye; Abera, Mesele; Sibhat, Berhanu; Haile, Aynalem; Kiara, Henry; Szonyi, Barbara; Skjerve, Eystein; Wieland, Barbara

    2016-08-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) nematode infections are a major health challenge affecting productive and reproductive performance of sheep and goats in Ethiopia. However, there is no comprehensive summary on the occurrence and distribution of the infection at national level. This systematic review provides pooled prevalence estimates and assesses potential predictors of the nematode infections in small ruminants, i.e. helpful in planning interventions or control strategies. The review used 50 animal level datasets retrieved from 24 manuscripts. The studies used data collected from 9407 sheep and 3478 goats. A meta-analytical approach was employed to analyze Effect size (ES). The reported GI nematodes represented eleven genera affecting sheep and goats including: Haemonchus, Trichostrongylus, Teladorsagia/Ostertagia, Strongyloides, Bunostomum, Nematodirus, Chabertia, Trichuris, Cooperia, Skrjabinema and Oesophagostomum. The GI nematodes pooled prevalence estimate in the random effect model was 75.8% (95% CI: 69.6, 80.8). The subgroup analysis revealed significant (p<0.05) differences in the prevalence between different regions and type of diagnostic methods used. 'Postmortem technique' and 'eastern part of the country' were associated with higher GI nematode prevalence and accounted for 68.1% of the between studies heterogeneity. In light of the high parasitic prevalence in all agro-ecologies, the need for strategic intervention is recommended. Meanwhile, data need to be generated for some of the regions where dependable survey reports are lacking.

  17. Inflammatory Mediators of Leprosy Reactional Episodes and Dental Infections: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Cortela, D. C. B.; de Souza Junior, A. L.; Virmond, M. C. L.; Ignotti, E.

    2015-01-01

    Reactional episodes in leprosy are a result of complex interactions between the immune system, Mycobacterium leprae, and predisposing factors, including dental infections. To determine the main inflammatory mediators in the immunopathological process of dental infections and leprosy reactions, we conducted a systematic review of primary literature published between 1996 and 2013. A three-stage literature search was performed (Stage I, “leprosy reactions” and “inflammatory mediators”; Stage II, “dental infections” and “inflammatory mediators”; and Stage III, “leprosy reactions,” “dental infections,” and “inflammatory mediators”). Of the 911 eligible publications, 10 were selected in Stage I, 68 in Stage II, and 1 in Stage III. Of the 27 studied inflammatory mediators, the main proinflammatory mediators were IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-17; the main anti-inflammatory mediators were IL-10 and IL-4. Serum IL-6 and TNF-α concentrations were significant during periodontal and reactional lesion evolution; IFN-γ and IL-1β were associated with types 1 and 2 reactions and chronic periodontal disease. The proinflammatory mediators in dental infections and leprosy reactions, especially IL-6 and TNF-α, were similar across studies, regardless of the laboratory technique and sample type. IFN-γ and IL-1β were significant for leprosy reactions and periodontal diseases. This pattern was maintained in serum. PMID:26339136

  18. Second-Generation central venous catheter in the prevention of bloodstream infection: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Stocco, Janislei Gislei Dorociaki; Hoers, Hellen; Pott, Franciele Soares; Crozeta, Karla; Barbosa, Dulce Aparecida; Meier, Marineli Joaquim

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to evaluate the effectiveness and safety in the use of second-generation central venous catheters impregnated in clorhexidine and silver sulfadiazine when compared with other catheters, being them impregnated or not, in order to prevent the bloodstream infection prevention. Method: systematic review with meta-analysis. Databases searched: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS/SciELO, Cochrane CENTRAL; search in Congress Proceedings and records from Clinical Trials. Results: 1.235 studies were identified, 97 were pre-selected and 4 were included. In catheter-related bloodstream infection, there was no statistical significance between second-generation impregnated catheter compared with the non-impregnated ones, absolute relative risk 1,5% confidence interval 95% (3%-1%), relative risk 0,68 (confidence interval 95%, 0,40-1,15) and number needed to treat 66. In the sensitivity analysis, there was less bloodstream infection in impregnated catheters (relative risk 0,50, confidence interval 95%, 0,26-0,96). Lower colonization, absolute relative risk 9,6% (confidence interval 95%, 10% to 4%), relative risk 0,51 (confidence interval 95% from 0,38-0,85) and number needed to treat 5. Conclusion: the use of second-generation catheters was effective in reducing the catheter colonization and infection when a sensitivity analysis is performed. Future clinical trials are suggested to evaluate sepsis rates, mortality and adverse effects. PMID:27508901

  19. A Comparative Review of Animal Models of Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection.

    PubMed

    Baseler, L; de Wit, E; Feldmann, H

    2016-05-01

    Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) was initially isolated from a Saudi Arabian man with fatal pneumonia. Since the original case in 2012, MERS-CoV infections have been reported in >1500 humans, and the case fatality rate is currently 35%. This lineage C betacoronavirus has been reported to cause a wide range of disease severity in humans, ranging from asymptomatic to progressive fatal pneumonia that may be accompanied by renal or multiorgan failure. Although the clinical presentation of human MERS-CoV infection has been documented, many facets of this emerging disease are still unknown and could be studied with animal models. Several animal models of MERS-CoV have been developed, including New Zealand white rabbits, transduced or transgenic mice that express human dipeptidyl peptidase 4, rhesus macaques, and common marmosets. This review provides an overview of the current state of knowledge on human MERS-CoV infections, the probable origin of MERS-CoV, and the available animal models of MERS-CoV infection. Evaluation of the benefits and limitations of these models will aid in appropriate model selection for studying viral pathogenesis and transmission, as well as for testing vaccines and antivirals against MERS-CoV.

  20. A new challenge for malaria control in Brazil: asymptomatic Plasmodium infection--a review.

    PubMed

    Coura, José Rodrigues; Suárez-Mutis, Martha; Ladeia-Andrade, Simone

    2006-05-01

    The evolution of malaria in Brazil, its morbidity, the malaria control programs, and the new challenges for these programs in the light of the emergence of asymptomatic infection in the Amazon region of Brazil were reviewed. At least six Brazilian research groups have demonstrated that asymptomatic infection by Plasmodium is an important impediment to malaria control, among mineral prospectors in Mato Grosso and riverside communities in Rondônia and, in our group, in the middle and upper reaches of the Negro river, in the state of Amazonas. Likewise, other researchers have studied the problem among indigenous communities in the Colombian, Peruvian, and Venezuelan parts of the Amazon basin, adjacent to Brazil. The frequency of positive results from the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) among asymptomatic individuals has ranged from 20.4 to 49.5%, and the presence of Plasmodium in the thick blood smears, from 4.2 to 38.5%. Infection with Anopheles darlingi has also been demonstrated by xenodiagnosis among asymptomatic patients with positive PCR results. If a mean of 25% is taken for the asymptomatic infection caused by Plasmodium sp. in the Amazon region of Brazil, malaria control will be difficult to achieve in that region with the measures currently utilized for such control. PMID:16862314

  1. Malaria endemicity and co-infection with tissue-dwelling parasites in Sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Onkoba, Nyamongo W; Chimbari, Moses J; Mukaratirwa, Samson

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms and outcomes of host-parasite interactions during malaria co-infections with gastrointestinal helminths are reasonably understood. In contrast, very little is known about such mechanisms in cases of malaria co-infections with tissue-dwelling parasites. This is lack of knowledge is exacerbated by misdiagnosis, lack of pathognomonic clinical signs and the chronic nature of tissue-dwelling helminthic infections. A good understanding of the implications of tissue-dwelling parasitic co-infections with malaria will contribute towards the improvement of the control and management of such co-infections in endemic areas. This review summarises and discusses current information available and gaps in research on malaria co-infection with gastro-intestinal helminths and tissue-dwelling parasites with emphasis on helminthic infections, in terms of the effects of migrating larval stages and intra and extracellular localisations of protozoan parasites and helminths in organs, tissues, and vascular and lymphatic circulations. PMID:26377900

  2. Medical treatment of prosthetic vascular graft infections: Review of the literature and proposals of a Working Group.

    PubMed

    Revest, M; Camou, F; Senneville, E; Caillon, J; Laurent, F; Calvet, B; Feugier, P; Batt, M; Chidiac, C

    2015-09-01

    More than 400000 vascular grafts are inserted annually in the USA. Graft insertion is complicated by infection in 0.5-4% of cases. Vascular graft infections (VGIs) are becoming one of the most frequent prosthesis-related infections and are associated with considerable mortality, ranging from 10 to 25% within 30 days following the diagnosis. Treatment of VGI is based on urgent surgical removal of the infected graft followed by prolonged antibiotherapy. Data regarding the best antibiotherapy to use are lacking since no well designed trial to study antimicrobial treatment of VGI exists. Moreover, since VGIs demonstrate very specific pathophysiology, guidelines on other material-related infections or infective endocarditis treatment cannot be entirely applied to VGI. A French multidisciplinary group gathering infectious diseases specialists, anaesthesiologists, intensivists, microbiologists, radiologists and vascular surgeons was created to review the literature dealing with VGI and to make some proposals regarding empirical and documented antibiotic therapy for these infections. This article reveals these proposals. PMID:26163735

  3. Impetigo - review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Baptista

    2014-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. Historically, impetigo is caused by either group A β-hemolytic streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, the most frequently isolated pathogen is S. aureus. This article discusses the microbiologic and virulence factors of group A β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, clinical characteristics, complications, as well as the approach to diagnosis and management of impetigo. Topical agents for impetigo therapy are reviewed. PMID:24770507

  4. Impetigo - review.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciana Baptista

    2014-01-01

    Impetigo is a common cutaneous infection that is especially prevalent in children. Historically, impetigo is caused by either group A β-hemolytic streptococci or Staphylococcus aureus. Currently, the most frequently isolated pathogen is S. aureus. This article discusses the microbiologic and virulence factors of group A β-hemolytic streptococci and Staphylococcus aureus, clinical characteristics, complications, as well as the approach to diagnosis and management of impetigo. Topical agents for impetigo therapy are reviewed.

  5. Clinical and economic burden of Clostridium difficile infection in Europe: a systematic review of healthcare-facility-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Wiegand, P N; Nathwani, D; Wilcox, M H; Stephens, J; Shelbaya, A; Haider, S

    2012-05-01

    PubMed, EMBASE and conference abstracts were reviewed systematically to determine the clinical and economic burden associated with Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) acquired and treated in European healthcare facilities. Inclusion criteria were: published in the English language between 2000 and 2010, and study population of at least 20 patients with documented CDI acquired/treated in European healthcare facilities. Data collection was completed by three unblinded reviewers using the Cochrane Handbook and PRISMA statement. The primary outcomes were mortality, recurrence, length of hospital stay (LOS) and cost related to CDI. In total, 1138 primary articles and conference abstracts were identified, and this was narrowed to 39 and 30 studies, respectively. Data were available from 14 countries, with 47% of studies from UK institutions. CDI mortality at 30 days ranged from 2% (France) to 42% (UK). Mortality rates more than doubled from 1999 to 2004, and continued to rise until 2007 when reductions were noted in the UK. Recurrent CDI varied from 1% (France) to 36% (Ireland); however, recurrence definitions varied between studies. Median LOS ranged from eight days (Belgium) to 27 days (UK). The incremental cost of CDI was £4577 in Ireland and £8843 in Germany, after standardization to 2010 prices. Country-specific estimates, weighted by sample size, ranged from 2.8% to 29.8% for 30-day mortality and from 16 to 37 days for LOS. CDI burden in Europe was most commonly described using 30-day mortality, recurrence, LOS and cost data. The continued spread of CDI and resultant healthcare burden underscores the need for judicious use of antibiotics. PMID:22498638

  6. Systematic review and meta-analysis of hepatitis C virus infection and HIV viral load: new insights into epidemiologic synergy

    PubMed Central

    Petersdorf, Nicholas; Ross, Jennifer M; Weiss, Helen A; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection frequently co-occur due to shared transmission routes. Co-infection is associated with higher HCV viral load (VL), but less is known about the effect of HCV infection on HIV VL and risk of onward transmission. Methods We undertook a systematic review comparing 1) HIV VL among ART-naïve, HCV co-infected individuals versus HIV mono-infected individuals and 2) HIV VL among treated versus untreated HCV co-infected individuals. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and quantified heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. We followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines in conducting our review and PRISMA guidelines in reporting results. Results and discussion We screened 3925 articles and identified 17 relevant publications. A meta-analysis found no evidence of increased HIV VL associated with HCV co-infection or between HIV VL and HCV treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a/b and ribavirin. Conclusions This finding is in contrast to the substantial increases in HIV VL observed with several other systemic infections. It presents opportunities to elucidate the biological pathways that underpin epidemiological synergy in HIV co-infections and may enable prediction of which co-infections are most important to epidemic control. PMID:27649908

  7. Systematic review and meta-analysis of hepatitis C virus infection and HIV viral load: new insights into epidemiologic synergy

    PubMed Central

    Petersdorf, Nicholas; Ross, Jennifer M; Weiss, Helen A; Barnabas, Ruanne V; Wasserheit, Judith N

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hepatitis C virus (HCV) and HIV infection frequently co-occur due to shared transmission routes. Co-infection is associated with higher HCV viral load (VL), but less is known about the effect of HCV infection on HIV VL and risk of onward transmission. Methods We undertook a systematic review comparing 1) HIV VL among ART-naïve, HCV co-infected individuals versus HIV mono-infected individuals and 2) HIV VL among treated versus untreated HCV co-infected individuals. We performed a random-effects meta-analysis and quantified heterogeneity using the I2 statistic. We followed Cochrane Collaboration guidelines in conducting our review and PRISMA guidelines in reporting results. Results and discussion We screened 3925 articles and identified 17 relevant publications. A meta-analysis found no evidence of increased HIV VL associated with HCV co-infection or between HIV VL and HCV treatment with pegylated interferon-alpha-2a/b and ribavirin. Conclusions This finding is in contrast to the substantial increases in HIV VL observed with several other systemic infections. It presents opportunities to elucidate the biological pathways that underpin epidemiological synergy in HIV co-infections and may enable prediction of which co-infections are most important to epidemic control.

  8. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer. PMID:20928978

  9. [Human papilloma virus and cervical cancer. An historical review on the development of research on cancer of the cervix uteri in Venezuela].

    PubMed

    García-Tamayo, Jorge; Molina, Julia; Blasco-Olaetxea, Eduardo

    2010-06-01

    The history on the relationship of VPH infection and cervical cancer was examined. Findings were initially reported in Maracaibo(1971), later in Mexico(1973) and thereafter several studies on the ultrastructure and immunohistochemistry of VPH infection and its role on cervical cancer were described. The ultrastructural findings of viral particles of HPV and their proteins, as well as their role in the incorporation of the viral genome to the human cervical cells were also described. Glycoproteins on the surface of cervical cells were reviewed and their importance on HPV infection was related to p16, blood group antigens and early genetic changes in the cell cycle with loss of heterozigocity, all of which, stimulated by the high risk HPV infection lead to cervical cancer.

  10. The impact of multiple infections on wild animal hosts: a review

    PubMed Central

    Bordes, Frédéric; Morand, Serge

    2011-01-01

    Field parasitological studies consistently demonstrate the reality of polyparasitism in natural systems. However, only recently, studies from ecological and evolutionary fields have emphasised a broad spectrum of potential multiple infections-related impacts. The main goal of our review is to reunify the different approaches on the impacts of polyparasitism, not only from laboratory or human medical studies but also from field or theoretical studies. We put forward that ecological and epidemiological determinants to explain the level of polyparasitism, which regularly affects not only host body condition, survival or reproduction but also host metabolism, genetics or immune investment. Despite inherent limitations of all these studies, multiple infections should be considered more systematically in wildlife to better appreciate the importance of parasite diversity in wildlife, cumulative effects of parasitism on the ecology and evolution of their hosts. PMID:22957114

  11. Necrotizing soft tissue infection caused by Serratia marcescens: A case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Hagiya, Hideharu; Ojima, Masahiro; Yoshida, Takeshi; Matsui, Takahiro; Morii, Eiichi; Sato, Kazuaki; Tahara, Shinichiro; Yoshida, Hisao; Tomono, Kazunori

    2016-05-01

    A 64-year-old man with advanced liver cirrhosis was transferred to an emergency center due to septic shock and markedly inflamed left leg. Under a clinical diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infection (NSTI), the patient undertook intensive therapy but died 25 h after arrival. The pathogenic organism, Serratia marcescens, was later isolated from blood and soft tissue cultures. NSTI is very rarely associated with S. marcescens. A literature review showed that only 16 such cases, including our case, have been reported to date. Our case is the first evidence of an S. marcescens NSTI in a patient with liver cirrhosis. S. marcescens NSTI has an extremely high mortality rate; total mortality and mortality in cases involving the extremities were 75% (12 of 16 cases) and 83.3% (10 of 12 cases), respectively. Physicians need to be aware that S. marcescens can induce fatal infections in community patients.

  12. Pelvic and retroperitoneal hydatid cysts superinfected with Brucella sp. and review of infected hydatid cysts.

    PubMed

    Arslan, F; Zengin, K; Mert, A; Ozaras, R; Tabak, F

    2013-03-01

    Hydatid disease is a zoonotic infection resulting from the tissue infestation of the larval stage of the parasite Echinococcus granulosus. Hydatid cysts superinfected with pyogenic organisms have been reported previously. Brucellosis is more prevalent in people with close contact to animals and those consuming fresh milk or fresh milk products. Although these two disorders have some similar epidemiological features, we did not encounter any hydatid cyst cases superinfected with Brucella species (sp.) in a search of medical literature (Pubmed). Here, we present a case of hydatid cyst disease superinfected with Brucella and review the literature on other hydatid cyst cases superinfected with pyogenic organisms. We conclude that in regions where brucellosis and hydatid cysts are endemic, cysts may be infected with Brucella sp.

  13. Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection: A Review of Current Direct-Acting Antiviral Treatment Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Johnathan; Nguyen, Douglas; Hu, Ke-Qin

    2016-01-01

    Chronic Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection carries a significant clinical burden in the United States, affecting more than 4.6 million Americans. Untreated chronic HCV infection can result in cirrhosis, portal hypertension, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Previous interferon based treatment carried low rates of success and significant adverse effects. The advent of new generation oral antiviral therapy has led to major improvements in efficacy and tolerability but has also resulted in an explosion of data with increased treatment choice complexity. Treatment guidelines are constantly evolving due to emerging regimens and real world treatment data. There also still remain subpopulations for whom current treatments are lacking or unclearly defined. Thus, the race for development of HCV treatment regimens still continues. This review of the current literature will discuss the current recommended treatment strategies and briefly overview next generation agents. PMID:27293521

  14. Evidence-based measures to prevent central line-associated bloodstream infections: a systematic review 1

    PubMed Central

    Perin, Daniele Cristina; Erdmann, Alacoque Lorenzini; Higashi, Giovana Dorneles Callegaro; Sasso, Grace Teresinha Marcon Dal

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence-based care to prevent CLABSI among adult patients hospitalized in ICUs. Method: systematic review conducted in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, Cinahl, Web of Science, Lilacs, Bdenf and Cochrane Studies addressing care and maintenance of central venous catheters, published from January 2011 to July 2014 were searched. The 34 studies identified were organized in an instrument and assessed by using the classification provided by the Joanna Briggs Institute. Results: the studies presented care bundles including elements such as hand hygiene and maximal barrier precautions; multidimensional programs and strategies such as impregnated catheters and bandages and the involvement of facilities in and commitment of staff to preventing infections. Conclusions: care bundles coupled with education and the commitment of both staff and institutions is a strategy that can contribute to decreased rates of central line-associated bloodstream infections among adult patients hospitalized in intensive care units. PMID:27598378

  15. [The sexuality of HIV-infected-adolescents: literature review and thinking on the unthinkables of sexuality].

    PubMed

    Mergui, A; Giami, A

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this review was to analyze the scientific literature on the sexuality of HIV-positive adolescents. The first point was to identify how sexuality is addressed and secondly the impact of HIV infection on HIV-positive adolescents. Fifty-four articles were selected for this review. The review demonstrates that sexuality is mainly considered under the angle of sexual and reproductive behavior and preventive practices (condom use and contraception), based on questionnaire studies. Some studies investigated the physiological impact of HIV and its treatment, especially in relation to puberty. On the other hand, the subjective experience of an HIV-positive status among adolescents was rarely studied. Overall, HIV has a negative impact on the sexual life of HIV-positive adolescents. The vast majority of them practice sexual abstinence, notably adolescents infected through mother-to-child contamination, for whom the access to sexuality seems to be delayed. Among those who are sexually active, nearly one-half continue having unprotected sex. The problems related to living with HIV induce a climate of anxiety and dissatisfaction that affects behaviors and sexual practices, and disrupts the quality of sexual life. Some results suggest that the type and mode of contamination has an effect on the general sexual experience of being an HIV-positive adolescent. More research should be developed to study the subjective experience of HIV-positive adolescent sexuality and its impact on sexual experience according to the type of contamination in this population.

  16. Adiaspiromycosis Causing Respiratory Failure and a Review of Human Infections Due to Emmonsia and Chrysosporium spp.

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Deanna A.; Graybill, John R.

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of a 27-year-old male who presented with respiratory distress that required mechanical ventilation. Transbronchial biopsy revealed adiaspores of the fungus Emmonsia crescens within granulomata, a condition known as adiaspiromycosis. The patient received amphotericin products and corticosteroids, followed by itraconazole, and made a full recovery. Emmonsia crescens is a saprobe with a wide distribution that is primarily a rodent pathogen. The clinical characteristics of the 20 cases of human pulmonary adiaspiromycosis reported since the last comprehensive case review in 1993 are described here, as well as other infections recently reported for the genus Emmonsia. Pulmonary adiaspiromycosis has been reported primarily in persons without underlying host factors and has a mild to severe course. It remains uncertain if the optimal management of severe pulmonary adiaspiromycosis is supportive or if should consist of antifungal treatment, corticosteroids, or a combination of the latter two. The classification of fungi currently in the genus Emmonsia has undergone considerable revision since their original description, including being grouped with the genus Chrysosporium at one time. Molecular genetics has clearly differentiated the genus Emmonsia from the Chrysosporium species. Nevertheless, there has been a persistent confusion in the literature regarding the clinical presentation of infection with fungi of these two genera; to clarify this matter, the reported cases of invasive Chrysosporium infections were reviewed. Invasive Chrysosporium infections typically occur in impaired hosts and can have a fatal course. Based on limited in vitro susceptibility data for Chrysosporium zonatum, amphotericin B is the most active drug, itraconazole susceptibility is strain-dependent, and fluconazole and 5-fluorocytosine are not active. PMID:22259200

  17. Invasive group A streptococcal infection in the Northern Territory, Australia: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Bianca; Morris, Peter; Carapetis, Jonathan

    2014-11-01

    The increasing incidence of invasive group A streptococcus has been well documented in the temperate climates of North America, Europe and the United Kingdom. Studies also suggest that there are high rates of invasive group A streptococcus infection within the indigenous population of Northern Australia. This review article presents the case of infant Aboriginal twins with invasive group A streptococcal infection complicated by streptococcal toxic shock syndrome, highlighting both the severity and high transmissibility of invasive group A streptococcal disease. We review the epidemiology of group A streptococcal infection and suggest a potential role for chemoprophylaxis of household contacts to reduce the burden of disease within the indigenous population of Northern Australia.

  18. Common Sports-Related Infections: A Review on Clinical Pictures, Management and Time to Return to Sports

    PubMed Central

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Alijani, Neda; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid

    2014-01-01

    There is a relationship between exercise and changes in immunity. So athletes are prone to different medical problems such as injuries and infections. Infection is an important medical problem which could be a reason for athletes’ absence from training. The relationship between physical activity and immune system, characteristics of different types of infections in athletes with emphasis on special clinical presentations or complications, time to return to physical activity and training and strategies to prevent development and transmission of infections in athletes or physically active people are the main topics of this review. PMID:24868426

  19. Soft Tissue Infection Caused by Rapid Growing Mycobacterium following Medical Procedures: Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shih-Sen; Lee, Chin-Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Non-tubecrulosis mycobacterium infections were increasingly reported either pulmonary or extrapulmonary in the past decades. In Taiwan, we noticed several reports about the soft tissue infections caused by rapid growing mycobacterium such as Mycobacterium abscessus, Mycobacterium chelonae, on newspaper, magazines, or the multimedia. Most of them occurred after a plastic surgery, and medical or non-medical procedures. Here, we reported two cases of these infections following medical procedures. We also discussed common features and the clinical course of the disease, the characteristics of the infected site, and the treatment strategy. The literatures were also reviewed, and the necessity of the treatment guidelines was discussed. PMID:24882980

  20. Common sports-related infections: a review on clinical pictures, management and time to return to sports.

    PubMed

    Ahmadinejad, Zahra; Alijani, Neda; Mansori, Sedigeh; Ziaee, Vahid

    2014-03-01

    There is a relationship between exercise and changes in immunity. So athletes are prone to different medical problems such as injuries and infections. Infection is an important medical problem which could be a reason for athletes' absence from training. The relationship between physical activity and immune system, characteristics of different types of infections in athletes with emphasis on special clinical presentations or complications, time to return to physical activity and training and strategies to prevent development and transmission of infections in athletes or physically active people are the main topics of this review. PMID:24868426

  1. Epidemiological review of Toxoplasma gondii infection in humans and animals in Portugal.

    PubMed

    Lopes, A P; Dubey, J P; Dardé, M-L; Cardoso, L

    2014-11-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a worldwide zoonosis. However, data from Portugal are limited and a considerable part of the literature is in Portuguese. Currently, the rate of congenital infection in Portugal is unknown, and almost nothing is known of sequelae of congenital toxoplasmosis. There is no recent general population-based serological survey of Toxoplasma gondii in humans in Portugal. In addition, there is little information on genetic characteristics of T. gondii in animals and humans. In the present paper, we review prevalence, clinical spectrum and epidemiology of T. gondii in humans and animals in Portugal. This knowledge should be useful to biologists, public health workers, physicians and veterinarians.

  2. Acquired hemophilia A in the HIV-infected patient: a case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Rattanathammethee, Thanawat; Norasetthada, Lalita; Tantiworawit, Adisak; Rattarittamrong, Ekarat; Hantrakool, Sasinee; Chai-Adisaksopha, Chatree

    2015-03-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against factor VIII (FVIII). Spontaneous bleeding in the various sites and severity is the most common clinical presentation. Here, we report a 74-year-old Thai woman with HIV infection who presented with spontaneous ecchymoses. The laboratory revealed isolated activated partial thromboplastin time prolongation with low FVIII activity and a presence of FVIII inhibitor. She was diagnosed with acquired hemophilia A. Corticosteroid monotherapy was the treatment regimen for inhibitor eradication. We demonstrate the clinical course of the rare condition and review the relevant literature.

  3. Neonatal Herpes Simplex Virus Type 1 Infection and Jewish Ritual Circumcision With Oral Suction: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Leas, Brian F.; Umscheid, Craig A.

    2015-01-01

    Jewish ritual circumcision rarely but occasionally includes a procedure involving direct oral suction of the wound, which can expose an infant to infection with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). This practice has provoked international controversy in recent years, but no systematic review of the clinical literature has previously been published. We designed this review to identify and synthesize all published studies examining the association between circumcision with direct oral suction and HSV-1 infection. Our search strategy identified 6 published case series or case reports, documenting 30 cases between 1988 and 2012. Clinical findings were consistent with transmission of infection during circumcision, although the evidence base is limited by the small number of infections and incomplete case data. Published evidence suggests that circumcision with direct oral suction has resulted in severe neonatal illness and death from HSV-1 transmission, but further research is necessary to clarify the risk of infection. PMID:26407411

  4. Review: progress in the diagnosis of dengue virus infections and importance of point of care test: a review.

    PubMed

    Fatima, Aneela; Wang, Jufang

    2015-01-01

    It is an urgent need of highly sensitive, specific and economical diagnostic tools for early and fast diagnosis of highly challenging dengue virus infections. Many laboratory methods including virus detection, genome detection, antigen detection and serological detection of such short-lived viremia were explored but promising outcomes for economical immunochromatographic tests have been reported in this review. With the trend of fast, easy operation, rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) based on immunochromatographic assays are of great importance due to point of care test (POCT) in the dengue endemic regions where it is short of laboratory equipments and cold storage conditions. Such kind of point of care diagnosis is more efficient, fast and user friendly. Moreover, the development of highly advance RDT is dependent on the use of anti-dengue monoclonal antibodies highly specific for particular analyte/antigen. PMID:25553705

  5. The role of lactobacillus probiotics in the treatment or prevention of urogenital infections--a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Abad, C L; Safdar, N

    2009-06-01

    Probiotics are increasingly being used to treat and prevent urogenital infections. However, a critical assessment of their efficacy in major urogenital infections is lacking. We report the results of a systematic review to determine the efficacy of probiotics for prevention or treatment of three major urogenital infections: bacterial vaginosis, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and urinary tract infection. Using multiple computerized databases, we extracted data from clinical trials using a lactobacillus-containing preparation to either prevent or treat a urogenital infection. Of 25 included studies, 18 studies used lactobacillus preparations for treatment or prevention of urogenital infections and seven studies focused solely on vaginal colonization. Four studies included patients with vaginal candidiasis, five included patients with urinary tract infections, and eight included patients with bacterial vaginosis. One included several types of genitourinary infections. Overall, lactobacilli were beneficial for the treatment of patients with bacterial vaginosis. No clear benefit was seen for candidiasis or urinary tract infection. Studies were heterogeneous, with some limited by a small population size. In conclusion, the use of certain lactobacillus strains such as L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri for prevention and treatment of recurrent urogenital infection is promising, especially for recurrent bacterial vaginosis. Scant data on the use of probiotics for urinary tract infection and vulvovaginal candidiasis precludes definitive recommendations. Further research and larger studies on types of lactobacilli strains, dosage of lactobacilli, optimal route and vehicle of administration are needed.

  6. College Students, Shared Decision Making, and the Appropriate Use of Antibiotics for Respiratory Tract Infections: A Systematic Literature Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blyer, Kristina; Hulton, Linda

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines shared decision making to promote the appropriate use of antibiotics for college students with respiratory tract infections. Participants/Methods: CINAL, Cochrane, PubMed, EBSCO, and PsycNET were searched in October 2014 using the following criteria: English language, human subjects, peer-reviewed, shared…

  7. Behavioural Interventions for the Prevention of Sexually Transmitted Infections in Young People Aged 13-19 Years: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picot, Joanna; Shepherd, Jonathan; Kavanagh, Josephine; Cooper, Keith; Harden, Angela; Barnett-Page, Elaine; Jones, Jeremy; Clegg, Andrew; Hartwell, Debbie; Frampton, Geoff K.

    2012-01-01

    We systematically reviewed school-based skills building behavioural interventions for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections. References were sought from 15 electronic resources, bibliographies of systematic reviews/included studies and experts. Two authors independently extracted data and quality-assessed studies. Fifteen randomized…

  8. Does HIV infection have an impact upon dental implant osseointegration? A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ata-Ali, Fadi; Di-Benedetto, Nicolas; Bagán, Leticia; Bagán, José-Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background A systematic review is made to determine whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has an impact upon dental implant osseointegration. Material and Methods A PubMed (MEDLINE) literature search was made of articles published up until 14 April 2014. The systematic review was conducted based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analysis (PRISMA). The quality of the studies included in the review was assessed using the Methodological Index for Nonrandomized Studies (MINORS) and levels of evidence (based on the University of Oxford’s Center for Evidence Based Medicine criteria). Results The combinations of search terms resulted in a list of 132 titles. Nine studies finally met the inclusion criteria and were selected for inclusion in the systematic review. A total of 173 dental implants were placed in 80 patients (135 implants in 56 HIV-positive subjects and 38 implants in 24 HIV-negative patients), and a single loss of dental implant osseointegration was recorded in an HIV-positive patient. Conclusions Our results suggest that dental implant placement in HIV-positive patients does not increase the dental implant failure rate. Prophylactic antibiotic treatment, the administration of highly active antiretroviral therapy, and control of the CD4+ T lymphocyte counts appear to be the main influencing factors in this respect. Given the few studies included in our systematic review, further prospective studies involving larger sample sizes and longer durations of follow-up are required in order to confirm the results obtained. Key words: Dental implants, implant failure, HIV positive, systematic review, AIDS, HAART. PMID:25662560

  9. Hepatocellular Carcinoma Related to Schistosoma mansoni Infection: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Toda, Karla Sawada; Kikuchi, Luciana; Chagas, Aline Lopes; Tanigawa, Ryan Yukimatsu; Paranaguá-Vezozzo, Denise Cerqueira; Pfiffer, Túlio; Rocha, Manoel de Souza; Alves, Venâncio Avancini Ferreira; Carrilho, Flair José

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims: Schistosomiasis is a major chronic disease of humans in endemic regions, and infected individuals may develop a spectrum of pathology, including hepatic fibrosis, hepatosplenomegaly, and portal hypertension. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is considered the fifth most common cancer in the world, and there is limited and controversial evidence suggesting that Schistosoma mansoni infection may be a possible risk factor for HCC. The aim of this study was to report a case series of patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection and to conduct a literature review on the topic. Methods: From January 2002 to January 2015, an institutional database was screened retrospectively to identify patients with HCC and S. mansoni infection at a single center in the Department of Gastroenterology of University of São Paulo School of Medicine and Hospital das Clínicas, Brazil. Results: Seven cases were included. The mean age of patients was 62.1±10.3 years; six (85.7%) were male and one (14.3%) was female. All cases had positive epidemiology, coming from endemic areas of S. mansoni infection in Brazil, and four (57.1%) had previous complications (upper gastrointestinal bleeding) related to portal hypertension or surgery intervention (splenectomy) performed more than 10 years before the HCC diagnosis. Nontumoral portal vein thrombosis was identified in five (71.4%) patients. All patients had negative serology for HCV, and four (57.1%) had positivity of HBVcore antibodies without evidence of viral replication. According to BCLC staging, one (14.3%) patient was BCLC A and received TACE instead of RFA because HCC size was >30 mm; three (42.8%) BCLC B patients received sorafenib instead of local regional treatment due to the presence of nontumoral TPV. During follow-up, all patients developed tumoral progression and died. Conclusions: It remains unclear if S. mansoni infection alone has carcinogenic potential. The available literature indicates that S. Mansoni, in the

  10. An Historical Analysis of HRD Knowledge: A Critical Review of "The Foreman: Master and Victim of Doubletalk"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Storberg-Walker, Julia; Bierema, Laura L.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to analyze the historical development of HRD knowledge. The analysis aims to use the qualitative research technique of text deconstruction on an important management text from the human relations phase of organization theory. Deconstruction is not a common method to HRD. In this paper, HRD scholars…

  11. Pro-Inflammatory Markers in Relation to Cardiovascular Disease in HIV Infection. A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Vos, Alinda G.; Idris, Nikmah S.; Barth, Roos E.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin; Grobbee, Diederick E.

    2016-01-01

    Background In the past years many inflammatory markers have been studied in association with clinically manifest cardiovascular disease (CVD) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in HIV-infected patients, to obtain insights in the increased cardiovascular risk observed in HIV infection. This systematic review provides an oversight of the current knowledge. Methods A search was performed in PubMed, Embase and Cochrane in July 2014, identifying all articles from 1996 onwards addressing the relation between inflammatory markers and CVD or CIMT in HIV-positive adults. Two authors, using predefined criteria, independently conducted the selection of articles, critical appraisal and extraction of the data. Analysis was focused on the immune markers that were most frequently assessed. The review protocol was registered in the PROSPERO database at 11 July 2014 (registration number CRD42014010516). This review was performed according to the PRISMA guideline. Findings Forty articles were selected; eight addressing cardiovascular disease (CVD) and thirty-two addressing CIMT. C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and d-dimer were assessed most frequently in relation to the occurrence of CVD; in four out of eight studies. All three markers were positively related to CVD in three out of four studies. Studies addressing CIMT were too heterogeneous with respect to patient populations, inflammatory markers, CIMT measurement protocols and statistical methods to allow for a formal meta-analysis to obtain summary statistics. CRP, IL-6 and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM-1) were the most studied markers in relation to CIMT. None of the inflammatory markers showed an association with CIMT. Interpretation This review showed a relation between some inflammatory markers and CVD, however, no consistent relation is observed for CIMT. Statistical approaches that yields effect estimates and standardized CIMT protocols should be chosen. Further research should focus

  12. [Dynamics of CD4⁺ T cell subsets and their roles in schistosome infections: a review].

    PubMed

    Fan, Xiao-lin; Gao, Qi; Yang, Jun-qi

    2015-12-01

    Schistosomiasis is a chronic helminthic disease that affects about two hundred millions of people in the world. The pathogenesis of schistosome infection is primarily due to hepatic and intestinal granuloma formation around deposited eggs and subsequent fibrosis. It is known that CD4⁺ T cell subsets play critical roles in the host immunity and immunopathogenesis to schistosome infections, in which T helper 1 (Th1) and Th2 cells are major effector T cell subsets, whereas T regulatory (Treg) cells exert immunosuppressive roles in general. The recently discovered Th17 cells are also actively involved in the immune responses to the infection. During the infection, these T cell subsets cross-talk and exhibit different kinetics and roles in the control and regulation of infection progress and fibrosis. This review summarizes current findings of Th1, Th2, Th17 and Treg cells and their effector cytokines in schistosome infection. PMID:27097497

  13. The expanding spectrum of human infections caused by Kocuria species: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Purty, Shashikala; Saranathan, Rajagopalan; Prashanth, K; Narayanan, K; Asir, Johny; Sheela Devi, Chandrakesan; Kumar Amarnath, Satish

    2013-01-01

    Although not previously known to cause human infections, Kocuria species have now emerged as human pathogens, mostly in compromised hosts with severe underlying disease. Recently, there has been an increasing incidence of different types of Kocuria infections reported, most likely due to the adoption of better identification methods. Here, we report a case of peritonitis caused by Kocuria rosea in a diabetic nephropathy patient who was on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis. Sepsis and peritonitis caused by K. rosea in our case yielded two identical Kocuria isolates from the peritoneal dialysate fluid within a period of three days. The infection was subsequently resolved by antibiotic treatment and catheter removal. In addition to reporting this case, we herein review the literature concerning the emergence of Kocuria as a significant human pathogen. The majority of cases were device-related, acquired in the hospital or endogenous, and different Kocuria species appear to share a common etiology of peritonitis. The overall disease burden associated with Kocuria appears to be high, and the treatment guidelines for diseases associated with Kocuria have not yet been clearly defined. PMID:26038440

  14. Interventions in the management of infection in the foot in diabetes: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Peters, E J; Lipsky, B A; Aragón-Sánchez, J; Boyko, E J; Diggle, M; Embil, J M; Kono, S; Lavery, L A; Senneville, E; Urbančič-Rovan, V; Van Asten, S A; Jeffcoate, W J

    2016-01-01

    The expert panel on diabetic foot infection (DFI) of the International Working Group on the Diabetic Foot conducted a systematic review seeking all published reports relating to any type of treatment for infection of the foot in persons with diabetes published as of 30 June 2014. This review, conducted with both PubMed and EMBASE, was used to update an earlier one undertaken on 30 June 2010 using the same search string. Eligible publications included those that had outcome measures reported for both a treated and a control population that were managed either at the same time, or as part of a before-and-after case design. We did not include studies that contained only information related to definition or diagnosis, but not treatment, of DFI. The current search identified just seven new articles meeting our criteria that were published since the 33 identified with the previous search, making a total of 40 articles from the world literature. The identified articles included 37 randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and three cohort studies with concurrent controls, and included studies on the use of surgical procedures, topical antiseptics, negative pressure wound therapy and hyperbaric oxygen. Among the studies were 15 RCTs that compared outcomes of treatment with new antibiotic preparations compared with a conventional therapy in the management of skin and soft tissue infection. In addition, 10 RCTs and 1 cohort study compared different treatments for osteomyelitis in the diabetic foot. Results of comparisons of different antibiotic regimens generally demonstrated that newly introduced antibiotic regimens appeared to be as effective as conventional therapy (and also more cost-effective in one study), but one study failed to demonstrate non-inferiority of a new antibiotic compared with that of a standard agent. Overall, the available literature was both limited in both the number of studies and the quality of their design. Thus, our systematic review revealed little

  15. The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis infection in Australia: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Chlamydia trachomatis is a common sexually transmitted infection in Australia. This report aims to measure the burden of chlamydia infection by systematically reviewing reports on prevalence in Australian populations. Methods Electronic databases and conference websites were searched from 1997–2011 using the terms ‘Chlamydia trachomatis’ OR ‘chlamydia’ AND ‘prevalence’ OR ‘epidemiology’ AND ‘Australia’. Reference lists were checked and researchers contacted for additional literature. Studies were categorised by setting and participants, and meta-analysis conducted to determine pooled prevalence estimates for each category. Results Seventy-six studies met the inclusion criteria for the review. There was a high level of heterogeneity between studies; however, there was a trend towards higher chlamydia prevalence in younger populations, Indigenous Australians, and those attending sexual health centres. In community or general practice settings, pooled prevalence for women <25 years in studies conducted post-2005 was 5.0% (95% CI: 3.1, 6.9; five studies), and for men <30 years over the entire review period was 3.9% (95% CI: 2.7, 5.1; six studies). For young Australians aged <25 years attending sexual health, family planning or youth clinics, estimated prevalence was 6.2% (95% CI: 5.1, 7.4; 10 studies) for women and 10.2% (95% CI: 9.5, 10.9; five studies) for men. Other key findings include pooled prevalence estimates of 22.1% (95% CI: 19.0, 25.3; three studies) for Indigenous women <25 years, 14.6% (95% CI: 11.5, 17.8; three studies) for Indigenous men <25 years, and 5.6% (95% CI: 4.8, 6.3; 11 studies) for rectal infection in men who have sex with men. Several studies failed to report basic demographic details such as sex and age, and were therefore excluded from the analysis. Conclusions Chlamydia trachomatis infections are a significant health burden in Australia; however, accurate estimation of chlamydia prevalence in

  16. Infection control practices of laryngoscope blades: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Machan, Melissa D

    2012-08-01

    Current procedures for cleaning anesthesia airway equipment as assessed by the presence of visible and occult blood on laryngoscope blades and handles as labeled "ready for patient use" has been reported to be ineffective. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) are 2 commonly seen pathogens that frequently are found in the healthcare setting. It has been shown that HBV can survive on a dry surface for at least 7 days and both HIV and HBV are transmitted via blood. The potential for cross-contamination from airway equipment to patient has been shown in several studies. To prevent further potential infections, it should be ascertained why anesthesia providers are not all using disposable laryngoscope blades. The purpose of this literature review is to determine the use and infection control practices of disposable laryngoscope blades. Their frequency of use, their evaluation of ease of use, and any complications encountered when using the disposable blade are reviewed, as well as the perceptions of anesthesia providers regarding disposable laryngoscope blades.

  17. A systematic review of biomarkers in the diagnosis of infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Snipsøyr, Magnus G; Ludvigsen, Maja; Petersen, Eskild; Wiggers, Henrik; Honoré, Bent

    2016-01-01

    Timely diagnosis of bacterial infective endocarditis (IE) is crucial, as mortality remains high in this severe bacterial infection, currently without any distinct biological markers. Our goal was to evaluate potential diagnostic biomarkers by reviewing current literature. The MEDLINE, Embase and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 1980 through June 2015 restricted to English, Norwegian, Danish and Swedish. Eighteen studies qualified, providing a review of the most promising candidates for future studies. Several studies are inconclusive, since they are characterized by using improper control groups. Patients with IE have bacteremia, and control groups should therefore be patients with bacteremia without IE. Based on current research, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) alone or in combination with Cystatin C (Cys C), lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), troponins, aquaporin-9 (AQP9), S100 calcium binding protein A11 (S100A11), E-selectin (CD62E) and VCAM-1 (CD54) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) are potential biomarkers for future studies.

  18. Do antibiotics decrease implant failure and postoperative infections? A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Ata-Ali, J; Ata-Ali, F; Ata-Ali, F

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to systematically review and perform a comprehensive meta-analysis of the current literature to answer the following question: among patients receiving dental implants, does the use of antibiotics, when compared with a control group, reduce the frequency of implant failure and postoperative infection? A manual and electronic PubMed search of the literature was made to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of antibiotics compared with a control group (not receiving antibiotics or receiving placebo). Four RCTs were included in the final review. These four RCTs grouped a total of 2063 implants and a total of 1002 patients. Antibiotic use significantly lowered the implant failure rate (P = 0.003), with an odds ratio of 0.331, implying that antibiotic treatment reduced the odds of failure by 66.9%. The number needed to treat (NNT) to prevent one patient from having an implant failure was 48 (95% confidence interval 31-109). In contrast, antibiotic use did not significantly reduce the incidence of postoperative infection (P = 0.754). Based on the results of this meta-analysis, and pending further research in the field, it can be concluded that there is evidence in favour of systematic antibiotic use in patients receiving dental implants, since such treatment significantly reduces implant failure. In contrast, antibiotic use does not exert a significant preventive effect against postoperative infection. Our recommendations for future research focus on the performance of large-scale RCTs to identify the best choice of antibiotic, timing of administration, and dose. Increased effort is also required to reach consensus and define the most effective antibiotic treatment protocol for patients who are allergic to beta-lactams and for those who are not.

  19. Diabetes and Risk of Surgical Site Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Martin, Emily T; Kaye, Keith S; Knott, Caitlin; Nguyen, Huong; Santarossa, Maressa; Evans, Richard; Bertran, Elizabeth; Jaber, Linda

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To determine the independent association between diabetes and surgical site infection (SSI) across multiple surgical procedures. DESIGN Systematic review and meta-analysis. METHODS Studies indexed in PubMed published between December 1985 and through July 2015 were identified through the search terms "risk factors" or "glucose" and "surgical site infection." A total of 3,631 abstracts were identified through the initial search terms. Full texts were reviewed for 522 articles. Of these, 94 articles met the criteria for inclusion. Standardized data collection forms were used to extract study-specific estimates for diabetes, blood glucose levels, and body mass index (BMI). A random-effects meta-analysis was used to generate pooled estimates, and meta-regression was used to evaluate specific hypothesized sources of heterogeneity. RESULTS The primary outcome was SSI, as defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention surveillance criteria. The overall effect size for the association between diabetes and SSI was odds ratio (OR)=1.53 (95% predictive interval [PI], 1.11-2.12; I2, 57.2%). SSI class, study design, or patient BMI did not significantly impact study results in a meta-regression model. The association was higher for cardiac surgery 2.03 (95% PI, 1.13-4.05) compared with surgeries of other types (P=.001). CONCLUSIONS These results support the consideration of diabetes as an independent risk factor for SSIs for multiple surgical procedure types. Continued efforts are needed to improve surgical outcomes for diabetic patients. Infect. Control Hosp. Epidemiol. 2015;37(1):88-99.

  20. Extent of morbidity associated with schistosomiasis infection in Malawi: a review paper.

    PubMed

    Mtethiwa, Austin H N; Nkwengulila, Gamba; Bakuza, Jared; Sikawa, Daniel; Kazembe, Abigail

    2015-01-01

    Data on the extent of the burden due to schistosomiasis is sparse in most Sub-Saharan African countries. However, this data is crucial for triggering medical attention. A review of extent of morbidity and determinants associated with schistosomiasis in Malawi was therefore conducted to quantify the infection in order to concretise the need for medical intervention. A systematic and traditional search strategy was used to find literature for the review, whilst exclusion and inclusion criteria were used to identify appropriate articles. Logistic regression curves of epidemiological model Y = (a + bx (c) )/(1 + bx (c) ) and the recommendation that schistosomiasis prevalence can be used to estimate morbidity were employed to quantify morbidity at various infection stages. Morbidity was quantified as a direct proportion of the population and the respective national schistosomiasis prevalence. Findings showed that both S. mansoni and S. haematobium are present in Malawi with the latter highly prevalent (50%). Furthermore, out of the estimated population of 16,829 million, approximately 8.4 million have schistosomiasis, with about 4.4 million of these aged 18 years and below. The most frequent manifestation is Katayama syndrome, while ascites is the lowest, impacting about 3.0 million and 960 individuals, respectively. Localised studies on association of schistosomiasis infection to risk factors such as occupation, age and gender found odds ratio (OR) ranging from 1.29 to 5.37. Morbidity due to schistosomiasis is high in Malawi. It is therefore recommended that a more detailed study on the determinants of high schistosomiasis and re-evaluation of the current control measures be conducted if the current morbidity statistics are to be remarkably reduced.

  1. Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly occurrence: a review of literature and Brazilian data.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Newton Sérgio; De Carvalho, Beatriz Freitas; Fugaça, Cyllian Arias; Dóris, Bruna; Biscaia, Evellyn Silverio

    2016-01-01

    In November of 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil published an announcement confirming the relationship between Zika virus and the microcephaly outbreak in the Northeast, suggesting that infected pregnant women might have transmitted the virus to their fetuses. The objectives of this study were to conduct a literature review about Zika virus infection and microcephaly, evaluate national and international epidemiological data, as well as the current recommendations for the health teams. Zika virus is an arbovirus, whose main vector is the Aedes sp. The main symptoms of the infection are maculopapular rash, fever, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Transmission of this pathogen occurs mainly by mosquito bite, but there are also reports via the placenta. Microcephaly is defined as a measure of occipto-frontal circumference being more than two standard deviations below the mean for age and gender. The presence of microcephaly demands evaluation of the patient, in order to diagnose the etiology. Health authorities issued protocols, reports and notes concerning the management of microcephaly caused by Zika virus, but there is still controversy about managing the cases. The Ministry of Health advises notifying any suspected or confirmed cases of children with microcephaly related to the pathogen, which is confirmed by a positive specific laboratory test for the virus. The first choice for imaging exam in children with this malformation is transfontanellar ultrasound. The most effective way to control this outbreak of microcephaly probably caused by this virus is to combat the vector. Since there is still uncertainty about the period of vulnerability of transmission via placenta, the use of repellents is crucial throughout pregnancy. More investigations studying the consequences of this viral infection on the body of newborns and in their development are required.

  2. Infective endocarditis in the transcatheter aortic valve replacement era: comprehensive review of a rare complication.

    PubMed

    Eisen, Alon; Shapira, Yaron; Sagie, Alex; Kornowski, Ran

    2012-11-01

    In recent years, transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has emerged as a revolutionary alternative for surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for the treatment of severe symptomatic aortic stenosis in patients at high risk for surgery. Prosthetic aortic valve endocarditis is a serious complication after SAVR with high morbidity and mortality. Although numerous TAVR procedures have been performed worldwide, infective endocarditis (IE) after TAVR was reported in the literature in few cases only and in 0% to 2.3% of patients enrolled in large TAVR cohorts. Our aim was to review the literature for IE following TAVR and to discuss the diagnostic and management strategies of this rare complication. Ten case reports of IE after TAVR were identified, 8 of which were published as case reports and 2 of which were presented in congresses. Infective endocarditis occurred in a mean time period of 186 days (median, 90 days) after TAVR. Most cases were characterized by fever and elevated inflammatory markers. Infective endocarditis after TAVR shared some common characteristics with IE after SAVR, yet it has some unique features. Echocardiographic findings included leaflet vegetations, severe mitral regurgitation with rupture of the anterior leaflet, and left ventricle outflow tract to left atrium fistula. Bacteriologic findings included several atypical bacteria or fungi. Cases of IE were managed either conservatively by antibiotics and/or using surgery, and the overall prognosis was poor. Infective endocarditis after TAVR deserves prompt diagnosis and treatment. Until further evidence is present, IE after TAVR should be managed according to SAVR guidelines with modifications as needed on a case-by-case basis.

  3. Use of Silver in the Prevention and Treatment of Infections: Silver Review

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Kristin T.; Rosenberger, Laura H.; Sawyer, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background The use of silver for the treatment of various maladies or to prevent the transmission of infection dates back to at least 4000 b.c.e. Medical applications are documented in the literature throughout the 17th and 18th centuries. The bactericidal activity of silver is well established. Silver nitrate was used topically throughout the 1800s for the treatment of burns, ulcerations, and infected wounds, and although its use declined after World War II and the advent of antibiotics, Fox revitalized its use in the form of silver sulfadiazine in 1968. Method Review of the pertinent English-language literature. Results Since Fox's work, the use of topical silver to reduce bacterial burden and promote healing has been investigated in the setting of chronic wounds and ulcers, post-operative incision dressings, blood and urinary catheter designs, endotracheal tubes, orthopedic devices, vascular prostheses, and the sewing ring of prosthetic heart valves. The beneficial effects of silver in reducing or preventing infection have been seen in the topical treatment of burns and chronic wounds and in its use as a coating for many medical devices. However, silver has been unsuccessful in certain applications, such as the Silzone heart valve. In other settings, such as orthopedic hardware coatings, its benefit remains unproved. Conclusion Silver remains a reasonable addition to the armamentarium against infection and has relatively few side effects. However, one should weigh the benefits of silver-containing products against the known side effects and the other options available for the intended purpose when selecting the most appropriate therapy. PMID:23448590

  4. Zika virus infection during pregnancy and microcephaly occurrence: a review of literature and Brazilian data.

    PubMed

    De Carvalho, Newton Sérgio; De Carvalho, Beatriz Freitas; Fugaça, Cyllian Arias; Dóris, Bruna; Biscaia, Evellyn Silverio

    2016-01-01

    In November of 2015, the Ministry of Health of Brazil published an announcement confirming the relationship between Zika virus and the microcephaly outbreak in the Northeast, suggesting that infected pregnant women might have transmitted the virus to their fetuses. The objectives of this study were to conduct a literature review about Zika virus infection and microcephaly, evaluate national and international epidemiological data, as well as the current recommendations for the health teams. Zika virus is an arbovirus, whose main vector is the Aedes sp. The main symptoms of the infection are maculopapular rash, fever, non-purulent conjunctivitis, and arthralgia. Transmission of this pathogen occurs mainly by mosquito bite, but there are also reports via the placenta. Microcephaly is defined as a measure of occipto-frontal circumference being more than two standard deviations below the mean for age and gender. The presence of microcephaly demands evaluation of the patient, in order to diagnose the etiology. Health authorities issued protocols, reports and notes concerning the management of microcephaly caused by Zika virus, but there is still controversy about managing the cases. The Ministry of Health advises notifying any suspected or confirmed cases of children with microcephaly related to the pathogen, which is confirmed by a positive specific laboratory test for the virus. The first choice for imaging exam in children with this malformation is transfontanellar ultrasound. The most effective way to control this outbreak of microcephaly probably caused by this virus is to combat the vector. Since there is still uncertainty about the period of vulnerability of transmission via placenta, the use of repellents is crucial throughout pregnancy. More investigations studying the consequences of this viral infection on the body of newborns and in their development are required. PMID:27102780

  5. Water, Sanitation, Hygiene, and Soil-Transmitted Helminth Infection: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Strunz, Eric C.; Addiss, David G.; Stocks, Meredith E.; Ogden, Stephanie; Utzinger, Jürg; Freeman, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Preventive chemotherapy represents a powerful but short-term control strategy for soil-transmitted helminthiasis. Since humans are often re-infected rapidly, long-term solutions require improvements in water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH). The purpose of this study was to quantitatively summarize the relationship between WASH access or practices and soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection. Methods and Findings We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the associations of improved WASH on infection with STH (Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, hookworm [Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus], and Strongyloides stercoralis). PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, and LILACS were searched from inception to October 28, 2013 with no language restrictions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if they provided an estimate for the effect of WASH access or practices on STH infection. We assessed the quality of published studies with the Grades of Recommendation, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach. A total of 94 studies met our eligibility criteria; five were randomized controlled trials, whilst most others were cross-sectional studies. We used random-effects meta-analyses and analyzed only adjusted estimates to help account for heterogeneity and potential confounding respectively. Use of treated water was associated with lower odds of STH infection (odds ratio [OR] 0.46, 95% CI 0.36–0.60). Piped water access was associated with lower odds of A. lumbricoides (OR 0.40, 95% CI 0.39–0.41) and T. trichiura infection (OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.45–0.72), but not any STH infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.28–3.11). Access to sanitation was associated with decreased likelihood of infection with any STH (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.57–0.76), T. trichiura (OR 0.61, 95% CI 0.50–0.74), and A. lumbricoides (OR 0.62, 95% CI 0.44–0.88), but not with hookworm infection (OR 0.80, 95% CI 0.61–1.06). Wearing shoes was associated with reduced

  6. Knowledge, Attitude, Practice, and Status of Infection Control among Iranian Dentists and Dental Students: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Moradi Khanghahi, Behnam; Jamali, Zahra; Pournaghi Azar, Fatemeh; Naghavi Behzad, Mohammad; Azami-Aghdash, Saber

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims Infection control is an important issue in dentistry, and the dentists are primarily responsible for observing the relevant procedures. Therefore, the present study evaluated knowledge, attitude, practice, and status of infection control among Iranian dentists through systematic review of published results. Materials and methods In this systematic review, the required data was collected searching for keywords including infection, infection control, behavior, performance, practice, attitude, knowledge, dent*, prevention, Iran* and their Persian equivalents in PubMed, Science Direct, Iranmedex, SID, Medlib, and Magiran databases with a time limit of 1985 to 2012. Out of 698 articles, 15 completely related articles were finally considered and the rest were excluded due to lake of relev-ance to the study goals. The required data were extracted and summarized in an Extraction Table and were analyzed ma-nually. Results Evaluating the results of studies indicated inappropriate knowledge, attitude, and practice regarding infection control among Iranian dentists and dental students. Using personal protection devices and observing measures required for infection control were not in accordance with global standards. Conclusion The knowledge, attitudes, and practice of infection control in Iranian dental settings were found to be inadequate. Therefore, dentists should be educated more on the subject and special programs should be in place to monitor the dental settings for observing infection control standards. PMID:23875081

  7. In the footsteps of Ernst Mach - A historical review of shock wave research at the Ernst-Mach-Institut

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, H.

    The aim of this paper is to recall some of the historical work on shock waves and to give a brief survey of research activities at the Ernst-Mach-Institut (EMI). Some fundamental results of Ernst Mach (1838 - 1916) are demonstrated and historical remarks are given to the shock tube as an important tool in shock wave research. The activity at EMI in this field was initiated by Prof. H. Schardin (1902 - 1965) in 1955 and has since been continued. Propagation processes of shock and blast waves, blast loading phenomena, shock attenuation, shock reflection at various surfaces, development of new types of blast simulators, electromagnetically driven T-tubes, precursor and decursor phenomena are only a few examples of research topics at EMI that will be discussed.

  8. [Usefulness of C-reactive protein for the diagnosis of bacterial infections in children. A review].

    PubMed

    Herrera, Patricio; Duffau, Gaston

    2005-05-01

    Although C-Reactive protein (CRP) was described more than 70 years ago and it still is commonly used in practice, studies exploring its usefulness persist while some propose its replacement by other inflammatory acute-phase-mediators. The aim of this clinical review is to answer the question if CRP measurement warrant clinical decisions for febrile children because it discriminates between bacterial from non bacterial etiologies. We made a systematic search by means of MEDLINE, SciELO and LILACS with the following MESH terms: "C-reactive protein", "bacterial", "infection", "children", "diagnosis" or "detection", besides the Haynes selector for articles on diagnosis, between 1950 and 2004. Selection data extraction and critical appraisal were independently made by the two authors, following standard criteria. We selected 7 primary articles, 3 clinical reviews and two randomized clinical trials. There was no disagreement between reviewers. Only one of the clinical reviews followed standard guidelines; two reviews concluded that no isolated CRP values would warrant to make decisions on starting or withholding antimicrobial therapy in febrile children. All primary articles showed methodological flaws in basic validity criteria. Both randomized clinical trials showed that CRP results did not change either doctor's decisions about antimicrobial prescriptions nor the studied patients' prognosis. We did not find evidences that could warrant the use of CRP for the defined problem in Pediatrics. Main problems affecting validity of studies on CRP as diagnostic resource are the lack of laboratory methods uniformity--including the gold standard make up--the heterogeneity of cut off points, clinical spectrum inappropriateness of study groups as well as the resulting diversity of the fixed indexes values. Moreover, no validation of this test in children population has been made so far.

  9. Human diarrhea infections associated with domestic animal husbandry: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Zambrano, Laura D; Levy, Karen; Menezes, Neia P; Freeman, Matthew C

    2014-06-01

    Domestic animal husbandry, a common practice globally, can lead to zoonotic transmission of enteric pathogens. However, this risk has received little attention to date. This systematic review and meta-analysis examines the evidence for an association between domestic exposure to food-producing animals and cases of human diarrhea and specific enteric infections. We performed a systematic review of available literature to examine domestic livestock and poultry as risk factors for diarrhea and applied pre-determined quality criteria. Where possible, we carried out meta-analysis of specific animal-pathogen pairs. We found consistent evidence of a positive association between exposure to domestic food-producing animals and diarrheal illness across a range of animal exposures and enteric pathogens. Out of 29 studies included in the review, 20 (69.0%) reported a positive association between domestic animal exposure and diarrhea. Domestic exposure to poultry revealed a substantial association with human campylobacteriosis (OR 2.73, 95% CI 1.90-3.93). Our results suggest that domestic poultry and livestock exposures are associated with diarrheal illness in humans. Failure to ascertain the microbial cause of disease may mask this effect. Exposure to domestic animals should be considered a risk factor for human diarrheal illness and additional studies may identify potential mitigation strategies to address this risk.

  10. Ionizing radiation and the human gender proportion at birth--A concise review of the literature and complementary analyses of historical and recent data.

    PubMed

    Scherb, Hagen; Voigt, Kristina; Kusmierz, Ralf

    2015-12-01

    It has long been known that ionizing radiation causes genetic mutations and that nuclear bomb testing, nuclear accidents, and the regular and incidental emissions of nuclear facilities enhance environmental radioactivity. For this reason, the carcinogenic and genetic impact of ionizing radiation has been an escalating issue for environmental health and human health studies in the past decades. The Windscale fire (1957) and the Chernobyl accident (1986) caused alterations to the human birth sex ratio at national levels across Europe, and childhood cancer and childhood leukemia are consistently elevated near nuclear power plants. These findings are generalized and corroborated by the observation of increased sex ratios near nuclear facilities in Austria, France, Germany, Luxembourg, Switzerland, and The Netherlands. We present a concise review of the pertinent literature and we complement our review by spatiotemporal analyses of historical and most recent data. Evidence of genetic damage by elevated environmental radioactivity is provided. PMID:26527392

  11. [Septic shock due to a community acquired Clostridium difficile infection. A case study and a review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Bermejo, C; Maseda, E; Salgado, P; Gabilondo, G; Gilsanz, F

    2014-04-01

    The epidemiology of Clostridium difficile infection has changed in the past decade. The incidence rate of community acquired cases has increased in patients with no typical risk factors. We present a patient who was diagnosed with community-acquired Clostridium difficile infection who presented with acute abdominal pain, and subsequently developed acute renal failure and septic shock. We describe the diagnosis, treatment and outcome and brief review of the literature.

  12. Soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following acupuncture: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Guevara-Patiño, Armando; Sandoval de Mora, Marisol; Farreras, Aileen; Rivera-Olivero, Ismar; Fermin, Danibeth; de Waard, Jacobus H

    2010-09-03

    We report the first case of a post-acupuncture soft tissue infection due to Mycobacterium fortuitum. Two months after finishing an acupuncture treatment session, an immunocompetent 23-year-old woman developed cellulitis at the side of the needle insertions and the acid-fast bacillus was isolated from a closed abscess. The patient was successfully treated with a proper drug combination. We review the literature concerning the infection source and the risks for skin and soft tissue infection due to mycobacteria after acupuncture. The infection source in most cases is unknown but is probably associated with the inadequate sterilization of the needles or the puncture site. We show that these infections are not rare but difficult to diagnose. To avoid delays in the definitive diagnosis, infection with mycobacteria should be considered for skin and soft tissue infections, in particular late-onset infections, which are negative for routine bacterial cultures and without a clinical response to antibiotics used for acute pyogenic infections. Bacterial cultures from this lesion should be maintained for at least six weeks before discharged as negative.

  13. Acute toxicity of adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide for early breast cancer -- a retrospective review of Chinese patients and comparison with an historic Western series.

    PubMed

    Ma, Brigette; Yeo, Winnie; Hui, Pun; Ho, Wing M; Johnson, Philip J

    2002-02-01

    A cohort of 85 Chinese breast cancer patients who received adjuvant chemotherapy with doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide was found to have a significantly higher incidence of grade 3 (n=44, 52%) and grade 4 (n=21, 25%) neutropenia when compared with an historic Western cohort. Also noted was a higher incidence of hepatotoxicity (n=8, 9%). When compared to Caucasian patients, the higher myelotoxicity in our patients may be related to ethnic variation in susceptibility to chemotherapy-related toxicity, lower body mass index with higher percentage of body fat composition, and the popular practice of concurrent alternative medicine during chemotherapy. The higher incidence of hepatoxicity was possibly associated with endemic chronic hepatitis B infection in this geographical area.

  14. Hepatitis B and C Virus Infection and Hepatocellular Carcinoma in China: A Review of Epidemiology and Control Measures

    PubMed Central

    Tanaka, Masahiro; Katayama, Francisco; Kato, Hideaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Wang, Jianbing; Qiao, You Lin; Inoue, Manami

    2011-01-01

    China has one of the highest carrier prevalences of hepatitis B virus (HBV) in the world: nearly 10% of the general population. The disease burden of HBV infection and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is also believed to be among the world’s largest, and that of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is likely to be substantial as well. However, the epidemiology and measures to control HBV and HCV infection in China remain relatively unknown outside the country. We review the epidemiology of HBV and HCV infection, the disease burden of and risk factors for HCC, and current control measures against HBV and HCV infection in China. We also discuss the relevant literature and implications for future studies of hepatitis and HCC in China. PMID:22041528

  15. Helicobacter pylori infection and atopic diseases: Is there a relationship? A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lionetti, Elena; Leonardi, Salvatore; Lanzafame, Angela; Garozzo, Maria Teresa; Filippelli, Martina; Tomarchio, Stefania; Ferrara, Viviana; Salpietro, Carmelo; Pulvirenti, Alfredo; Francavilla, Ruggiero; Catassi, Carlo

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To review and conduct a meta-analysis of the existing literature on the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori), atopy and allergic diseases. METHODS: Studies published in English assessing the prevalence of atopy and/or allergic diseases in patients with H. pylori infection and the prevalence of H. pylori infection in patients with atopy and/or allergic diseases were identified through a MEDLINE search (1950-2014). Random-effect model was used for the meta-analysis. RESULTS: Pooled results of case-control studies showed a significant inverse association of H. pylori infection with atopy/allergic disease or with exclusively atopy, but not with allergic disease, whereas pooled results of cross-sectional studies showed only a significant association between allergic disease and H. pylori infection. CONCLUSION: There is some evidence of an inverse association between atopy/allergic diseases and H. pylori infection, although further studied are needed. PMID:25516679

  16. Schistosomiasis Prevalence and Intensity of Infection in Latin America and the Caribbean Countries, 1942-2014: A Systematic Review in the Context of a Regional Elimination Goal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2012 the World Health Assembly adopted resolution WHA65.21 on elimination of schistosomiasis, calling for increased investment in schistosomiasis control and support for countries to initiate elimination programs. This study aims to analyze prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma mansoni infection in children in Latin America and the Caribbean countries and territories (LAC), at the second administrative level or lower. Methodology A systematic review of schistosomiasis prevalence and intensity of infection was conducted by searching at PubMed, LILACS and EMBASE. Experts on the topic were informally consulted and institutional web pages were reviewed (PAHO/WHO, Ministries of Health). Only SCH infection among children was registered because it can be a ‘proxi-indicator’ of recent transmission by the time the study is conducted. Principal Findings One hundred thirty two full-text articles met the inclusion criteria and provided 1,242 prevalence and 199 intensity of infection data points. Most of them were from Brazil (69.7%). Only Brazil published studies after 2001, showing several 'hot spots' with high prevalence. Brazil, Venezuela, Suriname and Saint Lucia need to update the epidemiological status of schistosomiasis to re-design their national programs and target the elimination of Schistosoma mansoni transmission by 2020. In Antigua and Barbuda, Dominican Republic, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Montserrat and Puerto Rico schistosomiasis transmission may be interrupted. However the compilation of an elimination dossier and follow-up surveys, per WHO recommendations, are needed to verify that status. Hence, the burden of subtle SCH chronic infection may be still present and even high in countries that may have eliminated transmission. Heterogeneity in the methodologies used for monitoring and evaluating the progress of the schistosomiasis programs was found, making cross-national and chronological comparisons difficult. Conclusions There is a need for

  17. Why and How I Use Historical Fiction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, Tarry

    1995-01-01

    A fifth-grade teacher discusses why she teaches with historical fiction, presenting tips on choosing good historical fiction, reviewing her favorite new historical fiction books, and highlighting how to use historical fiction to teach by discussing Pocahontas to help students differentiate between make-believe and history. (SM)

  18. Dengue-induced Acute Kidney Injury (DAKI): A Neglected and Fatal Complication of Dengue Viral Infection--A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Mallhi, Tauqeer Hussain; Sarriff, Azmi; Adnan, Azreen Syazril; Khan, Yusra Habib; Hamzah, Azhar Amir; Jummaat, Fauziah; Khan, Amer Hayat

    2015-11-01

    Dengue Viral Infection (DVI) imperils an estimated 2.5 billion people living in tropical and subtropical regions. World Health Organization (2011) guidelines also classified dengue as 'Expanded Dengue Syndrome' to incorporate wide spectrum of unusual manifestations of dengue infection affecting various organ systems - including liver, kidney, heart and brain. Renal involvements are least appreciated area of dengue infection, therefore, we systematically reviewed studies describing renal disorders in dengue infection, with emphasis on Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). The purpose of current review is to underscore clinicians’attention to this neglected intricacy of DVI. It suggests that dengue induced renal involvements vary from glomerulonephritis, nephrotic range proteinuria and AKI. We observed great disparity in incidence of AKI among dengue patients, based upon criteria used to define AKI. AKI among dengue patients was found to be associated with significant morbidity, mortality and longer hospitalization, adding financial burden to patients and healthcare system. Additionally, we identified several predictors of AKI in dengue patients including old age, obesity, severe dengue infection and concurrent bacterial or viral infection. Direct viral injury and deposition of antigen-antibody complex in glomerulus were found to be possible causes of renal disorders in dengue infection. Prior knowledge of clinico-laboratory characteristics and risk factors with early detection of AKI by using appropriate criteria would not only reduce morbidity and mortality but also decrease burden to patients and healthcare system. PMID:26577971

  19. Pulmonary Tuberculosis in Severely-malnourished or HIV-infected Children with Pneumonia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Tahmeed; Pietroni, Mark A.C.; Faruque, Abu S.G.; Ashraf, Hasan; Bardhan, Pradip K.; Hossain, Md. Iqbal; Das, Sumon Kumar; Salam, Mohammed Abdus

    2013-01-01

    Presentation of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) as acute pneumonia in severely-malnourished and HIV-positive children has received very little attention, although this is very important in the management of pneumonia in children living in communities where TB is highly endemic. Our aim was to identify confirmed TB in children with acute pneumonia and HIV infection and/or severe acute malnutrition (SAM) (weight-for-length/height or weight-for-age z score <-3 of the WHO median, or presence of nutritional oedema). We conducted a literature search, using PubMed and Web of Science in April 2013 for the period from January 1974 through April 2013. We included only those studies that reported confirmed TB identified by acid fast bacilli (AFB) through smear microscopy, or by culture-positive specimens from children with acute pneumonia and SAM and/or HIV infection. The specimens were collected either from induced sputum (IS), or gastric lavage (GL), or broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL), or percutaneous lung aspirates (LA). Pneumonia was defined as the radiological evidence of lobar or patchy consolidation and/or clinical evidence of severe/very severe pneumonia according to the WHO criteria of acute respiratory infection. A total of 17 studies met our search criteria but 6 were relevant for our review. Eleven studies were excluded as those did not assess the HIV status of the children or specify the nutritional status of the children with acute pneumonia and TB. We identified only 747 under-five children from the six relevant studies that determined a tubercular aetiology of acute pneumonia in children with SAM and/or positive HIV status. Three studies were reported from South Africa and one each from the Gambia, Ethiopia, and Thailand where 610, 90, 35, and 12 children were enrolled and 64 (10%), 23 (26%), 5 (14%), and 1 (8%) children were identified with active TB respectively, with a total of 93 (12%) children with active TB. Among 610 HIV-infected children in three studies

  20. Scrub typhus infection presenting as acute heart failure: A case report and systematic review of literature of cardiopulmonary involvement in scrub typhus infection.

    PubMed

    Ray, Animesh; Nangia, Vivek; Chatterji, R S; Dalal, Navin

    2016-01-01

    We describe a middle aged previoulsy healthy female patient who presented with clinical features suggestive of acute heart failure. Investigations revealed very high NT pro-BNP, right heart enlargement, bilateral pulmonary alveolar edema and bilateral pleural effusion. In view of falling platelet counts and exudative pleural effusion inflammatory/infective causes were considered. Her Weil Felix test was strongly positive and IgM for scrub typhus also returned positive. She was started on doxycycline to which there was dramatic improvement. Thus in this case scrub typhus infection presented as acute right heart failure and the cause seemed elusive at the outset. We also systematically reviewed the existing literature on cardio-pulmonary manifestations of scrub typhus infection. PMID:27578941

  1. Micronutrients and sickle cell disease, effects on growth, infection and vaso-occlusive crisis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Dekker, Louise H; Fijnvandraat, Karin; Brabin, Bernard J; van Hensbroek, Michael Boele

    2012-08-01

    Patients with Sickle cell disease (SCD) exhibit signs of poor growth, increased susceptibility to infection and recurrent episodes of painful vaso-occlusive crises. Micronutrient deficiencies may increase susceptibility to these outcomes. We conducted a systematic review to assess the strength of evidence for improved outcomes related to micronutrient interventions. Six randomized-controlled trials of moderate quality met the inclusion criteria. Zinc supplementation was associated with improved growth and decreased incidence of infection and is a promising intervention in the management of SCD patients. Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation was associated with limited reduction in vaso occlusive crises. This review identifies key knowledge gaps, which are important research priorities for nutritional interventions.

  2. ATYPICAL PRESENTATION OF RECURRENT VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS INFECTION: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Prasertyothin, Supanan; Leeyaphan, Charussri

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent varicella infection is rare but has been reported in immunocompromised patients. We present a patient with atypical recurrent varicella infection who had disseminated central crusting papular lesions without dermatomal distribution. Serology showed previous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and the lesions were positive for VZV DNA, consistent with recurrent VZV infection. Atypical recurrent varicella infection is probably an under-recognized condition. VZV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ecthyma-like lesions in an immunocompromised host.

  3. ATYPICAL PRESENTATION OF RECURRENT VARICELLA ZOSTER VIRUS INFECTION: A CASE REPORT AND REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE.

    PubMed

    Bunyaratavej, Sumanas; Prasertyothin, Supanan; Leeyaphan, Charussri

    2015-01-01

    Recurrent varicella infection is rare but has been reported in immunocompromised patients. We present a patient with atypical recurrent varicella infection who had disseminated central crusting papular lesions without dermatomal distribution. Serology showed previous varicella zoster virus (VZV) infection and the lesions were positive for VZV DNA, consistent with recurrent VZV infection. Atypical recurrent varicella infection is probably an under-recognized condition. VZV infection should be considered in the differential diagnosis of ecthyma-like lesions in an immunocompromised host. PMID:26513902

  4. Pharmacological therapy used in the elimination of Helicobacter pylori infection: A review

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos, Ariolana A; Carvalho, Adriana A

    2015-01-01

    The optimal therapy for Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection should combine a high cure rate and a short treatment duration with a favorable side-effect profile and should maintain a low cost. Several strategies have been proposed to increase the H. pylori eradication rate, including the extension of the treatment duration to 14 d, the use of a four-drug regimen (quadruple, sequential, and concomitant treatments), and the use of novel antibiotics, such as levofloxacin. However, triple therapy remains the most widely accepted first-line treatment regimen in Brazil and the United States and throughout Europe. Because this therapy is limited by resistance to clarithromycin, other therapeutic regimens have been investigated worldwide. This review describes the current literature involving studies directly comparing these different therapies and their efficacies. PMID:25574087

  5. Brachyspira pilosicoli bloodstream infections: Case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Bait-Merabet, Lilia; Thille, Arnaud; Legrand, Patrick; Brun-Buisson, Christian; Cattoir, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli is the etiologic agent of human and animal intestinal spirochetosis and is rarely implicated as a cause of bacteremia. Here, we describe the case of a B. pilosicoli spirochetemia in a 53-year-old male patient suffering from cardiogenic shock. This fastidious bacterium was isolated from blood, likely after translocation from the intestinal tract. Blood cultures were positive after 5 days of incubation (one day after the patient's death), highlighting the problem of the recovery of such type of fastidious bacterium. Identification was achieved by molecular methods (16S rRNA sequencing). A review of the English literature found only 8 cases of bacteremia caused by B. pilosicoli, mostly in immunocompromised or critically ill patients. Finally, difficulties in rapid and accurate diagnosis of B. pilosicoli bloodstream infections, in vitro antimicrobial susceptibility of human clinical isolates, and therapeutic options are discussed. PMID:18817558

  6. Three cases of human Sarcocystis infection with a review of human muscular sarcocystosis in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Pathmanathan, R; Kan, S P

    1992-01-01

    Three cases of muscular sarcocystosis from West Malaysia are reported. The morphological features of the parasites from these three cases are similar to the eight cases previously reported from this country. A review of this total of eleven cases of muscular sarcocystosis showed that they were all incidental findings, where man acted as intermediate hosts of as yet unknown Sarcocystis spp. These cases of muscular sarcocystosis were probably zoonotic in origin and associated with close contact with definitive hosts (both domestic and wild animals) thus permitting the contamination of food and drink with sporocysts shed by these definitive hosts. These infections were probably acquired locally as most of the subjects were born in Malaysia and none had ever left the country to stay elsewhere. Eight of the eleven cases reported were associated with malignancies, especially of the tongue and nasopharynx.

  7. [Tuberculous peritonitis. Description of 2 cases associated with another infection and literature review].

    PubMed

    Arend, P; Valizadeh, A; Dryjski, J; Geens, M

    1990-01-01

    The authors report two cases of peritoneal tuberculosis observed in Belgium: a 28-year-old black man, immigrant from Ghana and a 24-year-old caucasian woman. In both patients, tuberculosis was associated with another infection. The first patient had a retroperitoneal amoebic cyst and in the second patient Chlamydia trachomatis was found with Koch bacillus in the ascitic fluid. Both patients were successfully treated with appropriate antibiotics. Following the review of recent literature, it appears that the incidence of extrapulmonary tuberculosis is increasing in the industrialized part of the world, peritoneal tuberculosis now representing 0.5% of all cases of tuberculosis. Mortality approaches 7%. The diagnosis is difficult and should be evoked more often in order to be confirmed by appropriate means, such as ascitic fluid adenosine desaminase, bacteriology and peritoneoscopy.

  8. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Chan, Philip A; Robinette, Ashley; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Cu-Uvin, Susan; Lonks, John R; Chapin, Kimberle C; Kojic, Erna M; Hardy, Erica J

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6-35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0-29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0-77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2-3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2-24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5-16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1-23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0-3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0-5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4-15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0-11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0-22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  9. Extragenital Infections Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Philip A.; Montgomery, Madeline; Almonte, Alexi; Lonks, John R.; Chapin, Kimberle C.; Kojic, Erna M.; Hardy, Erica J.

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, sexually transmitted diseases due to Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae continue to be a major public health burden. Screening of extragenital sites including the oropharynx and rectum is an emerging practice based on recent studies highlighting the prevalence of infection at these sites. We reviewed studies reporting the prevalence of extragenital infections in women, men who have sex with men (MSM), and men who have sex only with women (MSW), including distribution by anatomical site. Among women, prevalence was found to be 0.6–35.8% for rectal gonorrhea (median reported prevalence 1.9%), 0–29.6% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.1%), 2.0–77.3% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.7%), and 0.2–3.2% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSM, prevalence was found to be 0.2–24.0% for rectal gonorrhea (median 5.9%), 0.5–16.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 4.6%), 2.1–23.0% for rectal chlamydia (median 8.9%), and 0–3.6% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.7%). Among MSW, the prevalence was found to be 0–5.7% for rectal gonorrhea (median 3.4%), 0.4–15.5% for pharyngeal gonorrhea (median 2.2%), 0–11.8% for rectal chlamydia (median 7.7%), and 0–22.0% for pharyngeal chlamydia (median 1.6%). Extragenital infections are often asymptomatic and found in the absence of reported risk behaviors, such as receptive anal and oral intercourse. We discuss current clinical recommendations and future directions for research. PMID:27366021

  10. Helicobacter pylori Infection and Risk of Gastric Cancer in Korea: A Quantitative Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: In the context of the global decrease in mortality due to gastric cancer, previous studies have reported that the effect of chronic Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection on the incidence of gastric cancer varies among regions. This systematic review was conducted to investigate H. pylori as a risk factor for gastric cancer in Korea, where the incidence of gastric cancer is among the highest in the world. Methods: A search strategy was established to identify articles published in Korean as well as in English. Ultimately, we included observational studies conducted among Korean patients that designed with an age-matched and sex-matched control group that reported the odds ratio associated with H. pylori. Gastric cancer cases were subdivided into overall (OGC), cardia (CGC), non-cardia (NGC), early (EGC), advanced, intestinal (IGC), and diffuse forms of gastric cancer. Summary odds ratios (SORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated in the meta-analysis using a random-effect model. Results: Eleven case-control studies were ultimately selected. H. pylori was associated with an SOR of 1.81 (95% CI, 1.29 to 2.54) for OGC. Additionally, statistically significant risks were observed for CGC, NGC, EGC, and IGC. Conclusions: Chronic H. pylori infection was found to raise the risk of gastric cancer among Koreans, with the highest risk observed for CGC and EGC (SOR=2.88 for both). Follow-up clinical epidemiologic studies are needed to assess the effects of current treatments aimed at eradicating H. pylori infections. PMID:27499162

  11. Trichinella infections in animals and humans in sub-Saharan Africa: a review.

    PubMed

    Mukaratirwa, Samson; La Grange, Louis; Pfukenyi, Davies M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this review is to provide information on Trichinella infection in humans, livestock and wildlife in sub-Saharan Africa mainly focusing on geographical distribution of species/genotypes, biology, host range, life cycles and to identify research gaps. Trichinella britovi, Trichinella nelsoni and Trichinella zimbabwensis and one genotype (Trichinella T8) are known to occur in sub-Saharan Africa. Distinct geographic ranges with overlapping of some taxa in some areas have been observed. Genetic variants of T. nelsoni has been reported to occur among parasites originating from Eastern and Southern Africa and sequence heterogeneity also occurs among T. zimbabwensis isolates originating from different regions of Zimbabwe and South Africa. Field observations so far indicate that sylvatic Trichinella infections in the region are common in carnivores (mammals and reptiles) and to a lesser extent in omnivores. Cannibalism, scavenging and predation appear to be the most important routes of transmission and maintenance of the sylvatic cycles of the Trichinella taxa. To date, human trichinellosis has been documented in only four sub-Saharan countries (8.7%, 4/46). Bushpigs and warthogs have been the source of human infection with T. britovi and T. nelsoni being the aetiological agents. An increase in bushmeat trade and the creation of Transfrontier Conservation Areas (TFCAs) may have increased the risk of human trichinellosis in the region. With the creation of TFCAs in the region, sampling of wildlife hosts from protected areas of most sub-Sahara African countries is required to fully map the distribution of Trichinella species/genotypes in this region. More structured field surveys are still needed to determine the sylvatic host distribution of the different Trichinella taxa. Biological data of the Trichinella taxa in both wild and domestic animals of sub-Saharan Africa is very limited and further research is required.

  12. The role of antioxidants treatment on the pathogenesis of malarial infections: a review.

    PubMed

    Isah, Murtala Bindawa; Ibrahim, Mohammed Auwal

    2014-03-01

    Oxidative damage is one of the most important pathological consequences of malarial infections. It affects vital organs of the body manifesting in changes such as splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, endothelial and cognitive damages. The currently used antimalarials often leave traces of these damages after therapy, as evident in memory impairment after cerebral malaria. Hence, some research investigations have focused attention on the use of antioxidants, alone or in combination with antimalarials, as a viable therapeutic strategy aimed at alleviating plasmodium-induced oxidative stress and its associated complications. However, the practical application of this approach often yields conflicting outcomes because some antimalarials specifically act via induction of oxidative stress. This article critically reviews most of the studies conducted on the potential role of antioxidant therapy in malarial infections. The most frequently investigated antioxidants are vitamins C and E, N-acetylcystein, folate and desferroxamine. Some of the investigations measured the effects of direct administration of the antioxidants on the plasmodium parasites while others performed an adjunctive therapy with standard antimalarials. The therapeutic application of each of the antioxidants in malaria management depends on the targeted aspect of malarial pathology. It is hoped that this article will provide an informed basis for future research activities on the therapeutic role of antioxidants on malarial pathogenesis.

  13. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, A L; Bayas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines.

  14. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review.

    PubMed

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, A L; Bayas, J M

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines. PMID:26208678

  15. Native Brazilian plants against nosocomial infections: a critical review on their potential and the antimicrobial methodology.

    PubMed

    H Moreno, Paulo Roberto; da Costa-Issa, Fabiana Inácio; Rajca-Ferreira, Agnieszka K; Pereira, Marcos A A; Kaneko, Telma M

    2013-01-01

    The growing incidences of drug-resistant pathogens have increased the attention on several medicinal plants and their metabolites for antimicrobial properties. These pathogens are the main cause of nosocomial infections which led to an increasing mortality among hospitalized patients. Taking into consideration those factors, this paper reviews the state-of-the-art of the research on antibacterial agents from native Brazilian plant species related to nosocomial infections as well as the current methods used in the investigations of the antimicrobial activity and points out the differences in techniques employed by the authors. The antimicrobial assays most frequently used were broth microdilution, agar diffusion, agar dilution and bioautography. The broth microdilution method should be the method of choice for testing new antimicrobial agents from plant extracts or isolated compounds due to its advantages. At the moment, only a small part of the rich Brazilian flora has been investigated for antimicrobial activity, mostly with unfractionated extracts presenting a weak or moderate antibacterial activity. The combination of crude extract with conventional antibiotics represents a largely unexploited new form of chemotherapy with novel and multiple mechanisms of action that can overcome microbial resistance that needs to be further investigated. The antibacterial activity of essential oil vapours might also be an interesting alternative treatment of hospital environment due to their ability in preventing biofilm formation. However, in both alternatives more studies should be done on their mode of action and toxicological effects in order to optimize their use. PMID:24200361

  16. Human papillomavirus infection by anatomical site among Greek men and women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Tsikis, Savas; Hoefer, Lea; Charnot-Katsikas, Angella; Schneider, John A

    2016-11-01

    We systematically reviewed the literature on anal, penile, cervical, and oropharyngeal human papillomavirus (HPV) infection in Greece to provide a comprehensive overview of HPV prevalence and to explore the reporting of HPV in Greek men and women. A total of five databases, including PubMed and Scopus, were searched up until 1 January 2015 for studies looking at HPV prevalence, incidence, or risk factors by anatomical site. We identified 50 eligible studies for inclusion. The majority of them were cervical studies (n=26) followed by head and neck studies (n=13) with only two studies exclusively focusing on anal sites and two on penile sites. The remaining studies examined prevalence from multiple sites. Most studies looked at small, high-risk populations, and HPV prevalence ranged from 2.5-43.4% for cervical studies; 0-91% for head and neck studies; 54.6-78.4% for anal studies; and 20.3-66.7% for penile studies. Age, smoking, and number of sexual partners were the commonly assessed risk factors. There were significant sex and anatomic site disparities in the reporting of HPV prevalence. Given the relationship between HPV infection and the increasing incidence of anal cancer in men, more research is needed to reveal the prevalence of HPV at these sites in Greek men, especially given the reports of the declining health of the Greek population.

  17. The Potential Danger of Eating Wild Lettuce: A Brief Review of Human Rat Lungworm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Anisowicz, Sarah K

    2014-01-01

    Angiostrongylus cantonensis, the causative agent of human rat lungworm disease, is the most common cause of eosinophilic meningitis worldwide and is endemic throughout Asia Pacific. It is acquired through the consumption of infected freshwater mollusks or contaminated produce. Human angiostrongyliasis is usually a self-limited disease presenting with headache and various neurologic sequelae varying from cranial nerve palsies to radiculitis and/or paresthesias. Fatal cases are rare, and manifest as fulminant meningomyeloencephalitis. The diagnosis is made through the use of clinical history, exam, and laboratory data including peripheral blood counts, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations, and serologic or molecular diagnostic techniques. Medical therapy is largely focused on symptomatic relief, and includes analgesics, lumbar puncture, and corticosteroids. In resource-limited settings, prevention is key, and the use of analgesics can provide symptomatic relief after infection. Efforts to increase disease awareness have been made in endemic areas, as evidenced by the recent Rat Lungworm Disease Scientific Workshop which was held in Honolulu in 2011. The proceedings of the workshop were published in a supplement to this journal (Hawaii J Med Public Health. Jun 2013;72(6):Supp 2). However, wilderness medicine and travel medicine specialists must also be aware of the disease, how it is contracted, its presentation, and treatment options should they encounter a patient who is in or has returned from an endemic area. This brief review highlights eosinophilic meningitis caused by A. cantonensis, including an example case, an overview of its clinical presentation, treatment options, and prevention. PMID:25478300

  18. Economic and psychosocial impact of rotavirus infection in Spain: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Álvarez Aldeán, Javier; Aristegui, Javier; López-Belmonte, Juan Luis; Pedrós, Montse; Sicilia, José García

    2014-06-24

    Severe rotavirus gastroenteritis is common in children under 5 years of age. A literature review was performed to investigate the economic and psychosocial impact of rotavirus infection in children in this age group. We retrieved 56 articles on the economic burden of the disease in Europe, 18 of them reported data from Spain; 8 articles were retrieved analysing its psychosocial impact. In Spain, rotavirus is responsible for 14% to 30% of all cases of gastroenteritis, and a quarter of these require hospitalisation. It is also associated with high use of health care resources (emergency and primary care visits). Rotavirus gastroenteritis costs the Spanish national health system EUR 28 million a year and causes productivity loss in two-thirds of parents (mean of 4 days). Taking into account these costs, it was estimated that implementing universal vaccination could prevent 76% to 95% of hospital admissions due to rotavirus gastroenteritis, as well as reduce emergency and paediatric visits, nosocomial infections, and days missed from work (77% reduction). Rotavirus gastroenteritis also has a considerable psychosocial impact on the family, although it is difficult to compare results due to the diversity of study designs and the low specificity of the measurement tools used. It also causes high stress among parents, adding to their workload and adversely affecting their quality of life.

  19. Prostate adenocarcinoma associated with prostatic infection due to Schistosoma haematobium. Case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Jacinta Chaves; Richter, Joachim; Borja, Nilo; Balaca, Antonino; Costa, Sandra; Belo, Silvana; Grácio, Maria Amélia

    2015-02-01

    Schistosomiasis affects more than 240 million people worldwide, an infection which may cause urogenital manifestations including, among others, squamous bladder cancer and prostate involvement. We describe the first case of a prostate adenocarcinoma associated with prostatic Schistosoma haematobium infection occurring in Angola. Prostate carcinoma was suspected because of high levels of prostate-specific antigen. This observation prompted us to review the literature on schistosomiaisis with respect to genital pathology and prostate cancer. Described genital manifestations in men include funiculitis, epididymitis, granulomata of the seminal vesicles, testicular masses, and prostate lesions which may cause haematospermia and infertility. In contrast to bladder cancer, only 12 reports including the present case on 17 cases on prostate carcinoma associated with schistosomiasis have been published worldwide. The rarity of reports on prostate carcinoma associated with schistosomiasis is partly due to diagnostic constraints, and its incidence is underestimated. However, in emerging countries, the incidence of prostate cancer appears to increase mainly as a result of urbanization and improved access to health care where schistosomiasis prevalence is decreasing.

  20. Hepatitis B and A vaccination in HIV-infected adults: A review

    PubMed Central

    Mena, G; García-Basteiro, AL; Bayas, JM

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B and A account for considerable morbidity and mortality worldwide. Immunization is the most effective means of preventing hepatitis B and A. However, the immune response to both hepatitis vaccines seems to be reduced in HIV-infected subjects. The aim of this review was to analyze the immunogenicity, safety, long-term protection and current recommendations of hepatitis B and A vaccination among HIV-infected adults. The factors most frequently associated with a deficient level of anti-HBs or IgG anti-HAV after vaccination are those related to immunosuppression (CD4 level and HIV RNA viral load) and to the frequency of administration and/or the amount of antigenic load per dose. The duration of the response to both HBV and HAV vaccines is associated with suppression of the viral load at vaccination and, in the case of HBV vaccination, with a higher level of antibodies after vaccination. In terms of safety, there is no evidence of more, or different, adverse effects compared with HIV-free individuals. Despite literature-based advice on the administration of alternative schedules, revaccination after the failure of primary vaccination, and the need for periodic re-evaluation of antibody levels, few firm recommendations are found in the leading guidelines. PMID:26208678

  1. Laryngoscope blades and handles as sources of cross-infection: an integrative review.

    PubMed

    Negri de Sousa, A C; Levy, C E; Freitas, M I P

    2013-04-01

    The lack of standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, which may be important sources of infection during their clinical use, has been reported previously, revealing contamination with blood, body fluids and micro-organisms. This paper aimed to evaluate the evidence available in the literature regarding the risk of laryngoscope blades and handles as a source of patient contamination. An integrative review of the literature was performed using databases such as Medline, LILACS, SciELO, Cochrane Library, BDENF and PubMed, and keywords in Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). The sample comprised 20 articles published between 1994 and 2012. The studies demonstrated risk of cross-infection and no consensus in current guidelines regarding cleaning and disinfection of this equipment. It was concluded that there are important gaps to be filled and urgent investigations required in order to facilitate standardization of efficient procedures to clean and disinfect laryngoscope blades and handles, and in turn to reduce the potential risk to which the patient and/or health team is exposed.

  2. International guideline changes and the incidence of infective endocarditis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omeair; Shafi, Ahmed Mohamed Abdel; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact on incident infective endocarditis (IE) of guideline recommendations to restrict indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2015 using mesh terms relevant to the research question. Included were English language articles published after 2009 that provided estimates of IE incidence before-and-after major international guideline changes. Seven studies were identified: 1 conducted in France, 4 in the USA and 2 in the UK. Only 1 study reported an increase in the rate of incident IE following guideline modification, and the remainder showed no change in upward (2 studies) or downward (4 studies) incidence trends. Study quality was generally poor for answering the question posed in this review, with serious risk of bias related to diagnostic ascertainment and unavailability of population risk data to adjust the incidence estimates. Moreover, the studies were often small, and relevant bacteriological data were not always available. Only 2 reported changes in antibiotic prescriptions, but these data were not linked to health records making it impossible to determine causal relations to changes in incident IE. The studies in this review were heterogenous in their design and variably limited by study size, duration of follow-up, diagnostic ascertainment, and absence of relevant prescription and bacteriological data. The studies were inconsistent in their conclusions and it remains uncertain what, if any, has been the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis guideline changes on the incidence of IE. PMID:27621836

  3. International guideline changes and the incidence of infective endocarditis: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Omeair; Shafi, Ahmed Mohamed Abdel; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact on incident infective endocarditis (IE) of guideline recommendations to restrict indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2015 using mesh terms relevant to the research question. Included were English language articles published after 2009 that provided estimates of IE incidence before-and-after major international guideline changes. Seven studies were identified: 1 conducted in France, 4 in the USA and 2 in the UK. Only 1 study reported an increase in the rate of incident IE following guideline modification, and the remainder showed no change in upward (2 studies) or downward (4 studies) incidence trends. Study quality was generally poor for answering the question posed in this review, with serious risk of bias related to diagnostic ascertainment and unavailability of population risk data to adjust the incidence estimates. Moreover, the studies were often small, and relevant bacteriological data were not always available. Only 2 reported changes in antibiotic prescriptions, but these data were not linked to health records making it impossible to determine causal relations to changes in incident IE. The studies in this review were heterogenous in their design and variably limited by study size, duration of follow-up, diagnostic ascertainment, and absence of relevant prescription and bacteriological data. The studies were inconsistent in their conclusions and it remains uncertain what, if any, has been the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis guideline changes on the incidence of IE.

  4. International guideline changes and the incidence of infective endocarditis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Khan, Omeair; Shafi, Ahmed Mohamed Abdel; Timmis, Adam

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact on incident infective endocarditis (IE) of guideline recommendations to restrict indications for antibiotic prophylaxis. We conducted a systematic review according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. PubMed and EMBASE databases were searched for articles published between 2007 and 2015 using mesh terms relevant to the research question. Included were English language articles published after 2009 that provided estimates of IE incidence before-and-after major international guideline changes. Seven studies were identified: 1 conducted in France, 4 in the USA and 2 in the UK. Only 1 study reported an increase in the rate of incident IE following guideline modification, and the remainder showed no change in upward (2 studies) or downward (4 studies) incidence trends. Study quality was generally poor for answering the question posed in this review, with serious risk of bias related to diagnostic ascertainment and unavailability of population risk data to adjust the incidence estimates. Moreover, the studies were often small, and relevant bacteriological data were not always available. Only 2 reported changes in antibiotic prescriptions, but these data were not linked to health records making it impossible to determine causal relations to changes in incident IE. The studies in this review were heterogenous in their design and variably limited by study size, duration of follow-up, diagnostic ascertainment, and absence of relevant prescription and bacteriological data. The studies were inconsistent in their conclusions and it remains uncertain what, if any, has been the impact of antibiotic prophylaxis guideline changes on the incidence of IE. PMID:27621836

  5. Risk Factors for Recurrence, Complications and Mortality in Clostridium difficile Infection: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Abou Chakra, Claire Nour; Pepin, Jacques; Sirard, Stephanie; Valiquette, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Background Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) can lead to complications, recurrence, and death. Numerous studies have assessed risk factors for these unfavourable outcomes, but systematic reviews or meta-analyses published so far were limited in scope or in quality. Methods A systematic review was completed according to PRISMA guidelines. An electronic search in five databases was performed. Studies published until October 2013 were included if risk factors for at least one CDI outcome were assessed with multivariate analyses. Results 68 studies were included: 24 assessed risk factors for recurrence, 18 for complicated CDI, 8 for treatment failure, and 30 for mortality. Most studies accounted for mortality in the definition of complicated CDI. Important variables were inconsistently reported, such as previous episodes and use of antibiotics. Substantial heterogeneity and methodological limitations were noted, mainly in the sample size, the definition of the outcomes and periods of follow-up, precluding a meta-analysis. Older age, use of antibiotics after diagnosis, use of proton pump inhibitors, and strain type were the most frequent risk factors for recurrence. Older age, leucocytosis, renal failure and co-morbidities were frequent risk factors for complicated CDI. When considered alone, mortality was associated with age, co-morbidities, hypo-albuminemia, leucocytosis, acute renal failure, and infection with ribotype 027. Conclusion Laboratory parameters currently used in European and American guidelines to define patients at risk of a complicated CDI are adequate. Strategies for the management of CDI should be tailored according to the age of the patient, biological markers of severity, and underlying co-morbidities. PMID:24897375

  6. A Review of Clostridium difficile Infection at the University Hospital of the West Indies, Jamaica

    PubMed Central

    Clare-Pascoe, N; Lee, MG; Murphy, T; Nicholson, A; Ferguson, TS

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives: This study examined the frequency of Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) among hospital admission and diarrhoeal stool samples over a six-year period. Methods: A review of all suspected cases of C difficile positive patients from 2007 to 2012 at the University Hospital of the West Indies (UHWI), Jamaica, was performed. Clostridium difficile infection was confirmed by clinical features and a positive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) stool test for Clostridium Toxins A and B. The demographics, clinical features, risk factors, treatment and outcomes were also collated. Results: There were 56 patients reviewed. The most commonly affected age group was 40–59 years of age. The proportion of CDI cases per total stool samples increased from 0.5% in 2007 to 5.9% in 2010 then fell to 2.2% in 2011 but increased again to 4.3% in 2012. The proportion of cases per total UHWI admissions also increased from 0.12 cases per 1000 admissions in 2007 to 1.16 in 2010 and 1.36 in 2012 (p < 0.001). Most CDI cases were nosocomial (76% males, 48.6% females). Co-morbidities included hypertension and end-stage renal disease. Ceftazidime was the most common antibiotic associated with the development of CDI. Resolution occurred in 62.5% of patients. Duration of hospital stay was longer in males than females (≥ 21 versus < 7 days) and males had more adverse outcomes, with death in 23.8% versus 11.4%. Conclusion: There has been an increase in the frequency of CDI at UHWI with a greater than expected frequency of community acquired CDI. Increased awareness is needed of the increasing risk for CDI and measures must be taken to prevent the disease, especially in hospitalized patients. PMID:26624597

  7. [A historical review of the therapeutic use of wood creosote. Part II: Original plant source of crude drug wood creosote].

    PubMed

    Moriguchi, Nobuaki; Sato, Akane; Shibata, Takashi; Yoneda, Yukio

    2011-01-01

    Wood creosote is a medicine that has been listed in the Japanese Pharmacopoeia (JP) since the first edition published in 1886. Medicines containing wood creosote and other natural ingredients have been very popular in Japan and Southeast Asian countries. In Japan, one such medicine, named Seirogan, has been used for more than 100 years. In this paper, we report the results of our examination on the historical aspects of wood creosote. One finding was that creosote, called "kereosote" at that time, was imported to Japan for the first time to Nagasaki by Johann Erdewin Niemann, who was the Director of the Dutch Mercantile House, and prescribed by Johannes Lijdius Catharinus Pompe van Meerdervoort and Anthonius Franciscus Bauduin. From our findings, we concluded that wood creosote was one of the essential medicines for the successful introduction and progression of Western medicine in Japan. Furthermore, we found that Dutch physicians introduced wood creosote to Japanese physicians, including Taizen Sato, Dokai Hayashi, and Jun Matsumoto, and that wood creosote was subsequently popularized by Rintaro (Ogai) Mori during the Russo-Japanese war. In addition, we examined the original plant for wood creosote, and consequently confirmed that the 15th edition of the JP, Supplement Two, clarifying the original plant for wood creosote, matches the pharmaceutical and historical facts. We also provide drug information relating to distinguishing between wood creosote and the creosote bush. PMID:22164686

  8. Historical Renovations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2003

    2003-01-01

    Describes how two colleges are combining historical renovation with state-of-the-art design. The historic Thompson House on the campus of Austin College, Texas, is now a modern building adapted to the computer age with appropriate restoration to the aesthetic grandeur of the late 19th century. Yale University's Lillian Goldman Law Library now…

  9. The management of skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults: a review of empiric antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Wilson, S E

    1998-09-01

    This article reviews the diagnosis and management of mild-to-moderate skin and skin structure infections in children, adolescents and adults in a general practice setting. Therapies reviewed are those in current use: penicillins; beta-lactamase stable penicillins, including flucloxacillin, oxacillin, and amoxicillin-clavulanate; oral quinolones; macrolides; and oral cephalosporins. Consideration is given to duration of therapy, side-effect profile and compliance.

  10. Are healthcare workers' mobile phones a potential source of nosocomial infections? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-10-29

    Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed.

  11. The effect of qigong exercise on immunity and infections: a systematic review of controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chong-Wen; Ng, Siu-Man; Ho, Rainbow T H; Ziea, Eric T C; Wong, Vivian C W; Chan, Cecilia L W

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this review was to summarize and critically evaluate the clinical evidence of the effect of qigong exercise on immunity and its efficacy in the prevention or treatment of infectious diseases. Thirteen databases were searched from their respective inceptions through January 2011, and all controlled clinical trials of qigong exercise on immunity and infections were included. Quality and validity of the included studies were evaluated using standard scales. Seven studies including two randomized controlled trials (RCTs), two controlled clinical trials (CCTs) and three retrospective observational studies (ROSs) met the inclusion criteria. One study focused on functional measures of immunity (antigen-induced immunity) and six studies on enumerative parameters of immunity. No study on clinical symptoms relevant to infectious diseases could be identified. Overall, the included studies suggested favorable effects of qigong exercise on immunity, but the quality of research for most of the studies examined in this review was poor. Further rigorously designed studies are required, which should adhere to accepted standards of methodology for clinical trials.

  12. Evidence-based review of probiotics for antibiotic-associated diarrhea and Clostridium difficile infections.

    PubMed

    McFarland, Lynne V

    2009-12-01

    Probiotics are living microbes taken to confer a health benefit on the host. Although probiotics have a long history of use in Europe and Asia and have been on the U.S. market for over 14 years, there is still confusion about how to effectively use them. The use of probiotics for the prevention of antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) and the treatment of Clostridium difficile infections (CDI) has been tested in randomized controlled clinical trials. This paper will review the evidence supporting probiotic therapy for these two diseases and also review the advantages and disadvantages of probiotics. The advantages of probiotic therapy include multiple mechanisms of action against pathogens, the ability to interact with the host's natural defense systems, survival to the target organ and a good risk to benefit ratio. Disadvantages of probiotics include lack of standardization for clinical trial designs, variations in regulatory standards, poor quality control for some products and infrequent serious adverse reactions. Overall, probiotics offer a promising strategy for the prevention and treatment for AAD and CDI.

  13. Partner notification for sexually transmitted infections in developing countries: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The feasibility and acceptability of partner notification (PN) for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in developing countries was assessed through a comprehensive literature review, to help identify future intervention needs. Methods The Medline, Embase, and Google Scholar databases were searched to identify studies published between January 1995 and December 2007 on STI PN in developing countries. A systematic review of the research extracted information on: (1) willingness of index patients to notify partners; (2) the proportion of partners notified or referred; (3) client-reported barriers in notifying partners; (4) infrastructure barriers in notifying partners; and (5) PN approaches that were evaluated in developing countries. Results Out of 609 screened articles, 39 met our criteria. PN outcome varied widely and was implemented more often for spousal partners than for casual or commercial partners. Reported barriers included sociocultural factors such as stigma, fear of abuse for having an STI, and infrastructural factors related to the limited number of STD clinics, and trained providers and reliable diagnostic methods. Client-oriented counselling was found to be effective in improving partner referral outcomes. Conclusions STD clinics can improve PN with client-oriented counselling, which should help clients to overcome perceived barriers. The authors speculate that well-designed PN interventions to evaluate the impact on STI prevalence and incidence along with cost-effectiveness components will motivate policy makers in developing countries to allocate more resources towards STI management. PMID:20082718

  14. Are healthcare workers' mobile phones a potential source of nosocomial infections? Review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ulger, Fatma; Dilek, Ahmet; Esen, Saban; Sunbul, Mustafa; Leblebicioglu, Hakan

    2015-10-01

    Mobile communication devices help accelerate in-hospital flow of medical information, information sharing and querying, and contribute to communications in the event of emergencies through their application and access to wireless media technology. Healthcare-associated infections remain a leading and high-cost problem of global health systems despite improvements in modern therapies. The objective of this article was to review different studies on the relationship between mobile phones (MPs) and bacterial cross-contamination and report common findings. Thirty-nine studies published between 2005 and 2013 were reviewed. Of these, 19 (48.7%) identified coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS), and 26 (66.7%) identified Staphylococcus aureus; frequency of growth varied. The use of MPs by healthcare workers increases the risk of repetitive cyclic contamination between the hands and face (e.g., nose, ears, and lips), and differences in personal hygiene and behaviors can further contribute to the risks. MPs are rarely cleaned after handling. They may transmit microorganisms, including multiple resistant strains, after contact with patients, and can be a source of bacterial cross-contamination. To prevent bacterial contamination of MPs, hand-washing guidelines must be followed and technical standards for prevention strategies should be developed. PMID:26517478

  15. Smoking-cessation interventions in people living with HIV infection: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Commodore-Mensah, Yvonne; Farley, Jason; DiGiacomo, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Tobacco smoking remains a prevalent behavior in people living with HIV infection (PLWHs) and is associated with impaired immune functioning, increased cardiovascular risk, and decreased response to antiretroviral therapy. This review presents a critique and synthesis of evidence on effective smoking-cessation interventions for PLWHs. A comprehensive search identified nine peer-reviewed intervention studies published between 1989 and 2012. The highest likelihood of smoking cessation (range of odds ratios 4.33-5.6) were in two randomized controlled trial interventions using cell phone technology. Clinically significant reductions in systolic blood pressure, weight gain, and increased CD(4+) T-cell count were reported in participants who ceased smoking in three of the nine studies. Overall, multistrategy smoking-cessation interventions, delivered over multiple sessions, were effective. However, the most effective interventions were tailored to the unique individual needs of PLWHs, including assessment of and intervention for polysubstance abuse and mental health issues, as well as the inclusion of access-promoting elements.

  16. Skin Infections in Young People (Aged 14-18 Years): An Integrative Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambe, Catherine I.; Hoare, Karen J.

    2014-01-01

    Skin infections are a major cause of preventable hospitalization, with young people being particularly susceptible. Community-associated methicillin-resistant "Staphylococcus aureus" (CA-MRSA) infection typically presents as skin infection. CA-MRSA infection rates have increased rapidly in the past decade. Exploration of literature…

  17. Historical review of personnel dosimetry development and its use in radiation protection programs at Hanford 1944 to the 1980s

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, R.H.

    1987-02-01

    This document is an account of the personnel dosimetry programs as they were developed and practiced at Hanford from their inception in 1943 to 1944 to the 1980s. This history is divided into sections covering the general categories of external and internal measurement methods, in vivo counting, radiation exposure recordkeeping, and calibration of personnel dosimeters. The reasons and circumstances surrounding the inception of these programs at Hanford are discussed. Information about these programs was obtained from documents, letters, and memos that are available in our historical records; the personnel files of many people who participated in these programs; and from the recollections of many long-time, current, and past Hanford employees. For the most part, the history of these programs is presented chronologically to relate their development and use in routine Hanford operations. 131 refs., 38 figs., 23 tabs.

  18. {open_quotes}Full steam ahead{close_quotes} (a historical review of geothermal power development in the Philippines)

    SciTech Connect

    Gazo, F.M.

    1997-12-31

    The Philippine geothermal energy development is now considered in a state of maturity. After more than 20 years of geothermal experience, the total geothermal installed capacity in the Philippines reached 1,455 MW (1996) or about 12% of the total installed power plant capacity. This also enabled the Philippines to become the second largest producer of geothermal energy in the world. The country`s track record in harnessing geothermal energy is considered a revelation, as it continues with its vision of {open_quotes}full steam ahead{close_quotes}, originally conceived when commercial geothermal operation started in 1973. It is thus proper and timely to refer to historical highlights and experiences in geothermal energy development for planning and implementation of the country`s geothermal energy program.

  19. A cluster of Geotrichum clavatum (Saprochaete clavata) infection in haematological patients: a first Italian report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Sarmati, Loredana; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; Fontana, Carla; De Santis, Giovanna; Buccisano, Francesco; Maurillo, Luca; De Bellis, Eleonora; Postorino, Massimiliano; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Sanguinetti, Maurizio; Amadori, Sergio; Pagano, Livio; Venditti, Adriano

    2016-09-01

    Invasive fungal infections, usually Aspergillus and Candida, represent a major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients with malignant haematological diseases, but in the last years rare fungal infections have more frequently been reported. Here, we report the clinical history of three patients affected with haematological malignancies who developed an infection caused by Geotrichum (G.) clavatum. Two out of three patients were affected by acute myeloid leukaemia (AML), and one by mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). All patients received cytarabine-based chemotherapeutic regimens and developed G. clavatum infection within 3 weeks from therapy initiation. In all cases, G. clavatum was isolated from central venous catheter and peripheral blood cultures. In vitro susceptibility test confirmed an intrinsic resistance to echinocandins and, in all cases, visceral localisations (spleen, liver and lung) were documented by total body computed tomography (CT) scan. A prolonged antifungal therapy with high doses liposomal amphotericin-B was necessary to obtain fever resolution. Only the patient with MCL died while the other two AML recovered, and one of them after received an allogeneic stem cell transplantation. We consecutively reviewed all published cases of infection caused by G. clavatum. Our experience and literature review indicate that G. clavatum can cause invasive infection in haematological patients, mainly in those with acute leukaemia. PMID:27061932

  20. Risk of Window Period HIV Infection in High Infectious Risk Donors: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kucirka, Lauren M.; Sarathy, Harini; Govindan, Priyanka; Wolf, Joshua H.; Ellison, Trevor A.; Hart, Leah J.; Montgomery, Robert A.; Ros, R. Lorie; Segev, Dorry L.

    2010-01-01

    The OPTN defines high risk donors (HRDs), colloquially known as “CDC high risk donors,” as those thought to carry an increased risk of HIV window period (WP) infection prior to serologic detectability. However, the true risk of such infection remains unknown. To quantify the risk of WP infection in each HRD behavior category, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies of HIV prevalence and incidence. Of 3,476 abstracts reviewed, 27 eligible studies of HIV infection in HRD populations were identified. Pooled HIV incidence estimates were calculated for each category of HRD behavior and used to calculate the risk of WP HIV infection. Risks ranged from 0.09–12.1 per 10,000 donors based on WP for ELISA and 0.04–4.9 based on nucleic acid testing (NAT), with NAT reducing WP risk by over 50% in each category. Injection drug users had the greatest risk of WP infection (4.9 per 10,000 donors by NAT WP), followed by men who have sex with men (4.2:10,000), commercial sex workers (2.7:10,000), incarcerated donors (0.9:10,000), donors exposed to HIV through blood (0.6:10,000), donors engaging in high risk sex (0.3:10,000), and hemophiliacs (0.035:10,000). These estimates can help inform patient and provider decision-making regarding HRDs. PMID:21366859

  1. Antimicrobial surfaces to prevent healthcare-associated infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Muller, M P; MacDougall, C; Lim, M

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the healthcare environment with pathogenic organisms contributes to the burden of healthcare-associated infection (HCAI). Antimicrobial surfaces are designed to reduce microbial contamination of healthcare surfaces. We aimed to determine whether antimicrobial surfaces prevent HCAI, transmission of antibiotic-resistant organisms (AROs), or microbial contamination, we conducted a systematic review of the use of antimicrobial surfaces in patient rooms. Outcomes included HCAI, ARO, and quantitative microbial contamination. Relevant databases were searched. Abstract review, full text review, and data abstraction were performed in duplicate. Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization Care (EPOC) Group risk of bias assessment tool and the strength of evidence determined using Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE). Eleven studies assessed the effect of copper (N = 7), silver (N = 1), metal-alloy (N = 1), or organosilane-treated surfaces (N = 2) on microbial contamination. Copper surfaces demonstrated a median (range) reduction of microbial contamination of <1 log10 (<1 to 2 log10). Two studies addressed HCAI/ARO incidence. An RCT of copper surfaces in an ICU demonstrated 58% reduction in HCAI (P = 0.013) and 64% reduction in ARO transmission (P = 0.063) but was considered low-quality evidence due to improper randomization and incomplete blinding. An uncontrolled before-after study evaluating copper-impregnated textiles in a long-term care ward demonstrated 24% reduction in HCAI but was considered very-low-quality evidence based on the study design. Copper surfaces used in clinical settings result in modest reductions in microbial contamination. One study of copper surfaces and one of copper textiles demonstrated reduction in HCAI, but both were at high risk of bias. PMID:26601608

  2. Public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions for reducing transmission of respiratory infection: systematic review and synthesis of qualitative studies

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Non-pharmaceutical public health interventions may provide simple, low-cost, effective ways of minimising the transmission and impact of acute respiratory infections in pandemic and non-pandemic contexts. Understanding what influences the uptake of non-pharmaceutical interventions such as hand and respiratory hygiene, mask wearing and social distancing could help to inform the development of effective public health advice messages. The aim of this synthesis was to explore public perceptions of non-pharmaceutical interventions that aim to reduce the transmission of acute respiratory infections. Methods Five online databases (MEDLINE, PsycINFO, CINAHL, EMBASE and Web of Science) were systematically searched. Reference lists of articles were also examined. We selected papers that used a qualitative research design to explore perceptions and beliefs about non-pharmaceutical interventions to reduce transmission of acute respiratory infections. We excluded papers that only explored how health professionals or children viewed non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control. Three authors performed data extraction and assessment of study quality. Thematic analysis and components of meta-ethnography were adopted to synthesise findings. Results Seventeen articles from 16 studies in 9 countries were identified and reviewed. Seven key themes were identified: perceived benefits of non-pharmaceutical interventions, perceived disadvantages of non-pharmaceutical interventions, personal and cultural beliefs about infection transmission, diagnostic uncertainty in emerging respiratory infections, perceived vulnerability to infection, anxiety about emerging respiratory infections and communications about emerging respiratory infections. The synthesis showed that some aspects of non-pharmaceutical respiratory infection control (particularly hand and respiratory hygiene) were viewed as familiar and socially responsible actions to take. There was ambivalence about adopting

  3. Systemic Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae infection not associated with endocarditis highlighting bacteriological diagnosis difficulties Case report and literature review.

    PubMed

    Volard, Bertrand; Mignot, Loïc; Piednoir, Emmanuel; de Champs, Christophe; Limelette, Anne; Guillard, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae is mostly isolated in swine causing erysipelas. Human invasive infections due to E. rhusiopathiae remain poorly described and interestingly bacteraemia associated with endocarditis are a source of ineffective empirical antibiotherapy. We report a case of sepsis without endocarditis due to E. rhusiopathiae and a review of the literature.

  4. A pain in the neck--a review of deep space neck infections in the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Harney, T; Mullarkey, C; O'Donnell, J

    2012-01-01

    We report a case of prevertebral abscess in a 37-year-old male, presenting with a 2-day history of neck pain radiating to the right shoulder. We also review the current literature relating to the presentation and the emergency management of deep neck space infections.

  5. A review of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions: historical perspectives and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Liester, Mitchell B

    2014-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semisynthetic compound with strong psychoactive properties. Chemically related to serotonin, LSD was initially hypothesized to produce a psychosislike state. Later, LSD was reported to have benefits in the treatment of addictions. However, widespread indiscriminate use and reports of adverse affects resulted in the classification of LSD as an illicit drug with no accepted medical use. This article reviews LSD's storied history from its discovery, to its use as a research tool, followed by its widespread association with the counterculture movement of the 1960s, and finally to its rebirth as a medicine with potential benefits in the treatment of addictions. LSD's pharmacology, phenomenology, effects at neurotransmitter receptors, and effects on patterns of gene expression are reviewed. Based upon a review of the literature, it is concluded that further research into LSD's potential as a treatment for addictions is warranted. PMID:25563445

  6. A review of lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) in the treatment of addictions: historical perspectives and future prospects.

    PubMed

    Liester, Mitchell B

    2014-01-01

    Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is a semisynthetic compound with strong psychoactive properties. Chemically related to serotonin, LSD was initially hypothesized to produce a psychosislike state. Later, LSD was reported to have benefits in the treatment of addictions. However, widespread indiscriminate use and reports of adverse affects resulted in the classification of LSD as an illicit drug with no accepted medical use. This article reviews LSD's storied history from its discovery, to its use as a research tool, followed by its widespread association with the counterculture movement of the 1960s, and finally to its rebirth as a medicine with potential benefits in the treatment of addictions. LSD's pharmacology, phenomenology, effects at neurotransmitter receptors, and effects on patterns of gene expression are reviewed. Based upon a review of the literature, it is concluded that further research into LSD's potential as a treatment for addictions is warranted.

  7. Prevalence and incidence of pulmonary hypertension among HIV-infected people in Africa: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bigna, Jean Joel R; Nansseu, Jobert Richie N; Um, Lewis N; Noumegni, Steve Raoul N; Simé, Paule Sandra D; Aminde, Leopold Ndemngue; Koulla-Shiro, Sinata; Noubiap, Jean Jacques N

    2016-01-01

    Objective Patients infected with HIV have a direly increased risk of developing pulmonary hypertension (PH), and of dying from the condition. While Africa carries the greatest burden of HIV infection worldwide, there is unclear data summarising the epidemiology of PH among HIV-infected people in this region. Our objective was to determine the prevalence and incidence of PH among HIV-infected people living across Africa. Design A systematic review and meta-analysis. Participants HIV-infected African people residing in Africa. Outcome Prevalence and incidence of PH diagnosed through echocardiography or right heart catheterisation. Data sources Articles published in PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, African Journals Online and African Index Medicus between 1 January 1980 and 30 June 2016, without any language restriction. Results Overall, 121 studies were screened; 3 were included in this review: 1 from Southern Africa (South Africa), 1 from Eastern Africa (Tanzania) and 1 from Central Africa (Cameroon). These studies included HIV-infected adult patients selected based on presentation with cardiovascular symptoms. No study reported PH incidence or PH incidence/prevalence among children and adolescents. The quality assessment yielded moderate risk of bias. Ages of participants ranged between 18 and 78 years, and the proportion of females varied between 52.3% and 68.8%. The prevalence of PH in the pooled sample of 664 patients was 14% (95% CI 6%–23%). Limitations Only 3 studies were found eligible from 3 regions of the African continent. Conclusions The prevalence of PH among HIV-infected people in Africa seems very high. Further studies are urgently warranted to determine the incidence of HIV-induced PH, which must include all subregions of Africa. Trial registration number Review registration number PROSPERO CRD42016033863. PMID:27554104

  8. Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: a systematic review and expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Walter; Holmes, Alison; Dettenkofer, Markus; Goetting, Tim; Secci, Federica; Clack, Lauren; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Magiorakos, Anna-Pelagia; Pittet, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Despite control efforts, the burden of health-care-associated infections in Europe is high and leads to around 37,000 deaths each year. We did a systematic review to identify crucial elements for the organisation of effective infection-prevention programmes in hospitals and key components for implementation of monitoring. 92 studies published from 1996 to 2012 were assessed and ten key components identified: organisation of infection control at the hospital level; bed occupancy, staffing, workload, and employment of pool or agency nurses; availability of and ease of access to materials and equipment and optimum ergonomics; appropriate use of guidelines; education and training; auditing; surveillance and feedback; multimodal and multidisciplinary prevention programmes that include behavioural change; engagement of champions; and positive organisational culture. These components comprise manageable and widely applicable ways to reduce health-care-associated infections and improve patients' safety.

  9. Hospital organisation, management, and structure for prevention of health-care-associated infection: a systematic review and expert consensus.

    PubMed

    Zingg, Walter; Holmes, Alison; Dettenkofer, Markus; Goetting, Tim; Secci, Federica; Clack, Lauren; Allegranzi, Benedetta; Magiorakos, Anna-Pelagia; Pittet, Didier

    2015-02-01

    Despite control efforts, the burden of health-care-associated infections in Europe is high and leads to around 37,000 deaths each year. We did a systematic review to identify crucial elements for the organisation of effective infection-prevention programmes in hospitals and key components for implementation of monitoring. 92 studies published from 1996 to 2012 were assessed and ten key components identified: organisation of infection control at the hospital level; bed occupancy, staffing, workload, and employment of pool or agency nurses; availability of and ease of access to materials and equipment and optimum ergonomics; appropriate use of guidelines; education and training; auditing; surveillance and feedback; multimodal and multidisciplinary prevention programmes that include behavioural change; engagement of champions; and positive organisational culture. These components comprise manageable and widely applicable ways to reduce health-care-associated infections and improve patients' safety. PMID:25467650

  10. Do 'Surgical Helmet Systems' or 'Body Exhaust Suits' Affect Contamination and Deep Infection Rates in Arthroplasty? A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Young, Simon W; Zhu, Mark; Shirley, Otis C; Wu, Qing; Spangehl, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    This systematic review examined whether negative-pressure Charnley-type body exhaust suits (BES) or modern positive-pressure surgical helmet systems (SHS) reduce deep infection rates and/or contamination in arthroplasty. For deep infection, four studies (3990 patients) gave adjusted relative risk for deep infection of 0.11 (P = 0.09) against SHS. Five of 7 (71%) studies found less air contamination and 2 of 4 studies (50%) less wound contamination with BES. One of 4 (25%) found less air contamination with SHS and 0 of 1 (0%) less wound contamination. In contrast to BES, modern SHS designs were not shown to reduce contamination or deep infection during arthroplasty.

  11. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection - Systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Kottanattu, Lisa; Lava, Sebastiano A G; Helbling, Rossana; Simonetti, Giacomo D; Bianchetti, Mario G; Milani, Gregorio P

    2016-09-01

    Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis have been occasionally reported in primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. We completed a review of the literature and retained 48 scientific reports published between 1966 and 2016 for the final analysis. Acute pancreatitis was recognized in 14 and acalculous cholecystitis in 37 patients with primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. In all patients, the features of acute pancreatitis or acalculous cholecystitis concurrently developed with those of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis resolved following a hospital stay of 25days or less. Acalculous cholecystitis was associated with Gilbert-Meulengracht syndrome in two cases. In conclusion, this thorough analysis indicates that acute pancreatitis and acalculous cholecystitis are unusual but plausible complications of primary acute symptomatic Epstein-Barr virus infection. Pancreatitis and cholecystitis deserve consideration in cases with severe abdominal pain. These complications are usually rather mild and resolve spontaneously without sequelae. PMID:27434148

  12. A historical review of managed honey bee populations in Europe and the United States and the factors that may affect them.

    PubMed

    Vanengelsdorp, Dennis; Meixner, Marina Doris

    2010-01-01

    Honey bees are a highly valued resource around the world. They are prized for their honey and wax production and depended upon for pollination of many important crops. While globally honey bee populations have been increasing, the rate of increase is not keeping pace with demand. Further, honey bee populations have not been increasing in all parts of the world, and have declined in many nations in Europe and in North America. Managed honey bee populations are influenced by many factors including diseases, parasites, pesticides, the environment, and socio-economic factors. These factors can act alone or in combination with each other. This review highlights the present day value of honey bees, followed by a detailed description of some of the historical and present day factors that influence honey bee populations, with particular emphasis on colony populations in Europe and the United States. PMID:19909973

  13. Mathematical models of radiation action on living cells: From the target theory to the modern approaches. A historical and critical review.

    PubMed

    Bodgi, Larry; Canet, Aurélien; Pujo-Menjouet, Laurent; Lesne, Annick; Victor, Jean-Marc; Foray, Nicolas

    2016-04-01

    Cell survival is conventionally defined as the capability of irradiated cells to produce colonies. It is quantified by the clonogenic assays that consist in determining the number of colonies resulting from a known number of irradiated cells. Several mathematical models were proposed to describe the survival curves, notably from the target theory. The Linear-Quadratic (LQ) model, which is to date the most frequently used model in radiobiology and radiotherapy, dominates all the other models by its robustness and simplicity. Its usefulness is particularly important because the ratio of the values of the adjustable parameters, α and β, on which it is based, predicts the occurrence of post-irradiation tissue reactions. However, the biological interpretation of these parameters is still unknown. Throughout this review, we revisit and discuss historically, mathematically and biologically, the different models of the radiation action by providing clues for resolving the enigma of the LQ model.

  14. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  15. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  16. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  17. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  18. 21 CFR 610.48 - Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback” requirements based on review of historical testing records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Hepatitis C virus (HCV) âlookbackâ requirements... STANDARDS Testing Requirements for Communicable Disease Agents § 610.48 Hepatitis C virus (HCV) “lookback... the following actions: (1) You must: (i) Review all records of donor testing for hepatitis C...

  19. Assessment of Oral Communication: A Major Review of the Historical Development and Trends in the Movement from 1975 to 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morreale, Sherwyn; Backlund, Philip; Hay, Ellen; Moore, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This comprehensive review of the assessment of oral communication in the communication discipline is both descriptive and empirical in nature. First, some background on the topic of communication assessment is provided. Following the descriptive background, we present an empirical analysis of academic papers, research studies, and books about…

  20. The prevalence of bacterial infection in acute rhinosinusitis: A systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Stephanie Shintani; Ference, Elisabeth Henderson; Evans, Charlesnika T.; Tan, Bruce K.; Kern, Robert C.; Chandra, Rakesh K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To systematically assess the prevalence of bacterial infection in adults with acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) Data Sources PubMed and CINAHL databases Review Methods Electronic databases were systematically searched for relevant studies published up to June 2012. Results 29 articles, evaluating a total of 9,595 patients with a clinical diagnosis of ARS, were included in the study. 14 (48%) studies required radiographic confirmation of sinusitis, 1 (3%) required evidence of purulence, 10 (35%) required both for inclusion in the study population, and 4 (14%) required neither. The random effects model estimate of prevalence of bacterial growth on all cultures was 53.7% (CI 48.4%–59.0%), ranging from 52.5% (CI 46.7%–58.3%) in studies requiring radiographic confirmation of sinusitis to 61.1% (CI 54.0%–68.1%) in studies requiring neither radiographic evidence nor purulence on exam. Studies which obtained cultures from antral swab had a prevalence of bacterial growth of 61.0% (CI 54.7%–67.2%), while those utilizing endoscopic meatal sampling had a prevalence of 32.9% (CI 19.0%–46.8%). Conclusion Few studies evaluate the recovery of bacteria via culture in adults with a diagnosis of ABRS or ARS based on clinical criteria alone. With radiographic and/or endoscopic confirmation, antral puncture and endoscopically guided cultures produce positive bacterial cultures in approximately half of patients. Opportunities exist to improve diagnostic accuracy for bacterial infection in ARS. PMID:24723427