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Sample records for infections macrophage activation

  1. Alternatively activated macrophages in infection and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Fairweather, DeLisa; Cihakova, Daniela

    2009-01-01

    Macrophages are innate immune cells that play an important role in activation of the immune response and wound healing. Pathogens that require T helper-type 2 (Th2) responses for effective clearance, such as parasitic worms, are strong inducers of alternatively activated or M2 macrophages. However, infections such as bacteria and viruses that require Th1-type responses may induce M2 as a strategy to evade the immune system. M2 are particularly efficient at scavenging self tissues following injury through receptors like the mannose receptor and scavenger receptor-A. Thus, M2 may increase autoimmune disease by presenting self tissue to T cells. M2 may also exacerbate immune complex (IC)-mediated pathology and fibrosis, a hallmark of autoimmune disease in women, due to the release of profibrotic factors such as interleukin (IL)-1β, transforming growth factor-β, fibronectin and matrix metalloproteinases. We have found that M2 comprise anywhere from 30% to 70% of the infiltrate during acute viral or experimental autoimmune myocarditis, and shifts in M2 populations correlate with increased IC-deposition, fibrosis and chronic autoimmune pathology. Thus, women may be at an increased risk of M2-mediated autoimmunity due to estrogen’s ability to increase Th2 responses. PMID:19819674

  2. The macrophage in HIV-1 infection: from activation to deactivation?

    PubMed

    Herbein, Georges; Varin, Audrey

    2010-04-09

    Macrophages play a crucial role in innate and adaptative immunity in response to microorganisms and are an important cellular target during HIV-1 infection. Recently, the heterogeneity of the macrophage population has been highlighted. Classically activated or type 1 macrophages (M1) induced in particular by IFN-gamma display a pro-inflammatory profile. The alternatively activated or type 2 macrophages (M2) induced by Th-2 cytokines, such as IL-4 and IL-13 express anti-inflammatory and tissue repair properties. Finally IL-10 has been described as the prototypic cytokine involved in the deactivation of macrophages (dM). Since the capacity of macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is known to be modulated by cytokines, this review shows how modulation of macrophage activation by cytokines impacts the capacity to support productive HIV-1 infection. Based on the activation status of macrophages we propose a model starting with M1 classically activated macrophages with accelerated formation of viral reservoirs in a context of Th1 and proinflammatory cytokines. Then IL-4/IL-13 alternatively activated M2 macrophages will enter into the game that will stop the expansion of the HIV-1 reservoir. Finally IL-10 deactivation of macrophages will lead to immune failure observed at the very late stages of the HIV-1 disease.

  3. EGFR regulates macrophage activation and function in bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Hardbower, Dana M; Singh, Kshipra; Asim, Mohammad; Verriere, Thomas G; Olivares-Villagómez, Danyvid; Barry, Daniel P; Allaman, Margaret M; Washington, M Kay; Peek, Richard M; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-09-01

    EGFR signaling regulates macrophage function, but its role in bacterial infection has not been investigated. Here, we assessed the role of macrophage EGFR signaling during infection with Helicobacter pylori, a bacterial pathogen that causes persistent inflammation and gastric cancer. EGFR was phosphorylated in murine and human macrophages during H. pylori infection. In human gastric tissues, elevated levels of phosphorylated EGFR were observed throughout the histologic cascade from gastritis to carcinoma. Deleting Egfr in myeloid cells attenuated gastritis and increased H. pylori burden in infected mice. EGFR deficiency also led to a global defect in macrophage activation that was associated with decreased cytokine, chemokine, and NO production. We observed similar alterations in macrophage activation and disease phenotype in the Citrobacter rodentium model of murine infectious colitis. Mechanistically, EGFR signaling activated NF-κB and MAPK1/3 pathways to induce cytokine production and macrophage activation. Although deletion of Egfr had no effect on DC function, EGFR-deficient macrophages displayed impaired Th1 and Th17 adaptive immune responses to H. pylori, which contributed to decreased chronic inflammation in infected mice. Together, these results indicate that EGFR signaling is central to macrophage function in response to enteric bacterial pathogens and is a potential therapeutic target for infection-induced inflammation and associated carcinogenesis.

  4. Macrophage Activation by Ursolic and Oleanolic Acids during Mycobacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    López-García, Sonia; Castañeda-Sanchez, Jorge Ismael; Jiménez-Arellanes, Adelina; Domínguez-López, Lilia; Castro-Mussot, Maria Eugenia; Hernández-Sanchéz, Javier; Luna-Herrera, Julieta

    2015-08-06

    Oleanolic (OA) and ursolic acids (UA) are triterpenes that are abundant in vegetables, fruits and medicinal plants. They have been described as active moieties in medicinal plants used for the treatment of tuberculosis. In this study, we analyzed the effects of these triterpenes on macrophages infected in vitro with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). We evaluated production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species (ROS), and cytokines (TNF-α and TGF-β) as well as expression of cell membrane receptors (TGR5 and CD36) in MTB-infected macrophages following treatment with OA and UA. Triterpenes caused reduced MTB growth in macrophages, stimulated production of NO and ROS in the early phase, stimulated TNF-α, suppressed TGF-β and caused over-expression of CD36 and TGR5 receptors. Thus, our data suggest immunomodulatory properties of OA and UA on MTB infected macrophages. In conclusion, antimycobacterial effects induced by these triterpenes may be attributable to the conversion of macrophages from stage M2 (alternatively activated) to M1 (classically activated).

  5. Pyrimidinergic Receptor Activation Controls Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Moreira-Souza, Aline Cristina Abreu; Marinho, Ygor; Correa, Gladys; Santoro, Giani França; Coutinho, Claudia Mara Lara Melo; Vommaro, Rossiane Claudia; Coutinho-Silva, Robson

    2015-01-01

    Infection by the protozoan parasite Toxoplasma gondii is highly prevalent worldwide and may have serious clinical manifestations in immunocompromised patients. T. gondii is an obligate intracellular parasite that infects almost any cell type in mammalian hosts, including immune cells. The immune cells express purinergic P2 receptors in their membrane – subdivided into P2Y and P2X subfamilies - whose activation is important for infection control. Here, we examined the effect of treatment with UTP and UDP in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with T. gondii tachyzoites. Treatment with these nucleotides reduced parasitic load by 90%, but did not increase the levels of the inflammatory mediators NO and ROS, nor did it modulate host cell death by apoptosis or necrosis. On the other hand, UTP and UDP treatments induced early egress of tachyzoites from infected macrophages, in a Ca2+-dependent manner, as shown by scanning electron microscopy analysis, and videomicroscopy. In subsequent infections, prematurely egressed parasites had reduced infectivity, and could neither replicate nor inhibit the fusion of lysosomes to the parasitophorous vacuole. The use of selective agonists and antagonists of the receptor subtypes P2Y2 and P2Y4 and P2Y6 showed that premature parasite egress may be mediated by the activation of these receptor subtypes. Our results suggest that the activity of P2Y host cell receptors controls T. gondii infection in macrophages, highlighting the importance of pyrimidinergic signaling for innate immune system response against infection. Finally the P2Y receptors should be considered as new target for the development of drugs against T. gondii infection. PMID:26192447

  6. LL-37 Immunomodulatory Activity during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Torres-Juarez, Flor; Cardenas-Vargas, Albertina; Montoya-Rosales, Alejandra; González-Curiel, Irma; Garcia-Hernandez, Mariana H.; Enciso-Moreno, Jose A.; Hancock, Robert E. W.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis is one of the most important infectious diseases worldwide. The susceptibility to this disease depends to a great extent on the innate immune response against mycobacteria. Host defense peptides (HDP) are one of the first barriers to counteract infection. Cathelicidin (LL-37) is an HDP that has many immunomodulatory effects besides its weak antimicrobial activity. Despite advances in the study of the innate immune response in tuberculosis, the immunological role of LL-37 during M. tuberculosis infection has not been clarified. Monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with M. tuberculosis strain H37Rv and then treated with 1, 5, or 15 μg/ml of exogenous LL-37 for 4, 8, and 24 h. Exogenous LL-37 decreased tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-17 (IL-17) while inducing anti-inflammatory IL-10 and transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) production. Interestingly, the decreased production of anti-inflammatory cytokines did not reduce antimycobacterial activity. These results are consistent with the concept that LL-37 can modulate the expression of cytokines during mycobacterial infection and this activity was independent of the P2X7 receptor. Thus, LL-37 modulates the response of macrophages during infection, controlling the expression of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:26351280

  7. Dynamics of lung macrophage activation in response to helminth infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most of our understanding of the development and phenotype of alternatively activated macrophages (AAM) has been obtained from studies investigating the response of bone marrow- and peritoneal-derived cells to IL-4 or IL-13 stimulation. Comparatively little is known about the development of the AAM...

  8. Chronic hepatitis C infection-induced liver fibrogenesis is associated with M2 macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Bility, Moses T; Nio, Kouki; Li, Feng; McGivern, David R; Lemon, Stanley M; Feeney, Eoin R; Chung, Raymond T; Su, Lishan

    2016-12-21

    The immuno-pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be elucidated and pose a major hurdle in treating or preventing chronic HCV-induced advanced liver diseases such as cirrhosis. Macrophages are a major component of the inflammatory milieu in chronic HCV-induced liver disease, and are generally derived from circulating inflammatory monocytes; however very little is known about their role in liver diseases. To investigate the activation and role of macrophages in chronic HCV-induced liver fibrosis, we utilized a recently developed humanized mouse model with autologous human immune and liver cells, human liver and blood samples and cell culture models of monocyte/macrophage and/or hepatic stellate cell activation. We showed that M2 macrophage activation was associated with liver fibrosis during chronic HCV infection in the livers of both humanized mice and patients, and direct-acting antiviral therapy attenuated M2 macrophage activation and associated liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that supernatant from HCV-infected liver cells activated human monocytes/macrophages with M2-like phenotypes. Importantly, HCV-activated monocytes/macrophages promoted hepatic stellate cell activation. These results suggest a critical role for M2 macrophage induction in chronic HCV-associated immune dysregulation and liver fibrosis.

  9. Low Dose BCG Infection as a Model for Macrophage Activation Maintaining Cell Viability

    PubMed Central

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Vesin, Dominique; Martinvalet, Denis

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability. We show that RAW macrophages infected with BCG at MOI 1 activated higher and sustained levels of proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors while MOI 0.1 was more efficient for early stimulation of IL-1β, MCP-1, and KC. Both BCG infection doses induced iNOS and NO in a dose-dependent manner and maintained nuclear and mitochondrial structures. Microenvironment generated by MOI 1 induced macrophage proliferation but not MOI 0.1 infection. In conclusion, BCG infection at low dose is an efficient in vitro model to study macrophage/BCG interactions that maintains macrophage viability and mitochondrial structures. This represents a novel model that can be applied to BCG research fields including mycobacterial infections, cancer immunotherapy, and prevention of autoimmunity and allergies. PMID:27833923

  10. Low Dose BCG Infection as a Model for Macrophage Activation Maintaining Cell Viability.

    PubMed

    Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Vesin, Dominique; Martinvalet, Denis; Garcia, Irene

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium bovis BCG, the current vaccine against tuberculosis, is ingested by macrophages promoting the development of effector functions including cell death and microbicidal mechanisms. Despite accumulating reports on M. tuberculosis, mechanisms of BCG/macrophage interaction remain relatively undefined. In vivo, few bacilli are sufficient to establish a mycobacterial infection; however, in vitro studies systematically use high mycobacterium doses. In this study, we analyze macrophage/BCG interactions and microenvironment upon infection with low BCG doses and propose an in vitro model to study cell activation without affecting viability. We show that RAW macrophages infected with BCG at MOI 1 activated higher and sustained levels of proinflammatory cytokines and transcription factors while MOI 0.1 was more efficient for early stimulation of IL-1β, MCP-1, and KC. Both BCG infection doses induced iNOS and NO in a dose-dependent manner and maintained nuclear and mitochondrial structures. Microenvironment generated by MOI 1 induced macrophage proliferation but not MOI 0.1 infection. In conclusion, BCG infection at low dose is an efficient in vitro model to study macrophage/BCG interactions that maintains macrophage viability and mitochondrial structures. This represents a novel model that can be applied to BCG research fields including mycobacterial infections, cancer immunotherapy, and prevention of autoimmunity and allergies.

  11. Functional Activity of Monocytes and Macrophages in HTLV-1 Infected Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Amorim, Camila F.; Souza, Anselmo S.; Diniz, Angela G.; Carvalho, Natália B.; Santos, Silvane B.; Carvalho, Edgar M.

    2014-01-01

    The Human T lymphotropic virus type-1 (HTLV-1) infects predominantly T cells, inducing proliferation and lymphocyte activation. Additionally, HTLV-1 infected subjects are more susceptible to other infections caused by other intracellular agents. Monocytes/macrophages are important cells in the defense against intracellular pathogens. Our aims were to determine the frequency of monocytes subsets, expression of co-stimulatory molecules in these cells and to evaluate microbicidal ability and cytokine and chemokine production by macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. Participants were 23 HTLV-1 carriers (HC), 22 HAM/TSP patients and 22 healthy subjects (HS) not infected with HTLV-1. The frequencies of monocyte subsets and expression of co-stimulatory molecules were determined by flow cytometry. Macrophages were infected with L. braziliensis or stimulated with LPS. Microbicidal activity of macrophages was determined by optic microscopy. Cytokines/chemokines from macrophage supernatants were measured by ELISA. HAM/TSP patients showed an increase frequency of intermediate monocytes, but expression of co-stimulatory molecules was similar between the groups. Macrophages from HTLV-1 infected individuals were infected with L. braziliensis at the same ratio than macrophages from HS, and all the groups had the same ability to kill Leishmania parasites. However, macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects produced more CXCL9 and CCL5, and less IL-10 than cells from HS. While there was no correlation between IFN-γ and cytokine/chemokine production by macrophages, there was a correlation between proviral load and TNF and CXCL10. These data showed a dissociation between the inflammatory response and microbicidal ability of macrophages from HTLV-1 infected subjects. While macrophages ability to kill an intracellular pathogen did not differ among HTLV-1 infected subjects, these cells secreted high amount of chemokines even in unstimulated cultures. Moreover the increasing

  12. Activator of G-Protein Signaling 3-Induced Lysosomal Biogenesis Limits Macrophage Intracellular Bacterial Infection.

    PubMed

    Vural, Ali; Al-Khodor, Souhaila; Cheung, Gordon Y C; Shi, Chong-Shan; Srinivasan, Lalitha; McQuiston, Travis J; Hwang, Il-Young; Yeh, Anthony J; Blumer, Joe B; Briken, Volker; Williamson, Peter R; Otto, Michael; Fraser, Iain D C; Kehrl, John H

    2016-01-15

    Many intracellular pathogens cause disease by subverting macrophage innate immune defense mechanisms. Intracellular pathogens actively avoid delivery to or directly target lysosomes, the major intracellular degradative organelle. In this article, we demonstrate that activator of G-protein signaling 3 (AGS3), an LPS-inducible protein in macrophages, affects both lysosomal biogenesis and activity. AGS3 binds the Gi family of G proteins via its G-protein regulatory (GoLoco) motif, stabilizing the Gα subunit in its GDP-bound conformation. Elevated AGS3 levels in macrophages limited the activity of the mammalian target of rapamycin pathway, a sensor of cellular nutritional status. This triggered the nuclear translocation of transcription factor EB, a known activator of lysosomal gene transcription. In contrast, AGS3-deficient macrophages had increased mammalian target of rapamycin activity, reduced transcription factor EB activity, and a lower lysosomal mass. High levels of AGS3 in macrophages enhanced their resistance to infection by Burkholderia cenocepacia J2315, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, whereas AGS3-deficient macrophages were more susceptible. We conclude that LPS priming increases AGS3 levels, which enhances lysosomal function and increases the capacity of macrophages to eliminate intracellular pathogens.

  13. Pulmonary Chlamydia muridarum challenge activates lung interstitial macrophages which correlate with IFN-γ production and infection control in mice.

    PubMed

    Gracey, Eric; Baglaenko, Yuriy; Prayitno, Nadia; Van Rooijen, Nico; Akram, Ali; Lin, Aifeng; Chiu, Basil; Inman, Robert D

    2015-12-01

    Protective immunity to the pathogen Chlamydia is dependent on a robust IFN-γ response generated by innate and adaptive lymphocytes. Here we assess the role of the macrophage in orchestrating a protective response in vivo to the murine pathogen, Chlamydia muridarum. During acute pulmonary and peritoneal infection, resident macrophages in both sites are infected with C. muridarum and adopt an inflammatory phenotype. In the lung, this activation is restricted to interstitial macrophages, which harbor higher levels of C. muridarum 16sRNA than alveolar macrophages. We examined innate and adaptive lymphocyte activation in the peritoneal cavity with macrophage depletion and with adoptive transfer of infected macrophages. These experiments demonstrate macrophage activation correlates with a protective IFN-γ response and effective control of C. muridarum. These studies suggest that a quantitative or qualitative alteration in macrophages may play a key role in the development of Chlamydia-associated diseases.

  14. Macrophage activation associated with chronic murine cytomegalovirus infection results in more severe experimental choroidal neovascularization.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Scott W; Espinosa-Heidmann, Diego G; Miller, Daniel M; Pereira-Simon, Simone; Hernandez, Eleut P; Chien, Hsin; Meier-Jewett, Courtney; Dix, Richard D

    2012-01-01

    The neovascular (wet) form of age-related macular degeneration (AMD) leads to vision loss due to choroidal neovascularization (CNV). Since macrophages are important in CNV development, and cytomegalovirus (CMV)-specific IgG serum titers in patients with wet AMD are elevated, we hypothesized that chronic CMV infection contributes to wet AMD, possibly by pro-angiogenic macrophage activation. This hypothesis was tested using an established mouse model of experimental CNV. At 6 days, 6 weeks, or 12 weeks after infection with murine CMV (MCMV), laser-induced CNV was performed, and CNV severity was determined 4 weeks later by analysis of choroidal flatmounts. Although all MCMV-infected mice exhibited more severe CNV when compared with control mice, the most severe CNV developed in mice with chronic infection, a time when MCMV-specific gene sequences could not be detected within choroidal tissues. Splenic macrophages collected from mice with chronic MCMV infection, however, expressed significantly greater levels of TNF-α, COX-2, MMP-9, and, most significantly, VEGF transcripts by quantitative RT-PCR assay when compared to splenic macrophages from control mice. Direct MCMV infection of monolayers of IC-21 mouse macrophages confirmed significant stimulation of VEGF mRNA and VEGF protein as determined by quantitative RT-PCR assay, ELISA, and immunostaining. Stimulation of VEGF production in vivo and in vitro was sensitive to the antiviral ganciclovir. These studies suggest that chronic CMV infection may serve as a heretofore unrecognized risk factor in the pathogenesis of wet AMD. One mechanism by which chronic CMV infection might promote increased CNV severity is via stimulation of macrophages to make pro-angiogenic factors (VEGF), an outcome that requires active virus replication.

  15. Inhibition of ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Schachter, Julieta; Delgado, Kelly Valcárcel; Barreto-de-Souza, Victor; Bou-Habib, Dumith Chequer; Persechini, Pedro Muanis; Meyer-Fernandes, José Roberto

    2015-05-01

    Nucleotides and nucleosides are secreted into extracellular media at different concentrations as a consequence of different physiologic and pathological conditions. Ecto-nucleotidases, enzymes present on the surface of most cells, hydrolyze these extracellular nucleotides and reduce the concentration of them, thus affecting the activation of different nucleotide and nucleoside receptors. Also, ecto-nucleotidases are present in a number of microorganisms and play important roles in host-pathogen interactions. Here, we characterized the ecto-ATPase activities present on the surface of HIV-1 particle and human macrophages as well. We found that the kinetic properties of HIV-1 and macrophage ecto-ATPases are similar, suggesting that the enzyme is the same. This ecto-ATPase activity was increased in macrophages infected in vitro with HIV-1. Using three different non-related ecto-ATPase inhibitors-POM-1, ARL67156 and BG0-we showed that the inhibition of these macrophage and viral ecto-ATPase activities impairs HIV-1 infection. In addition, we also found that elevated extracellular concentrations of ATP inhibit HIV-1 production by infected macrophages.

  16. Delayed presence of alternatively activated macrophages during a Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Riccardo V; Laws, Thomas R; Núñez, Alejandro; Taylor, Christopher; Clark, Graeme C

    2015-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is an intracellular bacterium that has the ability to multiply within the macrophage. The phenotype of a macrophage can determine whether the infection is cleared or the host succumbs to disease. Previously published data has suggested that F. tularensis LVS actively induces the alternative phenotype as a survival mechanism. In these studies we demonstrate that this is not the case for the more virulent strain of F. tularensis SCHU-S4. During an intranasal mouse model of infection, immuno-histochemistry identified that iNOS positive ("classical") macrophages are present at 72 h post-infection and remain high (supported by CCL-5 release) in numbers. In contrast, arginase/FIZZ-1 positive ("alternative") cells appear later and in low numbers during the development of the disease tularemia.

  17. Treponemal infection specifically enhances node T-cell regulation of macrophage activity.

    PubMed Central

    Tabor, D R; Bagasra, O; Jacobs, R F

    1986-01-01

    Hamsters experimentally inoculated in the inguinal region with Treponema pallidum subsp. endemicum develop considerable pathology at that site. We examined the cell populations from these inguinal lymph nodes to determine their intercellular responses to infection. In vitro, syphilitic-node T cells markedly suppressed C3b receptor-mediated ingestion (C3bMI) in syphilitic macrophages derived from sites both proximal and distal to the inoculation. This activity was more pronounced when node T cells rather than peritoneal T cells were used. When treponemal preparations or live treponemes were added to the coculture system, the suppression was specifically enhanced, whereas the addition of heterologous agents did not promote this effect. Syphilitic macrophages from either compartment cultured alone showed no significant inhibition of C3bMI. In parallel studies on syphilitic macrophages, we observed that the expression of Ia quickly became elevated and was sustained throughout the infection. Moreover, in vitro culturing of the syphilitic-node T cells with these macrophages did not alter this function. These observations suggest that the syphilitic node contains a subpopulation of T cells that can selectively suppress macrophage C3bMI activity and concurrently regulate their cellular response to treponemal infection. PMID:3531014

  18. Induction of Alternatively Activated Macrophages Enhances Pathogenesis during Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Page, Carly; Goicochea, Lindsay; Matthews, Krystal; Zhang, Yong; Klover, Peter; Holtzman, Michael J.; Hennighausen, Lothar

    2012-01-01

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes acute lung injury (ALI) that often leads to severe lung disease. A mouse model of acute SARS-CoV infection has been helpful in understanding the host response to infection; however, there are still unanswered questions concerning SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We have shown that STAT1 plays an important role in the severity of SARS-CoV pathogenesis and that it is independent of the role of STAT1 in interferon signaling. Mice lacking STAT1 have greater weight loss, severe lung pathology with pre-pulmonary-fibrosis-like lesions, and an altered immune response following infection with SARS-CoV. We hypothesized that STAT1 plays a role in the polarization of the immune response, specifically in macrophages, resulting in a worsened outcome. To test this, we created bone marrow chimeras and cell-type-specific knockouts of STAT1 to identify which cell type(s) is critical to protection from severe lung disease after SARS-CoV infection. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that hematopoietic cells are responsible for the pathogenesis in STAT1−/− mice, and because of an induction of alternatively activated (AA) macrophages after infection, we hypothesized that the AA macrophages were critical for disease severity. Mice with STAT1 in either monocytes and macrophages (LysM/STAT1) or ciliated lung epithelial cells (FoxJ1/STAT1) deleted were created. Following infection, LysM/STAT1 mice display severe lung pathology, while FoxJ1/STAT1 mice display normal lung pathology. We hypothesized that AA macrophages were responsible for this STAT1-dependent pathology and therefore created STAT1/STAT6−/− double-knockout mice. STAT6 is essential for the development of AA macrophages. Infection of the double-knockout mice displayed a lack of lung disease and prefibrotic lesions, suggesting that AA macrophage production may be the cause of STAT1-dependent lung disease. We propose that the control of AA

  19. Induction of alternatively activated macrophages enhances pathogenesis during severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus infection.

    PubMed

    Page, Carly; Goicochea, Lindsay; Matthews, Krystal; Zhang, Yong; Klover, Peter; Holtzman, Michael J; Hennighausen, Lothar; Frieman, Matthew

    2012-12-01

    Infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) causes acute lung injury (ALI) that often leads to severe lung disease. A mouse model of acute SARS-CoV infection has been helpful in understanding the host response to infection; however, there are still unanswered questions concerning SARS-CoV pathogenesis. We have shown that STAT1 plays an important role in the severity of SARS-CoV pathogenesis and that it is independent of the role of STAT1 in interferon signaling. Mice lacking STAT1 have greater weight loss, severe lung pathology with pre-pulmonary-fibrosis-like lesions, and an altered immune response following infection with SARS-CoV. We hypothesized that STAT1 plays a role in the polarization of the immune response, specifically in macrophages, resulting in a worsened outcome. To test this, we created bone marrow chimeras and cell-type-specific knockouts of STAT1 to identify which cell type(s) is critical to protection from severe lung disease after SARS-CoV infection. Bone marrow chimera experiments demonstrated that hematopoietic cells are responsible for the pathogenesis in STAT1(-/-) mice, and because of an induction of alternatively activated (AA) macrophages after infection, we hypothesized that the AA macrophages were critical for disease severity. Mice with STAT1 in either monocytes and macrophages (LysM/STAT1) or ciliated lung epithelial cells (FoxJ1/STAT1) deleted were created. Following infection, LysM/STAT1 mice display severe lung pathology, while FoxJ1/STAT1 mice display normal lung pathology. We hypothesized that AA macrophages were responsible for this STAT1-dependent pathology and therefore created STAT1/STAT6(-/-) double-knockout mice. STAT6 is essential for the development of AA macrophages. Infection of the double-knockout mice displayed a lack of lung disease and prefibrotic lesions, suggesting that AA macrophage production may be the cause of STAT1-dependent lung disease. We propose that the control of AA

  20. Toxoplasma gondii infection of activated J774-A1 macrophages causes inducible nitric oxide synthase degradation by the proteasome pathway.

    PubMed

    Padrão, Juliana da Cruz; Cabral, Gabriel Rabello de Abreu; da Silva, Maria de Fátima Sarro; Seabra, Sergio Henrique; DaMatta, Renato Augusto

    2014-10-01

    Classically activated macrophages produce nitric oxide (NO), which is a potent microbicidal agent. NO production is catalyzed by inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), which uses arginine as substrate producing NO and citruline. However, it has been demonstrated that NO production is inhibited after macrophage infection of Toxoplasma gondii, the agent of toxoplasmosis, due to iNOS degradation. Three possible iNOS degradation pathways have been described in activated macrophages: proteasome, calpain and lysosomal. To identify the iNOS degradation pathway after T. gondii infection, J774-A1 macrophage cell line was activated with lipopolysaccharide and interferon-gamma for 24 h, treated with the following inhibitors, lactacystin (proteasome), calpeptin (calpain), or concanamycin A (lysosomal), and infected with the parasite. NO production and iNOS expression were evaluated after 2 and 6 h of infection. iNOS was degraded in J774-A1 macrophages infected with T. gondii. However, treatment with lactacystin maintained iNOS expression in J774-A1 macrophages infected for 2 h by T. gondii, and after 6 h iNOS was localized in aggresomes. iNOS was degraded after parasite infection of J774-A1 macrophages treated with calpeptin or concanamycin A. NO production confirmed iNOS expression profiles. These results indicate that T. gondii infection of J774-A1 macrophages caused iNOS degradation by the proteasome pathway.

  1. Macrophage activation and polarization.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Fernando Oneissi; Sica, Antonio; Mantovani, Alberto; Locati, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages are widely distributed immune system cells that play an indispensable role in homeostasis and defense. They can be phenotypically polarized by the microenvironment to mount specific functional programs. Polarized macrophages can be broadly classified in two main groups: classically activated macrophages (or M1), whose prototypical activating stimuli are IFNgamma and LPS, and alternatively activated macrophages (or M2), further subdivided in M2a (after exposure to IL-4 or IL-13), M2b (immune complexes in combination with IL-1beta or LPS) and M2c (IL-10, TGFbeta or glucocorticoids). M1 exhibit potent microbicidal properties and promote strong IL-12-mediated Th1 responses, whilst M2 support Th2-associated effector functions. Beyond infection M2 polarized macrophages play a role in resolution of inflammation through high endocytic clearance capacities and trophic factor synthesis, accompanied by reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion. Similar functions are also exerted by tumor-associated macrophages (TAM), which also display an alternative-like activation phenotype and play a detrimental pro-tumoral role. Here we review the main functions of polarized macrophages and discuss the perspectives of this field.

  2. Enterococcus faecalis infection activates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase signaling to block apoptotic cell death in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Zou, Jun; Shankar, Nathan

    2014-12-01

    Apoptosis is an intrinsic immune defense mechanism in the host response to microbial infection. Not surprisingly, many pathogens have evolved various strategies to manipulate this important pathway to benefit their own survival and dissemination in the host during infection. To our knowledge, no attempts have been made to explore the host cell survival signals modulated by the bacterium Enterococcus faecalis. Here, we show for the first time that during early stages of infection, internalized enterococci can prevent host cell (RAW264.7 cells, primary macrophages, and mouse embryonic fibroblasts [MEFs]) apoptosis induced by a wide spectrum of proapoptotic stimuli. Activation of caspase 3 and cleavage of the caspase 3 substrate poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase were inhibited in E. faecalis-infected cells, indicating that E. faecalis protects macrophages from apoptosis by inhibiting caspase 3 activation. This antiapoptotic activity in E. faecalis-infected cells was dependent on the activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling pathway, which resulted in the increased expression of the antiapoptotic factor Bcl-2 and decreased expression of the proapoptotic factor Bax. Further analysis revealed that active E. faecalis physiology was important for inhibition of host cell apoptosis, and this feature seemed to be a strain-independent trait among E. faecalis isolates. Employing a mouse peritonitis model, we also determined that cells collected from the peritoneal lavage fluid of E. faecalis-infected mice showed reduced levels of apoptosis compared to cells from uninfected mice. These results show early modulation of apoptosis during infection and have important implications for enterococcal pathogenesis.

  3. Interleukin-17 is not required for classical macrophage activation in a pulmonary mouse model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection.

    PubMed

    Hardison, Sarah E; Wozniak, Karen L; Kolls, Jay K; Wormley, Floyd L

    2010-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that causes disease in individuals with suppressed cell-mediated immunity. Recent studies in our laboratory have shown that increases in pulmonary Th1-type and interleukin-17A (IL-17A) cytokine production, classical macrophage activation, and sterilizing immunity are elicited in response to infection with a gamma interferon (IFN-γ)-producing C. neoformans strain, H99γ. IL-17A-treated macrophages, compared to IL-4-treated macrophages, have been demonstrated to exhibit increased microbicidal activity in vitro, a characteristic consistent with classical macrophage activation. The purpose of these studies is to determine the role of IL-17A in the induction of classically activated macrophages following infection with C. neoformans. Immunohistochemistry and real-time PCR were used to characterize the macrophage activation phenotype in lung tissues of mice treated with isotype control or anti-IL-17A antibodies and given an experimental pulmonary infection with C. neoformans strain H99γ. The pulmonary fungal burden was resolved, albeit more slowly, in mice depleted of IL-17A compared to the fungal burden in isotype control-treated mice. Nonetheless, no difference in classical macrophage activation was observed in IL-17A-depleted mice. Similarly, classical macrophage activation was evident in mice deficient in IL-17A or the IL-17 receptor A, which mediates IL-17A signaling, following pulmonary infection with wild-type C. neoformans strain H99 or H99γ. These studies suggest that IL-17A may play a role in the early immune response to C. neoformans but is not required for classical macrophage activation in mice experimentally infected with C. neoformans.

  4. Guanylate Binding Proteins Enable Rapid Activation of Canonical and Noncanonical Inflammasomes in Chlamydia-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K.; de Zoete, Marcel R.; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A.; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M.; Miao, Edward A.

    2015-01-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections. PMID:26416908

  5. Guanylate binding proteins enable rapid activation of canonical and noncanonical inflammasomes in Chlamydia-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Finethy, Ryan; Jorgensen, Ine; Haldar, Arun K; de Zoete, Marcel R; Strowig, Till; Flavell, Richard A; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Nagarajan, Uma M; Miao, Edward A; Coers, Jörn

    2015-12-01

    Interferon (IFN)-inducible guanylate binding proteins (GBPs) mediate cell-autonomous host resistance to bacterial pathogens and promote inflammasome activation. The prevailing model postulates that these two GBP-controlled activities are directly linked through GBP-dependent vacuolar lysis. It was proposed that the rupture of pathogen-containing vacuoles (PVs) by GBPs destroyed the microbial refuge and simultaneously contaminated the host cell cytosol with microbial activators of inflammasomes. Here, we demonstrate that GBP-mediated host resistance and GBP-mediated inflammatory responses can be uncoupled. We show that PVs formed by the rodent pathogen Chlamydia muridarum, so-called inclusions, remain free of GBPs and that C. muridarum is impervious to GBP-mediated restrictions on bacterial growth. Although GBPs neither bind to C. muridarum inclusions nor restrict C. muridarum growth, we find that GBPs promote inflammasome activation in C. muridarum-infected macrophages. We demonstrate that C. muridarum infections induce GBP-dependent pyroptosis through both caspase-11-dependent noncanonical and caspase-1-dependent canonical inflammasomes. Among canonical inflammasomes, we find that C. muridarum and the human pathogen Chlamydia trachomatis activate not only NLRP3 but also AIM2. Our data show that GBPs support fast-kinetics processing and secretion of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-18 by the NLRP3 inflammasome but are dispensable for the secretion of the same cytokines at later times postinfection. Because IFN-γ fails to induce IL-1β transcription, GBP-dependent fast-kinetics inflammasome activation can drive the preferential processing of constitutively expressed IL-18 in IFN-γ-primed macrophages in the absence of prior Toll-like receptor stimulation. Together, our results reveal that GBPs control the kinetics of inflammasome activation and thereby shape macrophage responses to Chlamydia infections.

  6. Effects of pseudorabies virus infection upon cytotoxicity and antiviral activities of porcine alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Iglesias, G; Pijoan, C; Molitor, T

    1992-10-01

    Alveolar macrophages (AM) infected with Pseudorabies virus (PRV) were compared to noninfected AM for cytotoxicity against foreign or transformed cells and production of interferon (IFN). Five PRV strains were used to infect AM including strains that are known to be highly virulent for pigs, i.e. strain 4892 and strain S-62 as well as strains that are regarded as mild or nonvirulent, i.e. BUK and Bartha. The multiplicity of infection ranged from 0.005 to 0.05 TCID50/cell. The target cells in the cytotoxicity assays were either chicken red blood cells, PRV-infected vero cells, or human myeloblastoma cells (K562 cell line). For the production of IFN, AM cultures were treated with polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (Poly I:C) diluted in tissue culture media at a concentration of 5 micrograms/10(6) cells. Culture supernatants were collected at various times poststimulation and tested for antiviral activity using the Vesicular Stomatitis Virus replication inhibition test. Swine AM were able to lyse chicken red blood cells in an antibody-independent way but not in an antibody-dependent way, whereas lysis of PRV-infected vero cells was accomplished both ways. The cytotoxicity against chicken red blood cells was reduced in the PRV-infected AM as compared to noninfected cells, particularly in AM infected with virulent PRV strains. Specific 51Cr release values for AM infected with S-62 and 4892 strains were 14 and 19, while the noninfected AM had values of 36. Similarly, in the antibody-dependent cytotoxicity assay against PRV-infected vero cells there was no activity of AM against K562 cells. The production of IFN was readily stimulated with Poly I:C. The optimal time for supernatant collection was between 12 and 16 h poststimulation. The antiviral activity was abrogated by treatment of the supernatant with antiserum against human leukocyte IFN; it was therefore considered to be due to interferon-alpha (IFN alpha) released from the macrophages. The antiviral activity present in

  7. Hepatic CD206-positive macrophages express amphiregulin to promote the immunosuppressive activity of regulatory T cells in HBV infection.

    PubMed

    Dai, Kai; Huang, Ling; Sun, Xiaomei; Yang, Lihua; Gong, Zuojiong

    2015-12-01

    Hepatitis B virus is a major cause of chronic liver inflammation worldwide. Innate and adaptive immune responses work together to restrain or eliminate hepatitis B virus in the liver. Compromised or failed adaptive immune response results in persistent virus replication and spread. How to promote antiviral immunity is a research focus for hepatitis B virus prevention and therapy. In this study, we investigated the role of macrophages in the regulation of antiviral immunity. We found that F4/80(+)CD206(+)CD80(lo/+) macrophages were a particular hepatic macrophage subset that expressed amphiregulin in our mouse hepatitis B virus infection model. CD206(+) macrophage-derived amphiregulin promoted the immunosuppressive activity of intrahepatic regulatory T cells, demonstrated by higher expression of CTLA-4, ICOS, and CD39, as well as stronger inhibition of antiviral function of CD8(+) T cells. Amphiregulin-neutralizing antibody diminished the effect of CD206(+) macrophages on regulatory T cells. In addition, we found that CD206(+) macrophage-derived amphiregulin activated mammalian target of rapamycin signaling in regulatory T cells, and this mammalian target of rapamycin activation was essential for promotion of regulatory T cell activity by CD206(+) macrophages. Adoptive transfer of CD206(+) macrophages into hepatitis B virus-infected mice increased cytoplasmic hepatitis B virus DNA in hepatocytes and also increased serum hepatitis B surface antigen. The antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cells was decreased after macrophage transfer. Therefore, our research indicated that amphiregulin produced by CD206(+) macrophages plays an important role in modulating regulatory T cell function and subsequently restrains the antiviral activity of CD8(+) T cells. Our study offers new insights into the immunomodulation in hepatitis B virus infection.

  8. Immune Activity of BCG Infected Mouse Macrophages Treated with a Novel Recombinant Mouse Lactoferrin.

    PubMed

    O'Shea, Kelly M; Hwang, Shen-An; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2015-01-01

    Lactoferrin has been investigated for its adjuvant action to boost the BCG vaccine. Previous studies demonstrated that lactoferrin (LF) enhanced efficacy of the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine to protect mice against the virulent Erdman Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. The studies here investigate the hypothesis that a novel CHO-derived recombinant mouse LF can modify cytokine production and antigen presentation molecules on macrophages. The mouse LF (rmLF) was examined for effects on bone marrow derived macrophage (BMM) activities when cultured with BCG. Comparisons were made to CHO-derived recombinant human LF (rhLF). Inflammatory cytokine responses were investigated, as were antigen presentation and associated co-stimulatory molecules. Cytokine responses were subsequently measured when these cells were co-cultured with naïve or BCG sensitized CD4+ lymphocytes. While overall responses were similar between mouse, human, and bovine forms, the homologous rmLF treated infected BMMs showed unique activation patterns of cytokine production. These results indicate that species-specific LF can have different effects on mouse macrophages exposed to BCG, thus potentially affecting adjuvant activity when used in models of vaccination in mice.

  9. DDT inhibits the functional activation of murine macrophages and decreases resistance to infection by Mycobacterium microti.

    PubMed

    Nuñez G, María Andrea; Estrada, Iris; Calderon-Aranda, Emma S

    2002-06-05

    DDT is still widely used in several parts of the world to control malaria, typhoid and dengue vectors, even though its use was banned in many countries based on toxicity data in wild life species. DDT has been shown to have immunotoxic effects in mice and to increase susceptibility to intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium leprae. However, little is known about the mechanisms underlying this effect. Activated macrophages play an important defensive role against intracellular pathogens, therefore our objective was to evaluate the effect of in vitro exposure to technical grade DDT (a mixture of three forms: 1,1,1-thricloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane (p,p'-DDT) (85%), o,p'-DDT (15%) and o,o'-DDT (trace amounts)), p,p'-DDT, 1,1-dicloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethylene (p,p'-DDE) and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl)ethane on the functional activation of J774A.1 macrophages and their capability to limit growth of intracellular pathogens, using Mycobacterium microti as a model. We evaluated cytotoxicity and the effect on cell proliferation of 2.5, 5.0 and 10 microg/ml of DDT compounds. Functional macrophage activity (NO(*) and O(2)(-) production, and mRNA expression of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and iNO synthase) and the ability of treated cells to limit infection by M. microti in IFN-gamma-activated macrophages were evaluated in cells exposed to 2.5 microg/ml of DDT compounds. Doses of 5 and 10 microg/ml induced direct cytotoxic effects precluding meaningful analysis of the above parameters, whereas 2.5 microg/ml of all DDT compounds inhibited macrophage activity and reduced their ability to limit the intracellular growth of M. microti without inducing cytotoxicity. Technical grade DDT and p,p'-DDE were the more potent compounds. Therefore, exposure to DDT compounds could represent an important risk for infection development by those intracellular pathogens against which NO(*) and/or O(2)(-) production represent the main immune protective mechanism.

  10. Intracellular activity of tedizolid phosphate and ACH-702 versus Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Due to the emergency of multidrug-resistant strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is necessary the evaluation of new compounds. Findings Tedizolid, a novel oxazolidinone, and ACH-702, a new isothiazoloquinolone, were tested against M. tuberculosis infected THP-1 macrophages. These two compounds significantly decreased the number of intracellular mycobacteria at 0.25X, 1X, 4X and 16X the MIC value. The drugs were tested either in nanoparticules or in free solution. Conclusion Tedizolid and ACH-702 have a good intracellular killing activity comparable to that of rifampin or moxifloxacin. PMID:24708819

  11. NF-κB activation is critical for bacterial lipoprotein tolerance-enhanced bactericidal activity in macrophages during microbial infection

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinghua; Xiang, Jing; Li, Xue; Blankson, Siobhan; Zhao, Shuqi; Cai, Junwei; Jiang, Yong; Redmond, H. Paul; Wang, Jiang Huai

    2017-01-01

    Tolerance to bacterial components represents an essential regulatory mechanism during bacterial infection. Bacterial lipoprotein (BLP)-induced tolerance confers protection against microbial sepsis by attenuating inflammatory responses and augmenting antimicrobial activity in innate phagocytes. It has been well-documented that BLP tolerance-attenuated proinflammatory cytokine production is associated with suppressed TLR2 signalling pathway; however, the underlying mechanism(s) involved in BLP tolerance-enhanced antimicrobial activity is unclear. Here we report that BLP-tolerised macrophages exhibited accelerated phagosome maturation and enhanced bactericidal activity upon bacterial infection, with upregulated expression of membrane-trafficking regulators and lysosomal enzymes. Notably, bacterial challenge resulted in a strong activation of NF-κB pathway in BLP-tolerised macrophages. Importantly, activation of NF-κB pathway is critical for BLP tolerance-enhanced antimicrobial activity, as deactivation of NF-κB in BLP-tolerised macrophages impaired phagosome maturation and intracellular killing of the ingested bacteria. Finally, activation of NF-κB pathway in BLP-tolerised macrophages was dependent on NOD1 and NOD2 signalling, as knocking-down NOD1 and NOD2 substantially inhibited bacteria-induced activation of NF-κB and overexpression of Rab10 and Acp5, two membrane-trafficking regulators and lysosomal enzymes contributed to BLP tolerance-enhanced bactericidal activity. These results indicate that activation of NF-κB pathway is essential for BLP tolerance-augmented antimicrobial activity in innate phagocytes and depends primarily on both NOD1 and NOD2. PMID:28079153

  12. Immunotherapy of HIV-infected patients with Gc protein-derived macrophage activating factor (GcMAF).

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Nobuto; Ushijima, Naofumi; Koga, Yoshihiko

    2009-01-01

    Serum Gc protein (known as vitamin D3-binding protein) is the precursor for the principal macrophage activating factor (MAF). The MAF precursor activity of serum Gc protein of HIV-infected patients was lost or reduced because Gc protein is deglycosylated by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase (Nagalase) secreted from HIV-infected cells. Therefore, macrophages of HIV-infected patients having deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be activated, leading to immunosuppression. Since Nagalase is the intrinsic component of the envelope protein gp120, serum Nagalase activity is the sum of enzyme activities carried by both HIV virions and envelope proteins. These Nagalase carriers were already complexed with anti-HIV immunoglobulin G (IgG) but retained Nagalase activity that is required for infectivity. Stepwise treatment of purified Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generated the most potent macrophage activating factor (termed GcMAF), which produces no side effects in humans. Macrophages activated by administration of 100 ng GcMAF develop a large amount of Fc-receptors as well as an enormous variation of receptors that recognize IgG-bound and unbound HIV virions. Since latently HIV-infected cells are unstable and constantly release HIV virions, the activated macrophages rapidly intercept the released HIV virions to prevent reinfection resulting in exhaustion of infected cells. After less than 18 weekly administrations of 100 ng GcMAF for nonanemic patients, they exhibited low serum Nagalase activities equivalent to healthy controls, indicating eradication of HIV-infection, which was also confirmed by no infectious center formation by provirus inducing agent-treated patient PBMCs. No recurrence occurred and their healthy CD + cell counts were maintained for 7 years.

  13. Cellular interactions in bovine tuberculosis: release of active mycobacteria from infected macrophages by antigen‐stimulated T cells

    PubMed Central

    Liébana, E; Aranaz, A; Aldwell, F E; McNair, J; Neill, S D; Smyth, A J; Pollock, J M

    2000-01-01

    The outcome of Mycobacterium bovis infections depends on the interactions of infected macrophages with T lymphocytes. Several studies in humans and in mouse models have suggested an important role for cytotoxicity in the protective immune response to mycobacterial infections, and both CD4+ and CD8+ T cells have been shown to elicit appropriate cytolytic activity. The present study investigated in vitro interactions of T cells with M. bovis‐infected macrophages in bovine tuberculosis. The results showed that following interaction with antigen‐stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from infected cattle, there was an increased presence of M. bovis in the extracellular compartment of infected macrophage cultures, as measured by incorporation of [3H]uracil into mycobacterial RNA. Furthermore, out of a panel of T‐cell clones from infected cattle, it was found that a higher proportion of CD8+ clones produced an increase in the number of metabolically active extracellular M. bovis organisms compared with CD4+ clones. Finally, a positive correlation between percentage of antigen‐dependent release of mycobacteria and total uracil uptake by M. bovis within culture systems was detected. This could be regarded as an indication of preferential intracellular control of mycobacteria by activated macrophages. PMID:10651937

  14. Tim-3 induces Th2-biased immunity and alternative macrophage activation during Schistosoma japonicum infection.

    PubMed

    Hou, Nan; Piao, Xianyu; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Chuang; Chen, Qijun

    2015-08-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) has been regarded as an important regulatory factor in both adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, Tim-3 was reported to be involved in Th2-biased immune responses in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, but the exact mechanism behind the involvement of Tim-3 remains unknown. The present study aims to understand the role of Tim-3 in the immune response against S. japonicum infection. Tim-3 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and increased Tim-3 expression was observed on CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells, NK1.1(+) cells, and CD11b(+) cells from the livers of S. japonicum-infected mice. However, the increased level of Tim-3 was lower in the spleen than in the liver, and no increase in Tim-3 expression was observed on splenic CD8(+) T cells or CD11b(+) cells. The schistosome-induced upregulation of Tim-3 on natural killer (NK) cells was accompanied by reduced NK cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Tim-3 antibody blockade led to upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA in CD11b(+) cells cocultured with soluble egg antigen and downregulation of Arg1 and IL-10, which are markers of M2 macrophages. In summary, we observed schistosome-induced expression of Tim-3 on critical immune cell populations, which may be involved in the Th2-biased immune response and alternative activation of macrophages during infection.

  15. Tim-3 Induces Th2-Biased Immunity and Alternative Macrophage Activation during Schistosoma japonicum Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Nan; Piao, Xianyu; Liu, Shuai; Wu, Chuang

    2015-01-01

    T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (Tim-3) has been regarded as an important regulatory factor in both adaptive and innate immunity. Recently, Tim-3 was reported to be involved in Th2-biased immune responses in mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum, but the exact mechanism behind the involvement of Tim-3 remains unknown. The present study aims to understand the role of Tim-3 in the immune response against S. japonicum infection. Tim-3 expression was determined by flow cytometry, and increased Tim-3 expression was observed on CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, NK1.1+ cells, and CD11b+ cells from the livers of S. japonicum-infected mice. However, the increased level of Tim-3 was lower in the spleen than in the liver, and no increase in Tim-3 expression was observed on splenic CD8+ T cells or CD11b+ cells. The schistosome-induced upregulation of Tim-3 on natural killer (NK) cells was accompanied by reduced NK cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Tim-3 antibody blockade led to upregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-12 (IL-12) mRNA in CD11b+ cells cocultured with soluble egg antigen and downregulation of Arg1 and IL-10, which are markers of M2 macrophages. In summary, we observed schistosome-induced expression of Tim-3 on critical immune cell populations, which may be involved in the Th2-biased immune response and alternative activation of macrophages during infection. PMID:25987707

  16. Murine macrophage inflammatory cytokine production and immune activation in response to Vibrio parahaemolyticus infection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the most common cause of bacterial seafood-related illness in the United States. Currently, there is a dearth of literature regarding immunity to infection with this pathogen. Here we studied V. parahaemolyticus-infected RAW 264.7 murine macrophage detecting both pro- and...

  17. Macrophage cell death and transcriptional response are actively triggered by the fungal virulence factor Cbp1 during H. capsulatum infection

    PubMed Central

    English, Bevin C.; Murray, Davina Hocking; Lee, Young Nam; Coady, Alison; Sil, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Summary Microbial pathogens induce or inhibit death of host cells during infection, with significant consequences for virulence and disease progression. Death of an infected host cell can either facilitate release and dissemination of intracellular pathogens or promote pathogen clearance. Histoplasma capsulatum is an intracellular fungal pathogen that replicates robustly within macrophages and triggers macrophage lysis by unknown means. To identify H. capsulatum effectors of macrophage lysis, we performed a genetic screen and discovered three mutants that grew to wild-type levels within macrophages but failed to elicit host-cell death. Each mutant was defective in production of the previously identified secreted protein Cbp1 (calcium-binding protein 1), whose role in intracellular growth had not been fully investigated. We found that Cbp1 was dispensable for high levels of intracellular growth, but required to elicit a unique transcriptional signature in macrophages, including genes whose induction was previously associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and host-cell death. Additionally Cbp1 was required for activation of cell-death caspases-3/7, and macrophage death during H. capsulatum infection was dependent on the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the ability of Cbp1 to actively program host-cell death is an essential step in H. capsulatum pathogenesis. PMID:26288377

  18. Macrophage cell death and transcriptional response are actively triggered by the fungal virulence factor Cbp1 during H. capsulatum infection.

    PubMed

    Isaac, Dervla T; Berkes, Charlotte A; English, Bevin C; Hocking Murray, Davina; Lee, Young Nam; Coady, Alison; Sil, Anita

    2015-12-01

    Microbial pathogens induce or inhibit death of host cells during infection, with significant consequences for virulence and disease progression. Death of an infected host cell can either facilitate release and dissemination of intracellular pathogens or promote pathogen clearance. Histoplasma capsulatum is an intracellular fungal pathogen that replicates robustly within macrophages and triggers macrophage lysis by unknown means. To identify H. capsulatum effectors of macrophage lysis, we performed a genetic screen and discovered three mutants that grew to wild-type levels within macrophages but failed to elicit host-cell death. Each mutant was defective in production of the previously identified secreted protein Cbp1 (calcium-binding protein 1), whose role in intracellular growth had not been fully investigated. We found that Cbp1 was dispensable for high levels of intracellular growth but required to elicit a unique transcriptional signature in macrophages, including genes whose induction was previously associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress and host-cell death. Additionally, Cbp1 was required for activation of cell-death caspases-3/7, and macrophage death during H. capsulatum infection was dependent on the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bak. Taken together, these findings strongly suggest that the ability of Cbp1 to actively program host-cell death is an essential step in H. capsulatum pathogenesis.

  19. Metabolism Supports Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Langston, P. Kent; Shibata, Munehiko; Horng, Tiffany

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages are found in most tissues of the body, where they have tissue- and context-dependent roles in maintaining homeostasis as well as coordinating adaptive responses to various stresses. Their capacity for specialized functions is controlled by polarizing signals, which activate macrophages by upregulating transcriptional programs that encode distinct effector functions. An important conceptual advance in the field of macrophage biology, emerging from recent studies, is that macrophage activation is critically supported by metabolic shifts. Metabolic shifts fuel multiple aspects of macrophage activation, and preventing these shifts impairs appropriate activation. These findings raise the exciting possibility that macrophage functions in various contexts could be regulated by manipulating their metabolism. Here, we review the rapidly evolving field of macrophage metabolism, discussing how polarizing signals trigger metabolic shifts and how these shifts enable appropriate activation and sustain effector activities. We also discuss recent studies indicating that the mitochondria are central hubs in inflammatory macrophage activation. PMID:28197151

  20. The predominance of alternatively activated macrophages following challenge with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide after prior infection with Sporothrix schenckii.

    PubMed

    Alegranci, Pamela; de Abreu Ribeiro, Livia Carolina; Ferreira, Lucas Souza; Negrini, Thais de Cássia; Maia, Danielle Cardoso Geraldo; Tansini, Aline; Gonçalves, Amanda Costa; Placeres, Marisa Campos Polesi; Carlos, Iracilda Zeppone

    2013-08-01

    Sporotrichosis is a subcutaneous mycosis that is caused by the dimorphic fungus Sporothrix schenckii. This disease generally occurs within the skin and subcutaneous tissues, causing lesions that can spread through adjacent lymphatic vessels and sometimes leading to systemic diseases in immunocompromised patients. Macrophages are crucial for proper immune responses against a variety of pathogens. Furthermore, macrophages can play different roles in response to different microorganisms and forms of activation, and they can be divided into "classic" or "alternatively" activated populations, as also known as M1 and M2 macrophages. M1 cells can lead to tissue injury and contribute to pathogenesis, whereas M2 cells promote angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and repair. The aim of this study was to investigate the roles of M1 and M2 macrophages in a sporotrichosis model. Toward this end, we performed phenotyping of peritoneal exudate cells and evaluated the concomitant production of several immunomediators, including IL-12, IL-10, TGF-β, nitric oxide, and arginase-I activity, which were stimulated ex vivo with cell wall peptide-polysaccharide. Our results showed the predominance of the M2 macrophage population, indicated by peaks of arginase-I activity as well as IL-10 and TGF-β production during the 6th and 8th weeks after infection. These results were consistent with cellular phenotyping that revealed increases in CD206-positive cells over this period. This is the first report of the participation of M2 macrophages in sporotrichosis infections.

  1. Lysis of herpesvirus-infected cells by macrophages activated with free or liposome-encapsulated lymphokine produced by a murine T cell hybridoma.

    PubMed Central

    Koff, W C; Showalter, S D; Seniff, D A; Hampar, B

    1983-01-01

    Thioglycolate-induced mouse peritoneal macrophages were activated in vitro by the lymphokine designated macrophage-activating factor (MAF) produced by a murine T cell hybridoma to lyse herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2)-infected murine target cells. Comparison of uninfected BALB/c 10E2 cells with HSV-2-infected 10E2 cells showed that macrophages activated with MAF selectively destroyed HSV-2-infected cells and left uninfected cells unharmed, as measured by an 18-h 51Cr-release assay. In contrast, macrophages treated with medium were as efficient as MAF-activated macrophages in suppressing the production of HSV-2 from virus-infected cells. These findings suggest that macrophages must attain an activated state to lyse HSV-2-infected cells. Finally, incubation of macrophages with liposomes containing MAF was shown to be a highly efficient method for activation of macrophages against HSV-2 infected cells. The ability to selectively destroy herpesvirus-infected cells in vitro by macrophages activated with liposome-encapsulated MAF suggests that the therapeutic efficacy of this treatment in vivo should be evaluated. PMID:6358037

  2. Antiviral activity of derivatized dextrans on HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and blood lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Seddiki, N; Mbemba, E; Letourneur, D; Ylisastigui, L; Benjouad, A; Saffar, L; Gluckman, J C; Jozefonvicz, J; Gattegno, L

    1997-11-28

    The present study demonstrates at the molecular level that dextran derivatives carboxymethyl dextran benzylamine (CMDB) and carboxymethyl dextran benzylamine sulfonate (CMDBS), characterized by a statistical distribution of anionic carboxylic groups, hydrophobic benzylamide units, and/or sulfonate moieties, interact with HIV-1 LAI gp120 and V3 consensus clades B domain. Only limited interaction was observed with carboxy-methyl dextran (CMD) or dextran (D) under the same conditions. CMDBS and CMDB (1 microM) strongly inhibited HIV-1 infection of primary macrophages and primary CD4+ lymphocytes by macrophage-tropic and T lymphocyte-tropic strains, respectively, while D or CMD had more limited effects on M-tropic infection of primary macrophages and exert no inhibitory effect on M- or T-tropic infection of primary lymphocytes. CMDBS and CMDB (1 microM) had limited but significant effect on oligomerized soluble recombinant gp120 binding to primary macrophages while they clearly inhibit (> 50%) such binding to primary lymphocytes. In conclusion, the inhibitory effect of CMDB and the CMDBS, is observed for HIV M- and T-tropic strain infections of primary lymphocytes and macrophages which indicates that these compounds interfere with steps of HIV replicative cycle which neither depend on the virus nor on the cell.

  3. Macrophage infection models for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Benjamin K; Abramovitch, Robert B

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis colonizes, survives, and grows inside macrophages. In vitro macrophage infection models, using both primary macrophages and cell lines, enable the characterization of the pathogen response to macrophage immune pressure and intracellular environmental cues. We describe methods to propagate and infect primary murine bone marrow-derived macrophages and J774 and THP-1 macrophage-like cell lines. We also present methods on the characterization of M. tuberculosis intracellular survival and the preparation of infected macrophages for imaging.

  4. Differential Regulation of Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression by Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinases in Macrophages in Response to Intestinal Parasite Infection

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Mei Xing; Png, Chin Wen; Tay, Crispina Yan Bing; Teo, Joshua Ding Wei; Jiao, Huipeng; Lehming, Norbert

    2014-01-01

    Blastocystis is a common enteric protistan parasite that can cause acute, as well as chronic, infection and is associated with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the pathogenic status of Blastocystis infection remains unclear. In this study, we found that Blastocystis antigens induced abundant expression of proinflammatory cytokines, including interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), in mouse intestinal explants, in mouse colitis colon, and in macrophages. Further investigation utilizing RAW264.7 murine macrophages showed that Blastocystis treatment in RAW264.7 macrophages induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38, the three major groups of mammalian mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases that play essential roles in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines. ERK inhibition in macrophages significantly suppressed both mRNA and protein expression of IL-6 and TNF-α and mRNA expression of IL-1β. On the other hand, JNK inhibition resulted in reductions in both c-Jun and ERK activation and significant suppression of all three proinflammatory cytokines at both the mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of p38 suppressed only IL-6 protein expression with no effect on the expression of IL-1β and TNF-α. Furthermore, we found that serine proteases produced by Blastocystis play an important role in the induction of ERK activation and proinflammatory cytokine expression by macrophages. Our study thus demonstrated for the first time that Blastocystis could induce the expression of various proinflammatory cytokines via the activation of MAP kinases and that infection with Blastocystis may contribute to the pathogenesis of inflammatory intestinal diseases through the activation of inflammatory pathways in host immune cells, such as macrophages. PMID:25156742

  5. Effect of transcription factor GATA-2 on phagocytic activity of alveolar macrophages from Pneumocystis carinii-infected hosts.

    PubMed

    Lasbury, Mark E; Tang, Xing; Durant, Pamela J; Lee, Chao-Hung

    2003-09-01

    Alveolar macrophages from Pneumocystis carinii-infected hosts are defective in phagocytosis (W. Chen, J. W. Mills, and A. G. Harmsen, Int. J. Exp. Pathol. 73:709-720, 1992; H. Koziel et al., J. Clin. Investig. 102:1332-1344, 1998). Experiments were performed to determine whether this defect is specific for P. carinii organisms. The results showed that these macrophages were unable to phagocytose both P. carinii organisms and fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated latex beads, indicating that alveolar macrophages from P. carinii-infected hosts have a general defect in phagocytosis. To determine whether this defect correlates with the recently discovered down-regulation of the GATA-2 transcription factor gene during P. carinii infection, alveolar macrophages from dexamethasone-suppressed or healthy rats were treated with anti-GATA-2 oligonucleotides and then assayed for phagocytosis. Aliquots of the alveolar macrophages were also treated with the sense oligonucleotides as the control. Cells treated with the antisense oligonucleotides were found to have a 46% reduction in phagocytosis of P. carinii organisms and a 65% reduction in phagocytosis of FITC-latex beads compared to those treated with the sense oligonucleotides. To determine whether the defect in phagocytosis in alveolar macrophages from P. carinii-infected hosts can be corrected by overexpression of GATA-2, a plasmid containing the rat GATA-2 gene in the sense orientation driven by the cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter was introduced into alveolar macrophages from P. carinii-infected rats. Aliquots of the same cells transfected with a plasmid containing GATA-2 in the antisense orientation relative to the CMV promoter served as the control. Alveolar macrophages treated with the sense GATA-2 expression construct were found to increase their phagocytic activity by 66% in phagocytosis of P. carinii organisms and by 280% in phagocytosis of FITC-latex beads compared to those that received the antisense GATA-2

  6. Macrophage polarization and HIV-1 infection.

    PubMed

    Cassol, Edana; Cassetta, Luca; Alfano, Massimo; Poli, Guido

    2010-04-01

    Polarization of MP into classically activated (M1) and alternatively activated (M2a, M2b, and M2c) macrophages is critical in mediating an effective immune response against invading pathogens. However, several pathogens use these activation pathways to facilitate dissemination and pathogenesis. Viruses generally induce an M1-like phenotype during the acute phase of infection. In addition to promoting the development of Th1 responses and IFN production, M1 macrophages often produce cytokines that drive viral replication and tissue damage. As shown for HIV-1, polarization can also alter macrophage susceptibility to infection. In vitro polarization into M1 cells prevents HIV-1 infection, and M2a polarization inhibits viral replication at a post-integration level. M2a cells also express high levels of C-type lectins that can facilitate macrophage-mediated transmission of HIV-1 to CD4(+) T cells. Macrophages are particularly abundant in mucosal membranes and unlike DCs, do not usually migrate to distal tissues. As a result, macrophages are likely to contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis in mucosal rather than lymphatic tissues. In vivo polarization of MP is likely to span a spectrum of activation phenotypes that may change the permissivity to and alter the outcome of HIV-1 and other viral infections.

  7. Susceptibility of bone marrow-derived macrophages to influenza virus infection is dependent on macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Gillian M; Nicol, Marlynne Q; Dransfield, Ian; Shaw, Darren J; Nash, Anthony A; Dutia, Bernadette M

    2015-10-01

    The role of the macrophage in influenza virus infection is complex. Macrophages are critical for resolution of influenza virus infections but implicated in morbidity and mortality in severe infections. They can be infected with influenza virus and consequently macrophage infection is likely to have an impact on the host immune response. Macrophages display a range of functional phenotypes, from the prototypical pro-inflammatory classically activated cell to alternatively activated anti-inflammatory macrophages involved in immune regulation and wound healing. We were interested in how macrophages of different phenotype respond to influenza virus infection and therefore studied the infection of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) of classical and alternative phenotype in vitro. Our results show that alternatively activated macrophages are more readily infected and killed by the virus than classically activated. Classically activated BMDMs express the pro-inflammatory markers inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and TNF-α, and TNF-α expression was further upregulated following infection. Alternatively activated macrophages express Arginase-1 and CD206; however, following infection, expression of these markers was downregulated whilst expression of iNOS and TNF-α was upregulated. Thus, infection can override the anti-inflammatory state of alternatively activated macrophages. Importantly, however, this results in lower levels of pro-inflammatory markers than those produced by classically activated cells. Our results showed that macrophage phenotype affects the inflammatory macrophage response following infection, and indicated that modulating the macrophage phenotype may provide a route to develop novel strategies to prevent and treat influenza virus infection.

  8. Hepatic cells' mitotic and peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activities during Trypanosoma musculi infection in zinc-deficient mice.

    PubMed Central

    Humphrey, P. A.; Ashraf, M.; Lee, C. M.

    1997-01-01

    The effects of zinc deficiency on hepatic cell mitotic and peritoneal macrophage phagocytic activities were examined in mice infected with Trypanosoma musculi or immunized with parasitic products. On a full-complement or pair-fed diet, infected and homogenate-inoculated mice showed mitotic activity gains of 7.9% to 80.3% and 6.5% to 99.0%, respectively. Infected and homogenate-inoculated mice on a zinc-deficient diet showed 21.8% to 95.7% and 17.2% to 65.2%, respectively, more dividing liver cells compared with controls. In comparison to controls, macrophages isolated from infected and homogenate-immunized mice on full-complement or pair-fed diets had phagocytized 13.4% to 31.4% more latex particles from day 50 to 80. In the zinc-deficient group, macrophages isolated from infected mice had significant numbers of phagocytized latex particles (1.8% to 38.5%) from day 20 to day 80 compared with controls. The homogenate-immunized mice also had increased numbers (18.6 to 30.8%) of phagocytized latex particles. PMID:9145631

  9. Haemophilus ducreyi infection induces activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome in nonpolarized but not in polarized human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Bauer, Margaret E; Spinola, Stanley M

    2013-08-01

    Recognition of microbial infection by certain intracellular pattern recognition receptors leads to the formation of a multiprotein complex termed the inflammasome. Inflammasome assembly activates caspase-1 and leads to cleavage and secretion of the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-18, which help control many bacterial pathogens. However, excessive inflammation mediated by inflammasome activation can also contribute to immunopathology. Here, we investigated whether Haemophilus ducreyi, a Gram-negative bacterium that causes the genital ulcer disease chancroid, activates inflammasomes in experimentally infected human skin and in monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). Although H. ducreyi is predominantly extracellular during human infection, several inflammasome-related components were transcriptionally upregulated in H. ducreyi-infected skin. Infection of MDM with live, but not heat-killed, H. ducreyi induced caspase-1- and caspase-5-dependent processing and secretion of IL-1β. Blockage of H. ducreyi uptake by cytochalasin D significantly reduced the amount of secreted IL-1β. Knocking down the expression of the inflammasome components NLRP3 and ASC abolished IL-1β production. Consistent with NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activation, blocking ATP signaling, K(+) efflux, cathepsin B activity, and lysosomal acidification all inhibited IL-1β secretion. However, inhibition of the production and function of reactive oxygen species did not decrease IL-1β production. Polarization of macrophages to classically activated M1 or alternatively activated M2 cells abrogated IL-1β secretion elicited by H. ducreyi. Our study data indicate that H. ducreyi induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation via multiple mechanisms and suggest that the heterogeneity of macrophages within human lesions may modulate inflammasome activation during human infection.

  10. Pattern of disease after murine hepatitis virus strain 3 infection correlates with macrophage activation and not viral replication.

    PubMed Central

    Pope, M; Rotstein, O; Cole, E; Sinclair, S; Parr, R; Cruz, B; Fingerote, R; Chung, S; Gorczynski, R; Fung, L

    1995-01-01

    Murine hepatitis virus strain (MHV-3) produces a strain-dependent pattern of disease which has been used as a model for fulminant viral hepatitis. This study was undertaken to examine whether there was a correlation between macrophage activation and susceptibility or resistance to MHV-3 infection. Peritoneal macrophages were isolated from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice and, following stimulation with MHV-3 or lipopolysaccharide (LPS), analyzed for transcription of mRNA and production of interleukin-1 (IL-1), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta), mouse fibrinogen-like protein (musfiblp), tissue factor (TF), leukotriene B4, and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Macrophages from BALB/cJ mice produced greater amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, leukotriene B4, and musfiblp following MHV-3 infection than macrophages from resistant A/J mice, whereas in response to LPS, equivalent amounts of IL-1, TNF-alpha, TGF-beta, and TF were produced by macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of mRNA of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and musfiblp were greater and more persistent in BALB/cJ than in A/J macrophages, whereas the levels and kinetics of IL-1, TNF-alpha, and TF mRNA following LPS stimulation were identical in macrophages from both strains of mice. Levels of production of PGE2 by MHV-3-stimulated macrophages from resistant and susceptible mice were equivalent; however, the time course for induction of PGE2, differed, but the total quantity of PGE2 produced was insufficient to inhibit induction of musfiblp, a procoagulant known to correlate with development of fulminant hepatic necrosis in susceptible mice. These results demonstrate marked differences in production of inflammatory mediators to MHV-3 infection in macrophages from resistant A/J and susceptible BALB/cJ mice, which may explain the marked hepatic necrosis and fibrin deposition and account for the lethality of MHV-3 in susceptible mice. PMID:7636967

  11. Leishmania donovani activates SREBP2 to modulate macrophage membrane cholesterol and mitochondrial oxidants for establishment of infection.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Madhuchhanda; Basu Ball, Writoban; Das, Pijush K

    2014-10-01

    Establishment of infection by an intracellular pathogen depends on successful internalization with a concomitant neutralization of host defense machinery. Leishmania donovani, an intramacrophage pathogen, targets host SREBP2, a critical transcription factor, to regulate macrophage plasma membrane cholesterol and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species generation, favoring parasite invasion and persistence. Leishmania infection triggered membrane-raft reorientation-dependent Lyn-PI3K/Akt pathway activation which in turn deactivated GSK3β to stabilize nuclear SREBP2. Moreover, cells perceiving less available intracellular cholesterol due to its sequestration at the plasma membrane resulted in the deregulation of the ER-residing SCAP-SREBP2-Insig circuit thereby assisting increased nuclear translocation of SREBP2. Both increased nuclear transport and stabilization of SREBP2 caused HMGCR-catalyzed cholesterol biosynthesis-mediated plasma membrane cholesterol enrichment leading to decreased membrane-fluidity and plausibly assisting delay in phagosomal acidification. Parasite survival ensuing entry was further ensured by SREBP2-dependent transcriptional up-regulation of UCP2, which suppressed mitochondrial ROS generation, one of the primary microbicidal molecules in macrophages recognized for its efficacy against Leishmania. Functional knock-down of SREBP2 both in vitro and in vivo was associated with reduction in macrophage plasma membrane cholesterol, increased ROS production and lower parasite survival. To our knowledge, this study, for the first time, reveals that Leishmania exploits macrophage cholesterol-dependent SREBP2 circuit to facilitate its entry and survival within the host.

  12. NK cells are strongly activated by Lassa and Mopeia virus-infected human macrophages in vitro but do not mediate virus suppression.

    PubMed

    Russier, Marion; Reynard, Stéphanie; Tordo, Noël; Baize, Sylvain

    2012-07-01

    Lassa virus (LASV) and Mopeia virus (MOPV) are closely related Arenaviruses. LASV causes hemorrhagic fever, whereas MOPV is not pathogenic. Both viruses display tropism for APCs such as DCs and macrophages. During viral infections, NK cells are involved in the clearance of infected cells and promote optimal immune responses by interacting with APCs. We used an in vitro model of human NK and APC coculture to study the role of NK cells and to characterize their interactions with APCs during LASV and MOPV infections. As expected, NK cells alone were neither infected nor activated by LASV and MOPV, and infected DCs did not activate NK cells. By contrast, LASV- and MOPV-infected macrophages activated NK cells, as shown by the upregulation of CD69, NKp30, and NKp44, the downregulation of CXCR3, and an increase in NK-cell proliferation. NK cells acquired enhanced cytotoxicity, as illustrated by the increase in granzyme B (GrzB) expression and killing of K562 targets, but did not produce IFN-γ. Contact between NK cells and infected macrophages and type I IFNs were essential for activation; however, NK cells could not kill infected cells and control infection. Overall, these findings show that MOPV- as well as pathogenic LASV-infected macrophages mediate NK-cell activation.

  13. Arginase 2 deletion leads to enhanced M1 macrophage activation and upregulated polyamine metabolism in response to Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Hardbower, Dana M; Asim, Mohammad; Murray-Stewart, Tracy; Casero, Robert A; Verriere, Thomas; Lewis, Nuruddeen D; Chaturvedi, Rupesh; Piazuelo, M Blanca; Wilson, Keith T

    2016-10-01

    We reported that arginase 2 (ARG2) deletion results in increased gastritis and decreased bacterial burden during Helicobacter pylori infection in mice. Our studies implicated a potential role for inducible nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS2), as Arg2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased NOS2 levels in gastric macrophages, and NO can kill H. pylori. We now bred Arg2 (-/-) to Nos2 (-/-) mice, and infected them with H. pylori. Compared to wild-type mice, both Arg2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice exhibited increased gastritis and decreased colonization, the latter indicating that the effect of ARG2 deletion on bacterial burden was not mediated by NO. While Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated enhanced M1 macrophage activation, Nos2 (-/-) and Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice did not demonstrate these changes, but exhibited increased CXCL1 and CXCL2 responses. There was an increased expression of the Th1/Th17 cytokines, interferon gamma and interleukin 17, in gastric tissues and splenic T-cells from Arg2 (-/-), but not Nos2 (-/-) or Arg2 (-/-) ;Nos2 (-/-) mice. Gastric tissues from infected Arg2 (-/-) mice demonstrated increased expression of arginase 1, ornithine decarboxylase, adenosylmethionine decarboxylase 1, spermidine/spermine N (1)-acetyltransferase 1, and spermine oxidase, along with increased spermine levels. These data indicate that ARG2 deletion results in compensatory upregulation of gastric polyamine synthesis and catabolism during H. pylori infection, which may contribute to increased gastric inflammation and associated decreased bacterial load. Overall, the finding of this study is that ARG2 contributes to the immune evasion of H. pylori by restricting M1 macrophage activation and polyamine metabolism.

  14. Reduced expression of IL-12 p35 by SJL/J macrophages responding to Theiler's virus infection is associated with constitutive activation of IRF-3

    SciTech Connect

    Dahlberg, Angela; Auble, Mark R.; Petro, Thomas M. . E-mail: tpetro@unmc.edu

    2006-09-30

    Macrophages responding to viral infections may contribute to autoimmune demyelinating diseases (ADD). Macrophages from ADD-susceptible SJL/J mice responding to Theiler's Virus (TMEV) infection, the TLR7 agonist loxoribine, or the TLR4 agonist-LPS expressed less IL-12 p35 but more IL-12/23 p40 and IFN-{beta} than macrophages from ADD-resistant B10.S mice. While expression of IRF-1 and -7 was similar between B10.S and SJL/J TMEV-infected macrophages, SJL/J but not B10.S macrophages exhibited constitutively active IRF-3. In contrast to overexpressed IRF-1, IRF-5, and IRF-7, which stimulated p35 promoter reporter activity, overexpressed IRF-3 repressed p35 promoter activity in response to TMEV infection, loxoribine, IFN-{gamma}/LPS, but not IFN-{gamma} alone. IRF-3 lessened but did not eliminate IRF-1-stimulated p35 promoter activity. Repression by IRF-3 required bp -172 to -122 of the p35 promoter. The data suggest that pre-activated IRF-3 is a major factor in the differences in IL-12 production between B10.S and SJL/J macrophages responding to TMEV.

  15. Studies of macrophage function during Trichinella spiralis infection in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wing, E J; Krahenbuhl, J L; Remington, J S

    1979-01-01

    Studies were made to investigate the quantitative and functional changes which occur in peritoneal macrophage populations obtained from mice infected orally with Trichinella spiralis larvae. C57BL/6 mice infected with T. spiralis larvae became parasitized with adult worms which were rejected from the intestine from 14 to 20 days after infection. Infected mice developed a striking increase in peritoneal exudate cells, composed largely of macrophages, which was maximal at from 16 to 18 days after infection. T. spiralis larvae and eosinophils were not seen in the peritoneal exudates. Macrophages from mice infected more than 11 days earlier inhibited DNA synthesis of syngeneic and allogeneic tumour cells, a property atributed to activated macrophages. In addition, macrophages from T. spiralis-infected mice had the functional ability to kill EL-4 tumour cells as measured by 51Cr release. Unlike activated macrophages, however, macrophages from infected mice did not develop the ability to inhibit multiplication of the intracellular pathogen Toxoplasma gondii. These studies demonstrate that T. spiralis infection in mice induces changes in macrophage function that differ from changes associated with infections by intracellular pathogens. PMID:437839

  16. HIV-1-Infected and/or Immune Activated Macrophages Regulate Astrocyte SDF-1 Production Through IL-1β

    PubMed Central

    PENG, HUI; ERDMANN, NATHAN; WHITNEY, NICHOLAS; DOU, HUANGYU; GORANTLA, SANTHI; GENDELMAN, HOWARD E.; GHORPADE, ANUJA; ZHENG, JIALIN

    2007-01-01

    Stromal cell-derived factor 1 alpha (SDF-1α) and its receptor CXCR4 play important roles in the pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus type one (HIV-1)-associated dementia (HAD) by serving as a HIV-1 co-receptor and affecting cell migration, virus-mediated neurotoxicity, and neurodegeneration. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating SDF-1 production during disease are not completely understood. In this report we investigated the role of HIV-1 infected and immune competent macrophage, the principal target cell and mediator of neuronal injury and death in HAD, in regulating SDF-1 production by astrocytes. Our data demonstrated that astrocytes are the primary cell type expressing SDF-1 in the brain. Immune-activated or HTV-1-infected human monocyte-derived-macrophage (MDM) conditioned media (MCM) induced a substantial increase in SDF-1 production by human astrocytes. This SDF-1 production was directly dependent on MDM IL-1β following both viral and immune activation. The MCM-induced production of SDF-1 was prevented by IL-1β receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) and IL-1β siRNA treatment of human MDM. These laboratory observations were confirmed in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice with HIV-1 encephalitis (HIVE). In these HIVE mice, reactive astrocytes showed a significant increase in SDF-1 expression, as observed by immunocytochemical staining. Similarly, SDF-1 mRNA levels were increased in the encephalitic region as measured by real time RT-PCR, and correlated with IL-1β mRNA expression. These observations provide direct evidence that IL-1β, produced from HIV-1-infected and/or immune competent macrophage, induces production of SDF-1 by astrocytes, and as such contribute to ongoing SDF-1 mediated CNS regulation during HAD. PMID:16944452

  17. Antibodies Against Glycolipids Enhance Antifungal Activity of Macrophages and Reduce Fungal Burden After Infection with Paracoccidioides brasiliensis.

    PubMed

    Bueno, Renata A; Thomaz, Luciana; Muñoz, Julian E; da Silva, Cássia J; Nosanchuk, Joshua D; Pinto, Márcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Taborda, Carlos P

    2016-01-01

    Paracoccidioidomycosis is a fungal disease endemic in Latin America. Polyclonal antibodies to acidic glycosphingolipids (GSLs) from Paracoccidioides brasiliensis opsonized yeast forms in vitro increasing phagocytosis and reduced the fungal burden of infected animals. Antibodies to GSL were active in both prophylactic and therapeutic protocols using a murine intratracheal infection model. Pathological examination of the lungs of animals treated with antibodies to GSL showed well-organized granulomas and minimally damaged parenchyma compared to the untreated control. Murine peritoneal macrophages activated by IFN-γ and incubated with antibodies against acidic GSLs more effectively phagocytosed and killed P. brasiliensis yeast cells as well as produced more nitric oxide compared to controls. The present work discloses a novel target of protective antibodies against P. brasiliensis adding to other well-studied mediators of the immune response to this fungus.

  18. Type I IFN Inhibits Alternative Macrophage Activation during Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection and Leads to Enhanced Protection in the Absence of IFN-γ Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Jeremy; McNab, Finlay W.; Torrado, Egídio; Cardoso, Filipa; Machado, Henrique; Castro, Flávia; Cardoso, Vânia; Gaifem, Joana; Wu, Xuemei; Appelberg, Rui; Castro, António Gil; O’Garra, Anne; Saraiva, Margarida

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis causes ∼1.5 million deaths every year, thus remaining a leading cause of death from infectious diseases in the world. A growing body of evidence demonstrates that type I IFN plays a detrimental role in tuberculosis pathogenesis, likely by interfering with IFN-γ–dependent immunity. In this article, we reveal a novel mechanism by which type I IFN may confer protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in the absence of IFN-γ signaling. We show that production of type I IFN by M. tuberculosis–infected macrophages induced NO synthase 2 and inhibited arginase 1 gene expression. In vivo, absence of both type I and type II IFN receptors led to strikingly increased levels of arginase 1 gene expression and protein activity in infected lungs, characteristic of alternatively activated macrophages. This correlated with increased lung bacterial burden and pathology and decreased survival compared with mice deficient in either receptor. Increased expression of other genes associated with alternatively activated macrophages, as well as increased expression of Th2-associated cytokines and decreased TNF expression, were also observed. Thus, in the absence of IFN-γ signaling, type I IFN suppressed the switching of macrophages from a more protective classically activated phenotype to a more permissive alternatively activated phenotype. Together, our data support a model in which suppression of alternative macrophage activation by type I IFN during M. tuberculosis infection, in the absence of IFN-γ signaling, contributes to host protection. PMID:27849167

  19. MyD88-Dependent Signaling Influences Fibrosis and Alternative Macrophage Activation during Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hanke, Mark L.; Angle, Amanda; Kielian, Tammy

    2012-01-01

    Bacterial biofilms represent a significant therapeutic challenge based on their ability to evade host immune and antibiotic-mediated clearance. Recent studies have implicated IL-1β in biofilm containment, whereas Toll-like receptors (TLRs) had no effect. This is intriguing, since both the IL-1 receptor (IL-1R) and most TLRs impinge on MyD88-dependent signaling pathways, yet the role of this key adaptor in modulating the host response to biofilm growth is unknown. Therefore, we examined the course of S. aureus catheter-associated biofilm infection in MyD88 knockout (KO) mice. MyD88 KO animals displayed significantly increased bacterial burdens on catheters and surrounding tissues during early infection, which coincided with enhanced dissemination to the heart and kidney compared to wild type (WT) mice. The expression of several proinflammatory mediators, including IL-6, IFN-γ, and CXCL1 was significantly reduced in MyD88 KO mice, primarily at the later stages of infection. Interestingly, immunofluorescence staining of biofilm-infected tissues revealed increased fibrosis in MyD88 KO mice concomitant with enhanced recruitment of alternatively activated M2 macrophages. Taken in the context of previous studies with IL-1β, TLR2, and TLR9 KO mice, the current report reveals that MyD88 signaling is a major effector pathway regulating fibrosis and macrophage polarization during biofilm formation. Together these findings represent a novel example of the divergence between TLR and MyD88 action in the context of S. aureus biofilm infection. PMID:22879997

  20. Conditioned medium from persistently RSV-infected macrophages alters transcriptional profile and inflammatory response of non-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Toledo, Evelyn; Salido-Guadarrama, Iván; Rodríguez-Dorantes, Mauricio; Torres-González, Laura; Santiago-Olivares, Carlos; Gómez, Beatriz

    2017-02-15

    Cells susceptible to persistent viral infections undergo important changes in their biological functions as a consequence of the expression of viral gene products that are capable of altering the gene expression profile of the host cell. Previously, we reported that persistence of the RSV genome in a mouse macrophage cell line induces important alterations in cell homeostasis, including constitutive expression of IFN-β and other pro-inflammatory cytokines. Here, we postulated that changes in the homeostasis of non-infected macrophages could be induced by soluble factors secreted by persistently RSV- infected macrophages. To test this hypothesis, non-infected mouse macrophages were treated with conditioned medium (CM) collected from cultures of persistently RSV-infected macrophages. Total RNA was extracted and a microarray-based gene expression analysis was performed. Non-infected macrophages, treated under similar conditions with CM obtained from cultures of non-infected macrophages, were used as a control to establish differential gene expression between the two conditions. Results showed that CM from the persistently RSV-infected cultures altered expression of a total of 95 genes in non-infected macrophages, resulting in an antiviral gene-transcription profile along with inhibition of the inflammatory response, since some inflammatory genes were down-regulated, including Nlrp3 and Il-1 β, both related to the inflammasome pathway. However, down-regulation of Nlrp3 and Il-1 β was reversible upon acute RSV infection. Additionally, we observed that the inflammatory response, evaluated by secreted IL-1 β, a final product of the inflammasome activity, was enhanced during acute RSV infection in macrophages treated with CM from persistently RSV-infected cultures, compared to that in macrophages treated with the control CM. This suggests that soluble factors secreted during RSV persistence may induce an exacerbated inflammatory response in non-infected cells.

  1. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor homolog from Plasmodium yoelii modulates monocyte recruitment and activation in spleen during infection

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanhui; Miura, Kazutoyo; Li, Jian; Tullo, Gregory; Zhu, Feng; Hong, Lingxian; Lin, Tianlong; Su, Xin-zhuan; Long, Carole

    2012-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) has been shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of severe malaria. Malaria parasites express an MIF homolog that may play a role in regulating host immune responses and a recent study showed that overexpression of MIF reduced parasitemia in a mouse malaria model. Another recent study showed migration of monocytes to the spleen contributed to the control of blood stage infection. However, there are few papers describing the effect of MIF on monocyte recruitment/activation during the infection. We generated recombinant P. yoelii MIF (rPyMIF) and investigated its function on purified mouse CD11b+ cells in vitro and monocyte responses in vivo. The result shows that rPyMIF protein bound to mouse CD11b+ cells and inhibited their random migration in vitro. On the other hand, rPyMIF did not induce cytokine release from the cells directly or modulate LPS-induced cytokine release. Mice immunized with rPyMIF showed transient, but significantly lower parasitemia than the control mice at day 3 after lethal Py17XL challenge. The total number of CD11b+ cells in the spleens was significantly higher in rPyMIF-immunized group. Further investigation revealed that there were significantly higher numbers of recruited and activated monocytes in the spleens of rPyMIF immunization group on day 3. These results indicate that PyMIF potentially modulates monocyte recruitment and activation during infection of P. yoelii erythrocytic stages. PMID:22015474

  2. Human β defensin-3 induces chemokines from monocytes and macrophages: diminished activity in cells from HIV-infected persons.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Velizar; Funderburg, Nicholas; Weinberg, Aaron; Sieg, Scott

    2013-12-01

    Human β defensin-3 (hBD-3) is an antimicrobial peptide with diverse functionality. We investigated the capacity of hBD-3 and, for comparison, Pam3CSK4 and LL-37 to induce co-stimulatory molecules and chemokine expression in monocytes. These stimuli differentially induced CD80 and CD86 on the surface of monocytes and each stimulant induced a variety of chemokines including monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), Gro-α, macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC) and macrophage inflammatory protein 1β (MIP1β), while only hBD-3 and Pam3CSK4 significantly induced the angiogenesis factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Human BD-3 induced similar chemokines in monocyte-derived macrophages and additionally induced expression of Regulated upon activation normal T-cell expressed and presumably secreted (RANTES) in these cells. Comparison of monocytes from HIV(+) and HIV(-) donors indicated that monocytes from HIV(+) donors were more likely to spontaneously express certain chemokines (MIP-1α, MIP-1β and MCP-1) and less able to increase expression of other molecules in response to hBD-3 (MDC, Gro-α and VEGF). Chemokine receptor expression (CCR5, CCR2 and CXCR2) was relatively normal in monocytes from HIV(+) donors compared with cells from HIV(-) donors with the exception of diminished expression of the receptor for MDC, CCR4, which was reduced in the patrolling monocyte subset (CD14(+)  CD16(++) ) of HIV(+) donors. These observations implicate chemokine induction by hBD-3 as a potentially important mechanism for orchestrating cell migration into inflamed tissues. Alterations in chemokine production or their receptors in monocytes of HIV-infected persons could influence cell migration and modify the effects of hBD-3 at sites of inflammation.

  3. Activation of ERK1/2 and TNF-α production are regulated by calcium/calmodulin signaling pathway during Penicillium marneffei infection within human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Renqiong; Ji, Guangquan; Wang, Ling; Ren, Hong; Xi, Liyan

    2016-04-01

    Previous study have shown that Penicillium marneffei (P. marneffei)-induced TNF-α production via an extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase-dependent mechanism is an important host defence mechanism against P. marneffei in human macrophages. Therefore, we explore signaling pathway that regulates TNF-α secretion and activation of ERK1/2 by intracellular signaling mechanisms during P. marneffei infection. We found that ERK1/2 activation was dependent on the calcium/calmodulin/calmodulin kinase Ⅱ pathway in P. marneffei-infected human macrophages. In contrast, P. marneffei-induced p38 MAPK activation was negatively regulated by calcium/calmodulin/calmodulin kinase Ⅱ signaling pathway. Furthermore, TNF-α production in P. marneffei-infected human macrophages was also dependent on Ca(2+)/calmodulin/calmodulin kinase Ⅱ pathway. These data suggest that Ca(2+)/calmodulin/calmodulin kinase Ⅱ pathway plays vital regulatory roles in macrophage activation and subsequent cytokine production during P. marneffei infection.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi: modification of macrophage function during infection

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    Infection of mice with Trypanosoma cruzi and subsequent intraperitoneal challenge with heat-killed trypanosomes elicits peritoneal macrophages which display in vitro microbicidal activity against trypomastigotes of T. cruzi. These cells also display other activated properties including rapid spreading, intense membrane activity, secretion of high levels of plasminogen activator, and ingestion mediated by the C3 receptor. An intravenous infection with BCG, followed by an intraperitoneal challenge with mycobacterial antigens brings about macrophages with similar properties. These criteria of macrophage activation were compared in normal and BCG- or T. cruzi-immune mice, with or without an intraperitoneal challenge with specific or unrelated antigens. Trypanocidal activity is displayed by both BCG- and T. cruzi-immune macrophages after intraperitoneal challenge with either antigen. Resident-immune macrophages from both T. cruzi- and BCG-infected mice show a trypanostatic, rather than trypanocidal activity. Macrophages from noninfected mice, challenged with the same antigens, show neither trypanostatic nor trypanocidal activity. Increased secretion of plasminogen activator shows a definite immunological specificity. Challenge with the specific antigen induces the appearance of macrophages secreting high levels of plasminogen activator, while unrelated antigens induce much smaller levels. Noninfected mice challenged with the same antigens do not display any enchancement in secretion. In contrast, increased spreading and phagocytosis mediated by the complement receptor are also displayed by cells from noninfected mice challenged with any of the agents tested. PMID:327012

  5. Splenic Damage during SIV Infection: Role of T-Cell Depletion and Macrophage Polarization and Infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Dionna W; Engle, Elizabeth L; Shirk, Erin N; Queen, Suzanne E; Gama, Lucio; Mankowski, Joseph L; Zink, M Christine; Clements, Janice E

    2016-08-01

    The effects of HIV infection on spleen and its cellular subsets have not been fully characterized, particularly for macrophages in which diverse populations exist. We used an accelerated SIV-infected macaque model to examine longitudinal effects on T-cell and macrophage populations and their susceptibilities to infection. Substantial lymphoid depletion occurred, characterized by follicular burn out and a loss of CD3 T lymphocytes, which was associated with cellular activation and transient dysregulations in CD4/CD8 ratios and memory effector populations. In contrast, the loss of CD68 and CD163(+)CD68(+) macrophages and increase in CD163 cells was irreversible, which began during acute infection and persisted until terminal disease. Mac387 macrophages and monocytes were transiently recruited into spleen, but were not sufficient to mitigate the changes in macrophage subsets. Type I interferon, M2 polarizing genes, and chemokine-chemokine receptor signaling were up-regulated in spleen and drove macrophage alterations. SIV-infected T cells were numerous within the white pulp during acute infection, but were rarely observed thereafter. CD68, CD163, and Mac387 macrophages were highly infected, which primarily occurred in the red pulp independent of T cells. Few macrophages underwent apoptosis, indicating that they are a long-lasting target for HIV/SIV. Our results identify macrophages as an important contributor to HIV/SIV infection in spleen and in promoting morphologic changes through the loss of specific macrophage subsets that mediate splenic organization.

  6. Suppression of Protective Responses upon Activation of L-Type Voltage Gated Calcium Channel in Macrophages during Mycobacterium bovis BCG Infection

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Deepika; Tiwari, Brijendra Kumar; Mehto, Subhash; Antony, Cecil; Kak, Gunjan; Singh, Yogendra; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tb) strains eliciting drug resistance has necessitated the need for understanding the complexities of host pathogen interactions. The regulation of calcium homeostasis by Voltage Gated Calcium Channel (VGCCs) upon M. tb infection has recently assumed importance in this area. We previously showed a suppressor role of VGCC during M. tb infections and recently reported the mechanisms of its regulation by M. tb. Here in this report, we further characterize the role of VGCC in mediating defence responses of macrophages during mycobacterial infection. We report that activation of VGCC during infection synergistically downmodulates the generation of oxidative burst (ROS) by macrophages. This attenuation of ROS is regulated in a manner which is dependent on Toll like Receptor (TLR) and also on the route of calcium influx, Protein Kinase C (PKC) and by Mitogen Activation Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways. VGCC activation during infection increases cell survival and downmodulates autophagy. Concomitantly, pro-inflammatory responses such as IL-12 and IFN-γ secretion and the levels of their receptors on cell surface are inhibited. Finally, the ability of phagosomes to fuse with lysosomes in M. bovis BCG and M. tb H37Rv infected macrophages is also compromised when VGCC activation occurs during infection. The results point towards a well-orchestrated strategy adopted by mycobacteria to supress protective responses mounted by the host. This begins with the increase in the surface levels of VGCCs by mycobacteria and their antigens by well-controlled and regulated mechanisms. Subsequent activation of the upregulated VGCC following tweaking of calcium levels by molecular sensors in turn mediates suppressor responses and prepare the macrophages for long term persistent infection. PMID:27723836

  7. Keratinocyte growth factor administration attenuates murine pulmonary mycobacterium tuberculosis infection through granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-dependent macrophage activation and phagolysosome fusion.

    PubMed

    Pasula, Rajamouli; Azad, Abul K; Gardner, Jason C; Schlesinger, Larry S; McCormack, Francis X

    2015-03-13

    Augmentation of innate immune defenses is an appealing adjunctive strategy for treatment of pulmonary Mycobacterium tuberculosis infections, especially those caused by drug-resistant strains. The effect of intranasal administration of keratinocyte growth factor (KGF), an epithelial mitogen and differentiation factor, on M. tuberculosis infection in mice was tested in prophylaxis, treatment, and rescue scenarios. Infection of C57BL6 mice with M. tuberculosis resulted in inoculum size-dependent weight loss and mortality. A single dose of KGF given 1 day prior to infection with 10(5) M. tuberculosis bacilli prevented weight loss and enhanced pulmonary mycobacterial clearance (compared with saline-pretreated mice) for up to 28 days. Similar effects were seen when KGF was delivered intranasally every third day for 15 days, but weight loss and bacillary growth resumed when KGF was withdrawn. For mice with a well established M. tuberculosis infection, KGF given every 3 days beginning on day 15 postinoculation was associated with reversal of weight loss and an increase in M. tuberculosis clearance. In in vitro co-culture experiments, M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages exposed to conditioned medium from KGF-treated alveolar type II cell (MLE-15) monolayers exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent killing through mechanisms that included promotion of phagolysosome fusion and induction of nitric oxide. Alveolar macrophages from KGF-treated mice also exhibited enhanced GM-CSF-dependent phagolysosomal fusion. These results provide evidence that administration of KGF promotes M. tuberculosis clearance through GM-CSF-dependent mechanisms and enhances host defense against M. tuberculosis infection.

  8. TACI deficiency leads to alternatively activated macrophage phenotype and susceptibility to Leishmania infection

    PubMed Central

    Allman, Windy R.; Dey, Ranadhir; Liu, Lunhua; Siddiqui, Shafiuddin; Coleman, Adam S.; Bhattacharya, Parna; Yano, Masahide; Uslu, Kadriye; Takeda, Kazuyo; Nakhasi, Hira L.; Akkoyunlu, Mustafa

    2015-01-01

    The TNF family member, transmembrane activator and calcium-modulator and cyclophilin ligand interactor (TACI), is a key molecule for plasma cell maintenance and is required in infections where protection depends on antibody response. Here, we report that compared with WT mouse, TACI KO Μϕs expressed lower levels of Toll-like receptors (TLRs), CD14, myeloid differentiation primary response protein 88, and adaptor protein Toll/IL-1 receptor domain-containing adapter-inducing IFN-β and responded poorly to TLR agonists. Analysis of Μϕ phenotype revealed that, in the absence of TACI, Μϕs adapt the alternatively activated (M2) phenotype. Steady-state expression levels for M2 markers IL-4Rα, CD206, CCL22, IL-10, Arg1, IL1RN, and FIZZ1 were significantly higher in TACI KO Μϕ than in WT cells. Confirming their M2 phenotype, TACI-KO Mϕs were unable to control Leishmania major infection in vitro, and intradermal inoculation of Leishmania resulted in a more severe manifestation of disease than in the resistant C57BL/6 strain. Transfer of WT Μϕs to TACI KO mice was sufficient to significantly reduce disease severity. TACI is likely to influence Mϕ phenotype by mediating B cell-activating factor belonging to the TNF family (BAFF) and a proliferation inducing ligand (APRIL) signals because both these ligands down-regulated M2 markers in WT but not in TACI-deficient Μϕs. Moreover, treatment of Μϕs with BAFF or APRIL enhanced the clearance of Leishmania from cells only when TACI is expressed. These findings may have implications for understanding the shortcomings of host response in newborns where TACI expression is reduced and in combined variable immunodeficiency patients where TACI signaling is ablated. PMID:26170307

  9. Activity-Based Proteomic Profiling of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in Salmonella-Infected Macrophages Leads to Identification of Putative Function of UCH-L5 in Inflammasome Regulation.

    PubMed

    Kummari, Evangel; Alugubelly, Navatha; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Brittany; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J

    2015-01-01

    Although protein ubiquitination has been shown to regulate multiple processes during host response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, specific functions of host deubiquitinating enzymes remain unknown in this bacterial infection. By using chemical proteomics approach, in which deubiquitinating enzymes were labeled by an active-site probe and analyzed by quantitative proteomics, we identified novel deubiquitinases in chicken macrophages based on their reactivity with the probe. Also, we detected down-regulation of UCH-L3, and USP4 as well as up-regulation of USP5 and UCH-L5 deubiquitinating enzymes in macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. We showed that decrease in either UCH-L5 activity, or in UCH-L5 protein amount in chicken and human macrophages infected or stimulated with LPS/nigericin, led to decreased IL-1β release. These data point towards a putative role of UCH-L5 in inflammasome regulation during Salmonella infection. Because inflammasome activation is important in innate resistance to these bacteria, one would expect that naturally occurring or therapeutically induced alteration in UCH-L5 activation would influence disease outcome and could represent a target for new therapeutic approaches.

  10. Activity-Based Proteomic Profiling of Deubiquitinating Enzymes in Salmonella-Infected Macrophages Leads to Identification of Putative Function of UCH-L5 in Inflammasome Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kummari, Evangel; Alugubelly, Navatha; Hsu, Chuan-Yu; Dong, Brittany; Nanduri, Bindu; Edelmann, Mariola J.

    2015-01-01

    Although protein ubiquitination has been shown to regulate multiple processes during host response to Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infection, specific functions of host deubiquitinating enzymes remain unknown in this bacterial infection. By using chemical proteomics approach, in which deubiquitinating enzymes were labeled by an active-site probe and analyzed by quantitative proteomics, we identified novel deubiquitinases in chicken macrophages based on their reactivity with the probe. Also, we detected down-regulation of UCH-L3, and USP4 as well as up-regulation of USP5 and UCH-L5 deubiquitinating enzymes in macrophages infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. We showed that decrease in either UCH-L5 activity, or in UCH-L5 protein amount in chicken and human macrophages infected or stimulated with LPS/nigericin, led to decreased IL-1β release. These data point towards a putative role of UCH-L5 in inflammasome regulation during Salmonella infection. Because inflammasome activation is important in innate resistance to these bacteria, one would expect that naturally occurring or therapeutically induced alteration in UCH-L5 activation would influence disease outcome and could represent a target for new therapeutic approaches. PMID:26267804

  11. Attenuated Leishmania induce pro-inflammatory mediators and influence leishmanicidal activity by p38 MAPK dependent phagosome maturation in Leishmania donovani co-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Somenath; Bose, Dipayan; Chatterjee, Nabanita; Das, Subhadip; Chakraborty, Sreeparna; Das, Tanya; Saha, Krishna Das

    2016-03-01

    Promastigote form of Leishmania, an intracellular pathogen, delays phagosome maturation and resides inside macrophages. But till date limited study has been done to manipulate the phagosomal machinery of macrophages to restrict Leishmania growth. Attenuated Leishmania strain exposed RAW 264.7 cells showed a respiratory burst and enhanced production of pro-inflammatory mediators. The augmentation of pro-inflammatory activity is mostly attributed to p38 MAPK and p44/42 MAPK. In our study, these activated macrophages are found to induce phagosome maturation when infected with pathogenic Leishmania donovani. Increased co-localization of carboxyfluorescein succinimidyl ester labeled pathogenic L. donovani with Lysosome was found. Moreover, increased co-localization was observed between pathogenic L. donovani and late phagosomal markers viz. Rab7, Lysosomal Associated Membrane Protein 1, Cathepsin D, Rab9, and V-ATPase which indicate phagosome maturation. It was also observed that inhibition of V-type ATPase caused significant hindrance in attenuated Leishmania induced phagosome maturation. Finally, it was confirmed that p38 MAPK is the key player in acidification and maturation of phagosome in attenuated Leishmania strain pre-exposed macrophages. To our knowledge, this study for the first time reported an approach to induce phagosome maturation in L. donovani infected macrophages which could potentiate short-term prophylactic response in future.

  12. Schistosoma japonicum infection induces macrophage polarization

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingwei; Zhang, Hao; Chen, Lin; Zhang, Donghui; Ji, Minjun; Wu, Haiwei; Wu, Guanling

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The role of macrophages (Mφ) as the first line of host defense is well accepted. These cells play a central role in orchestrating crucial functions during schistosomal infection. Thus, understanding the functional diversity of these cells in the process of infection as well as the mechanisms underlying these events is crucial for developing disease control strategies. In this study, we adopted a Mφ polarization recognition system. M1 macrophage was characterized by expressing CD16/32, IL-12 and iNOS. M2 macrophage was characterized by expressing CD206, IL-10 and arg-1. In vivo (mouse peritoneal macrophages of different infection stages were obtained) and in vitro (different S. japonicum antigens were used to stimulate RAW264.7) were characterized by using the above mentioned system. NCA and ACA stimulated RAW264.7 express significantly higher levels of IL-12 while significantly higher levels of IL-10 were detected after soluble egg antigen (SEA) stimulation. The results showed that dramatic changes of antigen in the microenvironment before and after egg production led to macrophage polarization. Furthermore, through TLR blocking experiments, the TLR4 signaling pathway was found to play a role in the process of macrophage polarization toward M1. Our data suggest that macrophage polarization during S. japonicum infection had significant effects on host immune responses to S. japonicum. PMID:25050114

  13. Macrophage proliferation, provenance, and plasticity in macroparasite infection.

    PubMed

    Rückerl, Dominik; Allen, Judith E

    2014-11-01

    Macrophages have long been center stage in the host response to microbial infection, but only in the past 10-15 years has there been a growing appreciation for their role in helminth infection and the associated type 2 response. Through the actions of the IL-4 receptor α (IL-4Rα), type 2 cytokines result in the accumulation of macrophages with a distinctive activation phenotype. Although our knowledge of IL-4Rα-induced genes is growing rapidly, the specific functions of these macrophages have yet to be established in most disease settings. Understanding the interplay between IL-4Rα-activated macrophages and the other cellular players is confounded by the enormous transcriptional heterogeneity within the macrophage population and by their highly plastic nature. Another level of complexity is added by the new knowledge that tissue macrophages can be derived either from a resident prenatal population or from blood monocyte recruitment and that IL-4 can increase macrophage numbers through proliferative expansion. Here, we review current knowledge on the contribution of macrophages to helminth killing and wound repair, with specific attention paid to distinct cellular origins and plasticity potential.

  14. Macrophage polarization drives granuloma outcome during Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Marino, Simeone; Cilfone, Nicholas A; Mattila, Joshua T; Linderman, Jennifer J; Flynn, JoAnne L; Kirschner, Denise E

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the causative agent of tuberculosis (TB), induces formation of granulomas, structures in which immune cells and bacteria colocalize. Macrophages are among the most abundant cell types in granulomas and have been shown to serve as both critical bactericidal cells and targets for M. tuberculosis infection and proliferation throughout the course of infection. Very little is known about how these processes are regulated, what controls macrophage microenvironment-specific polarization and plasticity, or why some granulomas control bacteria and others permit bacterial dissemination. We take a computational-biology approach to investigate mechanisms that drive macrophage polarization, function, and bacterial control in granulomas. We define a "macrophage polarization ratio" as a metric to understand how cytokine signaling translates into polarization of single macrophages in a granuloma, which in turn modulates cellular functions, including antimicrobial activity and cytokine production. Ultimately, we extend this macrophage ratio to the tissue scale and define a "granuloma polarization ratio" describing mean polarization measures for entire granulomas. Here we coupled experimental data from nonhuman primate TB granulomas to our computational model, and we predict two novel and testable hypotheses regarding macrophage profiles in TB outcomes. First, the temporal dynamics of granuloma polarization ratios are predictive of granuloma outcome. Second, stable necrotic granulomas with low CFU counts and limited inflammation are characterized by short NF-κB signal activation intervals. These results suggest that the dynamics of NF-κB signaling is a viable therapeutic target to promote M1 polarization early during infection and to improve outcome.

  15. CD4+ T Cells Are as Protective as CD8+ T Cells against Rickettsia typhi Infection by Activating Macrophage Bactericidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Moderzynski, Kristin; Papp, Stefanie; Rauch, Jessica; Heine, Liza; Kuehl, Svenja; Richardt, Ulricke; Fleischer, Bernhard; Osterloh, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsia typhi is an intracellular bacterium that causes endemic typhus, a febrile disease that can be fatal due to complications including pneumonia, hepatitis and meningoencephalitis, the latter being a regular outcome in T and B cell-deficient C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice upon Rickettsia typhi infection. Here, we show that CD4+ TH1 cells that are generated in C57BL/6 mice upon R. typhi infection are as protective as cytotoxic CD8+ T cells. CD4+- as well as CD8+-deficient C57BL/6 survived the infection without showing symptoms of disease at any point in time. Moreover, adoptively transferred CD8+ and CD4+ immune T cells entered the CNS of C57BL/6 RAG1-/- mice with advanced infection and both eradicated the bacteria. However, immune CD4+ T cells protected only approximately 60% of the animals from death. They induced the expression of iNOS in infiltrating macrophages as well as in resident microglia in the CNS which can contribute to bacterial killing but also accelerate pathology. In vitro immune CD4+ T cells inhibited bacterial growth in infected macrophages which was in part mediated by the release of IFNγ. Collectively, our data demonstrate that CD4+ T cells are as protective as CD8+ T cells against R. typhi, provided that CD4+ TH1 effector cells are present in time to support bactericidal activity of phagocytes via the release of IFNγ and other factors. With regard to vaccination against TG Rickettsiae, our findings suggest that the induction of CD4+ TH1 effector cells is sufficient for protection. PMID:27875529

  16. Salmonella typhimurium Invasion Induces Apoptosis in Infected Macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monack, Denise M.; Raupach, Barbel; Hromockyj, Alexander E.; Falkow, Stanley

    1996-09-01

    Invasive Salmonella typhimurium induces dramatic cytoskeletal changes on the membrane surface of mammalian epithelial cells and RAW264.7 macrophages as part of its entry mechanism. Noninvasive S. typhimurium strains are unable to induce this membrane ruffling. Invasive S. typhimurium strains invade RAW264.7 macrophages in 2 h with 7- to 10-fold higher levels than noninvasive strains. Invasive S. typhimurium and Salmonella typhi, independent of their ability to replicate intracellularly, are cytotoxic to RAW264.7 macrophages and, to a greater degree, to murine bone marrow-derived macrophages. Here, we show that the macrophage cytotoxicity mediated by invasive Salmonella is apoptosis, as shown by nuclear morphology, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and host cell DNA fragmentation. S. typhimurium that enter cells causing ruffles but are mutant for subsequent intracellular replication also initiate host cell apoptosis. Mutant S. typhimurium that are incapable of inducing host cell membrane ruffling fail to induce apoptosis. The activation state of the macrophage plays a significant role in the response of macrophages to Salmonella invasion, perhaps indicating that the signal or receptor for initiating programmed cell death is upregulated in activated macrophages. The ability of Salmonella to promote apoptosis may be important for the initiation of infection, bacterial survival, and escape of the host immune response.

  17. Macrophage-activating T-cell factor(s) produced in an early phase of Legionella pneumophila infection in guinea pigs.

    PubMed Central

    Nikaido, Y; Yoshida, S; Goto, Y; Mizuguchi, Y; Kuroiwa, A

    1989-01-01

    Protective immunity of guinea pigs against Legionella pneumophila was studied by infecting the animals with a sublethal dose (about 2 x 10(4) CFU) of the organism. The bacteria multiplied in the liver, spleen, and lungs up to day 4 after the intraperitoneal infection. The live bacteria in these organs decreased quickly thereafter and were eliminated by day 7. A delayed-type skin reaction and lymphoproliferation of spleen cells to Formalin-killed L. pneumophila were detected from days 5 and 6, respectively, after infection. Peritoneal macrophages obtained from guinea pigs infected 6 days previously inhibited the intracellular growth of L. pneumophila. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from infected guinea pigs inhibited the intracellular growth of the organism in macrophages obtained from uninfected animals. Antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor prepared from spleen cells treated with anti-guinea pig T-cell monoclonal antibody did not inhibit growth. The activity of antigen-stimulated spleen cell factor was labile to pH 2 treatment, and the factor could not be absorbed by L. pneumophila antigen, suggesting that it contains gamma interferon. Our data show that T-cell-mediated immunity begins to work from an early period of infection with L. pneumophila in guinea pigs. PMID:2807531

  18. Small ruminant macrophage polarization may play a pivotal role on lentiviral infection.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Helena; Bertolotti, Luigi; Juganaru, Magda; Glaria, Idoia; de Andrés, Damián; Amorena, Beatriz; Rosati, Sergio; Reina, Ramsés

    2013-09-26

    Small ruminant lentiviruses (SRLV) infect the monocyte/macrophage lineage inducing a long-lasting infection affecting body condition, production and welfare of sheep and goats all over the world. Macrophages play a pivotal role on the host's innate and adaptative immune responses against parasites by becoming differentially activated. Macrophage heterogeneity can tentatively be classified into classically differentiated macrophages (M1) through stimulation with IFN-γ displaying an inflammatory profile, or can be alternatively differentiated by stimulation with IL-4/IL-13 into M2 macrophages with homeostatic functions. Since infection by SRLV can modulate macrophage functions we explored here whether ovine and caprine macrophages can be segregated into M1 and M2 populations and whether this differential polarization represents differential susceptibility to SRLV infection. We found that like in human and mouse systems, ovine and caprine macrophages can be differentiated with particular stimuli into M1/M2 subpopulations displaying specific markers. In addition, small ruminant macrophages are plastic since M1 differentiated macrophages can express M2 markers when the stimulus changes from IFN-γ to IL-4. SRLV replication was restricted in M1 macrophages and increased in M2 differentiated macrophages respectively according to viral production. Identification of the infection pathways in macrophage populations may provide new targets for eliciting appropriate immune responses against SRLV infection.

  19. Antiorthostatic suspension stimulates profiles of macrophage activation in mice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, E. S.; Bates, R. A.; Koebel, D. A.; Sonnenfeld, G.

    1999-01-01

    The antiorthostatic suspension model simulates certain physiological effects of spaceflight. We have previously reported BDF1 mice suspended by the tail in the antiorthostatic orientation for 4 days express high levels of resistance to virulent Listeria monocytogenesinfection. In the present study, we examined whether the increased resistance to this organism correlates with profiles of macrophage activation, given the role of the macrophage in killing this pathogen in vivo. We infected BDF1 mice with a lethal dose of virulent L. monocytogenes on day 4 of antiorthostatic suspension and 24 h later constructed profiles of macrophage activation. Viable listeria could not be detected in mice suspended in the antiorthostatic orientation 24 h after infection. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the numbers of granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes in the spleen of infected mice were not significantly altered as a result of antiorthostatic suspension. Splenocytes from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice produced increased titers of IL-1. Serum levels of neopterin, a nucleotide metabolite secreted by activated macrophages, were enhanced in mice infected during antiorthostatic suspension, but not in antiorthostatically suspended naive mice. Splenic macrophages from mice infected on day 4 of suspension produced enhanced levels of lysozyme. In contrast to the results from antiorthostatically suspended infected mice, macrophages from antiorthostatically suspended uninfected mice did not express enhanced bactericidal activities. The collective results indicate that antiorthostatic suspension can stimulate profiles of macrophage activation which correlate with increased resistance to infection by certain classes of pathogenic bacteria.

  20. Strain specific transcriptional response in Mycobacterium tuberculosis infected macrophages

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tuberculosis (TB), a bacterial infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a significant health problem worldwide with a third of the world population infected and nearly nine million new cases claiming 1.1 million deaths every year. The outcome following infection by Mtb is determined by a complex and dynamic host-pathogen interaction in which the phenotype of the pathogen and the immune status of the host play a role. However, the molecular mechanism by which Mtb strains induce different responses during intracellular infection of the host macrophage is not fully understood. To explore the early molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, we studied the transcriptional responses of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMM) to infection with two clinical Mtb strains, CDC1551 and HN878. These strains have previously been shown to differ in their virulence/immunogenicity in the mouse and rabbit models of pulmonary TB. Results In spite of similar intracellular growth rates, we observed that compared to HN878, infection by CDC1551 of BMM was associated with an increased global transcriptome, up-regulation of a specific early (6 hours) immune response network and significantly elevated nitric oxide production. In contrast, at 24 hours post-infection of BMM by HN878, more host genes involved in lipid metabolism, including cholesterol metabolism and prostaglandin synthesis were up-regulated, compared to infection with CDC1551. In association with the differences in the macrophage responses to infection with the 2 Mtb strains, intracellular CDC1551 expressed higher levels of stress response genes than did HN878. Conclusions In association with the early and more robust macrophage activation, intracellular CDC1551 cells were exposed to a higher level of stress leading to increased up-regulation of the bacterial stress response genes. In contrast, sub-optimal activation of macrophages and induction of a dysregulated host cell

  1. Brucella infection inhibits macrophages apoptosis via Nedd4-dependent degradation of calpain2.

    PubMed

    Cui, Guimei; Wei, Pan; Zhao, Yuxi; Guan, Zhenhong; Yang, Li; Sun, Wanchun; Wang, Shuangxi; Peng, Qisheng

    2014-11-07

    The calcium-dependent protease calpain2 is involved in macrophages apoptosis. Brucella infection-induced up-regulation of intracellular calcium level is an essential factor for the intracellular survival of Brucella within macrophages. Here, we hypothesize that calcium-dependent E3 ubiquitin ligase Nedd4 ubiquitinates calpain2 and inhibits Brucella infection-induced macrophage apoptosis via degradation of calpain2.Our results reveal that Brucella infection induces increases in Nedd4 activity in an intracellular calcium dependent manner. Furthermore, Brucella infection-induced degradation of calpain2 is mediated by Nedd4 ubiquitination of calpain2. Brucella infection-induced calpain2 degradation inhibited macrophages apoptosis. Treatment of Brucella infected macrophages with calcium chelator BAPTA or Nedd4 knock-down decreased Nedd4 activity, prevented calpain2 degradation, and resulted in macrophages apoptosis.

  2. Macrophage origin limits functional plasticity in helminth-bacterial co-infection

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Sharon M.; Duncan, Sheelagh; Hewitson, James P.; Barr, Tom A.; Jackson-Jones, Lucy H.; Maizels, Rick M.

    2017-01-01

    Rapid reprogramming of the macrophage activation phenotype is considered important in the defense against consecutive infection with diverse infectious agents. However, in the setting of persistent, chronic infection the functional importance of macrophage-intrinsic adaptation to changing environments vs. recruitment of new macrophages remains unclear. Here we show that resident peritoneal macrophages expanded by infection with the nematode Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri altered their activation phenotype in response to infection with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium in vitro and in vivo. The nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages efficiently upregulated bacterial induced effector molecules (e.g. MHC-II, NOS2) similarly to newly recruited monocyte-derived macrophages. Nonetheless, recruitment of blood monocyte-derived macrophages to Salmonella infection occurred with equal magnitude in co-infected animals and caused displacement of the nematode-expanded, tissue resident-derived macrophages from the peritoneal cavity. Global gene expression analysis revealed that although nematode-expanded resident F4/80high macrophages made an anti-bacterial response, this was muted as compared to newly recruited F4/80low macrophages. However, the F4/80high macrophages adopted unique functional characteristics that included enhanced neutrophil-stimulating chemokine production. Thus, our data provide important evidence that plastic adaptation of MΦ activation does occur in vivo, but that cellular plasticity is outweighed by functional capabilities specific to the tissue origin of the cell. PMID:28334040

  3. Engineering Attenuated Virulence of a Theileria annulata–Infected Macrophage

    PubMed Central

    Echebli, Nadia; Mhadhbi, Moez; Chaussepied, Marie; Vayssettes, Catherine; Di Santo, James P.; Darghouth, Mohamed Aziz; Langsley, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    Live attenuated vaccines are used to combat tropical theileriosis in North Africa, the Middle East, India, and China. The attenuation process is empirical and occurs only after many months, sometimes years, of in vitro culture of virulent clinical isolates. During this extensive culturing, attenuated lines lose their vaccine potential. To circumvent this we engineered the rapid ablation of the host cell transcription factor c-Jun, and within only 3 weeks the line engineered for loss of c-Jun activation displayed in vitro correlates of attenuation such as loss of adhesion, reduced MMP9 gelatinase activity, and diminished capacity to traverse Matrigel. Specific ablation of a single infected host cell virulence trait (c-Jun) induced a complete failure of Theileria annulata–transformed macrophages to disseminate, whereas virulent macrophages disseminated to the kidneys, spleen, and lungs of Rag2/γC mice. Thus, in this heterologous mouse model loss of c-Jun expression led to ablation of dissemination of T. annulata–infected and transformed macrophages. The generation of Theileria-infected macrophages genetically engineered for ablation of a specific host cell virulence trait now makes possible experimental vaccination of calves to address how loss of macrophage dissemination impacts the disease pathology of tropical theileriosis. PMID:25375322

  4. IL-13 induces disease-promoting type 2 cytokines, alternatively activated macrophages and allergic inflammation during pulmonary infection of mice with Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Müller, Uwe; Stenzel, Werner; Köhler, Gabriele; Werner, Christoph; Polte, Tobias; Hansen, Gesine; Schütze, Nicole; Straubinger, Reinhard K; Blessing, Manfred; McKenzie, Andrew N J; Brombacher, Frank; Alber, Gottfried

    2007-10-15

    In the murine model of Cryptococcus neoformans infection Th1 (IL-12/IFN-gamma) and Th17 (IL-23/IL-17) responses are associated with protection, whereas an IL-4-dependent Th2 response exacerbates disease. To investigate the role of the Th2 cytokine IL-13 during pulmonary infection with C. neoformans, IL-13-overexpressing transgenic (IL-13Tg(+)), IL-13-deficient (IL-13(-/-)), and wild-type (WT) mice were infected intranasally. Susceptibility to C. neoformans infection was found when IL-13 was induced in WT mice or overproduced in IL-13Tg(+) mice. Infected IL-13Tg(+) mice had a reduced survival time and higher pulmonary fungal load as compared with WT mice. In contrast, infected IL-13(-/-) mice were resistant and 89% of these mice survived the entire period of the experiment. Ag-specific production of IL-13 by susceptible WT and IL-13Tg(+) mice was associated with a significant type 2 cytokine shift but only minor changes in IFN-gamma production. Consistent with enhanced type 2 cytokine production, high levels of serum IgE and low ratios of serum IgG2a/IgG1 were detected in susceptible WT and IL-13Tg(+) mice. Interestingly, expression of IL-13 by susceptible WT and IL-13Tg(+) mice was associated with reduced IL-17 production. IL-13 was found to induce formation of alternatively activated macrophages expressing arginase-1, macrophage mannose receptor (CD206), and YM1. In addition, IL-13 production led to lung eosinophilia, goblet cell metaplasia and elevated mucus production, and enhanced airway hyperreactivity. This indicates that IL-13 contributes to fatal allergic inflammation during C. neoformans infection.

  5. THE ENHANCEMENT OF MACROPHAGE BACTERIOSTASIS BY PRODUCTS OF ACTIVATED LYMPHOCYTES

    PubMed Central

    Fowles, Robert E.; Fajardo, Ileana M.; Leibowitch, Jacques L.; David, John R.

    1973-01-01

    It was reported previously that the incubation of normal guinea pig macrophages with partially purified products of activated lymphocytes resulted in altered macrophage function including increased cell adherence to culture vessels, spreading, phagocytosis, and glucose carbon-1 oxidation. Studies reported here demonstrate that such macrophages also exhibit enhanced bacteriostasis. Lymphocytes were stimulated with concanavalin A, the culture supernatant was chromatographed over Sephadex G-100 and the fraction of mol wt 25,000–55,000, rich in lymphocyte mediators, was cultured with normal guinea pig macrophages for 1–3 days. Macrophages incubated with fractions from unstimulated lymphocyte cultures served as controls. The resulting macrophage monolayers were infected with Listeria monocytogenes. Macrophages incubated with mediator-rich fractions exhibited 2- to 10-fold enhanced bacteriostasis compared to controls. Further studies indicate that this enhancement was attributable to intrinsic changes in the macrophages and not simply a consequence of the number of macrophages on the monolayers. The studies support the concept that macrophage bacteriostasis can be enhanced by lymphocyte mediators. However, macrophages, which have been preincubated directly with sensitive lymphocytes and antigen exhibit even greater bacteriostasis and sometimes bactericidal capacity, suggesting that either a labile lymphocyte factor or direct lymphocyte macrophage interaction may also be involved in bactericidal activity. PMID:4200649

  6. Matrine displayed antiviral activity in porcine alveolar macrophages co-infected by porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus and porcine circovirus type 2

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Na; Sun, Panpan; Lv, Haipeng; Sun, Yaogui; Guo, Jianhua; Wang, Zhirui; Luo, Tiantian; Wang, Shaoyu; Li, Hongquan

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of porcine reproductive respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) and porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is quite common in clinical settings and no effective treatment to the co-infection is available. In this study, we established the porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) cells model co-infected with PRRSV/PCV2 with modification in vitro, and investigated the antiviral activity of Matrine on this cell model and further evaluated the effect of Matrine on virus-induced TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway. The results demonstrated PAM cells inoculated with PRRSV followed by PCV2 2 h later enhanced PRRSV and PCV2 replications. Matrine treatment suppressed both PRRSV and PCV2 infection at 12 h post infection. Furthermore, PRRSV/PCV2 co- infection induced IκBα degradation and phosphorylation as well as the translocation of NF-κB from the cytoplasm to the nucleus indicating that PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection induced NF-κB activation. Matrine treatment significantly down-regulated the expression of TLR3, TLR4 and TNF-α although it, to some extent, suppressed p-IκBα expression, suggesting that TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway play an important role of Matrine in combating PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection. It is concluded that Matrine possesses activity against PRRSV/PCV2 co-infection in vitro and suppression of the TLR3,4/NF-κB/TNF-α pathway as an important underlying molecular mechanism. These findings warrant Matrine to be further explored for its antiviral activity in clinical settings. PMID:27080155

  7. Anthrax SET protein: a potential virulence determinant that epigenetically represses NF-κB activation in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Mujtaba, Shiraz; Winer, Benjamin Y; Jaganathan, Anbalagan; Patel, Jigneshkumar; Sgobba, Miriam; Schuch, Raymond; Gupta, Yogesh K; Haider, Shozeb; Wang, Rong; Fischetti, Vincent A

    2013-08-09

    Toxins play a major role in the pathogenesis of Bacillus anthracis by subverting the host defenses. However, besides toxins, B. anthracis expresses effector proteins, whose role in pathogenesis are yet to be investigated. Here we present that suppressor-of-variegation, enhancer-of-zeste, trithorax protein from B. anthracis (BaSET) methylates human histone H1, resulting in repression of NF-κB functions. Notably, BaSET is secreted and undergoes nuclear translocation to enhance H1 methylation in B. anthracis-infected macrophages. Compared with wild type Sterne, delayed growth kinetics and altered septum formation were observed in the BaSET knock-out (BaΔSET) bacilli. Uncontrolled BaSET expression during complementation of the BaSET gene in BaΔSET partially restored growth during stationary phase but resulted in substantially shorter bacilli throughout the growth cycle. Importantly, in contrast to Sterne, the BaΔSET B. anthracis is avirulent in a lethal murine bacteremia model of infection. Collectively, BaSET is required for repression of host transcription as well as proper B. anthracis growth, making it a potentially unique virulence determinant.

  8. Blocking the mitogen activated protein kinase-p38 pathway is associated with increase expression of nitric oxide synthase and higher production of nitric oxide by bovine macrophages infected with Mycobacterium avium subsp paratuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Souza, Cleverson D

    2015-03-15

    This study evaluated the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK)-p38 pathway in the nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitric oxide (NO) production by bovine monocyte-derived macrophages ingesting Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) organisms in vitro. Bovine monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with MAP organisms with or without a specific inhibitor of the MAPKp38 pathway and activation of the MAPKp38, interleukin - (IL) IL-10, IL-12, iNOS mRNA expression and NO production were evaluated. Incubation of macrophages with MAP organisms activates the MAPKp38 pathway at early time points post infection. Chemically inhibition of MAPKp38 before incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in increased expression of IL-12 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h, decreased expression of IL-10 mRNA at 2, 6 and 24h and increased expression of iNOS mRNA at 2 and 6h. Nitric oxide was evaluated to indirectly determine the effects of MAPKp38 pathway on the anti-microbial activity of bovine macrophages. Incubation of bovine macrophages with MAP resulted in modest increased production of NO at 4 and 6h post infection. Pretreatment of bovine macrophages with the MAPKp38 inhibitor SB203580 before addition of MAP organisms resulted in increased production of NO at 2, 4, 6 and 24h post infection. This study expanded our knowledge of the importance of the MAPKp38 pathway in limiting an appropriate macrophage response to MAP and suggested how activation of MAPKp38 pathway may be a target of this organism to disrupt earlier antimicrobial mechanisms of macrophages. These findings raises the interesting possibility that the cellular manipulation of MAPKp38 may be useful in designing novel vaccines against MAP.

  9. Macrophage Biochemistry, Activation and Function

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    glucoeidase +8 . . Sulfatase c +8 Modified from Morahan, 1980. b(+)Exhibit@ activity; (-) lacks activity; (+) weak or marginal activity. ’References: (1...endoplasmic reticulum enzymes, sulfatase c and alkaline a-glucosidase. Dissociation of the lysosomal enzyme patterns from sulfatase c and alkaline r...1974; Beaufay et al., 1974). Peritoneal macrophages are deficient or contain inauf- • -𔃼 :’- 41 ficient quantities of the classical constituents to be

  10. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins.

    PubMed

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E; Terrazas, César A; Reyes, Jose L; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins.

  11. Extraintestinal Helminth Infection Limits Pathology and Proinflammatory Cytokine Expression during DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis: A Role for Alternatively Activated Macrophages and Prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Callejas, Blanca E.; Terrazas, César A.; Reyes, Jose L.; Espinoza-Jiménez, Arlett; González, Marisol I.; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Morales, Rosario; Olguín, Jonadab E.; Saavedra, Rafael; Oghumu, Steve; Satoskar, Abhay R.; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa is characteristic of inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Helminth parasites have developed immunomodulatory strategies that may impact the outcome of several inflammatory diseases. Therefore, we investigated whether Taenia crassiceps infection is able to decrease the inflammatory effects of dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. Preinfection significantly reduced the manifestations of DSS-induced colitis, as weight loss and shortened colon length, and decreased the disease activity index independently of the genetic background of the mice. Taenia infection decreased systemic levels of proinflammatory cytokines while increasing levels of IL-4 and IL-10, and the inflammatory infiltrate into the colon was also markedly reduced. RT-PCR assays from colon showed that T. crassiceps-infected mice displayed increased expression of Arginase-1 but decreased expression of iNOS compared to DSS-treated uninfected mice. The percentages of T regulatory cells were not increased. The adoptive transfer of alternatively activated macrophages (AAMФs) from infected mice into mice with DSS-induced colitis reduced the severity of colon inflammation. Administration of indomethacin abrogated the anticolitic effect of Taenia. Thus, T. crassiceps infection limits the pathology of ulcerative colitis by suppressing inflammatory responses mechanistically associated with AAMФs and prostaglandins. PMID:26090422

  12. Proteomic Analysis of HIV-Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Colon, Krystal; Rivera, Linda; Rodriguez-Franco, Eillen; Toro-Nieves, Dianedis

    2010-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (monocytes, macrophages, and microglia) play an important role in innate immunity against pathogens including HIV. These cells are also important viral reservoirs in the central nervous system and secrete inflammatory mediators and toxins that affect the tissue environment and function of surrounding cells. In the era of antiretroviral therapy, there are fewer of these inflammatory mediators. Proteomic approaches including surface enhancement laser desorption ionization, one- and two-dimensional difference in gel electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry have been used to uncover the proteins produced by in vitro HIV-infected monocytes, macrophages, and microglia. These approaches have advanced the understanding of novel mechanisms for HIV replication and neuronal damage. They have also been used in tissue macrophages that restrict HIV replication to understand the mechanisms of restriction for future therapies. In this review, we summarize the proteomic studies on HIV-infected mononuclear phagocytes and discuss other recent proteomic approaches that are starting to be applied to this field. As proteomic instruments and methods evolve to become more sensitive and quantitative, future studies are likely to identify more proteins that can be targeted for diagnosis or therapy and to uncover novel disease mechanisms. PMID:21153888

  13. The macrophage: the intersection between HIV infection and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Crowe, Suzanne M.; Westhorpe, Clare L. V.; Mukhamedova, Nigora; Jaworowski, Anthony; Sviridov, Dmitri; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2010-01-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of coronary artery disease (CAD) with underlying mechanisms including chronic immune activation and inflammation secondary to HIV-induced microbial translocation and low-grade endotoxemia; direct effects of HIV and viral proteins on macrophage cholesterol metabolism; and dyslipidemia related to HIV infection and specific antiretroviral therapies. Monocytes are the precursors of the lipid-laden foam cells within the atherosclerotic plaque and produce high levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6. The minor CD14+/CD16+ “proinflammatory” monocyte subpopulation is preferentially susceptible to HIV infection and may play a critical role in the pathogenesis of HIV-related CAD. In this review, the central role of monocytes/macrophages in HIV-related CAD and the importance of inflammation and cholesterol metabolism are discussed. PMID:19952353

  14. Immunomodulation by Blastomyces dermatitidis: functional activity of murine peritoneal macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    McDaniel, L S; Cozad, G C

    1983-01-01

    Cell-mediated immunity plays the dominant role in the immune response of mice to Blastomyces dermatitidis infections. Since macrophages play an important role in cell-mediated immunity, the interactions between sensitized murine peritoneal macrophages and the yeast phase of B. dermatitidis were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy showed that the sensitized macrophages readily phagocytized B. dermatitidis yeast cells. In addition, there appeared to be activation of metabolic pathways within the sensitized macrophages, as indicated by increased chemiluminescence activity during phagocytosis. Sensitized macrophages were significantly better at controlling intracellular proliferation of the yeast cells when compared to nonsensitized cells. This was determined by disruption of macrophages and plating for viable yeasts. Scanning electron microscope observations offered further substantiation. Experiments with Candida albicans indicated that B. dermatitidis non-specifically activated macrophages. At 2 h postphagocytosis, 30% fewer C. albicans in B. dermatitidis-activated macrophages were able to form germ tubes. These studies demonstrated the multiple potential of activated macrophages with regard to their functional activity. Images PMID:6840859

  15. Effect of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) (isolate ATCC VR-2385) infection on bactericidal activity of porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs): in vitro comparisons with pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs).

    PubMed

    Thanawongnuwech, R; Thacker, E L; Halbur, P G

    1997-11-01

    Porcine pulmonary intravascular macrophages (PIMs) were recovered by in situ pulmonary vascular perfusion with 0.025% collagenase in saline from six 8-week old, crossbred pigs. Pulmonary alveolar macrophages (PAMs) were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage from the same pigs for comparisons in each assay. The macrophages were exposed to PRRSV (ATCC VR-2385) in vitro for 24 h and infection was confirmed by an indirect immunofluorescence test or transmission electron microscopy. Viral particles tended to accumulate in the vesicles of the Golgi apparatus or endoplasmic reticulum. Bactericidal function assays were performed on the recovered macrophages to determine the effects of the virus on macrophage functions. In vitro PRRSV infection reduced the bactericidal ability of PIMs from 68.3% to 56.4% (P < 0.09), and PAMs from 69.3% to 61.0% (P > 0.1) at 24 h post-infection. The mean percentage of bacteria killed by macrophages after PRRSV infection was not significantly different among the treatment groups or between the treatment groups and non-infected controls based on colorimetric MTT bactericidal (Staphylococcus aureus) assay. PRRSV did not affect the ability of PIMs or PAMs to internalize opsonized 125I-iododeoxyuridine-labeled S. aureus (P > 0.05). PRRSV infection significantly decreased the production of superoxide anion (P < 0.01) by 67.0% in PIMs and by 69.4% in PAMs. PRRSV reduced the myeloperoxidase-H2O2-halide product (P < 0.01) by 36.5% for PIMs and by 48.1% for PAMs. The results suggest: (1) PIMs should be considered as an important replication site of PRRSV; (2) PRRSV may have a detrimental effect on both PIMs and PAMs; (3) loss of bactericidal function in PIMs may facilitate hematogenous bacterial infections.

  16. A novel mechanism underlying the basic defensive response of macrophages against Mycobacterium infection.

    PubMed

    Iyoda, Takuya; Takada, Muneaki; Fukatsu, Yoshinobu; Kumokoshi, Shunsuke; Fujisawa, Tatsuya; Shimada, Tomokazu; Shimokawa, Noriko; Matsunaga, Takuya; Makino, Kimiko; Doi, Norio; Terada, Hiroshi; Fukai, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    Following inhalation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, including bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), pathogens enter and grow inside macrophages by taking advantage of their phagocytic mechanisms. Macrophages often fail to eliminate intracellular M. tuberculosis, leading to the induction of host macrophage death. Despite accumulating evidence, the molecular mechanisms underlying M. tuberculosis infection-induced cell death remain controversial. In this study, we show the involvement of two distinct pathways triggered by TLR2 and β2 integrin in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. First, BCG infection induced activation of ERK1/2, which in turn caused phosphorylation/activation of the proapoptotic protein Bim in mouse macrophage-like Raw 264.7 cells. BCG-infected Raw cells treated with U0126, an MEK/ERK inhibitor, led to the suppression of Bim phosphorylation alongside a remarkable increase in the number of viable macrophages. Small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Bim rescued the macrophages from the apoptotic cell death induced by BCG infection. Stimulation with Pam3CSK, a TLR2 agonist, induced macrophage apoptosis with a concomitant increase in the phosphorylation/activation of MEK/ERK and Bim. These observations indicate the important role of the TLR2/MEK/ERK/Bim pathway in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis. Second, we used the β2 integrin agonists C3bi and fibronectin to show that the β2 integrin-derived signal was involved in BCG infection-induced apoptosis, independent of MEK/ERK activation. Interestingly, latex beads coated with Pam3CSK and C3bi were able to induce apoptosis in macrophages to the same extent and specificity as that induced by BCG. Taken together, two distinct pattern-recognition membrane receptors, TLR2 and β2 integrin, acted as triggers in BCG infection-induced macrophage apoptosis, in which MEK/ERK activation played a crucial role following the engagement of TLR2.

  17. Local GM-CSF-Dependent Differentiation and Activation of Pulmonary Dendritic Cells and Macrophages Protect against Progressive Cryptococcal Lung Infection in Mice.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Teitz-Tennenbaum, Seagal; Neal, Lori M; Murdock, Benjamin J; Malachowski, Antoni N; Dils, Anthony J; Olszewski, Michal A; Osterholzer, John J

    2016-02-15

    Patients with acquired deficiency in GM-CSF are susceptible to infections with Cryptococcus neoformans and other opportunistic fungi. We previously showed that GM-CSF protects against progressive fungal disease using a murine model of cryptococcal lung infection. To better understand the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which GM-CSF enhances antifungal host defenses, we investigated temporal and spatial relationships between myeloid and lymphoid immune responses in wild-type C57BL/6 mice capable of producing GM-CSF and GM-CSF-deficient mice infected with a moderately virulent encapsulated strain of C. neoformans (strain 52D). Our data demonstrate that GM-CSF deficiency led to a reduction in: 1) total lung leukocyte recruitment; 2) Th2 and Th17 responses; 3) total numbers of CD11b(+) dendritic cells (DC) and CD11b(-) and CD11b(+) macrophages (Mϕ); 4) DC and Mϕ activation; and 5) localization of DC and Mϕ to the microanatomic sites of alveolar infection. In contrast, GM-CSF deficiency resulted in increased accumulation of DC and Mϕ precursors, namely Ly-6C(high) monocytes, in the blood and lungs of infected mice. Collectively, these results show that GM-CSF promotes the local differentiation, accumulation, activation, and alveolar localization of lung DC and Mϕ in mice with cryptococcal lung infection. These findings identify GM-CSF as central to the protective immune response that prevents progressive fungal disease and thus shed new light on the increased susceptibility to these infections observed in patients with acquired GM-CSF deficiency.

  18. Responses of macrophages against Salmonella infection compared with phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Maozhi; Yang, Yun; Meng, Chuang; Pan, Zhiming; Jiao, Xinan

    2013-12-01

    To explore the responses of host cell after infection with live Salmonella compared with phagocytosis to dead bacteria, the responses of mouse macrophage after infection with Salmonella enteritidis C50041 and the fixed C50041 (C50041-d) were analyzed. Results indicated that the cytotoxicity induced by C50041 was stronger than C50041-d. Similar changing trends of mitochondrial membrane potential, intracellular concentration of calcium ions, reactive oxygen species and nitric oxide were found between C50041 and C50041-d infection. But the cell responses against C50041 were earlier and stronger than C50041-d. LC3 expression of macrophage induced by C50041 was lower than C50041-d. C50041 significantly inhibited the production of tumor necrosis factor and interleukin (IL)-6. Whereas intracellular caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release induced by C50041 were stronger than C50041-d, caspase-1 activation and IL-1β release are the innate defense responses of macrophage. Therefore, it will be beneficial to explore the use of this pathway in the control of Salmonella infection.

  19. Effect of Cocaine on HIV Infection and Inflammasome Gene Expression Profile in HIV Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Atluri, Venkata Subba Rao; Pilakka-Kanthikeel, Sudheesh; Garcia, Gabriella; Jayant, Rahul Dev; Sagar, Vidya; Samikkannu, Thangavel; Yndart, Adriana; Nair, Madhavan

    2016-01-01

    We have observed significantly increased HIV infection in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine that could be due to the downregulation of BST2 restriction factor in these cells. In human inflammasome PCR array, among different involved in inflammasome formation, in HIV infected macrophages in the presence of cocaine, we have observed significant upregulation of NLRP3, AIM2 genes and downstream genes IL-1β and PTGS2. Whereas negative regulatory gene MEFV was upregulated, CD40LG and PYDC1 were significantly downregulated. Among various NOD like receptors, NOD2 was significantly upregulated in both HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated cells. In the downstream genes, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL2), CCL7 and IL-6 were significantly up regulated in HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages. We have also observed significant ROS production (in HIV and/or cocaine treated cells) which is one of the indirect-activators of inflammasomes formation. Further, we have observed early apoptosis in HIV alone and HIV plus cocaine treated macrophages which may be resultant of inflammasome formation and cspase-1 activation. These results indicate that in case of HIV infected macrophages exposed to cocaine, increased ROS production and IL-1β transcription serve as an activators for the formation of NLRP3 and AIM2 mediated inflammasomes that leads to caspase 1 mediated apoptosis. PMID:27321752

  20. Sulforaphane Inhibits HIV Infection of Macrophages through Nrf2.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Andrea Kinga Marias; Sharifi, Hamayun J; Jellinger, Robert M; Cristofano, Paul; Shi, Binshan; de Noronha, Carlos M C

    2016-04-01

    Marburg virus, the Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Dengue virus all activate, and benefit from, expression of the transcription regulator nuclear erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). The impact of Nrf2 activation on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has not been tested. Sulforaphane (SFN), produced in cruciferous vegetables after mechanical damage, mobilizes Nrf2 to potently reprogram cellular gene expression. Here we show for the first time that SFN blocks HIV infection in primary macrophages but not in primary T cells. Similarly SFN blocks infection in PMA-differentiated promonocytic cell lines, but not in other cell lines tested. siRNA-mediated depletion of Nrf2 boosted HIV infectivity in primary macrophages and reduced the anti-viral effects of SFN treatment. This supports a model in which anti-viral activity is mediated through Nrf2 after it is mobilized by SFN. We further found that, like the type I interferon-induced cellular anti-viral proteins SAMHD1 and MX2, SFN treatment blocks infection after entry, but before formation of 2-LTR circles. Interestingly however, neither SAMHD1 nor MX2 were upregulated. This shows for the first time that Nrf2 action can potently block HIV infection and highlights a novel way to trigger this inhibition.

  1. Apoptotic neutrophils augment the inflammatory response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Henrik; Andersson, Blanka; Eklund, Daniel; Ngoh, Eyler; Persson, Alexander; Svensson, Kristoffer; Lerm, Maria; Blomgran, Robert; Stendahl, Olle

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages in the lung are the primary cells being infected by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) during the initial manifestation of tuberculosis. Since the adaptive immune response to Mtb is delayed, innate immune cells such as macrophages and neutrophils mount the early immune protection against this intracellular pathogen. Neutrophils are short-lived cells and removal of apoptotic cells by resident macrophages is a key event in the resolution of inflammation and tissue repair. Since anti-inflammatory activity is not compatible with effective immunity to intracellular pathogens, we therefore investigated how uptake of apoptotic neutrophils modulates the function of Mtb-activated human macrophages. We show that Mtb infection exerts a potent proinflammatory activation of human macrophages with enhanced gene activation and release of proinflammatory cytokines and that this response was augmented by apoptotic neutrophils. The enhanced macrophage response is linked to apoptotic neutrophil-driven activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and subsequent IL-1β signalling. We also demonstrate that apoptotic neutrophils not only modulate the inflammatory response, but also enhance the capacity of infected macrophages to control intracellular growth of virulent Mtb. Taken together, these results suggest a novel role for apoptotic neutrophils in the modulation of the macrophage-dependent inflammatory response contributing to the early control of Mtb infection.

  2. TNF-alpha, produced by feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV)-infected macrophages, upregulates expression of type II FIPV receptor feline aminopeptidase N in feline macrophages.

    PubMed

    Takano, Tomomi; Hohdatsu, Tsutomu; Toda, Ayako; Tanabe, Maki; Koyama, Hiroyuki

    2007-07-20

    The pathogenicity of feline infectious peritonitis virus (FIPV) is known to depend on macrophage tropism, and this macrophage infection is enhanced by mediation via anti-S antibody (antibody-dependent enhancement, ADE). In this study, we found that TNF-alpha production was increased with viral replication in macrophages inoculated with a mixture of FIPV and anti-S antibody, and demonstrated that this culture supernatant had feline PBMC apoptosis-inducing activity. We also demonstrated that the expression level of the FIPV virus receptor, feline aminopeptidase N (fAPN), was increased in macrophages of FIP cats. For upregulation of TNF-alpha and fAPN in macrophages, viral replication in macrophages is necessary, and their expressions were increased by ADE of FIPV infection. It was demonstrated that a heat-resistant fAPN-inducing factor was present in the culture supernatant of FIPV-infected macrophages, and this factor was TNF-alpha: fAPN expression was upregulated in recombinant feline TNF-alpha-treated macrophages, and FIPV infectivity was increased in these macrophages. These findings suggested that FIPV replication in macrophages increases TNF-alpha production in macrophages, and the produced TNF-alpha acts and upregulates fAPN expression, increasing FIPV sensitivity.

  3. TRPM2 ion channels regulate macrophage polarization and gastric inflammation during Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Beceiro, S; Radin, J N; Chatuvedi, R; Piazuelo, M B; Horvarth, D J; Cortado, H; Gu, Y; Dixon, B; Gu, C; Lange, I; Koomoa, D-Lt; Wilson, K T; Algood, H M S; Partida-Sánchez, S

    2017-03-01

    Calcium signaling in phagocytes is essential for cellular activation, migration, and the potential resolution of infection or inflammation. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate)-oxidase activity in macrophages has been linked to altered intracellular calcium concentrations. Because of its role as an oxidative stress sensor in phagocytes, we investigated the function of the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in macrophages during oxidative stress responses induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We show that Trpm2(-)/(-) mice, when chronically infected with H. pylori, exhibit increased gastric inflammation and decreased bacterial colonization compared with wild-type (WT) mice. The absence of TRPM2 triggers greater macrophage production of inflammatory mediators and promotes classically activated macrophage M1 polarization in response to H. pylori. TRPM2-deficient macrophages upon H. pylori stimulation are unable to control intracellular calcium levels, which results in calcium overloading. Furthermore, increased intracellular calcium in TRPM2(-)/(-) macrophages enhanced mitogen-activated protein kinase and NADPH-oxidase activities, compared with WT macrophages. Our data suggest that augmented production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines with TRPM2 deletion regulates oxidative stress in macrophages and consequently decreases H. pylori gastric colonization while increasing inflammation in the gastric mucosa.

  4. Periodate-oxidized ATP modulates macrophage functions during infection with Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Figliuolo, V R; Chaves, S P; Santoro, G F; Coutinho, C M L M; Meyer-Fernandes, J R; Rossi-Bergmann, B; Coutinho-Silva, R

    2014-07-01

    Previously, we showed that treating macrophages with ATP impairs the intracellular growth of Leishmania amazonensis, and that the P2X7 purinergic receptor is overexpressed during leishmaniasis. In the present study, we directly evaluated the effect of periodate-oxidized ATP (oATP) on parasite control in Leishmania-infected macrophages. We found that oATP impaired the attachment/entrance of L. amazonensis promastigotes to C57BL/6 mouse macrophages in a P2X7 receptor-independent manner, as macrophages from P2X7(-/-) mice were similarly affected. Although oATP directly inhibited the growth of axenic promastigotes in culture, promoted rapid ultrastructural alterations, and impaired Leishmania internalization by macrophages, it did not affect intracellular parasite multiplication. Upon infection, phagosomal acidification was diminished in oATP-treated macrophages, accompanied by reduced endosomal proteolysis. Likewise, MHC class II molecules expression and ectoATPase activity was decreased by oATP added to macrophages at the time of parasite infection. These inhibitory effects were not due to a cytotoxic effect, as no additional release of lactate dehydrogenase was detected in culture supernatants. Moreover, the capacity of macrophages to produce nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species was not affected by the presence of oATP during infection. We conclude that oATP directly affects extracellular parasite integrity and macrophage functioning.

  5. Inhibitory effects of Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) against the infection and infectivity of macrophages by Leishmania amazonensis.

    PubMed

    Melo, Bernardo; Leitão, Joseana M S R; Oliveira, Luciano G C; Santos, Sérgio E M; Carneiro, Sabrina M P; Rodrigues, Klinger A F; Chaves, Mariana H; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Carvalho, Fernando A A

    2016-01-01

    Zanthoxylum rhoifolium Lam. (Rutaceae) has been traditionally used in the treatment of microbial infections and parasitic diseases. In the present study, the antileishmanial effect induced by the ethanol extract of stem barks from Z. rhoifolium (ZR-EEtOH) and its n-hexane fraction (ZR-FHEX) on infection and infectivity of murine macrophages by promastigote forms of Leishmania amazonensis were investigated. In different set of experiments, macrophages or promastigotes were pretreated with ZR-EEtOH or ZR-FHEX at non-lethal concentrations for 24 hours, and then macrophages were submitted to infection by promastigotes. Moreover, their effects on activation of macrophages, as well as on the DNA content, size and number of promastigotes by flow cytometry were also evaluated. The infection rate and the number of internalized amastigote forms were markedly decreased after pretreatment of macrophages or promastigotes when compared with non-treated cells. The increase in phagocytic capability and nitrite content was also observed. Furthermore, the decrease of DNA content, size and number of promastigotes was also observed. In conclusion, ZR-EEtOH and ZR-FHEX promoted a markedly significant antileishmanial effect and reduction of infection of macrophages, probably underlying defense mechanisms activation in macrophages. These findings reinforce the potential application of Z. rhoifolium in the treatment of leishmaniasis.

  6. TRPM2 Ion Channels Regulate Macrophage Polarization and Gastric Inflammation During Helicobacter pylori Infection

    PubMed Central

    Beceiro, Susana; Radin, Jana N.; Chatuvedi, Rupesh; Piazuelo, M. Blanca; Horvarth, Dennis J.; Cortado, Hanna; Gu, Yuanzheng; Dixon, Beverly; Gu, Chen; Lange, Ingo; Koomoa, Dana-Lynn T.; Wilson, Keith T.; Scott Algood, Holly M.; Partida-Sánchez, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Calcium signaling in phagocytes is essential for cellular activation, migration and the potential resolution of infection or inflammation. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via activation of NADPH (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-) oxidase activity in macrophages has been linked to altered intracellular calcium concentrations. Because of its role as an oxidative stress sensor in phagocytes, we investigated the function of the cation channel transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (TRPM2) in macrophages during oxidative stress responses induced by Helicobacter pylori infection. We show that Trpm2−/− mice, when chronically infected with H. pylori, exhibit increased gastric inflammation and decreased bacterial colonization compared with WT mice. The absence of TRPM2 triggers greater macrophage production of inflammatory mediators and promotes classically activated macrophage M1 polarization in response to H. pylori. TRPM2-deficient macrophages upon H. pylori stimulation are unable to control intracellular calcium levels, which results in calcium overloading. Furthermore, increased intracellular calcium in TRPM2−/− macrophages enhanced MAPK and NADPH oxidase activities, compared to WT macrophages. Our data suggest that augmented production of ROS and inflammatory cytokines with TRPM2 deletion regulates oxidative stress in macrophages, and consequently, decreases H. pylori gastric colonization while increasing inflammation in the gastric mucosa. PMID:27435104

  7. IFN-ε protects primary macrophages against HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Tasker, Carley; Subbian, Selvakumar; Gao, Pan; Couret, Jennifer; Levine, Carly; Ghanny, Saleena; Soteropoulos, Patricia; Zhao, Xilin; Landau, Nathaniel; Lu, Wuyuan

    2016-01-01

    IFN-ε is a unique type I IFN that is not induced by pattern recognition response elements. IFN-ε is constitutively expressed in mucosal tissues, including the female genital mucosa. Although the direct antiviral activity of IFN-ε was thought to be weak compared with IFN-α, IFN-ε controls Chlamydia muridarum and herpes simplex virus 2 in mice, possibly through modulation of immune response. We show here that IFN-ε induces an antiviral state in human macrophages that blocks HIV-1 replication. IFN-ε had little or no protective effect in activated CD4+ T cells or transformed cell lines unless activated CD4+ T cells were infected with replication-competent HIV-1 at a low MOI. The block to HIV infection of macrophages was maximal after 24 hours of treatment and was reversible. IFN-ε acted on early stages of the HIV life cycle, including viral entry, reverse transcription, and nuclear import. The protection did not appear to operate through known type I IFN-induced HIV host restriction factors, such as APOBEC3A and SAMHD1. IFN-ε–stimulated immune mediators and pathways had the signature of type I IFNs but were distinct from IFN-α in macrophages. IFN-ε induced significant phagocytosis and ROS, which contributed to the block to HIV replication. These findings indicate that IFN-ε induces an antiviral state in macrophages that is mediated by different factors than those induced by IFN-α. Understanding the mechanism of IFN-ε–mediated HIV inhibition through immune modulation has implications for prevention. PMID:27942584

  8. Macrophage infection via selective capture of HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells.

    PubMed

    Baxter, Amy E; Russell, Rebecca A; Duncan, Christopher J A; Moore, Michael D; Willberg, Christian B; Pablos, Jose L; Finzi, Andrés; Kaufmann, Daniel E; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John C; Groot, Fedde; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2014-12-10

    Macrophages contribute to HIV-1 pathogenesis by forming a viral reservoir and mediating neurological disorders. Cell-free HIV-1 infection of macrophages is inefficient, in part due to low plasma membrane expression of viral entry receptors. We find that macrophages selectively capture and engulf HIV-1-infected CD4+ T cells leading to efficient macrophage infection. Infected T cells, both healthy and dead or dying, were taken up through viral envelope glycoprotein-receptor-independent interactions, implying a mechanism distinct from conventional virological synapse formation. Macrophages infected by this cell-to-cell route were highly permissive for both CCR5-using macrophage-tropic and otherwise weakly macrophage-tropic transmitted/founder viruses but restrictive for nonmacrophage-tropic CXCR4-using virus. These results have implications for establishment of the macrophage reservoir and HIV-1 dissemination in vivo.

  9. Apoptotic CD8 T-lymphocytes disable macrophage-mediated immunity to Trypanosoma cruzi infection

    PubMed Central

    Cabral-Piccin, M P; Guillermo, L V C; Vellozo, N S; Filardy, A A; Pereira-Marques, S T; Rigoni, T S; Pereira-Manfro, W F; DosReis, G A; Lopes, M F

    2016-01-01

    Chagas disease is caused by infection with the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. CD8 T-lymphocytes help to control infection, but apoptosis of CD8 T cells disrupts immunity and efferocytosis can enhance parasite infection within macrophages. Here, we investigate how apoptosis of activated CD8 T cells affects M1 and M2 macrophage phenotypes. First, we found that CD8 T-lymphocytes and inflammatory monocytes/macrophages infiltrate peritoneum during acute T. cruzi infection. We show that treatment with anti-Fas ligand (FasL) prevents lymphocyte apoptosis, upregulates type-1 responses to parasite antigens, and reduces infection in macrophages cocultured with activated CD8 T cells. Anti-FasL skews mixed M1/M2 macrophage profiles into polarized M1 phenotype, both in vitro and following injection in infected mice. Moreover, inhibition of T-cell apoptosis induces a broad reprogramming of cytokine responses and improves macrophage-mediated immunity to T. cruzi. The results indicate that disposal of apoptotic CD8 T cells increases M2-macrophage differentiation and contributes to parasite persistence. PMID:27195678

  10. Macrophage accumulation in gut mucosa differentiates AIDS from chronic SIV infection in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Swan, Zachary D; Wonderlich, Elizabeth R; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2016-02-01

    The relationship between recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes to lymphoid and gut tissues and disease in HIV and SIV infection remains unclear. To address this question, we conducted cross-sectional analyses of dendritic cell (DC) subsets and CD163(+) macrophages in lymph nodes (LNs) and ileum of rhesus macaques with acute and chronic SIV infection and AIDS. In LNs significant differences were only evident when comparing uninfected and AIDS groups, with loss of myeloid DCs and CD103(+) DCs from peripheral and mesenteric LNs, respectively, and accumulation of plasmacytoid DCs and macrophages in mesenteric LNs. In contrast, there were fourfold more macrophages in ileum lamina propria in macaques with AIDS compared with chronic infection, and this increased to 40-fold in Peyer's patches. Gut macrophages exceeded plasmacytoid DCs and CD103(+) DCs by ten- to 17-fold in monkeys with AIDS but were at similar low frequencies as DCs in chronic infection. Gut macrophages in macaques with AIDS expressed IFN-α and TNF-α consistent with cell activation. CD163(+) macrophages also accumulated in gut mucosa in acute infection but lacked expression of IFN-α and TNF-α. These data reveal a relationship between inflammatory macrophage accumulation in gut mucosa and disease and suggest a role for macrophages in AIDS pathogenesis.

  11. Leishmania infantum Induces Mild Unfolded Protein Response in Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    De Santi, Mauro; Ceccarelli, Marcello; Vitale, Fabrizio; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The Leishmaniases are a group of parasitic diseases caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus affecting both humans and other vertebrates. Leishmania is an intracellular pathogen able to confer resistance to apoptosis in the early phase of macrophages infection by activation of host PI3K/Akt pathway and inhibition of caspase-3 activation. Intracellular pathogens hijack organelles such as ER to facilitate survival and replication, thus eliciting ER stress and activating/modulating the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the host cell. The UPR is aimed to mitigate ER stress, thereby promoting cell survival. However, prolonged ER stress will activate the apoptotic pathway. The aim of this study was to investigate the ER stress response in Leishmania-infected macrophages to gain insights about the mechanisms underlying the apoptosis resistance in parasitized cells. Macrophages differentiated from human monocytic cell lines (U937 and THP-1) and murine primary macrophages were infected with Leishmania infantum MHOM/TN/80/IPT1 (WHO international reference strain). Several ER stress/autophagy expression markers, as well as cell survival/apoptosis markers (phospho-Akt and cleaved caspase-3) were evaluated by qPCR and/or by western blotting. As ER stress positive control, cells were treated with tunicamycin or dithiothreitol (DTT). The gene expression analyses showed a mild but significant induction of the ER stress/autophagy markers. The western blot analyses revealed that the Leishmania infection induced Akt phosphorylation and significantly inhibited the induction of caspase-3 cleavage, eIF2α phosphorylation and DDIT3/CHOP expression in tunicamycin and DTT treated cells. The mild but significant increase in ER stress expression markers and the delay/attenuation of the effects of ER stress inducers in infected cells support the hypothesis that L. infantum could promote survival of host cells by inducing a mild ER stress response. The host ER stress response could be not

  12. Mycobacterium tuberculosis senses host-derived carbon monoxide during macrophage infection.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Michael U; Manzanillo, Paolo; Cox, Jeffery S

    2008-05-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) expresses a set of genes known as the dormancy regulon in vivo. These genes are expressed in vitro in response to nitric oxide (NO) or hypoxia, conditions used to model MTB persistence in latent infection. Although NO, a macrophage product that inhibits respiration, and hypoxia are likely triggers in vivo, additional cues could activate the dormancy regulon during infection. Here, we show that MTB infection stimulates expression of heme oxygenase (HO-1) by macrophages and that the gaseous product of this enzyme, carbon monoxide (CO), activates expression of the dormancy regulon. Deletion of macrophage HO-1 reduced expression of the dormancy regulon. Furthermore, we show that the MTB DosS/DosT/DosR two-component sensory relay system is required for the response to CO. Together, these findings demonstrate that MTB senses CO during macrophage infection. CO may represent a general cue used by pathogens to sense and adapt to the host environment.

  13. Differential Transcriptional Response in Macrophages Infected with Cell Wall Deficient versus Normal Mycobacterium Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yu-Rong; Gao, Kun-Shan; Ji, Rui; Yi, Zheng-Jun

    2015-01-01

    Host-pathogen interactions determine the outcome following infection by mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Under adverse circumstances, normal Mtb can form cell-wall deficient (CWD) variants within macrophages, which have been considered an adaptive strategy for facilitating bacterial survival inside macrophages. However, the molecular mechanism by which infection of macrophages with different phenotypic Mtb elicits distinct responses of macrophages is not fully understood. To explore the molecular events triggered upon Mtb infection of macrophages, differential transcriptional responses of RAW264.7 cells infected with two forms of Mtb, CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb, were studied by microarray analysis. Some of the differentially regulated genes were confirmed by RT-qPCR in both RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway was used to analyze functions of differentially expressed genes. Distinct gene expression patterns were observed between CWD-Mtb and normal Mtb group. Mapt was up-regulated, while NOS2 and IL-11 were down-regulated in CWD-Mtb infected RAW264.7 cells and primary macrophages compared with normal Mtb infected ones. Many deregulated genes were found to be related to macrophages activation, immune response, phagosome maturation, autophagy and lipid metabolism. KEGG analysis showed that the differentially expressed genes were mainly involved in MAPK signaling pathway, nitrogen metabolism, cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction and focal adhesion. Taken together, the present study showed that differential macrophage responses were induced by intracellular CWD-Mtb an normal Mtb infection, which suggested that interactions between macrophages and different phenotypic Mtb are very complex. The results provide evidence for further understanding of pathogenesis of CWD-Mtb and may help in improving strategies to eliminate intracellular CWD-Mtb. PMID:25552926

  14. In vitro evidence for metallopeptidase participation in hepatocyte damage induced by Leishmania chagasi-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Costa, Juliana Dias; Nogueira de Melo, Ana Cristina; Vermelho, Alane Beatriz; Meirelles, Maria de Nazareth; Porrozzi, Renato

    2008-06-01

    Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi infection activates macrophages, which release several microbicidal agents, including peptidases, to eliminate the parasite. Leishmanicidal mediators released in large amounts may cause morphological and/or functional injuries to the liver. In order to investigate the involvement of peptidases in this phenomenon, an in vitro co-culture model of peritoneal macrophages infected with L. chagasi and hepatocytes was used. High levels of released hepatic transaminases were found in supernatants from infected co-cultures at the same time point in which alterations in hepatocyte morphology and maximum proteolytic activity were observed. The largest proteolytic activity being at pH 10 as well as the greatest efficiency of treatment with 1,10-phenantroline observed in supernatants from the infected co-cultures suggests the presence of metallopeptidases during the leishmanicidal activity by infected macrophages. Furthermore, TNF-alpha levels and high levels of TGF-beta were increased at this time point, and this can be related to the synthesis of metallopeptidases and the conversion of the latent form to the active form. Metallopeptidase activities were detected by gelatin SDS-PAGE in higher amounts in infected macrophages and co-culture supernatant; moreover, one metallopeptidase migrating at 85 kDa produced in excess (41% more) by infected macrophages was identified as MMP-9. This metallopeptidase may be participating in this phenomenon together with other leishmanicidal factors released by these host cells.

  15. Extracellular adenosine triphosphate affects the response of human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dubois-Colas, Nicolas; Petit-Jentreau, Laetitia; Barreiro, Luis B; Durand, Sylvère; Soubigou, Guillaume; Lecointe, Cécile; Klibi, Jihène; Rezaï, Keyvan; Lokiec, François; Coppée, Jean-Yves; Gicquel, Brigitte; Tailleux, Ludovic

    2014-09-01

    Granulomas are the hallmark of Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection. As the host fails to control the bacteria, the center of the granuloma exhibits necrosis resulting from the dying of infected macrophages. The release of the intracellular pool of nucleotides into the surrounding medium may modulate the response of newly infected macrophages, although this has never been investigated. Here, we show that extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) indirectly modulates the expression of 272 genes in human macrophages infected with M. tuberculosis and that it induces their alternative activation. ATP is rapidly hydrolyzed by the ecto-ATPase CD39 into adenosine monophosphate (AMP), and it is AMP that regulates the macrophage response through the adenosine A2A receptor. Our findings reveal a previously unrecognized role for the purinergic pathway in the host response to M. tuberculosis. Dampening inflammation through signaling via the adenosine A2A receptor may limit tissue damage but may also favor bacterial immune escape.

  16. Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary disease is associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bility, Moses T; Sripa, Banchob

    2014-12-01

    Chronic Opisthorchis viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease is associated with significant leukocyte infiltration, including activated macrophages; however, the polarization of infiltrating macrophages remains to be fully characterized. In this study, we characterized macrophage polarization and phenotype in chronic O. viverrini-induced hepatobiliary disease in humans and hamsters using gene expression and histochemical analysis. Chronic O. viverrini infection and associated hepatobiliary diseases were associated with iron loaded M2-like macrophages in both humans and hamsters. This study provides suggestive evidence that iron loaded M2-like macrophages promote hepatobiliary disease in chronic O. viverrini infection.

  17. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection

    PubMed Central

    Mora-Bau, Gabriela; Platt, Andrew M.; van Rooijen, Nico; Randolph, Gwendalyn J.; Albert, Matthew L.; Ingersoll, Molly A.

    2015-01-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder. PMID:26182347

  18. Macrophages Subvert Adaptive Immunity to Urinary Tract Infection.

    PubMed

    Mora-Bau, Gabriela; Platt, Andrew M; van Rooijen, Nico; Randolph, Gwendalyn J; Albert, Matthew L; Ingersoll, Molly A

    2015-07-01

    Urinary tract infection (UTI) is one of the most common bacterial infections with frequent recurrence being a major medical challenge. Development of effective therapies has been impeded by the lack of knowledge of events leading to adaptive immunity. Here, we establish conclusive evidence that an adaptive immune response is generated during UTI, yet this response does not establish sterilizing immunity. To investigate the underlying deficiency, we delineated the naïve bladder immune cell compartment, identifying resident macrophages as the most populous immune cell. To evaluate their impact on the establishment of adaptive immune responses following infection, we measured bacterial clearance in mice depleted of either circulating monocytes, which give rise to macrophages, or bladder resident macrophages. Surprisingly, mice depleted of resident macrophages, prior to primary infection, exhibited a nearly 2-log reduction in bacterial burden following secondary challenge compared to untreated animals. This increased bacterial clearance, in the context of a challenge infection, was dependent on lymphocytes. Macrophages were the predominant antigen presenting cell to acquire bacteria post-infection and in their absence, bacterial uptake by dendritic cells was increased almost 2-fold. These data suggest that bacterial uptake by tissue macrophages impedes development of adaptive immune responses during UTI, revealing a novel target for enhancing host responses to bacterial infection of the bladder.

  19. Aryl hydrocarbon receptor protects against bacterial infection by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Kimura, Akihiro; Abe, Hiromi; Tsuruta, Sanae; Chiba, Sayuri; Fujii-Kuriyama, Yoshiaki; Sekiya, Takashi; Morita, Rimpei; Yoshimura, Akihiko

    2014-04-01

    Aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) is crucial for various immune responses. The relationship between AhR and infection with the intracellular bacteria Listeria monocytogenes (LM) is poorly understood. Here, we show that in response to LM infection, AhR is required for bacterial clearance by promoting macrophage survival and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. AhR-deficient mice were more susceptible to listeriosis, and AhR deficiency enhances bacterial growth in vivo and in vitro. On the other hand, pro-inflammatory cytokines were increased in AhR-deficient macrophages infected with LM despite enhanced susceptibility to LM infection in AhR-deficient mice. Subsequent studies demonstrate that AhR protects against macrophage cell death induced by LM infection through the induction of the antiapoptotic factor, the apoptosis inhibitor of macrophages, which promotes macrophage survival in the setting of LM infection. Furthermore, AhR promotes ROS production for bacterial clearance. Our results demonstrate that AhR is essential to the resistance against LM infection as it promotes macrophage survival and ROS production. This suggests that the activation of AhR by its ligands may be an effective strategy against listeriosis.

  20. The protection effect of LEAP-2 on the mudskipper (Boleophthalmus pectinirostris) against Edwardsiella tarda infection is associated with its immunomodulatory activity on monocytes/macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Chen, Qiang; Lu, Xin-Jiang; Chen, Jiong

    2016-12-01

    Liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP-2) is a cationic peptide that plays an important role in the host's innate immune system. However, the mechanism by which LEAP-2 modulates/regulates the host defense against pathogens remains largely unknown. In this study, we identified a cDNA sequence encoding LEAP-2 homolog (BpLEAP-2) in the mudskipper, Boleophthalmus pectinirostris. Sequence analysis revealed that BpLEAP-2 belonged to the fish LEAP-2A cluster and that it was closely related to ayu LEAP-2. BpLEAP-2 mRNA was detected in a wide range of tissues, with the highest level of transcripts found in the liver. Upon infection with Edwardsiella tarda, BpLEAP-2 mRNA expression was significantly increased in the liver, kidney, spleen, and gill, but decreased in the intestine. Chemically synthesized BpLEAP-2 mature peptide did not exhibit antibacterial activity against E. tarda in vitro. Intraperitoneal injection of BpLEAP-2 (1.0 or 10.0 μg/g) resulted in significantly improved survival rate and reduced tissue bacterial load in E. tarda-infected mudskippers. In E. tarda-infected fish, BpLEAP-2 (0.1, 1.0, or 10.0 μg/g) eliminated E. tarda-induced tissue mRNA expression of BpTNF-α and BpIL-1β. In monocytes/macrophages (MO/MФ), BpLEAP-2 (1.0 or 10.0 μg/ml) induced chemotaxis, enhanced respiratory burst, and inhibited E. tarda-induced mRNA expression of BpTNF-α and BpIL-1β. At a concentration of 10.0 μg/ml, BpLEAP-2 also significantly enhanced the bacterial killing efficiency of MO/MФ. No significant effect was seen in the phagocytic activity of MO/MФ upon treatment with BpLEAP-2. Our study provides evidence, for the first time, that LEAP-2 exhibited immunomodulatory effects on immune cells, and protected the host from pathogenic infections independent of direct bacterial killing function.

  1. A comparison of two distinct murine macrophage gene expression profiles in response to Leishmania amazonensis infection

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The experimental murine model of leishmaniasis has been widely used to characterize the immune response against Leishmania. CBA mice develop severe lesions, while C57BL/6 present small chronic lesions under L. amazonensis infection. Employing a transcriptomic approach combined with biological network analysis, the gene expression profiles of C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after L. amazonensis infection in vitro, were compared. These strains were selected due to their different degrees of susceptibility to this parasite. Results The genes expressed by C57BL/6 and CBA macrophages, before and after infection, differ greatly, both with respect to absolute number as well as cell function. Uninfected C57BL/6 macrophages express genes involved in the deactivation pathway of macrophages at lower levels, while genes related to the activation of the host immune inflammatory response, including apoptosis and phagocytosis, have elevated expression levels. Several genes that participate in the apoptosis process were also observed to be up-regulated in C57BL/6 macrophages infected with L. amazonensis, which is very likely related to the capacity of these cells to control parasite infection. By contrast, genes involved in lipid metabolism were found to be up-regulated in CBA macrophages in response to infection, which supports the notion that L. amazonensis probably modulates parasitophorous vacuoles in order to survive and multiply in host cells. Conclusion The transcriptomic profiles of C57BL/6 macrophages, before and after infection, were shown to be involved in the macrophage pathway of activation, which may aid in the control of L. amazonensis infection, in contrast to the profiles of CBA cells. PMID:22321871

  2. Dopamine Receptor Activation Increases HIV Entry into Primary Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Gaskill, Peter J.; Yano, Hideaki H.; Kalpana, Ganjam V.; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Berman, Joan W.

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages are the primary cell type infected with HIV in the central nervous system, and infection of these cells is a major component in the development of neuropathogenesis and HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders. Within the brains of drug abusers, macrophages are exposed to increased levels of dopamine, a neurotransmitter that mediates the addictive and reinforcing effects of drugs of abuse such as cocaine and methamphetamine. In this study we examined the effects of dopamine on HIV entry into primary human macrophages. Exposure to dopamine during infection increased the entry of R5 tropic HIV into macrophages, irrespective of the concentration of the viral inoculum. The entry pathway affected was CCR5 dependent, as antagonizing CCR5 with the small molecule inhibitor TAK779 completely blocked entry. The effect was dose-dependent and had a steep threshold, only occurring above 108 M dopamine. The dopamine-mediated increase in entry required dopamine receptor activation, as it was abrogated by the pan-dopamine receptor antagonist flupenthixol, and could be mediated through both subtypes of dopamine receptors. These findings indicate that the effects of dopamine on macrophages may have a significant impact on HIV pathogenesis. They also suggest that drug-induced increases in CNS dopamine may be a common mechanism by which drugs of abuse with distinct modes of action exacerbate neuroinflammation and contribute to HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders in infected drug abusers. PMID:25268786

  3. BAI1 Orchestrates Macrophage Inflammatory Response to HSV Infection-Implications for Oncolytic Viral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Bolyard, Chelsea; Meisen, W Hans; Banasavadi-Siddegowda, Yeshavanth; Hardcastle, Jayson; Yoo, Ji Young; Wohleb, Eric S; Wojton, Jeffrey; Yu, Jun-Ge; Dubin, Samuel; Khosla, Maninder; Xu, Bo; Smith, Jonathan; Alvarez-Breckenridge, Christopher; Pow-Anpongkul, Pete; Pichiorri, Flavia; Zhang, Jianying; Old, Matthew; Zhu, Dan; Van Meir, Erwin G; Godbout, Jonathan P; Caligiuri, Michael A; Yu, Jianhua; Kaur, Balveen

    2017-04-01

    Purpose: Brain angiogenesis inhibitor (BAI1) facilitates phagocytosis and bacterial pathogen clearance by macrophages; however, its role in viral infections is unknown. Here, we examined the role of BAI1, and its N-terminal cleavage fragment (Vstat120) in antiviral macrophage responses to oncolytic herpes simplex virus (oHSV).Experimental Design: Changes in infiltration and activation of monocytic and microglial cells after treatment of glioma-bearing mice brains with a control (rHSVQ1) or Vstat120-expressing (RAMBO) oHSV was analyzed using flow cytometry. Co-culture of infected glioma cells with macrophages or microglia was used to examine antiviral signaling. Cytokine array gene expression and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) helped evaluate changes in macrophage signaling in response to viral infection. TNFα-blocking antibodies and macrophages derived from Bai1(-/-) mice were used.Results: RAMBO treatment of mice reduced recruitment and activation of macrophages/microglia in mice with brain tumors, and showed increased virus replication compared with rHSVQ1. Cytokine gene expression array revealed that RAMBO significantly altered the macrophage inflammatory response to infected glioma cells via altered secretion of TNFα. Furthermore, we showed that BAI1 mediated macrophage TNFα induction in response to oHSV therapy. Intracranial inoculation of wild-type/RAMBO virus in Bai1(-/-) or wild-type non-tumor-bearing mice revealed the safety of this approach.Conclusions: We have uncovered a new role for BAI1 in facilitating macrophage anti-viral responses. We show that arming oHSV with antiangiogenic Vstat120 also shields them from inflammatory macrophage antiviral response, without reducing safety. Clin Cancer Res; 23(7); 1809-19. ©2016 AACR.

  4. Galectin-3 promotes caspase-independent cell death of HIV-1-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jing; Fu, Chunyan; Cong, Zhe; Peng, Lingjuan; Peng, Zhuoying; Chen, Ting; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Hong; Wei, Qiang; Qin, Chuan

    2017-01-01

    HIV-1-infected macrophages are a key contributor to the formation of a viral reservoir and new treatment strategies focus on eliminating this pool of virus. Galectin-3 is a potent apoptosis-inducing protein that regulates diverse cellular activities. In the present study, we investigated whether galectin-3 could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected macrophages using HIV-1-infected THP1 monocytes (THP1-MNs) and THP1-derived macrophages (THP1-MΦs) as in vitro cellular models. We found that THP1-MΦs were more resistant than the THP1-MNs to HIV-1 infection-induced death, and that HIV-1 infection of the THP1-MΦs increased expression of the anti-apoptotic proteins Mcl-1, Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. Additionally, galectin-3 but not FasL, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand or TNF-α, could induce cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs. A similar result was shown for primary human monocyte-derived macrophages. Galectin-3-induced cell death was also significantly increased in macrophages obtained from SIVmac251-infected macaques compared to that of macrophages from healthy macaques. Furthermore, galectin-3-induced cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs was caspase independent. Interestingly, endonuclease G (Endo G) was increased in the nucleus and decreased in the cytoplasm of galectin-3-treated cells; thus, galectin-3-induced cell death in HIV-1-infected THP1-MΦs is most likely related to the translocation of Endo G from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. These findings suggest that galectin-3 may potentially aid in the eradication of HIV-1/SIV-infected macrophages.

  5. Toxoplasma gondii Chitinase Induces Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Almeida, Fausto; Sardinha-Silva, Aline; da Silva, Thiago Aparecido; Pessoni, André Moreira; Pinzan, Camila Figueiredo; Alegre-Maller, Ana Claudia Paiva; Cecílio, Nerry Tatiana; Moretti, Nilmar Silvio; Damásio, André Ricardo Lima; Pedersoli, Wellington Ramos; Mineo, José Roberto; Silva, Roberto Nascimento; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite found worldwide that is able to chronically infect almost all vertebrate species, especially birds and mammalians. Chitinases are essential to various biological processes, and some pathogens rely on chitinases for successful parasitization. Here, we purified and characterized a chitinase from T. gondii. The enzyme, provisionally named Tg_chitinase, has a molecular mass of 13.7 kDa and exhibits a Km of 0.34 mM and a Vmax of 2.64. The optimal environmental conditions for enzymatic function were at pH 4.0 and 50°C. Tg_chitinase was immunolocalized in the cytoplasm of highly virulent T. gondii RH strain tachyzoites, mainly at the apical extremity. Tg_chitinase induced macrophage activation as manifested by the production of high levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, a pathogenic hallmark of T. gondii infection. In conclusion, to our knowledge, we describe for the first time a chitinase of T. gondii tachyzoites and provide evidence that this enzyme might influence the pathogenesis of T. gondii infection. PMID:26659253

  6. The Many Alternative Faces of Macrophage Activation.

    PubMed

    Hume, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens. They also initiate acquired immunity by processing and presenting antigens and provide the downstream effector functions. Analysis of large gene expression datasets from multiple cells and tissues reveals sets of genes that are co-regulated with the transcription factors that regulate them. In macrophages, the gene clusters include lineage-specific genes, interferon-responsive genes, early inflammatory genes, and genes required for endocytosis and lysosome function. Macrophages enter tissues and alter their function to deal with a wide range of challenges related to development and organogenesis, tissue injury, malignancy, sterile, or pathogenic inflammatory stimuli. These stimuli alter the gene expression to produce "activated macrophages" that are better equipped to eliminate the cause of their influx and to restore homeostasis. Activation or polarization states of macrophages have been classified as "classical" and "alternative" or M1 and M2. These proposed states of cells are not supported by large-scale transcriptomic data, including macrophage-associated signatures from large cancer tissue datasets, where the supposed markers do not correlate with other. Individual macrophage cells differ markedly from each other, and change their functions in response to doses and combinations of agonists and time. The most studied macrophage activation response is the transcriptional cascade initiated by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. This response is reviewed herein. The network topology is conserved across species, but genes within the transcriptional network evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. There is also considerable divergence in the sets of target genes between mouse strains, between individuals, and in other species such as pigs. The deluge of complex information related to macrophage activation can be accessed with new analytical tools and new databases that provide

  7. Low-oxygen tensions found in Salmonella-infected gut tissue boost Salmonella replication in macrophages by impairing antimicrobial activity and augmenting Salmonella virulence.

    PubMed

    Jennewein, Jonas; Matuszak, Jasmin; Walter, Steffi; Felmy, Boas; Gendera, Kathrin; Schatz, Valentin; Nowottny, Monika; Liebsch, Gregor; Hensel, Michael; Hardt, Wolf-Dietrich; Gerlach, Roman G; Jantsch, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    In Salmonella infection, the Salmonella pathogenicity island-2 (SPI-2)-encoded type three secretion system (T3SS2) is of key importance for systemic disease and survival in host cells. For instance, in the streptomycin-pretreated mouse model SPI-2-dependent Salmonella replication in lamina propria CD11c(-)CXCR1(-) monocytic phagocytes/macrophages (MΦ) is required for the development of colitis. In addition, containment of intracellular Salmonella in the gut critically depends on the antimicrobial effects of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase (PHOX), and possibly type 2 nitric oxide synthase (NOS2). For both antimicrobial enzyme complexes, oxygen is an essential substrate. However, the amount of available oxygen upon enteroinvasive Salmonella infection in the gut tissue and its impact on Salmonella-MΦ interactions was unknown. Therefore, we measured the gut tissue oxygen levels in a model of Salmonella enterocolitis using luminescence two-dimensional in vivo oxygen imaging. We found that gut tissue oxygen levels dropped from ∼78 Torr (∼11% O2) to values of ∼16 Torr (∼2% O2) during infection. Because in vivo virulence of Salmonella depends on the Salmonella survival in MΦ, Salmonella-MΦ interaction was analysed under such low oxygen values. These experiments revealed an increased intracellular replication and survival of wild-type and t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella. These findings were paralleled by blunted nitric oxide and reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and reduced Salmonella ROS perception. In addition, hypoxia enhanced SPI-2 transcription and translocation of SPI-2-encoded virulence protein. Neither pharmacological blockade of PHOX and NOS2 nor impairment of T3SS2 virulence function alone mimicked the effect of hypoxia on Salmonella replication under normoxic conditions. However, if t3ss2 non-expressing Salmonella were used, hypoxia did not further enhance Salmonella recovery in a PHOX and NOS2-deficient situation. Hence, these data suggest that

  8. Micro RNA in Exosomes from HIV-Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Roth, William W; Huang, Ming Bo; Addae Konadu, Kateena; Powell, Michael D; Bond, Vincent C

    2015-12-22

    Exosomes are small membrane-bound vesicles secreted by cells that function to shuttle RNA and proteins between cells. To examine the role of exosomal micro RNA (miRNA) during the early stage of HIV-1 infection we characterized miRNA in exosomes from HIV-infected macrophages, compared with exosomes from non-infected macrophages. Primary human monocytes from uninfected donors were differentiated to macrophages (MDM) which were either mock-infected or infected with the macrophage-tropic HIV-1 BaL strain. Exosomes were recovered from culture media and separated from virus particles by centrifugation on iodixanol density gradients. The low molecular weight RNA fraction was prepared from purified exosomes. After pre-amplification, RNA was hybridized to microarrays containing probes for 1200 miRNA species of known and unknown function. We observed 48 miRNA species in both infected and uninfected MDM exosomes. Additionally, 38 miRNAs were present in infected-cell exosomes but not uninfected-cell exosomes. Of these, 13 miRNAs were upregulated in exosomes from HIV-infected cells, including 4 miRNA species that were increased by more than 10-fold. Though numerous miRNA species have been identified in HIV-infected cells, relatively little is known about miRNA content in exosomes from these cells. In the future, we plan to investigate whether the upregulated miRNA species we identified are increased in exosomes from HIV-1-positive patients.

  9. Stimulation of PBMC and Monocyte-Derived Macrophages via Toll-Like Receptor Activates Innate Immune Pathways in HIV-Infected Patients on Virally Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Merlini, Esther; Tincati, Camilla; Biasin, Mara; Saulle, Irma; Cazzaniga, Federico Angelo; d’Arminio Monforte, Antonella; Cappione, Amedeo J.; Snyder-Cappione, Jennifer; Clerici, Mario; Marchetti, Giulia Carla

    2016-01-01

    In HIV-infected, combination antiretroviral therapy (cART)-treated patients, immune activation and microbial translocation persist and associate with inadequate CD4 recovery and morbidity/mortality. We analyzed whether alterations in the toll-like receptor (TLR) pathway could be responsible for the immune hyperactivation seen in these patients. PBMC/monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) of 28 HIV+ untreated and 35 cART-treated patients with HIV-RNA < 40 cp/mL [20 Full Responders (FRs): CD4 ≥ 350; 15 Immunological Non-Responders (INRs): CD4 < 350], as well as of 16 healthy controls were stimulated with a panel of TLR agonists. We measured: CD4/CD8/CD14/CD38/HLA-DR/Ki67/AnnexinV/CD69/TLR4/8 (Flow Cytometry); PBMC expression of 84 TLR pathway genes (qPCR); PBMC/MDM cytokine release (Multiplex); and plasma lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/sCD14 (LAL/ELISA). PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded weakly to LPS stimulation but released high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. MDM from these patients were characterized by a reduced expression of HLA-DR+ MDM and failed to expand activated HLA-DR+ CD38+ T-lymphocytes. PBMC/MDM from cART patients responded more robustly to ssRNA stimulation; this resulted in a significant expansion of activated CD38 + CD8 and the release of amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines comparable to those seen in untreated viremic patients. Despite greater constitutive TLR pathway gene expression, PBMC from INRs seemed to upregulate only type I IFN genes following TLR stimulation, whereas PBMC from full responders showed a broader response. Systemic exposure to microbial antigens drives immune activation during cART by triggering TLRs. Bacterial stimulation modifies MDM function/pro-inflammatory profile in cART patients without affecting T-lymphocytes; this suggests translocating bacteria as selective stimulus to chronic innate activation during cART. High constitutive TLR activation is seen in patients lacking CD4 recovery, suggesting

  10. Role of Macrophages in the Repair Process during the Tissue Migrating and Resident Helminth Infections

    PubMed Central

    Faz-López, Berenice

    2016-01-01

    The Th1/Th2/Th17 balance is a fundamental feature in the regulation of the inflammatory microenvironment during helminth infections, and an imbalance in this paradigm greatly contributes to inflammatory disorders. In some cases of helminthiasis, an initial Th1 response could occur during the early phases of infection (acute), followed by a Th2 response that prevails in chronic infections. During the late phase of infection, alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are important to counteract the inflammation caused by the Th1/Th17 response and larval migration, limiting damage and repairing the tissue affected. Macrophages are the archetype of phagocytic cells, with the primary role of pathogen destruction and antigen presentation. Nevertheless, other subtypes of macrophages have been described with important roles in tissue repair and immune regulation. These types of macrophages challenge the classical view of macrophages activated by an inflammatory response. The role of these subtypes of macrophages during helminthiasis is a controversial topic in immunoparasitology. Here, we analyze some of the studies regarding the role of AAMs in tissue repair during the tissue migration of helminths. PMID:27648452

  11. TREM-2 promotes macrophage survival and lung disease after respiratory viral infection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Kangyun; Byers, Derek E; Jin, Xiaohua; Agapov, Eugene; Alexander-Brett, Jennifer; Patel, Anand C; Cella, Marina; Gilfilan, Susan; Colonna, Marco; Kober, Daniel L; Brett, Tom J; Holtzman, Michael J

    2015-05-04

    Viral infections and type 2 immune responses are thought to be critical for the development of chronic respiratory disease, but the link between these events needs to be better defined. Here, we study a mouse model in which infection with a mouse parainfluenza virus known as Sendai virus (SeV) leads to long-term activation of innate immune cells that drive IL-13-dependent lung disease. We find that chronic postviral disease (signified by formation of excess airway mucus and accumulation of M2-differentiating lung macrophages) requires macrophage expression of triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-2 (TREM-2). Analysis of mechanism shows that viral replication increases lung macrophage levels of intracellular and cell surface TREM-2, and this action prevents macrophage apoptosis that would otherwise occur during the acute illness (5-12 d after inoculation). However, the largest increases in TREM-2 levels are found as the soluble form (sTREM-2) long after clearance of infection (49 d after inoculation). At this time, IL-13 and the adapter protein DAP12 promote TREM-2 cleavage to sTREM-2 that is unexpectedly active in preventing macrophage apoptosis. The results thereby define an unprecedented mechanism for a feed-forward expansion of lung macrophages (with IL-13 production and consequent M2 differentiation) that further explains how acute infection leads to chronic inflammatory disease.

  12. Experimental infection of murine and human macrophages with Cystoisospora belli.

    PubMed

    Resende, Deisy V; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Assis, Dnieber C; Prata, Aluízio; Oliveira-Silva, Márcia B

    2009-08-01

    Extraintestinal cystoisosporosis by Cystoisospora belli has already been reported in HIV/AIDS patients, generally involving preferential invasion of mesenteric and trachaeobronchial lymph nodes, liver and spleen by unizoic cysts of this parasite, which may infect macrophages. To test this hypothesis, murine and human macrophages were exposed to sporozoites of C. belli and cultures were observed daily after contact with these cells. The parasites penetrated and multiplied by endodyogeny in both cell types and inserted themselves inside perinuclear vacuoles. After 48 h, extracellular parasites were removed from macrophage cultures and incubated in Monkey Kidney Rhesus cells (MK2) where there was intense multiplication. This is the first report of infection of macrophages by this parasite, which supports the hypothesis that these could act as C. belli host cells in extraintestinal sites.

  13. Myeloid Growth Factors Promote Resistance to Mycobacterial Infection by Curtailing Granuloma Necrosis through Macrophage Replenishment.

    PubMed

    Pagán, Antonio J; Yang, Chao-Tsung; Cameron, James; Swaim, Laura E; Ellett, Felix; Lieschke, Graham J; Ramakrishnan, Lalita

    2015-07-08

    The mycobacterial ESX-1 virulence locus accelerates macrophage recruitment to the forming tuberculous granuloma. Newly recruited macrophages phagocytose previously infected apoptotic macrophages to become new bacterial growth niches. Granuloma macrophages can then necrose, releasing mycobacteria into the extracellular milieu, which potentiates their growth even further. Using zebrafish with genetic or pharmacologically induced macrophage deficiencies, we find that global macrophage deficits increase susceptibility to mycobacterial infection by accelerating granuloma necrosis. This is because reduction in the macrophage supply below a critical threshold decreases granuloma macrophage replenishment to the point where apoptotic infected macrophages, failing to get engulfed, necrose. Reducing macrophage demand by removing bacterial ESX-1 offsets the susceptibility of macrophage deficits. Conversely, increasing macrophage supply in wild-type fish by overexpressing myeloid growth factors induces resistance by curtailing necrosis. These findings may explain the susceptibility of humans with mononuclear cytopenias to mycobacterial infections and highlight the therapeutic potential of myeloid growth factors in tuberculosis.

  14. Chronic filarial infection provides protection against bacterial sepsis by functionally reprogramming macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gondorf, Fabian; Berbudi, Afiat; Buerfent, Benedikt C; Ajendra, Jesuthas; Bloemker, Dominique; Specht, Sabine; Schmidt, David; Neumann, Anna-Lena; Layland, Laura E; Hoerauf, Achim; Hübner, Marc P

    2015-01-01

    Helminths immunomodulate their hosts and induce a regulatory, anti-inflammatory milieu that prevents allergies and autoimmune diseases. Helminth immunomodulation may benefit sepsis outcome by preventing exacerbated inflammation and severe pathology, but the influence on bacterial clearance remains unclear. To address this, mice were chronically infected with the filarial nematode Litomosoides sigmodontis (L.s.) and the outcome of acute systemic inflammation caused by i.p. Escherichia coli injection was determined. L.s. infection significantly improved E. coli-induced hypothermia, bacterial clearance and sepsis survival and correlated with reduced concentrations of associated pro-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines and a less pronounced pro-inflammatory macrophage gene expression profile. Improved sepsis outcome in L.s.-infected animals was mediated by macrophages, but independent of the alternatively activated macrophage subset. Endosymbiotic Wolbachia bacteria that are present in most human pathogenic filariae, as well as L.s., signal via TLR2 and modulate macrophage function. Here, gene expression profiles of peritoneal macrophages from L.s.-infected mice revealed a downregulation of genes involved in TLR signaling, and pulsing of macrophages in vitro with L.s. extract reduced LPS-triggered activation. Subsequent transfer improved sepsis outcome in naïve mice in a Wolbachia- and TLR2-dependent manner. In vivo, phagocytosis was increased in macrophages from L.s.-infected wild type, but not TLR2-deficient animals. In association, L.s. infection neither improved bacterial clearance in TLR2-deficient animals nor ameliorated E. coli-induced hypothermia and sepsis survival. These results indicate that chronic L.s. infection has a dual beneficial effect on bacterial sepsis, reducing pro-inflammatory immune responses and improving bacterial control. Thus, helminths and their antigens may not only improve the outcome of autoimmune and allergic diseases, but may also

  15. The Many Alternative Faces of Macrophage Activation

    PubMed Central

    Hume, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens. They also initiate acquired immunity by processing and presenting antigens and provide the downstream effector functions. Analysis of large gene expression datasets from multiple cells and tissues reveals sets of genes that are co-regulated with the transcription factors that regulate them. In macrophages, the gene clusters include lineage-specific genes, interferon-responsive genes, early inflammatory genes, and genes required for endocytosis and lysosome function. Macrophages enter tissues and alter their function to deal with a wide range of challenges related to development and organogenesis, tissue injury, malignancy, sterile, or pathogenic inflammatory stimuli. These stimuli alter the gene expression to produce “activated macrophages” that are better equipped to eliminate the cause of their influx and to restore homeostasis. Activation or polarization states of macrophages have been classified as “classical” and “alternative” or M1 and M2. These proposed states of cells are not supported by large-scale transcriptomic data, including macrophage-associated signatures from large cancer tissue datasets, where the supposed markers do not correlate with other. Individual macrophage cells differ markedly from each other, and change their functions in response to doses and combinations of agonists and time. The most studied macrophage activation response is the transcriptional cascade initiated by the TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide. This response is reviewed herein. The network topology is conserved across species, but genes within the transcriptional network evolve rapidly and differ between mouse and human. There is also considerable divergence in the sets of target genes between mouse strains, between individuals, and in other species such as pigs. The deluge of complex information related to macrophage activation can be accessed with new analytical tools and new databases

  16. Tacaribe Virus but Not Junin Virus Infection Induces Cytokine Release from Primary Human Monocytes and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Groseth, Allison; Hoenen, Thomas; Weber, Michaela; Wolff, Svenja; Herwig, Astrid; Kaufmann, Andreas; Becker, Stephan

    2011-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying the development of disease during arenavirus infection are poorly understood. However, common to all hemorrhagic fever diseases is the involvement of macrophages as primary target cells, suggesting that the immune response in these cells may be of paramount importance during infection. Thus, in order to identify features of the immune response that contribute to arenavirus pathogenesis, we have examined the growth kinetics and cytokine profiles of two closely related New World arenaviruses, the apathogenic Tacaribe virus (TCRV) and the hemorrhagic fever-causing Junin virus (JUNV), in primary human monocytes and macrophages. Both viruses grew robustly in VeroE6 cells; however, TCRV titres were decreased by approximately 10 fold compared to JUNV in both monocytes and macrophages. Infection of both monocytes and macrophages with TCRV also resulted in the release of high levels of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF-α, while levels of IFN-α, IFN-β and IL-12 were not affected. However, we could show that the presence of these cytokines had no direct effect on growth of either TCRV of JUNV in macrophages. Further analysis also showed that while the production of IL-6 and IL-10 are dependent on viral replication, production of TNF-α also occurs after exposure to UV-inactivated TCRV particles and is thus independent of productive virus infection. Surprisingly, JUNV infection did not have an effect on any of the cytokines examined indicating that, in contrast to other viral hemorrhagic fever viruses, macrophage-derived cytokine production is unlikely to play an active role in contributing to the cytokine dysregulation observed in JUNV infected patients. Rather, these results suggest that an early, controlled immune response by infected macrophages may be critical for the successful control of infection of apathogenic viruses and prevention of subsequent disease, including systemic cytokine dysregulation. PMID:21572983

  17. HIV infection of macrophages is enhanced in the presence of increased expression of CD163 induced by substance P.

    PubMed

    Tuluc, Florin; Meshki, John; Spitsin, Sergei; Douglas, Steven D

    2014-07-01

    Activation of NK1R by SP contributes to increased HIV-1 infection in macrophages. The scavenger receptor CD163 is expressed on cells of monocyte-macrophage origin. Our main goal was to determine if there is interplay among SP, CD163 expression, and HIV infection in macrophages. We showed that SP triggers intracellular calcium elevation and increased CD163 expression in human monocytes in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The role of CD163 on HIV infection was examined by RT-PCR in sorted monocytes (CD163(low) and CD163(high)) and in macrophages having CD163 knocked down using siRNA. We found that the productivity of HIV infection was higher in CD163(high) cells. Additionally, in macrophages with CD163 expression knocked down, we found a significant decrease of HIV infection. Furthermore, Hb-Hp complexes, which function as an endogenous ligand for CD163, decreased HIV infection in macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Thus, we demonstrate that SP induces higher levels of CD163 in monocytes and that high expression of CD163 is associated with increases HIV infection in macrophages. Thus, in addition to being a prognostic marker of HIV infection, the expression of CD163 on macrophages may be critical in HIV immunopathogenesis.

  18. Vitamin D induces interleukin-1β expression: paracrine macrophage epithelial signaling controls M. tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Verway, Mark; Bouttier, Manuella; Wang, Tian-Tian; Carrier, Marilyn; Calderon, Mario; An, Beum-Soo; Devemy, Emmanuelle; McIntosh, Fiona; Divangahi, Maziar; Behr, Marcel A; White, John H

    2013-01-01

    Although vitamin D deficiency is a common feature among patients presenting with active tuberculosis, the full scope of vitamin D action during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is poorly understood. As macrophages are the primary site of Mtb infection and are sites of vitamin D signaling, we have used these cells to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying modulation of the immune response by the hormonal form of vitamin D, 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). We found that the virulent Mtb strain H37Rv elicits a broad host transcriptional response. Transcriptome profiling also revealed that the profile of target genes regulated by 1,25D is substantially altered by infection, and that 1,25D generally boosts infection-stimulated cytokine/chemokine responses. We further focused on the role of 1,25D- and infection-induced interleukin 1β (IL-1β) expression in response to infection. 1,25D enhanced IL-1β expression via a direct transcriptional mechanism. Secretion of IL-1β from infected cells required the NLRP3/caspase-1 inflammasome. The impact of IL-1β production was investigated in a novel model wherein infected macrophages were co-cultured with primary human small airway epithelial cells. Co-culture significantly prolonged survival of infected macrophages, and 1,25D/infection-induced IL-1β secretion from macrophages reduced mycobacterial burden by stimulating the anti-mycobacterial capacity of co-cultured lung epithelial cells. These effects were independent of 1,25D-stimulated autophagy in macrophages but dependent upon epithelial IL1R1 signaling and IL-1β-driven epithelial production of the antimicrobial peptide DEFB4/HBD2. These data provide evidence that the anti-microbial actions of vitamin D extend beyond the macrophage by modulating paracrine signaling, reinforcing its role in innate immune regulation in humans.

  19. Production of MMP-9 and inflammatory cytokines by Trypanosoma cruzi-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    de Pinho, Rosa Teixeira; da Silva, Wellington Seguins; de Castro Côrtes, Luzia Monteiro; da Silva Vasconcelos Sousa, Periela; de Araujo Soares, Renata Oliveira; Alves, Carlos Roberto

    2014-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) constitute a large family of Zn(2+) and Ca(2+) dependent endopeptidases implicated in tissue remodeling and chronic inflammation. MMPs also play key roles in the activation of growth factors, chemokines and cytokines produced by many cell types, including lymphocytes, granulocytes, and, in particular, activated macrophages. Their synthesis and secretion appear to be important in a number of physiological processes, including the inflammatory process. Here, we investigated the interaction between human and mouse macrophages with T. cruzi Colombian and Y strains to characterize MMP-9 and cytokine production in this system. Supernatants and total extract of T. cruzi infected human and mouse macrophages were obtained and used to assess MMP-9 profile and inflammatory cytokines. The presence of metalloproteinase activity was determined by zymography, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and immunoblotting assays. The effect of cytokines on MMP-9 production in human macrophages was verified by previous incubation of cytokines on these cells in culture, and analyzed by zymography. We detected an increase in MMP-9 production in the culture supernatants of T. cruzi infected human and mouse macrophages. The addition of IL-1β or TNF-α to human macrophage cultures increased MMP-9 production. In contrast, MMP-9 production was down-modulated when human macrophage cultures were treated with IFN-γ or IL-4 before infection. Human macrophages infected with T. cruzi Y or Colombian strains produced increased levels of MMP-9, which was related to the production of cytokines such as IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6.

  20. IL-27 inhibits HIV-1 infection in human macrophages by down-regulating host factor SPTBN1 during monocyte to macrophage differentiation.

    PubMed

    Dai, Lue; Lidie, Kristy B; Chen, Qian; Adelsberger, Joseph W; Zheng, Xin; Huang, DaWei; Yang, Jun; Lempicki, Richard A; Rehman, Tauseef; Dewar, Robin L; Wang, Yanmei; Hornung, Ronald L; Canizales, Kelsey A; Lockett, Stephen J; Lane, H Clifford; Imamichi, Tomozumi

    2013-03-11

    The susceptibility of macrophages to HIV-1 infection is modulated during monocyte differentiation. IL-27 is an anti-HIV cytokine that also modulates monocyte activation. In this study, we present new evidence that IL-27 promotes monocyte differentiation into macrophages that are nonpermissive for HIV-1 infection. Although IL-27 treatment does not affect expression of macrophage differentiation markers or macrophage biological functions, it confers HIV resistance by down-regulating spectrin β nonerythrocyte 1 (SPTBN1), a required host factor for HIV-1 infection. IL-27 down-regulates SPTBN1 through a TAK-1-mediated MAPK signaling pathway. Knockdown of SPTBN1 strongly inhibits HIV-1 infection of macrophages; conversely, overexpression of SPTBN1 markedly increases HIV susceptibility of IL-27-treated macrophages. Moreover, we demonstrate that SPTBN1 associates with HIV-1 gag proteins. Collectively, our results underscore the ability of IL-27 to protect macrophages from HIV-1 infection by down-regulating SPTBN1, thus indicating that SPTBN1 is an important host target to reduce HIV-1 replication in one major element of the viral reservoir.

  1. The mannose receptor mediates dengue virus infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Miller, Joanna L; de Wet, Barend J M; deWet, Barend J M; Martinez-Pomares, Luisa; Radcliffe, Catherine M; Dwek, Raymond A; Rudd, Pauline M; Gordon, Siamon

    2008-02-08

    Macrophages (MØ) and mononuclear phagocytes are major targets of infection by dengue virus (DV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that can cause haemorrhagic fever in humans. To our knowledge, we show for the first time that the MØ mannose receptor (MR) binds to all four serotypes of DV and specifically to the envelope glycoprotein. Glycan analysis, ELISA, and blot overlay assays demonstrate that MR binds via its carbohydrate recognition domains to mosquito and human cell-produced DV antigen. This binding is abrogated by deglycosylation of the DV envelope glycoprotein. Surface expression of recombinant MR on NIH3T3 cells confers DV binding. Furthermore, DV infection of primary human MØ can be blocked by anti-MR antibodies. MR is a prototypic marker of alternatively activated MØ, and pre-treatment of human monocytes or MØ with type 2 cytokines (IL-4 or IL-13) enhances their susceptibility to productive DV infection. Our findings indicate a new functional role for the MR in DV infection.

  2. IFN-λ Inhibits Drug-Resistant HIV Infection of Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Wang, He; Liu, Man-Qing; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Run-Hong; Zhou, Yu; Wang, Yi-Zhong; Zhou, Wang; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2017-01-01

    Type III interferons (IFN-λs) have been demonstrated to inhibit a number of viruses, including HIV. Here, we further examined the anti-HIV effect of IFN-λs in macrophages. We found that IFN-λs synergistically enhanced anti-HIV activity of antiretrovirals [azidothymidine (AZT), efavirenz, indinavir, and enfuvirtide] in infected macrophages. Importantly, IFN-λs could suppress HIV infection of macrophages with the drug-resistant strains, including AZT-resistant virus (A012) and reverse transcriptase inhibitor-resistant virus (TC49). Mechanistically, IFN-λs were able to induce the expression of several important anti-HIV cellular factors, including myxovirus resistance 2 (Mx2), a newly identified HIV post-entry inhibitor and tetherin, a restriction factor that blocks HIV release from infected cells. These observations provide additional evidence to support the potential use of IFN-λs as therapeutics agents for the treatment of HIV infection. PMID:28321215

  3. A subunit vaccine based on rH-NS induces protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection by inducing the Th1 immune response and activating macrophages.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuan; Chen, Suting; Pan, Bowen; Guan, Zhu; Yang, Zhenjun; Duan, Linfei; Cai, Hong

    2016-10-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) is a Gram-positive pathogen which causes tuberculosis in both animals and humans. All tested rH-NS formulations induced a specific Th1 response, as indicated by increased production of interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin 2 (IL-2) by lymphocytes in the spleen of mice which were immunized with rH-NS alone or with rH-NS and the adjuvant cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP). Serum from mice immunized with rH-NS with or without adjuvant also had higher levels of IL-12p40 and TNF-α, compared with those from control mice immunized with phosphate-buffered saline. Both vaccines increased protective efficacy in mice which were challenged with Mtb H37Rv, as measured by reduced relative CFU counts in the lungs. We found that rH-NS induced the production of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-12p40, which relied on the activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases by stimulating the rapid phosphorylation of ERK1/2, p38, and JNK, and on the activation of transcription factor NF-κB in macrophages. Additionally, we also found that rH-NS could interact with TLR2 but not TLR4 in pull-down assays. The rH-NS-induced cytokine production from TLR2-silenced RAW264.7 cells was lower than that from BALB/c macrophages. Prolonged exposure (>24 h) of RAW264.7 cells to rH-NS resulted in a significant enhancement in IFN-γ-induced MHC II expression, which was not found in shTLR2-treated RAW264.7 cells. These results suggest that rH-NS is a TLR2 agonist which induces the production of cytokines by macrophages and up-regulates macrophage function.

  4. HIV-1-infected macrophages induce astrogliosis by SDF-1{alpha} and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Mika; Wang, Xin; Baba, Masanori . E-mail: baba@m.kufm.kagoshima-u.ac.jp

    2005-11-04

    Brain macrophages/microglia and astrocytes are known to be involved in the pathogenesis of HIV-1-associated dementia (HAD). To clarify their interaction and contribution to the pathogenesis, HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages were used as a model of brain macrophages/microglia, and their effects on human astrocytes in vitro were examined. The culture supernatants of HIV-1-infected or uninfected macrophages induced significant astrocyte proliferation, which was annihilated with a neutralizing antibody to stromal cell-derived factor (SDF)-1{alpha} or a matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor. In these astrocytes, CXCR4, MMP, and tissue inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinase mRNA expression and SDF-1{alpha} production were significantly up-regulated. The supernatants of infected macrophages were always more effective than those of uninfected cells. Moreover, the enhanced production of SDF-1{alpha} was suppressed by the MMP inhibitor. These results indicate that the activated and HIV-1-infected macrophages can indirectly induce astrocyte proliferation through up-regulating SDF-1{alpha} and MMP production, which implies a mechanism of astrogliosis in HAD.

  5. Iron modulates the replication of virulent Mycobacterium bovis in resting and activated bovine and possum macrophages.

    PubMed

    Denis, Michel; Buddle, Bryce M

    2005-09-15

    Bovine and possum macrophages were infected in vitro with a virulent strain of Mycobacterium bovis, and mycobacterial replication was measured in the infected macrophages cultured under a variety of conditions. Virulent M. bovis replicated substantially in alveolar possum macrophages as well as in bovine blood monocyte-derived macrophages. Addition of recombinant bovine interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) with low concentrations of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) rendered bovine macrophages significantly more resistant to M. bovis replication. Disruption of iron levels in infected macrophages by addition of apotransferrin or bovine lactoferrin blocked replication of M. bovis in both bovine and possum macrophages. On the other hand, addition of exogenous iron, either in the form of iron citrate or iron-saturated transferrin, rendered macrophages of both species much more permissive for the replication of M. bovis. The impact of iron deprivation/loading on the mycobacteriostatic activity of cells was independent of nitric-oxide release, as well as independent of the generation of oxygen radical species in both possum and bovine macrophages. Exogenous iron was shown to reverse the ability of IFN-gamma/LPS pulsed bovine macrophages to restrict M. bovis replication. When autologous possum lymphocytes from animals vaccinated with M. bovis strain BCG were added to infected macrophages, they rendered the macrophages less permissive for virulent M. bovis replication. Loading the cells with iron prior to this macrophage-lymphocyte interaction, reversed this immune effect induced by sensitized cells. We conclude that, in two important animal species, intracellular iron level plays an important role in M. bovis replication in macrophages, irrespective of their activation status.

  6. Chlamydia muridarum infection of macrophages elicits bactericidal nitric oxide production via reactive oxygen species and cathepsin B.

    PubMed

    Rajaram, Krithika; Nelson, David E

    2015-08-01

    The ability of certain species of Chlamydia to inhibit the biogenesis of phagolysosomes permits their survival and replication within macrophages. The survival of macrophage-adapted chlamydiae correlates with the multiplicity of infection (MOI), and optimal chlamydial growth occurs in macrophages infected at an MOI of ≤1. In this study, we examined the replicative capacity of Chlamydia muridarum in the RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cell line at different MOIs. C. muridarum productively infected these macrophages at low MOIs but yielded few viable elementary bodies (EBs) when macrophages were infected at a moderate (10) or high (100) MOI. While high MOIs caused cytotoxicity and irreversible host cell death, macrophages infected at a moderate MOI did not show signs of cytotoxicity until late in the infectious cycle. Inhibition of host protein synthesis rescued C. muridarum in macrophages infected at a moderate MOI, implying that chlamydial growth was blocked by activated defense mechanisms. Conditioned medium from these macrophages was antichlamydial and contained elevated levels of interleukin 1β (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, and beta interferon (IFN-β). Macrophage activation depended on Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling, and cytokine production required live, transcriptionally active chlamydiae. A hydroxyl radical scavenger and inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cathepsin B also reversed chlamydial killing. High levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) led to an increase in cathepsin B activity, and pharmacological inhibition of ROS and cathepsin B reduced iNOS expression. Our data demonstrate that MOI-dependent TLR2 activation of macrophages results in iNOS induction via a novel ROS- and cathepsin-dependent mechanism to facilitate C. muridarum clearance.

  7. Role of macrophages in early host resistance to respiratory Acinetobacter baumannii infection.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hongyu; KuoLee, Rhonda; Harris, Greg; Van Rooijen, Nico; Patel, Girishchandra B; Chen, Wangxue

    2012-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is an emerging bacterial pathogen that causes nosocomial pneumonia and other infections. Although it is recognized as an increasing threat to immunocompromised patients, the mechanism of host defense against A. baumannii infection remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined the potential role of macrophages in host defense against A. baumannii infection using in vitro macrophage culture and the mouse model of intranasal (i.n.) infection. Large numbers of A. baumannii were taken up by alveolar macrophages in vivo as early as 4 h after i.n. inoculation. By 24 h, the infection induced significant recruitment and activation (enhanced expression of CD80, CD86 and MHC-II) of macrophages into bronchoalveolar spaces. In vitro cell culture studies showed that A. baumannii were phagocytosed by J774A.1 (J774) macrophage-like cells within 10 minutes of co-incubation, and this uptake was microfilament- and microtubule-dependent. Moreover, the viability of phagocytosed bacteria dropped significantly between 24 and 48 h after co-incubation. Infection of J774 cells by A. baumannii resulted in the production of large amounts of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and moderate amounts of nitric oxide (NO). Prior treatment of J774 cells with NO inhibitors significantly suppressed their bactericidal efficacy (P<0.05). Most importantly, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages significantly enhanced the susceptibility of mice to i.n. A. baumannii challenge (P<0.01). These results indicate that macrophages may play an important role in early host defense against A. baumannii infection through the efficient phagocytosis and killing of A. baumannii to limit initial pathogen replication and the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines for the rapid recruitment of other innate immune cells such as neutrophils.

  8. Effect of mercuric chloride on macrophage-mediated resistance mechanisms against infection with herpes simplex virus type 2.

    PubMed

    Ellermann-Eriksen, S; Christensen, M M; Mogensen, S C

    1994-11-11

    Macrophages play an important role in the early, nonspecific resistance to infection with herpes simplex virus. Mercuric chloride (HgCl2) accumulates in macrophages and has in certain concentrations a marked influence on the functional capacity of these cells. Therefore the influence of HgCl2 on resistance to generalized infection with herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) in mice and its effect on the HSV-2-induced activation of macrophages in vitro was examined. Mice injected intraperitoneally with HgCl2 24 h before infection with HSV-2 had more than 100 times higher virus titres in the liver 4 days after infection than mice not receiving any mercury. HgCl2 exerted a toxic effect on macrophages in vitro, which was especially pronounced during their adherence. Macrophages infected with HSV-2 were activated for an enhanced respiratory burst. This activation was abolished by treatment of the cells for 24 h with relatively low concentrations of HgCl2, resulting in macrophages with a potential to react with a respiratory burst comparable to that of uninfected cells. The HSV-2-induced activation of macrophages is mediated through the production and synergistic interaction of interferon-alpha/beta and tumour necrosis factor-alpha in an autocrine manner. The ability of these cytokines to activate macrophages and to interact synergistically was not affected by mercury. However the production by macrophages of both cytokines during the HSV-2 infection, but especially interferon-alpha/beta, which is essential for the activation, was reduced at low concentrations of HgCl2. Collectively these data indicate that mercury, by interfering with the early macrophage-production of cytokines, disables the early control of virus replication, leading to an enhanced infection.

  9. Macrophage Folate Receptor-Targeted Antiretroviral Therapy Facilitates Drug Entry, Retention, Antiretroviral Activities and Biodistribution for Reduction of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    Puligujja, Pavan; McMillan, JoEllyn; Kendrick, Lindsey; Li, Tianyuzi; Balkundi, Shantanu; Smith, Nathan; Veerubhotla, Ram S.; Edagwa, Benson J.; Kabanov, Alexander V.; Bronich, Tatiana; Gendelman, Howard E.; Liu, Xin-Ming

    2013-01-01

    Macrophages serve as vehicles for the carriage and delivery of polymer-coated nanoformulated antiretroviral therapy (nanoART). Although superior to native drug, high drug concentrations are required for viral inhibition. Herein, folate-modified atazanavir/ritonavir (ATV/r)-encased polymers facilitated macrophage receptor targeting for optimizing drug dosing. Folate coating of nanoART ATV/r significantly enhanced cell uptake, retention and antiretroviral activities without altering cell viability. Enhanced retentions of folate-coated nanoART within recycling endosomes provided a stable subcellular drug depot. Importantly, five-fold enhanced plasma and tissue drug levels followed folate-coated formulation injection in mice. Folate polymer encased ATV/r improves nanoART pharmacokinetics bringing the technology one step closer to human use. PMID:23680933

  10. Passive transfer of interferon-γ over-expressing macrophages enhances resistance of SCID mice to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection.

    PubMed

    Pasula, Rajamouli; Martin, William J; Kesavalu, Banu Rekha; Abdalla, Maher Y; Britigan, Bradley E

    2017-02-23

    Infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) is associated with increased deaths worldwide. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) play a critical role in host defense against infection with this pathogen. In this work we tested the hypothesis that passive transfer of normal AMs, IFN-γ activated AMs, or macrophages transduced to over-express IFN-γ into the lungs of immunosuppressed SCID mice, where resident macrophages are present but not functional, would enhance alveolar immunity and increase clearance of pulmonary M.tb infection. Accordingly, SCID mice were infected with M.tb intratracheally (I.T.), following which they received either control macrophages or macrophages overexpressing IFN-γ (J774A.1). The extent of M.tb infection was assessed at 30days post-M.tb infection. SCID mice administered macrophages over-expressing IFN-γ showed a significant decrease in M.tb burden and increased survival compared to J774A.1 control macrophages or untreated mice. This was further associated with a significant increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α mRNA and protein expression, as well as NF-κB (p65) mRNA, in the lungs. The increase in IFN-γ and TNF-α lung levels was inversely proportional to the number of M.tb organisms recovered. These results provide evidence that administration of macrophages overexpressing IFN-γ inhibit M.tb growth in vivo and may enhance host defense against M.tb infection.

  11. Neutrophils and macrophages cooperate in host resistance against Leishmania braziliensis infection.

    PubMed

    Novais, Fernanda O; Santiago, Rômulo C; Báfica, André; Khouri, Ricardo; Afonso, Lilian; Borges, Valéria M; Brodskyn, Cláudia; Barral-Netto, Manoel; Barral, Aldina; de Oliveira, Camila I

    2009-12-15

    Neutrophils play an active role in the control of infections caused by intracellular pathogens such as Leishmania. In the present study, we investigated the effect of neutrophil depletion at the time of Leishmania braziliensis infection of BALB/c mice and how neutrophils interact with the infected macrophage to promote parasite elimination. The in vivo depletion of neutrophils led to a significant increase in parasite load and enhanced the Th1-Th2 immune response in this experimental model of infection. BALB/c mice coinoculated with both parasites and live neutrophils displayed lower parasite burdens at the site of infection and in the draining lymph nodes. In vitro, we observed that live neutrophils significantly reduced the parasite load in L. braziliensis-infected murine macrophages, an effect not observed with Leishmania major. L. braziliensis elimination was dependent on the interaction between neutrophils and macrophages and was associated with TNF-alpha as well as superoxide production. Furthermore, cooperation between neutrophils and macrophages toward parasite elimination was also observed in experiments performed with L. braziliensis-infected human cells and, importantly, with two other New World Leishmania species. These results indicate that neutrophils play an important and previously unappreciated role in L. braziliensis infection, favoring the induction of a protective immune response.

  12. mTORC2 signalling regulates M2 macrophage differentiation in response to helminth infection and adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Hallowell, R. W.; Collins, S. L.; Craig, J. M.; Zhang, Y.; Oh, M.; Illei, P. B.; Chan-Li, Y.; Vigeland, C. L.; Mitzner, W.; Scott, A. L.; Powell, J. D.; Horton, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    Alternatively activated macrophages (M2) have an important function in innate immune responses to parasitic helminths, and emerging evidence also indicates these cells are regulators of systemic metabolism. Here we show a critical role for mTORC2 signalling in the generation of M2 macrophages. Abrogation of mTORC2 signalling in macrophages by selective conditional deletion of the adaptor molecule Rictor inhibits the generation of M2 macrophages while leaving the generation of classically activated macrophages (M1) intact. Selective deletion of Rictor in macrophages prevents M2 differentiation and clearance of a parasitic helminth infection in mice, and also abrogates the ability of mice to regulate brown fat and maintain core body temperature. Our findings define a role for mTORC2 in macrophages in integrating signals from the immune microenvironment to promote innate type 2 immunity, and also to integrate systemic metabolic and thermogenic responses. PMID:28128208

  13. Perivascular macrophages mediate neutrophil recruitment during bacterial skin infection

    PubMed Central

    Abtin, Arby; Jain, Rohit; Mitchell, Andrew J.; Roediger, Ben; Brzoska, Anthony J.; Tikoo, Shweta; Cheng, Qiang; Ng, Lai Guan; Cavanagh, Lois L.; von Andrian, Ulrich H.; Hickey, Michael J.; Firth, Neville; Weninger, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Transendothelial migration of neutrophils in post-capillary venules is a key event in the inflammatory response against pathogens and tissue damage. The precise regulation of this process is incompletely understood. We report that perivascular macrophages are critical for neutrophil migration into skin infected with the pathogen Staphylococcus aureus. Using multiphoton intravital microscopy we show that neutrophils extravasate from inflamed dermal venules in close proximity to perivascular macrophages, which are a major source of neutrophil chemoattractants. The virulence factor alpha-hemolysin lyses perivascular macrophages leading to decreased neutrophil transmigration. Our data illustrate a previously unrecognized role for perivascular macrophages in neutrophil recruitment to inflamed skin, and indicate that Staphylococcus aureus uses hemolysin-dependent killing of these cells as an immune evasion strategy. PMID:24270515

  14. Forkhead Box O1 Regulates Macrophage Polarization Following Staphylococcus aureus Infection: Experimental Murine Data and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chen; Ma, Hong-Di; Yin, Xue-Ying; Wang, Yin-Hu; Liu, Qing-Zhi; Yang, Jing-Bo; Shi, Qing-Hua; Sun, Baolin; Gershwin, M Eric; Lian, Zhe-Xiong

    2016-12-01

    The functions of macrophages that lead to effective host responses are critical for protection against Staphylococcus aureus. Deep tissue-invading S. aureus initially countered by macrophages trigger macrophage accumulation and induce inflammatory responses through surface receptors, especially toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2). Here, we found that macrophages formed sporadic aggregates in the liver during infection. Within those aggregates, macrophages co-localized with T cells and were indispensable for their infiltration. In addition, we have focused on the mechanisms underlying the polarization of macrophages in Forkhead box transcription factor O1 (FoxO1) conditional knockout Lys (Cre/+) FoxO1 (fl/fl) mice following S. aureus infection and report herein that macrophage M1-M2 polarization via TLR2 is intrinsically regulated by FoxO1. Indeed, for effective FoxO1 activity, stimulation of TLR2 is essential. However, following S. aureus challenge, there was a decrease in macrophage FoxO1, with increased phosphorylation of FoxO1 because of TLR2-mediated activation of PI3K/Akt and c-Raf/MEK/ERK pathway. Following infection in Lys (Cre/+) FoxO1 (fl/fl) mice, mice became more susceptible to S. aureus with reduced macrophage aggregation in the liver and attenuated Th1 and Th17 responses. FoxO1 abrogation reduced M1 pro-inflammatory responses triggered by S. aureus and enhanced M2 polarization in macrophages. In contrast, overexpression of FoxO1 in macrophages increased pro-inflammatory mediators and functional surface molecule expression. In conclusion, macrophage FoxO1 is critical to promote M1 polarization and maintain a competent T cell immune response against S. aureus infection in the liver. FoxO1 regulates macrophage M1-M2 polarization downstream of TLR2 dynamically through phosphorylation.

  15. Akt1-mediated regulation of macrophage polarization in a murine model of Staphylococcus aureus pulmonary infection.

    PubMed

    Xu, Feng; Kang, Yanhua; Zhang, Hang; Piao, Zhenghao; Yin, Hongping; Diao, Ran; Xia, Jingyan; Shi, Liyun

    2013-08-01

    Macrophage polarization is critical for dictating host defense against pathogens and injurious agents. Dysregulation of macrophage differentiation has been implicated in infectious and inflammatory diseases. Here, we show that protein kinase B/Akt1 signaling induced by Staphylococcus aureus is essential in shifting macrophages from an antimicrobial phenotype (M1) to a functionally inert signature. Akt1(-/-)mice consistently had enhanced bacterial clearance and greater survival, compared with their wild-type littermates. The blunted M1 macrophage reaction driven by Akt1 was associated with decreased RelA/nuclear factor κB activity. Furthermore, by repression of the expression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), microRNA 155 revealed to promote the transcription of M1 signature genes in macrophages from Akt1(-/-) mice. Accordingly, blocking of microRNA 155 in macrophages from Akt1(-/-)mice or knockdown of SOCS1 in cells from wild-type mice disabled or enabled, respectively, an M1 macrophage shift and antibacterial response. These results thus establish an Akt1-mediated, microRNA-involved circuit that regulates pathogen-driven macrophage polarization and, subsequently, the host response to infection.

  16. STAT1 signaling within macrophages is required for antifungal activity against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Leopold Wager, Chrissy M; Hole, Camaron R; Wozniak, Karen L; Olszewski, Michal A; Mueller, Mathias; Wormley, Floyd L

    2015-12-01

    Cryptococcus neoformans, the predominant etiological agent of cryptococcosis, is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that primarily affects AIDS patients and patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy. In immunocompromised individuals, C. neoformans can lead to life-threatening meningoencephalitis. Studies using a virulent strain of C. neoformans engineered to produce gamma interferon (IFN-γ), denoted H99γ, demonstrated that protection against pulmonary C. neoformans infection is associated with the generation of a T helper 1 (Th1)-type immune response and signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1)-mediated classical (M1) macrophage activation. However, the critical mechanism by which M1 macrophages mediate their anti-C. neoformans activity remains unknown. The current studies demonstrate that infection with C. neoformans strain H99γ in mice with macrophage-specific STAT1 ablation resulted in severely increased inflammation of the pulmonary tissue, a dysregulated Th1/Th2-type immune response, increased fungal burden, deficient M1 macrophage activation, and loss of protection. STAT1-deficient macrophages produced significantly less nitric oxide (NO) than STAT1-sufficient macrophages, correlating with an inability to control intracellular cryptococcal proliferation, even in the presence of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Furthermore, macrophages from inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout mice, which had intact ROS production, were deficient in anticryptococcal activity. These data indicate that STAT1 activation within macrophages is required for M1 macrophage activation and anti-C. neoformans activity via the production of NO.

  17. Quantitation of Productively Infected Monocytes and Macrophages of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Macaques

    PubMed Central

    Avalos, Claudia R.; Price, Sarah L.; Forsyth, Ellen R.; Pin, Julia N.; Shirk, Erin N.; Bullock, Brandon T.; Queen, Suzanne E.; Li, Ming; Gellerup, Dane; O'Connor, Shelby L.; Zink, M. Christine; Mankowski, Joseph L.; Gama, Lucio

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a lifelong infection because of latent viral reservoirs in infected patients. The contribution of CD4+ T cells to infection and disease progression has been extensively studied. However, during early HIV infection, macrophages in brain and other tissues are infected and contribute to tissue-specific diseases, such as encephalitis and dementia in brain and pneumonia in lung. The extent of infection of monocytes and macrophages has not been rigorously assessed with assays comparable to those used to study infection of CD4+ T cells and to evaluate the number of CD4+ T cells that harbor infectious viral genomes. To assess the contribution of productively infected monocytes and macrophages to HIV- and simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells in vivo, we developed a quantitative virus outgrowth assay (QVOA) based on similar assays used to quantitate CD4+ T cell latent reservoirs in HIV- and SIV-infected individuals in whom the infection is suppressed by ART. Myeloid cells expressing CD11b were serially diluted and cocultured with susceptible cells to amplify virus. T cell receptor β RNA was measured as a control to assess the potential contribution of CD4+ T cells in the assay. Virus production in the supernatant was quantitated by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR. Productively infected myeloid cells were detected in blood, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, lungs, spleen, and brain, demonstrating that these cells persist throughout SIV infection and have the potential to contribute to the viral reservoir during ART. IMPORTANCE Infection of CD4+ T cells and their role as latent reservoirs have been rigorously assessed; however, the frequency of productively infected monocytes and macrophages in vivo has not been similarly studied. Myeloid cells, unlike lymphocytes, are resistant to the cytopathic effects of HIV. Moreover, tissue

  18. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pre-treatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pre-treatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pre-treatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from a M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia, and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Nanotoxicology screening strategies

  19. Dysregulation of Macrophage Activation Profiles by Engineered Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Kodali, Vamsi; Littke, Matthew H.; Tilton, Susan C.; Teeguarden, Justin G.; Shi, Liang; Frevert, Charles W.; Wang, Wei; Pounds, Joel G.; Thrall, Brian D.

    2013-08-27

    Although the potential human health impacts from exposure to engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) are uncertain, past epidemiological studies have established correlations between exposure to ambient air pollution particulates and the incidence of pneumonia and lung infections. Using amorphous silica and superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as model high production volume ENPs, we examined how macrophage activation by bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or the lung pathogen Streptococcus pneumoniae is altered by ENP pretreatment. Neither silica nor SPIO treatment elicited direct cytotoxic or pro-inflammatory effects in bone marrow-derived macrophages. However, pretreatment of macrophages with SPIO caused extensive reprogramming of nearly 500 genes regulated in response to LPS challenge, hallmarked by exaggerated activation of oxidative stress response pathways and suppressed activation of both pro- and anti-inflammatory pathways. Silica pretreatment altered regulation of only 67 genes, but there was strong correlation with gene sets affected by SPIO. Macrophages exposed to SPIO displayed a phenotype suggesting an impaired ability to transition from an M1 to M2-like activation state, characterized by suppressed IL-10 induction, enhanced TNFα production, and diminished phagocytic activity toward S. pneumoniae. Studies in macrophages deficient in scavenger receptor A (SR-A) showed SR-A participates in cell uptake of both the ENPs and S. pneumonia and co-regulates the anti-inflammatory IL-10 pathway. Thus, mechanisms for dysregulation of innate immunity exist by virtue that common receptor recognition pathways are used by some ENPs and pathogenic bacteria, although the extent of transcriptional reprogramming of macrophage function depends on the physicochemical properties of the ENP after internalization. Our results also illustrate that biological effects of ENPs may be indirectly manifested only after challenging normal cell function. Finally, nanotoxicology screening

  20. Changes in lymphocyte and macrophage subsets due to morphine and ethanol treatment during a retrovirus infection causing murine AIDS

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, R.R.; Prabhala, R.H.; Darban, H.R.; Yahya, M.D.; Smith, T.L.

    1988-01-01

    The number of lymphocytes of various subsets were not significantly changed by the ethanol exposure except those showing activation markers which were reduced. The percentage of peripheral blood cells showing markers for macrophage functions and their activation were significantly reduced after binge use of ethanol. Ethanol retarded suppression of cells by retroviral infection. However by 25 weeks of infection there was a 8.6% survival in the ethanol fed mice infected with retrovirus which was much less than virally infected controls. Morphine treatment also increased the percentage of cells with markers for macrophages and activated macrophages in virally infected mice, while suppressing them in uninfected mice. The second and third morphine injection series suppressed lymphocyte T-helper and T-suppressor cells, but not total T cells. However, suppression by morphine was significantly less during retroviral disease than suppression caused by the virus only. At 25 weeks of infection 44.8% of morphine treated, infected mice survived.

  1. A hot water extract of Aralia cordata activates bone marrow-derived macrophages via a myeloid differentiation protein 88-dependent pathway and protects mice from bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Seo, Dong-Won; Cho, Yong-Il; Gu, Suna; Kim, Da-Hee; Park, Jung-Hee; Yi, Young-Joo; Lee, Sang-Myeong

    2016-05-01

    In traditional Asian medicine, Aralia cordata (AC) is a known as a pain reliever and anti-inflammatory drug. Although several of its biological activities have been reported, the immunomodulatory effects of a hot water extract of AC (HAC) have not yet been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether HAC modulates the activation of macrophages, which play important roles in innate immune responses against microbial pathogens, and if so, to determine the molecular mechanisms by which HAC mediates this process. It was found that HAC activates bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDM) and increases amounts of nitric oxide and proinflammatory cytokines in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, HAC was found to induce phosphorylation of NF-κB and mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including c-Jun N-terminal kinases, extracellular signal-regulated kinases and p38. Interestingly, these effects were absent in BMDM prepared from myeloid differentiation protein 88-knockout mice. Polysaccharides from HAC exerted stronger immunostimulatory effects than HAC itself. Furthermore, orally administered HAC clearly enhanced clearance of the intracellular pathogen Listeria monocytogenes by boosting innate immune responses. These results demonstrate that HAC exerts immunostimulatory effects through the TLR/MyD88 and NF-κB/MAPK signal transduction pathways.

  2. Asc-Dependent and Independent Mechanisms Contribute to Restriction of Legionella Pneumophila Infection in Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Abdelaziz, Dalia H. A.; Gavrilin, Mikhail A.; Akhter, Anwari; Caution, Kyle; Kotrange, Sheetal; Khweek, Arwa Abu; Abdulrahman, Basant A.; Hassan, Zeinab A.; El-Sharkawi, Fathia Z.; Bedi, Simranjit S.; Ladner, Katherine; Gonzalez-Mejia, M. Elba; Doseff, Andrea I.; Mostafa, Mahmoud; Kanneganti, Thirumala-Devi; Guttridge, Dennis; Marsh, Clay B.; Wewers, Mark D.; Amer, Amal O.

    2010-01-01

    The apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase recruitment domain (Asc) is an adaptor molecule that mediates inflammatory and apoptotic signals. Legionella pneumophila is an intracellular bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaire's pneumonia. L. pneumophila is able to cause pneumonia in immuno-compromised humans but not in most inbred mice. Murine macrophages that lack the ability to activate caspase-1, such as caspase-1−/− and Nlrc4−/− allow L. pneumophila infection. This permissiveness is attributed mainly to the lack of active caspase-1 and the absence of its down stream substrates such as caspase-7. However, the role of Asc in control of L. pneumophila infection in mice is unclear. Here we show that caspase-1 is moderately activated in Asc−/− macrophages and that this limited activation is required and sufficient to restrict L. pneumophila growth. Moreover, Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 requires bacterial flagellin and is mainly detected in cellular extracts but not in culture supernatants. We also demonstrate that the depletion of Asc from permissive macrophages enhances bacterial growth by promoting L. pneumophila-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway and decreasing caspase-3 activation. Taken together, our data demonstrate that L. pneumophila infection in murine macrophages is controlled by several mechanisms: Asc-independent activation of caspase-1 and Asc-dependent regulation of NF-κB and caspase-3 activation. PMID:21713115

  3. Dynamics of Salmonella infection of macrophages at the single cell level.

    PubMed

    Gog, Julia R; Murcia, Alicia; Osterman, Natan; Restif, Olivier; McKinley, Trevelyan J; Sheppard, Mark; Achouri, Sarra; Wei, Bin; Mastroeni, Pietro; Wood, James L N; Maskell, Duncan J; Cicuta, Pietro; Bryant, Clare E

    2012-10-07

    Salmonella enterica causes a range of diseases. Salmonellae are intracellular parasites of macrophages, and the control of bacteria within these cells is critical to surviving an infection. The dynamics of the bacteria invading, surviving, proliferating in and killing macrophages are central to disease pathogenesis. Fundamentally important parameters, however, such as the cellular infection rate, have not previously been calculated. We used two independent approaches to calculate the macrophage infection rate: mathematical modelling of Salmonella infection experiments, and analysis of real-time video microscopy of infection events. Cells repeatedly encounter salmonellae, with the bacteria often remain associated with the macrophage for more than ten seconds. Once Salmonella encounters a macrophage, the probability of that bacterium infecting the cell is remarkably low: less than 5%. The macrophage population is heterogeneous in terms of its susceptibility to the first infection event. Once infected, a macrophage can undergo further infection events, but these reinfection events occur at a lower rate than that of the primary infection.

  4. Chronic hepatitis C infection–induced liver fibrogenesis is associated with M2 macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Bility, Moses T.; Nio, Kouki; Li, Feng; McGivern, David R.; Lemon, Stanley M.; Feeney, Eoin R.; Chung, Raymond T.; Su, Lishan

    2016-01-01

    The immuno-pathogenic mechanisms of chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection remain to be elucidated and pose a major hurdle in treating or preventing chronic HCV-induced advanced liver diseases such as cirrhosis. Macrophages are a major component of the inflammatory milieu in chronic HCV–induced liver disease, and are generally derived from circulating inflammatory monocytes; however very little is known about their role in liver diseases. To investigate the activation and role of macrophages in chronic HCV–induced liver fibrosis, we utilized a recently developed humanized mouse model with autologous human immune and liver cells, human liver and blood samples and cell culture models of monocyte/macrophage and/or hepatic stellate cell activation. We showed that M2 macrophage activation was associated with liver fibrosis during chronic HCV infection in the livers of both humanized mice and patients, and direct-acting antiviral therapy attenuated M2 macrophage activation and associated liver fibrosis. We demonstrated that supernatant from HCV-infected liver cells activated human monocytes/macrophages with M2-like phenotypes. Importantly, HCV-activated monocytes/macrophages promoted hepatic stellate cell activation. These results suggest a critical role for M2 macrophage induction in chronic HCV-associated immune dysregulation and liver fibrosis. PMID:28000758

  5. Role of activated macrophages in experimental Fusarium solani keratitis.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jianzhang; Hu, Yingfeng; Chen, Shikun; Dong, Chenhuan; Zhang, Jingjin; Li, Yanling; Yang, Juan; Han, Xiaoli; Zhu, Xuejun; Xu, Guoxing

    2014-12-01

    Macrophages under the conjunctival tissue are the first line defender cells of the corneas. Elimination of these cells would lead to aggravation of fungal keratitis. To determine how the course of fungal keratitis would be altered after the activation of these macrophages, a murine model was achieved by intrastromal instillation of latex beads before the corneas were infected with Fusarium solani. The keratitis was observed and clinically scored daily. Infected corneas were homogenized for colony counts. The levels of the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS cytokines were measured in the corneas using real-time polymerase chain reactions and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes in the corneas, submaxillary lymph nodes and peripheral blood were detected using immunohistochemistry and flow cytometry, respectively. The latex bead-treated mice exhibited aggravated keratitis. Substantially increased macrophage and polymorphonuclear leukocyte infiltration was detected in the corneas, although few colonies were observed. There was a marked increase in the IL-12, IL-4, MPO, MIF and iNOS expression in the corneas. The numbers of CD3+, CD4+ and CD8+ lymphocytes and the CD4+/CD8+ ratio were significantly enhanced in the corneas and submaxillary lymph nodes. However, the number of CD4+ lymphocytes was decreased in the peripheral blood, while the number of CD8+ lymphocytes increased. Collectively, our data demonstrate that the activation of macrophages in the cornea may cause an excessive immune response. Macrophages appear to play a critical role in regulating the immune response to corneal infections with F. solani.

  6. Macrophages expressing arginase 1 and nitric oxide synthase 2 accumulate in the small intestine during Giardia lamblia infection.

    PubMed

    Maloney, Jenny; Keselman, Aleksander; Li, Erqiu; Singer, Steven M

    2015-06-01

    Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to inhibit Giardia lamblia in vitro and in vivo. This study sought to determine if Giardia infection induces arginase 1 (ARG1) expression in host macrophages to reduce NO production. Stimulations of RAW 264.7 macrophage-like cells with Giardia extract induced arginase activity. Real-time PCR and immunohistochemistry showed increased ARG1 and nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in mouse intestine following infection. Flow cytometry demonstrated increased numbers of macrophages positive for both ARG1 and NOS2 in lamina propria following infection, but there was no evidence of increased expression of ARG1 in these cells.

  7. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling

    PubMed Central

    Covarrubias, Anthony J.; Aksoylar, H. Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies. PMID:26360589

  8. Control of macrophage metabolism and activation by mTOR and Akt signaling.

    PubMed

    Covarrubias, Anthony J; Aksoylar, H Ibrahim; Horng, Tiffany

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are pleiotropic cells that assume a variety of functions depending on their tissue of residence and tissue state. They maintain homeostasis as well as coordinate responses to stresses such as infection and metabolic challenge. The ability of macrophages to acquire diverse, context-dependent activities requires their activation (or polarization) to distinct functional states. While macrophage activation is well understood at the level of signal transduction and transcriptional regulation, the metabolic underpinnings are poorly understood. Importantly, emerging studies indicate that metabolic shifts play a pivotal role in control of macrophage activation and acquisition of context-dependent effector activities. The signals that drive macrophage activation impinge on metabolic pathways, allowing for coordinate control of macrophage activation and metabolism. Here we discuss how mTOR and Akt, major metabolic regulators and targets of such activation signals, control macrophage metabolism and activation. Dysregulated macrophage activities contribute to many diseases, including infectious, inflammatory, and metabolic diseases and cancer, thus a better understanding of metabolic control of macrophage activation could pave the way to the development of new therapeutic strategies.

  9. Chemokine receptor 2-mediated accumulation of fungicidal exudate macrophages in mice that clear cryptococcal lung infection.

    PubMed

    Osterholzer, John J; Chen, Gwo-Hsiao; Olszewski, Michal A; Zhang, Yan-Mei; Curtis, Jeffrey L; Huffnagle, Gary B; Toews, Galen B

    2011-01-01

    Clearance of pulmonary infection with the fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans is associated with the accumulation and activation of lung macrophages. However, the phenotype of these macrophages and the mechanisms contributing to their accumulation are not well-defined. In this study, we used an established murine model of cryptococcal lung infection and flow cytometric analysis to identify alveolar macrophages (AMs) and the recently described exudate macrophages (ExMs). Exudate macrophages are distinguished from AMs by their strong expression of CD11b and major histocompatibility complex class II and modest expression of costimulatory molecules. Exudate macrophages substantially outnumber AMs during the effector phase of the immune response; and accumulation of ExMs, but not AMs, was chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2) dependent and attributable to the recruitment and subsequent differentiation of Ly-6C(high) monocytes originating from the bone marrow and possibly the spleen. Peak ExM accumulation in wild-type (CCR2(+/+)) mice coincided with maximal lung expression of mRNA for inducible nitric oxide synthase and correlated with the known onset of cryptococcal clearance in this strain of mice. Exudate macrophages purified from infected lungs displayed a classically activated effector phenotype characterized by cryptococcal-enhanced production of inducible nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor α. Cryptococcal killing by bone marrow-derived ExMs was CCR2 independent and superior to that of AMs. We conclude that clearance of cryptococcal lung infection requires the CCR2-mediated massive accumulation of fungicidal ExMs derived from circulating Ly-6C(high) monocytes.

  10. Role of macrophages in the altered epithelial function during a type 2 immune response induced by enteric nematode infection.

    PubMed

    Notari, Luigi; Riera, Diana C; Sun, Rex; Bohl, Jennifer A; McLean, Leon P; Madden, Kathleen B; van Rooijen, Nico; Vanuytsel, Tim; Urban, Joseph F; Zhao, Aiping; Shea-Donohue, Terez

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic enteric nematodes induce a type 2 immune response characterized by increased production of Th2 cytokines, IL-4 and IL-13, and recruitment of alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to the site of infection. Nematode infection is associated with changes in epithelial permeability and inhibition of sodium-linked glucose absorption, but the role of M2 in these effects is unknown. Clodronate-containing liposomes were administered prior to and during nematode infection to deplete macrophages and prevent the development of M2 in response to infection with Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. The inhibition of epithelial glucose absorption that is associated with nematode infection involved a macrophage-dependent reduction in SGLT1 activity, with no change in receptor expression, and a macrophage-independent down-regulation of GLUT2 expression. The reduced transport of glucose into the enterocyte is compensated partially by an up-regulation of the constitutive GLUT1 transporter consistent with stress-induced activation of HIF-1α. Thus, nematode infection results in a "lean" epithelial phenotype that features decreased SGLT1 activity, decreased expression of GLUT2 and an emergent dependence on GLUT1 for glucose uptake into the enterocyte. Macrophages do not play a role in enteric nematode infection-induced changes in epithelial barrier function. There is a greater contribution, however, of paracellular absorption of glucose to supply the energy demands of host resistance. These data provide further evidence of the ability of macrophages to alter glucose metabolism of neighboring cells.

  11. Alu repeats as transcriptional regulatory platforms in macrophage responses to M. tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Bouttier, Manuella; Laperriere, David; Memari, Babak; Mangiapane, Joseph; Fiore, Amanda; Mitchell, Eric; Verway, Mark; Behr, Marcel A.; Sladek, Robert; Barreiro, Luis B.; Mader, Sylvie; White, John H.

    2016-01-01

    To understand the epigenetic regulation of transcriptional response of macrophages during early-stage M. tuberculosis (Mtb) infection, we performed ChIPseq analysis of H3K4 monomethylation (H3K4me1), a marker of poised or active enhancers. De novo H3K4me1 peaks in infected cells were associated with genes implicated in host defenses and apoptosis. Our analysis revealed that 40% of de novo regions contained human/primate-specific Alu transposable elements, enriched in the AluJ and S subtypes. These contained several transcription factor binding sites, including those for members of the MEF2 and ATF families, and LXR and RAR nuclear receptors, all of which have been implicated in macrophage differentiation, survival, and responses to stress and infection. Combining bioinformatics, molecular genetics, and biochemical approaches, we linked genes adjacent to H3K4me1-associated Alu repeats to macrophage metabolic responses against Mtb infection. In particular, we show that LXRα signaling, which reduced Mtb viability 18-fold by altering cholesterol metabolism and enhancing macrophage apoptosis, can be initiated at response elements present in Alu repeats. These studies decipher the mechanism of early macrophage transcriptional responses to Mtb, highlighting the role of Alu element transposition in shaping human transcription programs during innate immunity. PMID:27604870

  12. Rickettsia australis Activates Inflammasome in Human and Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Smalley, Claire; Bechelli, Jeremy; Rockx-Brouwer, Dedeke; Saito, Tais; Azar, Sasha R.; Ismail, Nahed; Walker, David H.; Fang, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Rickettsiae actively escape from vacuoles and replicate free in the cytoplasm of host cells, where inflammasomes survey the invading pathogens. In the present study, we investigated the interactions of Rickettsia australis with the inflammasome in both mouse and human macrophages. R. australis induced a significant level of IL-1β secretion by human macrophages, which was significantly reduced upon treatment with an inhibitor of caspase-1 compared to untreated controls, suggesting caspase-1-dependent inflammasome activation. Rickettsia induced significant secretion of IL-1β and IL-18 in vitro by infected mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMMs) as early as 8–12 h post infection (p.i.) in a dose-dependent manner. Secretion of these cytokines was accompanied by cleavage of caspase-1 and was completely abrogated in BMMs deficient in caspase-1/caspase-11 or apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a caspase activation and recruitment domain (ASC), suggesting that R. australis activate the ASC-dependent inflammasome. Interestingly, in response to the same quantity of rickettsiae, NLRP3-/- BMMs significantly reduced the secretion level of IL-1β compared to wild type (WT) controls, suggesting that NLRP3 inflammasome contributes to cytosolic recognition of R. australis in vitro. Rickettsial load in spleen, but not liver and lung, of R. australis-infected NLRP3-/- mice was significantly greater compared to WT mice. These data suggest that NLRP3 inflammasome plays a role in host control of bacteria in vivo in a tissue-specific manner. Taken together, our data, for the first time, illustrate the activation of ASC-dependent inflammasome by R. australis in macrophages in which NLRP3 is involved. PMID:27362650

  13. Transcriptional and Linkage Analyses Identify Loci that Mediate the Differential Macrophage Response to Inflammatory Stimuli and Infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Musa A; Jensen, Kirk D; Butty, Vincent; Hu, Kenneth; Boedec, Erwan; Prins, Pjotr; Saeij, Jeroen P J

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages display flexible activation states that range between pro-inflammatory (classical activation) and anti-inflammatory (alternative activation). These macrophage polarization states contribute to a variety of organismal phenotypes such as tissue remodeling and susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory diseases. Several macrophage- or immune-related genes have been shown to modulate infectious and inflammatory disease pathogenesis. However, the potential role that differences in macrophage activation phenotypes play in modulating differences in susceptibility to infectious and inflammatory disease is just emerging. We integrated transcriptional profiling and linkage analyses to determine the genetic basis for the differential murine macrophage response to inflammatory stimuli and to infection with the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. We show that specific transcriptional programs, defined by distinct genomic loci, modulate macrophage activation phenotypes. In addition, we show that the difference between AJ and C57BL/6J macrophages in controlling Toxoplasma growth after stimulation with interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha mapped to chromosome 3, proximal to the Guanylate binding protein (Gbp) locus that is known to modulate the murine macrophage response to Toxoplasma. Using an shRNA-knockdown strategy, we show that the transcript levels of an RNA helicase, Ddx1, regulates strain differences in the amount of nitric oxide produced by macrophage after stimulation with interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor. Our results provide a template for discovering candidate genes that modulate macrophage-mediated complex traits.

  14. Cytotoxic mechanism of cytolethal distending toxin in nontyphoidal Salmonella serovar (Salmonella Javiana) during macrophage infection.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katherine; Gokulan, Kuppan; Shelman, Diamond; Akiyama, Tatsuya; Khan, Ashraf; Khare, Sangeeta

    2015-02-01

    Cytolethal distending toxin B (cdtB) is a conserved virulence factor in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi. Here we report the presence and functionality of cdtB in some nontyphoidal Salmonella (NTS) serovars, including Salmonella Javiana (cdtB+wt S. Javiana), isolated from imported food. To understand the role of cdtB in NTS serovars, a deletion mutant (cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana) was constructed. Macrophages were infected with cdtB+wt S. Javiana (wild type), cdtB(-)Δ S. Javiana (mutant), and cdtB-negative NTS serovar (S. Typhimurium). Cytotoxic activity and transcription level of genes involved in cell death (apoptosis, autophagy, and necrosis) were assessed in infected macrophages. The cdtB+wt S. Javiana caused cellular distension as well as high degree of vacuolization and presence of the autophagosome marker LC3 in infected macrophages as compared with cdtB(-)ΔS. Javiana. The mRNA expression of genes involved in the induction of autophagy in response to toxin (Esr1 and Pik3C3) and coregulators of autophagy and apoptosis (Bax and Cyld) were significantly upregulated in cdtB(+)wt S. Javiana-infected macrophages. As autophagy destroys internalized pathogens in addition to the infected cell, it may reduce the spread of infection.

  15. Susceptibility of mouse macrophage J774 to dengue virus infection.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Altamirano, María M B; Sánchez-García, F Javier; Legorreta-Herrera, Martha; Aguilar-Carmona, Israel

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the J774 mouse macrophage cell line could be used as an in vitro model for dengue virus infection (DENV). After 3 days, infection in J774 cells was assessed by detecting dengue virus non-structural protein 1 (NSP-1) production either by dot blot or indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) of saponine-permeabilized J774 cells and then confirmed by RT-PCR (171 bp product, corresponding to the DENV-2 core). Based on the presence of NSP-1 in infected but not in non-infected cells by both IFA and dot blot, as well as the amplification of a 171-bp DENV-2-specific RT-PCR product exclusively in the infected cells, the J774 cell line was found to be permissive for dengue virus infection. As far as we know, this is the first report that the J774 mouse macrophage cell line is infected with dengue virus and, thus, that it can be used as an alternative in vitro model for dengue virus infection studies. This finding could help to further elucidate the mechanisms involved in dengue virus infection and pathogenesis.

  16. Investigating the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type One-Infected Monocyte-Derived Macrophage Secretome

    PubMed Central

    Ciborowski, Pawel; Kadiu, Irena; Rozek, Wojciech; Smith, Lynette; Bernhardt, Kristen; Fladseth, Melissa; Ricardo-Dukelow, Mary; Gendelman, Howard E.

    2007-01-01

    Mononuclear phagocytes (bone marrow monocyte-derived macrophages, alveolar macrophages, perivascular macrophages, and microglia) are reservoirs and vehicles of dissemination for the human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1). How virus alters mononuclear phagocyte immunoregulatory activities to complete its life cycle and influence disease is incompletely understood. In attempts to better understanding the influence of virus on macrophage functions, we used one-dimensional electrophoresis, and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to analyze the secretome of HIV-1 infected human monocyte-derived macrophages. We identified 111 proteins in culture supernatants of control (uninfected) and virus-infected cells. Differentially expressed cytoskeletal, enzymes, redox, and immunoregulatory protein classes were discovered and validated by Western-blot tests. These included, but were not limited to, cystatin C, cystatin B, chitinase 3-like 1 protein, cofilin-1, L-plastin, superoxide dismutase, leukotriene A4 hydrolase, and α-enolase. This study, through the use of a unique proteomics platform, provides novel insights into virus-host cell interactions that affect the functional role of macrophages in HIV disease. PMID:17320137

  17. Ubiquitination by SAG regulates macrophage survival/death and immune response during infection.

    PubMed

    Chang, S C; Ding, J L

    2014-09-01

    The checkpoint between the life and death of macrophages is crucial for the host's frontline immune defense during acute phase infection. However, the mechanism as to how the immune cell equilibrates between apoptosis and immune response is unclear. Using in vitro and ex vivo approaches, we showed that macrophage survival is synchronized by SAG (sensitive to apoptosis gene), which is a key member of the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). When challenged by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), we observed a reciprocal expression profile of pro- and antiapoptotic factors in macrophages. However, SAG knockdown disrupted this balance. Further analysis revealed that ubiquitination of Bax and SARM (sterile α- and HEAT/armadillo-motif-containing protein) by SAG-UPS confers survival advantage to infected macrophages. SAG knockdown caused the accumulation of proapoptotic Bax and SARM, imbalance of Bcl-2/Bax in the mitochondria, induction of cytosolic cytochrome c and activation of caspase-9 and -3, all of which led to disequilibrium between life and death of macrophages. In contrast, SAG-overexpressing macrophages challenged with PAMPs exhibited upregulation of protumorigenic cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α), and downregulation of antitumorigenic cytokine (IL-12p40) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10). This suggests that SAG-dependent UPS is a key switch between immune defense and apoptosis or immune overactivation and tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results indicate that SAG-UPS facilitates a timely and appropriate level of immune response, prompting future development of potential immunomodulators of SAG-UPS.

  18. Modulation of Stat-1 in Human Macrophages Infected with Different Species of Intracellular Pathogenic Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Dominici, Sabrina; Rinaldi, Laura; Cangiano, Alfonsina Mariarosaria; Brandi, Giorgio; Magnani, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The infection of human macrophages by pathogenic bacteria induces different signaling pathways depending on the type of cellular receptors involved in the microorganism entry and on their mechanism(s) of survival and replication in the host cell. It was reported that Stat proteins play an important role in this process. In the present study, we investigate the changes in Stat-1 activation (phosphorylation in p-tyr701) after uptake of two Gram-positive (Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus) and two Gram-negative bacteria (Salmonella typhimurium and Legionella pneumophila) characterized by their varying abilities to enter, survive, and replicate in human macrophages. Comparing the results obtained with Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria, Stat-1 activation in macrophages does not seem to be related to LPS content. The p-tyr701Stat-1 expression levels were found to be independent of the internalized bacterial number and IFN-γ release. On the contrary, Jak/Stat-1 pathway activation only occurs when an active infection has been established in the host macrophage, and it is plausible that the differences in the expression levels of p-tyr701Stat-1 could be due to different survival mechanisms or to differences in bacteria life cycles within macrophages. PMID:27437406

  19. The Nuclear Receptor LXR Limits Bacterial Infection of Host Macrophages through a Mechanism that Impacts Cellular NAD Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Matalonga, Jonathan; Glaria, Estibaliz; Bresque, Mariana; Escande, Carlos; Carbó, José María; Kiefer, Kerstin; Vicente, Ruben; León, Theresa E; Beceiro, Susana; Pascual-García, Mónica; Serret, Joan; Sanjurjo, Lucía; Morón-Ros, Samantha; Riera, Antoni; Paytubi, Sonia; Juarez, Antonio; Sotillo, Fernando; Lindbom, Lennart; Caelles, Carme; Sarrias, Maria-Rosa; Sancho, Jaime; Castrillo, Antonio; Chini, Eduardo N; Valledor, Annabel F

    2017-01-31

    Macrophages exert potent effector functions against invading microorganisms but constitute, paradoxically, a preferential niche for many bacterial strains to replicate. Using a model of infection by Salmonella Typhimurium, we have identified a molecular mechanism regulated by the nuclear receptor LXR that limits infection of host macrophages through transcriptional activation of the multifunctional enzyme CD38. LXR agonists reduced the intracellular levels of NAD(+) in a CD38-dependent manner, counteracting pathogen-induced changes in macrophage morphology and the distribution of the F-actin cytoskeleton and reducing the capability of non-opsonized Salmonella to infect macrophages. Remarkably, pharmacological treatment with an LXR agonist ameliorated clinical signs associated with Salmonella infection in vivo, and these effects were dependent on CD38 expression in bone-marrow-derived cells. Altogether, this work reveals an unappreciated role for CD38 in bacterial-host cell interaction that can be pharmacologically exploited by activation of the LXR pathway.

  20. Pyroptosis of Salmonella Typhimurium-infected macrophages was suppressed and elimination of intracellular bacteria from macrophages was promoted by blocking QseC

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhi; Zheng, Qing; Xue, Xiaoyan; Shi, Xin; Zhou, Ying; Da, Fei; Qu, Di; Hou, Zheng; Luo, Xiaoxing

    2016-01-01

    QseC is a membrane-bound histidine sensor kinase found in Gram-negative pathogens and is involved in the regulation of bacterial virulence. LED209, a QseC-specific inhibitor, significantly inhibits the virulence of several pathogens and partially protects infected mice from death by blocking QseC. However, the mechanism of its antibacterial effects remains unclear. In this experiment, a Salmonella Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium) and macrophage co-culture system was utilized to investigate possible mechanisms underlying the antimicrobial effects of the QseC inhibitor. QseC blockade inhibited the expression of QseC-dependent virulence genes, including flhDC, sifA, and sopB, in S. Typhimurium, leading to inhibition of swimming motility, invasion capacity, and replication capacity of the pathogens. Release of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) from S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages was significantly inhibited by blocking QseC. Activated caspase-1 and IL-1β levels were suppressed, and intracellular bacterial count was reduced in infected macrophages. QseC blockade effectively reduced the virulence of S. Typhimurium, inhibited S. Typhimurium-induced pyroptosis of macrophages, and promoted elimination of intracellular bacteria from infected macrophages. Thus, the antibacterial effects of QseC inhibitor are mediated via enhancement of intracellular killing of S. Typhimurium in macrophages. PMID:27853287

  1. Macrophages from disease resistant B2 haplotype chickens activate T lymphocytes more effectively than macrophages from disease susceptible B19 birds.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Ellen; Griggs, Lisa; Drechsler, Yvonne

    2017-02-01

    Resistance to respiratory pathogens, including coronavirus-induced infection and clinical illness in chickens has been correlated with the B (MHC) complex and differential ex vivo macrophage responses. In the current study, in vitro T lymphocyte activation measured by IFNγ release was significantly higher in B2 versus B19 haplotypes. AIV infection of macrophages was required to activate T lymphocytes and prior in vivo exposure of chickens to NP AIV plasmid enhanced responses to infected macrophages. This study suggests that the demonstrated T lymphocyte activation is in part due to antigen presentation by the macrophages as well as cytokine release by the infected macrophages, with B2 haplotypes showing stronger activation. These responses were present both in CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes. In contrast, T lymphocytes stimulated by ConA showed greater IFNγ release of B19 haplotype cells, further indicating the greater responses in B2 haplotypes to infection is due to macrophages, but not T cells. In summary, resistance of B2 haplotype chickens appears to be directly linked to a more vigorous innate immune response and the role macrophages play in activating adaptive immunity.

  2. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Manipulates the Glycosylation Machinery and the N-Glycoproteome of Human Macrophages and Their Microparticles.

    PubMed

    Hare, Nathan J; Lee, Ling Y; Loke, Ian; Britton, Warwick J; Saunders, Bernadette M; Thaysen-Andersen, Morten

    2017-01-06

    Tuberculosis (TB) remains a prevalent and lethal infectious disease. The glycobiology associated with Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of frontline alveolar macrophages is still unresolved. Herein, we investigated the regulation of protein N-glycosylation in human macrophages and their secreted microparticles (MPs) used for intercellular communication upon M. tb infection. LC-MS/MS-based proteomics and glycomics were performed to monitor the regulation of glycosylation enzymes and receptors and the N-glycome in in vitro-differentiated macrophages and in isolated MPs upon M. tb infection. Infection promoted a dramatic regulation of the macrophage proteome. Most notably, significant infection-dependent down-regulation (4-26 fold) of 11 lysosomal exoglycosidases, e.g., β-galactosidase, β-hexosaminidases and α-/β-mannosidases, was observed. Relative weak infection-driven transcriptional regulation of these exoglycosidases and a stronger augmentation of the extracellular hexosaminidase activity demonstrated that the lysosome-centric changes may originate predominantly from infection-induced secretion of the lysosomal content. The macrophages showed heterogeneous N-glycan profiles and displayed significant up-regulation of complex-type glycosylation and concomitant down-regulation of paucimannosylation upon infection. Complementary intact N-glycopeptide analysis supported a subcellular-specific manipulation of the glycosylation machinery and altered glycosylation patterns of lysosomal N-glycoproteins within infected macrophages. Interestingly, the corresponding macrophage-derived MPs displayed unique N-glycome and proteome signatures supporting a preferential packaging from plasma membranes. The MPs were devoid of infection-dependent N-glycosylation signatures, but interestingly displayed increased levels of the glyco-initiating oligosaccharyltransferase complex and associated α-glucosidases that correlated with increased formation, N-glycan precursor levels

  3. Macrophage activation induced by Brucella DNA suppresses bacterial intracellular replication via enhancing NO production.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ning; Wang, Lin; Sun, Changjiang; Yang, Li; Tang, Bin; Sun, Wanchun; Peng, Qisheng

    2015-12-01

    Brucella DNA can be sensed by TLR9 on endosomal membrane and by cytosolic AIM2-inflammasome to induce proinflammatory cytokine production that contributes to partially activate innate immunity. Additionally, Brucella DNA has been identified to be able to act as a major bacterial component to induce type I IFN. However, the role of Brucella DNA in Brucella intracellular growth remains unknown. Here, we showed that stimulation with Brucella DNA promote macrophage activation in TLR9-dependent manner. Activated macrophages can suppresses wild type Brucella intracellular replication at early stage of infection via enhancing NO production. We also reported that activated macrophage promotes bactericidal function of macrophages infected with VirB-deficient Brucella at the early or late stage of infection. This study uncovers a novel function of Brucella DNA, which can help us further elucidate the mechanism of Brucella intracellular survival.

  4. Macrophage Polarization in AIDS: Dynamic Interface between Anti-Viral and Anti-Inflammatory Macrophages during Acute and Chronic Infection.

    PubMed

    Burdo, Tricia H; Walker, Joshua; Williams, Kenneth C

    2015-06-01

    Monocyte and macrophage inflammation in parenchymal tissues during acute and chronic HIV and SIV infection plays a role in early anti-viral immune responses and later in restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is observed in such responses in the central nervous system (CNS) and the heart and cardiac vessels that suggest early responses are M1 type antiviral responses, and later responses favor M2 restorative responses. Macrophage polarization is unique to different tissues and is likely dictated as much by the local microenvironment as well as other inflammatory cells involved in the viral responses. Such polarization is found in HIV infected humans, and the SIV infected animal model of AIDS, and occurs even with effective anti-retroviral therapy. Therapies that directly target macrophage polarization in HIV infection have recently been implemented, as have therapies to directly block traffic and accumulation of macrophages in tissues.

  5. Suppression of Mcl-1 induces apoptosis in mouse peritoneal macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei-Yu; Wang, Xin-Min; Wang, Chan; Wang, Xiao-Fang; Zhang, Yu-Qing; Wu, Jiang-Dong; Wu, Fang; Zhang, Wan-Jiang; Zhang, Le

    2016-04-01

    The effect of myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl-1) inhibition on apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages in mice infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was investigated and the primary signaling pathway associated with the transcriptional regulation of Mcl-1 was identified. Real-time PCR and western blotting indicated that Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression are upregulated during infection with virulent M. tuberculosis H37Rv and Xinjiang strains but not with attenuated M. tuberculosis strain H37Ra or Bacillus Calmette-Guérin. Mcl-1 transcript and protein expression were downregulated by specific inhibitors of the Janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription (JAK/STAT), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathways (AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, respectively). The strongest inhibitor of Mcl-1 expression was PD98059, the MAPK inhibitor. Flow cytometry demonstrated that the rate of apoptosis in peritoneal macrophages is significantly higher in mice infected with M. tuberculosis and the rate of apoptosis is correlated with the virulence of the strain of M. tuberculosis. Apoptosis was found to be upregulated by AG490, PD98059 and LY294002, whereas inhibition of the MAPK pathway sensitized the infected macrophages to apoptosis. Taken together, these results suggest that specific downregulation of Mcl-1 significantly increases apoptosis of peritoneal macrophages and that the MAPK signaling pathway is the primary mediator of Mcl-1 expression.

  6. Intracellular multiplication of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis in macrophages: killing and restriction of multiplication by activated macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Brummer, E; Hanson, L H; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1989-01-01

    The effect of coculturing yeast-form Paracoccidioides brasiliensis with murine cells was studied. Coculture of resident peritoneal or pulmonary macrophages with P. brasiliensis for 72 h dramatically enhanced fungal multiplication 19.3 +/- 2.4- and 4.7 +/- 0.8-fold, respectively, compared with cocultures with lymph node cells or complete tissue culture medium alone. Support of P. brasiliensis multiplication by resident peritoneal macrophages was macrophage dose dependent. Lysates of macrophages, supernatants from macrophage cultures, or McVeigh-Morton broth, like complete tissue culture medium, did not support multiplication of P. brasiliensis in 72-h cultures. Time course microscopic studies of cocultures in slide wells showed that macrophages ingested P. brasiliensis cells and that the ingested cells multiplied intracellularly. In sharp contrast to resident macrophages, lymphokine-activated peritoneal and pulmonary macrophages not only prevented multiplication but reduced inoculum CFU by 96 and 100%, respectively, in 72 h. Microscopic studies confirmed killing and digestion of P. brasiliensis ingested by activated macrophages in 48 h. These findings indicate that resident macrophages are permissive for intracellular multiplication of P. brasiliensis and that this could be a factor in pathogenicity. By contrast, activated macrophages are fungicidal for P. brasiliensis. Images PMID:2744848

  7. Alternative activation deprives macrophages of a coordinated defense program to Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Kahnert, Antje; Seiler, Peter; Stein, Maik; Bandermann, Silke; Hahnke, Karin; Mollenkopf, Hans; Kaufmann, Stefan H E

    2006-03-01

    A potent Th1 immune response is critical to the control of tuberculosis. The impact of an additive Th2 response on the course of disease has so far been insufficiently characterized, despite increased morbidity after co-infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Th2-eliciting helminths and possible involvement of Th2 polarization in reactivation of latent tuberculosis. Here, we describe the gene expression profile of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages alternatively activated by IL-4 in response to infection with M. tuberculosis. Comparison of transcriptional profiles of infected IL-4- and IFN-gamma-activated macrophages revealed delayed and partially diminished responses to intracellular bacteria in alternatively activated macrophages, characterized by reduced exposure to nitrosative stress and increased iron availability, respectively. Alternative activation of host macrophages correlated with elevated expression of the M. tuberculosis iron storage protein bacterioferritin as well as reduced expression of the mycobactin synthesis genes mbtI and mbtJ. The extracellular matrix-remodeling enzyme matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-12 was induced in alternatively activated macrophages in vitro, and MMP-12-expressing macrophages were abundant at late, but not early, stages of tuberculosis in murine lungs. Our findings emphasize that alternative activation deprives macrophages of control mechanisms that limit mycobacterial growth in vivo, thus supporting intracellular persistence of M. tuberculosis.

  8. NMAAP1 Expressed in BCG-Activated Macrophage Promotes M1 Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Liu, Qihui; Tian, Yuan; Zhao, Xiangfeng; Jing, Haifeng; Xie, Qi; Li, Peng; Li, Dong; Yan, Dongmei; Zhu, Xun

    2015-10-01

    Macrophages are divided into two subpopulations: classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2). BCG (Bacilli Calmette-GuC)rin) activates disabled naC/ve macrophages to M1 macrophages, which act as inflammatory, microbicidal and tumoricidal cells through cell-cell contact and/or the release of soluble factors. Various transcription factors and signaling pathways are involved in the regulation of macrophage activation and polarization. We discovered that BCG-activated macrophages (BAM) expressed a new molecule, and we named it Novel Macrophage Activated Associated Protein 1 (NMAAP1). The current study found that the overexpression of NMAAP1 in macrophages results in M1 polarization with increased expression levels of M1 genes, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-N1), Interleukin 6 (IL-6), Interleukin 12 (IL-12), Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1N2), and decreased expression of some M2 genes, such as Kruppel-like factor 4 (KLF4) and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1), but not other M2 genes, including arginase-1 (Arg-1), Interleukin (IL-10), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-N2) and found in inflammatory zone 1 (Fizz1). Moreover, NMAAP1 overexpression in the RAW264.7 cell line increased cytotoxicity against MCA207 tumor cells, which depends on increased inflammatory cytokines rather than cell-cell contact. NMAAP1 also substantially enhanced the phagocytic ability of macrophages, which implies that NMAAP1 promoted macrophage adhesive and clearance activities. Our results indicate that NMAAP1 is an essential molecule that modulates macrophages phenotype and plays an important role in macrophage tumoricidal functions.

  9. Changes in macrophage membrane properties during early Leishmania amazonensis infection differ from those observed during established infection and are partially explained by phagocytosis.

    PubMed

    Quintana, Eduardo; Torres, Yolima; Alvarez, Claudia; Rojas, Angela; Forero, María Elisa; Camacho, Marcela

    2010-03-01

    Understanding the impact of intracellular pathogens on the behavior of their host cells is key to designing new interventions. We are interested in how Leishmania alters the electrical function of the plasma membrane of the macrophage it infects. The specific question addressed here is the impact of Leishmania infection on macrophage membrane properties during the first 12h post-infection. A decrease of 29% in macrophage membrane capacitance at 3h post-infection indicates that the phagolysosome membrane is donated on entry by the macrophage plasma membrane. Macrophage membrane potential depolarized during the first 12h post-infection, which associated with a decreased inward potassium current density, changed in inward rectifier conductance and increased outward potassium current density. Decreased membrane capacitance and membrane potential, with no changes in ion current density, were found in macrophages after phagocytosis of latex beads. Therefore we suggest that the macrophage membrane changes observed during early Leishmania infection appear to be associated with the phagocytic and activation processes.

  10. M2 macrophages or IL-33 treatment attenuate ongoing Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Piñeros, A. R.; Campos, L. W.; Fonseca, D. M.; Bertolini, T. B.; Gembre, A. F.; Prado, R. Q.; Alves-Filho, J. C.; Ramos, S. G.; Russo, M.; Bonato, V. L. D.

    2017-01-01

    The protective effects of mycobacterial infections on lung allergy are well documented. However, the inverse relationship between tuberculosis and type 2 immunity is still elusive. Although type 1 immunity is essential to protection against Mycobacterium tuberculosis it might be also detrimental to the host due to the induction of extensive tissue damage. Here, we determined whether lung type 2 immunity induced by allergen sensitization and challenge could affect the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection. We used two different protocols in which sensitization and allergen challenge were performed before or after M. tuberculosis infection. We found an increased resistance to M. tuberculosis only when allergen exposure was given after, but not before infection. Infected mice exposed to allergen exhibited lower bacterial load and cellular infiltrates in the lungs. Enhanced resistance to infection after allergen challenge was associated with increased gene expression of alternatively activated macrophages (M2 macrophages) and IL-33 levels. Accordingly, either adoptive transfer of M2 macrophages or systemic IL-33 treatment was effective in attenuating M. tuberculosis infection. Notably, the enhanced resistance induced by allergen exposure was dependent on IL-33 receptor ST2. Our work indicates that IL-33 might be an alternative therapeutic treatment for severe tuberculosis. PMID:28128217

  11. Macrophages sense and kill bacteria through carbon monoxide-dependent inflammasome activation.

    PubMed

    Wegiel, Barbara; Larsen, Rasmus; Gallo, David; Chin, Beek Yoke; Harris, Clair; Mannam, Praveen; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Lee, Patty J; Zuckerbraun, Brian S; Flavell, Richard; Soares, Miguel P; Otterbein, Leo E

    2014-11-01

    Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated tissue damage, and increased mortality. Here, we determined that macrophage-generated CO promotes ATP production and release by bacteria, which then activates the Nacht, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome, intensifying bacterial killing. Bacterial killing defects in HO-1-deficient murine macrophages were restored by administration of CO. Moreover, increased CO levels enhanced the bacterial clearance capacity of human macrophages and WT murine macrophages. CO-dependent bacterial clearance required the NALP3 inflammasome, as CO did not increase bacterial killing in macrophages isolated from NALP3-deficient or caspase-1-deficient mice. IL-1β cleavage and secretion were impaired in HO-1-deficient macrophages, and CO-dependent processing of IL-1β required the presence of bacteria-derived ATP. We found that bacteria remained viable to generate and release ATP in response to CO. The ATP then bound to macrophage nucleotide P2 receptors, resulting in activation of the NALP3/IL-1β inflammasome to amplify bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that macrophage-derived CO permits efficient and coordinated regulation of the host innate response to invading microbes.

  12. Copper redistribution in murine macrophages in response to Salmonella infection.

    PubMed

    Achard, Maud E S; Stafford, Sian L; Bokil, Nilesh J; Chartres, Jy; Bernhardt, Paul V; Schembri, Mark A; Sweet, Matthew J; McEwan, Alastair G

    2012-05-15

    The movement of key transition metal ions is recognized to be of critical importance in the interaction between macrophages and intracellular pathogens. The present study investigated the role of copper in mouse macrophage responses to Salmonella enterica sv. Typhimurium. The copper chelator BCS (bathocuproinedisulfonic acid, disodium salt) increased intracellular survival of S. Typhimurium within primary mouse BMM (bone-marrow-derived macrophages) at 24 h post-infection, implying that copper contributed to effective host defence against this pathogen. Infection of BMM with S. Typhimurium or treatment with the TLR (Toll-like receptor) 4 ligand LPS (lipopolysaccharide) induced the expression of several genes encoding proteins involved in copper transport [Ctr (copper transporter) 1, Ctr2 and Atp7a (copper-transporting ATPase 1)], as well as the multi-copper oxidase Cp (caeruloplasmin). Both LPS and infection with S. Typhimurium triggered copper accumulation within punctate intracellular vesicles (copper 'hot spots') in BMM as indicated by the fluorescent reporter CS1 (copper sensor 1). These copper hot spots peaked in their accumulation at approximately 18 h post-stimulation and were dependent on copper uptake into cells. Localization studies indicated that the copper hot spots were in discrete vesicles distinct from Salmonella containing vacuoles and lysosomes. We propose that copper hot spot formation contributes to antimicrobial responses against professional intracellular bacterial pathogens.

  13. Heme oxygenase 1 controls early innate immune response of macrophages to Salmonella Typhimurium infection.

    PubMed

    Mitterstiller, Anna-Maria; Haschka, David; Dichtl, Stefanie; Nairz, Manfred; Demetz, Egon; Talasz, Heribert; Soares, Miguel P; Einwallner, Elisa; Esterbauer, Harald; Fang, Ferric C; Geley, Stephan; Weiss, Guenter

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are central for the immune control of intracellular microbes. Heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1, hmox) is the first and rate limiting enzyme in the breakdown of heme originating from degraded senescent erythrocytes and heme-proteins, yielding equal amounts of iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. HO-1 is strongly up-regulated in macrophages in response to inflammatory signals, including bacterial endotoxin. In view of the essential role of iron for the growth and proliferation of intracellular bacteria along with known effects of the metal on innate immune function, we examined whether HO-1 plays a role in the control of infection with the intracellular bacterium Salmonella Typhimurium. We studied the course of infection in stably-transfected murine macrophages (RAW264.7) bearing a tetracycline-inducible plasmid producing hmox shRNA and in primary HO-1 knockout macrophages. While uptake of bacteria into macrophages was not affected, a significantly reduced survival of intracellular Salmonella was observed upon hmox knockdown or pharmacological hmox inhibition, which was independent of Nramp1 functionality. This could be traced to limitation of iron availability for intramacrophage bacteria along with enhanced stimulation of innate immune effector pathways, including the formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and increased TNF-α expression. Mechanistically, these latter effects result from intracellular iron limitation with subsequent activation of NF-κB and further inos, tnfa and p47phox transcription along with reduced formation of the anti-inflammatory and radical scavenging molecules, CO and biliverdin as a consequence of HO-1 silencing. Taken together our data provide novel evidence that the infection-driven induction of HO-1 exerts detrimental effects in the early control of Salmonella infection, whereas hmox inhibition can favourably modulate anti-bacterial immune effector pathways of macrophages and promote bacterial elimination.

  14. Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis

    PubMed Central

    DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection. PMID:26513474

  15. Distinct Macrophage Fates after in vitro Infection with Different Species of Leishmania: Induction of Apoptosis by Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis, but Not by Leishmania (Viannia) guyanensis.

    PubMed

    DaMata, Jarina Pena; Mendes, Bárbara Pinheiro; Maciel-Lima, Kátia; Menezes, Cristiane Alves Silva; Dutra, Walderez Ornelas; Sousa, Lirlândia Pires; Horta, Maria Fátima

    2015-01-01

    Leishmania is an intracellular parasite in vertebrate hosts, including man. During infection, amastigotes replicate inside macrophages and are transmitted to healthy cells, leading to amplification of the infection. Although transfer of amastigotes from infected to healthy cells is a crucial step that may shape the outcome of the infection, it is not fully understood. Here we compare L. amazonensis and L. guyanensis infection in C57BL/6 and BALB/c mice and investigate the fate of macrophages when infected with these species of Leishmania in vitro. As previously shown, infection of mice results in distinct outcomes: L. amazonensis causes a chronic infection in both strains of mice (although milder in C57BL/6), whereas L. guyanensis does not cause them disease. In vitro, infection is persistent in L. amazonensis-infected macrophages whereas L. guyanensis growth is controlled by host cells from both strains of mice. We demonstrate that, in vitro, L. amazonensis induces apoptosis of both C57BL/6 and BALB/c macrophages, characterized by PS exposure, DNA cleavage into nucleosomal size fragments, and consequent hypodiploidy. None of these signs were seen in macrophages infected with L. guyanensis, which seem to die through necrosis, as indicated by increased PI-, but not Annexin V-, positive cells. L. amazonensis-induced macrophage apoptosis was associated to activation of caspases-3, -8 and -9 in both strains of mice. Considering these two species of Leishmania and strains of mice, macrophage apoptosis, induced at the initial moments of infection, correlates with chronic infection, regardless of its severity. We present evidence suggestive that macrophages phagocytize L. amazonensis-infected cells, which has not been verified so far. The ingestion of apoptotic infected macrophages by healthy macrophages could be a way of amastigote spreading, leading to the establishment of infection.

  16. Macrophage induced gelsolin in response to Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infection.

    PubMed

    Fettucciari, Katia; Ponsini, Pamela; Palumbo, Camilla; Rosati, Emanuela; Mannucci, Roberta; Bianchini, Rodolfo; Modesti, Andrea; Marconi, Pierfrancesco

    2015-01-01

    Group B Streptococcus (GBS) has evolved several strategies to avoid host defences. We have shown that interaction of macrophages with GBS causes macrophage calpain activation, cytoskeletal disruption and apoptosis, consequences of intracellular calcium increase induced by membrane permeability alterations provoked by GBS-β-haemolysin. Open question remains about what effect calcium influx has on other calcium-sensing proteins such as gelsolin, involved in cytoskeleton modulation and apoptosis. Therefore we analysed the effect of GBS-III-COH31:macrophage interaction on gelsolin expression. Here we demonstrate that an early macrophage response to GBS-III-COH31 is a very strong gelsolin increase, which occurs in a time- and infection-ratio-dependent manner. This is not due to transcriptional events, translation events, protein turnover alterations, or protein-kinase activation, but to calcium influx, calpain activation and caspase-3 degradation. In fact, EGTA and PD150606 (calpain inhibitor) prevented gelsolin increase while BAF (caspase inhibitor) enhanced it. Since gelsolin increase is induced by highly β-haemolytic GBS-III-NEM316 and GBS-V-10/84, but not by weakly β-haemolytic GBS, or GBS-III-COH31 in conditions suppressing β-haemolysin expression/activity and the presence of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (β-haemolysin inhibitor), GBS-β-haemolysin is solely responsible for gelsolin increase causing, through membrane permeability defects, calcium influx and calpain activation. Early gelsolin increase could represent a macrophage response to antagonize apoptosis since gelsolin knockdown increases macrophage susceptibility to GBS-induced apoptosis. This response seems to be GBS specific because macrophage apoptosis by Staurosporine or Cycloeximide does not induce gelsolin.

  17. Modulation of macrophage activation by prostaglandins

    PubMed Central

    Carnuccio, R.; D'Acquisto, F.; Rosa, M. Di

    1996-01-01

    The effect of prostaglandtn E2, iloprost and cAMP on both nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α release in J774 macrophages has been studied. Both prostaglandin E2 and iloprost inhibited, in a concentration-dependent fashion, the lipopolysaccharide-induced generation of nitric oxide and tumour necrosis factor-α. The inhibitory effect of these prostanoids seems to be mediated by an increase of the second messenger cAMP since it was mimicked by dibutyryl cAMP and potentiated by the selective type IV phosphodiesterase inhibitor RO-20-1724. Our results suggest that the inhibition of nitric oxide release by prostaglandin E2 and iloprost in lipopolysaccharide-activated J774 macrophages may be secondary to the inhibition of tumour necrosis factor-α generation, which in turn is likely to be mediated by cAMP. PMID:18475691

  18. Candida albicans Chitin Increases Arginase-1 Activity in Human Macrophages, with an Impact on Macrophage Antimicrobial Functions

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, Donna M.; Brown, Gordon D.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT   The opportunistic human fungal pathogen Candida albicans can cause a variety of diseases, ranging from superficial mucosal infections to life-threatening systemic infections. Phagocytic cells of the innate immune response, such as neutrophils and macrophages, are important first-line responders to an infection and generate reactive oxygen and nitrogen species as part of their protective antimicrobial response. During an infection, host cells generate nitric oxide through the enzyme inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) to kill the invading pathogen. Inside the phagocyte, iNOS competes with the enzyme arginase-1 for a common substrate, the amino acid l-arginine. Several pathogenic species, including bacteria and parasitic protozoans, actively modulate the production of nitric oxide by inducing their own arginases or the host’s arginase activity to prevent the conversion of l-arginine to nitric oxide. We report here that C. albicans blocks nitric oxide production in human-monocyte-derived macrophages by induction of host arginase activity. We further determined that purified chitin (a fungal cell wall polysaccharide) and increased chitin exposure at the fungal cell wall surface induces this host arginase activity. Blocking the C. albicans-induced arginase activity with the arginase-specific substrate inhibitor Nω-hydroxy-nor-arginine (nor-NOHA) or the chitinase inhibitor bisdionin F restored nitric oxide production and increased the efficiency of fungal killing. Moreover, we determined that C. albicans influences macrophage polarization from a classically activated phenotype toward an alternatively activated phenotype, thereby reducing antimicrobial functions and mediating fungal survival. Therefore, C. albicans modulates l-arginine metabolism in macrophages during an infection, potentiating its own survival. PMID:28119468

  19. Infiltrating macrophages are key to the development of seizures following virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Matthew F; Libbey, Jane E; Patel, Dipan C; Doty, Daniel J; Fujinami, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures.

  20. Infiltrating Macrophages Are Key to the Development of Seizures following Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Patel, Dipan C.; Doty, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures. PMID:23236075

  1. Transcriptomic signature of Leishmania infected mice macrophages: a metabolic point of view.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Imen; Rabhi, Sameh; Ben-Othman, Rym; Rasche, Axel; Daskalaki, Adriani; Trentin, Bernadette; Piquemal, David; Regnault, Béatrice; Descoteaux, Albert; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the transcriptional signatures of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages at different times after infection with promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the macrophage metabolic pathways including carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were among the most altered pathways at later time points of infection. Indeed, L. major promastiogtes induced increased mRNA levels of the glucose transporter and almost all of the genes associated with glycolysis and lactate dehydrogenase, suggesting a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. On the other hand, L. major promastigotes enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors involved in the uptake of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), inhibited the expression of genes coding for proteins regulating cholesterol efflux, and induced the synthesis of triacylglycerides. These data suggested that Leishmania infection disturbs cholesterol and triglycerides homeostasis and may lead to cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Using Filipin and Bodipy staining, we showed cholesterol and triglycerides accumulation in infected macrophages. Moreover, Bodipy-positive lipid droplets accumulated in close proximity to parasitophorous vacuoles, suggesting that intracellular L. major may take advantage of these organelles as high-energy substrate sources. While the effect of infection on cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation was independent on parasite development, our data indicate that anaerobic glycolysis is actively induced by L. major during the establishment of infection.

  2. Transcriptomic Signature of Leishmania Infected Mice Macrophages: A Metabolic Point of View

    PubMed Central

    Ben-Othman, Rym; Rasche, Axel; Daskalaki, Adriani; Trentin, Bernadette; Piquemal, David; Regnault, Béatrice; Descoteaux, Albert; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia

    2012-01-01

    We analyzed the transcriptional signatures of mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages at different times after infection with promastigotes of the protozoan parasite Leishmania major. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis revealed that the macrophage metabolic pathways including carbohydrate and lipid metabolisms were among the most altered pathways at later time points of infection. Indeed, L. major promastiogtes induced increased mRNA levels of the glucose transporter and almost all of the genes associated with glycolysis and lactate dehydrogenase, suggesting a shift to anaerobic glycolysis. On the other hand, L. major promastigotes enhanced the expression of scavenger receptors involved in the uptake of Low-Density Lipoprotein (LDL), inhibited the expression of genes coding for proteins regulating cholesterol efflux, and induced the synthesis of triacylglycerides. These data suggested that Leishmania infection disturbs cholesterol and triglycerides homeostasis and may lead to cholesterol accumulation and foam cell formation. Using Filipin and Bodipy staining, we showed cholesterol and triglycerides accumulation in infected macrophages. Moreover, Bodipy-positive lipid droplets accumulated in close proximity to parasitophorous vacuoles, suggesting that intracellular L. major may take advantage of these organelles as high-energy substrate sources. While the effect of infection on cholesterol accumulation and lipid droplet formation was independent on parasite development, our data indicate that anaerobic glycolysis is actively induced by L. major during the establishment of infection. PMID:22928052

  3. The Role of Mcl-1 in S. aureus-Induced Cytoprotection of Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Koziel, Joanna; Kmiecik, Katarzyna; Chmiest, Daniela; Maresz, Katarzyna; Mizgalska, Danuta; Maciag-Gudowska, Agnieszka; Mydel, Piotr; Potempa, Jan

    2013-01-01

    As a facultative intracellular pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus invades macrophages and then promotes the cytoprotection of infected cells thus stabilizing safe niche for silent persistence. This process occurs through the upregulation of crucial antiapoptotic genes, in particular, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (MCL-1). Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism and signal transduction pathways leading to increased MCL-1 expression in infected macrophages. Live S. aureus not only stimulated de novo synthesis of Mcl-1, but also prolonged the stability of this antiapoptotic protein. Consistent with this, we proved a crucial role of Mcl-1 in S. aureus-induced cytoprotection, since silencing of MCL1 by siRNA profoundly reversed the cytoprotection of infected cells leading to apoptosis. Increased MCL1 expression in infected cells was associated with enhanced NFκB activation and subsequent IL-6 secretion, since the inhibition of both NFκB and IL-6 signalling pathways abrogated Mcl-1 induction and cytoprotection. Finally, we confirmed our observation in vivo in murine model of septic arthritis showing the association between the severity of arthritis and Mcl-1 expression. Therefore, we propose that S. aureus is hijacking the Mcl-1-dependent inhibition of apoptosis to prevent the elimination of infected host cells, thus allowing the intracellular persistence of the pathogen, its dissemination by infected macrophages, and the progression of staphylococci diseases. PMID:23431241

  4. RP105 facilitates macrophage activation by Mycobacterium tuberculosis lipoproteins.

    PubMed

    Blumenthal, Antje; Kobayashi, Toshihiko; Pierini, Lynda M; Banaei, Niaz; Ernst, Joel D; Miyake, Kensuke; Ehrt, Sabine

    2009-01-22

    RP105, phylogenetically related to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, is reported to facilitate B cell activation by the TLR4-agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS)--but to limit LPS-induced cytokine production by antigen-presenting cells. Here, we show that the role of RP105 extends beyond LPS recognition and that RP105 positively regulates macrophage responses to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) lipoproteins. Mtb-infected RP105(-/-) mice exhibited impaired proinflammatory cytokine responses associated with enhanced bacterial burden and increased lung pathology. The Mtb 19 kDa lipoprotein induced release of tumor necrosis factor in a manner dependent on both TLR2 and RP105, and macrophage activation by Mtb lacking mature lipoproteins was not RP105 dependent. Thus, mycobacterial lipoproteins are RP105 agonists. RP105 physically interacted with TLR2, and both RP105 and TLR2 were required for optimal macrophage activation by Mtb. Our data identify RP105 as an accessory molecule for TLR2, forming part of the receptor complex for innate immune recognition of mycobacterial lipoproteins.

  5. Alveolar macrophages are a major determinant of early responses to viral lung infection but do not influence subsequent disease development.

    PubMed

    Pribul, Philippa K; Harker, James; Wang, Belinda; Wang, Hongwei; Tregoning, John S; Schwarze, Jürgen; Openshaw, Peter J M

    2008-05-01

    Macrophages are abundant in the lower respiratory tract. They play a central role in the innate response to infection but may also modulate excessive inflammation. Both macrophages and ciliated epithelial cells respond to infection by releasing soluble mediators, leading to the recruitment of innate and adaptive effector cells. To study the role of lung macrophages in acute respiratory viral infection, we depleted them by the inhalation of clodronate liposomes in an established mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) disease. Infection caused an immediate local release of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, peaking on day 1, which was virtually abolished by clodronate liposome treatment. Macrophage depletion inhibited the activation (days 1 to 2) and recruitment (day 4) of natural killer (NK) cells and enhanced peak viral load in the lung (day 4). However, macrophage depletion did not affect the recruitment of activated CD4 or CD8 T cells, weight loss, or virus-induced changes in lung function. Therefore, lung macrophages play a central role in the early responses to viral infection but have remarkably little effect on the adaptive response occurring at the time of peak disease severity.

  6. Conversion of Mycobacterium smegmatis to a pathogenic phenotype via passage of epithelial cells during macrophage infection.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su-Young; Sohn, Hosung; Choi, Go-Eun; Cho, Sang-Nae; Oh, Taegwon; Kim, Hwa-Jung; Whang, Jake; Kim, Jong-Seok; Byun, Eui-Hong; Kim, Woo Sik; Min, Ki-Nam; Kim, Jin Man; Shin, Sung Jae

    2011-08-01

    Mycobacteria encounter many different cells during infection within their hosts. Although alveolar epithelial cells play an essential role in host defense as the first cells to be challenged upon contact with mycobacteria, they may contribute to the acquisition of mycobacterial virulence by increasing the expression of virulence or adaptation factors prior to being ingested by macrophages on the side of pathogens. From this aspect, the enhanced virulence of nonpathogenic Mycobacterium smegmatis (MSM) passed through human alveolar A549 epithelial cells (A-MSM) was compared to the direct infection of MSM (D-MSM) in THP-1 macrophages and mouse models. The intracellular growth rate and cytotoxicity of A-MSM were significantly increased in THP-1 macrophages. In addition, compared to D-MSM, A-MSM induced relatively greater interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, TNF-α, MIP-1α, and MCP-1 in THP-1 macrophages. As a next step, a more persistent A-MSM infection was observed in a murine infection model with the development of granulomatous inflammation. Finally, 58 genes induced specifically in A-MSM were partially identified by differential expression using a customized amplification library. These gene expressions were simultaneously maintained in THP-1 infection but no changes were observed in D-MSM. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that these genes are involved mainly in bacterial metabolism including energy production and conversion, carbohydrate, amino acid, and lipid transport, and metabolisms. Conclusively, alveolar epithelial cells promoted the conversion of MSM to the virulent phenotype prior to encountering macrophages by activating the genes required for intracellular survival and presenting its pathogenicity.

  7. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  8. Direct imaging of macrophage activation during PDT treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.; Xing, Da

    2011-11-01

    Mounting evidence describes a more complex progress of macrophage activation during photodynamic therapy (PDT), which performing distinct immunological functions and different physiologies on surrounding cells and tissues. Macrophage-targeted PDT has been applied in the selective killing of cells involved in inflammation and tumor. We have previously shown that PDT-mediated tumor cells apoptosis can induce a higher level immune response than necrosis, and enhance the macrophage activation. However, the molecular mechanism of macrophage activation during PDT-induced apoptotic cells (AC) still unclear. Here, we use confocal microscopy to image the phagocytosis of tumor cells by macrophages. We also observed that PDT-treated AC can activate Toll-like receptors (TLRs) which are present on macrophages surface. Besides, the increase in nitric oxide (NO) formation in macrophages was detected in real time by a laser scanning microscopy. This study provided more details for understanding the molecular mechanism of the immune response induced by PDT-treated AC.

  9. African swine fever virus infects macrophages, the natural host cells, via clathrin- and cholesterol-dependent endocytosis.

    PubMed

    Galindo, Inmaculada; Cuesta-Geijo, Miguel Angel; Hlavova, Karolina; Muñoz-Moreno, Raquel; Barrado-Gil, Lucía; Dominguez, Javier; Alonso, Covadonga

    2015-03-16

    The main cellular target for African swine fever virus (ASFV) is the porcine macrophage. However, existing data about the early phases of infection were previously characterized in non-leukocyte cells such as Vero cells. Here, we report that ASFV enters the natural host cell using dynamin-dependent and clathrin-mediated endocytosis. This pathway is strongly pH-dependent during the first steps of infection in porcine macrophages. We investigated the effect of drugs inhibiting several endocytic pathways in macrophages and compared ASFV with vaccinia virus (VV), which apparently involves different entry pathways. The presence of cholesterol in cellular membranes was found to be essential for a productive ASFV infection while actin-dependent endocytosis and the participation of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) activity were other cellular factors required in the process of viral entry. These findings improved our understanding of the ASFV interactions with macrophages that allow for successful viral replication.

  10. HIV-1 Vpr Protein Induces Proteasomal Degradation of Chromatin-associated Class I HDACs to Overcome Latent Infection of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Romani, Bizhan; Baygloo, Nima Shaykh; Hamidi-Fard, Mojtaba; Aghasadeghi, Mohammad Reza; Allahbakhshi, Elham

    2016-02-05

    Mechanisms underlying HIV-1 latency remain among the most crucial questions that need to be answered to adopt strategies for purging the latent viral reservoirs. Here we show that HIV-1 accessory protein Vpr induces depletion of class I HDACs, including HDAC1, 2, 3, and 8, to overcome latency in macrophages. We found that Vpr binds and depletes chromatin-associated class I HDACs through a VprBP-dependent mechanism, with HDAC3 as the most affected class I HDAC. De novo expression of Vpr in infected macrophages induced depletion of HDAC1 and 3 on the HIV-1 LTR that was associated with hyperacetylation of histones on the HIV-1 LTR. As a result of hyperacetylation of histones on HIV-1 promotor, the virus established an active promotor and this contributed to the acute infection of macrophages. Collectively, HIV-1 Vpr down-regulates class I HDACs on chromatin to counteract latent infections of macrophages.

  11. Stromal down-regulation of macrophage CD4/CCR5 expression and NF-κB activation mediates HIV-1 non-permissiveness in intestinal macrophages.

    PubMed

    Shen, Ruizhong; Meng, Gang; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Clapham, Paul R; Grams, Jayleen; Novak, Lea; Kappes, John C; Smythies, Lesley E; Smith, Phillip D

    2011-05-01

    Tissue macrophages are derived exclusively from blood monocytes, which as monocyte-derived macrophages support HIV-1 replication. However, among human tissue macrophages only intestinal macrophages are non-permissive to HIV-1, suggesting that the unique microenvironment in human intestinal mucosa renders lamina propria macrophages non-permissive to HIV-1. We investigated this hypothesis using blood monocytes and intestinal extracellular matrix (stroma)-conditioned media (S-CM) to model the exposure of newly recruited monocytes and resident macrophages to lamina propria stroma, where the cells take up residence in the intestinal mucosa. Exposure of monocytes to S-CM blocked up-regulation of CD4 and CCR5 expression during monocyte differentiation into macrophages and inhibited productive HIV-1 infection in differentiated macrophages. Importantly, exposure of monocyte-derived macrophages simultaneously to S-CM and HIV-1 also inhibited viral replication, and sorted CD4+ intestinal macrophages, a proportion of which expressed CCR5+, did not support HIV-1 replication, indicating that the non-permissiveness to HIV-1 was not due to reduced receptor expression alone. Consistent with this conclusion, S-CM also potently inhibited replication of HIV-1 pseudotyped with vesicular stomatitis virus glycoprotein, which provides CD4/CCR5-independent entry. Neutralization of TGF-β in S-CM and recombinant TGF-β studies showed that stromal TGF-β inhibited macrophage nuclear translocation of NF-κB and HIV-1 replication. Thus, the profound inability of intestinal macrophages to support productive HIV-1 infection is likely the consequence of microenvironmental down-regulation of macrophage HIV-1 receptor/coreceptor expression and NF-κB activation.

  12. Infection of murine macrophages with Toxoplasma gondii is associated with release of transforming growth factor beta and downregulation of expression of tumor necrosis factor receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Bermudez, L E; Covaro, G; Remington, J

    1993-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is capable of invading and multiplying within murine peritoneal macrophages. Previous studies have shown that treatment of macrophage monolayers with recombinant gamma interferon but not tumor necrosis factor (TNF) is associated with intracellular killing of T. gondii by macrophages. Furthermore, infection of macrophages with T. gondii prevents their stimulation for mycobactericidal activity by TNF. Since transforming growth factor beta (TGF-beta) is known to suppress a number of functions in macrophages, we investigated the influence of infection with T. gondii on macrophage TNF receptors and on production of TGF-beta. Infection with T. gondii was associated with increased production of TGF-beta and downregulation of TNF receptors. This effect was observed early after infection and was partially inhibited by anti-TGF-beta 1 antibody. PMID:8406801

  13. Downregulation of vimentin in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species.

    PubMed

    Mahesh, P P; Retnakumar, R J; Mundayoor, Sathish

    2016-02-15

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists primarily in macrophages after infection and manipulates the host defence pathways in its favour. 2D gel electrophoresis results showed that vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is downregulated in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv when compared to macrophages infected with heat- killed H37Rv. The downregulation was confirmed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, the expression of vimentin in avirulent strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra- infected macrophages was similar to the expression in heat-killed H37Rv- infected macrophages. Increased expression of vimentin in H2O2- treated live H37Rv-infected macrophages and decreased expression of vimentin both in NAC and DPI- treated heat-killed H37Rv-infected macrophages showed that vimentin expression is positively regulated by ROS. Ectopic expression of ESAT-6 in macrophages decreased both the level of ROS and the expression of vimentin which implies that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-mediated downregulation of vimentin is at least in part due to the downregulation of ROS by the pathogen. Interestingly, the incubation of macrophages with anti-vimentin antibody increased the ROS production and decreased the survival of H37Rv. In addition, we also showed that the pattern of phosphorylation of vimentin in macrophages by PKA/PKC is different from monocytes, emphasizing a role for vimentin phosphorylation in macrophage differentiation.

  14. Downregulation of vimentin in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis is mediated by Reactive Oxygen Species

    PubMed Central

    Mahesh, P. P.; Retnakumar, R. J.; Mundayoor, Sathish

    2016-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis persists primarily in macrophages after infection and manipulates the host defence pathways in its favour. 2D gel electrophoresis results showed that vimentin, an intermediate filament protein, is downregulated in macrophages infected with live Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv when compared to macrophages infected with heat- killed H37Rv. The downregulation was confirmed by Western blot and quantitative RT-PCR. Besides, the expression of vimentin in avirulent strain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Ra- infected macrophages was similar to the expression in heat-killed H37Rv- infected macrophages. Increased expression of vimentin in H2O2- treated live H37Rv-infected macrophages and decreased expression of vimentin both in NAC and DPI- treated heat-killed H37Rv-infected macrophages showed that vimentin expression is positively regulated by ROS. Ectopic expression of ESAT-6 in macrophages decreased both the level of ROS and the expression of vimentin which implies that Mycobacterium tuberculosis-mediated downregulation of vimentin is at least in part due to the downregulation of ROS by the pathogen. Interestingly, the incubation of macrophages with anti-vimentin antibody increased the ROS production and decreased the survival of H37Rv. In addition, we also showed that the pattern of phosphorylation of vimentin in macrophages by PKA/PKC is different from monocytes, emphasizing a role for vimentin phosphorylation in macrophage differentiation. PMID:26876331

  15. Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in M1-polarized macrophages during mycobacterial infections

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yun-Ji; Yi, Min-Hee; Choi, Ji-Ae; Lee, Junghwan; Han, Ji-Ye; Jo, Sung-Hee; Oh, Sung-Man; Cho, Hyun Jin; Kim, Dong Woon; Kang, Min-Woong; Song, Chang-Hwa

    2016-01-01

    Alteration of macrophage function has an important regulatory impact on the survival of intracellular mycobacteria. We found that macrophages infected with attenuated Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) strain H37Ra had elevated expression of M1-related molecules, whereas the M2 phenotype was dominant in macrophages infected with virulent Mtb H37Rv. Further, the TLR signalling pathway played an important role in modulating macrophage polarization against Mtb infection. Interestingly, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was significantly increased in M1 polarized macrophages and these macrophages effectively removed intracellular Mtb, indicating that ER stress may be an important component of the host immune response to Mtb in M1 macrophages. This improved understanding of the mechanisms that regulate macrophage polarization could provide new therapeutic strategies for tuberculosis. PMID:27845414

  16. Increased formation of autophagosomes in ectromelia virus-infected primary culture of murine bone marrow-derived macrophages.

    PubMed

    Martyniszyn, L; Szulc-Dąbrowska, L; Boratyńska-Jasińska, A; Niemiałtowski, M

    2013-01-01

    Induction of autophagy by ectromelia virus (ECTV) in primary cultures of bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs) was investigated. The results showed that ECTV infection of BMDMs resulted in increased formation of autophagosomes, increased level of LC3-II protein present in aggregates and extensive cytoplasmic vacuolization. These data indicate an increased autophagic activity in BMDMs during ECTV infection.

  17. Berberine augments ATP-induced inflammasome activation in macrophages by enhancing AMPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li-Hui; Liang, Yi-Dan; Wei, Hong-Xia; Hu, Bo; Pan, Hao; Zha, Qing-Bing; Ouyang, Dong-Yun; He, Xian-Hui

    2017-01-01

    The isoquinoline alkaloid berberine possesses many pharmacological activities including antibacterial infection. Although the direct bactericidal effect of berberine has been documented, its influence on the antibacterial functions of macrophages is largely unknown. As inflammasome activation in macrophages is important for the defense against bacterial infection, we aimed to investigate the influence of berberine on inflammasome activation in murine macrophages. Our results showed that berberine significantly increased ATP-induced inflammasome activation as reflected by enhanced pyroptosis as well as increased release of caspase-1p10 and mature interleukin-1β (IL-1β) in macrophages. Such effects of berberine could be suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitor compound C or by knockdown of AMPKα expression, indicating the involvement of AMPK signaling in this process. In line with increased IL-1β release, the ability of macrophages to kill engulfed bacteria was also intensified by berberine. This was corroborated by the in vivo finding that the peritoneal live bacterial load was decreased by berberine treatment. Moreover, berberine administration significantly improved survival of bacterial infected mice, concomitant with increased IL-1β levels and elevated neutrophil recruitment in the peritoneal cavity. Collectively, these data suggested that berberine could enhance bacterial killing by augmenting inflammasome activation in macrophages through AMPK signaling. PMID:27980220

  18. Intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement of microbial infection in macrophages: disease regulation by immune complexes

    PubMed Central

    Halstead, Scott B; Mahalingam, Prof Suresh; Marovich, Mary A; Ubol, Sukathida; Mosser, Prof David M

    2011-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms can replicate in macrophages, and cell entry of these pathogens via non-neutralising IgG antibody complexes can result in increased intracellular infection through idiosyncratic Fcγ-receptor signalling. The activation of Fcγ receptors usually leads to phagocytosis. Paradoxically, the ligation of monocyte or macrophage Fcγ receptors by IgG immune complexes, rather than aiding host defences, can suppress innate immunity, increase production of interleukin 10, and bias T-helper-1 (Th1) responses to Th2 responses, leading to increased infectious output by infected cells. This intrinsic antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) of infection modulates the severity of diseases as disparate as dengue haemorrhagic fever and leishmaniasis. Intrinsic ADE is distinct from extrinsic ADE, whereby complexes of infectious agents with non-neutralising antibodies lead to an increased number of infected cells. Intrinsic ADE might be involved in many protozoan, bacterial, and viral infections. We review insights into intracellular mechanisms and implications of enhanced pathogenesis after ligation of macrophage Fcγ receptors by infectious immune complexes. PMID:20883967

  19. D-penicillamine-induced autoimmunity: relationship to macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinze; Uetrecht, Jack P

    2009-09-01

    Idiosyncratic drug reactions represent a serious health problem, and they remain unpredictable largely due to our limited understanding of the mechanisms involved. Penicillamine-induced autoimmunity in Brown Norway (BN) rats represents one model of an idiosyncratic reaction, and this drug can also cause autoimmune reactions in humans. We previously demonstrated that penicillamine binds to aldehydes on the surface of macrophages. There is evidence that an imine bond formed by aldehyde groups on macrophages and amine groups on T cells is one type of interaction between these two cells that is involved in the induction of an immune response. We proposed that the binding of penicillamine with aldehyde groups on macrophages could lead to their activation and in some patients could lead to autoimmunity. In this study, the transcriptome profile of spleen macrophages 6 h after penicillamine treatment was used to detect effects of penicillamine on macrophages with a focus on 20 genes known to be macrophage activation biomarkers. One biological consequence of macrophage activation was investigated by determining mRNA levels for IL-15 and IL-1 beta which are crucial for NK cell activation, as well as levels of mRNA for selected cytokines in spleen NK cells. Up-regulation of the macrophage activating cytokines, IFN-gamma and GM-CSF, and down-regulation of IL-13 indicated activation of NK cells, which suggests a positive feedback loop between macrophages and NK cells. Furthermore, treatment of a murine macrophage cell line, RAW264.7, with penicillamine increased the production of TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-23, providing additional evidence that penicillamine activates macrophages. Hydralazine and isoniazid cause a lupus-like syndrome in humans and also bind to aldehyde groups. These drugs were also found to activate RAW264.7 macrophages. Together, these data support the hypothesis that drugs that bind irreversibly with aldehydes lead to macrophage activation, which in some

  20. A role for connexin43 in macrophage phagocytosis and host survival after bacterial peritoneal infection.

    PubMed

    Anand, Rahul J; Dai, Shipan; Gribar, Steven C; Richardson, Ward; Kohler, Jeff W; Hoffman, Rosemary A; Branca, Maria F; Li, Jun; Shi, Xiao-Hua; Sodhi, Chhinder P; Hackam, David J

    2008-12-15

    The pathways that lead to the internalization of pathogens via phagocytosis remain incompletely understood. We now demonstrate a previously unrecognized role for the gap junction protein connexin43 (Cx43) in the regulation of phagocytosis by macrophages and in the host response to bacterial infection of the peritoneal cavity. Primary and cultured macrophages were found to express Cx43, which localized to the phagosome upon the internalization of IgG-opsonized particles. The inhibition of Cx43 using small interfering RNA or by obtaining macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or knockout mice resulted in significantly impaired phagocytosis, while transfection of Cx43 into Fc-receptor expressing HeLa cells, which do not express endogenous Cx43, conferred the ability of these cells to undergo phagocytosis. Infection of macrophages with adenoviruses expressing wild-type Cx43 restored phagocytic ability in macrophages from Cx43 heterozygous or deficient mice, while infection with viruses that expressed mutant Cx43 had no effect. In understanding the mechanisms involved, Cx43 was required for RhoA-dependent actin cup formation under adherent particles, and transfection with constitutively active RhoA restored a phagocytic phenotype after Cx43 inactivation. Remarkably, mortality was significantly increased in a mouse model of bacterial peritonitis after Cx43 inhibition and in Cx43 heterozygous mice compared with untreated and wild-type counterparts. These findings reveal a novel role for Cx43 in the regulation of phagocytosis and rearrangement of the F-actin cytoskeleton, and they implicate Cx43 in the regulation of the host response to microbial infection.

  1. Differential Induction of Apoptosis, Interferon Signaling, and Phagocytosis in Macrophages Infected with a Panel of Attenuated and Nonattenuated Poxviruses

    PubMed Central

    Royo, Sandra; Sainz, Bruno; Hernández-Jiménez, Enrique; Reyburn, Hugh; López-Collazo, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Due to the essential role macrophages play in antiviral immunity, it is important to understand the intracellular and molecular processes that occur in macrophages following infection with various strains of vaccinia virus, particularly those used as vaccine vectors. Similarities as well as differences were found in macrophages infected with different poxvirus strains, particularly at the level of virus-induced apoptosis and the expression of immunomodulatory genes, as determined by microarray analyses. Interestingly, the attenuated modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) was particularly efficient in triggering apoptosis and beta interferon (IFN-β) secretion and in inducing changes in the expression of genes associated with increased activation of innate immunity, setting it apart from the other five vaccinia virus strains tested. Taken together, these results increase our understanding of how these viruses interact with human macrophages, at the cellular and molecular levels, and suggest mechanisms that may underlie their utility as recombinant vaccine vectors. IMPORTANCE Our studies clearly demonstrate that there are substantial biological differences in the patterns of cellular gene expression between macrophages infected with different poxvirus strains and that these changes are due specifically to infection with the distinct viruses. For example, a clear induction in IFN-β mRNA was observed after infection with MVA but not with other poxviruses. Importantly, antiviral bioassays confirmed that MVA-infected macrophages secreted a high level of biologically active type I IFN. Similarly, the phagocytic capacity of macrophages was also specifically increased after infection with MVA. Although the main scope of this study was not to test the vaccine potential of MVA as there are several groups in the field working extensively on this aspect, the characteristics/phenotypes we observed at the in vitro level clearly highlight the inherent advantages that MVA

  2. Polarization dictates iron handling by inflammatory and alternatively activated macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Corna, Gianfranca; Campana, Lara; Pignatti, Emanuele; Castiglioni, Alessandra; Tagliafico, Enrico; Bosurgi, Lidia; Campanella, Alessandro; Brunelli, Silvia; Manfredi, Angelo A.; Apostoli, Pietro; Silvestri, Laura; Camaschella, Clara; Rovere-Querini, Patrizia

    2010-01-01

    Background Macrophages play a key role in iron homeostasis. In peripheral tissues, they are known to polarize into classically activated (or M1) macrophages and alternatively activated (or M2) macrophages. Little is known on whether the polarization program influences the ability of macrophages to store or recycle iron and the molecular machinery involved in the processes. Design and Methods Inflammatory/M1 and alternatively activated/M2 macrophages were propagated in vitro from mouse bone-marrow precursors and polarized in the presence of recombinant interferon-γ or interleukin-4. We characterized and compared their ability to handle radioactive iron, the characteristics of the intracellular iron pools and the expression of molecules involved in internalization, storage and export of the metal. Moreover we verified the influence of iron on the relative ability of polarized macrophages to activate antigen-specific T cells. Results M1 macrophages have low iron regulatory protein 1 and 2 binding activity, express high levels of ferritin H, low levels of transferrin receptor 1 and internalize – albeit with low efficiency -iron only when its extracellular concentration is high. In contrast, M2 macrophages have high iron regulatory protein binding activity, express low levels of ferritin H and high levels of transferrin receptor 1. M2 macrophages have a larger intracellular labile iron pool, effectively take up and spontaneously release iron at low concentrations and have limited storage ability. Iron export correlates with the expression of ferroportin, which is higher in M2 macrophages. M1 and M2 cells activate antigen-specific, MHC class II-restricted T cells. In the absence of the metal, only M1 macrophages are effective. Conclusions Cytokines that drive macrophage polarization ultimately control iron handling, leading to the differentiation of macrophages into a subset which has a relatively sealed intracellular iron content (M1) or into a subset endowed with

  3. Antibody-dependent infection of human macrophages by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    providing additional information on the role of downstream signaling by FcγRII. Conclusions These results demonstrate that human macrophages can be infected by SARS-CoV as a result of IgG-mediated ADE and indicate that this infection route requires signaling pathways activated downstream of binding to FcγRII receptors. PMID:24885320

  4. [Hepatic manifestation of a macrophage activation syndrome (MAS)].

    PubMed

    Nagel, Michael; Schwarting, Andreas; Straub, Beate K; Galle, Peter R; Zimmermann, Tim

    2017-04-04

    Background Elevated liver values are the most common pathological laboratory result in Germany. Frequent findings, especially in younger patients, are nutritive- or medicamentous- toxic reasons, viral or autoimmune hepatitis. A macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) may manifest like a viral infectious disease with fever, hepatosplenomegaly and pancytopenia and is associated with a high mortality. It is based on an enhanced activation of macrophages with increased cytokine release, leading to organ damage and multi-organ failure. In addition to genetic causes, MAS is commonly associated with infections and rheumatic diseases. We report the case of a 26-year-old female patient suffering from MAS as a rare cause of elevated liver enzymes. Methods Patient characteristics, laboratory values, liver histology, bone marrow and radiological imaging were documented and analyzed. Case Report After an ordinary upper airway infection with bronchitis, a rheumatic arthritis appeared and was treated with leflunomide und methotrexate. In the further course of the disease, the patient developed an acute hepatitis with fever, pancytopenia and massive hyperferritinemia. Immunohistochemistry of the liver biopsy revealed hemophagocytosis and activation of CD68-positive macrophages. In the radiological and histological diagnostics of the liver and bone marrow, an MAS was diagnosed as underlying disease of the acute hepatitis. Under therapy with prednisolone, the fever disappeared and transaminases and ferritin rapidly normalized. Conclusion Aside from the frequent causes of elevated liver values in younger patients, such as nutritive toxic, drug induced liver injury, viral or autoimmune hepatitis, especially in case of massive hyperferritinemia, a MAS should be considered as a rare cause of acute liver disease.

  5. Development of ostrich thrombocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages in culture and the control of Toxoplasma gondii reproduction after macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Farlen J B; Damasceno-Sá, João Cláudio; DaMatta, Renato A

    2016-01-01

    Raising ostriches became an important economic activity after their products became commodities. The health of farm animals is of paramount importance, so assessing basic immunological responses is necessary to better understand health problems. We developed a method to obtain ostrich thrombocytes and macrophages. The thrombocytes died by apoptosis after 48 h in culture, and the macrophages expanded in size and increased the number of acidic compartments. Macrophages were activated by chicken interferon-γ, producing high levels of nitric oxide. Toxoplasma gondii was able to infect these macrophages, and activation controlled parasitic reproduction. T. gondii, however, persisted in these cells, and infection reduced the production of nitric oxide. These results are important for the future assessment of the basic cellular and immunobiology of ostriches and demonstrate T. gondii suppression of nitric oxide production.

  6. Membrane-Tethered MUC1 Mucin Counter-Regulates the Phagocytic Activity of Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kato, Kosuke; Uchino, Reina; Lillehoj, Erik P; Knox, Kenneth; Lin, Yong; Kim, K Chul

    2016-04-01

    MUC1 (MUC in human; Muc in animals) is a transmembrane mucin glycoprotein expressed in mucosal epithelial cells and hematopoietic cells. MUC1 is involved in the resolution of inflammation during airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Pa) infection by suppressing Toll-like receptor signaling in airway epithelial cells. Although alveolar macrophages are recognized as critical mediators of cell-mediated immunity against microorganisms inhaled into the airways, the role of MUC1 in regulating their response is unknown. The aims of this study were to determine whether macrophages express MUC1, and, if so, whether MUC1 expression might be associated with macrophage M0/M1/M2 differentiation or phagocytic activity. Human and mouse MUC1/Muc1 expression was drastically up-regulated in classically activated (M1) macrophages compared with nonactivated (M0) and alternatively activated (M2) macrophages. M1 polarization and Pa stimulation each increased MUC1 ectodomain shedding from the macrophage surface in a TNF-α-converting enzyme-dependent manner. MUC1/Muc1 deficiency in M0 macrophages increased adhesion and phagocytosis of Pa and Escherichia coli compared with MUC1/Muc1-expressing cells, and attenuation of phagocytosis by MUC1 was augmented after polarization into M1 macrophages compared with M0 macrophages. Finally, MUC1/Muc1 deficiency in macrophages increased reactive oxygen species production and TNF-α release in response to Pa compared with MUC1/Muc1-sufficient cells. These results indicate that MUC1/Muc1 expression by macrophages is predominantly in the M1 subtype, and that MUC1/Muc1 expression in these cells decreases their phagocytic activity in an antiinflammatory manner.

  7. Macrophage form, function, and phenotype in mycobacterial infection: lessons from tuberculosis and other diseases.

    PubMed

    McClean, Colleen M; Tobin, David M

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages play a central role in mycobacterial pathogenesis. Recent work has highlighted the importance of diverse macrophage types and phenotypes that depend on local environment and developmental origins. In this review, we highlight how distinct macrophage phenotypes may influence disease progression in tuberculosis. In addition, we draw on work investigating specialized macrophage populations important in cancer biology and atherosclerosis in order to suggest new areas of investigation relevant to mycobacterial pathogenesis. Understanding the mechanisms controlling the repertoire of macrophage phenotypes and behaviors during infection may provide opportunities for novel control of disease through modulation of macrophage form and function.

  8. Hybrid cluster proteins and flavodiiron proteins afford protection to Desulfovibrio vulgaris upon macrophage infection.

    PubMed

    Figueiredo, Mafalda C O; Lobo, Susana A L; Sousa, Sara H; Pereira, Fábio P; Wall, Judy D; Nobre, Lígia S; Saraiva, Lígia M

    2013-06-01

    Desulfovibrio species are Gram-negative anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria that colonize the human gut. Recently, Desulfovibrio spp. have been implicated in gastrointestinal diseases and shown to stimulate the epithelial immune response, leading to increased production of inflammatory cytokines by macrophages. Activated macrophages are key cells of the immune system that impose nitrosative stress during phagocytosis. Hence, we have analyzed the in vitro and in vivo responses of Desulfovibrio vulgaris Hildenborough to nitric oxide (NO) and the role of the hybrid cluster proteins (HCP1 and HCP2) and rubredoxin oxygen oxidoreductases (ROO1 and ROO2) in NO protection. Among the four genes, hcp2 was the gene most highly induced by NO, and the hcp2 transposon mutant exhibited the lowest viability under conditions of NO stress. Studies in murine macrophages revealed that D. vulgaris survives incubation with these phagocytes and triggers NO production at levels similar to those stimulated by the cytokine gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Furthermore, D. vulgaris hcp and roo mutants exhibited reduced viability when incubated with macrophages, revealing that these gene products contribute to the survival of D. vulgaris during macrophage infection.

  9. Production of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) during infection: separate determinations of macrophage-, granulocyte-, granulocyte-macrophage-, and multi-CSFs.

    PubMed Central

    Cheers, C; Haigh, A M; Kelso, A; Metcalf, D; Stanley, E R; Young, A M

    1988-01-01

    After infection of mice with Listeria monocytogenes, elevated levels of colony-stimulating factors (CSFs) in the serum were quantitated by six different assays: ability to stimulate colony formation, the proliferation of 2 suspension of bone marrow cells (both measuring total colony-stimulating activity), a radioimmunoassay for macrophage-CSF (CSF-1), the WEHI-3B differentiation assay for granulocyte-CSF, and proliferation of 32D-c1-3 and FDC-P1 cell lines (specific for multi-CSF and either multi- or granulocyte-macrophage-CSFs, respectively). The great bulk of serum colony-stimulating activity represented macrophage- and granulocyte-CSFs, with small but measurable amounts of granulocyte-macrophage-CSF. The degree of elevation of serum CSF depended on the infecting dose used and the numbers of bacteria growing in the spleens and livers of the two mouse strains compared, i.e., L. monocytogenes-resistant C57BL/10 and susceptible BALB/cJ. The increase in serum CSFs occurred before the peak in bone marrow granulocyte-macrophage progenitors and before the reduction in bacterial numbers which follows the onset of specific cell-mediated immunity. PMID:3257205

  10. Macrophage phagocytosis of neutrophils at inflammatory/infectious foci: a cooperative mechanism in the control of infection and infectious inflammation.

    PubMed

    Silva, Manuel T

    2011-05-01

    Macrophages and neutrophils possess overlapping and complementary features associated to their common origin and subsequent specialization during myelopoiesis. That specialization results in macrophage lineage being limited in antimicrobial capacity and cytotoxicity comparatively with the neutrophil lineage. These and other features of mature macrophages and neutrophils, like different lifespan and tissue localization, promote their particular lifestyles and prompt a functional partnership for cooperation in the protective antimicrobial host defense. This partnership includes reciprocal recruitment to infected sites, cooperative effector antimicrobial activities, and pro-resolving anti-inflammatory effects. One modality of the cooperative effector antimicrobial activities involves the phagocytosis by the macrophage of apoptosing neutrophils and of nonapoptosing neutrophils expressing "eat-me" signals. This cooperative interaction results in the enhancement of the comparatively limited macrophage antimicrobial capacity by the acquisition and use of potent neutrophil microbicidal molecules. Here, data are reviewed that suggest that this is a process actively engaging the two professional phagocytes. Phagocytosis of neutrophils by macrophages at inflammatory/infectious foci accumulates two effects beneficial to the protective host immune response: help in the control of the infection and prevention of neutrophil autolysis, effects that converge to accelerate the resolution of the infection-associated inflammation.

  11. Functional modifications of macrophage activity after sublethal irradiation. [Toxoplasma gondii

    SciTech Connect

    Swartz, R.P.

    1982-01-01

    The modifications of macrophage activity following sublethal irradiation, both in vivo and in vitro, were studied using spreading and C3b-receptor-mediated ingestion assays. Nonelicited peritoneal washout cells were examined for changes in activity and selected population characteristics. The cells from irradiated mice were from a resident peritoneal population and not immigrating cells. The macrophage population showed enhanced activity early with a refractory period (24-48) when the macrophages were unresponsive to stimulation by irradiated lymphocytes. The enhanced activity was inversely dose dependent on macrophage. The lymphocytes showed a regulatory function(s) on the time post irradiation at which they were examined. Early lymphocytes exhibited the ability to enhance the activity of normal macrophages while lymphocytes removed 24 hours post irradiation could suppress the activity of already activated macrophages. The effect(s) of the various lymphocyte populations were reproduced with cell-free supernatants which was indicative of the production of lymphokines. Separation on nylon wool columns indicated that the activity resided primarily in the T-cell population of lymphocytes. In vitro irradiation indicated that stimulation of the lymphocytes is macrophage dependent. Additional work indicated that sublethally irradiated macrophages did not inhibit replication of the coccidian protozoon Toxoplasma gondii although they did show increased phagocytosis. Examination of the serum from whole body irradiated mice showed the presence of a postirradiation substance which enhanced the phagocytosis of normal macrophages. It was not present in the serum of normal mice and was not endotoxin.

  12. Modulation of macrophage activation and programming in immunity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Guangwei; Yang, Hui

    2013-03-01

    Macrophages are central mediators of the immune, contributing both to the initiation and the resolution of inflammation. The concept of macrophage activation and program has stimulated interest in its definition, and functional significance in homeostasis and diseases. It has been known that macrophages could be differently activated and programmed into different functional subtypes in response to different types of antigen stumuli or different kinds of cytokines present in the microenvironment and could thus profoundly influence immune responses, but little is known about the state and exact regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program from cell or molecular signaling level in immunity. In this review, we summarize the recent finding regarding the regulatory mechanism of macrophage activation and program toward M1 and M2, especially on M2 macrophages.

  13. Human splenic macrophages as a model for in vitro infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Henao, Julieta; Sánchez, Dulfary; Muñoz, Carlos H; Mejía, Natalia; Arias, Mauricio A; García, Luis F; Barrera, Luis F

    2007-11-01

    Macrophages play an important role during Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) infection. In humans most of the studies on MTB-macrophage interactions have been performed using circulating monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages. However, little research has been performed on this interaction using tissue macrophages. Herein, we used human splenic macrophages to characterize particular responses to MTB infection. Based on morphological, biochemical, and immunological markers, splenic adherent cells exhibit characteristics of tissue macrophages. They were able to efficiently phagocytose both live and heat-killed (h-k) MTB H37Rv. Upon infection with live, but not h-k MTB, an increase in secreted TNF-alpha was elicited. Splenic macrophages produced high basal levels of IL-10; however, infection with live or h-k MTB resulted in decrease IL-10 secretion. Both IL-12p40 and IL-12p70 basal levels were also decreased upon infection with live or h-k MTB; however, while the reduction for IL-12p40 levels was observed at earlier time points (4h) for both live and h-k MTB, infection with live MTB, but not h-k MTB, resulted in a time-dependent secretion of IL-12p40 at 24 and 48h after infection. IL-12p70 levels were completely reduced upon infection by either live or h-k MTB. These results support that human splenic macrophages may represent a potential useful model to study MTB-macrophage interactions in vitro.

  14. A 3-D airway epithelial cell and macrophage co-culture system to study Rhodococcus equi infection.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Ute; Caldwell, Shannon; Matychak, Mary-Beth; Felippe, Julia

    2013-07-15

    We developed a 3-D equine bronchial epithelial cell (BEC) culture that fully differentiates into ciliary beating and mucus producing cells. Using this system, we evaluated how mucus affects the phagocytic activity of macrophages. Adult horse monocyte-derived macrophages were incubated with Rhodococcus equi for 4h either in the mucus layer of in vitro generated airway epithelium or on collagen coated membranes. Using light and electron microscopy, we noted that the number of macrophages with intracellular bacteria, and the number of intracellular bacteria per macrophage were lower in the presence of mucus. TNFα measurements revealed that the presence of BECs promoted TNFα production by R. equi-infected macrophages; a decrease in TLR-2 (involved in R. equi recognition) and an increase in EGF-R (involved in mucin production) mRNA expression were also noted. Interestingly, when foal macrophages were added to foal BECs, we made the opposite observation, i.e. many macrophages were loaded with R. equi. Our in vitro bronchial system shows great potential for the identification of mechanisms how BECs and mucus play a role in phagocyte activation and bacterial clearance. Further studies using this system will show whether the airway environment in the foal responds differently to R. equi infection.

  15. Susceptibility of Inbred Mice to Leishmania major Infection: Genetic Analysis of Macrophage Activation and Innate Resistance to Disease in Individual Progeny of P/J (Susceptible) and C3H/HeN (Resistant) Mice

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-12-01

    mediated immu- ease and defective macrophage activation in Bx mice that nity in mice highly susceptible to Leishmania tropica . J. Exp. could not be...inbred mice to Leishmania tropica infec- tion: correlation of susceptibility with in vitro defective macro- LITERATURE CITED phage microbicidal...probability and phage activation to kill Leishmania tropica : characterization of statistics. Chemical Rubber Co., Cleveland. P/J mouse macrophage defects for

  16. Haemophilus ducreyi-induced interleukin-10 promotes a mixed M1 and M2 activation program in human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Katz, Barry P; Spinola, Stanley M

    2012-12-01

    During microbial infection, macrophages are polarized to classically activated (M1) or alternatively activated (M2) cells in response to microbial components and host immune mediators. Proper polarization of macrophages is critical for bacterial clearance. To study the role of macrophage polarization during Haemophilus ducreyi infection, we analyzed a panel of macrophage surface markers in skin biopsy specimens of pustules obtained from experimentally infected volunteers. Lesional macrophages expressed markers characteristic of both M1 and M2 polarization. Monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) also expressed a mixed M1 and M2 profile of surface markers and cytokines/chemokines upon infection with H. ducreyi in vitro. Endogenous interleukin 10 (IL-10) produced by infected MDM downregulated and enhanced expression of several M1 and M2 markers, respectively. Bacterial uptake, mediated mainly by class A scavenger receptors, and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase and phosphoinositide 3-kinase signaling pathways were required for H. ducreyi-induced IL-10 production in MDM. Compared to M1 cells, IL-10-polarized M2 cells displayed enhanced phagocytic activity against H. ducreyi and similar bacterial killing. Thus, IL-10-modulated macrophage polarization may contribute to H. ducreyi clearance during human infection.

  17. Regulation of Viral Replication, Apoptosis and Pro-Inflammatory Responses by 17-AAG during Chikungunya Virus Infection in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Tapas K.; Mamidi, Prabhudutta; Kumar, Abhishek; Singh, Laishram Pradeep K.; Sahoo, Subhransu S.; Chattopadhyay, Soma; Chattopadhyay, Subhasis

    2017-01-01

    Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection has re-emerged as a major public health concern due to its recent worldwide epidemics and lack of control measures. Although CHIKV is known to infect macrophages, regulation of CHIKV replication, apoptosis and immune responses towards macrophages are not well understood. Accordingly, the Raw264.7 cells, a mouse macrophage cell line, were infected with CHIKV and viral replication as well as new viral progeny release was assessed by flow cytometry and plaque assay, respectively. Moreover, host immune modulation and apoptosis were studied through flow cytometry, Western blot and ELISA. Our current findings suggest that expression of CHIKV proteins were maximum at 8 hpi and the release of new viral progenies were remarkably increased around 12 hpi. The induction of Annexin V binding, cleaved caspase-3, cleaved caspase-9 and cleaved caspase-8 in CHIKV infected macrophages suggests activation of apoptosis through both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. The pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF and IL-6) MHC-I/II and B7.2 (CD86) were also up-regulated during infection over time. Further, 17-AAG, a potential HSP90 inhibitor, was found to regulate CHIKV infection, apoptosis and pro-inflammatory cytokine/chemokine productions of host macrophages significantly. Hence, the present findings might bring new insight into the therapeutic implication in CHIKV disease biology. PMID:28067803

  18. Apoptosis in porcine macrophages infected in vitro with African swine fever virus (ASFV) strains with different virulence.

    PubMed

    Portugal, Raquel; Leitão, Alexandre; Martins, Carlos

    2009-01-01

    African swine fever virus (ASFV) replicates in porcine macrophages. Since modulation of cell death by ASFV strains of different virulence is poorly understood, we studied the development of apoptosis in porcine macrophage cultures during in vitro infection with the high- and low-virulence isolates ASFV/L60 (L60) and ASFV/NH/P68 (NHV), respectively. In cultures inoculated with each isolate, similar numbers of cells hosting infection showed morphological signs of apoptosis, which were visible from a relatively early time of infection (8 h), although a significant proportion of the infected cell populations remained non-apoptotic until 18 h. L60 inhibited caspase-3 activation by 18 h after infection and induced less DNA internucleosomic fragmentation at 8 h than NHV. However, at the late infection time, apoptosis levels were similar in both infections and occurred, at least partially, independently of caspases, suggesting the existence of yet unknown alternative pathways committing ASFV host cells to apoptotic death.

  19. Lipid Droplet Formation, Their Localization and Dynamics during Leishmania major Macrophage Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Sameh; Rabhi, Imen; Trentin, Bernadette; Piquemal, David; Regnault, Béatrice; Goyard, Sophie; Lang, Thierry; Descoteaux, Albert; Enninga, Jost; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania, the causative agent of vector-borne diseases, known as leishmaniases, is an obligate intracellular parasite within mammalian hosts. The outcome of infection depends largely on the activation status of macrophages, the first line of mammalian defense and the major target cells for parasite replication. Understanding the strategies developed by the parasite to circumvent macrophage defense mechanisms and to survive within those cells help defining novel therapeutic approaches for leishmaniasis. We previously showed the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) in L. major infected macrophages. Here, we provide novel insights on the origin of the formed LDs by determining their cellular distribution and to what extent these high-energy sources are directed to the proximity of Leishmania parasites. We show that the ability of L. major to trigger macrophage LD accumulation is independent of parasite viability and uptake and can also be observed in non-infected cells through paracrine stimuli suggesting that LD formation is from cellular origin. The accumulation of LDs is demonstrated using confocal microscopy and live-cell imagin in parasite-free cytoplasmic region of the host cell, but also promptly recruited to the proximity of Leishmania parasites. Indeed LDs are observed inside parasitophorous vacuole and in parasite cytoplasm suggesting that Leishmania parasites besides producing their own LDs, may take advantage of these high energy sources. Otherwise, these LDs may help cells defending against parasitic infection. These metabolic changes, rising as common features during the last years, occur in host cells infected by a large number of pathogens and seem to play an important role in pathogenesis. Understanding how Leishmania parasites and different pathogens exploit this LD accumulation will help us define the common mechanism used by these different pathogens to manipulate and/or take advantage of this high-energy source. PMID:26871576

  20. Lipid Droplet Formation, Their Localization and Dynamics during Leishmania major Macrophage Infection.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Sameh; Rabhi, Imen; Trentin, Bernadette; Piquemal, David; Regnault, Béatrice; Goyard, Sophie; Lang, Thierry; Descoteaux, Albert; Enninga, Jost; Guizani-Tabbane, Lamia

    2016-01-01

    Leishmania, the causative agent of vector-borne diseases, known as leishmaniases, is an obligate intracellular parasite within mammalian hosts. The outcome of infection depends largely on the activation status of macrophages, the first line of mammalian defense and the major target cells for parasite replication. Understanding the strategies developed by the parasite to circumvent macrophage defense mechanisms and to survive within those cells help defining novel therapeutic approaches for leishmaniasis. We previously showed the formation of lipid droplets (LDs) in L. major infected macrophages. Here, we provide novel insights on the origin of the formed LDs by determining their cellular distribution and to what extent these high-energy sources are directed to the proximity of Leishmania parasites. We show that the ability of L. major to trigger macrophage LD accumulation is independent of parasite viability and uptake and can also be observed in non-infected cells through paracrine stimuli suggesting that LD formation is from cellular origin. The accumulation of LDs is demonstrated using confocal microscopy and live-cell imagin in parasite-free cytoplasmic region of the host cell, but also promptly recruited to the proximity of Leishmania parasites. Indeed LDs are observed inside parasitophorous vacuole and in parasite cytoplasm suggesting that Leishmania parasites besides producing their own LDs, may take advantage of these high energy sources. Otherwise, these LDs may help cells defending against parasitic infection. These metabolic changes, rising as common features during the last years, occur in host cells infected by a large number of pathogens and seem to play an important role in pathogenesis. Understanding how Leishmania parasites and different pathogens exploit this LD accumulation will help us define the common mechanism used by these different pathogens to manipulate and/or take advantage of this high-energy source.

  1. High-Density Lipoprotein Binds to Mycobacterium avium and Affects the Infection of THP-1 Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ichimura, Naoya; Sato, Megumi; Yoshimoto, Akira; Yano, Kouji; Ohkawa, Ryunosuke; Kasama, Takeshi

    2016-01-01

    High-density lipoprotein (HDL) is involved in innate immunity toward various infectious diseases. Concerning bacteria, HDL is known to bind to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and to neutralize its physiological activity. On the other hand, cholesterol is known to play an important role in mycobacterial entry into host cells and in survival in the intracellular environment. However, the pathogenicity of Mycobacterium avium (M. avium) infection, which tends to increase worldwide, remains poorly studied. Here we report that HDL indicated a stronger interaction with M. avium than that with other Gram-negative bacteria containing abundant LPS. A binding of apolipoprotein (apo) A-I, the main protein component of HDL, with a specific lipid of M. avium might participate in this interaction. HDL did not have a direct bactericidal activity toward M. avium but attenuated the engulfment of M. avium by THP-1 macrophages. HDL also did not affect bacterial killing after ingestion of live M. avium by THP-1 macrophage. Furthermore, HDL strongly promoted the formation of lipid droplets in M. avium-infected THP-1 macrophages. These observations provide new insights into the relationship between M. avium infection and host lipoproteins, especially HDL. Thus, HDL may help M. avium to escape from host innate immunity. PMID:27516907

  2. Altered sialylation of alveolar macrophages in HIV-1-infected individuals

    PubMed Central

    PERRIN, C; GIORDANENGO, V; BANNWARTH, S; BLAIVE, B; LEFEBVRE, J-C

    1997-01-01

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that O-glycans at the surface of HIV-1-infected cell lines were hyposialylated. Moreover, we and others have shown that HIV+ individuals produced autoantibodies that react with hyposialylated CD43, on T cell lines. Since the autoantigen responsible for this abnormal immune response was not easily found in the peripheral blood cells of corresponding patients, we searched for its possible presence in other sites. Using fluorescence staining of alveolar macrophages with various lectins, we show that the binding of the PNA lectin specific for asialo O-glycans is much more efficient on cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. Moreover, the degree of reactivity of PNA is correlated with the clinical stage of the illness. PMID:9353144

  3. Altered sialylation of alveolar macrophages in HIV-1-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Perrin, C; Giordanengo, V; Bannwarth, S; Blaive, B; Lefebvre, J C

    1997-10-01

    In previous studies, we have demonstrated that O-glycans at the surface of HIV-1-infected cell lines were hyposialylated. Moreover, we and others have shown that HIV+ individuals produced autoantibodies that react with hyposialylated CD43, on T cell lines. Since the autoantigen responsible for this abnormal immune response was not easily found in the peripheral blood cells of corresponding patients, we searched for its possible presence in other sites. Using fluorescence staining of alveolar macrophages with various lectins, we show that the binding of the PNA lectin specific for asialo O-glycans is much more efficient on cells from HIV-1-infected individuals. Moreover, the degree of reactivity of PNA is correlated with the clinical stage of the illness.

  4. Macrophages in Progressive Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Hirsch, Vanessa M.

    2016-01-01

    The cells that are targeted by primate lentiviruses (HIV and simian immunodeficiency virus [SIV]) are of intense interest given the renewed effort to identify potential cures for HIV. These viruses have been reported to infect multiple cell lineages of hematopoietic origin, including all phenotypic and functional CD4 T cell subsets. The two most commonly reported cell types that become infected in vivo are memory CD4 T cells and tissue-resident macrophages. Though viral infection of CD4 T cells is routinely detected in both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected Asian macaques, significant viral infection of macrophages is only routinely observed in animal models wherein CD4 T cells are almost entirely depleted. Here we review the roles of macrophages in lentiviral disease progression, the evidence that macrophages support viral replication in vivo, the animal models where macrophage-mediated replication of SIV is thought to occur, how the virus can interact with macrophages in vivo, pathologies thought to be attributed to viral replication within macrophages, how viral replication in macrophages might contribute to the asymptomatic phase of HIV/SIV infection, and whether macrophages represent a long-lived reservoir for the virus. PMID:27307568

  5. Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in Macrophages of Histoplasma capsulatum-Infected Mice Is Associated with Splenocyte Apoptosis and Unresponsiveness

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, Betty A.; Chen, Wen; Lee, Hsin-Ju

    1998-01-01

    Splenic macrophages from Histoplasma capsulatum-infected mice express inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and the iNOS expression correlates with severity of the infection. We examined whether production of NO is responsible for apoptosis and the anti-lymphoproliferative response of splenocytes from mice infected with H. capsulatum. In situ terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling revealed apoptotic nuclei in cryosections of spleen from infected but not normal mice. Splenocytes of infected mice were unresponsive to stimulation by either concanavalin A or heat-killed H. capsulatum yeast cells. Splenocyte responsiveness was restored by addition to the medium of NG-monomethyl-l-arginine, a known inhibitor of NO production. The proliferative response of splenocytes from infected mice was also restored by depletion of macrophages or by replacement with macrophages from normal mice. In addition, expression of iNOS returned to its basal level when the animals had recovered from infection. These results suggest that suppressor cell activity of macrophages is associated with production of NO, which also appears to be an effector molecule for apoptosis of cultured splenocytes from infected mice. PMID:9784566

  6. Titanium particles that have undergone phagocytosis by macrophages lose the ability to activate other macrophages.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zhiqing; Schwab, Luciana P; Alley, Carie F; Hasty, Karen A; Smith, Richard A

    2008-04-01

    Titanium particles derived from the wear of the orthopaedic implant surfaces can activate macrophages to secrete cytokines and stimulate osteoclastic bone resorption, causing osteolysis around orthopaedic implants. However, what happens to the titanium particles after being phagocytosed by macrophages is not known. We prepared titanium particles (as received, clean, and LPS-coated), and exposed them to macrophages in culture. Free particles were washed away after 24 h and the intracellular particles were kept in culture for additional 48 h until being harvested by lysing the cells. Particles that had been cell treated or noncell treated were examined by scanning electronic microscopy to analyze the shape, size, and concentration of the particles. The cell treated and noncell treated particles were exposed to macrophages in culture with a particle to cell ratio of 300:1. After 18 h, the levels of TNF-alpha in culture medium and the viability of the cells were examined. Clean particles did not stimulate TNF-alpha secretion by macrophages, while LPS-coated particles dramatically increased that response. Phagocytosis by macrophages did not change the shape and size of the particles, but depleted the ability of the particles to stimulate TNF-alpha secretion by macrophages. This indicates that macrophages are capable of rendering titanium particles inactive without degrading the particles, possibly by altering the surface chemistry of the particles.

  7. Macrophage inflammatory markers are associated with subclinical carotid artery disease in women with HIV or HCV infection

    PubMed Central

    Shaked, Iftach; Hanna, David B; Gleißner, Christian; Marsh, Brenda; Plants, Jill; Tracy, Daniel; Anastos, Kathryn; Cohen, Mardge; Golub, Elizabeth T; Karim, Roksana; Lazar, Jason; Prasad, Vinayaka; Tien, Phyllis C.; Young, Mary A; Landay, Alan L; Kaplan, Robert C; Ley, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Objective Infection with hepatitis C (HCV) or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) may be associated with atherosclerosis and vascular disease. Macrophages are a major component of atherosclerotic plaque, and classically activated (M1) macrophages contribute to plaque instability. Our goal was to identify plasma biomarkers that reflect macrophage inflammation and are associated with subclinical atherosclerosis. Approach and results We tested whether M1 macrophages produce galectin-3 binding protein (Gal-3BP) in-vitro. Then we measured Gal-3BP and the soluble macrophage biomarkers sCD163 and sCD14 in 264 participants in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study. Women were positive for HIV, HCV, both, or neither (66 in each group, matched for age, race/ethnicity and smoking status). Carotid artery disease was assessed by ultrasound measurement of right distal common carotid artery intima-media thickness (cIMT), distensibility, and presence of atherosclerotic lesions (IMT>1.5 mm). Plasma Gal-3BP was higher in HCV+ than HCV− women (p<0.01), but did not differ by HIV status. The three inflammatory macrophage markers were significantly correlated with each other and negatively correlated with CD4+ counts in HIV-infected women. We defined a macrophage score as 1, 2 or 3 biomarkers elevated above the median. In models adjusted for traditional risk factors, higher macrophage scores were significantly associated with increased atherosclerotic lesions and lower carotid distensibility. Receiver-operator curve analysis of lesions revealed that the markers added predictive value beyond traditional risk factors and C-reactive protein. Conclusions The macrophage inflammatory markers Gal-3BP, sCD163 and sCD14 are significantly associated with carotid artery disease in the setting of HIV and HCV infection. PMID:24651679

  8. Infections with Avian Pathogenic and Fecal Escherichia coli Strains Display Similar Lung Histopathology and Macrophage Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Horn, Fabiana; Corrêa, André Mendes Ribeiro; Barbieri, Nicolle Lima; Glodde, Susanne; Weyrauch, Karl Dietrich; Kaspers, Bernd; Driemeier, David; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare histopathological changes in the lungs of chickens infected with avian pathogenic (APEC) and avian fecal (Afecal) Escherichia coli strains, and to analyze how the interaction of the bacteria with avian macrophages relates to the outcome of the infection. Chickens were infected intratracheally with three APEC strains, MT78, IMT5155, and UEL17, and one non-pathogenic Afecal strain, IMT5104. The pathogenicity of the strains was assessed by isolating bacteria from lungs, kidneys, and spleens at 24 h post-infection (p.i.). Lungs were examined for histopathological changes at 12, 18, and 24 h p.i. Serial lung sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (HE), terminal deoxynucleotidyl dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) for detection of apoptotic cells, and an anti-O2 antibody for detection of MT78 and IMT5155. UEL17 and IMT5104 did not cause systemic infections and the extents of lung colonization were two orders of magnitude lower than for the septicemic strains MT78 and IMT5155, yet all four strains caused the same extent of inflammation in the lungs. The inflammation was localized; there were some congested areas next to unaffected areas. Only the inflamed regions became labeled with anti-O2 antibody. TUNEL labeling revealed the presence of apoptotic cells at 12 h p.i in the inflamed regions only, and before any necrotic foci could be seen. The TUNEL-positive cells were very likely dying heterophils, as evidenced by the purulent inflammation. Some of the dying cells observed in avian lungs in situ may also be macrophages, since all four avian E. coli induced caspase 3/7 activation in monolayers of HD11 avian macrophages. In summary, both pathogenic and non-pathogenic fecal strains of avian E. coli produce focal infections in the avian lung, and these are accompanied by inflammation and cell death in the infected areas. PMID:22848424

  9. Immunoregulation by macrophages II. Separation of mouse peritoneal macrophages having tumoricidal and bactericidal activities and those secreting PGE and interleukin I

    SciTech Connect

    Hopper, K.E.; Cahill, J.M.

    1983-06-01

    Macrophage subpopulations having bactericidal or tumoricidal activities and secreting interleukin I (IL1) or prostaglandin E (PGE) were identified through primary or secondary infection with Salmonella enteritidis and separated by sedimentation velocity. Bactericidal activity was measured by (3H)-thymidine release from Listeria monocytogenes and tumoricidal activity by 51Cr-release from C-4 fibrosarcoma or P815 mastocytoma cells. Macrophages with bactericidal activity were distinguished from those with tumoricidal activity a) during secondary infection when cytolytic activity occurred only at days 1-4 post injection and bactericidal activity remained high throughout and b) after sedimentation velocity separation. Cytolysis was consistently greatest among adherent cells of low sedimentation velocity, whereas cells with bactericidal activity increased in size during the infection. Tumour cytostasis (inhibition and promotion of (3H)-thymidine uptake) differed from cytolysis in that the former was more prolonged during infection and was also detected among large cells. Secretion of immunoregulatory molecules PGE and IL1 occurred maximally among different macrophage subpopulations separated by sedimentation velocity and depending on the type of stimulus used in vitro. There was an inverse correlation between IL1 production and PGE production after stimulation with C3-zymosan or lipopolysaccharide (LPS). The development of immunity during infection may therefore be dependent upon the relative proportions of effector and regulatory macrophage subpopulations and the selective effects of environmental stimuli on these functions.

  10. Collagenase Production by Endotoxin-Activated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wahl, Larry M.; Wahl, Sharon M.; Mergenhagen, Stephan E.; Martin, George R.

    1974-01-01

    Peritoneal exudate macrophages, when exposed to bacterial lipopolysaccharide in culture, were found to produce collagenase (EC 3.4.24.3). This enzyme was not detected in extracts of the macrophages or in media from nonstimulated macrophage cultures. Lipidcontaining fractions of the lipopolysaccharide, including a glycolipid from the rough mutant of Salmonella minnesota (R595) and lipid A, were potent stimulators of collagenase production. The lipid-free polysaccharide fraction had no effect. Cycloheximide prevented the production of collagenase by endotoxin-treated macrophages, suggesting that it was newly synthesized. Images PMID:4372628

  11. Influence of trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) during mycobacterial infection of bone marrow macrophages.

    PubMed

    Indrigo, Jessica; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2002-07-01

    The relative role of surface lipids in the innate macrophage response to infection with mycobacteria remains unknown. Trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM), a major component of the mycobacterial cell wall, can elicit hypersensitive as well as T-cell-independent foreign body responses. The T-cell-independent contribution of TDM to the primary macrophage response to mycobacterial infection was investigated. Bone-marrow-derived macrophages isolated from C57BL/6 mice were infected with native Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) or with MTB delipidated using petroleum ether extraction methods. The removal of surface lipids caused decreased bacterial survival in macrophages, but there was no loss of bacterial growth in broth culture. Bacterial survival within macrophages was restored upon reconstitution of the bacteria with purified TDM. The cytokine and chemokine parameters of the macrophage responses were also investigated. The amounts of IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, IL-6 and MIP-1alpha produced were significantly reduced following delipidation, but were restored upon reconstitution with TDM. The amount of IL-12 produced, but not the amount of IL-10 produced, was also significantly reduced upon macrophage infection with delipidated MTB. Furthermore, nitric oxide responses were not impaired upon infection with delipidated MTB, suggesting that intracellular survival and macrophage secretion of cytokines and chemokines are differentially controlled. These studies indicate that TDM is a major component contributing to the innate macrophage responses to MTB infection.

  12. HCV dsRNA-Activated Macrophages Inhibit HCV Replication in Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yizhong; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Ho, Wenzhe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Macrophages play critical roles in innate immune response in the liver. Whether macrophages participate in liver innate immunity against HCV replication is poorly understood Objectives: The aim of this study was to investigate the role of macrophages in liver innate immunity against HCV replication. Materials and Methods: Freshly isolated monocytes were purified from peripheral blood of healthy adult donors. Macrophages refer to 7-day-cultured monocytes in vitro. A hepatoma cell line (Huh7) was infected with HCV JFH-1 to generate in vitro HCV infectious system. RT-PCR was used to determine HCV RNA and mRNA levels of genes expression. ELISA was used to measure the protein level of interferon-α (IFN-α) and western blot was used to determine protein expression level of Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Results: HCV dsRNA induced the expression of type I IFN (IFN-α/β) in monocyte-derived macrophages. HCV dsRNA also induced the expression of TLR3 and IFN regulatory factor-7 (IRF-7), the key regulators of the IFN signaling pathway. When HCV JFH-1-infected Huh7 cells were co-cultured with macrophages activated with HCV dsRNA or incubated in media conditioned with supernatant (SN) from HCV dsRNA-activated macrophages, HCV replication was significantly suppressed. This macrophage SN action on HCV inhibition was mediated through type I IFN, which was evidenced by the observation that antibody to type I IFN receptor could neutralize the macrophages-mediated anti-HCV effect. The role of type I IFN in macrophages-mediated anti-HCV activity is further supported by the observation that HCV dsRNA-activated macrophages SN treatment induced the expression of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs), ISG15, ISG56, OAS-1, OAS-2, MxA and Viperin in HCV-infected Huh7 cells. Conclusions: Macrophages may play an important role in liver innate immunity against HCV replication through a type I IFN-dependent mechanism. PMID:26322111

  13. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) stimulates murine macrophages infected with Citrobacter rodentium.

    PubMed

    Hugo, Ayelén A; Rolny, Ivanna S; Romanin, David; Pérez, Pablo F

    2017-03-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a specific murine enteropathogen which causes diarrheal disease characterized by colonic hyperplasia and intestinal inflammation. Recruitment of neutrophils and macrophages constitute a key step to control the infection. Since modulation of the activity of professional phagocytic cells could contribute to improve host´s defences against C. rodentium, we investigated the effect of Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) on the interaction between murine macrophages (RAW 264.7) and C. rodentium. Phagocytosis, surface molecules and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOs) expression were determined by flow cytometry. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were assessed by fluorescence microscopy. The presence of lactobacilli increased phagocytosis of C. rodentium whereas C. rodentium had no effect on lactobacilli internalization. Survival of internalized C. rodentium diminished when strain CIDCA 133 was present. CD-86, MHCII, iNOs expression and nitrite production were increased when C. rodentium and lactobacilli were present even though strain CIDCA 133 alone had no effect. Strain CIDCA 133 led to a strong induction of ROS activity which was not modified by C. rodentium. Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. lactis (strain CIDCA 133) is able to increase the activation of murine macrophages infected with C. rodentium. The sole presence of lactobacilli is enough to modify some stimulation markers (e.g. ROS induction) whereas other markers require the presence of both bacteria; thus, indicating a synergistic effect.

  14. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underpinning Macrophage Activation during Remyelination

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, Amy F.; Miron, Veronique E.

    2016-01-01

    Remyelination is an example of central nervous system (CNS) regeneration, whereby myelin is restored around demyelinated axons, re-establishing saltatory conduction and trophic/metabolic support. In progressive multiple sclerosis, remyelination is limited or fails altogether which is considered to contribute to axonal damage/loss and consequent disability. Macrophages have critical roles in both CNS damage and regeneration, such as remyelination. This diverse range in functions reflects the ability of macrophages to acquire tissue microenvironment-specific activation states. This activation is dynamically regulated during efficient regeneration, with a switch from pro-inflammatory to inflammation-resolution/pro-regenerative phenotypes. Although, some molecules and pathways have been implicated in the dynamic activation of macrophages, such as NFκB, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underpinning plasticity of macrophage activation are unclear. Identifying mechanisms regulating macrophage activation to pro-regenerative phenotypes may lead to novel therapeutic strategies to promote remyelination in multiple sclerosis. PMID:27446913

  15. SIV vpx is essential for macrophage infection but not for development of AIDS.

    PubMed

    Westmoreland, Susan V; Converse, A Peter; Hrecka, Kasia; Hurley, Mollie; Knight, Heather; Piatak, Michael; Lifson, Jeffrey; Mansfield, Keith G; Skowronski, Jacek; Desrosiers, Ronald C

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of rhesus macaques infected with a vpx deletion mutant virus of simian immunodeficiency virus mac239 (SIVΔvpx) demonstrates that Vpx is essential for efficient monocyte/macrophage infection in vivo but is not necessary for development of AIDS. To compare myeloid-lineage cell infection in monkeys infected with SIVΔvpx compared to SIVmac239, we analyzed lymphoid and gastrointestinal tissues from SIVΔvpx-infected rhesus (n = 5), SIVmac239-infected rhesus with SIV encephalitis (7 SIV239E), those without encephalitis (4 SIV239noE), and other SIV mutant viruses with low viral loads (4 SIVΔnef, 2 SIVΔ3). SIV+ macrophages and the percentage of total SIV+ cells that were macrophages in spleen and lymph nodes were significantly lower in rhesus infected with SIVΔvpx (2.2%) compared to those infected with SIV239E (22.7%), SIV239noE (8.2%), and SIV mutant viruses (10.1%). In colon, SIVΔvpx monkeys had fewer SIV+ cells, no SIV+ macrophages, and lower percentage of SIV+ cells that were macrophages than the other 3 groups. Only 2 SIVΔvpx monkeys exhibited detectable virus in the colon. We demonstrate that Vpx is essential for efficient macrophage infection in vivo and that simian AIDS and death can occur in the absence of detectable macrophage infection.

  16. Exopolysaccharide from Trichoderma pseudokoningii induces macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guodong; Zhu, Lei; Yu, Bo; Chen, Ke; Liu, Bo; Liu, Jun; Qin, Guozheng; Liu, Chunyan; Liu, Huixia; Chen, Kaoshan

    2016-09-20

    In this study, we evaluated the immunomodulatory activity of an exopolysaccharide (EPS) derived from Trichoderma pseudokoningii and investigated the molecular mechanism of EPS-mediated activation of macrophages. Results revealed that EPS could significantly induce the production of nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin (IL)-1β and enhance phagocytic activity in RAW 264.7 cells. Immunofluorescence staining indicated that EPS promoted the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65 subunit. Western blot analysis showed that EPS increased the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein, the degradation of IκB-α and the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). Furthermore, pretreatment of RAW 264.7 cells with specific inhibitors of NF-κB and MAPKs significantly attenuated EPS-induced TNF-α and IL-1β production. EPS also induced the inhibition of cytokine secretion by special antibodies against Toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4) and Dectin-1. These data suggest that EPS from Trichoderma pseudokoningii activates RAW 264.7 cells through NF-κB and MAPKs signaling pathways via TLR4 and Dectin-1.

  17. Amphiregulin may be a new biomarker of classically activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Liu, Guilin; Mu, Honglan; Zhou, Miaomiao; Zhang, Shihai; Xu, Younian

    2015-10-23

    Amphiregulin (Areg) participates in tissue repair and inflammation regulation. As important effector cells in inflammation, macrophages can be polarized to classically (M1) or alternatively (M2) activated phenotype with diverse functions in immunity. However, the relationship between Areg expression and macrophage activation is poorly understood. Here we report that Areg was significantly expressed in M1 but not in M2 macrophages. This was confirmed by analyses of RT-PCR and ELISA in peritoneal macrophages, and by evaluating protein expression in alveolar macrophages and RAW264.7 cells. Selective inhibitors of TLR4 (CLI-095) and MAP kinase, including Erk1/2 (PD98059), JNK (SP600125) and p38 (SB203580), significantly reduced Areg expression in M1 macrophages, suggesting that M1 macrophages produce Areg mainly through the TLR4-MAPK pathway, which is involved in the mechanism of M1 activation. When compared with productions of classical biomarkers of M1 macrophages, Areg expression was highly consistent in time series. Taken together, Areg may be an effective new biomarker of M1 macrophages.

  18. CCL2 Mediates Neuron-Macrophage Interactions to Drive Proregenerative Macrophage Activation Following Preconditioning Injury.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Min Jung; Shin, Hae Young; Cui, Yuexian; Kim, Hyosil; Thi, Anh Hong Le; Choi, Jun Young; Kim, Eun Young; Hwang, Dong Hoon; Kim, Byung Gon

    2015-12-02

    CNS neurons in adult mammals do not spontaneously regenerate axons after spinal cord injury. Preconditioning peripheral nerve injury allows the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) sensory axons to regenerate beyond the injury site by promoting expression of regeneration-associated genes. We have previously shown that peripheral nerve injury increases the number of macrophages in the DRGs and that the activated macrophages are critical to the enhancement of intrinsic regeneration capacity. The present study identifies a novel chemokine signal mediated by CCL2 that links regenerating neurons with proregenerative macrophage activation. Neutralization of CCL2 abolished the neurite outgrowth activity of conditioned medium obtained from neuron-macrophage cocultures treated with cAMP. The neuron-macrophage interactions that produced outgrowth-promoting conditioned medium required CCL2 in neurons and CCR2/CCR4 in macrophages. The conditioning effects were abolished in CCL2-deficient mice at 3 and 7 d after sciatic nerve injury, but CCL2 was dispensable for the initial growth response and upregulation of GAP-43 at the 1 d time point. Intraganglionic injection of CCL2 mimicked conditioning injury by mobilizing M2-like macrophages. Finally, overexpression of CCL2 in DRGs promoted sensory axon regeneration in a rat spinal cord injury model without harmful side effects. Our data suggest that CCL2-mediated neuron-macrophage interaction plays a critical role for amplification and maintenance of enhanced regenerative capacity by preconditioning peripheral nerve injury. Manipulation of chemokine signaling mediating neuron-macrophage interactions may represent a novel therapeutic approach to promote axon regeneration after CNS injury.

  19. Host response. Inflammation-induced disruption of SCS macrophages impairs B cell responses to secondary infection.

    PubMed

    Gaya, Mauro; Castello, Angelo; Montaner, Beatriz; Rogers, Neil; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Bruckbauer, Andreas; Batista, Facundo D

    2015-02-06

    The layer of macrophages at the subcapsular sinus (SCS) captures pathogens entering the lymph node, preventing their global dissemination and triggering an immune response. However, how infection affects SCS macrophages remains largely unexplored. Here we show that infection and inflammation disrupt the organization of SCS macrophages in a manner that involves the migration of mature dendritic cells to the lymph node. This disrupted organization reduces the capacity of SCS macrophages to retain and present antigen in a subsequent secondary infection, resulting in diminished B cell responses. Thus, the SCS macrophage layer may act as a sensor or valve during infection to temporarily shut down the lymph node to further antigenic challenge. This shutdown may increase an organism's susceptibility to secondary infections.

  20. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response

    PubMed Central

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains. PMID:27021246

  1. Coxiella burnetii Infects Primary Bovine Macrophages and Limits Their Host Cell Response.

    PubMed

    Sobotta, Katharina; Hillarius, Kirstin; Mager, Marvin; Kerner, Katharina; Heydel, Carsten; Menge, Christian

    2016-06-01

    Although domestic ruminants have long been recognized as the main source of human Q fever, little is known about the lifestyle that the obligate intracellular Gram-negative bacterium Coxiella burnetii adopts in its animal host. Because macrophages are considered natural target cells of the pathogen, we established primary bovine monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) as an in vitro infection model to study reservoir host-pathogen interactions at the cellular level. In addition, bovine alveolar macrophages were included to take cell type peculiarities at a host entry site into account. Cell cultures were inoculated with the virulent strain Nine Mile I (NMI; phase I) or the avirulent strain Nine Mile II (NMII; phase II). Macrophages from both sources internalized NMI and NMII. MDM were particularly permissive for NMI internalization, but NMI and NMII replicated with similar kinetics in these cells. MDM responded to inoculation with a general upregulation of Th1-related cytokines such as interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-12, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) early on (3 h postinfection). However, inflammatory responses rapidly declined when C. burnetii replication started. C. burnetii infection inhibited translation and release of IL-1β and vastly failed to stimulate increased expression of activation markers, such as CD40, CD80, CD86, and major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Such capability of limiting proinflammatory responses may help Coxiella to protect itself from clearance by the host immune system. The findings provide the first detailed insight into C. burnetii-macrophage interactions in ruminants and may serve as a basis for assessing the virulence and the host adaptation of C. burnetii strains.

  2. Keap1 regulates inflammatory signaling in Mycobacterium avium-infected human macrophages.

    PubMed

    Awuh, Jane Atesoh; Haug, Markus; Mildenberger, Jennifer; Marstad, Anne; Do, Chau Phuc Ngoc; Louet, Claire; Stenvik, Jørgen; Steigedal, Magnus; Damås, Jan Kristian; Halaas, Øyvind; Flo, Trude Helen

    2015-08-04

    Several mechanisms are involved in controlling intracellular survival of pathogenic mycobacteria in host macrophages, but how these mechanisms are regulated remains poorly understood. We report a role for Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1), an oxidative stress sensor, in regulating inflammation induced by infection with Mycobacterium avium in human primary macrophages. By using confocal microscopy, we found that Keap1 associated with mycobacterial phagosomes in a time-dependent manner, whereas siRNA-mediated knockdown of Keap1 increased M. avium-induced expression of inflammatory cytokines and type I interferons (IFNs). We show evidence of a mechanism whereby Keap1, as part of an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex with Cul3 and Rbx1, facilitates ubiquitination and degradation of IκB kinase (IKK)-β thus terminating IKK activity. Keap1 knockdown led to increased nuclear translocation of transcription factors NF-κB, IFN regulatory factor (IRF) 1, and IRF5 driving the expression of inflammatory cytokines and IFN-β. Furthermore, knockdown of other members of the Cul3 ubiquitin ligase complex also led to increased cytokine expression, further implicating this ligase complex in the regulation of the IKK family. Finally, increased inflammatory responses in Keap1-silenced cells contributed to decreased intracellular growth of M. avium in primary human macrophages that was reconstituted with inhibitors of IKKβ or TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1). Taken together, we propose that Keap1 acts as a negative regulator for the control of inflammatory signaling in M. avium-infected human primary macrophages. Although this might be important to avoid sustained or overwhelming inflammation, our data suggest that a negative consequence could be facilitated growth of pathogens like M. avium inside macrophages.

  3. Primary macrophages and J774 cells respond differently to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Andreu, Nuria; Phelan, Jody; de Sessions, Paola F.; Cliff, Jacqueline M.; Clark, Taane G.; Hibberd, Martin L.

    2017-01-01

    Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are the cell type preferentially infected in vivo. Primary macrophages and macrophage-like cell lines are commonly used as infection models, although the physiological relevance of cell lines, particularly for host-pathogen interaction studies, is debatable. Here we use high-throughput RNA-sequencing to analyse transcriptome dynamics of two macrophage models in response to M. tuberculosis infection. Specifically, we study the early response of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and cell line J774 to infection with live and γ-irradiated (killed) M. tuberculosis. We show that infection with live bacilli specifically alters the expression of host genes such as Rsad2, Ifit1/2/3 and Rig-I, whose potential roles in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection have not yet been investigated. In addition, the response of primary macrophages is faster and more intense than that of J774 cells in terms of number of differentially expressed genes and magnitude of induction/repression. Our results point to potentially novel processes leading to immune containment early during M. tuberculosis infection, and support the idea that important differences exist between primary macrophages and cell lines, which should be taken into account when choosing a macrophage model to study host-pathogen interactions. PMID:28176867

  4. Primary macrophages and J774 cells respond differently to infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Andreu, Nuria; Phelan, Jody; de Sessions, Paola F; Cliff, Jacqueline M; Clark, Taane G; Hibberd, Martin L

    2017-02-08

    Macrophages play an essential role in the early immune response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and are the cell type preferentially infected in vivo. Primary macrophages and macrophage-like cell lines are commonly used as infection models, although the physiological relevance of cell lines, particularly for host-pathogen interaction studies, is debatable. Here we use high-throughput RNA-sequencing to analyse transcriptome dynamics of two macrophage models in response to M. tuberculosis infection. Specifically, we study the early response of bone marrow-derived mouse macrophages and cell line J774 to infection with live and γ-irradiated (killed) M. tuberculosis. We show that infection with live bacilli specifically alters the expression of host genes such as Rsad2, Ifit1/2/3 and Rig-I, whose potential roles in resistance to M. tuberculosis infection have not yet been investigated. In addition, the response of primary macrophages is faster and more intense than that of J774 cells in terms of number of differentially expressed genes and magnitude of induction/repression. Our results point to potentially novel processes leading to immune containment early during M. tuberculosis infection, and support the idea that important differences exist between primary macrophages and cell lines, which should be taken into account when choosing a macrophage model to study host-pathogen interactions.

  5. Enhancement of host resistance against Listeria infection by Lactobacillus casei: Role of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Sato, K.

    1984-05-01

    Among the 10 species of the genus Lactobacillus, L. casei showed the strongest protective action against Listeria monocytogenes infection in mice. The activity of L. casei differed with regard to the dose of administration. The anti-L. monocytogenes resistance in mice intravenously administered 5.5 X 10(7), 2.8 X 10(8), or 1.1 X 10(9) L. casei cells was most manifest at ca. 2, 2 and 13, and 3 to 21 days after its administration, respectively. The growth of L. monocytogenes in the liver of mice injected with L. casei (10(7), 10(8), or 10(9) cells) 48 h after infection was suppressed, particularly when 10(8) or 10(9) L. casei cells were given 2 or 13 days before the induced infection, respectively. This suppression of L. monocytogenes growth was overcome by carrageenan treatment or X-ray irradiation. (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation into the liver DNA increased 13 days after administration of L. casei, and augmentation of (/sup 3/H)thymidine incorporation during 6 to 48 h after infection was dependent on the dose of L. casei. Peritoneal macrophage accumulation observed 1 to 5 days after intraperitoneal injection of UV-killed L. monocytogenes was markedly enhanced when the mice were treated with L. casei cells 13 days before macrophage elicitation. Therefore, the enhanced host resistance by L. casei to L. monocytogenes infection may be mediated by macrophages migrating from the blood stream to the reticuloendothelial system in response to L. casei injection before or after L. monocytogenes infection.

  6. Control of tumor-associated macrophage alternative activation by MIF

    PubMed Central

    Yaddanapudi, Kavitha; Putty, Kalyani; Rendon, Beatriz E.; Lamont, Gwyneth J.; Faughn, Jonathan D.; Satoskar, Abhay; Lasnik, Amanda; Eaton, John W.; Mitchell, Robert A.

    2013-01-01

    Tumor stromal alternatively activated macrophages are important determinants of anti-tumor T lymphocyte responses, intratumoral neovascularization and metastatic dissemination. Our recent efforts to investigate the mechanism of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) in antagonizing anti-melanoma immune responses reveal that macrophage-derived MIF participates in macrophage alternative activation in melanoma-bearing mice. Both peripheral and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) isolated from melanoma bearing MIF-deficient mice display elevated pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and reduced anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive and pro-angiogenic gene products compared to macrophages from tumor bearing MIF wildtype mice. Moreover, TAMs and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) from MIF-deficient mice exhibit reduced T lymphocyte immunosuppressive activities than do those from their wildtype littermates. Corresponding with reduced tumor immunosuppression and neoangiogenic potential by TAMs, MIF-deficiency confers protection against transplantable subcutaneous melanoma outgrowth and melanoma lung metastatic colonization. Finally, we report for the first time that our previously discovered MIF small molecule antagonist, 4-iodo-6-phenylpyrimidine (4-IPP), recapitulates MIF-deficiency in vitro and in vivo and attenuates tumor polarized macrophage alternative activation, immunosuppression, neoangiogenesis and melanoma tumor outgrowth. These studies describe an important functional contribution by MIF to tumor-associated macrophage alternative activation and provide justification for immunotherapeutic targeting of MIF in melanoma patients. PMID:23390297

  7. Macrophage activation syndrome in the course of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Rigante, Donato; Emmi, Giacomo; Fastiggi, Michele; Silvestri, Elena; Cantarini, Luca

    2015-08-01

    An overwhelming activation of cytotoxic T cells and well-differentiated macrophages leading to systemic overload of inflammatory mediators characterizes the so-called macrophage activation syndrome (MAS); this potentially life-threatening clinical entity may derive from several genetic defects involved in granule-mediated cytotoxicity but has been largely observed in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis, many rheumatologic diseases, infections, and malignancies. The occurrence of MAS in the natural history or as the revealing clue of monogenic autoinflammatory disorders (AIDs), rare conditions caused by disrupted innate immunity pathways with overblown release of proinflammatory cytokines, has been only reported in few isolated patients with cryopyrin-associated periodic syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, familial Mediterranean fever, and tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome since 2001. All these patients displayed various clinical, laboratory, and histopathologic features of MAS and have often required intensive care support. Only one patient has died due to MAS. Defective cytotoxic cell function was documented in a minority of patients. Corticosteroids were the first-line treatment, but anakinra was clinically effective in three refractory cases. Even if MAS and AIDs share multiple clinical features as well as heterogeneous pathogenetic scenes and a potential response to anti-interleukin-1 targeted therapies, MAS requires a prompt specific recognition in the course of AIDs due to its profound severity and high mortality rate.

  8. Modulations of 92kDa gelatinase B and its inhibitors are associated with HIV-1 infection in human macrophage cultures.

    PubMed

    Chapel, C; Camara, V; Clayette, P; Salvat, S; Mabondzo, A; Leblond, V; Marcé, D; Lafuma, C; Dormont, D

    1994-11-15

    The macrophage-secreted 92-kDa type IV collagenase and metalloproteinases play a critical role in cell microenvironment regulation and cell movement. HIV infection of macrophages might be capable of deregulating the expression of these gelatinases. Hence, human monocyte-derived-macrophages were infected by lymphotropic HIV-1/Lai and monocytropic HIV-1/DAS isolates. Gelatinase activity and gelatinase and inhibitor (TIMP, alpha 2M) biosyntheses were evaluated in supernatants and cellular extracts. Our data suggest that HIV infection facilitates gelatinase secretion and intracellular inhibitor retention. These argue for the increase of free proteinase that could degrade barriers, which would permit cell movement and viral dissemination into tissues.

  9. Macrophages sense and kill bacteria through carbon monoxide–dependent inflammasome activation

    PubMed Central

    Wegiel, Barbara; Larsen, Rasmus; Gallo, David; Chin, Beek Yoke; Harris, Clair; Mannam, Praveen; Kaczmarek, Elzbieta; Lee, Patty J.; Zuckerbraun, Brian S.; Flavell, Richard; Soares, Miguel P.; Otterbein, Leo E.

    2014-01-01

    Microbial clearance by eukaryotes relies on complex and coordinated processes that remain poorly understood. The gasotransmitter carbon monoxide (CO) is generated by the stress-responsive enzyme heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, encoded by Hmox1), which is highly induced in macrophages in response to bacterial infection. HO-1 deficiency results in inadequate pathogen clearance, exaggerated tissue damage, and increased mortality. Here, we determined that macrophage-generated CO promotes ATP production and release by bacteria, which then activates the Nacht, LRR, and PYD domains-containing protein 3 (NALP3) inflammasome, intensifying bacterial killing. Bacterial killing defects in HO-1–deficient murine macrophages were restored by administration of CO. Moreover, increased CO levels enhanced the bacterial clearance capacity of human macrophages and WT murine macrophages. CO-dependent bacterial clearance required the NALP3 inflammasome, as CO did not increase bacterial killing in macrophages isolated from NALP3-deficient or caspase-1–deficient mice. IL-1β cleavage and secretion were impaired in HO-1–deficient macrophages, and CO-dependent processing of IL-1β required the presence of bacteria-derived ATP. We found that bacteria remained viable to generate and release ATP in response to CO. The ATP then bound to macrophage nucleotide P2 receptors, resulting in activation of the NALP3/IL-1β inflammasome to amplify bacterial phagocytosis by macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that macrophage-derived CO permits efficient and coordinated regulation of the host innate response to invading microbes. PMID:25295542

  10. Sodium-activated macrophages: the salt mine expands.

    PubMed

    Lucca, Liliana E; Hafler, David A

    2015-08-01

    High sodium consumption has been raising interest as a putative environmental factor linking Western lifestyle to the growing epidemic of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Now Zhang and colleagues show that high sodium drives macrophage to acquire a new proinflammatory effector phenotype with a distinct signature, paving the path to assess the role of salt-activated macrophages in human disease.

  11. Comparison of antiviral activity of lambda-interferons against HIV replication in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yizhong; Li, Jieliang; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Zhang, Ting; Ho, Wenzhe

    2015-03-01

    Lambda-interferons (IFN-λs) have been demonstrated as having the ability to inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. However, specific differences in signaling transduction and anti-HIV activity in macrophages between different IFN-λs are unclear. Here, we showed that although all 3 members of (IFN-λ1, λ2, and λ3) IFN-λ family induced the expression of a number of genes of janus kinase/signal transducers and activators of transcription (JAK/STAT) signaling pathway in monocyte-derived macrophages, IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of antiviral IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) expression than did IFN-λ2. In addition, IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 induced higher levels of several pattern recognition receptors (PPRs) than did IFN-λ2. Incubation of IFN-λs with HIV-infected macrophages showed that IFN-λ1 or IFN-λ3 is more potent in anti-HIV activity than IFN-λ2. We also showed that IFN-λ treatment before HIV infection was more potent in HIV inhibition than that after HIV infection. Further investigations showed that the inductions of ISGs and PPRs expression by IFN-λs were largely compromised by HIV infection. These findings provide further experimental evidence that IFN-λs have therapeutic potential in treatment of HIV infection.

  12. Activation of TLR3/interferon signaling pathway by bluetongue virus results in HIV inhibition in macrophages.

    PubMed

    Dai, Ming; Wang, Xu; Li, Jie-Liang; Zhou, Yu; Sang, Ming; Liu, Jin-Biao; Wu, Jian-Guo; Ho, Wen-Zhe

    2015-12-01

    Bluetongue virus (BTV), a nonenveloped double-stranded RNA virus, is a potent inducer of type Ι interferons in multiple cell systems. In this study, we report that BTV16 treatment of primary human macrophages induced both type I and III IFN expression, resulting in the production of multiple antiviral factors, including myxovirus resistance protein A, 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase, and the IFN-stimulated gene 56. Additionally, BTV-treated macrophages expressed increased HIV restriction factors (apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide 3 G/F/H) and CC chemokines (macrophage inflammatory protein 1-α, macrophage inflammatory protein 1-β, regulated on activation of normal T cell expressed and secreted), the ligands for HIV entry coreceptor CC chemokine receptor type 5. BTV16 also induced the expression of tetherin, which restricts HIV release from infected cells. Furthermore, TLR3 signaling of macrophages by BTV16 resulted in the induction of several anti-HIV microRNAs (miRNA-28, -29a, -125b, -150, -223, and -382). More importantly, the induction of antiviral responses by BTV resulted in significant suppression of HIV in macrophages. These findings demonstrate the potential of BTV-mediated TLR3 activation in macrophage innate immunity against HIV.

  13. Cryptococcus neoformans Intracellular Proliferation and Capsule Size Determines Early Macrophage Control of Infection.

    PubMed

    Bojarczuk, Aleksandra; Miller, Katie A; Hotham, Richard; Lewis, Amy; Ogryzko, Nikolay V; Kamuyango, Alfred A; Frost, Helen; Gibson, Rory H; Stillman, Eleanor; May, Robin C; Renshaw, Stephen A; Johnston, Simon A

    2016-02-18

    Cryptococcus neoformans is a significant fungal pathogen of immunocompromised patients. Many questions remain regarding the function of macrophages in normal clearance of cryptococcal infection and the defects present in uncontrolled cryptococcosis. Two current limitations are: 1) The difficulties in interpreting studies using isolated macrophages in the context of the progression of infection, and 2) The use of high resolution imaging in understanding immune cell behavior during animal infection. Here we describe a high-content imaging method in a zebrafish model of cryptococcosis that permits the detailed analysis of macrophage interactions with C. neoformans during infection. Using this approach we demonstrate that, while macrophages are critical for control of C. neoformans, a failure of macrophage response is not the limiting defect in fatal infections. We find phagocytosis is restrained very early in infection and that increases in cryptococcal number are driven by intracellular proliferation. We show that macrophages preferentially phagocytose cryptococci with smaller polysaccharide capsules and that capsule size is greatly increased over twenty-four hours of infection, a change that is sufficient to severely limit further phagocytosis. Thus, high-content imaging of cryptococcal infection in vivo demonstrates how very early interactions between macrophages and cryptococci are critical in the outcome of cryptococcosis.

  14. Caspase-independent apoptosis in infected macrophages triggered by sulforaphane via Nrf2/p38 signaling pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bonay, M; Roux, A-L; Floquet, J; Retory, Y; Herrmann, J-L; Lofaso, F; Deramaudt, TB

    2015-01-01

    Mycobacterium abscessus (Mabs), a non-tuberculous mycobacterium, is an emerging and rapidly growing opportunistic pathogen that is frequently found in patients with cystic fibrosis and in immunosuppressed patients. Its high tolerance to antibiotics is of great concern for public health. In this study, our results showed that human THP-1-derived macrophages infected with M. abscessus presented an increase in ROS production and cell necrosis. In addition, M. abscessus infection triggered activation of the Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway, and the induction of HO-1 and NQO1 expression levels. Interestingly, pretreatment of macrophages with sulforaphane (SFN), an activator of the antioxidant key regulator Nrf2, followed by M. abscessus infection significantly decreased mycobacterial burden. We demonstrated that this reduction in mycobacterial growth was due to an activation in cell apoptosis in SFN-pretreated and M. abscessus-infected macrophages. Pretreatment with specific MAPK inhibitors, PD98059, SP600125, and SB203580 to ERK, JNK, and p38 respectively, failed to inhibit induction of Nrf2 expression, suggesting that Nrf2 signaling pathway was upstream of MAPK signaling. Activation of cell apoptosis was caspase 3/7 independent but p38 MAPK dependent. Moreover, p38 MAPK induction was abolished in macrophages transfected with Nrf2 siRNA. In addition, p38 inhibitor abolished Nrf2-dependent apoptosis in infected macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that modulation of the Nrf2 signaling using Nrf2 activators may help potentiate the actual drug therapies used to treat mycobacterial infection. PMID:27551455

  15. Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells Suppress Phagolysosome Activation in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Eric; Choe, Yoona; Ng, Tat Fong; Taylor, Andrew W.

    2017-01-01

    Purpose The eye is an immune-privileged microenvironment that has adapted several mechanisms of immune regulation to prevent inflammation. One of these potential mechanisms is retinal pigment epithelial cells (RPE) altering phagocytosis in macrophages. Methods The conditioned media of RPE eyecups from eyes of healthy mice and mice with experimental autoimmune uveitis (EAU) were used to treat primary macrophage phagocytizing pHrodo bacterial bioparticles. In addition, the neuropeptides were depleted from the conditioned media of healthy RPE eyecups and used to treat phagocytizing macrophages. The conditioned media from healthy and EAU RPE eyecups were assayed for IL-6, and IL-6 was added to the healthy conditioned media, and neutralized in the EAU conditioned media. The macrophages were treated with the conditioned media and assayed for fluorescence. The macrophages were imaged, and the fluorescence intensity, relative to active phagolysosomes, was measured. Also, the macrophages were assayed using fluorescent viability dye staining. Results The conditioned media from healthy, but not from EAU RPE eyecups suppressed phagolysosome activation. Depletion of the neuropeptides alpha-melanocyte–stimulating hormone and neuropeptide Y from the healthy RPE eyecup conditioned media resulted in macrophage death. In the EAU RPE eyecup conditioned media was 0.96 ± 0.18 ng/mL of IL-6, and when neutralized the conditioned media suppressed phagolysosome activation. Conclusions The healthy RPE through soluble molecules, including alpha-melanocyte–stimulating hormone and neuropeptide Y, suppresses the activation of the phagolysosome in macrophages. In EAU, the IL-6 produced by the RPE promotes the activation of phagolysosomes in macrophages. These results demonstrate that under healthy conditions, RPE promotes an altered pathway of phagocytized material in macrophages with implications on antigen processing and clearance. PMID:28241314

  16. Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Derived from CD4+ T Cells Contributes to Control of a Blood-Borne Infection

    PubMed Central

    de Melo, Gabrielly L.; Anidi, Chioma; Hamburger, Rebecca; Pham, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic regulation of leukocyte population size and activation state is crucial for an effective immune response. In malaria, Plasmodium parasites elicit robust host expansion of macrophages and monocytes, but the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that myeloid expansion during P. chabaudi infection is dependent upon both CD4+ T cells and the cytokine Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor (MCSF). Single-cell RNA-Seq analysis on antigen-experienced T cells revealed robust expression of Csf1, the gene encoding MCSF, in a sub-population of CD4+ T cells with distinct transcriptional and surface phenotypes. Selective deletion of Csf1 in CD4+ cells during P. chabaudi infection diminished proliferation and activation of certain myeloid subsets, most notably lymph node-resident CD169+ macrophages, and resulted in increased parasite burden and impaired recovery of infected mice. Depletion of CD169+ macrophages during infection also led to increased parasitemia and significant host mortality, confirming a previously unappreciated role for these cells in control of P. chabaudi. This work establishes the CD4+ T cell as a physiologically relevant source of MCSF in vivo; probes the complexity of the CD4+ T cell response during type 1 infection; and delineates a novel mechanism by which T helper cells regulate myeloid cells to limit growth of a blood-borne intracellular pathogen. PMID:27923070

  17. Macrophages are the determinant of resistance to and outcome of nonlethal Babesia microti infection in mice.

    PubMed

    Terkawi, Mohamad Alaa; Cao, Shinuo; Herbas, Maria S; Nishimura, Maki; Li, Yan; Moumouni, Paul Franck Adjou; Pyarokhil, Asadullah Hamid; Kondoh, Daisuke; Kitamura, Nobuo; Nishikawa, Yoshifumi; Kato, Kentaro; Yokoyama, Naoaki; Zhou, Jinlin; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Ikuo; Xuan, Xuenan

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, we examined the contributions of macrophages to the outcome of infection with Babesia microti, the etiological agent of human and rodent babesiosis, in BALB/c mice. Mice were treated with clodronate liposome at different times during the course of B. microti infection in order to deplete the macrophages. Notably, a depletion of host macrophages at the early and acute phases of infection caused a significant elevation of parasitemia associated with remarkable mortality in the mice. The depletion of macrophages at the resolving and latent phases of infection resulted in an immediate and temporal exacerbation of parasitemia coupled with mortality in mice. Reconstituting clodronate liposome-treated mice at the acute phase of infection with macrophages from naive mice resulted in a slight reduction in parasitemia with improved survival compared to that of mice that received the drug alone. These results indicate that macrophages play a crucial role in the control of and resistance to B. microti infection in mice. Moreover, analyses of host immune responses revealed that macrophage-depleted mice diminished their production of Th1 cell cytokines, including gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). Furthermore, depletion of macrophages at different times exaggerated the pathogenesis of the infection in deficient IFN-γ(-/-) and severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. Collectively, our data provide important clues about the role of macrophages in the resistance and control of B. microti and imply that the severity of the infection in immunocompromised patients might be due to impairment of macrophage function.

  18. Functional evaluation of gene silencing on macrophages derived from U937 cells using interference RNA (shRNA) in a model of macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis.

    PubMed

    Ovalle-Bracho, Clemencia; Londoño-Barbosa, Diana A; Franco-Muñoz, Carlos; Clavijo-Ramírez, Carlos

    2015-12-01

    Leishmaniasis development is multifactorial; nonetheless, the establishment of the infection, which occurs by the survival and replication of the parasite inside its main host cell, the macrophage, is mandatory. Thus, the importance of studying the molecular mechanisms involved in the Leishmania-macrophage interaction is highlighted. The aim of this study was to characterize a cellular model of macrophages derived from U937 cells that would allow for the identification of infection phenotypes induced by genetic silencing with interference RNA in the context of macrophages infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis. The model was standardized by silencing an exogenous gene (gfp), an endogenous gene (lmna) and a differentially expressed gene between infected and non-infected macrophages (gro-β). The silencing process was successful for the three genes studied, obtaining reductions of 88·9% in the GFP levels, 87·5% in LMNA levels and 74·4% for Gro-β with respect to the corresponding control cell lines. The cell model revealed changes in the infection phenotype of the macrophages in terms of number of amastigotes per infected macrophage, number of amastigotes per sampled macrophage and percentage of infected macrophages as a result of gene silencing. Thus, this cell model constitutes a research platform for the study of parasite-host interactions and for the identification of potentially therapeutic targets.

  19. Alternatively Activated (M2) Macrophage Phenotype Is Inducible by Endothelin-1 in Cultured Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Soldano, Stefano; Pizzorni, Carmen; Paolino, Sabrina; Trombetta, Amelia Chiara; Montagna, Paola; Brizzolara, Renata; Ruaro, Barbara; Sulli, Alberto; Cutolo, Maurizio

    2016-01-01

    Background Alternatively activated (M2) macrophages are phenotypically characterized by the expression of specific markers, mainly macrophage scavenger receptors (CD204 and CD163) and mannose receptor-1 (CD206), and participate in the fibrotic process by over-producing pro-fibrotic molecules, such as transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGFbeta1) and metalloproteinase (MMP)-9. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is implicated in the fibrotic process, exerting its pro-fibrotic effects through the interaction with its receptors (ETA and ETB). The study investigated the possible role of ET-1 in inducing the transition from cultured human macrophages into M2 cells. Methods Cultured human monocytes (THP-1 cell line) were activated into macrophages (M0 macrophages) with phorbol myristate acetate and subsequently maintained in growth medium (M0-controls) or treated with either ET-1 (100nM) or interleukin-4 (IL-4, 10ng/mL, M2 inducer) for 72 hours. Similarly, primary cultures of human peripheral blood monocyte (PBM)-derived macrophages obtained from healthy subjects, were maintained in growth medium (untreated cells) or treated with ET-1 or IL-4 for 6 days. Both M0 and PBM-derived macrophages were pre-treated with ET receptor antagonist (ETA/BRA, bosentan 10-5M) for 1 hour before ET-1 stimulation. Protein and gene expression of CD204, CD206, CD163, TGFbeta1 were analysed by immunocytochemistry, Western blotting and quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Gene expression of interleukin(IL)-10 and macrophage derived chemokine (CCL-22) was evaluated by qRT-PCR. MMP-9 production was investigated by gel zymography. Results ET-1 significantly increased the expression of M2 phenotype markers CD204, CD206, CD163, IL-10 and CCL-22, and the production of MMP-9 in both cultures of M0 and PBM-derived macrophages compared to M0-controls and untreated cells. In cultured PBM-derived macrophages, ET-1 increased TGFbeta1 protein and gene expression compared to untreated cells. The ET-1

  20. Molecular and epigenetic basis of macrophage polarized activation.

    PubMed

    Porta, Chiara; Riboldi, Elena; Ippolito, Alessandro; Sica, Antonio

    2015-08-01

    Macrophages are unique cells for origin, heterogeneity and plasticity. At steady state most of macrophages are derived from fetal sources and maintained in adulthood through self-renewing. Despite sharing common progenitors, a remarkable heterogeneity characterized tissue-resident macrophages indicating that local signals educate them to express organ-specific functions. Macrophages are extremely plastic: chromatin landscape and transcriptional programs can be dynamically re-shaped in response to microenvironmental changes. Owing to their ductility, macrophages are crucial orchestrators of both initiation and resolution of immune responses and key supporters of tissue development and functions in homeostatic and pathological conditions. Herein, we describe current understanding of heterogeneity and plasticity of macrophages using the M1-M2 dichotomy as operationally useful simplification of polarized activation. We focused on the complex network of signaling cascades, metabolic pathways, transcription factors, and epigenetic changes that control macrophage activation. In particular, this network was addressed in sepsis, as a paradigm of a pathological condition determining dynamic macrophage reprogramming.

  1. Clofazimine modulates the expression of lipid metabolism proteins in Mycobacterium leprae-infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Degang, Yang; Akama, Takeshi; Hara, Takeshi; Tanigawa, Kazunari; Ishido, Yuko; Gidoh, Masaichi; Makino, Masahiko; Ishii, Norihisa; Suzuki, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium leprae (M. leprae) lives and replicates within macrophages in a foamy, lipid-laden phagosome. The lipids provide essential nutrition for the mycobacteria, and M. leprae infection modulates expression of important host proteins related to lipid metabolism. Thus, M. leprae infection increases the expression of adipophilin/adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP) and decreases hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL), facilitating the accumulation and maintenance of lipid-rich environments suitable for the intracellular survival of M. leprae. HSL levels are not detectable in skin smear specimens taken from leprosy patients, but re-appear shortly after multidrug therapy (MDT). This study examined the effect of MDT components on host lipid metabolism in vitro, and the outcome of rifampicin, dapsone and clofazimine treatment on ADRP and HSL expression in THP-1 cells. Clofazimine attenuated the mRNA and protein levels of ADRP in M. leprae-infected cells, while those of HSL were increased. Rifampicin and dapsone did not show any significant effects on ADRP and HSL expression levels. A transient increase of interferon (IFN)-β and IFN-γ mRNA was also observed in cells infected with M. leprae and treated with clofazimine. Lipid droplets accumulated by M. leprae-infection were significantly decreased 48 h after clofazimine treatment. Such effects were not evident in cells without M. leprae infection. In clinical samples, ADRP expression was decreased and HSL expression was increased after treatment. These results suggest that clofazimine modulates lipid metabolism in M. leprae-infected macrophages by modulating the expression of ADRP and HSL. It also induces IFN production in M. leprae-infected cells. The resultant decrease in lipid accumulation, increase in lipolysis, and activation of innate immunity may be some of the key actions of clofazimine.

  2. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the catabolic activity of macrophages

    SciTech Connect

    Cluff, C.; Ziegler, H.K.

    1986-03-05

    The ability of macrophages to degrade and catabolize antigens is of relevance both as a means to process complex antigens prior to presentation to T cells, as well as a way to down regulate immune responses by destroying the antigenicity of polypeptides. With these considerations, the authors have investigated the regulation of macrophage catabolic activity by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Catabolic activity was quantitated by following the distribution and molecular form of /sup 125/-I labelled surface components of heat-killed Listeria monocytogenes (HKLM) subsequent to their uptake by macrophages. They have compared the catabolic activity of macrophages from peritoneal exudates of mice injected i.p. with saline or LPS and have found that LPS-elicited macrophages display a greatly enhanced (3 fold) rate of catabolism. This increase in catabolic activity peaks 3 days after LPS injection and steadily declines thereafter, approaching a baseline level after 3 weeks. The enhancement of catabolic activity is under LPS gene control. LPS-elicited macrophages rapidly destroy the antigenicity of bacterial antigens and function poorly as antigen presenting cells in vitro. These results suggest that LPS elicits a macrophage population specialized for antigen degradation functions with negative regulatory effects on the induction of specific immune responses.

  3. Crosstalk between autophagy and apoptosis in RAW 264.7 macrophages infected with ectromelia orthopoxvirus.

    PubMed

    Martyniszyn, Lech; Szulc-Dąbrowska, Lidia; Boratyńska-Jasińska, Anna; Struzik, Justyna; Winnicka, Anna; Niemiałtowski, Marek

    2013-10-01

    Several studies have provided evidence that complex relationships between autophagic and apoptotic cell death pathways occur in cancer and virus-infected cells. Previously, we demonstrated that infection of macrophages with Moscow strain of ectromelia virus (ECTV-MOS) induces apoptosis under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Here, we found that autophagy was induced in RAW 264.7 cells during infection with ECTV-MOS. Silencing of beclin 1, an autophagy-related gene, reduced the percentage of late apoptotic cells in virus-infected RAW 264.7 macrophages. Pharmacological modulation of autophagy by wortmannin (inhibitor) or rapamycin (inductor) did not affect or cause increased apoptosis in ECTV-MOS-infected RAW 264.7 cells, respectively. Meantime, blocking apoptosis by a pan-caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK, increased the formation of autophagosomes in infected macrophages. Taken together, three important points arise from our study. First, autophagy may co-occur with apoptosis in RAW 264.7 cells exposed to ECTV-MOS. Second, at later stages of infection, autophagy may partially participate in the execution of macrophage cell death by enhancing apoptosis. Third, when apoptosis is blocked infected macrophages undergo increased autophagy. Our results provide new information about the relationship between autophagy and apoptosis in ECTV-MOS-infected macrophages.

  4. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages.

    PubMed

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-05-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed.

  5. Trypanosoma cruzi Calreticulin Topographical Variations in Parasites Infecting Murine Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    González, Andrea; Valck, Carolina; Sánchez, Gittith; Härtel, Steffen; Mansilla, Jorge; Ramírez, Galia; Fernández, María Soledad; Arias, José Luis; Galanti, Norbel; Ferreira, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Trypanosoma cruzi calreticulin (TcCRT), a 47-kDa chaperone, translocates from the endoplasmic reticulum to the area of flagellum emergence. There, it binds to complement components C1 and mannan-binding lectin (MBL), thus acting as a main virulence factor, and inhibits the classical and lectin pathways. The localization and functions of TcCRT, once the parasite is inside the host cell, are unknown. In parasites infecting murine macrophages, polyclonal anti-TcCRT antibodies detected TcCRT mainly in the parasite nucleus and kinetoplast. However, with a monoclonal antibody (E2G7), the resolution and specificity of the label markedly improved, and TcCRT was detected mainly in the parasite kinetoplast. Gold particles, bound to the respective antibodies, were used as probes in electron microscopy. This organelle may represent a stopover and accumulation site for TcCRT, previous its translocation to the area of flagellum emergence. Finally, early during T. cruzi infection and by unknown mechanisms, an important decrease in the number of MHC-I positive host cells was observed. PMID:25758653

  6. Virus-cell interactions regulating induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha production in macrophages infected with herpes simplex virus.

    PubMed

    Paludan, S R; Mogensen, S C

    2001-11-01

    Macrophages respond to virus infections by rapidly secreting proinflammatory cytokines, which play an important role in the first line of defense. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) is one of the major macrophage-produced cytokines. In this study we have investigated the virus-cell interactions responsible for induction of TNF-alpha expression in herpes simplex virus (HSV)-infected macrophages. Both HSV type 1 (HSV-1) and HSV-2 induced TNF-alpha expression in macrophages activated with gamma interferon (IFN-gamma). This induction was to some extent sensitive to UV treatment of the virus. Virus particles unable to enter the cells displayed reduced capacity to stimulate TNF-alpha expression but retained a significant portion which was abolished by HSV-specific antibodies. Recombinant HSV-1 glycoprotein D was able to trigger TNF-alpha secretion in concert with IFN-gamma. Sugar moieties of HSV glycoproteins have been reported to be involved in induction of IFN-alpha but did not contribute to TNF-alpha expression in macrophages. Moreover, the entry-dependent portion of the TNF-alpha induction was investigated with HSV-1 mutants and found to be independent of the tegument proteins VP16 and UL13 and partly dependent on nuclear translocation of the viral DNA. Finally, we found that macrophages expressing an inactive mutant of the double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-activated protein kinase (PKR) produced less TNF-alpha in response to infectious HSV infection than the empty-vector control cell line but displayed the same responsiveness to UV-inactivated virus. These results indicate that HSV induces TNF-alpha expression in macrophages through mechanisms involving (i) viral glycoproteins, (ii) early postentry events occurring prior to nuclear translocation of viral DNA, and (iii) viral dsRNA-PKR.

  7. Macrophage colony stimulating factor regulation by nuclear factor kappa B: a relevant pathway in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Kogan, Michael; Haine, Valerie; Ke, Yuxong; Wigdahl, Brian; Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Rappaport, Jay

    2012-03-01

    Macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) is a cytokine that promotes monocyte differentiation and survival. When overexpressed, M-CSF contributes to pathology in a wide variety of diseases, including osteoporosis, obesity, certain human cancers, and in human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection, particularly with respect to monocyte/macrophage infection and the development of HIV-1 associated central nervous system disorders. In this study, our aim was to expand the current knowledge of M-CSF regulation, focusing on nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), a transcription factor playing a prominent role during inflammation and HIV-1 infection. Our results suggest that tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) promotes M-CSF secretion in primary macrophages and activates the -1310/+48 bp M-CSF promoter in Mono-Mac 1 cells. Inhibitors of the NF-κB pathway diminish this response. We identified four putative NF-κB and four CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein beta binding sites within the M-CSF promoter. Our findings, using promoter constructs mutated at individual NF-κB sites within the M-CSF promoter region, suggest that these sites are redundant with respect to NF-κB regulation. TNF-α treatment promoted NF-κB p65 binding to the M-CSF promoter in phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) treated U937 cells chronically infected with HIV-1 (U1 cells), but not in PMA treated uninfected U937 cells, suggesting that the presence of HIV-1 increases the NF-κB response. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that NF-κB induces M-CSF expression on a promoter level via multiple functional NF-κB binding sites and that this pathway is likely relevant in HIV-1 infection of macrophages.

  8. Inhibitory effect of deferoxamine or macrophage activation on transformation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia ingested by macrophages: reversal by holotransferrin.

    PubMed

    Cano, L E; Gomez, B; Brummer, E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1994-04-01

    Conidia of P. brasiliensis ingested by murine macrophages at 37 degrees C showed enhanced transformation to yeast cells and further intracellular growth compared with conidia in culture medium alone. Treatment of macrophages with the iron chelator deferoxamine inhibited the intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. Cytokine-activated macrophages could also exert this inhibitory effect. Holotransferrin reversed the inhibitory effect of either deferoxamine or activated macrophages on intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. These results indicate that iron restriction is one of the mechanisms by which activated macrophages control the intracellular transformation of ingested conidia and growth of yeast cells.

  9. Inhibitory effect of deferoxamine or macrophage activation on transformation of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis conidia ingested by macrophages: reversal by holotransferrin.

    PubMed Central

    Cano, L E; Gomez, B; Brummer, E; Restrepo, A; Stevens, D A

    1994-01-01

    Conidia of P. brasiliensis ingested by murine macrophages at 37 degrees C showed enhanced transformation to yeast cells and further intracellular growth compared with conidia in culture medium alone. Treatment of macrophages with the iron chelator deferoxamine inhibited the intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. Cytokine-activated macrophages could also exert this inhibitory effect. Holotransferrin reversed the inhibitory effect of either deferoxamine or activated macrophages on intracellular conidium-to-yeast transformation. These results indicate that iron restriction is one of the mechanisms by which activated macrophages control the intracellular transformation of ingested conidia and growth of yeast cells. PMID:8132359

  10. Suppression of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected porcine alveolar macrophages in vitro.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jun; Grauwet, Korneel; Vermeulen, Ben; Devriendt, Bert; Jiang, Ping; Favoreel, Herman; Nauwynck, Hans

    2013-06-28

    The adaptive immunity against PRRSV has already been studied in depth, but only limited data are available on the innate immune responses against this pathogen. In the present study, we analyzed the interaction between porcine natural killer (NK) cells and PRRSV-infected primary porcine alveolar macrophages (PAMs), since NK cells are one of the most important components of innate immunity and PAMs are primary target cells of PRRSV infection. NK cytotoxicity assays were performed using enriched NK cells as effector cells and virus-infected or mock-inoculated PAMs as target cells. The NK cytotoxicity against PRRSV-infected PAMs was decreased starting from 6h post inoculation (hpi) till the end of the experiment (12 hpi) and was significantly lower than that against pseudorabies virus (PrV)-infected PAMs. UV-inactivated PRRSV also suppressed NK activity, but much less than infectious PRRSV. Furthermore, co-incubation with PRRSV-infected PAMs inhibited degranulation of NK cells. Finally, using the supernatant of PRRSV-infected PAMs collected at 12 hpi showed that the suppressive effect of PRRSV on NK cytotoxicity was not mediated by soluble factors. In conclusion, PRRSV-infected PAMs showed a reduced susceptibility toward NK cytotoxicity, which may represent one of the multiple evasion strategies of PRRSV.

  11. Porphyromonas gingivalis-mediated signaling through TLR4 mediates persistent HIV infection of primary macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Agosto, Luis M.; Hirnet, Juliane B.; Michaels, Daniel H.; Shaik-Dasthagirisaheb, Yazdani B.; Gibson, Frank C.; Viglianti, Gregory; Henderson, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal infections contribute to HIV-associated co-morbidities in the oral cavity and provide a model to interrogate the dysregulation of macrophage function, inflammatory disease progression, and HIV replication during co-infections. We investigated the effect of Porphyromonas gingivalis on the establishment of HIV infection in monocyte-derived macrophages. HIV replication in macrophages was significantly repressed in the presence of P. gingivalis. This diminished viral replication was due partly to a decrease in the expression of integrated HIV provirus. HIV repression depended upon signaling through TLR4 as knock-down of TLR4 with siRNA rescued HIV expression. Importantly, HIV expression was reactivated upon removal of P. gingivalis. Our observations suggest that exposure of macrophages to Gram-negative bacteria influence the establishment and maintenance of HIV persistence in macrophages through a TLR4-dependent mechanism. PMID:27639573

  12. Tim-3 blocking rescue macrophage and T cell function against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in HIV+ patients

    PubMed Central

    Sada-Ovalle, Isabel; Ocaña-Guzman, Ranferi; Pérez-Patrigeón, Santiago; Chávez-Galán, Leslie; Sierra-Madero, Juan; Torre-Bouscoulet, Luis; Addo, Marylyn M.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain (Tim) 3 and programmed death 1 (PD-1) are co-inhibitory receptors involved in the so-called T cell exhaustion, and in vivo blockade of these molecules restores T cell dysfunction. High expression of Tim-3 and PD-1 is induced after chronic antigen-specific stimulation of T cells during HIV infection. We have previously demonstrated that the interaction of Tim-3 with its ligand galectin-9 induces macrophage activation and killing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Our aim in this study was to analyze the Tim-3 expression profile before and after six months of antiretroviral therapy and the impact of Tim-3 and PD-1 blocking on immunity against M. tuberculosis. Materials and methods HIV+ patients naïve to anti-retroviral therapy (ART) were followed up for six months. Peripheral immune-cell phenotype (CD38/HLA-DR/galectin-9/Tim-3 and PD-1) was assessed by flow cytometry. Supernatants were analyzed with a multiplex cytokine detection system (human Th1/Th2 cytokine Cytometric Bead Array) by flow cytometry. Control of bacterial growth was evaluated by using an in vitro experimental model in which virulent M. tuberculosis-infected macrophages were cultured with T cells in the presence or absence of Tim-3 and PD-1 blocking antibodies. Interleukin-1 beta treatment of infected macrophages was evaluated by enumerating colony-forming units. Results We showed that HIV+ patients had an increased expression of Tim-3 in T cells and were able to control bacterial growth before ART administration. By blocking Tim-3 and PD-1, macrophages and T cells recovered their functionality and had a higher ability to control bacterial growth; this result was partially dependent on the restitution of cytokine production. Conclusions In this study, we demonstrated that increased Tim-3 expression can limit the ability of the immune system to control the infection of intracellular bacteria such as M. tuberculosis. The use of ART and the in vitro

  13. Small Molecule Deubiquitinase Inhibitors Promote Macrophage Anti-Infective Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J.; Showalter, Hollis D.; Donato, Nicholas J.; Wobus, Christiane E.; O’Riordan, Mary X. D.

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity. PMID:25093325

  14. Small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitors promote macrophage anti-infective capacity.

    PubMed

    Charbonneau, Marie-Eve; Gonzalez-Hernandez, Marta J; Showalter, Hollis D; Donato, Nicholas J; Wobus, Christiane E; O'Riordan, Mary X D

    2014-01-01

    The global spread of anti-microbial resistance requires urgent attention, and diverse alternative strategies have been suggested to address this public health concern. Host-directed immunomodulatory therapies represent one approach that could reduce selection for resistant bacterial strains. Recently, the small molecule deubiquitinase inhibitor WP1130 was reported as a potential anti-infective drug against important human food-borne pathogens, notably Listeria monocytogenes and noroviruses. Utilization of WP1130 itself is limited due to poor solubility, but given the potential of this new compound, we initiated an iterative rational design approach to synthesize new derivatives with increased solubility that retained anti-infective activity. Here, we test a small library of novel synthetic molecules based on the structure of the parent compound, WP1130, for anti-infective activity in vitro. Our studies identify a promising candidate, compound 9, which reduced intracellular growth of L. monocytogenes at concentrations that caused minimal cellular toxicity. Compound 9 itself had no bactericidal activity and only modestly slowed Listeria growth rate in liquid broth culture, suggesting that this drug acts as an anti-infective compound by modulating host-cell function. Moreover, this new compound also showed anti-infective activity against murine norovirus (MNV-1) and human norovirus, using the Norwalk virus replicon system. This small molecule inhibitor may provide a chemical platform for further development of therapeutic deubiquitinase inhibitors with broad-spectrum anti-infective activity.

  15. Nerve growth factor is an autocrine factor essential for the survival of macrophages infected with HIV.

    PubMed

    Garaci, E; Caroleo, M C; Aloe, L; Aquaro, S; Piacentini, M; Costa, N; Amendola, A; Micera, A; Caliò, R; Perno, C F; Levi-Montalcini, R

    1999-11-23

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) is a neurotrophin with the ability to exert specific effects on cells of the immune system. Human monocytes/macrophages (M/M) infected in vitro with HIV type 1 (HIV-1) are able to produce substantial levels of NGF that are associated with enhanced expression of the high-affinity NGF receptor (p140 trkA) on the M/M surface. Treatment of HIV-infected human M/M with anti-NGF Ab blocking the biological activity of NGF leads to a marked decrease of the expression of p140 trkA high-affinity receptor, a concomitant increased expression of p75(NTR) low-affinity receptor for NGF, and the occurrence of apoptotic death of M/M. Taken together, these findings suggest a role for NGF as an autocrine survival factor that rescues human M/M from the cytopathic effect caused by HIV infection.

  16. Viral infection of human lung macrophages increases PDL1 expression via IFNβ.

    PubMed

    Staples, Karl J; Nicholas, Ben; McKendry, Richard T; Spalluto, C Mirella; Wallington, Joshua C; Bragg, Craig W; Robinson, Emily C; Martin, Kirstin; Djukanović, Ratko; Wilkinson, Tom M A

    2015-01-01

    Lung macrophages are an important defence against respiratory viral infection and recent work has demonstrated that influenza-induced macrophage PDL1 expression in the murine lung leads to rapid modulation of CD8+ T cell responses via the PD1 receptor. This PD1/PDL1 pathway may downregulate acute inflammatory responses to prevent tissue damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of PDL1 regulation by human macrophages in response to viral infection. Ex-vivo viral infection models using influenza and RSV were established in human lung explants, isolated lung macrophages and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) and analysed by flow cytometry and RT-PCR. Incubation of lung explants, lung macrophages and MDM with X31 resulted in mean cellular infection rates of 18%, 18% and 29% respectively. Viral infection significantly increased cell surface expression of PDL1 on explant macrophages, lung macrophages and MDM but not explant epithelial cells. Infected MDM induced IFNγ release from autologous CD8+ T cells, an effect enhanced by PDL1 blockade. We observed increases in PDL1 mRNA and IFNβ mRNA and protein release by MDM in response to influenza infection. Knockdown of IFNβ by siRNA, resulted in a 37.5% reduction in IFNβ gene expression in response to infection, and a significant decrease in PDL1 mRNA. Furthermore, when MDM were incubated with IFNβ, this cytokine caused increased expression of PDL1 mRNA. These data indicate that human macrophage PDL1 expression modulates CD8+ cell IFNγ release in response to virus and that this expression is regulated by autologous IFNβ production.

  17. Localized reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates inhibit escape of Listeria monocytogenes from vacuoles in activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Myers, Jesse T; Tsang, Albert W; Swanson, Joel A

    2003-11-15

    Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) evades being killed after phagocytosis by macrophages by escaping from vacuoles into cytoplasm. Activated macrophages are listericidal, in part because they can retain Lm in vacuoles. This study examined the contribution of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROI) and reactive nitrogen intermediates (RNI) to the inhibition of Lm escape from vacuoles. Lm escaped from vacuoles of nonactivated macrophages within 30 min of infection. Macrophages activated with IFN-gamma, LPS, IL-6, and a neutralizing Ab against IL-10 retained Lm within the vacuoles, and inhibitors of ROI and RNI blocked inhibition of vacuolar escape to varying degrees. Measurements of Lm escape in macrophages from gp91(phox-/-) and NO synthase 2(-/-) mice showed that vacuolar retention required ROI and was augmented by RNI. Live cell imaging with the fluorogenic probe dihydro-2',4,5,6,7,7'-hexafluorofluorescein coupled to BSA (DHFF-BSA) indicated that oxidative chemistries were generated rapidly and were localized to Lm vacuoles. Chemistries that oxidized DHFF-BSA were similar to those that retained Lm in phagosomes. Fluorescent conversion of DHFF-BSA occurred more efficiently in smaller vacuoles, indicating that higher concentrations of ROI or RNI were generated in more confining volumes. Thus, activated macrophages retained Lm within phagosomes by the localization of ROI and RNI to vacuoles, and by their combined actions in a small space

  18. Effect of Ipr1 on expression levels of immune genes related to macrophage anti-infection of mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Na; Liu, Pengfei; Wang, Lianwen; Liu, Jingbo; Yuan, Xiao; Meng, Wei; Dong, Yan; Li, Boqing

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intracellular pathogen resistance 1 (Ipr1) has been found in macrophages and plays a pivotal role in fighting against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection. This study is designed to evaluate the effect of Iprl on the expression of macrophage genes related to the anti-infection of Mtb. Design or methods: In the experimental and control groups, the macrophages were infected with Mycobacterium H37Ra, and then the related immune genes between two groups were detected using microarray assay. Real-time quantitative PCR was applied to detect the differences in the expression of three up-regulated genes detected by microarray assay and to verify the reliability of microarray assay. Results: The expression of Iprl up-regulated 11 genes related to macrophage anti-immunity involved TLRs signaling pathway including TLR2 and TLR4, Irak1, Traf7, Ifngr1 and Tnfrsfla. No significant difference was found in terms of the molecular expression involved in regulation of the adaptive immune response, such as IL-1 and IL-12. The results of real-time PCR were consistent with the findings of microarray assay. Conclusions: The expression of Iprl gene probably promotes macrophage activity and enhances the ability of macrophages to fight against Mtb infection. The underlying mechanism may be achieved by up-regulating the expression levels of innate immunity genes, especially TLR2/TLR4 and signal transduction molecules, which is determined using microarray assay. All these findings offer the basis for subsequent study of the mechanisms of Ipr1 gene in host innate immunity against Mtb infection. PMID:26064231

  19. Innate immune responses to rotavirus infection in macrophages depend on MAVS but involve neither the NLRP3 inflammasome nor JNK and p38 signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Di Fiore, Izabel J M; Holloway, Gavan; Coulson, Barbara S

    2015-10-02

    Rotavirus infection is a major cause of life-threatening infantile gastroenteritis. The innate immune system provides an immediate mechanism of suppressing viral replication and is necessary for an effective adaptive immune response. Innate immunity involves host recognition of viral infection and establishment of a powerful antiviral state through the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as type-1 interferon (IFN). Macrophages, the front-line cells of innate immunity, produce IFN and other cytokines in response to viral infection. However, the role of macrophages during rotavirus infection is not well defined. We demonstrate here that RRV rotavirus triggers the production of proinflammatory cytokines from mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. IFN and antiviral cytokine production was abolished in rotavirus-infected MAVS (-/-) macrophages. This indicates that rotavirus triggers innate immunity in macrophages through RIG-I and/or MDA5 viral recognition, and MAVS signaling is essential for cytokine responses in macrophages. Rotavirus induced IFN expression in both wild type and MDA5 (-/-) macrophages, showing that MDA5 is not essential for IFN secretion following infection, and RIG-I and MDA5 may act redundantly in promoting rotavirus recognition. Interestingly, rotavirus neither stimulated mitogen-activated protein kinases p38 and JNK nor activated the NLRP3 inflammasome, demonstrating that these components might not be involved in innate responses to rotavirus infection in macrophages. Our results indicate that rotavirus elicits intracellular signaling in macrophages, resulting in the induction of IFN and antiviral cytokines, and advance our understanding of the involvement of these cells in innate responses against rotavirus.

  20. Transcriptional profiling of Bacillus anthracis during infection of host macrophages.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Nicholas H; Anderson, Erica C; Swenson, Ellen E; Janes, Brian K; Fisher, Nathan; Niemeyer, Matthew M; Miyoshi, Amy D; Hanna, Philip C

    2007-07-01

    The interaction between Bacillus anthracis and the mammalian phagocyte is one of the central stages in the progression of inhalational anthrax, and it is commonly believed that the host cell plays a key role in facilitating germination and dissemination of inhaled B. anthracis spores. Given this, a detailed definition of the survival strategies used by B. anthracis within the phagocyte is critical for our understanding of anthrax. In this study, we report the first genome-wide analysis of B. anthracis gene expression during infection of host phagocytes. We developed a technique for specific isolation of bacterial RNA from within infected murine macrophages, and we used custom B. anthracis microarrays to characterize the expression patterns occurring within intracellular bacteria throughout infection of the host phagocyte. We found that B. anthracis adapts very quickly to the intracellular environment, and our analyses identified metabolic pathways that appear to be important to the bacterium during intracellular growth, as well as individual genes that show significant induction in vivo. We used quantitative reverse transcription-PCR to verify that the expression trends that we observed by microarray analysis were valid, and we chose one gene (GBAA1941, encoding a putative transcriptional regulator) for further characterization. A deletion strain missing this gene showed no phenotype in vitro but was significantly attenuated in a mouse model of inhalational anthrax, suggesting that the microarray data described here provide not only the first comprehensive view of how B. anthracis survives within the host cell but also a number of promising leads for further research in anthrax.

  1. TRANSCRIPTIONAL RESPONSE OF CHICKEN MACROPHAGES TO SALMONELLA ENTERICA SEROVAR ENTERITIDIS INFECTION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The transcriptional profiles of chicken macrophages (HD11) infected with Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE) were analyzed by using avian macrophage microarray and real time RT-PCR. Out of 4,906 array elements interrogated, 269 genes exhibited a 2-fold change (P < 0.001) over a 24-hour time...

  2. Jacalin-Activated Macrophages Exhibit an Antitumor Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Danella Polli, Cláudia; Pereira Ruas, Luciana; Chain Veronez, Luciana; Herrero Geraldino, Thais; Rossetto de Morais, Fabiana; Roque-Barreira, Maria Cristina; Pereira-da-Silva, Gabriela

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have an ambiguous and complex role in the carcinogenic process, since these cells can be polarized into different phenotypes (proinflammatory, antitumor cells or anti-inflammatory, protumor cells) by the tumor microenvironment. Given that the interactions between tumor cells and TAMs involve several players, a better understanding of the function and regulation of TAMs is crucial to interfere with their differentiation in attempts to skew TAM polarization into cells with a proinflammatory antitumor phenotype. In this study, we investigated the modulation of macrophage tumoricidal activities by the lectin jacalin. Jacalin bound to macrophage surface and induced the expression and/or release of mainly proinflammatory cytokines via NF-κB signaling, as well as increased iNOS mRNA expression, suggesting that the lectin polarizes macrophages toward the antitumor phenotype. Therefore, tumoricidal activities of jacalin-stimulated macrophages were evaluated. High rates of tumor cell (human colon, HT-29, and breast, MCF-7, cells) apoptosis were observed upon incubation with supernatants from jacalin-stimulated macrophages. Taken together, these results indicate that jacalin, by exerting a proinflammatory activity, can direct macrophages to an antitumor phenotype. Deep knowledge of the regulation of TAM functions is essential for the development of innovative anticancer strategies. PMID:27119077

  3. Stimulation of immature lung macrophages with intranasal interferon gamma in a novel neonatal mouse model of respiratory syncytial virus infection.

    PubMed

    Empey, Kerry M; Orend, Jacob G; Peebles, R Stokes; Egaña, Loreto; Norris, Karen A; Oury, Tim D; Kolls, Jay K

    2012-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of bronchiolitis and viral death in infants. Reduced CD8 T-cells and negligible interferon gamma (IFNγ) in the airway are associated with severe infant RSV disease, yet there is an abundance of alveolar macrophages (AM) and neutrophils. However, it is unclear, based on our current understanding of macrophage functional heterogeneity, if immature AM improve viral clearance or contribute to inflammation and airway obstruction in the IFNγ-deficient neonatal lung environment. The aim of the current study was to define the age-dependent AM phenotype during neonatal RSV infection and investigate their differentiation to classically activated macrophages (CAM) using i.n. IFNγ in the context of improving viral clearance. Neonatal and adult BALB/cJ mice were infected with 1×10(6) plaque forming units (PFU)/gram (g) RSV line 19 and their AM responses compared. Adult mice showed a rapid and robust CAM response, indicated by increases in major histocompatibility complex class II (MHC II), CD86, CCR7, and a reduction in mannose receptor (MR). Neonatal mice showed a delayed and reduced CAM response, likely due to undetectable IFNγ production. Intranasal (i.n.) treatment with recombinant mouse IFNγ (rIFNγ) increased the expression of CAM markers on neonatal AM, reduced viral lung titers, and improved weight gain compared to untreated controls with no detectable increase in CD4 or CD8 T-cell infiltration. In vitro infection of J774A.1 macrophages with RSV induced an alternatively activated macrophage (AAM) phenotype however, when macrophages were first primed with IFNγ, a CAM phenotype was induced and RSV spread to adjacent Hep-2 cells was reduced. These studies demonstrate that the neonatal AM response to RSV infection is abundant and immature, but can be exogenously stimulated to express the antimicrobial phenotype, CAM, with i.n. rIFNγ.

  4. Integrative model of the immune response to a pulmonary macrophage infection: what determines the infection duration?

    PubMed

    Go, Natacha; Bidot, Caroline; Belloc, Catherine; Touzeau, Suzanne

    2014-01-01

    The immune mechanisms which determine the infection duration induced by pathogens targeting pulmonary macrophages are poorly known. To explore the impact of such pathogens, it is indispensable to integrate the various immune mechanisms and to take into account the variability in pathogen virulence and host susceptibility. In this context, mathematical models complement experimentation and are powerful tools to represent and explore the complex mechanisms involved in the infection and immune dynamics. We developed an original mathematical model in which we detailed the interactions between the macrophages and the pathogen, the orientation of the adaptive response and the cytokine regulations. We applied our model to the Porcine Respiratory and Reproductive Syndrome virus (PRRSv), a major concern for the swine industry. We extracted value ranges for the model parameters from modelling and experimental studies on respiratory pathogens. We identified the most influential parameters through a sensitivity analysis. We defined a parameter set, the reference scenario, resulting in a realistic and representative immune response to PRRSv infection. We then defined scenarios corresponding to graduated levels of strain virulence and host susceptibility around the reference scenario. We observed that high levels of antiviral cytokines and a dominant cellular response were associated with either short, the usual assumption, or long infection durations, depending on the immune mechanisms involved. To identify these mechanisms, we need to combine the levels of antiviral cytokines, including IFNγ, and IL10. The latter is a good indicator of the infected macrophage level, both combined provide the adaptive response orientation. Available PRRSv vaccines lack efficiency. By integrating the main interactions between the complex immune mechanisms, this modelling framework could be used to help designing more efficient vaccination strategies.

  5. Vasodilator-Stimulated Phosphoprotein Activity Is Required for Coxiella burnetii Growth in Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Colonne, Punsiri M.; Winchell, Caylin G.; Graham, Joseph G.; Onyilagha, Frances I.; MacDonald, Laura J.; Doeppler, Heike R.; Storz, Peter; Kurten, Richard C.; Beare, Paul A.; Voth, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    Coxiella burnetii is an intracellular bacterial pathogen that causes human Q fever, an acute flu-like illness that can progress to chronic endocarditis and liver and bone infections. Humans are typically infected by aerosol-mediated transmission, and C. burnetii initially targets alveolar macrophages wherein the pathogen replicates in a phagolysosome-like niche known as the parasitophorous vacuole (PV). C. burnetii manipulates host cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling to promote PV formation, cell survival, and bacterial replication. In this study, we identified the actin regulatory protein vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) as a PKA substrate that is increasingly phosphorylated at S157 and S239 during C. burnetii infection. Avirulent and virulent C. burnetii triggered increased levels of phosphorylated VASP in macrophage-like THP-1 cells and primary human alveolar macrophages, and this event required the Cα subunit of PKA. VASP phosphorylation also required bacterial protein synthesis and secretion of effector proteins via a type IV secretion system, indicating the pathogen actively triggers prolonged VASP phosphorylation. Optimal PV formation and intracellular bacterial replication required VASP activity, as siRNA-mediated depletion of VASP reduced PV size and bacterial growth. Interestingly, ectopic expression of a phospho-mimetic VASP (S239E) mutant protein prevented optimal PV formation, whereas VASP (S157E) mutant expression had no effect. VASP (S239E) expression also prevented trafficking of bead-containing phagosomes to the PV, indicating proper VASP activity is critical for heterotypic fusion events that control PV expansion in macrophages. Finally, expression of dominant negative VASP (S157A) in C. burnetii-infected cells impaired PV formation, confirming importance of the protein for proper infection. This study provides the first evidence of VASP manipulation by an intravacuolar bacterial pathogen via activation of PKA in human

  6. Macrophage polarization in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Zou, Xian-Biao; Chai, Yan-Fen; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Diversity and plasticity are two hallmarks of macrophages. M1 macrophages (classically activated macrophages) are pro-inflammatory and have a central role in host defense against infection, while M2 macrophages (alternatively activated macrophages) are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions and tissue remodeling, and they represent two terminals of the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Transformation of different phenotypes of macrophages regulates the initiation, development, and cessation of inflammatory diseases. Here we reviewed the characters and functions of macrophage polarization in infection, atherosclerosis, obesity, tumor, asthma, and sepsis, and proposed that targeting macrophage polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory diseases.

  7. Dual Transcriptome Profiling of Leishmania-Infected Human Macrophages Reveals Distinct Reprogramming Signatures

    PubMed Central

    Fernandes, Maria Cecilia; Dillon, Laura A. L.; Belew, Ashton Trey; Bravo, Hector Corrada; Mosser, David M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Macrophages are mononuclear phagocytes that constitute a first line of defense against pathogens. While lethal to many microbes, they are the primary host cells of Leishmania spp. parasites, the obligate intracellular pathogens that cause leishmaniasis. We conducted transcriptomic profiling of two Leishmania species and the human macrophage over the course of intracellular infection by using high-throughput RNA sequencing to characterize the global gene expression changes and reprogramming events that underlie the interactions between the pathogen and its host. A systematic exclusion of the generic effects of large-particle phagocytosis revealed a vigorous, parasite-specific response of the human macrophage early in the infection that was greatly tempered at later time points. An analogous temporal expression pattern was observed with the parasite, suggesting that much of the reprogramming that occurs as parasites transform into intracellular forms generally stabilizes shortly after entry. Following that, the parasite establishes an intracellular niche within macrophages, with minimal communication between the parasite and the host cell later during the infection. No significant difference was observed between parasite species transcriptomes or in the transcriptional response of macrophages infected with each species. Our comparative analysis of gene expression changes that occur as mouse and human macrophages are infected by Leishmania spp. points toward a general signature of the Leishmania-macrophage infectome. PMID:27165796

  8. Transmigration and phagocytosis of macrophages in an airway infection model using four-dimensional techniques.

    PubMed

    Ding, Peishan; Wu, Huimei; Fang, Lei; Wu, Ming; Liu, Rongyu

    2014-07-01

    During infection, recruited phagocytes transmigrate across the epithelium to remove the pathogens deposited on the airway surface. However, it is difficult to directly observe cellular behaviors (e.g., transmigration) in single-cell layer cultures or in live animals. Combining a three-dimensional (3D) cell coculture model mimicking airway infection with time-lapse confocal imaging as a four-dimensional technique allowed us to image the behaviors of macrophages in 3D over time. The airway infection model was moved to a glass-bottomed dish for live-cell imaging by confocal laser scanning microscopy. Using time-lapse confocal imaging, we recorded macrophages transmigrating across the polyethylene terephthalate (PET) membrane of the inserts through the 5-μm pores in the PET membrane. Macrophages on the apical side of the insert exhibited essentially three types of movements, one of which was transmigrating across the epithelial cell monolayer and arriving at the surface of monolayer. We found that adding Staphylococcus aureus to the model increased the transmigration index but not the transmigration time of the macrophages. Only in the presence of S. aureus were the macrophages able to transmigrate across the epithelial cell monolayer. Apical-to-basal transmigration of macrophages was visualized dynamically. We also imaged the macrophages phagocytizing S. aureus deposited on the surface of the monolayer in the airway infection model. This work provides a useful tool to study the cellular behaviors of immune cells spatially and temporally during infection.

  9. The frequency and duration of Salmonella-macrophage adhesion events determines infection efficiency.

    PubMed

    Achouri, Sarra; Wright, John A; Evans, Lewis; Macleod, Charlotte; Fraser, Gillian; Cicuta, Pietro; Bryant, Clare E

    2015-02-05

    Salmonella enterica causes a range of important diseases in humans and a in a variety of animal species. The ability of bacteria to adhere to, invade and survive within host cells plays an important role in the pathogenesis of Salmonella infections. In systemic salmonellosis, macrophages constitute a niche for the proliferation of bacteria within the host organism. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is flagellated and the frequency with which this bacterium collides with a cell is important for infection efficiency. We investigated how bacterial motility affects infection efficiency, using a combination of population-level macrophage infection experiments and direct imaging of single-cell infection events, comparing wild-type and motility mutants. Non-motile and aflagellate bacterial strains, in contrast to wild-type bacteria, collide less frequently with macrophages, are in contact with the cell for less time and infect less frequently. Run-biased Salmonella also collide less frequently with macrophages but maintain contact with macrophages for a longer period of time than wild-type strains and infect the cells more readily. Our results suggest that uptake of S. Typhimurium by macrophages is dependent upon the duration of contact time of the bacterium with the cell, in addition to the frequency with which the bacteria collide with the cell.

  10. The Macrophage-Specific Promoter mfap4 Allows Live, Long-Term Analysis of Macrophage Behavior during Mycobacterial Infection in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Walton, Eric M; Cronan, Mark R; Beerman, Rebecca W; Tobin, David M

    2015-01-01

    Transgenic labeling of innate immune cell lineages within the larval zebrafish allows for real-time, in vivo analyses of microbial pathogenesis within a vertebrate host. To date, labeling of zebrafish macrophages has been relatively limited, with the most specific expression coming from the mpeg1 promoter. However, mpeg1 transcription at both endogenous and transgenic loci becomes attenuated in the presence of intracellular pathogens, including Salmonella typhimurium and Mycobacterium marinum. Here, we describe mfap4 as a macrophage-specific promoter capable of producing transgenic lines in which transgene expression within larval macrophages remains stable throughout several days of infection. Additionally, we have developed a novel macrophage-specific Cre transgenic line under the control of mfap4, enabling macrophage-specific expression using existing floxed transgenic lines. These tools enrich the repertoire of transgenic lines and promoters available for studying zebrafish macrophage dynamics during infection and inflammation and add flexibility to the design of future macrophage-specific transgenic lines.

  11. Antihistoplasma effect of activated mouse splenic macrophages involves production of reactive nitrogen intermediates.

    PubMed Central

    Lane, T E; Wu-Hsieh, B A; Howard, D H

    1994-01-01

    The mechanism by which recombinant murine gamma interferon (rMuIFN-gamma) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activate mouse resident splenic macrophages to inhibit the intracellular growth of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum was examined. Growth inhibition depended on L-arginine metabolism. The growth inhibitory state normally induced by rMuIFN-gamma and LPS in resident splenic macrophages did not occur when the macrophages were cultured in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, a competitive inhibitor of L-arginine metabolism. Resident splenic macrophages treated with rMuIFN-gamma and LPS produced nitrite (NO2-), an end product of L-arginine metabolism. When macrophages were cultured in the presence of NG-monomethyl-L-arginine together with rMuIFN-gamma and LPS, only baseline levels of NO2- were detected. Spleen cells from H. capsulatum-infected mice produced high levels of NO2- in culture. The production of NO2- correlated with in vitro inhibition of the intracellular growth of H. capsulatum. Anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha antibody did not block NO2- production by the immigrant splenic macrophages and did not abolish the antihistoplasma activity. PMID:8168960

  12. SIV encephalitis lesions are composed of CD163(+) macrophages present in the central nervous system during early SIV infection and SIV-positive macrophages recruited terminally with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Nowlin, Brian T; Burdo, Tricia H; Midkiff, Cecily C; Salemi, Marco; Alvarez, Xavier; Williams, Kenneth C

    2015-06-01

    Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163(+)) and inflammatory (MAC387(+)) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387(+) macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163(+) macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU(+) cells were MAC387(+); however, CD163(+)BrdU(+) macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28(+) macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163(+) macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163(+) macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS.

  13. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity from human THP-1 macrophages is reduced in HIV-infected patients: impact of HAART[S

    PubMed Central

    El Khoury, Petra; Ghislain, Mathilde; Villard, Elise F.; Le Goff, Wilfried; Lascoux-Combe, Caroline; Yeni, Patrick; Meyer, Laurence; Vigouroux, Corinne; Goujard, Cécile; Guerin, Maryse

    2015-01-01

    The capacity of HDL to remove cholesterol from macrophages is inversely associated with the severity of angiographic coronary artery disease. The effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or its treatment on the ability of HDL particles to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages has never been studied. We evaluated the capacity of whole plasma and isolated HDL particles from HIV-infected subjects (n = 231) and uninfected controls (n = 200), as well as in a subset of 41 HIV subjects receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to mediate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages. Plasma cholesterol efflux capacity was reduced (−12%; P = 0.001) in HIV patients as compared with controls. HIV infection reduced by 27% (P < 0.05) the capacity of HDL subfractions to promote cholesterol efflux from macrophages. We observed a reduced ABCA1-dependent efflux capacity of plasma (−27%; P < 0.0001) from HIV-infected subjects as a result of a reduction in the efflux capacity of HDL3 particles. HAART administration restored the capacity of plasma from HIV patients to stimulate cholesterol efflux from human macrophages (9.4%; P = 0.04). During HIV infection, the capacity of whole plasma to remove cholesterol from macrophages is reduced, thus potentially contributing to the increased coronary heart disease in the HIV population. HAART administration restored the removal of cholesterol from macrophages by increasing HDL functionality. PMID:25573889

  14. From amoeba to macrophages: exploring the molecular mechanisms of Legionella pneumophila infection in both hosts.

    PubMed

    Escoll, Pedro; Rolando, Monica; Gomez-Valero, Laura; Buchrieser, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is a Gram-negative bacterium and the causative agent of Legionnaires' disease. It replicates within amoeba and infects accidentally human macrophages. Several similarities are seen in the L. pneumophila-infection cycle in both hosts, suggesting that the tools necessary for macrophage infection may have evolved during co-evolution of L. pneumophila and amoeba. The establishment of the Legionella-containing vacuole (LCV) within the host cytoplasm requires the remodeling of the LCV surface and the hijacking of vesicles and organelles. Then L. pneumophila replicates in a safe intracellular niche in amoeba and macrophages. In this review we will summarize the existing knowledge of the L. pneumophila infection cycle in both hosts at the molecular level and compare the factors involved within amoeba and macrophages. This knowledge will be discussed in the light of recent findings from the Acanthamoeba castellanii genome analyses suggesting the existence of a primitive immune-like system in amoeba.

  15. Exosomes contribute to the transmission of anti-HIV activity from TLR3-activated brain microvascular endothelial cells to macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Li; Wang, Xu; Zhou, Yu; Zhou, Run-Hong; Ho, Wen-Zhe; Li, Jie-Liang

    2017-01-01

    Human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMECs), the major cell type in the blood-brain barrier (BBB), play a key role in maintaining brain homeostasis. However, their role in the BBB innate immunity against HIV invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) remains to be determined. Our early work showed that TLR3 signaling of HBMECs could produce the antiviral factors that inhibit HIV replication in macrophages. The present study examined whether exosomes from TLR3-activated HBMECs mediate the intercellular transfer of antiviral factors to macrophages. Primary human macrophages could take up exosomes from TLR3-activated HBMECs. HBMECs-derived exosomes contained multiple antiviral factors, including several key IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs; ISG15, ISG56, and Mx2) at mRNA and protein levels. The depletion of exosomes from TLR3-activated HBMECs culture supernatant diminished HBMECs-mediated anti-HIV activity in macrophages. In conclusion, we demonstrate that exosomes shed by HBMECs are able to transport the antiviral molecules to macrophages. This finding suggests the possibility that HIV nonpermissive BBB cells (HBMECs) can help to restore the antiviral state in HIV-infected macrophages, which may be a defense mechanism against HIV neuroinvasion. PMID:27496004

  16. Aging Enhances the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species and Bactericidal Activity in Peritoneal Macrophages by Upregulating Classical Activation Pathways

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, Heather S.; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C.

    2011-10-07

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3–4 months) and aged (14–15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  17. Aging enhances the production of reactive oxygen species and bactericidal activity in peritoneal macrophages by upregulating classical activation pathways.

    PubMed

    Smallwood, Heather S; López-Ferrer, Daniel; Squier, Thomas C

    2011-11-15

    Maintenance of macrophages in their basal state and their rapid activation in response to pathogen detection are central to the innate immune system, acting to limit nonspecific oxidative damage and promote pathogen killing following infection. To identify possible age-related alterations in macrophage function, we have assayed the function of peritoneal macrophages from young (3-4 months) and aged (14-15 months) Balb/c mice. In agreement with prior suggestions, we observe age-dependent increases in the extent of recruitment of macrophages into the peritoneum, as well as ex vivo functional changes involving enhanced nitric oxide production under resting conditions that contribute to a reduction in the time needed for full activation of senescent macrophages following exposure to lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Further, we observe enhanced bactericidal activity following Salmonella uptake by macrophages isolated from aged Balb/c mice in comparison with those isolated from young animals. Pathways responsible for observed phenotypic changes were interrogated using tandem mass spectrometry, which identified age-dependent increases in levels of proteins linked to immune cell pathways under basal conditions and following LPS activation. Immune pathways upregulated in macrophages isolated from aged mice include proteins critical to the formation of the immunoproteasome. Detection of these latter proteins is dramatically enhanced following LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from aged animals; in comparison, the identification of immunoproteasome subunits is insensitive to LPS exposure for macrophages isolated from young animals. Consistent with observed global changes in the proteome, quantitative proteomic measurements indicate that there are age-dependent abundance changes involving specific proteins linked to immune cell function under basal conditions. LPS exposure selectively increases the levels of many proteins involved in immune cell function in aged Balb/c mice

  18. Intracellular colon cancer-associated Escherichia coli promote protumoral activities of human macrophages by inducing sustained COX-2 expression.

    PubMed

    Raisch, Jennifer; Rolhion, Nathalie; Dubois, Anaëlle; Darfeuille-Michaud, Arlette; Bringer, Marie-Agnès

    2015-03-01

    Intestinal dysbiosis has been reported in patients with colorectal cancer, and there is a high prevalence of Escherichia coli belonging to B2 phylogroup and producing a genotoxin, termed colibactin. Macrophages are one of the predominant tumor-infiltrating immune cells supporting key processes in tumor progression by producing protumoral factors such as cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Here, we investigated whether B2 E. coli colonizing colon tumors could influence protumoral activities of macrophages. In contrast to commensal or nonpathogenic E. coli strains that were efficiently and rapidly degraded by macrophages at 24 h after infection, colon cancer-associated E. coli were able to resist killing by human THP-1 macrophages, to replicate intracellularly, and to persist inside host cells until at least 72 h after infection. Significant increases in COX-2 expression were observed in macrophages infected with colon cancer E. coli compared with macrophages infected with commensal and nonpathogenic E. coli strains or uninfected cells at 72 h after infection. Induction of COX-2 expression required live bacteria and was not due to colibactin production, as similar COX-2 levels were observed in macrophages infected with the wild-type colon cancer-associated E. coli 11G5 strain or a clbQ mutant unable to produce colibactin. Treatment of macrophages with ofloxacin, an antibiotic with intracellular tropism, efficiently decreased the number of intracellular bacteria and suppressed bacteria-induced COX-2 expression. This study provides new insights into the understanding of how tumor- infiltrating bacteria could influence cancer progression through their interaction with immune cells. Manipulation of microbes associated with tumors could have a deep influence on the secretion of protumoral molecules by infiltrating macrophages.

  19. Contribution of FcɛRI-associated vesicles to mast cell-macrophage communication following Francisella tularensis infection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Annette R; Yu, Jieh-Juen; Navara, Christopher; Chambers, James P; Guentzel, M Neal; Arulanandam, Bernard P

    2016-10-01

    Understanding innate immune intercellular communication following microbial infection remains a key biological issue. Using live cell imaging, we demonstrate that mast cells actively extend cellular projections to sample the macrophage periphery during Francisella tularensis LVS infection. Mast cell MHCII(hi) expression was elevated from less than 1% to 13% during LVS infection. Direct contact during co-culture with macrophages further increased mast cell MHCII(hi) expression to approximately 87%. Confocal analyses of the cellular perimeter revealed mast cell caspase-1 was localized in close proximity with FcɛRI in uninfected mast cells, and repositioned to clustered regions upon LVS infection. Importantly, mast cell FcɛRI-encompassed vesicles are transferred to macrophages by trogocytosis, and macrophage caspase-1 expression is further up-regulated upon direct contact with mast cells. Our study reveals direct cellular interactions between innate cells that may impact the function of caspase-1, a known sensor of microbial danger and requirement for innate defense against many pathogenic microbes including F. tularensis.

  20. Alternatively activated macrophages promote pancreatic fibrosis in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jing; Sharma, Vishal; Hsieh, Michael H.; Chawla, Ajay; Murali, Ramachandran; Pandol, Stephen J.; Habtezion, Aida

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive and irreversible inflammatory and fibrotic disease with no cure. Unlike acute pancreatitis, we find that alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) are dominant in mouse and human CP. AAMs are dependent on IL-4 and IL-13 signaling and we show that mice lacking IL-4Rα, myeloid specific IL-4Rα, and IL-4/IL-13 were less susceptible to pancreatic fibrosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that mouse and human pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) are a source of IL-4/IL-13. Notably, we show that pharmacologic inhibition of IL-4/IL-13 in human ex-vivo studies as well as in established mouse CP decreases pancreatic AAMs and fibrosis. We identify a critical role for macrophages in pancreatic fibrosis and in turn PSCs as important inducers of macrophage alternative activation. Our study challenges and identifies pathways involved in cross talk between macrophages and PSCs that can be targeted to reverse or halt pancreatic fibrosis progression. PMID:25981357

  1. Neutrophil Migration into the Infected Uroepithelium Is Regulated by the Crosstalk between Resident and Helper Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zec, Kristina; Volke, Julia; Vijitha, Nirojah; Thiebes, Stephanie; Gunzer, Matthias; Kurts, Christian; Engel, Daniel Robert

    2016-01-01

    The antibacterial defense against infections depends on the cooperation between distinct phagocytes of the innate immune system, namely macrophages and neutrophils. However, the mechanisms driving this cooperation are incompletely understood. In this study we describe the crosstalk between Ly6C+ and Ly6C− macrophage-subtypes and neutrophils in the context of urinary tract infection (UTI) with uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC). Ly6C− macrophages acted as tissue resident sentinels and attracted circulating phagocytes by chemokines. Ly6C+ macrophages produced tumor necrosis factor (TNF) that licensed Ly6C− macrophages to release preformed CXCL2, which in turn caused matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-9) secretion by neutrophils to enable transepithelial migration. PMID:26861402

  2. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 expression in macrophages is controlled by lymphocytes during macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Chong; Yang, Xiqiang; Yao, Lan; Jiang, Liping; Liu, Wei; Li, Xin; Wang, Lijia

    2012-01-01

    The viewpoints on the control of innate immune cells by the adaptive immune system during sepsis remain controversial. Mitogen-activated protein kinase phosphatase-1 (MKP-1) is essential to the negative control of innate immunity and suppresses the activation of macrophages by inhibiting activated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). The purpose of the current study was to observe inflammatory response and macrophage activation in mice with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) with endotoxemia and to determine the role of MKP-1 in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system. Endotoxemia was induced in wild-type and SCID mice by an intraperitoneal injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and all of the SCID mice died. SCID mice produced more inflammatory cytokines than BALB/c mice systemically and locally. TNF-α mRNA expression was higher and MKP-1 mRNA expression was lower in peritoneal macrophages (PMa) from SCID mice compared to PMa from wild-type mice after and even before LPS injection. Thioglycollate-stimulated PMa from wild-type mice were stimulated with LPS in vitro in the presence or absence of pan-T cells. The levels of TNF-α and IL-6 were higher in the supernatants from PMa cultured alone compared to PMa co-cultured with pan-T cells, and PMa MKP-1 mRNA and protein expression were higher when PMa were co-cultured with pan-T cells. Therefore, pan-T cells can up-regulate MKP-1 expression in macrophages and inhibit the secretion of inflammatory cytokines secretion by macrophages. In SCID mice, lymphocyte deficiency, especially T cell deficiency, causes insufficient MKP-1 expression in macrophages, which can be responsible for the severe inflammation and bad prognosis of septic SCID mice. MKP-1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage activation by the adaptive immune system.

  3. Autophagy, TGF-β, and SMAD-2/3 Signaling Regulates Interferon-β Response in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infected Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Pokharel, Swechha M; Shil, Niraj K; Bose, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a lung tropic virus causing severe airway diseases including bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants, children, and immuno-compromised individuals. RSV triggers transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production from lung epithelial cells and TGF-β facilitates RSV infection of these cells. However, it is still unknown whether RSV infected myeloid cells like macrophages produce TGF-β and the role of TGF-β if any during RSV infection of these cells. Our study revealed that RSV infected macrophages produce TGF-β and as a consequence these cells activate TGF-β dependent SMAD-2/3 signaling pathway. Further mechanistic studies illustrated a role of autophagy in triggering TGF-β production from RSV infected macrophages. In an effort to elucidate the role of TGF-β and SMAD-2/3 signaling during RSV infection, we surprisingly unfolded the requirement of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling in conferring optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages. Type-I interferon (e.g., interferon-β or IFN-β) is a critical host factor regulating innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection. Our study revealed that loss of TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling pathway in RSV infected macrophages led to diminished expression and production of IFN-β. Inhibiting autophagy in RSV infected macrophages also resulted in reduced production of IFN-β. Thus, our studies have unfolded the requirement of autophagy-TGF-β-SMAD2/3 signaling network for optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages.

  4. Autophagy, TGF-β, and SMAD-2/3 Signaling Regulates Interferon-β Response in Respiratory Syncytial Virus Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Pokharel, Swechha M.; Shil, Niraj K.; Bose, Santanu

    2016-01-01

    Human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is a lung tropic virus causing severe airway diseases including bronchiolitis and pneumonia among infants, children, and immuno-compromised individuals. RSV triggers transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) production from lung epithelial cells and TGF-β facilitates RSV infection of these cells. However, it is still unknown whether RSV infected myeloid cells like macrophages produce TGF-β and the role of TGF-β if any during RSV infection of these cells. Our study revealed that RSV infected macrophages produce TGF-β and as a consequence these cells activate TGF-β dependent SMAD-2/3 signaling pathway. Further mechanistic studies illustrated a role of autophagy in triggering TGF-β production from RSV infected macrophages. In an effort to elucidate the role of TGF-β and SMAD-2/3 signaling during RSV infection, we surprisingly unfolded the requirement of TGF-β—SMAD2/3 signaling in conferring optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages. Type-I interferon (e.g., interferon-β or IFN-β) is a critical host factor regulating innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection. Our study revealed that loss of TGF-β—SMAD2/3 signaling pathway in RSV infected macrophages led to diminished expression and production of IFN-β. Inhibiting autophagy in RSV infected macrophages also resulted in reduced production of IFN-β. Thus, our studies have unfolded the requirement of autophagy—TGF-β—SMAD2/3 signaling network for optimal innate immune antiviral response during RSV infection of macrophages. PMID:28018859

  5. Roles of tumor necrosis factor alpha, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, platelet-activating factor, and arachidonic acid metabolites in interleukin-1-induced resistance to infection in neutropenic mice.

    PubMed Central

    Vogels, M T; Hermsen, C C; Huys, H L; Eling, W M; van der Meer, J W

    1994-01-01

    Treatment with a single low dose (80 to 800 ng) of interleukin-1 (IL-1) 24 h before a lethal bacterial challenge in granulocytopenic and in normal mice enhances nonspecific resistance. The mechanism behind this protection has only partially been elucidated. Since IL-1 induces production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), platelet-activating factor (PAF), and arachidonic acid metabolites, we investigated the potential role of these substances in IL-1-induced protection. Low doses of murine TNF-alpha but not of human TNF-alpha enhanced survival, suggesting an effect via the type II TNF receptor rather than the type I TNF receptor, which has little species specificity. In line with this TNF-alpha-induced protection from infection, pretreatment with a low dose of a rat anti-murine TNF-alpha monoclonal antibody tended to inhibit IL-1-induced protection, suggesting a role of TNF-alpha as a mediator of IL-1-induced enhanced resistance to infection. Pretreatment with higher doses of anti-TNF-alpha, however, showed a dose-related protective effect per se, which could be further enhanced by a suboptimal dose of IL-1. A combination of optimal doses of anti-TNF-alpha and IL-1 produced an increase in survival similar to that produced by separate pretreatments. This lack of further enhancement of survival by combined optimal pretreatments suggests a similar mechanism of protection, most likely attenuation of deleterious effects of overproduced proinflammatory cytokines like TNF-alpha during lethal infection. Pretreatment with different doses of GM-CSF before a lethal Pseudomonas aeruginosa challenge in neutropenic mice did not enhance survival. Different doses of WEB 2170, a selective PAF receptor antagonist, of MK-886, a selective inhibitor of leukotriene biosynthesis, or of several cyclooxygenase inhibitors did not reduce the protective effect of IL-1 pretreatment. We conclude that IL-1-induced nonspecific

  6. Antibody-Dependent Enhancement of Dengue Virus Infection in Primary Human Macrophages; Balancing Higher Fusion against Antiviral Responses

    PubMed Central

    Flipse, Jacky; Diosa-Toro, Mayra A.; Hoornweg, Tabitha E.; van de Pol, Denise P. I.; Urcuqui-Inchima, Silvio; Smit, Jolanda M.

    2016-01-01

    The dogma is that the human immune system protects us against pathogens. Yet, several viruses, like dengue virus, antagonize the hosts’ antibodies to enhance their viral load and disease severity; a phenomenon called antibody-dependent enhancement of infection. This study offers novel insights in the molecular mechanism of antibody-mediated enhancement (ADE) of dengue virus infection in primary human macrophages. No differences were observed in the number of bound and internalized DENV particles following infection in the absence and presence of enhancing concentrations of antibodies. Yet, we did find an increase in membrane fusion activity during ADE of DENV infection. The higher fusion activity is coupled to a low antiviral response early in infection and subsequently a higher infection efficiency. Apparently, subtle enhancements early in the viral life cycle cascades into strong effects on infection, virus production and immune response. Importantly, and in contrast to other studies, the antibody-opsonized virus particles do not trigger immune suppression and remain sensitive to interferon. Additionally, this study gives insight in how human macrophages interact and respond to viral infections and the tight regulation thereof under various conditions of infection. PMID:27380892

  7. Macrophage Bactericidal Activities against Staphylococcus aureus Are Enhanced In Vivo by Selenium Supplementation in a Dose-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Aribi, Mourad; Meziane, Warda; Habi, Salim; Boulatika, Yasser

    2015-01-01

    Background Dietary selenium is of fundamental importance to maintain optimal immune function and enhance immunity during infection. To this end, we examined the effect of selenium on macrophage bactericidal activities against Staphylococcus aureus. Methods Assays were performed in golden Syrian hamsters and peritoneal macrophages cultured with S. aureus and different concentrations of selenium. Results Infected and selenium-supplemented animals have significantly decreased levels of serum nitric oxide (NO) production when compared with infected but non-selenium-supplemented animals at day 7 post-infection (p < 0.05). A low dose of 5 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease in macrophage NO production, but significant increase in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) levels (respectively, p = 0.009, p < 0.001). The NO production and H2O2 levels were significantly increased with increasing concentrations of selenium; the optimal macrophage activity levels were reached at 20 ng/mL. The concentration of 5 ng/mL of selenium induced a significant decrease in the bacterial arginase activity but a significant increase in the macrophage arginase activity. The dose of 20 ng/mL selenium induced a significant decrease of bacterial growth (p < 0.0001) and a significant increase in macrophage phagocytic activity, NO production/arginase balance and S. aureus killing (for all comparisons, p < 0.001). Conclusions Selenium acts in a dose-dependent manner on macrophage activation, phagocytosis and bacterial killing suggesting that inadequate doses may cause a loss of macrophage bactericidal activities and that selenium supplementation could enhance the in vivo control of immune response to S. aureus. PMID:26340099

  8. Productive infection of Piscirickettsia salmonis in macrophages and monocyte-like cells from rainbow trout, a possible survival strategy.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Verónica; Galanti, Norbel; Bols, Niels C; Marshall, Sergio H

    2009-10-15

    Piscirickettsia salmonis is the etiologic agent of the salmonid rickettsial septicemia (SRS), an endemic disease which causes significant losses in salmon production. This intracellular bacterium is normally cultured in salmonid epithelial cell lines inducing characteristic cytopathic effects (CPEs). In this study we demonstrate that P. salmonis is able to infect, survive, replicate, and propagate in the macrophages/monocytes cell line RTS11 derived from rainbow trout spleen, without inducing the characteristic CPEs and the host cells showing the same expression levels as non-infected control cell. On the other hand, bacteria were capable of expressing specific proteins within infected cells. Infected macrophages cease proliferation and a fraction of them detached from the plate, transform to non-adhesive, monocyte-like cells with proliferative activity. Productive infection of P. salmonis into salmonid macrophage/monocyte cells in culture provides an excellent model for the study of host-pathogen interactions, almost unknown in the case of P. salmonis. Our results suggest that the infection of cells from the salmonid innate immune system without inducing an important cell death response should lead to the persistence of the bacteria and consequently their dissemination to other tissues, favoring the evasion of the first line of defense against pathogens.

  9. The use of a model of in vivo macrophage depletion to study the role of macrophages during infection with Bacillus anthracis spores.

    PubMed

    Cote, Christopher K; Rea, Kelly M; Norris, Sarah L; van Rooijen, Nico; Welkos, Susan L

    2004-10-01

    The pathogenesis of infection by Bacillus anthracis has been the subject of many investigations, but remains incompletely understood. It has been shown that B. anthracis spores germinate in macrophages and perhaps require this intracellular niche to germinate in vivo before outgrowth of the vegetative organism. However, it has also been reported that macrophages are sporicidal in vitro. In our in vivo model, macrophages were depleted from mice by either silica treatment or treatment with liposome-encapsulated dichloromethylene disphosphonate (Cl(2)MDP), and the animals were infected parenterally with virulent ungerminated B. anthracis (Ames strain) spores. The mice in which macrophages had been depleted were killed more rapidly than untreated mice. In addition, augmenting peritoneal populations of macrophages with cultured RAW264.7 cells partially protected mice from disease, increasing the survival rate in a dose dependent relationship. Alveolar macrophages were depleted by intranasal instillation of liposome-encapsulated Cl(2)MDP. The animals with normal alveolar macrophage numbers had significantly greater survival rates after inhaling B. anthracis spores than the macrophage-depleted mice. These findings do not preclude the observations that macrophages provide a site permissive for spore germination, however, these data suggest that macrophages do play an important role in limiting and/or clearing a B. anthracis infection.

  10. CDDO-Me Redirects Activation of Breast Tumor Associated Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Ball, Michael S.; Shipman, Emilie P.; Kim, Hyunjung; Liby, Karen T.; Pioli, Patricia A.

    2016-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages can account for up to 50% of the tumor mass in breast cancer patients and high TAM density is associated with poor clinical prognosis. Because TAMs enhance tumor growth, development, and metastatic potential, redirection of TAM activation may have significant therapeutic benefit. Our studies in primary human macrophages and murine breast TAMs suggest that the synthetic oleanane triterpenoid CDDO-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) reprograms the activation profile of TAMs from tumor-promoting to tumor-inhibiting. We show that CDDO-Me treatment inhibits expression of IL-10 and VEGF in stimulated human M2 macrophages and TAMs but increases expression of TNF-α and IL-6. Surface expression of CD206 and CD163, which are characteristic of M2 activation, is significantly attenuated by CDDO-Me. In contrast, CDDO-Me up-regulates surface expression of HLA-DR and CD80, which are markers of M1 activation, and importantly potentiates macrophage activation of autologous T cells but inhibits endothelial cell vascularization. These results show for the first time that CDDO-Me redirects activation of M2 macrophages and TAMs from immune-suppressive to immune-stimulatory, and implicate a role for CDDO-Me as an immunotherapeutic in the treatment of breast and potentially other types of cancer. PMID:26918785

  11. Update on the role of alternatively activated macrophages in asthma.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhilong; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Lung macrophages link innate and adaptive immune responses during allergic airway inflammatory responses. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and interstitial macrophages are two different phenotypes that differentially exert immunological function under physiological and pathological conditions. Exposure to pathogen induces polarization of AM cells into classically activated macrophages (M1 cells) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 cells). M1 cells dominantly express proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 β and induce lung inflammation and tissue damage. M2 cells are further divided into M2a and M2c subsets. M2a cells dominantly produce allergic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, but M2c cells dominantly produce anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. M2a and M2c cells are differently involved in initiation, inflammation resolution, and tissue remodeling in the different stages of asthma. Microenvironment dynamically influences polarization of AM cells. Cytokines, chemokines, and immune-regulatory cells interplay and affect the balance between the polarization of M1 and M2 cells, subsequently influencing disease progression. Thus, modulation of AM phenotypes through molecular intervention has therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma and other allergic inflammatory diseases. This review updated recent advances in polarization and functional specialization of these macrophage subtypes with emphasis on modulation of polarization of M2 cells in asthma of human subjects and animal models.

  12. Update on the role of alternatively activated macrophages in asthma

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Zhilong; Zhu, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Lung macrophages link innate and adaptive immune responses during allergic airway inflammatory responses. Alveolar macrophages (AMs) and interstitial macrophages are two different phenotypes that differentially exert immunological function under physiological and pathological conditions. Exposure to pathogen induces polarization of AM cells into classically activated macrophages (M1 cells) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2 cells). M1 cells dominantly express proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α and IL-1 β and induce lung inflammation and tissue damage. M2 cells are further divided into M2a and M2c subsets. M2a cells dominantly produce allergic cytokines IL-4 and IL-13, but M2c cells dominantly produce anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. M2a and M2c cells are differently involved in initiation, inflammation resolution, and tissue remodeling in the different stages of asthma. Microenvironment dynamically influences polarization of AM cells. Cytokines, chemokines, and immune-regulatory cells interplay and affect the balance between the polarization of M1 and M2 cells, subsequently influencing disease progression. Thus, modulation of AM phenotypes through molecular intervention has therapeutic potential in the treatment of asthma and other allergic inflammatory diseases. This review updated recent advances in polarization and functional specialization of these macrophage subtypes with emphasis on modulation of polarization of M2 cells in asthma of human subjects and animal models. PMID:27350756

  13. Inhibition of mouse peritoneal macrophage DNA synthesis by infection with the Arenavirus Pichinde. Interim report

    SciTech Connect

    Friedlander, A.M.; Jahrling, P.B.; Merrill, P.; Tobery, S.

    1983-01-19

    Macrophage DNA synthesis and proliferation occur during the development of cell-mediated immunity and in the early non-specific reaction to infection. Arenaviruses have a predilection for infection of cells of the reticuloendothelial system and in this study we have examined the effect of the arenavirus Pichinde on macrophage DNA synthesis. We have found that infection of mouse peritoneal macrophages with Pichinde caused a profound dose dependent inhibition of the DNA synthesis induced by macrophage growth factor/colony stimulating factor. At a multiplicity of inoculum of five there is a 75-95% inhibition of DNA synthesis. Viable virus is necessary for inhibition since Pichinde inactivated by heat or cobalt irradiation had no effect. Similarly, virus pre-treated with an antiserum to Pichinde was without inhibitory effect. Inhibition was demonstrated by measuring DNA synthesis spectrofluorometrically as well as by 3H-thymidine incorporation. The inhibition of DNA synthesis was not associated with any cytopathology. There was no evidence that the inhibition was due to soluble factors, such as prostaglandins or interferon, released by infected cells. These studies demonstrate, for the first time in vitro, a significant alteration in macrophage function caused by infection with an arenavirus. It is possible that inhibition of macrophage proliferation represents a mechanism by which some microorganisms interfere with host resistance.

  14. Endogenous Epoxygenases Are Modulators of Monocyte/Macrophage Activity

    PubMed Central

    Sugden, Mary C.; Holness, Mark J.; Swales, Karen E.; Warner, Timothy D.; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.; Gilroy, Derek W.; Bishop-Bailey, David

    2011-01-01

    Background Arachidonic acid is metabolized through three major metabolic pathways, the cyclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and CYP450 enzyme systems. Unlike cyclooxygenase and lipoxygenases, the role of CYP450 epoxygenases in monocyte/macrophage-mediated responses is not known. Methodology/Principal Findings When transfected in vitro, CYP2J2 is an efficient activator of anti-inflammatory pathways through the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) α. Human monocytes and macrophages contain PPARα and here we show they express the epoxygenases CYP2J2 and CYP2C8. Inhibition of constitutive monocyte epoxygenases using the epoxygenase inhibitor SKF525A induces cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression and activity, and the release of TNFα, and can be reversed by either add back of the endogenous epoxygenase products and PPARα ligand 11,12- epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) or the addition of the selective synthetic PPARα ligand GW7647. In alternatively activated (IL-4-treated) monocytes, in contrast to classically activated cells, epoxygenase inhibition decreased TNFα release. Epoxygenases can be pro-inflammatory via superoxide anion production. The suppression of TNFα by SKF525A in the presence of IL-4 was associated with a reduction in superoxide anion generation and reproduced by the superoxide dismutase MnCl2. Similar to these acute activation studies, in monocyte derived macrophages, epoxygenase inhibition elevates M1 macrophage TNFα mRNA and further decreases M2 macrophage TNFα. Conclusions/Significance In conclusion, epoxygenase activity represents an important endogenous pathway which limits monocyte activation. Moreover endogenous epoxygenases are immuno-modulators regulating monocyte/macrophage activation depending on the underlying activation state. PMID:22028915

  15. HCV core protein inhibits polarization and activity of both M1 and M2 macrophages through the TLR2 signaling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qianqian; Wang, Yang; Zhai, Naicui; Song, Hongxiao; Li, Haijun; Yang, Yang; Li, Tianyang; Guo, Xiaolin; Chi, Baorong; Niu, Junqi; Crispe, Ian Nicholas; Su, Lishan; Tu, Zhengkun

    2016-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) establishes persistent infection in most infected patients, and eventually causes chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma in some patients. Monocytes and macrophages provide the first line of defense against pathogens, but their roles in HCV infection remains unclear. We have reported that HCV core protein (HCVc) manipulates human blood-derived dendritic cell development. In the present study, we tested whether HCVc affects human blood-derived monocyte differentiating into macrophages. Results showed that HCVc inhibits monocyte differentiation to either M1 or M2 macrophages through TLR2, associated with impaired STATs signaling pathway. Moreover, HCVc inhibits phagocytosis activity of M1 and M2 macrophages, M1 macrophage-induced autologous and allogeneic CD4+ T cell activation, but promotes M2 macrophage-induced autologous and allogeneic CD4+ T cell activation. In conclusion, HCVc inhibits monocyte-derived macrophage polarization via TLR2 signaling, leading to dysfunctions of both M1 and M2 macrophages in chronic HCV infected patients. This may contribute to the mechanism of HCV persistent infection, and suggest that blockade of HCVc might be a novel therapeutic approach to treating HCV infection. PMID:27786268

  16. Macrophage and T-cell gene expression in a model of early infection with the protozoan Leishmania chagasi.

    PubMed

    Ettinger, Nicholas A; Wilson, Mary E

    2008-06-25

    Visceral leishmaniasis is a potentially fatal infectious disease caused by the protozoan parasite Leishmania infantum/chagasi in the New World, or by L. donovani or L. infantum/chagasi in the Old World. Infection leads to a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic infection to active disease, characterized by fevers, cachexia, hepatosplenomegaly and suppressed immune responses. We reasoned that events occurring during the initial few hours when the parasite encounters cells of the innate and adaptive immune systems are likely to influence the eventual immune response that develops. Therefore, we performed gene expression analysis using Affymetrix U133Plus2 microarray chips to investigate a model of early infection with human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) challenged with wild-type L. chagasi parasites, with or without subsequent co-culture with Leishmania-naïve, autologous T-cells. Microarray data generated from total RNA were analyzed with software from the Bioconductor Project and functional clustering and pathway analysis were performed with DAVID and Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA), respectively. Many transcripts were down-regulated by infection in cultures containing macrophages alone, and the pattern indicated a lack of a classically activated phenotype. By contrast, the addition of autologous Leishmania-naïve T cells to infected macrophages resulted in a pattern of gene expression including many markers of type 1 immune cytokine activation (IFN-gamma, IL-6, IL-1alpha, IL-1beta). There was simultaneous up-regulation of a few markers of immune modulation (IL-10 cytokine accumulation; TGF-beta Signaling Pathway). We suggest that the initial encounter between L. chagasi and cells of the innate and adaptive immune system stimulates primarily type 1 immune cytokine responses, despite a lack of classical macrophage activation. This local microenvironment at the site of parasite inoculation may determine the initial course of immune T

  17. Activation of Cannabinoid Type Two Receptors (CB2) Diminish Inflammatory Responses in Macrophages and Brain Endothelium

    PubMed Central

    Persidsky, Yuri; Fan, Shongshan; Dykstra, Holly; Reichenbach, Nancy L.; Rom, Slava; Ramirez, Servio H.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic neuroinflammatory disorders (such as HIV associated neurodegeneration) require treatment that decreases production of inflammatory factors by activated microglia and macrophages and protection of blood brain barrier (BBB) injury secondary to activation of brain endothelium. Cannabioid type 2 receptor (CB2) is highly expressed on macrophages and brain microvasular enndothelial cells (BMVEC) and is upregulated in inflammation and HIV infection. It has been shown that CB2 activation dampened inflammatory responses in macrophages and BMVEC. In this study, we assessed by PCR array the expression of a wide range of genes increased in macrophages and BMVEC in inflammation. TNFα treatment upregulated 33 genes in primary human BMVEC, and two highly selective CB2 agonists diminished expression of 31 and 32 genes. These results were confirmed by functional assays (BBB protection after inflammatory insult and decreased migration of monocytes across BMVEC monolayers after CB2 stimulation). Similarly, CB2 stimulation in primary human macrophages led to the suppression of 35 genes out of the 50 genes upregulated by LPS. Such changes in gene expression paralleled diminished secretion of proinflammatory factors. These results indicate the potential utility of CB2 agonists for the treatment of neuroinflammation. PMID:25666933

  18. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-01-01

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15 kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown. PMID:26592194

  19. TRIM33 switches off Ifnb1 gene transcription during the late phase of macrophage activation.

    PubMed

    Ferri, Federica; Parcelier, Aude; Petit, Vanessa; Gallouet, Anne-Sophie; Lewandowski, Daniel; Dalloz, Marion; van den Heuvel, Anita; Kolovos, Petros; Soler, Eric; Squadrito, Mario Leonardo; De Palma, Michele; Davidson, Irwin; Rousselet, Germain; Romeo, Paul-Henri

    2015-11-23

    Despite its importance during viral or bacterial infections, transcriptional regulation of the interferon-β gene (Ifnb1) in activated macrophages is only partially understood. Here we report that TRIM33 deficiency results in high, sustained expression of Ifnb1 at late stages of toll-like receptor-mediated activation in macrophages but not in fibroblasts. In macrophages, TRIM33 is recruited by PU.1 to a conserved region, the Ifnb1 Control Element (ICE), located 15 kb upstream of the Ifnb1 transcription start site. ICE constitutively interacts with Ifnb1 through a TRIM33-independent chromatin loop. At late phases of lipopolysaccharide activation of macrophages, TRIM33 is bound to ICE, regulates Ifnb1 enhanceosome loading, controls Ifnb1 chromatin structure and represses Ifnb1 gene transcription by preventing recruitment of CBP/p300. These results characterize a previously unknown mechanism of macrophage-specific regulation of Ifnb1 transcription whereby TRIM33 is critical for Ifnb1 gene transcription shutdown.

  20. Macrophage-parasite relationship in theileriosis. Reversible phenotypic and functional dedifferentiation of macrophages infected with Theileria annulata.

    PubMed

    Sager, H; Davis, W C; Dobbelaere, D A; Jungi, T W

    1997-04-01

    Theileria annulata is a tick-transmitted protozoan parasite of cattle, which transforms cells of macrophage (Mphi) or B cell lineage. Bone marrow cells, bone marrow cell-derived, and monocyte-derived Mphi were infected with T. annulata sporozoites, and the resulting cell lines were assessed for surface marker expression and function. Transformed lines expressed histocompatibility complex (MHC) class-I and II, CD44, CD45, and the myeloid marker DH598-surface markers CD14, CD11b, M-M7, TH57A, and to a lesser extent CD11a/CD18, CD11c, and ACT(B), were down-regulated. Likewise, transformed cells failed to express Mphi functions (Fc-receptor-mediated phagocytosis, phorbol myristate acetate-induced oxidative burst, lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha, and nitric oxide generation and procoagulant activity up-regulation). Mphi origin was assured by homogeneity of the starting population, cloning of cells by limiting dilution, and repeated microscopic and flow cytometric monitoring of the cell lines. Elimination of the parasite by treatment with BW720c resulted in the re-acquisition of monocyte lineage properties, as evidenced by up-regulation of CD14, and by re-acquisition of the capacity to ingest opsonized sheep red blood cells and bacteria. Thus, Mphi transformed by T. annulata appear to undergo a process of parasite-induced dedifferentiation but reassume the differentiated phenotype upon elimination of the parasite.

  1. The macrophage galactose-type lectin-1 (MGL1) recognizes Taenia crassiceps antigens, triggers intracellular signaling, and is critical for resistance to this infection.

    PubMed

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1(-/-) mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1(-/-) macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1(-/-) mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1(-/-) mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1(-/-) macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance.

  2. The Macrophage Galactose-Type Lectin-1 (MGL1) Recognizes Taenia crassiceps Antigens, Triggers Intracellular Signaling, and Is Critical for Resistance to This Infection

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Barrera, Daniel; Valderrama-Carvajal, Héctor; Terrazas, César A.; Rojas-Hernández, Saúl; Ledesma-Soto, Yadira; Vera-Arias, Laura; Carrasco-Yépez, Maricela; Gómez-García, Lorena; Martínez-Saucedo, Diana; Becerra-Díaz, Mireya; Terrazas, Luis I.

    2015-01-01

    C-type lectins are multifunctional sugar-binding molecules expressed on dendritic cells (DCs) and macrophages that internalize antigens for processing and presentation. Macrophage galactose-type lectin 1 (MGL1) recognizes glycoconjugates expressing Lewis X structures which contain galactose residues, and it is selectively expressed on immature DCs and macrophages. Helminth parasites contain large amounts of glycosylated components, which play a role in the immune regulation induced by such infections. Macrophages from MGL1−/− mice showed less binding ability toward parasite antigens than their wild-type (WT) counterparts. Exposure of WT macrophages to T. crassiceps antigens triggered tyrosine phosphorylation signaling activity, which was diminished in MGL1−/− macrophages. Following T. crassiceps infection, MGL1−/− mice failed to produce significant levels of inflammatory cytokines early in the infection compared to WT mice. In contrast, MGL1−/− mice developed a Th2-dominant immune response that was associated with significantly higher parasite loads, whereas WT mice were resistant. Flow cytometry and RT-PCR analyses showed overexpression of the mannose receptors, IL-4Rα, PDL2, arginase-1, Ym1, and RELM-α on MGL1−/− macrophages. These studies indicate that MGL1 is involved in T. crassiceps recognition and subsequent innate immune activation and resistance. PMID:25664320

  3. Estradiol reduces susceptibility of CD4+ T cells and macrophages to HIV-infection.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V; Barr, Fiona D; Crist, Sarah G; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V; Wira, Charles R

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-β-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4(+) T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4(+) T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4(+) T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4(+) T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2-treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1β secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms.

  4. Estradiol Reduces Susceptibility of CD4+ T Cells and Macrophages to HIV-Infection

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Marta; Biswas, Nabanita; Patel, Mickey V.; Barr, Fiona D.; Crist, Sarah G.; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Fahey, John V.; Wira, Charles R.

    2013-01-01

    The magnitude of the HIV epidemic in women requires urgent efforts to find effective preventive methods. Even though sex hormones have been described to influence HIV infection in epidemiological studies and regulate different immune responses that may affect HIV infection, the direct role that female sex hormones play in altering the susceptibility of target cells to HIV-infection is largely unknown. Here we evaluated the direct effect of 17-β-estradiol (E2) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) in HIV-infection of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages. Purified CD4+ T-cells and monocyte-derived macrophages were generated in vitro from peripheral blood and infected with R5 and X4 viruses. Treatment of CD4+ T-cells and macrophages with E2 prior to viral challenge reduced their susceptibility to HIV infection in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of E2 2 h after viral challenge however did not result in reduced infection. In contrast, EE reduced infection in macrophages to a lesser extent than E2 and had no effect on CD4+ T-cell infection. Reduction of HIV-infection induced by E2 in CD4+ T-cells was not due to CCR5 down-regulation, but was an entry-mediated mechanism since infection with VSV-G pseudotyped HIV was not modified by E2. In macrophages, despite the lack of an effect of E2 on CCR5 expression, E2–treatment reduced viral entry 2 h after challenge and increased MIP-1β secretion. These results demonstrate the direct effect of E2 on susceptibility of HIV-target cells to infection and indicate that inhibition of target cell infection involves cell-entry related mechanisms. PMID:23614015

  5. Proteomic investigation of the time course responses of RAW 264.7 macrophages to infection with Salmonella enterica.

    PubMed

    Shi, Liang; Chowdhury, Saiful M; Smallwood, Heather S; Yoon, Hyunjin; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather M; Norbeck, Angela D; McDermott, Jason E; Clauss, Therese R W; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D; Adkins, Joshua N

    2009-08-01

    To investigate the extent to which macrophages respond to Salmonella infection, we infected RAW 264.7 macrophages with Salmonella enterica serotype Typhimurium and analyzed macrophage proteins at various time points following infection by using a global proteomic approach. A total of 1,006 macrophage and 115 Salmonella proteins were identified with high confidence. Most of the Salmonella proteins were observed in the late stage of the infection time course, which is consistent with the fact that the bacterial cells proliferate inside RAW 264.7 macrophages. The peptide abundances of most of the identified macrophage proteins remained relatively constant over the time course of infection. Compared to those of the control, the peptide abundances of 244 macrophage proteins (i.e., 24% of the total identified macrophage proteins) changed significantly after infection. The functions of these Salmonella-affected macrophage proteins were diverse, including production of antibacterial nitric oxide (i.e., inducible nitric oxide synthase), production of prostaglandin H(2) (i.e., cyclooxygenase 2), and regulation of intracellular traffic (e.g., sorting nexin 5 [SNX5], SNX6, and SNX9). Diverse functions of the Salmonella-affected macrophage proteins demonstrate a global macrophage response to Salmonella infection. Western blot analysis not only confirmed the proteomic results for a selected set of proteins but also revealed that (i) the protein abundance of mitochondrial superoxide dismutase increased following macrophage infection, indicating an infection-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria, and (ii) in contrast to infection of macrophages by wild-type Salmonella, infection by the sopB deletion mutant had no negative impact on the abundance of SNX6, suggesting a role for SopB in regulating the abundance of SNX6.

  6. Autophagy favors Brucella melitensis survival in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Guo, Fei; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Chuangfu; Hu, Shengwei; Wang, Yuanzhi; Qiao, Jun; Ren, Yan; Zhang, Ke; Wang, Yong; Du, Guoqing

    2012-06-01

    This study investigated the role of autophagy in the survival of the invasive bacterium Brucella melitensis strain 16M in murine macrophages. Here, Brucella melitensis 16M was found to trigger autophagosome formation, enhance autophagy flux and increase the expression level of the autophagy marker protein LC3-II. When autophagy was pharmacologically inhibited by 3-methyladenine (3-MA), Brucella replication efficiency was significantly decreased (p < 0.05). These results suggest that autophagy favors Brucella melitensis 16M survival in murine macrophages.

  7. ERK5 Activation in Macrophages Promotes Efferocytosis and Inhibits Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Heo, Kyung-Sun; Cushman, Hannah J.; Akaike, Masashi; Woo, Chang-Hoon; Wang, Xin; Qiu, Xing; Fujiwara, Keigi; Abe, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Background Efferocytosis is a process by which dead and dying cells are removed by phagocytic cells. Efferocytosis by macrophages is thought to curb the progression of atherosclerosis, but the mechanistic insight of this process is lacking. Methods and Results When macrophages were fed apoptotic cells or treated with pitavastatin in vitro, efferocytosis-related signaling and phagocytic capacity were upregulated in an ERK5 activity–dependent manner. Macrophages isolated from macrophage-specific ERK5-null mice exhibited reduced efferocytosis and levels of gene and protein expression of efferocytosis-related molecules. When these mice were crossed with low-density lipoprotein receptor−/− mice and fed a high-cholesterol diet, atherosclerotic plaque formation was accelerated, and the plaques had more advanced and vulnerable morphology. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that ERK5, which is robustly activated by statins, is a hub molecule that upregulates macrophage efferocytosis, thereby suppressing atherosclerotic plaque formation. Molecules that upregulate ERK5 and its signaling in macrophages may be good drug targets for suppressing cardiovascular diseases. PMID:25001623

  8. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Khoa D.; Qiu, Yifu; Cui, Xiaojin; Goh, Y.P. Sharon; Mwangi, Julia; David, Tovo; Mukundan, Lata; Brombacher, Frank; Locksley, Richard M.; Chawla, Ajay

    2011-01-01

    All homeotherms utilize thermogenesis to maintain core body temperature, ensuring that cellular functions and physiologic processes can ensue in cold environments1-3. In the prevailing model, when the hypothalamus senses cold temperatures, it triggers sympathetic discharge, resulting in the release of noradrenaline in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and white adipose tissue (WAT)4,5. Acting via the β3-adrenergic receptors, noradrenaline induces lipolysis in white adipocytes6, whereas it stimulates the expression of thermogenic genes, such as PPARγ coactivator 1a (Ppargc1a), uncoupling protein 1 (Ucp1), and acyl-CoA synthetase long-chain family member 1 (Acsl1), in brown adipocytes7-9. However, the precise nature of all the cell types involved in this efferent loop is not well established. Here we report an unexpected requirement for the interleukin 4 (IL4)-stimulated program of alternative macrophage activation in adaptive thermogenesis. Cold exposure rapidly promoted alternative activation of adipose tissue macrophages, which secrete catecholamines to induce thermogenic gene expression in BAT and lipolysis in WAT. Absence of alternatively activated macrophages impaired metabolic adaptations to cold, whereas administration of IL4 increased thermogenic gene expression, fatty acid mobilization, and energy expenditure, all in a macrophage-dependent manner. We have thus discovered a surprising role for alternatively activated macrophages in the orchestration of an important mammalian stress response, the response to cold. PMID:22101429

  9. Cord factor trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM) mediates trafficking events during mycobacterial infection of murine macrophages.

    PubMed

    Indrigo, Jessica; Hunter, Robert L; Actor, Jeffrey K

    2003-08-01

    The persistence of tuberculosis within pulmonary granulomatous lesions is a complex phenomenon, with bacterial survival occurring in a focal region of high immune activity. In part, the survival of the organism may be linked to the ability of the surface glycolipid trehalose 6,6'-dimycolate (TDM; cord factor) to inhibit fusion events between phospholipid vesicles inside the host macrophage. At the same time, TDM contributes to macrophage activation and a cascade of events required for initiation and maintenance of granulomatous responses. This allows increased sequestration of organisms and further survival and persistence within host tissues. Bacterial viability, macrophage cytokine and chemokine response, and intracellular trafficking were investigated in Mycobacterium tuberculosis from which TDM had been removed. Removal of surface lipids led to enhanced trafficking of organisms to acidic compartments; reconstitution of delipidated organisms with either pure TDM or the petroleum ether extract containing crude surface lipids restored normal responses. Use of TDM-coated polystyrene beads demonstrated that TDM can mediate intracellular trafficking events, as well as influence macrophage production of pro-inflammatory molecules. Thus, the presence of TDM may be an important determinant for successful infection and survival of M. tuberculosis within macrophages.

  10. Mck2-dependent infection of alveolar macrophages promotes replication of MCMV in nodular inflammatory foci of the neonatal lung.

    PubMed

    Stahl, F R; Keyser, K A; Heller, K; Bischoff, Y; Halle, S; Wagner, K; Messerle, M; Förster, R

    2015-01-01

    Infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) shows a worldwide high prevalence with only immunocompromised individuals or newborns to become symptomatic. The host's constitution and the pathogen's virulence determine whether disease occurs after infection. Mouse CMV (MCMV) is an appreciated pathogen for in vivo investigation of host-pathogen interactions. It has recently been reported that a single base pair deletion can spontaneously occur in the open reading frame of MCMV-encoded chemokine 2 (MCK2), preventing the expression of the full-length gene product. To study the consequences of this mutation, we compared the Mck2-defective reporter virus MCMV-3D with the newly generated repaired Mck2(+) mutant MCMV-3DR. Compared with MCMV-3D, neonatal mice infected with MCMV-3DR showed severe viral disease after lung infection. Viral disease coincided with high viral activity in multiple organs and increased virus replication in previously described nodular inflammatory foci (NIF) in the lung. Notably, MCMV-3DR showed tropism for alveolar macrophages in vitro and in vivo, whereas MCMV-3D did not infect this cell type. Moreover, in vivo depletion of alveolar macrophages reduced MCMV-3DR replication in the lung. We proposed an Mck2-mediated mechanism by which MCMV exploits alveolar macrophages to increase replication upon first encounter with the host's lung mucosa.

  11. An inducible transgene reports activation of macrophages in live zebrafish larvae.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, Leslie E; Chien, An-Tzu; Astin, Jonathan W; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S; Hall, Christopher J

    2015-11-01

    Macrophages are the most functionally heterogenous cells of the hematopoietic system. Given many diseases are underpinned by inappropriate macrophage activation, macrophages have emerged as a therapeutic target to treat disease. A thorough understanding of what controls macrophage activation will likely reveal new pathways that can be manipulated for therapeutic benefit. Live imaging fluorescent macrophages within transgenic zebrafish larvae has provided a valuable window to investigate macrophage behavior in vivo. Here we describe the first transgenic zebrafish line that reports macrophage activation, as evidenced by induced expression of an immunoresponsive gene 1(irg1):EGFP transgene. When combined with existing reporter lines that constitutively mark macrophages, we reveal this unique transgenic line can be used to live image macrophage activation in response to the bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide and xenografted human cancer cells. We anticipate the Tg(irg1:EGFP) line will provide a valuable tool to explore macrophage activation and plasticity in the context of different disease models.

  12. Immune reaction and survivability of salmonella typhimurium and salmonella infantis after infection of primary avian macrophages.

    PubMed

    Braukmann, Maria; Methner, Ulrich; Berndt, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Salmonella serovars are differentially able to infect chickens. The underlying causes are not yet fully understood. Aim of the present study was to elucidate the importance of Salmonella Pathogenicity Island 1 and 2 (SPI-1 and -2) for the virulence of two non-host-specific, but in-vivo differently invasive, Salmonella serovars in conjunction with the immune reaction of the host. Primary avian splenic macrophages were inoculated with Salmonella enterica sub-species enterica serovar (S.) Typhimurium and S. Infantis. The number and viability of intracellular bacteria and transcription of SPI-1 and -2 genes by the pathogens, as well as transcription of immune-related proteins, surface antigen expression and nitric oxide production by the macrophages, were compared at different times post inoculation. After infection, both of the Salmonella serovars were found inside the primary macrophages. Invasion-associated SPI-1 genes were significantly higher transcribed in S. Infantis- than S. Typhimurium-infected macrophages. The macrophages counteracted the S. Infantis and S. Typhimurium infection with elevated mRNA expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-12, IL-18 and lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor alpha factor (LITAF) as well as with an increased synthesis of nitric oxide. Despite these host cell attacks, S. Typhimurium was better able than S. Infantis to survive within the macrophages and transcribed higher rates of the SPI-2 genes spiC, ssaV, sifA, and sseA. The results showed similar immune reactions of primary macrophages after infection with both of the Salmonella strains. The more rapid and stronger transcription of SPI-2-related genes by intracellular S. Typhimurium compared to S. Infantis might be responsible for its better survival in avian primary macrophages.

  13. Synthesis in Escherichia coli of two smaller enzymically active analogues of Coxiella burnetii macrophage infectivity potentiator (CbMip) protein utilizing a single open reading frame from the cbmip gene.

    PubMed Central

    Mo, Y Y; Seshu, J; Wang, D; Mallavia, L P

    1998-01-01

    FK506-binding proteins (FKBPs) have been identified in a variety of eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms. Macrophage infectivity potentiator (CbMip, 23.5 kDa) protein of the obligate intracellular bacterium, Coxiella burnetii, was shown previously to belong to the family of FKBPs based on sequence homology and peptidyl-prolyl cis/trans isomerase (PPIase) activity. Further characterization of the cbmip gene has identified two additional proteins with molecular masses of 15.5 and 15.0 kDa that are synthesized, in addition to the 23.5 kDa CbMip, when expressed in Escherichia coli. Amino acid sequencing at the N-terminus combined with transcription and translation fusion expression revealed that the two proteins were synthesized from the same open reading frame of the cbmip gene, but starting at different internal translation start codons, probably by translational reinitiation. When the internal methionines serving as start sites were replaced with lysine by site-directed mutagenesis, the synthesis of 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins was abolished even though the synthesis of 23.5 kDa CbMip was intact. This confirmed that the 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins are indeed generated by translational reinitiation and are not degradation products of the 23.5 kDa protein. Like other FKBPs, both 15.5 and 15.0 kDa proteins exhibit PPIase activity. Because they share significant sequence homology with FKBPs and have a similar PPIase activity, 15.5 and 15. 0 kDa proteins are designated as C. burnetii FKBP (Cb-FKBP) analogues I and II, respectively. TnphoA mutagenesis demonstrated that whereas the large protein (CbMip) is secreted, Cb-FKBP analogues I and II are cytoplasmic, indicating that structural variations could allow for different subcellular compartmentalization of similar proteins. Western-blot analysis of lysates of purified C. burnetii using a CbMip-specific monoclonal antibody revealed the presence of a protein migrating at approximately 15 kDa, indicating the presence of smaller

  14. Periodontitis-activated monocytes/macrophages cause aortic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Miyajima, Shin-ichi; Naruse, Keiko; Kobayashi, Yasuko; Nakamura, Nobuhisa; Nishikawa, Toru; Adachi, Kei; Suzuki, Yuki; Kikuchi, Takeshi; Mitani, Akio; Mizutani, Makoto; Ohno, Norikazu; Noguchi, Toshihide; Matsubara, Tatsuaki

    2014-06-04

    A relationship between periodontal disease and atherosclerosis has been suggested by epidemiological studies. Ligature-induced experimental periodontitis is an adequate model for clinical periodontitis, which starts from plaque accumulation, followed by inflammation in the periodontal tissue. Here we have demonstrated using a ligature-induced periodontitis model that periodontitis activates monocytes/macrophages, which subsequently circulate in the blood and adhere to vascular endothelial cells without altering the serum TNF-α concentration. Adherent monocytes/macrophages induced NF-κB activation and VCAM-1 expression in the endothelium and increased the expression of the TNF-α signaling cascade in the aorta. Peripheral blood-derived mononuclear cells from rats with experimental periodontitis showed enhanced adhesion and increased NF-κB/VCAM-1 in cultured vascular endothelial cells. Our results suggest that periodontitis triggers the initial pathogenesis of atherosclerosis, inflammation of the vasculature, through activating monocytes/macrophages.

  15. Effect of lipopolysaccharide on protein accumulation by murine peritoneal macrophages: the correlation to activation for macrophage tumoricidal function

    SciTech Connect

    Tannenbaum, C.S.

    1987-01-01

    The protein synthetic patterns of tumoricidal murine peritoneal macrophage populations have been compared to those of non-tumoricidal populations utilizing two dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2D PAGE) of (/sup 35/S)-methionine-labeled proteins. While the protein synthetic patterns exhibited by resident, inflammatory and activated macrophages had numerous common features which distinguished them from the other normal non-macrophage cell types examined, unique proteins also distinguished each macrophage population from the others. Peritoneal macrophages elicited by treatment with heat killed Propionibacterium acnes, the live, attenuated Mycobacterium bovis strain BCG, Listeria monocytogenes and the protozoan flagellate Trypanosoma rhodesiense, all exhibited tumoricidal activity in 16h or 72h functional assays, and shared a common protein synthetic profile which differentiated them from the synthetic patterns characteristic of the non-tumoricidal resident and inflammatory macrophages.

  16. IRF5 governs liver macrophage activation that promotes hepatic fibrosis in mice and humans

    PubMed Central

    Alzaid, Fawaz; Lagadec, Floriane; Albuquerque, Miguel; Ballaire, Raphaëlle; Orliaguet, Lucie; Hainault, Isabelle; Blugeon, Corinne; Lemoine, Sophie; Lehuen, Agnès; Saliba, David G.; Udalova, Irina A.; Paradis, Valérie; Foufelle, Fabienne

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic fibrosis arises from inflammation in the liver initiated by resident macrophage activation and massive leukocyte accumulation. Hepatic macrophages hold a central position in maintaining homeostasis in the liver and in the pathogenesis of acute and chronic liver injury linked to fibrogenesis. Interferon regulatory factor 5 (IRF5) has recently emerged as an important proinflammatory transcription factor involved in macrophage activation under acute and chronic inflammation. Here, we revealed that IRF5 is significantly induced in liver macrophages from human subjects developing liver fibrosis from nonalcoholic fatty liver disease or hepatitis C virus infection. Furthermore, IRF5 expression positively correlated with clinical markers of liver damage, such as plasma transaminase and bilirubin levels. Interestingly, mice lacking IRF5 in myeloid cells (MKO) were protected from hepatic fibrosis induced by metabolic or toxic stresses. Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages lacking IRF5 was characterized by immunosuppressive and antiapoptotic properties. Consequently, IRF5 MKO mice respond to hepatocellular stress by promoting hepatocyte survival, leading to complete protection from hepatic fibrogenesis. Our findings reveal a regulatory network, governed by IRF5, that mediates hepatocyte death and liver fibrosis in mice and humans. Therefore, modulating IRF5 function may be an attractive approach to experimental therapeutics in fibroinflammatory liver disease. PMID:27942586

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi: the immunological induction of macrophage plasminogen activator requires thymus-derived lymphocytes

    PubMed Central

    1977-01-01

    In this article we describe methods in which unstimulated mouse peritoneal macrophages were induced to secrete high livels of plasminogen activator under in vitro conditions. The exposure of sensitized peritoneal or spleen cell populations from Trypanosoma cruzi- infected animals to either viable or heat-killed trypanosomes lead to the release of an inducing factor(s). Maximal levels of plasminogen activator secretion are achieved by the incubation of such factors (s) with unstimulated macrophages for 48 h. A significant increase in enzyme secretion was already observed after a 24 h incubation. The production of the inducing factor(s) by sensitized cells was immunologically specific and unrelated antigens did not stimulate the production of the factor(s) by sensitized peritoneal or spleen cell populations. The inducing factor(s) was produced by nylon-wool- fractionated spleen and peritoneal cells which had been depleted of marcrophages. Pretreatment of sensitized spleen cells with anti-theta serum and C abolished the production of the activating factor(s). The active supernatant fluids were able to induce secretion of macrophage plasminogen activator across H-2 barriers. Attempts to induce trypanocidal activity in unstimulated macrophages have not been successful. PMID:327013

  18. Alternatively activated macrophages in helminth infections

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminthic parasites can trigger highly polarized immune responses typically associated with increased numbers of CD4+ Th2 cells, eosinophils, mast cells, and basophils. These cell populations are thought to coordinate an effective response ultimately leading to parasite expulsion, but they also pl...

  19. Association of T Cell and Macrophage Activation with Arterial Vascular Health in HIV.

    PubMed

    Grome, Heather N; Barnett, Louise; Hagar, Cindy C; Harrison, David G; Kalams, Spyros A; Koethe, John R

    2017-02-01

    HIV-infected individuals are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but the arterial vascular functions affected by persistent innate and cellular immune activation are not well described. We assessed the relationship between immunologic and vascular parameters in 70 HIV-infected adults on efavirenz, tenofovir, and emtricitabine with more than 2 years of virologic suppression and no history of CVD. We measured brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) using ultrasound and circulating intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1) by multiple immunoassay. We also measured circulating naive (CD45RO(-)CCR7(+)CD27(+)), activated (CD38(+) and CD38(+)DR(+)), exhausted (PD1(+)), senescent (CD57(+)), and memory (CD45RO(+)) CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cell subsets by flow cytometry, and macrophage activation markers by ELISA and multiple immunoassay. Regression models were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, duration of antiretroviral therapy (ART), and body mass index. Median age was 45 years (IQR 39, 50), median CD4(+) count 701 cells/μl (IQR 540, 954), and 43% were female. Lower brachial FMD was associated with a higher percentage of activated CD8(+) T cells (p < .01), but not associated with macrophage activation. In contrast, higher ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 were associated with sCD163 (p < = .01 for both), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (p < = .02 for both), and sCD14 (p = .01 for ICAM-1 only). These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that circulating CD8(+) T cell activation may impair arterial smooth muscle relaxation, while macrophage activation has a role in the expression of endothelial cell proteins involved in immune cell translocation. Both innate and cellular immune activation appear to promote arterial vascular disease in HIV-infected persons on ART using differing mechanisms.

  20. Alveolar Macrophages Are a Prominent but Nonessential Target for Murine Cytomegalovirus Infecting the Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Farrell, Helen E.; Lawler, Clara; Oliveira, Martha T.; Davis-Poynter, Nick

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) infect the lungs and cause pathological damage there in immunocompromised hosts. How lung infection starts is unknown. Inhaled murine CMV (MCMV) directly infected alveolar macrophages (AMs) and type 2 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC2s) but not type 1 alveolar epithelial cells (AEC1s). In contrast, herpes simplex virus 1 infected AEC1s and murid herpesvirus 4 (MuHV-4) infected AEC1s via AMs. MCMV-infected AMs prominently expressed viral reporter genes from a human CMV IE1 promoter; but most IE1-positive cells were AEC2s, and CD11c-cre mice, which express cre in AMs, switched the fluorochrome expression of <5% of floxed MCMV in the lungs. In contrast, CD11C-cre mice exhibited fluorochrome switching in >90% of floxed MuHV-4 in the lungs and 50% of floxed MCMV in the blood. AM depletion increased MCMV titers in the lung during the acute phase of infection. Thus, the influence of AMs was more restrictive than permissive. Circulating monocytes entered infected lungs in large numbers and became infected, but not directly; infection occurred mainly via AEC2s. Mice infected with an MCMV mutant lacking its m131/m129 chemokine homolog, which promotes macrophage infection, showed levels of lung infection equivalent to those of wild-type MCMV-infected mice. The level of lung infiltration by Gr-1-positive cells infected with the MCMV m131/m129-null mutant was modestly different from that for wild-type MCMV-infected lungs. These results are consistent with myeloid cells mainly disseminating MCMV from the lungs, whereas AEC2s provide local amplification. IMPORTANCE Cytomegaloviruses (CMVs) chronically and systemically infect most mammals. Human CMV infection is usually asymptomatic but causes lung disease in people with poor immune function. As human infection is hard to analyze, studies with related animal viruses provide important insights. We show that murine CMV has two targets in the lungs: macrophages and surfactant-secreting epithelial cells

  1. Proatherogenic macrophage activities are targeted by the flavonoid quercetin.

    PubMed

    Lara-Guzman, Oscar J; Tabares-Guevara, Jorge H; Leon-Varela, Yudy M; Álvarez, Rafael M; Roldan, Miguel; Sierra, Jelver A; Londoño-Londoño, Julian A; Ramirez-Pineda, Jose R

    2012-11-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that the flavonoid quercetin protects against cardiovascular disease (CVD) and related risk factors. Atherosclerosis, the underlying cause of CVD, is also attenuated by oral quercetin administration in animal models. Although macrophages are key players during fatty streak formation and plaque progression and aggravation, little is known about the effects of quercetin on atherogenic macrophages. Here, we report that primary bone marrow-derived macrophages internalized less oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) and accumulated less intracellular cholesterol in the presence of quercetin. This reduction of foam cell formation correlated with reduced surface expression of the oxLDL receptor CD36. Quercetin also targeted the lipopolysaccharide-dependent, oxLDL-independent pathway of lipid droplet formation in macrophages. In oxLDL-stimulated macrophages, quercetin inhibited reactive oxygen species production and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion. In a system that evaluated cholesterol crystal-induced IL-1β secretion via nucleotide-binding domain and leucine-rich repeat containing protein 3 inflammasome activation, quercetin also exhibited an inhibitory effect. Dyslipidemic apolipoprotein E-deficient mice chronically treated with intraperitoneal quercetin injections had smaller atheromatous lesions, reduced lipid deposition, and less macrophage and T cell inflammatory infiltrate in the aortic roots than vehicle-treated animals. Serum levels of total cholesterol and the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde were also reduced in these mice. Our results demonstrate that quercetin interferes with both key proatherogenic activities of macrophages, namely foam cell formation and pro-oxidant/proinflammatory responses, and these effects may explain the atheroprotective properties of this common flavonoid.

  2. Transcriptomic analysis of responses to infectious salmon anemia virus infection in macrophage-like cells

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aquatic orthomyxovirus infectious salmon anemia virus (ISAV) is an important pathogen for salmonid aquaculture, however little is known about protective and pathological host responses to infection. We have investigated intracellular responses during cytopathic ISAV infection in the macrophage-l...

  3. Bcl-2 upregulation by HIV-1 Tat during infection of primary human macrophages in culture.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjie; Li, Xingxiang; Pang, Xiaowu; Ding, Lina; Wood, Owen; Clouse, Kathleen A; Hewlett, Indira; Dayton, Andrew I

    2002-01-01

    The ability of cells of the human monocyte/macrophage lineage to host HIV-1 replication while resisting cell death is believed to significantly contribute to their ability to serve as a reservoir for viral replication in the host. Although macrophages are generally resistant to apoptosis, interruption of anti-apoptotic pathways can render them susceptible to apoptosis. Here we report that HIV-1(BAL )infection of primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) upregulates the mRNA and protein levels of the anti-apoptic gene, Bcl-2. Furthermore, this upregulation can be quantitatively mimicked by treating MDM with soluble HIV-1 Tat-86 protein. These results suggest that in infecting cells of the monocyte/macrophage lineage, HIV-1 may be benefiting from additional protection against apoptosis caused by specific upregulation of cellular anti-apoptotic genes.

  4. Macrophages and Myeloid Dendritic Cells Lose T Cell-Stimulating Function in Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infection Associated with Diminished IL-12 and IFN-α Production.

    PubMed

    Wonderlich, Elizabeth R; Wu, Wen-Chi; Normolle, Daniel P; Barratt-Boyes, Simon M

    2015-10-01

    Impaired T cell responses are a defining characteristic of HIV infection, but the extent to which altered mononuclear phagocyte function contributes to this defect is unclear. We show that mononuclear phagocytes enriched from rhesus macaque lymph nodes have suppressed ability to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation and IFN-γ release after acute SIV infection. When individual populations were isolated, myeloid dendritic cells (mDC) and macrophages but not plasmacytoid DC (pDC) had suppressed capacity to stimulate CD4 T cell proliferation, with macrophage function declining as infection progressed. Macrophages, but not pDC or mDC, had suppressed capacity to induce IFN-γ release from CD4 T cells in acute infection, even after stimulation with virus-encoded TLR7/8 ligand. Changes in expression of costimulatory molecules did not explain loss of function postinfection. Conversely, pDC and mDC had marked loss of IFN-α and IL-12 production, respectively, and macrophages lost production of both cytokines. In T cell cocultures without TLR7/8 ligand, macrophages were the primary source of IL-12, which was profoundly suppressed postinfection and correlated with loss of IFN-γ release by T cells. TLR7/8-stimulated pDC, mDC and macrophages all produced IL-12 in T cell cocultures, which was suppressed in chronic infection. Supplementing IL-12 enhanced mDC-driven IFN-γ release from T cells, and IL-12 and IFN-α together restored function in TLR7/8-activated macrophages. These findings reveal loss of macrophage and mDC T cell-stimulating function in lymph nodes of SIV-infected rhesus macaques associated with diminished IL-12 and IFN-α production that may be a factor in AIDS immunopathogenesis.

  5. Nitric oxide increases susceptibility of toll-like receptor-activated macrophages to spreading Listeria monocytogenes

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Caroline; Thomas, Stacey; Filak, Holly; Henson, Peter M.; Lenz, Laurel L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Toll-like receptor (TLR) stimulation activates macrophages to resist intracellular pathogens. Yet, the intracellular bacterium Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) causes lethal infections in spite of innate immune cell activation. Lm uses direct cell-cell spread to disseminate within its host. Here, we have shown that TLR-activated macrophages killed cell-free Lm but failed to prevent infection by spreading Lm. Instead, TLR signals increased the efficiency of Lm spread from “donor” to “recipient” macrophages. This enhancement required nitric oxide (NO) production by nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS2). NO increased Lm escape from secondary vacuoles in recipient cells and delayed maturation of phagosomes containing membrane-like particles that mimic Lm-containing pseudopods. NO also promoted Lm spread during systemic in vivo infection, as inhibition of NOS2 with 1400W reduced spread-dependent Lm burdens in mouse livers. These findings reveal a mechanism by which pathogens capable of cell-cell spread can avoid the consequences of innate immune cell activation by TLR stimuli. PMID:22542147

  6. Fine-tuning of macrophage activation using synthetic rocaglate derivatives

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bidisha; Chatterjee, Sujoy; Devine, William G.; Kobzik, Lester; Beeler, Aaron B.; Porco, John A.; Kramnik, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistant bacteria represent a significant global threat. Given the dearth of new antibiotics, host-directed therapies (HDTs) are especially desirable. As IFN-gamma (IFNγ) plays a central role in host resistance to intracellular bacteria, including Mycobacterium tuberculosis, we searched for small molecules to augment the IFNγ response in macrophages. Using an interferon-inducible nuclear protein Ipr1 as a biomarker of macrophage activation, we performed a high-throughput screen and identified molecules that synergized with low concentration of IFNγ. Several active compounds belonged to the flavagline (rocaglate) family. In primary macrophages a subset of rocaglates 1) synergized with low concentrations of IFNγ in stimulating expression of a subset of IFN-inducible genes, including a key regulator of the IFNγ network, Irf1; 2) suppressed the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and type I IFN and 3) induced autophagy. These compounds may represent a basis for macrophage-directed therapies that fine-tune macrophage effector functions to combat intracellular pathogens and reduce inflammatory tissue damage. These therapies would be especially relevant to fighting drug-resistant pathogens, where improving host immunity may prove to be the ultimate resource. PMID:27086720

  7. Anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on lipopolysaccharide-activated macrophages via ERK and NF-κB pathway regulation.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yun Chan; Kim, Mi Eun; Yoon, Ju Hwa; Park, Pu Reum; Youn, Hwa-Young; Lee, Hee-Woo; Lee, Jun Sik

    2014-12-01

    Inflammation is the major symptom of the innate immune response to microbial infection. Macrophages, immune response-related cells, play a role in the inflammatory response. Galangin is a member of the flavonols and is found in Alpinia officinarum, galangal root and propolis. Previous studies have demonstrated that galangin has antioxidant, anticancer, and antineoplastic activities. However, the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin are still unknown. In this study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of galangin on RAW 264.7 murine macrophages. Galagin was not cytotoxic to RAW 264.7 cells, and nitric oxide (NO) production induced by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated macrophages was significantly decreased by the addition of 50 μM galangin. Moreover, galangin treatment reduced mRNA levels of cytokines, including IL-1β and IL-6, and proinflammatory genes, such as iNOS in LPS-activated macrophages in a dose-dependent manner. Galangin treatment also decreased the protein expression levels of iNOS in activated macrophages. Galangin was found to elicit anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting ERK and NF-κB-p65 phosphorylation. In addition, galangin-inhibited IL-1β production in LPS-activated macrophages. These results suggest that galangin elicits anti-inflammatory effects on LPS-activated macrophages via the inhibition of ERK, NF-κB-p65 and proinflammatory gene expression.

  8. Macrophage activation syndrome: why and what should a gastroenterologist know.

    PubMed

    Jayakar, Bijal A; Hashkes, Philip J

    2011-03-01

    We recently treated a patient with adult-onset Still's disease who developed macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) secondary to disseminated histoplasmosis while being treated with adalimumab. The gastroenterology service was consulted early, before diagnosis, as the patient presented with elevated liver enzymes and disseminated intravascular coagulation. MAS is an exaggerated immune response that can develop as a primary condition or secondary to infections, drugs and various diseases, resulting in liver dysfunction, encephalopathy, pancytopenia and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The development of MAS has also been reported in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and post-liver transplantation and has been triggered by medications used by gastroenterologists, particularly sulfasalazine and anti-tumor necrosis factor biologic modifiers. Therefore, we present a review on etiology, pathogenesis, clinical and laboratory features, and treatment of MAS with a focus on gastrointestinal aspects and presentations. MAS is a life threatening condition with a high mortality rate if untreated. Therefore it is important to recognize this condition early. As these patients may occasionally present to gastroenterologists we hope this review will increase awareness of this rare, but serious syndrome.

  9. Early activation of splenic macrophages by tumor necrosis factor alpha is important in determining the outcome of experimental histoplasmosis in mice.

    PubMed Central

    Wu-Hsieh, B A; Lee, G S; Franco, M; Hofman, F M

    1992-01-01

    Experimental infection of animals with Histoplasma capsulatum caused a massive macrophage infiltration into the spleen and induced the production of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) locally. The cytokine was also produced in vitro by peritoneal exudate macrophages exposed to a large inoculum of yeast cells. Depletion of the cytokine by injection of polyclonal sheep anti-TNF-alpha antibody was detrimental to sublethally infected mice. Fungous burdens in the spleens of TNF-alpha-depleted mice were higher than they were in the infected control mice at days 2, 7, and 9 after infection, and the antibody-treated animals succumbed to the infection. Histopathological study of spleen sections revealed that splenic macrophages were not able to control proliferation of intracellular yeasts as a result of TNF-alpha depletion. It seems that TNF-alpha plays a role in early activation of splenic macrophages which is important in controlling the outcome of an infection. Images PMID:1398934

  10. Effect of cortisol and/or DHEA on THP1-derived macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bongiovanni, Bettina; Mata-Espinosa, Dulce; D'Attilio, Luciano; Leon-Contreras, Juan Carlos; Marquez-Velasco, Ricardo; Bottasso, Oscar; Hernandez-Pando, Rogelio; Bay, María Luisa

    2015-09-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a major health problem requiring an appropriate cell immune response to be controlled. Macrophages play a central role in the response against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Given our prior studies in which adrenal steroids were found to modify the cellular immune responses from TB patients, it was sensible to analyze the immunomodulatory capability of cortisol and DHEA on macrophages infected with Mtb. The human macrophage-like THP-1 cells were infected with the H37Rv strain of Mtb and treated with Cortisol and DHEA at different doses. We monitored phagocytosis, intracellular-bacterial growth, autophagosoma formation, as well as cytokine gene expression and production. Cultures exposed to cortisol showed a decreased production of IL-1β, TNF-α, with DHEA being unable to modify the pattern of cytokine production or to reverse the cortisol inhibitory effects. Interestingly the intra-macrophagic bacterial burden was found reduced by DHEA treatment. While this effect was not related to a different cytokine pattern, in terms their production or mRNA expression, DHEA treatment did promote autophagy in Mtb-infected macrophages, irrespective of Cortisol presence. In essence, the better control of Mtb load by DHEA-treated macrophages seems to be dependent on an autophagic mechanism. The present results are relevant for two reasons as autophagy is not only important for clearance of mycobacteria but also for the prevention of tissue damage.

  11. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Infection Induces HDAC1-Mediated Suppression of IL-12B Gene Expression in Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chandran, Aneesh; Antony, Cecil; Jose, Leny; Mundayoor, Sathish; Natarajan, Krishnamurthy; Kumar, R Ajay

    2015-01-01

    Downregulation of host gene expression is one of the many strategies employed by intracellular pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) to survive inside the macrophages and cause disease. The underlying molecular mechanism behind the downregulation of host defense gene expression is largely unknown. In this study we explored the role of histone deacetylation in macrophages in response to infection by virulent MTB H37Rv in manipulating host gene expression. We show a significant increase in the levels of HDAC1 with a concomitant and marked reduction in the levels of histone H3-acetylation in macrophages containing live, but not killed, virulent MTB. Additionally, we show that HDAC1 is recruited to the promoter of IL-12B in macrophages infected with live, virulent MTB, and the subsequent hypoacetylation of histone H3 suppresses the expression of this gene which plays a key role in initiating Th1 responses. By inhibiting immunologically relevant kinases, and by knockdown of crucial transcriptional regulators, we demonstrate that protein kinase-A (PKA), CREB, and c-Jun play an important role in regulating HDAC1 level in live MTB-infected macrophages. By chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) analysis, we prove that HDAC1 expression is positively regulated by the recruitment of c-Jun to its promoter. Knockdown of HDAC1 in macrophages significantly reduced the survival of intracellular MTB. These observations indicate a novel HDAC1-mediated epigenetic modification induced by live, virulent MTB to subvert the immune system to survive and replicate in the host.

  12. Histone deacetylase inhibitor MS-275 augments expression of a subset of IFN-γ-regulated genes in Toxoplasma gondii-infected macrophages but does not improve parasite control.

    PubMed

    Sumpf, Kristina; Nast, Roswitha; Downie, Bryan; Salinas, Gabriela; Lüder, Carsten G K

    2017-02-09

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous apicomplexan parasite of mammals and birds and an important pathogen of humans. IFN-γ is the major mediator of host resistance against T. gondii but intriguingly, parasite-infected host cells including macrophages are severely impaired to respond to IFN-γ due to defective transcriptional activation of target genes. Here, we tested the possibility that the impaired responsiveness of T. gondii-infected macrophages to IFN-γ can be restored by inhibiting histone deacetylases (HDACs) using the class I-specific inhibitor MS-275. Treatment of RAW264.7 cells with MS-275 indeed increased MHC class II surface expression in infected and non-infected cells and largely abolished the inhibition of IFN-γ-regulated MHC class II expression exerted by T. gondii. Genome-wide transcriptome profiling revealed that MS-275 increased mean mRNA levels of IFN-γ-regulated genes particularly in non-infected macrophages. Transcript levels of 33% of IFN-γ secondary response genes but only those of a few primary response genes were also increased by MS-275 in T. gondii-infected cells. Importantly, the unresponsiveness of parasite-infected cells to IFN-γ was however not abolished by MS-275. Furthermore, MS-275 also up-regulated several anti-inflammatory cytokines or signaling molecules in T. gondii-infected macrophages. It additionally regulated expression of more than 2500 genes in non-infected macrophages expression of which was surprisingly counteracted by prior infection with T. gondii. FACS analysis and immunofluorescence microscopy revealed that MS-275 did not considerably diminish the number of parasite-positive cells or the intracellular replication in macrophages stimulated or not with IFN-γ. Thus, a supportive therapy using MS-275 appears inappropriate for treatment of toxoplasmosis.

  13. STAT6−/− mice exhibit decreased cells with alternatively activated macrophage phenotypes and enhanced disease severity in murine neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Bibhuti B.; Gundra, Uma Mahesh; Teale, Judy M.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, using a murine model for neurocysticercosis, macrophage phenotypes and their functions were examined. Mesocestoides corti infection in the central nervous system (CNS) induced expression of markers associated with alternatively activated macrophages (AAMs) and a scarcity of iNOS, a classically activated macrophage marker. The infection in STAT6−/− mice resulted in significantly reduced accumulation of AAMs as well as enhanced susceptibility to infection coinciding with increased parasite burden and greater neuropathology. These results demonstrate that macrophages in the helminth infected CNS are largely of AAM phenotypes, particularly as the infection progresses, and that STAT6 dependent responses, possibly involving AAMs, are essential for controlling neurocysticercosis. PMID:21051093

  14. Proteomic Investigation of the Time Course Responses of RAW 264.7 Macrophages to Infection with Salmonella enterica

    SciTech Connect

    Shi, Liang; Chowdhury, Saiful M.; Smallwood, Heather S.; Yoon, Hyunjin; Mottaz-Brewer, Heather M.; Norbeck, Angela D.; McDermott, Jason E.; Clauss, Therese RW; Heffron, Fred; Smith, Richard D.; Adkins, Joshua N.

    2009-08-01

    Macrophages plan important roles in controlling Salmonella-mediated systemic infection. To investigate the responses of macrophages to Salmonella infection, we infected RAW 264.7 macrophages with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium (STM) and then performed a comparative liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry [LC-MS(/MS)]-based proteomics analysis of the infected macrophages. A total of 1006 macrophage and 115 STM proteins were indentified from this study. Most of STM proteins were found at late stage of the time course of infection, consistent with the fact that STM proliferates inside RAW 264.7 macrophages. Majority of the identified macrophage proteins were house keeping-related, including cytoplasmic superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1), whose peptide abundances were relatively constant during the time course of infection. Compared to those in no infection control, the peptide abundances of 244 macrophage proteins (or 24% of total indentified macrophage proteins) changed considerably after STM infection. The functions of these STM infection-affected macrophage proteins were diverse and ranged from production of antibacterial nitric oxide (i.e., inducible nitric oxide synthase or iNOS) or production of prostaglandin H2 (i.e., prostaglandin-endoperoxide synthase 2, also know as cyclooxygenase-2 or COX-2) to regulation of intracellular traffic (e.g., sorting nexin or SNX 5, 6 and 9), demonstrating a global impact of STM infection on macrophage proteome. Western-blot analysis not only confirmed the LC-MS(/MS) results of SOD1, COX-2 and iNOS, but also revealed that the protein abundances of mitochondrial SOD2 increased after STM infection, indicating an infection-induced oxidative stress in mitochondria.

  15. Escherichia coli and Candida albicans Induced Macrophage Extracellular Trap-Like Structures with Limited Microbicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Chengshui; Liu, Xiaolei; Du, Jing; Shi, Haining; Wang, Xuelin; Bai, Xue; Peng, Peng; Yu, Lu; Wang, Feng; Zhao, Ying; Liu, Mingyuan

    2014-01-01

    The formation of extracellular traps (ETs) has recently been recognized as a novel defense mechanism in several types of innate immune cells. It has been suggested that these structures are toxic to microbes and contribute significantly to killing several pathogens. However, the role of ETs formed by macrophages (METs) in defense against microbes remains little known. In this study, we demonstrated that a subset of murine J774A.1 macrophage cell line (8% to 17%) and peritoneal macrophages (8.5% to 15%) form METs-like structures (METs-LS) in response to Escherichia coli and Candida albicans challenge. We found only a portion of murine METs-LS, which are released by dying macrophages, showed detectable killing effects on trapped E. coli but not C. albicans. Fluorescence and scanning electron microscopy analyses revealed that, in vitro, both microorganisms were entrapped in J774A.1 METs-LS composed of DNA and microbicidal proteins such as histone, myeloperoxidase and lysozyme. DNA components of both nucleus and mitochondrion origins were detectable in these structures. Additionally, METs-LS formation occurred independently of ROS produced by NADPH oxidase, and this process did not result in cell lysis. In summary, our results emphasized that microbes induced METs-LS in murine macrophage cells and that the microbicidal activity of these METs-LS differs greatly. We propose the function of METs-LS is to contain invading microbes at the infection site, thereby preventing the systemic diffusion of them, rather than significantly killing them. PMID:24587206

  16. Alternate splicing of transcripts shape macrophage response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection

    PubMed Central

    Kalam, Haroon; Fontana, Mary F.

    2017-01-01

    Transcriptional reprogramming of macrophages upon Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) infection is widely studied; however, the significance of alternate splicing (AS) in shaping cellular responses to mycobacterial infections is not yet appreciated. Alternate splicing can influence transcript stability or structure, function and localization of corresponding proteins thereby altering protein stoichiometry and physiological consequences. Using comprehensive analysis of a time-series RNA-seq data obtained from human macrophages infected with virulent or avirulent strains of Mtb, we show extensive remodeling of alternate splicing in macrophage transcriptome. The global nature of this regulation was evident since genes belonging to functional classes like trafficking, immune response, autophagy, redox and metabolism showed marked departure in the pattern of splicing in the infected macrophages. The systemic perturbation of splicing machinery in the infected macrophages was apparent as genes involved at different stages of spliceosome assembly were also regulated at the splicing level. Curiously there was a considerable increase in the expression of truncated/non-translatable variants of several genes, specifically upon virulent infections. Increased expression of truncated transcripts correlated with a decline in the corresponding protein levels. We verified the physiological relevance for one such candidate gene RAB8B; whose truncated variant gets enriched in H37Rv infected cells. Upon tweaking relative abundance of longer or shorter variants of RAB8B transcripts by specialized transduction, mycobacterial targeting to lysosomes could be promoted or blocked respectively, which also resulted in corresponding changes in the bacterial survival. Our results show RAB8B recruitment to the mycobacterial phagosomes is required for phagosome maturation. Thus the abundance of truncated RAB8B variant helps virulent Mtb survival by limiting the RAB8B levels in the cells, a mechanism

  17. CX3CR1hi Monocyte/Macrophages Support Bacterial Survival and Experimental Infection-Driven Bone Resorption.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, Orit; Hoch, Shifra; Avniel-Polak, Shani; Gavish, Keren; Eli-Berchoer, Luba; Wilensky, Asaf; Nussbaum, Gabriel

    2016-05-01

    Porphyromonas gingivalis,an anaerobic bacterium strongly linked to infection-driven inflammatory bone erosion, thrives within a highly inflamed milieu and disseminates to distant sites, such as atherosclerotic plaque. We examined the role of monocyte/macrophages in determining the outcome of infection with P. gingivalis. Surprisingly, transient monocyte/macrophage depletion led to greatly improved clearance of P. gingivalis. The chemokine receptors CCR2 and CX3CR1 play a major role in monocyte recruitment and differentiation to Ly6C(hi) vs CX3CR1(hi) subsets, respectively. To determine the contribution of particular monocyte/macrophage subsets to bacterial survival, we challenged chemokine receptor knockout mice and found that P. gingivalis clearance is significantly improved in the absence of CX3CR1. CX3CR1(hi) monocyte/macrophages promote P. gingivalis survival by downregulating neutrophil phagocytosis. Furthermore, CX3CR1 knockout mice resist bone resorption in the oral cavity following challenge with P. gingivalis Our findings provide an explanation for bacterial coexistence alongside an activate neutrophil infiltrate.

  18. HIV-infected macrophages as efficient stimulator cells for detection of cytotoxic T cell responses to HIV in seronegative and seropositive vaccine recipients.

    PubMed

    McElrath, M J; Hoffman, M; Kluckling, S; Corey, L; Greenberg, P D

    1994-05-01

    The induction of CD8+ CTL responses is a goal of most HIV-1 vaccine trials, but such potentially protective effector responses have been difficult to evaluate, particularly in these vaccine prevention trials, due to technical obstacles. We report a method to evaluate CTL responses based on the ability to infect autologous macrophages with a monocytotropic strain of HIV-1, and to use these cells as efficient stimulators. This approach does not require the addition of exogenous cytokines, allows detection of class I-restricted CTLs against multiple HIV-1 gene products, and circumvents the problem, often detected using other stimulator cells, of high levels of lytic activity against target cells expressing vaccinia and/or EBV antigens. Adherent monocyte-derived macrophages were infected with HIV-1 Ba-L, and used within 2-3 weeks as autologous stimulators. Fresh PBMCs were cultured with the infected macrophages, harvested after 1 week, replated with fresh infected macrophages and filler cells, and tested after 5-7 days for cytolytic activity. CD8+ CTL responses specific for HIV-1 envelope were detected at an E:T ratio as low as 5:1 in two of four HIV-1-uninfected recipients of an HIV vaccine regimen that included a recombinant live vaccinia virus. Cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity could be detected > 1 year following vaccination. Similar lytic activity was detected with cryopreserved responder cells. In two HIV-1-infected individuals participating in a blinded therapeutic vaccination trial, the use of infected macrophages as in vitro stimulators permitted detection of the presence of envelope and gag-specific CTLs. No responses were observed in nonimmunized, uninfected controls. Thus, HIV-1-infected macrophages can stimulate in vitro the repertoire of primed HIV-reactive CD8+ precursors from seronegative and seropositive participants in HIV-1 vaccine trials, and should facilitate the identification of potentially effective candidate HIV vaccines.

  19. Species dependent impact of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: Direct effect on the innate anti-mycobacterial response

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Susmita K.; McKay, Derek M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In countries with a high prevalence of tuberculosis there is high coincident of helminth infections that might worsen disease outcome. While Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) gives rise to a pro-inflammatory Th1 response, a Th2 response is typical of helminth infections. A strong Th2 response has been associated with decreased protection against tuberculosis. Principal findings We investigated the direct effect of helminth-derived antigens on human macrophages, hypothesizing that helminths would render macrophages less capable of controlling Mtb. Measuring cytokine output, macrophage surface markers with flow cytometry, and assessing bacterial replication and phagosomal maturation revealed that antigens from different species of helminth directly affect macrophage responses to Mtb. Antigens from the tapeworm Hymenolepis diminuta and the nematode Trichuris muris caused an anti-inflammatory response with M2-type polarization, reduced macrophage phagosome maturation and ability to activate T cells, along with increased Mtb burden, especially in T. muris exposed cells which also induced the highest IL-10 production upon co-infection. However, antigens from the trematode Schistosoma mansoni had the opposite effect causing a decrease in IL-10 production, M1-type polarization and increased control of Mtb. Conclusion We conclude that, independent of any adaptive immune response, infection with helminth parasites, in a species-specific manner can influence the outcome of tuberculosis by either enhancing or diminishing the bactericidal function of macrophages. PMID:28192437

  20. MyD88 in macrophages is critical for abscess resolution in staphylococcal skin infection.

    PubMed

    Feuerstein, Reinhild; Seidl, Maximilian; Prinz, Marco; Henneke, Philipp

    2015-03-15

    When Staphylococcus aureus penetrates the epidermis and reaches the dermis, polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMLs) accumulate and an abscess is formed. However, the molecular mechanisms that orchestrate initiation and termination of inflammation in skin infection are incompletely understood. In human myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MyD88) deficiency, staphylococcal skin and soft tissue infections are a leading and potentially life-threatening problem. In this study, we found that MyD88-dependent sensing of S. aureus by dermal macrophages (Mϕ) contributes to both timely escalation and termination of PML-mediated inflammation in a mouse model of staphylococcal skin infection. Mϕs were key to recruit PML within hours in response to staphylococci, irrespective of bacterial viability. In contrast with bone marrow-derived Mϕs, dermal Mϕs did not require UNC-93B or TLR2 for activation. Moreover, PMLs, once recruited, were highly activated in an MyD88-independent fashion, yet failed to clear the infection if Mϕs were missing or functionally impaired. In normal mice, clearance of the infection and contraction of the PML infiltrate were accompanied by expansion of resident Mϕs in a CCR2-dependent fashion. Thus, whereas monocytes were dispensable for the early immune response to staphylococci, they contributed to Mϕ renewal after the infection was overcome. Taken together, MyD88-dependent sensing of staphylococci by resident dermal Mϕs is key for a rapid and balanced immune response, and PMLs are dependent on intact Mϕ for full function. Renewal of resident Mϕs requires both local control of bacteria and inflammatory monocytes entering the skin.

  1. In-Depth Global Analysis of Transcript Abundance Levels in Porcine Alveolar Macrophages Following Infection with Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome Virus

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Laura C.; Neill, John D.; Harhay, Gregory P.; Lager, Kelly M.; Laegreid, William W.; Kehrli, Marcus E.

    2010-01-01

    Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) is a major pathogen of swine worldwide and causes considerable economic loss. Identifying specific cell signaling or activation pathways that associate with variation in PRRSV replication and macrophage function may lead to identification of novel gene targets for the control of PRRSV infection. Serial Analysis of Gene Expression (SAGE) was used to create and survey the transcriptome of in vitro mock-infected and PRRSV strain VR-2332-infected porcine alveolar macrophages (PAM) at 0, 6, 12, 16, and 24 hours after infection. The transcriptome data indicated changes in transcript abundance occurring in PRRSV-infected PAMs over time after infection with more than 590 unique tags with significantly altered transcript abundance levels identified (P < .01). Strikingly, innate immune genes (whose transcript abundances are typically altered in response to other pathogens or insults including IL-8, CCL4, and IL-1β) showed no or very little change at any time point following infection. PMID:22331987

  2. Critical role for interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) during Chlamydia muridarum genital infection and bacterial replication-independent secretion of IL-1beta in mouse macrophages.

    PubMed

    Prantner, Daniel; Darville, Toni; Sikes, James D; Andrews, Charles W; Brade, Helmut; Rank, Roger G; Nagarajan, Uma M

    2009-12-01

    Recent findings have implicated interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) as an important mediator of the inflammatory response in the female genital tract during chlamydial infection. But how IL-1beta is produced and its specific role in infection and pathology are unclear. Therefore, our goal was to determine the functional consequences and cellular sources of IL-1beta expression during a chlamydial genital infection. In the present study, IL-1beta(-/-) mice exhibited delayed chlamydial clearance and decreased frequency of hydrosalpinx compared to wild-type (WT) mice, implying an important role for IL-1beta both in the clearance of infection and in the mediation of oviduct pathology. At the peak of IL-1beta secretion in WT mice, the major producers of IL-1beta in vivo are F4/80(+) macrophages and GR-1(+) neutrophils, but not CD45(-) epithelial cells. Although elicited mouse macrophages infected with Chlamydia muridarum in vitro secrete minimal IL-1beta, in vitro prestimulation of macrophages by Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands such as lipopolysaccharide (LPS) purified from Escherichia coli or C. trachomatis L2 prior to infection greatly enhanced secretion of IL-1beta from these cells. By using LPS-primed macrophages as a model system, it was determined that IL-1beta secretion was dependent on caspase-1, potassium efflux, and the activity of serine proteases. Significantly, chlamydia-induced IL-1beta secretion in macrophages required bacterial viability but not growth. Our findings demonstrate that IL-1beta secreted by macrophages and neutrophils has important effects in vivo during chlamydial infection. Additionally, prestimulation of macrophages by chlamydial TLR ligands may account for the elevated levels of pro-IL-1beta mRNA observed in vivo in this cell type.

  3. Inhibition of macrophage activation by the myxoma virus M141 protein (vCD200).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Leiliang; Stanford, Marianne; Liu, Jia; Barrett, Catherine; Jiang, Lei; Barclay, A Neil; McFadden, Grant

    2009-09-01

    The M141 protein of myxoma virus (MYXV) is a viral CD200 homolog (also called vOX-2) that inhibits macrophage activation in infected rabbits. Here, we show that murine myeloid RAW 264.7 cells became activated when infected with MYXV in which the M141 gene was deleted (vMyx-M141KO) but not with the parental wild-type MYXV. Moreover, transcript and protein levels of tumor necrosis factor and granulocyte colony-stimulating factor were rapidly upregulated in an NF-kappaB-dependent fashion in the RAW 264.7 cells infected with vMyx-M141KO. M141 protein is present in the virion and counteracts this NF-kappaB activation pathway upon infection with the wild-type MYXV. Our data suggest that upregulation of these classic macrophage-related proinflammatory cytokine markers following infection of myeloid cells with the M141-knockout MYXV is mediated via the rapid activation of the cellular NF-kappaB pathway.

  4. Carbon nanohorns allow acceleration of osteoblast differentiation via macrophage activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirata, Eri; Miyako, Eijiro; Hanagata, Nobutaka; Ushijima, Natsumi; Sakaguchi, Norihito; Russier, Julie; Yudasaka, Masako; Iijima, Sumio; Bianco, Alberto; Yokoyama, Atsuro

    2016-07-01

    Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the proof-of-concept on the osteoblast differentiation capacity by CNHs will allow future studies focused on CNHs as ideal therapeutic materials for bone regeneration.Carbon nanohorns (CNHs), formed by a rolled graphene structure and terminating in a cone, are promising nanomaterials for the development of a variety of biological applications. Here we demonstrate that alkaline phosphatase activity is dramatically increased by coculture of human monocyte derived macrophages (hMDMs) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in the presence of CNHs. CNHs were mainly localized in the lysosome of macrophages more than in hMSCs during coculturing. At the same time, the amount of Oncostatin M (OSM) in the supernatant was also increased during incubation with CNHs. Oncostatin M (OSM) from activated macrophage has been reported to induce osteoblast differentiation and matrix mineralization through STAT3. These results suggest that the macrophages engulfed CNHs and accelerated the differentiation of mesenchymal stem cells into the osteoblast via OSM release. We expect that the

  5. Major Outer Membrane Protein Omp25 of Brucella suis Is Involved in Inhibition of Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha Production during Infection of Human Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jubier-Maurin, Véronique; Boigegrain, Rose-Anne; Cloeckaert, Axel; Gross, Antoine; Alvarez-Martinez, Maria-Teresa; Terraza, Annie; Liautard, Janny; Köhler, Stephan; Rouot, Bruno; Dornand, Jacques; Liautard, Jean Pierre

    2001-01-01

    Brucella spp. can establish themselves and cause disease in humans and animals. The mechanisms by which Brucella spp. evade the antibacterial defenses of their host, however, remain largely unknown. We have previously reported that live brucellae failed to induce tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) production upon human macrophage infection. This inhibition is associated with a nonidentified protein that is released into culture medium. Outer membrane proteins (OMPs) of gram-negative bacteria have been shown to modulate macrophage functions, including cytokine production. Thus, we have analyzed the effects of two major OMPs (Omp25 and Omp31) of Brucella suis 1330 (wild-type [WT] B. suis) on TNF-α production. For this purpose, omp25 and omp31 null mutants of B. suis (Δomp25 B. suis and Δomp31 B. suis, respectively) were constructed and analyzed for the ability to activate human macrophages to secrete TNF-α. We showed that, in contrast to WT B. suis or Δomp31 B. suis, Δomp25 B. suis induced TNF-α production when phagocytosed by human macrophages. The complementation of Δomp25 B. suis with WT omp25 (Δomp25-omp25 B. suis mutant) significantly reversed this effect: Δomp25-omp25 B. suis-infected macrophages secreted significantly less TNF-α than did macrophages infected with the Δomp25 B. suis mutant. Furthermore, pretreatment of WT B. suis with an anti-Omp25 monoclonal antibody directed against an epitope exposed at the surface of the bacteria resulted in substancial TNF-α production during macrophage infection. These observations demonstrated that Omp25 of B. suis is involved in the negative regulation of TNF-α production upon infection of human macrophages. PMID:11447156

  6. Listeria monocytogenes infection in macrophages induces vacuolar-dependent host miRNA response.

    PubMed

    Schnitger, Anna K D; Machova, Alzbeta; Mueller, Roman Ulrich; Androulidaki, Ariadne; Schermer, Bernhard; Pasparakis, Manolis; Krönke, Martin; Papadopoulou, Nikoletta

    2011-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a gram-positive facultative intracellular pathogen, causing serious illness in immunocompromised individuals and pregnant women. Upon detection by macrophages, which are key players of the innate immune response against infection, L. monocytogenes induces specific host cell responses which need to be tightly controlled at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels. Here, we ask whether and how host miRNAs, which represent an important mechanism of post-transcriptional regulation in a wide array of biological processes, are altered by a model pathogen upon live infection of murine bone marrow derived macrophages. We first report that L. monocytogenes subverts the host genome-wide miRNA profile of macrophages in vitro. Specifically, we show that miR-155, miR-146a, miR-125a-3p/5p and miR-149 were amongst the most significantly regulated miRNAs in infected macrophages. Strikingly, these miRNAs were highly upregulated upon infection with the Listeriolysin-deficient L. monocytogenes mutant Δhly, that cannot escape from the phagosome thus representing a vacuolar-contained infection. The vacuolar miRNA response was significantly reduced in macrophages deficient for MyD88. In addition, miR-146a and miR-125a-3p/5p were regulated at transcriptional levels upon infection, and miR-125a-3p/5p were found to be TLR2 responsive. Furthermore, miR-155 transactivation in infection was regulated by NF-κB p65, while miR-146a and miR-125a-3p/5p expression was unaffected in p65-deficient primary macrophages upon L. monocytogenes infection. Our results demonstrate that L. monocytogenes promotes significant changes in the miRNA expression profile in macrophages, and reveal a vacuolar-dependent miRNA signature, listeriolysin-independent and MyD88-dependent. These miRNAs are predicted to target immune genes and are therefore most likely involved in regulation of the macrophage innate immune response against infection at post-transcriptional levels.

  7. Diet Modifies the Neuroimmune System by Influencing Macrophage Activation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherry, Christina Lynn

    2009-01-01

    It has long been appreciated that adequate nutrition is required for proper immune function and it is now recognized that dietary components contribute to modulation of immune cells, subsequently impacting the whole body's response during an immune challenge. Macrophage activation plays a critical role in the immune system and directs the…

  8. Proteomic analysis of macrophage activated with salmonella lipopolysaccharide

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Macrophages play pivotal role in immunity. They are activated by many pathogen derived molecules such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS) which trigger the production of various proteins and peptides that drive and resolve inflammation. There are numerous studies on the effect of LPS at the genome level bu...

  9. Real-time visualization of HIV-1 GAG trafficking in infected macrophages.

    PubMed

    Gousset, Karine; Ablan, Sherimay D; Coren, Lori V; Ono, Akira; Soheilian, Ferri; Nagashima, Kunio; Ott, David E; Freed, Eric O

    2008-03-07

    HIV-1 particle production is driven by the Gag precursor protein Pr55(Gag). Despite significant progress in defining both the viral and cellular determinants of HIV-1 assembly and release, the trafficking pathway used by Gag to reach its site of assembly in the infected cell remains to be elucidated. The Gag trafficking itinerary in primary monocyte-derived macrophages is especially poorly understood. To define the site of assembly and characterize the Gag trafficking pathway in this physiologically relevant cell type, we have made use of the biarsenical-tetracysteine system. A small tetracysteine tag was introduced near the C-terminus of the matrix domain of Gag. The insertion of the tag at this position did not interfere with Gag trafficking, virus assembly or release, particle infectivity, or the kinetics of virus replication. By using this in vivo detection system to visualize Gag trafficking in living macrophages, Gag was observed to accumulate both at the plasma membrane and in an apparently internal compartment that bears markers characteristic of late endosomes or multivesicular bodies. Significantly, the internal Gag rapidly translocated to the junction between the infected macrophages and uninfected T cells following macrophage/T-cell synapse formation. These data indicate that a population of Gag in infected macrophages remains sequestered internally and is presented to uninfected target cells at a virological synapse.

  10. Comparison of activities of rifapentine and rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Mor, N; Simon, B; Mezo, N; Heifets, L

    1995-01-01

    The activities of rifapentine and rifampin against Mycobacterium tuberculosis residing in human monocyte-derived macrophages were determined. The MICs and MBCs of rifapentine for intracellular bacteria were two- to fourfold lower than those of rifampin. For extracellular bacteria, this difference was less noticeable. Nevertheless, the more favorable pharmacokinetics of rifapentine over rifampin was addressed in other experimental models. These models showed substantial differences after short pulsed exposures of the infected macrophages to the drugs and when the infected macrophages were exposed to changing drug concentrations that imitated the pharmacokinetic curves observed in blood. Once-a-week exposures to rifapentine concentrations equivalent to those attained in blood after one 600-mg dose resulted during the first week in a dramatic decline in the number of bacteria, and this decline was maintained at a minimal level for a period of four weeks. The results of this study have shown the suitability of rifapentine for intermittent-treatment regimens. The prolonged effect of rifapentine found in this study may be associated with high ratios of intracellular accumulation, which were four- to fivefold higher than those found for rifampin. Further studies on the intracellular distribution of rifamycins and on the sites of actual interaction between the drugs and bacteria residing in macrophages are necessary. PMID:8540718

  11. Tissue-resident macrophages can contain replication-competent virus in antiretroviral-naive, SIV-infected Asian macaques

    PubMed Central

    DiNapoli, Sarah R.; Ortiz, Alexandra M.; Wu, Fan; Matsuda, Kenta; Hirsch, Vanessa M.; Knox, Kenneth

    2017-01-01

    SIV DNA can be detected in lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages of chronically SIV-infected Asian macaques. These macrophages also contain evidence of recently phagocytosed SIV-infected CD4+ T cells. Here, we examine whether these macrophages contain replication-competent virus, whether viral DNA can be detected in tissue-resident macrophages from antiretroviral (ARV) therapy–treated animals and humans, and how the viral sequences amplified from macrophages and contemporaneous CD4+ T cells compare. In ARV-naive animals, we find that lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages contain replication-competent virus if they also contain viral DNA in ARV-naive Asian macaques. The genetic sequence of the virus within these macrophages is similar to those within CD4+ T cells from the same anatomic sites. In ARV-treated animals, we find that viral DNA can be amplified from lymphoid tissue–resident macrophages of SIV-infected Asian macaques that were treated with ARVs for at least 5 months, but we could not detect replication-competent virus from macrophages of animals treated with ARVs. Finally, we could not detect viral DNA in alveolar macrophages from HIV-infected individuals who received ARVs for 3 years and had undetectable viral loads. These data demonstrate that macrophages can contain replication-competent virus, but may not represent a significant reservoir for HIV in vivo. PMID:28239657

  12. High-multiplicity HIV-1 infection and neutralizing antibody evasion mediated by the macrophage-T cell virological synapse.

    PubMed

    Duncan, Christopher J A; Williams, James P; Schiffner, Torben; Gärtner, Kathleen; Ochsenbauer, Christina; Kappes, John; Russell, Rebecca A; Frater, John; Sattentau, Quentin J

    2014-02-01

    Macrophage infection is considered to play an important role in HIV-1 pathogenesis and persistence. Using a primary cell-based coculture model, we show that monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM) efficiently transmit a high-multiplicity HIV-1 infection to autologous CD4(+) T cells through a viral envelope glycoprotein (Env) receptor- and actin-dependent virological synapse (VS), facilitated by interactions between ICAM-1 and LFA-1. Virological synapse (VS)-mediated transmission by MDM results in high levels of T cell HIV-1 integration and is 1 to 2 orders of magnitude more efficient than cell-free infection. This mode of cell-to-cell transmission is broadly susceptible to the activity of CD4 binding site (CD4bs) and glycan or glycopeptide epitope-specific broadly neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (bNMAbs) but shows resistance to bNMAbs targeting the Env gp41 subunit membrane-proximal external region (MPER). These data define for the first time the structure and function of the macrophage-to-T cell VS and have important implications for bNMAb activity in HIV-1 prophylaxis and therapy. IMPORTANCE The ability of HIV-1 to move directly between contacting immune cells allows efficient viral dissemination with the potential to evade antibody attack. Here, we show that HIV-1 spreads from infected macrophages to T cells via a structure called a virological synapse that maintains extended contact between the two cell types, allowing transfer of multiple infectious events to the T cell. This process allows the virus to avoid neutralization by a class of antibody targeting the gp41 subunit of the envelope glycoproteins. These results have implications for viral spread in vivo and the specificities of neutralizing antibody elicited by antibody-based vaccines.

  13. IKKβ Activity Drives Fetal Lung Macrophage Maturation Along a Non-M1/M2 Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Stouch, Ashley N.; Zaynagetdinov, Rinat; Barham, Whitney J.; Stinnett, Amanda M.; Slaughter, James C.; Yull, Fiona E.; Hoffman, Hal M.; Blackwell, Timothy S.; Prince, Lawrence S.

    2014-01-01

    In preterm infants, exposure to inflammation increases the risk of bronchopulmonary dysplasia, a chronic, developmental lung disease. While macrophages are the key cells that initiate lung inflammation, less is known about lung macrophage phenotype and maturation. We hypothesized that fetal lung macrophages mature into distinct subpopulations during mouse development, and that activation could influence macrophage maturation. Expression of the fetal macrophage markers CD68, CD86, CD206, Ym1, fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2), and indolamine-2, 3-dioxygenase (Ido1) were developmentally regulated, with each marker having different temporal patterns. Flow cytometry analysis showed macrophages within the fetal lung were less diverse than the distinctly separate subpopulations in newborn and adult lungs. Similar to adult alveolar macrophages, fetal lung macrophages responded to the TLR4 agonist LPS and the alternative activation cytokines IL-4 and IL-13. Using a macrophage-specific constitutively active IKKβ transgenic model (IKFM), we demonstrated that macrophage activation increased proinflammatory gene expression and reduced the response of fetal lung macrophages to IL-4 and IL-13. Activation also increased fetal lung macrophage proliferation. Fetal IKFM lungs contained increased percentages of more mature, CD11bloF4/80hi cells that also expressed higher levels of the alternative activation markers CD204 and CD206. Development of fetal lung macrophages into mature alveolar macrophages may therefore include features of both proinflammatory and alternative activation paradigms. PMID:24981452

  14. Impaired responsiveness to gamma interferon of macrophages infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13: susceptibility to histoplasmosis.

    PubMed Central

    Villarete, L; de Fries, R; Kolhekar, S; Howard, D; Ahmed, R; Wu-Hsieh, B

    1995-01-01

    Lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus clone 13 (LCMV clone 13), a variant isolated from the spleens of neonatally infected mice, causes persistent infections in mice infected as adults. Such persistently infected mice succumb to a normally sublethal dose of Histoplasma capsulatum, and their macrophages contain overwhelming numbers of yeast cells of the fungus. Both LCMV clone 13 and H. capsulatum yeast cells target and replicate in macrophages of the host. We sought to study the effects of LCMV clone 13 on the ability of macrophages to control growth of H. capsulatum in vitro. We show that the growth of H. capsulatum within macrophages was not directly affected by the presence of LCMV clone 13. However, macrophages containing LCMV clone 13 did not respond fully to gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) stimulation. Such unresponsiveness resulted in proliferation of the fungus within macrophages cultured in the presence of IFN-gamma. The addition of anti-IFN-alpha/beta antibodies to LCMV clone 13-infected macrophage cultures restored macrophage responsiveness to IFN-gamma. These results indicate that production of IFN-alpha/beta by LCMV clone 13-infected macrophages antagonizes their responsiveness to IFN-gamma. Such antagonism may be one of the mechanisms by means of which certain viruses cause immune suppression and susceptibility to opportunistic infections. PMID:7890411

  15. IL-37 impairs host resistance to Listeria infection by suppressing macrophage function.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Mengmeng; Hu, Yongguang; Shou, Juanjuan; Su, Shao Bo; Yang, Jianhua; Yang, Tianshu

    2017-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a Gram-positive intracellular bacterium that was transmitted through contaminated food and causes sepsis and even death. IL-37 has been described as an important anti-inflammatory factor, but little is known about the function of IL-37 in host defense against Liseria monocytogenes (Lm) infection. In mice model of systemic infection, we found that mice treated with IL-37 were more sensitive to Lm infection compared with PBS-treated mice. This reduced resistance to Lm in IL-37-treated mice is accompanied with increased bacterial burden and liver damage. Serum levels of colony-stimulating factors were decreased in IL-37-treated mice. IL-37 treatment reduced bactericidal ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) in vitro, which contribute to the inability of IL-37-treated mice to combat Lm infection. Furthermore, increased apoptosis was observed in Lm-infected macrophages treated with IL-37. Increased macrophage apoptosis reduced percentage in liver macrophages was observed in IL-37-treated mice following Lm infection. These results indicate the negative regulatory effect of IL-37 on host resistance during immune defense against Lm.

  16. PPAR Activation Induces M1 Macrophage Polarization via cPLA2-COX-2 Inhibition, Activating ROS Production against Leishmania mexicana

    PubMed Central

    Díaz-Gandarilla, J. A.; Osorio-Trujillo, C.; Hernández-Ramírez, V. I.; Talamás-Rohana, P.

    2013-01-01

    Defence against Leishmania depends upon Th1 inflammatory response and, a major problem in susceptible models, is the turnoff of the leishmanicidal activity of macrophages with IL-10, IL-4, and COX-2 upregulation, as well as immunosuppressive PGE2, all together inhibiting the respiratory burst. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPAR) activation is responsible for macrophages polarization on Leishmania susceptible models where microbicide functions are deactivated. In this paper, we demonstrated that, at least for L. mexicana, PPAR activation, mainly PPARγ, induced macrophage activation through their polarization towards M1 profile with the increase of microbicide activity against intracellular pathogen L. mexicana. PPAR activation induced IL-10 downregulation, whereas the production of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 remained high. Moreover, PPAR agonists treatment induced the deactivation of cPLA2-COX-2-prostaglandins pathway together with an increase in TLR4 expression, all of whose criteria meet the M1 macrophage profile. Finally, parasite burden, in treated macrophages, was lower than that in infected nontreated macrophages, most probably associated with the increase of respiratory burst in these treated cells. Based on the above data, we conclude that PPAR agonists used in this work induces M1 macrophages polarization via inhibition of cPLA2 and the increase of aggressive microbicidal activity via reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. PMID:23555077

  17. Development and characterization of amphotericin B bearing emulsomes for passive and active macrophage targeting.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Swati; Vyas, Suresh P

    2007-04-01

    The antifungal and antileishmanial agent amphotericin B (AmB) has been complexed with lipids to develop a less toxic formulation of AmB. Because lipid particles are phagocytized by the reticuloendothelial system, lipid associated AmB should be concentrated in infected macrophages of liver and spleen and be very effective against visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and systemic fungal infections. Therefore, AmB was formulated in trilaurin based nanosize lipid particles (emulsomes) stabilized by soya phosphatidylcholine (PC) as a new intravenous drug delivery system for macrophage targeting. Emulsomes were prepared by cast film technique followed by sonication to obtain particles of nanometric size range. Formulations were optimized for AmB to lipid ratio, sonication time and PC to trilaurin ratio. Emulsomes were modified by coating them with macrophage-specific ligand (O-palmitoyl mannan, OPM). The surface modified emulsomes and their plain counterparts were characterised for size, shape, lamellarity and entrapment efficiency. Fluorescence microscopy study showed significant localization of plain and coated emulsomes inside the liver and spleen cells of golden hamsters. In vivo organ distribution studies in albino rats demonstrated that extent of accumulation of emulsome entrapped AmB in macrophage rich organs, particularly liver, spleen and lungs was significantly high when compared against the free drug (AmB-deoxycholate or AmB-Doc). The rate and extent of accumulation were found to increase further on ligand anchoring. Further, a significantly higher (P < 0.05) drug concentration in the liver was estimated over a period of 24 h for OPM coated emulsomes than for plain emulsomes. We concluded that OPM coated emulsomes could fuse with the macrophages of liver and spleen due to ligand-receptor interaction and could target the bioactives inside them. The proposed plain and OPM coated emulsome based systems showed excellent potential for passive and active intramacrophage

  18. Trypanosoma cruzi Needs a Signal Provided by Reactive Oxygen Species to Infect Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Goes, Grazielle R.; Rocha, Peter S.; Diniz, Aline R. S.; Aguiar, Pedro H. N.; Machado, Carlos R.; Vieira, Leda Q.

    2016-01-01

    Background During Trypanosoma cruzi infection, macrophages produce reactive oxygen species (ROS) in a process called respiratory burst. Several works have aimed to elucidate the role of ROS during T. cruzi infection and the results obtained are sometimes contradictory. T. cruzi has a highly efficiently regulated antioxidant machinery to deal with the oxidative burst, but the parasite macromolecules, particularly DNA, may still suffer oxidative damage. Guanine (G) is the most vulnerable base and its oxidation results in formation of 8-oxoG, a cellular marker of oxidative stress. Methodology/Principal Findings In order to investigate the contribution of ROS in T. cruzi survival and infection, we utilized mice deficient in the gp91phox (Phox KO) subunit of NADPH oxidase and parasites that overexpress the enzyme EcMutT (from Escherichia coli) or TcMTH (from T. cruzi), which is responsible for removing 8-oxo-dGTP from the nucleotide pool. The modified parasites presented enhanced replication inside murine inflammatory macrophages from C57BL/6 WT mice when compared with control parasites. Interestingly, when Phox KO macrophages were infected with these parasites, we observed a decreased number of all parasites when compared with macrophages from C57BL/6 WT. Scavengers for ROS also decreased parasite growth in WT macrophages. In addition, treatment of macrophages or parasites with hydrogen peroxide increased parasite replication in Phox KO mice and in vivo. Conclusions Our results indicate a paradoxical role for ROS since modified parasites multiply better inside macrophages, but proliferation is significantly reduced when ROS is removed from the host cell. Our findings suggest that ROS can work like a signaling molecule, contributing to T. cruzi growth inside the cells. PMID:27035573

  19. Infection-induced respiratory burst in BALB/c macrophages kills Leishmania guyanensis amastigotes through apoptosis: possible involvement in resistance to cutaneous leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sousa-Franco, Junia; Araújo-Mendes, Erica; Silva-Jardim, Izaltina; L-Santos, Jane; Faria, Daniela R; Dutra, Walderez O; Horta, Maria de Fátima

    2006-02-01

    The immune mechanisms that underlie resistance and susceptibility to leishmaniasis are not completely understood for all species of Leishmania. It is becoming clear that the immune response, the parasite elimination by the host and, as a result, the outcome of the disease depend both on the host and on the species of the infecting Leishmania. Here, we analyzed the outcome of the infection of BALB/c mice with L. guyanensis in vivo and in vitro. We showed that BALB/c mice, which are a prototype of susceptible host for most species of Leishmania, dying from these infections, develop insignificant or no cutaneous lesions and eliminate the parasite when infected with promastigotes of L. guyanensis. In vitro, we found that thioglycollate-elicited BALB/c peritoneal macrophages, which are unable to eliminate L. amazonensis without previous activation with cytokines or lipopolysaccharide, can kill L. guyanensis amastigotes. This is the first report showing that infection of peritoneal macrophages with stationary phase promastigotes efficiently triggers innate microbicidal mechanisms that are effective in eliminating the amastigotes, without exogenous activation. We demonstrated that L. guyanensis amastigotes die inside the macrophages through an apoptotic process that is independent of nitric oxide and is mediated by reactive oxygen intermediates generated in the host cell during infection. This innate killing mechanism of macrophages may account for the resistance of BALB/c mice to infection by L. guyanensis.

  20. Modulation of nitric oxide synthase activity in macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Jorens, P. G.; Matthys, K. E.

    1995-01-01

    L-Arginine is converted to the highly reactive and unstable nitric oxide (NO) and L-citrulline by an enzyme named nitric oxide synthase (NOS). NO decomposes into other nitrogen oxides such as nitrite (NO2-) and nitrate (NO2-), and in the presence of superoxide anion to the potent oxidizing agent peroxynitrite (ONOO−). Activated rodent macrophages are capable of expressing an inducible form of this enzyme (iNOS) in response to appropriate stimuli, i.e., lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon-γ (IFNγ). Other cytokines can modulate the induction of NO biosynthesis in macrophages. NO is a major effector molecule of the anti-microbial and cytotoxic activity of rodent macrophages against certain micro-organisms and tumour cells, respectively. The NO synthesizing pathway has been demonstrated in human monocytes and other cells, but its role in host defence seems to be accessory. A delicate functional balance between microbial stimuli, host-derived cytokines and hormones in the microenvironment regulates iNOS expression. This review will focus mainly on the known and proposed mechanisms of the regulation of iNOS induction, and on agents that can modulate NO release once the active enzyme has been expressed in the macrophage. PMID:18475620

  1. Macrophage Migration Inhibitory Factor (MIF): A Key Player in Protozoan Infections

    PubMed Central

    de Dios Rosado, Juan; Rodriguez-Sosa, Miriam

    2011-01-01

    Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by the pituitary gland and multiple cell types, including macrophages (Mø), dendritic cells (DC) and T-cells. Upon releases MIF modulates the expression of several inflammatory molecules, such as TNF-α, nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2). These important MIF characteristics have prompted investigators to study its role in parasite infections. Several reports have demonstrated that MIF plays either a protective or deleterious role in the immune response to different pathogens. Here, we review the role of MIF in the host defense response to some important protozoan infections. PMID:22110378

  2. Involvement of the MyD88-independent pathway in controlling the intracellular fate of Burkholderia pseudomallei infection in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7.

    PubMed

    Tangsudjai, S; Pudla, M; Limposuwan, K; Woods, D E; Sirisinha, S; Utaisincharoen, P

    2010-05-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei is a facultative intracellular Gram-negative bacterium which is capable of surviving and multiplying inside macrophages. B. pseudomallei strain SRM117, a LPS mutant which lacks the O-antigenic polysaccharide moiety, is more susceptible to macrophage killing during the early phase of infection than is its parental wild type strain (1026b). In this study, it was shown that the wild type is able to induce expression of genes downstream of the MyD88-dependent (ikappabzeta, il-6 and tnf-alpha), but not of the MyD88-independent (inos, ifn-beta and irg-1), pathways in the mouse macrophage cell line RAW 264.7. In contrast, LPS mutant-infected macrophages were able to express genes downstream of both pathways. To elucidate the significance of activation of the MyD88-independent pathway in B. pseudomallei-infected macrophages, the expression of TBK1, an essential protein in the MyD88-independent pathway, was silenced prior to the infection. The results showed that silencing the tbk1 expression interferes with the gene expression profile in LPS mutant-infected macrophages and allows the bacteria to replicate intracellularly, thus suggesting that the MyD88-independent pathway plays an essential role in controlling intracellular survival of the LPS mutant. Moreover, exogenous IFN-gamma upregulated gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway, and interfered with intracellular survival in both wild type and tbk1-knockdown macrophages infected with either the wild type or the LPS mutant. These results suggest that gene expression downstream of the MyD88-independent pathway is essential in regulating the intracellular fate of B. pseudomallei, and that IFN-gamma regulates gene expression through the TBK1-independent pathway.

  3. Macrophages make me sick: how macrophage activation states influence sickness behavior.

    PubMed

    Moon, Morgan L; McNeil, Leslie K; Freund, Gregory G

    2011-11-01

    The macrophage (MΦ) is an essential cellular first responder in the innate immune system, sensing, alerting, removing and destroying intrinsic and extrinsic pathogens. While congenital aplasia of granulocytes, T or B lymphocytes leads to serious disease, lack of MΦs is incompatible with life. The MΦ, however, is not a monomorphic entity. These constructers, repairers and defenders of the body are diverse in form and function. What controls MΦ phenotype is beginning to be understood and involves a complex interplay of origination, location and microenvironment. Common to all MΦ developmental pathways are pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. MΦs respond to these bioactives in distinct ways developing recently recognized activation phenotypes that canonically support bacterial clearance (classical activation), parasite defense/tissue repair (alternative activation) and anti-inflammation (deactivation). Critically, the same cytokines which orchestrate immune defense and homeostasis dramatically impact sense of well being and cognition by eliciting sickness symptoms. Such behaviors are the manifestation of pro/anti-inflammatory cytokine action in the brain and are a direct consequence of MΦ function. This review describes the "new" archetypal MΦ activation states, delineates microglia phenotypic plasticity and explores the importance of these macrophage activation states to sickness behavior.

  4. Macrophages Are Required for Dendritic Cell Uptake of Respiratory Syncytial Virus from an Infected Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Bingle, Colin D.; Plant, Karen; Wilson, Kirsty; Everard, Mark L.

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells. PMID:24651119

  5. Macrophages are required for dendritic cell uptake of respiratory syncytial virus from an infected epithelium.

    PubMed

    Ugonna, Kelechi; Bingle, Colin D; Plant, Karen; Wilson, Kirsty; Everard, Mark L

    2014-01-01

    We have previously shown that the respiratory syncytial virus [RSV] can productively infect monocyte derived dendritic cells [MoDC] and remain dormant within the same cells for prolonged periods. It is therefore possible that infected dendritic cells act as a reservoir within the airways of individuals between annual epidemics. In the present study we explored the possibility that sub-epithelial DCs can be infected with RSV from differentiated bronchial epithelium and that in turn RSV from DCs can infect the epithelium. A dual co-culture model was established in which a differentiated primary airway epithelium on an Air Liquid Interface (ALI) was cultured on a transwell insert and MoDCs were subsequently added to the basolateral membrane of the insert. Further experiments were undertaken using a triple co-culture model in which in which macrophages were added to the apical surface of the differentiated epithelium. A modified RSV [rr-RSV] expressing a red fluorescent protein marker of replication was used to infect either the MoDCs or the differentiated epithelium and infection of the reciprocal cell type was assessed using confocal microscopy. Our data shows that primary epithelium became infected when rr-RSV infected MoDCs were introduced onto the basal surface of the transwell insert. MoDCs located beneath the epithelium did not become infected with virus from infected epithelial cells in the dual co-culture model. However when macrophages were present on the apical surface of the primary epithelium infection of the basal MoDCs occurred. Our data suggests that RSV infected dendritic cells readily transmit infection to epithelial cells even when they are located beneath the basal layer. However macrophages appear to be necessary for the transmission of infection from epithelial cells to basal dendritic cells.

  6. Leishmania donovani infection causes distinct epigenetic DNA methylation changes in host macrophages.

    PubMed

    Marr, Alexandra K; MacIsaac, Julia L; Jiang, Ruiwei; Airo, Adriana M; Kobor, Michael S; McMaster, W Robert

    2014-10-01

    Infection of macrophages by the intracellular protozoan Leishmania leads to down-regulation of a number of macrophage innate host defense mechanisms, thereby allowing parasite survival and replication. The underlying molecular mechanisms involved remain largely unknown. In this study, we assessed epigenetic changes in macrophage DNA methylation in response to infection with L. donovani as a possible mechanism for Leishmania driven deactivation of host defense. We quantified and detected genome-wide changes of cytosine methylation status in the macrophage genome resulting from L. donovani infection. A high confidence set of 443 CpG sites was identified with changes in methylation that correlated with live L. donovani infection. These epigenetic changes affected genes that play a critical role in host defense such as the JAK/STAT signaling pathway and the MAPK signaling pathway. These results provide strong support for a new paradigm in host-pathogen responses, where upon infection the pathogen induces epigenetic changes in the host cell genome resulting in downregulation of innate immunity thereby enabling pathogen survival and replication. We therefore propose a model whereby Leishmania induced epigenetic changes result in permanent down regulation of host defense mechanisms to protect intracellular replication and survival of parasitic cells.

  7. Mycobacterium tuberculosis Induces an Atypical Cell Death Mode to Escape from Infected Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jinhee; Repasy, Teresa; Papavinasasundaram, Kadamba; Sassetti, Christopher; Kornfeld, Hardy

    2011-01-01

    Background Macrophage cell death following infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis plays a central role in tuberculosis disease pathogenesis. Certain attenuated strains induce extrinsic apoptosis of infected macrophages but virulent strains of M. tuberculosis suppress this host response. We previously reported that virulent M. tuberculosis induces cell death when bacillary load exceeds ∼20 per macrophage but the precise nature of this demise has not been defined. Methodology/Principal Findings We analyzed the characteristics of cell death in primary murine macrophages challenged with virulent or attenuated M. tuberculosis complex strains. We report that high intracellular bacillary burden causes rapid and primarily necrotic death via lysosomal permeabilization, releasing hydrolases that promote Bax/Bak-independent mitochondrial damage and necrosis. Cell death was independent of cathepsins B or L and notable for ultrastructural evidence of damage to lipid bilayers throughout host cells with depletion of several host phospholipid species. These events require viable bacteria that can respond to intracellular cues via the PhoPR sensor kinase system but are independent of the ESX1 system. Conclusions/Significance Cell death caused by virulent M. tuberculosis is distinct from classical apoptosis, pyroptosis or pyronecrosis. Mycobacterial genes essential for cytotoxicity are regulated by the PhoPR two-component system. This atypical death mode provides a mechanism for viable bacilli to exit host macrophages for spreading infection and the eventual transition to extracellular persistence that characterizes advanced pulmonary tuberculosis. PMID:21483832

  8. Immunoresponsive gene 1 augments bactericidal activity of macrophage-lineage cells by regulating β-oxidation-dependent mitochondrial ROS production.

    PubMed

    Hall, Christopher J; Boyle, Rachel H; Astin, Jonathan W; Flores, Maria Vega; Oehlers, Stefan H; Sanderson, Leslie E; Ellett, Felix; Lieschke, Graham J; Crosier, Kathryn E; Crosier, Philip S

    2013-08-06

    Evidence suggests the bactericidal activity of mitochondria-derived reactive oxygen species (mROS) directly contributes to killing phagocytozed bacteria. Infection-responsive components that regulate this process remain incompletely understood. We describe a role for the mitochondria-localizing enzyme encoded by Immunoresponsive gene 1 (IRG1) during the utilization of fatty acids as a fuel for oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and associated mROS production. In a zebrafish infection model, infection-responsive expression of zebrafish irg1 is specific to macrophage-lineage cells and is regulated cooperatively by glucocorticoid and JAK/STAT signaling pathways. Irg1-depleted macrophage-lineage cells are impaired in their ability to utilize fatty acids as an energy substrate for OXPHOS-derived mROS production resulting in defective bactericidal activity. Additionally, the requirement for fatty acid β-oxidation during infection-responsive mROS production and bactericidal activity toward intracellular bacteria is conserved in murine macrophages. These results reveal IRG1 as a key component of the immunometabolism axis, connecting infection, cellular metabolism, and macrophage effector function.

  9. A Novel in vitro Human Macrophage Model to Study the Persistence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis Using Vitamin D(3) and Retinoic Acid Activated THP-1 Macrophages.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Jaymie L; Kan-Sutton, Celestine; Gong, Xing; Rajagopalan, Malini; Lewis, Dorothy E; Hunter, Robert L; Eissa, N Tony; Jagannath, Chinnaswamy

    2011-01-01

    Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) replicates within the human macrophages and we investigated the activating effects of retinoic acid (RA) and vitamin D(3) (VD) on macrophages in relation to the viability of intracellular Mtb. A combination of these vitamins (RAVD) enhanced the levels of DC-SIGN and mannose receptors on THP-1 macrophages that increased mycobacterial uptake but inhibited the subsequent intracellular growth of Mtb by inducing reactive oxygen species and autophagy. RAVD also enhanced antigen presenting and chemotactic receptors on THPs suggesting an activated phenotype for RAVD activated THPs. RAVD mediated activation was also associated with a marked phenotypic change in Mtb infected THPs that fused with adjacent THPs to form multinucleated giant cells (MNGCs). Typically, MNGCs occurred over 30 days of in vitro culture and contained non-replicating persisting Mtb for more than 60 days in culture. Latent tuberculosis occurs in over a third of mankind and we propose that RAVD mediated induction of persistent Mtb within human macrophages provides a novel model to develop therapeutic approaches and investigate pathogenesis of latency.

  10. ATP-Induced Inflammasome Activation and Pyroptosis Is Regulated by AMP-Activated Protein Kinase in Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Zha, Qing-Bing; Wei, Hong-Xia; Li, Chen-Guang; Liang, Yi-Dan; Xu, Li-Hui; Bai, Wen-Jing; Pan, Hao; He, Xian-Hui; Ouyang, Dong-Yun

    2016-01-01

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is released by bacteria and host cells during bacterial infection as well as sterile tissue injury, acting