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Sample records for inferior olive lesioned

  1. Progressive limb ataxia following inferior olive lesions

    PubMed Central

    Horn, K M; Deep, A; Gibson, A R

    2013-01-01

    Cerebellar climbing fibres originate in the inferior olive (IO). Temporary IO inactivation produces movement deficits. Does permanent inactivation produce similar deficits and, if so, do they recover? The excitotoxin, kainic acid, was injected into the rostral IO of three cats. Behaviour was measured during reaching and locomotion. Two cats were injected during the reaching task. Within minutes, grasping became difficult and the trajectories of the reaches showed higher arcing than normally seen. During locomotion, both cats showed head and trunk deviation to the injected side, walking paths curved to the injected side, and the paws were lifted higher than normal. Limbs contralateral to the injections became rigid. Within 1 day, posture had normalized, locomotion was unsteady and high lifting of the paws had reversed to a tendency to drag the dorsum of the paws. Passive body movement produced vestibular signs. Over a few days, locomotion normalized and vestibular signs disappeared. Reach trajectories were normal but grasping deficits persisted. Over the first week, the amplitude of limb lift during reaching and locomotion began to increase. The increase continued over time and, after several months, limb movements became severely ataxic. The effects followed the somatotopy of the rostral IO: a loss of cells in medial rostral IO only affected the forelimb, whereas a loss of cells in medial and lateral IO affected both forelimb and hindlimb. Deficits produced by IO lesions involve multiple mechanisms; some recover rapidly, some appear stable, and some worsen over time. The nature of the progressive deficit suggests a gradual loss of Purkinje cell inhibition on cerebellar nuclear cells. PMID:23027819

  2. The effects of inferior olive lesion on strychnine seizure

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.; Chung, E.Y.; Van Woert, M.H. )

    1990-10-01

    Bilateral inferior olive lesions, produced by systemic administration of the neurotoxin 3-acetylpyridine (3AP) produce a proconvulsant state specific for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus. We have proposed that these phenomena are mediated through increased excitation of cerebellar Purkinje cells, through activation of glutamate receptors, in response to climbing fiber deafferentation. An increase in quisqualic acid (QA)-displaceable ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((RS)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding in cerebella from inferior olive-lesioned rats was observed, but no difference in ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding displaced by glutamate, kainic acid (KA) or glutamate diethylester (GDEE) was seen. The excitatory amino acid antagonists GDEE and MK-801 ((+)-5-methyl-10,11-dihydro-5H-dibenzo(a,d)cyclo-hepten-5,10 imine) were tested as anticonvulsants for strychnine-induced seizures in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned and control rats. Neither drug effected seizures in control rats, however, both GDEE and MK-801 produced a leftward shift in the strychnine-seizure dose-response curve in 3AP inferior olive-lesioned rats. GDEE also inhibited strychnine-induced myoclonus in the lesioned group, while MK-801 had no effect on myoclonus. The decreased threshold for strychnine-induced seizures and myoclonus in the 3AP-inferior olive-lesioned rats may be due to an increase in glutamate receptors as suggested by the ({sup 3}H)AMPA binding data.

  3. Neuropharmacologic characterization of strychnine seizure potentiation in the inferior olive lesioned rat

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, M.C.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebellar stimulation is associated with anticonvulsant activity in several animal models. There are two afferent inputs to cerebellar Purkinje cells: (1) parallel fibers, which relay mossy fiber input, from brainstem, spinal cord, cerebral cortex and cerebellum, and (2) climbing fibers, arising from the inferior olive. Both climbing and parallel fibers release excitatory amino acid neurotransmitters, which stimulate Purkinje cells and cause GABA release in the deep cerebellar nuclei. Climbing fibers also exert tonic inhibition over Purkinje cell activity by producing an absolute refractory period following stimulation, rendering Purkinje cells unresponsive to parallel fibers. Climbing fiber deafferentation by bilateral inferior olive lesions produced a specific decrease in threshold for strychnine-seizures in the rat. Inferior olive lesions produced no change in threshold to seizures induced by picrotoxin, bicuculline or pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions also produced abnormal motor behavior including, myoclonus, backward locomotion and hyperextension, which was significantly aggravated by strychnine, brucine, picrotoxin, bicuculline and pentylenetetrazole. Inferior olive lesions produced a significant increase in quisqualate sensitive ({sup 3}H)AMPA ((Rs)-alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole-4-propionic acid) binding to cerebellar membranes. AMPA is a glutamate analog with high affinity for quisqualate sensitive receptors.

  4. Dynamic characteristics of optokinetically controlled eye movements following inferior olive lesions in the brown rat.

    PubMed Central

    Hess, B J; Savio, T; Strata, P

    1988-01-01

    1. The inferior olive was destroyed by the drug 3-acetylpyridine in brown rats. Spontaneous and optokinetic eye movements in response to constant-velocity rotation (5-80 deg/s) or sinusoidal oscillations (0.05 and 0.1 Hz with 15 deg/s peak velocity and 0.3, 0.5, 1.0 and 2 Hz with 5 deg/s peak velocity) of the visual surround were recorded 4-6 days, 40-50 days and 3-4 months after the lesion using the magnetic search coil technique. 2. Persistent oculomotor deficits were observed in rats with a lesion of more than 97% of inferior olive neurones. In cases with a less complete lesion, no or only transient deficits were observed. In these latter cases the bulk of surviving neurones was located in the caudal half of the inferior olive, which includes the dorsal cap of Kooy. 3. Eye position holding after saccadic gaze shifts in the light was strongly deficient, showing pronounced postsaccadic centripetal drift for several hundred milliseconds. Similar deficits were observed in slow-phase components following quick phases of optokinetic nystagmus. In the dark, eye position holding was also deficient. 4. Closed-loop gains of optokinetic step responses obtained from rats with inferior olive lesions could be as good as those obtained from control animals. There was, however, a trend towards smaller gain values over the range of stimulus velocities tested. The duration of optokinetic after-nystagmus was not changed. 5. The initial fast rise of slow-phase velocity of optokinetic step responses was reduced by about 30-50%, showing no recovery in the follow-up experiments up to 3-4 months after the lesion. 6. Optokinetic responses to sinusoidal oscillations of the visual surround exhibited an increasing drop in gain for frequencies between 0.1 to 0.5 Hz. In the range of 0.5-2.0 Hz gain was only about 0.2 compared to 0.7-0.8 in control animals. Phase lag of sinusoidal responses was shifted to larger values by about 25-35 deg for frequencies increasing from 0.1 to 0.5 Hz. At 1

  5. Bifurcation of orbits and synchrony in inferior olive neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Keum W; Singh, Sahjendra N

    2012-09-01

    Inferior olive neurons (IONs) have rich dynamics and can exhibit stable, unstable, periodic, and even chaotic trajectories. This paper presents an analysis of bifurcation of periodic orbits of an ION when its two key parameters (a, μ) are varied in a two-dimensional plane. The parameter a describes the shape of the parabolic nonlinearity in the model and μ is the extracellular stimulus. The four-dimensional ION model considered here is a cascade connection of two subsystems (S(a) and S(b)). The parameter plane (a - μ) is delineated into several subregions. The ION has distinct orbit structure and stability property in each subregion. It is shown that the subsystem S(a) or S(b) undergoes supercritical Poincare-Andronov-Hopf (PAH) bifurcation at a critical value μ(c)(a) of the extracellular stimulus and periodic orbits of the neuron are born. Based on the center manifold theory, the existence of periodic orbits in the asymptotically stable S(a), when the subsystem S(b) undergoes PAH bifurcation, is established. In such a case, both subsystems exhibit periodic orbits. Interestingly when S(b) is under PAH bifurcation and S(a) is unstable, the trajectory of S(a) exhibits periodic bursting, interrupted by periods of quiescence. The bifurcation analysis is followed by the design of (i) a linear first-order filter and (ii) a nonlinear control system for the synchronization of IONs. The first controller uses a single output of each ION, but the nonlinear control system uses two state variables for feedback. The open-loop and closed-loop responses are presented which show bifurcation of orbits and synchronization of oscillating neurons.

  6. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors.

  7. Nicotine evokes kinetic tremor by activating the inferior olive via α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    PubMed

    Kunisawa, Naofumi; Iha, Higor A; Shimizu, Saki; Tokudome, Kentaro; Mukai, Takahiro; Kinboshi, Masato; Serikawa, Tadao; Ohno, Yukihiro

    2016-11-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) receptors are implicated in the pathogenesis of movement disorders (e.g., tremor) and epilepsy. Here, we performed behavioral and immunohistochemical studies using mice and rats to elucidate the mechanisms underlying nicotine-induced tremor. Treatments of animals with nicotine (0.5-2mg/kg, i.p.) elicited kinetic tremor, which was completely suppressed by the nACh receptor antagonist mecamylamine (MEC). The specific α7 nACh receptor antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA) also inhibited nicotine-induced tremor, whereas the α4β2 nACh antagonist dihydro-β-erythroidine (DHβE) or the peripheral α3β4 nACh antagonist hexamethonium showed no effects. Mapping analysis of Fos protein expression, a biological marker of neural excitation, revealed that a tremorgenic dose (1mg/kg) of nicotine region-specifically elevated Fos expression in the piriform cortex (PirC), medial habenula, solitary nucleus and inferior olive (IO) among 44 brain regions examined. In addition, similarly to the tremor responses, nicotine-induced Fos expression in the PirC and IO was selectively antagonized by MLA, but not by DHβE. Furthermore, an electrical lesioning of the IO, but not the PirC, significantly suppressed the induction of nicotine tremor. The present results suggest that nicotine elicits kinetic tremor in rodents by activating the IO neurons via α7 nACh receptors. PMID:27506652

  8. Right inferior longitudinal fasciculus lesions disrupt visual-emotional integration.

    PubMed

    Fischer, David B; Perez, David L; Prasad, Sashank; Rigolo, Laura; O'Donnell, Lauren; Acar, Diler; Meadows, Mary-Ellen; Baslet, Gaston; Boes, Aaron D; Golby, Alexandra J; Dworetzky, Barbara A

    2016-06-01

    The mechanism by which the brain integrates visual and emotional information remains incompletely understood, and can be studied through focal lesions that selectively disrupt this process. To date, three reported cases of visual hypoemotionality, a vision-specific form of derealization, have resulted from lesions of the temporo-occipital junction. We present a fourth case of this rare phenomenon, and investigate the role of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) in the underlying pathophysiology. A 50-year-old right-handed male was found to have a right medial temporal lobe tumor following new-onset seizures. Interstitial laser ablation of the lesion was complicated by a right temporo-parieto-occipital intraparenchymal hemorrhage. The patient subsequently experienced emotional estrangement from visual stimuli. A lesion overlap analysis was conducted to assess involvement of the ILF by this patient's lesion and those of the three previously described cases, and diffusion tensor imaging was acquired in our case to further investigate ILF disruption. All four lesions specifically overlapped with the expected trajectory of the right ILF, and diminished structural integrity of the right ILF was observed in our case. These findings implicate the ILF in visual hypoemotionality, suggesting that the ILF is critical for integrating visual information with its emotional content. PMID:26940563

  9. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus.

  10. Collision in the inferior olive: hypertrophic olivary degeneration complicated by radiation necrosis in brainstem primitive neuroendocrine tumor.

    PubMed

    Litkowski, Patricia; Young, Robert J; Wolden, Suzanne L; Souweidane, Mark M; Haque, Sofia; Gilheeney, Stephen W

    2012-01-01

    Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is caused by disruption of the triangle of Guillain and Mollaret. We describe a child with a primitive neuroendocrine tumor who developed an expansile nonenhancing lesion in the olive after surgery and radiation therapy. Diffusion tensor imaging and tractography showed disruption of the central tegmental tract consistent with HOD. Subsequent transient enhancement of the olive was consistent with early radiation injury. Knowledge of coexisting complications such as HOD and radiation injury is essential for proper management.

  11. Inferior Colliculus Lesions Impair Eyeblink Conditioning in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, John H.; Halverson, Hunter E.; Hubbard, Erin M.

    2007-01-01

    The neural plasticity necessary for acquisition and retention of eyeblink conditioning has been localized to the cerebellum. However, the sources of sensory input to the cerebellum that are necessary for establishing learning-related plasticity have not been identified completely. The inferior colliculus may be a source of sensory input to the…

  12. Network oscillations of inferior olive neurons: entrainment and phase-locking of locally-coupled oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chartrand, Thomas; Goldman, Mark S.; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2015-03-01

    Although the inferior olive is known to contribute to the generation of timing and error signals for motor control, the specific role of its distinctive spatiotemporal activity patterns is still controversial. Olivary neurons display regular, sometimes synchronized oscillations of subthreshold membrane potential, driven in part by the highest density of electrical coupling of any brain region. We show that a reduced model of coupled phase oscillators is sufficient to reproduce and study experimental observations previously only demonstrated in more complex models. These include stable phase differences, variability of entrainment frequency, wave propagation, and cluster formation. Using the phase-response curve (PRC) of a conductance-based model of olivary neurons, we derive our phase model according to the theory of weakly-coupled oscillators. We retain the heterogeneity of intrinsic frequencies and heterogeneous, spatially constrained coupling as weak perturbations to the limit-cycle dynamics. Generalizing this model to an ensemble of coupled oscillator lattices with frequency and coupling disorder, we study the onset of entrainment and phase-locking as coupling is strengthened, including the scaling of cluster sizes with coupling strength near each phase transition.

  13. Extracellular matrix molecules exhibit unique expression pattern in the climbing fiber-generating precerebellar nucleus, the inferior olive.

    PubMed

    Kecskes, S; Gaál, B; Rácz, É; Birinyi, A; Hunyadi, A; Matesz, C

    2015-01-22

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulates around different neuronal compartments of the central nervous system (CNS) or appears in diffuse reticular form throughout the neuropil. In the adult CNS, the perineuronal net (PNN) surrounds the perikarya and dendrites of various neuron types, whereas the axonal coats are aggregations of ECM around the individual synapses, and the nodal ECM is localized at the nodes of Ranvier. Previous studies in our laboratory demonstrated on rats that the heterogeneous distribution and molecular composition of ECM is associated with the variable cytoarchitecture and hodological organization of the vestibular nuclei and may also be related to their specific functions in gaze and posture control as well as in the compensatory mechanisms following vestibular lesion. Here, we investigated the ECM expression pattern in the climbing fiber-generating inferior olive (IO), which is functionally related to the vestibular nuclei. By using histochemical and immunohistochemical methods, the most characteristic finding was the lack of PNNs, presumably due to the absence of synapses on the perikarya and proximal dendrites of IO neurons. On the other hand, the darkly stained dots or ring-like structures in the neuropil might represent the periaxonal coats around the axon terminals of olivary synaptic glomeruli. We have observed positive ECM reaction for the hyaluronan, tenascin-R, hyaluronan and proteoglycan link protein 1 (HAPLN1) and various chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans. The staining intensity and distribution of ECM molecules revealed a number of differences between the functionally different subnuclei of IO. We hypothesized that the different molecular composition and intensity differences of ECM reaction is associated with different control mechanisms of gaze and posture control executed by the visuomotor-vestibular, somatosensory and integrative subnuclei of the IO.

  14. Surgical treatment of painful lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve.

    PubMed

    Biglioli, Federico; Allevi, Fabiana; Lozza, Alessandro

    2015-10-01

    Nerve-related complications are being reported with increasing frequency following oral and dental surgery, and typically involve the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN). We assess herein the etiology of neuropathic pain related to IAN injuries, and describe the various surgical treatment techniques available. Between 2007 and 2013, 19 patients were referred to the Maxillofacial Surgery Department of San Paolo Hospital (Milan, Italy) with pain in the area supplied by the IAN, which developed following endodontic treatment, oral surgery and maxillofacial surgery. All patients underwent IAN surgery by several different microsurgical procedures. Most of the patients affected by pain before surgery experienced complete or partial amelioration of symptoms. All patients receiving sural nerve grafts were pain-free 12 months after surgery. In five patients the operation was unsuccessful. In 78.94% of cases, a significant increase in nerve function was observed. Pain following IAN surgical damage may be addressed by microsurgery; nerve substitution with a sural nerve interpositional graft appears to represent the most efficacious procedure. Scar releasing, nerve decompression and nerve substitution using vein grafts are less effective. Removal of endodontic material extravasated into the mandibular canal is mandatory and effective in patients experiencing severe pain. Surgery should be performed within 12 months postoperatively, ideally during the first few weeks after symptoms onset. PMID:26315275

  15. Naming difficulties in alexia with agraphia for kanji after a left posterior inferior temporal lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Sakurai, Y; Sakai, K; Sakuta, M; Iwata, M

    1994-01-01

    The case is described of a patient with alexia and agraphia for kanji, and severe anomia after a subcortical haemorrhage in the left posterior inferior temporal area. Magnetic resonance imaging at four months after onset showed a lesion in the inferior temporal and fusiform gyri, extending from the temporo-occipital junction toward the anterior third of the temporal lobe. Comparison with other reported cases of alexia with agraphia and anomia made it clear that when accompanied by severe anomia, the lesions extended either forward to the anterior part of the middle temporal gyrus or medially to the parahippocampal gyrus. It is suggested that the disconnection of association fibres between the parahippocampal, fusiform, middle, and inferior temporal gyri, especially between the parahippocampal gyrus and the other temporal gyri, or the cortical damage to the posterior part of these gyri is essential for the production of anomia. Images PMID:8201334

  16. Transient dynamics and rhythm coordination of inferior olive spatio-temporal patterns.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Roberto; Aguirre, Carlos; Rabinovich, Mikhail I; Varona, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    The inferior olive (IO) is a neural network belonging to the olivo-cerebellar system whose neurons are coupled with electrical synapses and display subthreshold oscillations and spiking activity. The IO is frequently proposed as the generator of timing signals to the cerebellum. Electrophysiological and imaging recordings show that the IO network generates complex spatio-temporal patterns. The generation and modulation of coherent spiking activity in the IO is one key issue in cerebellar research. In this work, we build a large scale IO network model of electrically coupled conductance-based neurons to study the emerging spatio-temporal patterns of its transient neuronal activity. Our modeling reproduces and helps to understand important phenomena observed in IO in vitro and in vivo experiments, and draws new predictions regarding the computational properties of this network and the associated cerebellar circuits. The main factors studied governing the collective dynamics of the IO network were: the degree of electrical coupling, the extent of the electrotonic connections, the presence of stimuli or regions with different excitability levels and the modulatory effect of an inhibitory loop (IL). The spatio-temporal patterns were analyzed using a discrete wavelet transform to provide a quantitative characterization. Our results show that the electrotonic coupling produces quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations over a wide dynamical range. The synchronized oscillatory activity plays the role of a timer for a coordinated representation of spiking rhythms with different frequencies. The encoding and coexistence of several coordinated rhythms is related to the different clusterization and coherence of transient spatio-temporal patterns in the network, where the spiking activity is commensurate with the quasi-synchronized subthreshold oscillations. In the presence of stimuli, different rhythms are encoded in the spiking activity of the IO neurons that nevertheless

  17. Responses of neurons in the medial column of the inferior olive in pigeons to translational and rotational optic flowfields.

    PubMed

    Winship, I R; Wylie, D R

    2001-11-01

    The responses of neurons in the medial column of the inferior olive to translational and rotational optic flow were recorded from anaesthetized pigeons. Panoramic translational or rotational flowfields were produced by mechanical devices that projected optic flow patterns onto the walls, ceiling and floor of the room. The axis of rotation/translation could be positioned to any orientation in three-dimensional space such that axis tuning could be determined. Each neuron was assigned a vector representing the axis about/along which the animal would rotate/translate to produce the flowfield that elicited maximal modulation. Both translation-sensitive and rotation-sensitive neurons were found. For neurons responsive to translational optic flow, the preferred axis is described with reference to a standard right-handed coordinate system, where +x, +y and +z represent rightward, upward and forward translation of the animal, respectively (assuming that all recordings were from the right side of the brain). t(+y) neurons were maximally excited in response to a translational optic flowfield that results from self-translation upward along the vertical (y) axis. t(-y) neurons also responded best to translational optic flow along the vertical axis but showed the opposite direction preference. The two remaining groups, t(-x+z) and t(-x-z) neurons, responded best to translational optic flow along horizontal axes that were oriented 45 degrees to the midline. There were two types of neurons responsive to rotational optic flow: rVA neurons preferred rotation about the vertical axis, and rH135c neurons preferred rotation about a horizontal axis at 135 degrees contralateral azimuth. The locations of marking lesions indicated a clear topographical organization of the six response types. In summary, our results reinforce that the olivo-cerebellar system dedicated to the analysis of optic flow is organized according to a reference frame consisting of three approximately orthogonal axes

  18. Heterogeneous Expression of T-type Ca2+ Channels Defines Different Neuronal Populations in the Inferior Olive of the Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Bazzigaluppi, Paolo; de Jeu, Marcel T. G.

    2016-01-01

    The neurons in the inferior olive express subthreshold oscillations in their membrane potential. This oscillatory activity is known to drive synchronous activity in the cerebellar cortex and plays a role in motor learning and motor timing. In the past years, it was commonly thought that olivary neurons belonged to a unique population of oscillating units and that oscillation properties were exclusively dependent on network settings and/or synaptic inputs. The origin of olivary oscillations is now known to be a local phenomenon and is generated by a combination of conductances. In the present work, we show the existence of at least two neuronal populations that can be distinguished on the basis of the presence or absence of low-voltage activated Ca2+ channels. The expression of this channel determines the oscillatory behavior of olivary neurons. Furthermore, the number of cells that express this channel is different between sub nuclei of the inferior olive. These findings clearly indicate the functional variability within and between olivary sub nuclei. PMID:27540355

  19. Lexical retrieval and semantic knowledge in patients with left inferior temporal lobe lesions

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Sharon M.; Beeson, Pélagie M.; Labiner, David M.; Rapcsak, Steven Z.

    2009-01-01

    Background It has been proposed that anomia following left inferior temporal lobe lesions may have two different underlying mechanisms with distinct neural substrates. Specifically, naming impairment following damage to more posterior regions (BA 37) has been considered to result from a disconnection between preserved semantic knowledge and phonological word forms (pure anomia), whereas anomia following damage to anterior temporal regions (BAs 38, 20/21) has been attributed to the degradation of semantic representations (semantic anomia). However, the integrity of semantic knowledge in patients with pure anomia has not been demonstrated convincingly, nor were lesions in these cases necessarily confined to BA 37. Furthermore, evidence of semantic anomia often comes from individuals with bilateral temporal lobe damage, so it is unclear whether unilateral temporal lobe lesions are sufficient to produce significant semantic impairment. Aims The main goals of this study were to determine whether anomia following unilateral left inferior temporal lobe damage reflected a loss of semantic knowledge or a post-semantic deficit in lexical retrieval and to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of the naming impairment. Methods & Procedures Eight individuals who underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy (L ATL) and eight individuals who sustained left posterior cerebral artery strokes (L PCA) completed a battery of language measures that assessed lexical retrieval and semantic processing, and 16 age- and education-matched controls also completed this battery. High-resolution structural brain scans were collected to conduct lesion analyses. Outcomes & Results Performance of L ATL and L PCA patients was strikingly similar, with both groups demonstrating naming performance ranging from moderately impaired to unimpaired. Anomia in both groups occurred in the context of mild deficits to semantic knowledge, which manifested primarily as greater difficulty in naming living things

  20. Lexical retrieval and semantic knowledge in patients with left inferior temporal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Sharon M; Beeson, Pélagie M; Labiner, David M; Rapcsak, Steven Z

    2008-03-01

    BACKGROUND: It has been proposed that anomia following left inferior temporal lobe lesions may have two different underlying mechanisms with distinct neural substrates. Specifically, naming impairment following damage to more posterior regions (BA 37) has been considered to result from a disconnection between preserved semantic knowledge and phonological word forms (pure anomia), whereas anomia following damage to anterior temporal regions (BAs 38, 20/21) has been attributed to the degradation of semantic representations (semantic anomia). However, the integrity of semantic knowledge in patients with pure anomia has not been demonstrated convincingly, nor were lesions in these cases necessarily confined to BA 37. Furthermore, evidence of semantic anomia often comes from individuals with bilateral temporal lobe damage, so it is unclear whether unilateral temporal lobe lesions are sufficient to produce significant semantic impairment. AIMS: The main goals of this study were to determine whether anomia following unilateral left inferior temporal lobe damage reflected a loss of semantic knowledge or a post-semantic deficit in lexical retrieval and to identify the neuroanatomical correlates of the naming impairment. METHODS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; PROCEDURES: Eight individuals who underwent left anterior temporal lobectomy (L ATL) and eight individuals who sustained left posterior cerebral artery strokes (L PCA) completed a battery of language measures that assessed lexical retrieval and semantic processing, and 16 age- and education-matched controls also completed this battery. High-resolution structural brain scans were collected to conduct lesion analyses. OUTCOMES #ENTITYSTARTX00026; RESULTS: Performance of L ATL and L PCA patients was strikingly similar, with both groups demonstrating naming performance ranging from moderately impaired to unimpaired. Anomia in both groups occurred in the context of mild deficits to semantic knowledge, which manifested primarily as

  1. Olive

    MedlinePlus

    ... some research suggests other dietary oils such as sunflower and rapeseed (canola) might reduce “bad” low-density ... eczema. Diabetes. Compared to polyunsaturated oils such as sunflower oil, olive oil in a Mediterranean-type diet ...

  2. Topical Olive Oil Is Not Inferior to Hyperoxygenated Fatty Aids to Prevent Pressure Ulcers in High-Risk Immobilised Patients in Home Care. Results of a Multicentre Randomised Triple-Blind Controlled Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Pressure ulcers represent a major current health problem and produce an important economic impact on the healthcare system. Most of studies to prevent pressure ulcers have been carried out in hospital contexts, with respect to the use of hyperoxygenated fatty acids and to date, no studies have specifically examined the use of olive oil-based substances. Methods and Design Main objective: To assess the effectiveness of the use of olive oil, comparing it with hyperoxygenated fatty acids, for immobilised home-care patients at risk of suffering pressure ulcers. Design: Non-inferiority, triple-blind, parallel, multicentre, randomised clinical trial. Scope: Population attending Primary Healthcare Centres in Andalusia (Spain). Sample: 831 immobilised patients at risk of suffering pressure ulcers. Results The follow-up period was 16 weeks. Groups were similar after randomization. In the per protocol analysis, none of the body areas evaluated presented risk differences for pressure ulcers incidence that exceeded the 10% delta value established. Sacrum: Olive Oil 8 (2.55%) vs HOFA 8 (3.08%), ARR 0.53 (-2.2 to 3.26) Right heel: Olive Oil 4 (1.27%) vs HOFA 5 (1.92)%, ARR0.65 (-1.43 to 2.73). Left heel: Olive Oil 3 (0.96%) vs HOFA 3 (1.15%), ARR0.2 (-1.49 to 1.88). Right trochanter: Olive Oil 0 (0%) vs HOFA 4 (1.54%), ARR1.54 (0.04 to 3.03). Left trochanter: Olive Oil 1 (0.32%) vs HOFA 1 (0.38%), ARR0.07 (-0.91 to 1.04). In the intention to treat analysis the lower limit of the established confidence interval was never exceeded. Discussion The results obtained confirmed that the use of topical extra-virgin olive oil to prevent PU in the home environment, for immobilised patients at high risk, is not inferior to the use of HOFA. Further studies are needed to investigate the mechanism by which olive oil achieves this outcome. Trial Registration Clinicaltrials.gov NCT01595347 PMID:25886152

  3. Indirect post-implant lesions of the inferior alveolar nerve. Radiological and biomechanical findings

    PubMed Central

    DIOTALLEVI, P.; MOGLIONI, E.; PEZZUTI, E.; BOFFA, L.; FERRANTE, G.; PASQUALINI, M.; FLORIS, P.

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The aim of the work. The mandibular canal, if it is affected by different illnesses, often shows typical radiological changes, made up of widespread hypodensity, an increase in its diameter and disappearing walls. This study aims to verify the reliability of such radiological signs in the cases of later post-operative lesions of the mandiblular canal. Materials and method. The study includes 16 patients, 9 males and 7 females, with an average age of 54 years, who underwent an operation to rehabilitate the mandible with a prosthetic implant for a total of 37 implants. All the subjects underwent an Orthopantograph due to the appearance of painful radicular symptoms some time after the operation. Results. In 36 cases out of 37 we found, with the Orthopantograph, a slight increase in the calibre of the mandibular canal compared to the controlateral. In 10 subjects we observed hypodensity of the canal itself, while in 6 subjects the canal passages were no longer recognisable. Conclusion. The radiological indications of damage of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) are reliable even in the case of indirect post-implant lesions. PMID:23285339

  4. The left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus subserves language semantics: a multilevel lesion study.

    PubMed

    Almairac, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; de Champfleur, Nicolas Menjot; Duffau, Hugues

    2015-07-01

    Consequential works in cognitive neuroscience have led to the formulation of an interactive dual-stream model of language processing: the dorsal stream may process the phonological aspects of language, whereas the ventral stream may process the semantic aspects of language. While it is well-accepted that the dorsal route is subserved by the arcuate fasciculus, the structural connectivity of the semantic ventral stream is a matter of dispute. Here we designed a longitudinal study to gain new insights into this central but controversial question. Thirty-one patients harboring a left diffuse low-grade glioma—a rare neurological condition that infiltrates preferentially white matter associative pathways—were assessed with a prototypical task of language (i.e. verbal fluency) before and after surgery. All were operated under local anesthesia with a cortical and subcortical brain mapping—enabling to identify and preserve eloquent structures for language. We performed voxel-based lesion-symptom (VLSM) analyses on pre- and postoperative behavioral data. Preoperatively, we found a significant relationship between semantic fluency scores and the white matter fibers shaping the ventro-lateral connectivity (P < 0.05 corrected). The statistical map was found to substantially overlap with the spatial position of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) (37.7%). Furthermore, a negative correlation was observed between semantic fluency scores and the infiltration volumes in this fasciculus (r = -0.4, P = 0.029). Postoperatively, VLSM analyses were inconclusive. Taken as a whole and when combined with the literature data, our findings strengthen the view that the IFOF plays an essential role in semantic processing and may subserve the direct ventral pathway of language.

  5. Sunflower, virgin-olive and fish oils differentially affect the progression of aortic lesions in rabbits with experimental atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Aguilera, C M; Ramírez-Tortosa, M C; Mesa, M D; Ramírez-Tortosa, C L; Gil, A

    2002-06-01

    In this study we report the effects of sunflower, virgin olive and fish oils on the progression of aortic lesions. A total of 24 male New Zealand rabbits (six per each group) were fed for 50 days on a diet containing 3% lard and 1.3% cholesterol, to induce atherosclerosis. An atherogenic control group (A) was killed after this period and three groups were fed for an additional period of 30 days with a diet composed of (1.75 g of supplemented oil and 98.25 of standard chow): sunflower oil (S), virgin olive oil (O) and fish oil (F). A control group (n=6) was fed with a standard chow diet for 80 days. LDL lipid composition and histological analysis of aortic atherosclerotic lesions were assayed. The atherogenic diet caused a significant increase of cholesterol levels in LDL and aorta tissue. Cholesterol ester content rose significantly in the aortic arch of groups S, O and F. Fatty streaks were found in all aortic sections, although only group S showed a significant progression of the lesion compared with group A. We conclude that the replacement of a high cholesterol-saturated fat diet by another cholesterol free-unsaturated fat diet does not regress atherosclerosis in rabbit. However, sunflower oil provokes a significant progression in lesion development, whereas diet enrichment with extra virgin olive oil and, to a lesser extent, fish oil, stops this progression. PMID:11996953

  6. Lesion patterns and etiology of ischemia in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory involvement: a clinical - diffusion weighted - MRI study.

    PubMed

    Kumral, E; Kisabay, A; Ataç, C

    2006-04-01

    The topography and mechanism of stroke in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) territory are delineated before, but the detailed clinical spectrum of lesions involving AICA territory was not studied by diffusion weighted imaging (DWI). We reviewed 1350 patients with posterior circulation ischemic stroke in our registry. We included patients if the diagnosis of AICA territory involvement was confirmed, and DWI, and magnetic resonance angiography were obtained in the 3 days of symptoms onset. The potential feeding arteries of the AICA territory were evaluated on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) using a three-dimensional rotating cineoangiographic method. There were 23 consecutive patients with lesion involving AICA territory, six with isolated lesion in the AICA territory, six with posterior inferior cerebellar artery, 11 with multiple posterior circulation infarcts (MPCIs). The clinical feature of isolated AICA infarct was vertigo, tinnitus, dysmetria, ataxia, facial weakness, facial sensory deficits, lateral gaze palsy, and sensory-motor deficits in patients with pontine involvement. Patients with largest lesion extending to the anterior and inferolateral cerebellum showed mixed symptomatology of the lateral medullary (Wallenberg's syndrome) and AICA territory involvement. Patients with MPCIs presented various clinical pictures with consciousness disturbances and diverse clinical signs because of involvement of different anatomical structures. Large-artery atherosclerotic disease in the vertebrobasilar system was the main cause of stroke in 12 (52%) patients, cardioembolism (CE) in one (4%), and coexisting large-artery disease and a source of CE in four (17%). The main cause of stroke was atheromatous vertebrobasilar artery disease either in the distal vertebral or proximal basilar artery. The outcome was usually good except those with multiple lesions. The new MRI techniques and clinical correlations allow better definition of the diverse topographical

  7. Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Perry, Daniella

    2009-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that there are two possible systems for empathy: a basic emotional contagion system and a more advanced cognitive perspective-taking system. However, it is not clear whether these two systems are part of a single interacting empathy system or whether they are independent. Additionally, the neuroanatomical bases of these systems are largely unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emotional empathic abilities (involving the mirror neuron system) are distinct from those related to cognitive empathy and that the two depend on separate anatomical substrates. Subjects with lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal (VM) or inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortices and two control groups were assessed with measures of empathy that incorporate both cognitive and affective dimensions. The findings reveal a remarkable behavioural and anatomic double dissociation between deficits in cognitive empathy (VM) and emotional empathy (IFG). Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions revealed Brodmann area 44 to be critical for emotional empathy while areas 11 and 10 were found necessary for cognitive empathy. These findings are consistent with these cortices being different in terms of synaptic hierarchy and phylogenetic age. The pattern of empathy deficits among patients with VM and IFG lesions represents a first direct evidence of a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy using the lesion method. PMID:18971202

  8. Two systems for empathy: a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy in inferior frontal gyrus versus ventromedial prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Shamay-Tsoory, Simone G; Aharon-Peretz, Judith; Perry, Daniella

    2009-03-01

    Recent evidence suggests that there are two possible systems for empathy: a basic emotional contagion system and a more advanced cognitive perspective-taking system. However, it is not clear whether these two systems are part of a single interacting empathy system or whether they are independent. Additionally, the neuroanatomical bases of these systems are largely unknown. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that emotional empathic abilities (involving the mirror neuron system) are distinct from those related to cognitive empathy and that the two depend on separate anatomical substrates. Subjects with lesions in the ventromedial prefrontal (VM) or inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) cortices and two control groups were assessed with measures of empathy that incorporate both cognitive and affective dimensions. The findings reveal a remarkable behavioural and anatomic double dissociation between deficits in cognitive empathy (VM) and emotional empathy (IFG). Furthermore, precise anatomical mapping of lesions revealed Brodmann area 44 to be critical for emotional empathy while areas 11 and 10 were found necessary for cognitive empathy. These findings are consistent with these cortices being different in terms of synaptic hierarchy and phylogenetic age. The pattern of empathy deficits among patients with VM and IFG lesions represents a first direct evidence of a double dissociation between emotional and cognitive empathy using the lesion method.

  9. Fast convergence of learning requires plasticity between inferior olive and deep cerebellar nuclei in a manipulation task: a closed-loop robotic simulation

    PubMed Central

    Luque, Niceto R.; Garrido, Jesús A.; Carrillo, Richard R.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Ros, Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is known to play a critical role in learning relevant patterns of activity for adaptive motor control, but the underlying network mechanisms are only partly understood. The classical long-term synaptic plasticity between parallel fibers (PFs) and Purkinje cells (PCs), which is driven by the inferior olive (IO), can only account for limited aspects of learning. Recently, the role of additional forms of plasticity in the granular layer, molecular layer and deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) has been considered. In particular, learning at DCN synapses allows for generalization, but convergence to a stable state requires hundreds of repetitions. In this paper we have explored the putative role of the IO-DCN connection by endowing it with adaptable weights and exploring its implications in a closed-loop robotic manipulation task. Our results show that IO-DCN plasticity accelerates convergence of learning by up to two orders of magnitude without conflicting with the generalization properties conferred by DCN plasticity. Thus, this model suggests that multiple distributed learning mechanisms provide a key for explaining the complex properties of procedural learning and open up new experimental questions for synaptic plasticity in the cerebellar network. PMID:25177290

  10. FoxP2 expression in the cerebellum and inferior olive: development of the transverse stripe-shaped expression pattern in the mouse cerebellar cortex.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Hirofumi; Sugihara, Izumi

    2012-02-15

    Many molecules are expressed heterogeneously in subpopulations of cerebellar Purkinje cells (PCs) and inferior olive (IO) neurons during development or in adulthood. These expression patterns are often organized in longitudinal stripes in the cerebellar cortex, which may be related to functional compartmentalization. FoxP2, a transcription factor, is expressed in PCs and IO neurons, but the details of its expression pattern remain unclear. Here we examined FoxP2 expression patterns systematically by immunostaining serial sections of the hindbrain from embryonic day 14.5 to adulthood in mice. FoxP2 was highly expressed in virtually all PCs at and before postnatal day 6 (P6), except for those in the flocculus and small parts of the nodulus (vermal lobule X), where FoxP2 expression was moderate or absent. After P6, FoxP2 expression gradually diminished in PCs in some areas. In adults, FoxP2 was expressed, less intensely than in earlier stages, in subsets of PCs that were mostly arranged transversely along the folial apices. In contrast, FoxP2 was expressed intensely in most IO neurons during development and in adulthood. FoxP2 was also expressed in a small population of neurons in the cerebellar nuclei. FoxP2 expression in adult rats and chicks was generally comparable to that in adult mice, suggesting evolutionary conservation of the expression pattern. Thus, the FoxP2 expression pattern reflects new transverse compartmentalization in the adult cerebellar cortex, although its functional significance remains unclear.

  11. Subthreshold membrane potential oscillations in inferior olive neurons are dynamically regulated by P/Q- and T-type calcium channels: a study in mutant mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soonwook; Yu, Eunah; Kim, Daesoo; Urbano, Francisco J; Makarenko, Vladimir; Shin, Hee-Sup; Llinás, Rodolfo R

    2010-01-01

    The role of P/Q- and T-type calcium channels in the rhythmic oscillatory behaviour of inferior olive (IO) neurons was investigated in mutant mice. Mice lacking either the CaV2.1 gene of the pore-forming α1A subunit for P/Q-type calcium channel, or the CaV3.1 gene of the pore-forming α1G subunit for T-type calcium channel were used. In vitro intracellular recording from IO neurons reveals that the amplitude and frequency of sinusoidal subthreshold oscillations (SSTOs) were reduced in the CaV2.1−/− mice. In the CaV3.1−/− mice, IO neurons also showed altered patterns of SSTOs and the probability of SSTO generation was significantly lower (15%, 5 of 34 neurons) than that of wild-type (78%, 31 of 40 neurons) or CaV2.1−/− mice (73%, 22 of 30 neurons). In addition, the low-threshold calcium spike and the sustained endogenous oscillation following rebound potentials were absent in IO neurons from CaV3.1−/− mice. Moreover, the phase-reset dynamics of oscillatory properties of single neurons and neuronal clusters in IO were remarkably altered in both CaV2.1−/− and CaV3.1−/− mice. These results suggest that both α1A P/Q- and α1G T-type calcium channels are required for the dynamic control of neuronal oscillations in the IO. These findings were supported by results from a mathematical IO neuronal model that incorporated T and P/Q channel kinetics. PMID:20547676

  12. Inferior Pancreaticoduodenal Artery Aneurysms Associated with Occlusive Lesions of the Celiac Axis: Diagnosis, Treatment Options, Outcomes, and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Flood, Karen Nicholson, Anthony A.

    2013-06-15

    Purpose. To describe the presentation, treatment, and outcomes for 14 patients with aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal arteries associated with occlusive lesions of the celiac axis, and to review the literature for similar cases. Methods, Over a period of 12 years, 14 patients (10 women and 4 men) ranging in age from 26 to 50 (mean 46) years were demonstrated to have aneurysms of the inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery origin associated with stenosis or occlusion of the celiac axis. All patients were treated by a combination of surgery and interventional radiology. Results. Outcome data collected between 3 months and 4 years (mean 2 years) demonstrated that all aneurysms remained excluded, and all 14 patients were well. The 49 case reports in the literature confirm the findings of this cohort. Conclusion. In inferior pancreaticoduodenal artery aneurysm resulting from celiac occlusive disease, endovascular treatment is best achieved by stenting the celiac axis and/or embolizing the aneurysm when necessary.

  13. Identification and management of chronic shoulder pain in the presence of an MRA-confirmed humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) lesion

    PubMed Central

    Karmali, Arif; McLeod, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To present the assessment and conservative management of chronic shoulder pain in the presence of a humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament (HAGL) lesion in an active individual. Clinical Features: A 47 year-old female office-worker with constant, deep, right shoulder pain with occasional clicking and catching claimed to have “tore something” in her right shoulder five years ago while performing reverse bicep curls. A physical exam led to differential diagnoses of a Superior Labrum Anterior to Posterior (SLAP) lesion, Bankart lesion, and bicipital tendinopathy. A Magnetic Resonance Arthrogram revealed a HAGL lesion. Intervention and Outcome: A conservative chiropractic treatment plan in addition to physical therapy was initiated. The patient reported 75% improvement in symptoms after 4 treatments over a four-week duration. Summary: This case demonstrates the successful implementation of a conservative plan of management suggesting that the treatment provided to this patient should be considered and attempted prior to arthroscopic surgery. PMID:27385837

  14. Distortion of time interval reproduction in an epileptic patient with a focal lesion in the right anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices.

    PubMed

    Monfort, Vincent; Pfeuty, Micha; Klein, Madelyne; Collé, Steffie; Brissart, Hélène; Jonas, Jacques; Maillard, Louis

    2014-11-01

    This case report on an epileptic patient suffering from a focal lesion at the junction of the right anterior insular cortex (AIC) and the adjacent inferior frontal cortex (IFC) provides the first evidence that damage to this brain region impairs temporal performance in a visual time reproduction task in which participants had to reproduce the presentation duration (3, 5 and 7s) of emotionally-neutral and -negative pictures. Strikingly, as compared to a group of healthy subjects, the AIC/IFC case considerably overestimated reproduction times despite normal variability. The effect was obtained in all duration and emotion conditions. Such a distortion in time reproduction was not observed in four other epileptic patients without insular or inferior frontal damage. Importantly, the absolute extent of temporal over-reproduction increased in proportion to the magnitude of the target durations, which concurs with the scalar property of interval timing, and points to an impairment of time-specific rather than of non temporal (such as motor) mechanisms. Our data suggest that the disability in temporal reproduction of the AIC/IFC case would result from a distorted memory representation of the encoded duration, occurring during the process of storage and/or of recovery from memory and leading to a deviation of the temporal judgment during the reproduction task. These findings support the recent proposal that the anterior insular/inferior frontal cortices would be involved in time interval representation. PMID:25223467

  15. Retinoic acid influences the development of the inferior olivary nucleus in the rodent.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Miyuki; Fujinuma, Masahiro; Hirano, Shinji; Hayakawa, Yoshika; Clagett-Dame, Margaret; Zhang, Jinghua; McCaffery, Peter

    2005-04-15

    All-trans retinoic acid (atRA) is an endogenous morphogen that regulates gene transcription. Maternal exposure to atRA results in severe developmental abnormalities by disrupting normal patterns of atRA distribution. Previously, we have shown that the pontine nucleus, which originates from the rhombic lip, is severely atrophied in the mouse on exposure to atRA at gestational days 9 and 10. In this study, we show that this same period of atRA exposure has the contrary effect on the inferior olive and this rhombic lip derivative is expanded in volume and probably contains an increased number of cells. The posterior region of the inferior olive maintains a relatively normal shape but is significantly expanded in size. In contrast, the organization of the anterior inferior olive is severely disrupted. Because endogenous atRA levels are known to be higher in the region of the posterior inferior olive at the time of birth of inferior olivary neurons, these results suggest that endogenous atRA may promote the generation, or select the fate, of posterior neurons of the inferior olive. In support of this concept, a reduction in atRA resulting from vitamin A deficiency results in loss of cells of the posterior inferior olive.

  16. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Sahemey, R.; Warfield, A.T.; Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  17. Bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.

    PubMed

    Sahemey, R; Warfield, A T; Ahmed, S

    2016-01-01

    Osteomas are the most common benign osteoclastic tumours of the paranasal sinuses. However, nasal cavity and turbinate osteomas are extremely rare. Only nine middle turbinate, three inferior turbinate and one inferior turbinate osteoma cases have been reported to date. The present case report describes the management and follow-up of symptomatic bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma.A 60-year-old female presented with symptoms of bilateral nasal obstruction and right-sided epiphora. Radiological investigation found hypertrophic bony changes involving both inferior turbinates. The patient was managed successfully by endoscopic inferior turbinectomies in order to achieve a patent airway, with no further recurrence of tumour after 3 months postoperatively.To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of bilateral inferior turbinate osteoma. We describe a safe and minimally invasive method of tumour resection, which has a better cosmetic outcome compared with other approaches. PMID:27534890

  18. Olives and olive oil in cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Owen, R W; Haubner, R; Würtele, G; Hull, E; Spiegelhalder, B; Bartsch, H

    2004-08-01

    Epidemiologic studies conducted in the latter part of the twentieth century demonstrate fairly conclusively that the people of the Mediterranean basin enjoy a healthy lifestyle with decreased incidence of degenerative diseases. The data show that populations within Europe that consume the so-called 'Mediterranean diet' have lower incidences of major illnesses such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. Studies have suggested that the health-conferring benefits of the Mediterranean diet are due mainly to a high consumption of fibre, fish, fruits and vegetables. More recent research has focused on other important factors such as olives and olive oil. Obviously fibre (especially wholegrain-derived products), fruits and vegetables supply an important source of dietary antioxidants. What is the contribution from olives and olive oil? Apparently the potential is extremely high but epidemiologic studies rarely investigate consumption of these very important products in-depth, perhaps due to a lack of exact information on the types and amounts of antioxidants present. Recent studies have shown that olives and olive oil contain antioxidants in abundance. Olives (especially those that have not been subjected to the Spanish brining process) contain up to 16 g/kg typified by acteosides, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol and phenyl propionic acids. Olive oil, especially extra virgin, contains smaller amounts of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, but also contains secoiridoids and lignans in abundance. Both olives and olive oil contain substantial amounts of other compounds deemed to be anticancer agents (e.g. squalene and terpenoids) as well as the peroxidation-resistant lipid oleic acid. It seems probable that olive and olive oil consumption in southern Europe represents an important contribution to the beneficial effects on health of the Mediterranean diet.

  19. Olive orchard amended with olive mill wastewater: effects on olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Mechri, B; Issaoui, M; Echbili, A; Chehab, H; Mariem, F B; Braham, M; Hammami, M

    2009-12-30

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of agronomic application of olive mill wastewater (OMW) in a field of olive trees on olive fruit and olive oil quality. Agronomic application of OMW increased significantly the fungal:bacteria ratio, whereas the root colonisation and the photosynthetic rates decreased significantly. Consequently, the oil content expressed as a percentage of dry weight, decreased significantly after agronomic application of OMW. Land spreading of OMW altered the relative proportion of individual olive fruit sugar and decreased significantly the nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) of the fruit. A significant increase was observed in total phenol content of oil after agronomic application of OMW. alpha-Tocopherol content, on the contrary, decreased with OMW application. The fatty acid composition of the oil was not affected by the treatments. To our knowledge, this is the first report of change in the olive fruit and olive oil quality following agronomic application of OMW.

  20. Plasticity of the histamine H3 receptors after acute vestibular lesion in the adult cat

    PubMed Central

    Tighilet, Brahim; Mourre, Christiane; Lacour, Michel

    2014-01-01

    After unilateral vestibular neurectomy (UVN) many molecular and neurochemical mechanisms underlie the neurophysiological reorganizations occurring in the vestibular nuclei (VN) complex, as well as the behavioral recovery process. As a key regulator, the histaminergic system appears to be a likely candidate because drugs interfering with histamine (HA) neurotransmission facilitate behavioral recovery after vestibular lesion. This study aimed at analyzing the post-lesion changes of the histaminergic system by quantifying binding to histamine H3 receptors (H3R; mediating namely histamine autoinhibition) using a histamine H3 receptor agonist ([3H]N-α-methylhistamine). Experiments were done in brain sections of control cats (N = 6) and cats submitted to UVN and killed 1 (N = 6) or 3 (N = 6) weeks after the lesion. UVN induced a bilateral decrease in binding density of the agonist [3H]N-α-methylhistamine to H3R in the tuberomammillary nuclei (TMN) at 1 week post-lesion, with a predominant down-regulation in the ipsilateral TMN. The bilateral decrease remained at the 3 weeks survival time and became symmetric. Concerning brainstem structures, binding density in the VN, the prepositus hypoglossi, the subdivisions of the inferior olive decreased unilaterally on the ipsilateral side at 1 week and bilaterally 3 weeks after UVN. Similar changes were observed in the subdivisions of the solitary nucleus only 1 week after the lesion. These findings indicate vestibular lesion induces plasticity of the histamine H3R, which could contribute to vestibular function recovery. PMID:24427120

  1. Olive oil's extra benefits.

    PubMed

    2016-08-17

    Could a Mediterranean diet including extra virgin olive oil reduce the risk of breast cancer? Niki Mourouti and Demosthenes Panagiotakos' study in Evidence Based Nursing examined the effects on cancer risks of a Mediterranean diet supplemented with extra virgin olive oil. PMID:27533420

  2. Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning.

    PubMed

    Louis, P J

    2001-09-01

    Nerve repositioning is a viable alternative for patients with an atrophic edentulous posterior mandible. Patients, however, should be informed of the potential risks of neurosensory disturbance. Documentation of the patient's baseline neurosensory function should be performed with a two-point discrimination test or directional brush stroke test preoperatively and postoperatively. Recovery of nerve function should be expected in 3 to 6 months. The potential for mandibular fracture when combining nerve repositioning with implant placement also should be discussed with the patient. This can be avoided by minimizing the amount of buccal cortical plate removal during localization of the nerve and maintaining the integrity of the inferior cortex of the mandible. Additionally, avoid overseating the implant, thus avoiding stress along the inferior border of the mandible. The procedure does allow for the placement of longer implants, which should improve implant longevity. Patients undergoing this procedure have expressed overall satisfaction with the results. Nerve repositioning also can be used to preserve the inferior alveolar nerve during resection of benign tumors or cysts of the mandible. This procedure allows the surgeon to maintain nerve function in situations in which the nerve would otherwise have to be resected. PMID:11665379

  3. Incarcerated inferior lumbar (Petit's) hernia.

    PubMed

    Astarcioğlu, H; Sökmen, S; Atila, K; Karademir, S

    2003-09-01

    Petit's hernia is an uncommon abdominal wall defect in the inferior lumbar triangle. Colonic incarceration through the inferior lumbar triangle, which causes mechanical obstructive symptoms, necessitates particular diagnostic and management strategy. We present a rare case of inferior lumbar hernia, leading to mechanical bowel obstruction, successfully treated with prosthetic mesh reinforcement repair.

  4. The Olive Branch Awards.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnack, William

    1984-01-01

    The first annual Olive Branch Awards, sponsored by the Writers' and Publishers Alliance and the Editors' Organizing Committee, were given to ten magazines, out of 60 that submitted entries. Winning entries are described briefly. (IM)

  5. Supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in stressed mice.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Alice dos Santos; Bandeira, Luana Graziella; Monte-Alto-Costa, Andréa; Romana-Souza, Bruna

    2014-01-01

    Supplementation with olive and fish oils reverses the effects of stress on behavioral activities and adrenal activation. However, previous studies have not shown whether supplementation with olive and fish oil could inhibit the effects of stress on cutaneous wound healing. Thus, this study investigated the effects of supplementation with fish or olive oil on cutaneous healing in stressed mice. Mice were subjected to rotational stress and treated with olive or fish oil daily until euthanasia. An excisional lesion was created on each mouse, and 14 days later, the lesions were analyzed. In addition, murine skin fibroblasts were exposed to elevated epinephrine levels plus olive oil, and fibroblast activity was evaluated. In the in vivo studies, administration of olive oil, but not fish oil, inhibited stress-induced reduction in wound contraction, reepithelialization, hydroxyproline levels, and blood vessel density. Stress-induced increases in vascular endothelial growth factor expression and the numbers of macrophages and neutrophils were reversed only by olive oil. Both oils reversed stress-induced increase in catecholamine levels and oxidative damage. In in vitro studies, olive oil treatment reversed the reduction in fibroblast migration and collagen deposition and the increase in lipid peroxidation induced by epinephrine. In conclusion, supplementation with olive oil, but not fish oil, improves cutaneous wound healing in chronically stressed mice.

  6. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  7. Activation of c-fos expression in the rat inferior olivary nucleus by ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weizhen; Lin, Theodore R; Hu, Yuexian; Fan, Yongyi; Zhao, Lili; Mulholland, Michael W

    2003-12-26

    Ghrelin, a novel 28-amino-acid hormone secreted by gastric oxyntic glands, stimulates food intake and induces adiposity. We examined whether ghrelin activates the inferior olivary nucleus. Systemic administration of ghrelin (37 nmol/kg) induced the expression of c-fos immunoreactivity in inferior olive neurons (n=6 rats). The number of neurons containing c-fos staining was significantly increased in the ghrelin-treated rats (65+/-14 vs.11+/-6 positive neurons, n=5). No significant difference in c-fos-positive neurons was observed between left (32+/-5) and right (33+/-6) inferior olivary nuclei. The number of c-fos-positive neurons in rats with bilateral vagotomy was not significantly different from those with intact vagal nerves. The present study demonstrates that ghrelin induces c-fos expression in inferior olivary nucleus via a central mechanism.

  8. Pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate.

    PubMed

    Unlu, H Halis; Celik, Onur; Demir, M Akif; Eskiizmir, Gorkem

    2003-12-01

    Although pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign neoplasm of the salivary glands, it has also been reported to be present in the neck, ear, mediastinum, external nose and nasal cavity. Intranasal localization of this lesion is very rare and mainly originates from the nasal septum. From wherever the lesion originates, the main treatment modality should be surgical. We presented a very rare case of intranasal pleomorphic adenoma originated from the inferior nasal turbinate. Due to the expansile nature of the lesion, a midfacial degloving approach was preferred.

  9. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  10. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  11. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  12. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  13. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  14. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  15. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  16. 7 CFR 932.108 - Noncanning olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Noncanning olives. 932.108 Section 932.108 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.108 Noncanning olives. Noncanning olives means those olives which, pursuant to...

  17. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  18. 7 CFR 932.9 - Packaged olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Packaged olives. 932.9 Section 932.9 Agriculture... and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.9 Packaged olives. Packaged olives means (a) processed olives...

  19. Panmedullary edema with inferior olivary hypertrophy in bilateral medial medullary infarction.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yasuteru; Miyashita, Fumio; Koga, Masatoshi; Yamada, Naoaki; Toyoda, Kazunori; Minematsu, Kazuo

    2014-03-01

    Bilateral medial medullary infarction (MMI) is a rare type of stroke with poor outcomes. Inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy results from a pathologic lesion in the Guillain-Mollaret triangle. The relationship between inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and the medullary lesion is obscure. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 autopsy case with unilateral medial medullary infarction that was associated with ipsilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy has been reported. We describe a rare case with acute infarction in the bilateral medial medulla oblongata accompanied by subacute bilateral inferior olivary nucleus hypertrophy and panmedullary edema. The hypertrophy appeared to have been caused by local ischemic damage to the termination of the central tegmental tract at the bilateral inferior olivary nucleus.

  20. Adams-Oliver syndrome associated with cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita and congenital cataract: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fayol, Laurence; Garcia, Patricia; Denis, Danièle; Philip, Nicole; Simeoni, Umberto

    2006-04-01

    A female infant presented with Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS), intrauterine growth retardation, severe cutis marmorata telangiectatica congenita, bilateral congenital cataract, and periventricular lesions. The here-reported association of bilateral congenital cataract with AOS is original. Adams-Oliver syndrome is a genetic defect that causes a vasculopathy and leads to a variety of phenotypes. This observation further supports the current understanding of the physiopathology of AOS. PMID:16586236

  1. Traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve: a case report.

    PubMed

    Arribas-García, Ignacio; Alcalá-Galiano, Andrea; Gutiérrez, Ramón; Montalvo-Moreno, Juan José

    2008-03-01

    Traumatic neuromas are rare entities which characteristically arise subsequently to surgery and are usually accompanied by pain, typically neuralgic. We present an unusual case of an intraosseous traumatic neuroma of the inferior alveolar nerve following tooth extraction. A 56-year-old man consulted for paresthesias and hyperesthesia in the left mandibular region following extraction of the left mandibular third molar (#38). The panoramic radiograph revealed a radiolucent lesion in the inferior alveolar nerve canal, and CT demonstrated the existence of a mass within the canal, producing widening of the same. Nerve-sparing excisional biopsy was performed. Histopathology and immunohistochemistry were consistent with traumatic neuroma of the left inferior alveolar nerve. After 3 years of follow-up, the patient is asymptomatic and there are no signs of recurrence.

  2. The Vine and Olive Colony.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albinski, Nan Bowman

    1985-01-01

    Traces the historical sources of "Some Plant Olive Trees," a utopian novel by Emma Gelders Sterne, which offers a fictional account of the Vine and Olive colony, one of the most colorful yet least known utopian communities of the nineteenth century. (AYC)

  3. Truncal ataxia from infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Park, Jae Hyun; Ryoo, Sookyung; Moon, So Young; Seo, Sand Won; Na, Duk L

    2012-08-01

    Truncal ataxia in medullary infarction may be caused by involvement of the lateral part of the medulla; however, truncal ataxia in infarction involving the inferior olivary nucleus (ION) has received comparatively little attention. We report a patient with truncal ataxia due to medial medullary infarction located in the ION. A lesion in the ION could produce a contralateral truncal ataxia due to increased inhibitory input to the contralesional vestibular nucleus from the contralesional flocculus.

  4. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario

    2010-09-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior" mirage.2 The most common example of an inferior mirage is when, on a hot day, a stretch of dry road off in the distance appears to be wet (see Fig. 1). Many lab activities have been described that simulate the formation of superior mirages. In these demonstrations light beams curve downward as they pass through a nonuni-form fluid.3-6 Much less common are laboratory demonstrations of upward-curving light rays of the kind responsible for inferior mirages. This paper describes a simple version of such a demonstration.

  5. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  6. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  7. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  8. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  9. 7 CFR 932.5 - Olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Olives. 932.5 Section 932.5 Agriculture Regulations of... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.5 Olives. Olives means the fruit of any variety of the species olea...

  10. Anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction with sudden deafness and vertigo.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Takenobu; Nakayasu, Hiroyuki; Doi, Mitsuru; Fukada, Yasuyo; Hayashi, Miwa; Suzuki, Takeo; Takeuchi, Yuichi; Nakashima, Kenji

    2006-12-01

    We report a patient with anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarction, which manifested as profound deafness, transient vertigo, and minimal cerebellar signs. We suspect that ischaemia of the left internal auditory artery, which originates from the anterior inferior cerebellar artery, caused the deafness and transient vertigo. A small lesion in the middle cerebellar peduncle in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery territory and no lesion in the dentate nucleus in the posterior inferior cerebellar artery territory are thought to explain the minimal cerebellar signs despite the relatively large size of the infarction. Thus a relatively large infarction of the vertebral-basilar territory can manifest as sudden deafness with vertigo. Neuroimaging, including magnetic resonance imaging, is strongly recommended for patients with sudden deafness and vertigo to exclude infarction of the vertebral-basilar artery territory.

  11. Serotonin in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Hurley, Laura M; Thompson, Ann M; Pollak, George D

    2002-06-01

    It has been recognized for some time that serotonin fibers originating in raphe nuclei are present in the inferior colliculi of all mammalian species studied. More recently, serotonin has been found to modulate the responses of single inferior colliculus neurons to many types of auditory stimuli, ranging from simple tone bursts to complex species-specific vocalizations. The effects of serotonin are often quite strong, and for some neurons are also highly specific. A dramatic illustration of this is that serotonin can change the selectivity of some neurons for sounds, including species-specific vocalizations. These results are discussed in light of several theories on the function of serotonin in the IC, and of outstanding issues that remain to be addressed. PMID:12117504

  12. Olive School, Arlington Heights, Illinois

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rausch, Kathy

    1974-01-01

    Article stressed the need for a music teacher in an open school to have an openness to people and ideas. It also described the educational objectives at the Olive School in Arlington Heights, Illinois. (Author/RK)

  13. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior"…

  14. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma confirmed by catheter suction biopsy during digital subtraction angiography.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ning; Xu, Xiang-Dong; Xu, Hao; Zu, Mao-Heng

    2014-01-01

    Leiomyosarcoma of vascular origin is a rare disease and most cases arise in the inferior vena cava. Inferior vena cava leiomyosarcoma (IVCLMS) usually presents in females in their sixth decade of life. The clinical symptoms are often non-specific and the diagnosis is often delayed. Current imaging techniques can accurately differentiate inferior vena cava neoplasms from other non-neoplastic lesions. However, definitive diagnosis of IVCLMS needs histologic evidence. We report a case of IVCLMS in a 61-year old Chinese woman. This is the first IVCLMS case confirmed by catheter suction biopsy during digital subtraction angiography. PMID:25232438

  15. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  16. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  17. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  18. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  19. 7 CFR 932.23 - Undersize olives and limited use size olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Undersize olives and limited use size olives. 932.23... SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.23 Undersize olives and limited use...

  20. Clay Improvement with Burned Olive Waste Ash

    PubMed Central

    Mutman, Utkan

    2013-01-01

    Olive oil is concentrated in the Mediterranean basin countries. Since the olive oil industries are incriminated for a high quantity of pollution, it has become imperative to solve this problem by developing optimized systems for the treatment of olive oil wastes. This study proposes a solution to the problem. Burned olive waste ash is evaluated for using it as clay stabilizer. In a laboratory, bentonite clay is used to improve olive waste ash. Before the laboratory, the olive waste is burned at 550°C in the high temperature oven. The burned olive waste ash was added to bentonite clay with increasing 1% by weight from 1% to 10%. The study consisted of the following tests on samples treated with burned olive waste ash: Atterberg Limits, Standard Proctor Density, and Unconfined Compressive Strength Tests. The test results show promise for this material to be used as stabilizer and to solve many of the problems associated with its accumulation. PMID:23766671

  1. Inferior mirages: an improved model.

    PubMed

    Young, Andrew T

    2015-02-01

    A quantitative model of the inferior mirage is presented, based on a realistic temperature profile in the convective boundary layer, using Monin-Obukhov similarity theory. The top of the inverted image is determined by the logarithmic part of the profile; the bottom is the apparent horizon, which depends on optical obstruction by roughness elements. These effects of surface roughness are included in the model, which is illustrated with a simulation. The vertical magnification varies throughout the mirage, becoming infinite at Minnaert's ill-named "vanishing line"-which makes green flashes apparent to the naked eye. PMID:25967823

  2. Oliver Wendell Holmes 1

    PubMed Central

    Lindskog, Gustaf E.

    1974-01-01

    The life of Oliver Wendell Holmes was selected as the subject for a lecture in the 1974 History of Medicine series at Yale University School of Medicine because, as the Latin subtitle of the essay suggests, he represents a fortunate and uncommon, but by no means unique, synthesis of the practical and aesthetic, of science and the humanities. An attempt has been made by the lecturer, employing frequent, but brief, excerpts from the works of several disinguished biographers as well as Doctor Holmes' own lectures, medical papers, essays and poems to delineate the elite heritage and the events that led this complex person transiently into the sudy of law, the profession in which his older son reached the pinnacle of the U.S. Supreme Court, and finally into medicine where a short period of private practice was followed by more than three decades of distinguished teaching is anatomy. His lifetime (1809-1894) spanned most of the nineteenth century, in the literary hisory of which he played a significant role. His writings reveal a remarkable, and sometimes prophetic, appreciation of the impact that burgeoning science and evolving social pressures and changes would have on the teaching and practice of medicine in the future—our present. PMID:4617425

  3. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  4. Oliver Sacks in Mendeleev's Garden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, James L.

    2003-08-01

    After returning to New York, Oliver Sacks sent to us a preprint of Uncle Tungsten, which we had the pleasure of perusing for a whole year before publication. After the events of September 11, 2001, my wife and I anxiously awaited word that he was all right. We were relieved—and honored—when in early December we received an autographed copy of Uncle Tungsten (3). We will always treasure Oliver Sacks’s book, his remarkable story of chemistry, and our friendship with him.

  5. The inferior olivary nucleus: a postmortem study of essential tremor cases versus controls.

    PubMed

    Louis, Elan D; Babij, Rachel; Cortés, Etty; Vonsattel, Jean-Paul G; Faust, Phyllis L

    2013-06-01

    The pathogenesis of essential tremor is poorly understood. Historically, it has been hypothesized that the inferior olivary nucleus plays an important role in the generation of tremor in essential tremor, yet a detailed, controlled, anatomic-pathological study of that brain region has yet to be conducted. A detailed postmortem study was undertaken of the microscopic changes in the inferior olivary nucleus of 14 essential tremor cases versus 15 age-matched controls at the Essential Tremor Centralized Brain Repository. A series of metrics was used to quantify microscopic neuronal and glial changes in the inferior olivary nucleus and its input and output tracts. Olivary linear neuronal density also was assessed. Cases and controls did not differ from one another with respect to any of the assessed metrics (P values ranged from 0.23 to 1.0). Olivary linear neuronal density also was similar in cases and controls (P = 0.62). Paddle-shaped neurons, a morphologic shape change in olivary neurons, which, to our knowledge, have not been previously recognized, occurred to an equal degree in essential tremor cases and controls (P = 0.89) and were correlated with several markers of neuronal loss and gliosis. A systematic postmortem study of the microscopic changes in the inferior olivary nucleus did not detect any differences between cases and controls. These data, along with positron emission tomography data, which have failed to identify any metabolic abnormality of the olive, indicate that, if the olive is involved in essential tremor, then there is no clearly identifiable structural or metabolic correlate.

  6. Capsular tear in line with the inferior glenohumeral ligament: a cause of anterior glenohumeral instability in 2 patients.

    PubMed

    Rothberg, David L; Burks, Robert T

    2009-08-01

    Anterior glenohumeral instability typically involves lesions associated with the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex. Multiple lesions have been described in this setting, including Bankart, humeral avulsion of the inferior glenohumeral ligament complex, and mid-substance capsular tears. These lesions are indicative of the high-force traumatic nature of anterior shoulder dislocation. Two cases of recurrent anterior shoulder instability are presented with a capsular tear perpendicular to the usual orientation and not consistent to the amount of force involved in a dislocation. Arthroscopy revealed a capsular defect from the glenoid to the humeral head in the anterior inferior glenohumeral ligamentous complex in both. This lesion is an unusual circumstance, providing another pathology to include in the differential diagnosis of anterior glenohumeral instability.

  7. Does the left inferior parietal lobule contribute to multiplication facts?

    PubMed

    van Harskamp, Natasja J; Rudge, Peter; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    We report a single case, who presents with a selective and severe impairment for multiplication and division facts. His ability to retrieve subtraction and addition facts was entirely normal. His brain lesion affected the left superior temporal and to lesser extent in the left middle temporal gyri and the left precentral gyrus extending inferiorly to the pars opercularis of the left frontal lobe. Interestingly, the left supramarginal and angular gyri (SMG/AG) were spared. This finding realised a double dissociation with a previously reported patient, who despite lesions in the SMG/AG did not have a multiplication impairment (van Harskamp et al., 2002). The previously suggested crucial role of the SMG/AG in the retrieval of simple multiplication facts is therefore poorly supported (Cohen et al., 2000; Lee, 2000). PMID:16350657

  8. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  9. "Oliver Twist": A Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cashion, Carol; Fischer, Diana

    This teacher's guide for public television's 3-part adaptation of Charles Dickens's "Oliver Twist" provides information that will help enrich students' viewing of the series, whether or not they read the novel. The guide includes a wide range of discussion and activity ideas; there is also a series Web site and a list of Web resources.…

  10. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension.

  11. Virgin Olive Oil and Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Lopez, Sergio; Bermudez, Beatriz; Montserrat-de la Paz, Sergio; Jaramillo, Sara; Abia, Rocio; Muriana, Francisco Jg

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure (BP) along with other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors on human health has been studied for many years. These studies have proven a link between unhealthy dietary habits and sedentary lifestyle with the onset of hypertension, which is a hallmark of CV and cerebrovascular diseases. The Mediterranean diet, declared by the UNESCO as an Intangible Cultural Heritage since 2013, is rich in vegetables, legumes, fruits and virgin olive oil. Thanks to its many beneficial effects, including those with regard to lowering BP, the Mediterranean diet may help people from modern countries to achieve a lower occurrence of CV disease. Data from human and animal studies have shown that the consumption of virgin olive oil shares most of the beneficial effects of the Mediterranean diet. Virgin olive oil is the only edible fat that can be consumed as a natural fruit product with no additives or preservatives, and contains a unique constellation of bioactive entities, namely oleic acid and minor constituents. In this review, we summarize what is known about the effects of virgin olive oil on hypertension. PMID:26775852

  12. An Interview with Oliver Sacks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Dale; Palo, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Presents an interview with Oliver Sachs. Discusses his approach to writing, including the physical pen-and-ink approach as opposed to using a word processor; his use of journals; his motivation for writing; his approach to revision; and his view of himself as a writer. (NH)

  13. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  14. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  16. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  17. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are those which have not been pitted. (b) Pitted. “Pitted” olives are those...

  18. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  19. 7 CFR 932.8 - Natural condition olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Natural condition olives. 932.8 Section 932.8... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Order Regulating Handling Definitions § 932.8 Natural condition olives. Natural condition olives means olives...

  20. Inferior vena caval masses identified by echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Asher, C. R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, V.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Novick, A. C.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.

  1. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  2. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  3. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  4. Extranasopharyngeal Angiofibroma Originating in the Inferior Turbinate: A Distinct Clinical Entity at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Marco Antonio Ferraz de Barros; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma is histologically similar to juvenile nasopharyngeal angiofibroma, differing from the latter in clinical and epidemiologic characteristics. Objectives We present a case of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma originating in the inferior turbinate. Resumed Report The patient was a girl, 8 years and 6 months of age, who had constant bilateral nasal obstruction and recurrent epistaxis for 6 months, worse on the right side, with hyposmia and snoring. Nasal endoscopy showed a reddish lesion, smooth, friable, and nonulcerated. Computed tomography showed a lesion with soft tissue density in the right nasal cavity. We used an endoscopic approach and found the lesion inserted in the right inferior turbinate. We did a subperiosteal dissection and excision with a partial turbinectomy with a resection margin of 0.5 cm. Histopathology reported it to be an extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma. Conclusion Although rare, extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma should be considered in the diagnosis of vascular tumors of the head and neck. PMID:25992131

  5. Multiorgan resection with inferior vena cava reconstruction for hepatic alveolar echinococcosis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Wei; Wu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Alveolar echinococcosis (AE) is a life-threatening parasitic disease characterized by its tumor-like growth. Radical operation is deemed the curable method for AE treatment if R0-resection is achievable. We present a 26-year-old AE patient with AE lesions invading the right lobe of the liver, the inferior vena cava, inferior lobe of right lung, the right hemidiaphragm, and the right kidney. On the basis of precise preoperative and intraoperative evaluations, a radical surgery that removed the huge lesion en bloc was performed successfully with skillful surgical techniques. This patient had an uneventful postoperative recovery and a good prognosis. Multiorgan resection is justified and unavoidable in selected patients when AE lesions invade different organs and the main vascular structures. PMID:27281076

  6. [The quality of fat: olive oil].

    PubMed

    Tur Marí, Josep A

    2004-06-01

    Olive oil is one of the most characteristic Mediterranean Diet foods, also being a key contributor to the healthy aspects attributed to this dietary pattern. Since 4000 BC, olive oil has been obtained in the Mediterranean area, but now it is exceeding its natural borders, and currently the use of olive oil is a worldwide synonym of health and gastronomic quality. Olive oil has important effects on the body, and has protective effects against several pathologies, i.e. cardiovascular diseases, and various cancers, as well as to diminish the age-related cognitive decline. These effects are due to the olive oil richness in monounsaturated fatty acids and antioxidant substances. Olive oil has been and is the food that define one of the most oldest methods of cooking: frying.

  7. Ethanol in Olive Fruit. Changes during Ripening.

    PubMed

    Beltrán, Gabriel; Bejaoui, Mohamed A; Jimenez, Antonio; Sanchez-Ortiz, Araceli

    2015-06-10

    Ethanol is one of the precursors of ethyl esters, the virgin olive oil quality parameter for the "extra" category recently adopted by the European Union and International Olive Oil Council. Although ethyl ester content has great importance for virgin olive oil classification, the origin of ethanol is not clear. A possible source of ethanol may be the olive fruit itself while it remains on the tree. Variation of fruit ethanol content during ripening was studied for three different olive cultivars: 'Picual', 'Hojiblanca', and 'Arbequina'. Ethanol was measured in fruit homogenates by HS-SPME-GC-FID. The ethanol content varied between 0.56 and 58 mg/kg. 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the highest ethanol concentration. For all of the cultivars, ethanol content of fruit increased during the ripening process, although a clear cultivar-dependent effect was observed because 'Hojiblanca' fruits showed the most significant raise. Therefore, results indicated that ethanol can be accumulated during fruit maturation on the olive tree.

  8. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  9. Vascular Lesions.

    PubMed

    Jahnke, Marla N

    2016-08-01

    Vascular lesions in childhood are comprised of vascular tumors and vascular malformations. Vascular tumors encompass neoplasms of the vascular system, of which infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common. Vascular malformations, on the other hand, consist of lesions due to anomalous development of the vascular system, including the capillary, venous, arterial, and lymphatic systems. Capillary malformations represent the most frequent type of vascular malformation. IHs and vascular malformations tend to follow relatively predictable growth patterns in that IHs grow then involute during early childhood, whereas vascular malformations tend to exhibit little change. Both vascular tumors and vascular malformations can demonstrate a wide range of severity and potential associated complications necessitating specialist intervention when appropriate. Evaluation and treatment of the most common types of vascular lesions are discussed in this article. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(8):e299-e305.]. PMID:27517358

  10. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins.

  11. Proteins in olive fruit and oil.

    PubMed

    Montealegre, Cristina; Esteve, Clara; García, Maria Concepción; García-Ruiz, Carmen; Marina, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a comprehensive review grouping the information on the extraction, characterization, and quantitation of olive and olive oil proteins and providing a practical guide about these proteins. Most characterized olive proteins are located in the fruit, mainly in the seed, where different oleosins and storage proteins have been found. Unlike the seed, the olive pulp contains a lower protein content having been described a polypeptide of 4.6 kDa and a thaumain-like protein. Other important proteins studied in olive fruits have been enzymes which could play important roles in olives characteristics. Part of these proteins is transferred from the fruit to the oil during the manufacturing process of olive oil. In fact, the same polypeptide of 4.6 kDa found in the pulp has been described in the olive oil and, additionally, the presence of other proteins and enzymes have also been described. Protein profiles have recently been proposed as an interesting strategy for the varietal classification of olive fruits and oils. Nevertheless, there is still a lot of knowledge without being explored requiring new studies focused on the determination and characterization of these proteins. PMID:24261535

  12. Acute inferior myocardial infarction due to cannabis smoking in a young man.

    PubMed

    Kocabay, Gonenc; Yildiz, Mustafa; Duran, Nilufer Eksi; Ozkan, Mehmet

    2009-09-01

    Cannabis smoking, which has euphoric effects, is consistently increasing in Europe. Smoking cannabis is a rare trigger of acute myocardial infarction (MI) by inducing coronary artery spasm. Some cases who have thrombus formation in acute coronary artery and no serious atherosclerotic lesions have been reported in the literature. These cases had involved the left coronary artery. Although some cases were reported with MI after cannabis smoking, only two case reports with inferior MI after cannabis smoking were reported in the literature. The present report is of a young male patient who was affected by acute inferior MI half an hour after cannabis smoking. PMID:19436220

  13. Photopyroelectric Monitoring of Olive's Ripening Conditions and Olive Oil Quality Using Pulsed Wideband IR Thermal Source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abu-Taha, M. I.; Sarahneh, Y.; Saleh, A. M.

    The present study is based on band absorption of radiation from pulsed wideband infrared (IR) thermal source (PWBS) in conjunction with polyvinylidene fluoride film (PVDF). It is the first time to be employed to monitor the ripening state of olive fruit. Olive's characteristics vary at different stages of ripening, and hence, cultivation of olives at the right time is important in ensuring the best oil quality and maximizes the harvest yield. The photopyroelectric (PPE) signal resulting from absorption of wideband infrared (IR) radiation by fresh olive juice indicates the ripening stage of olives, i.e., allows an estimate of the suitable harvest time. The technique was found to be very useful in discriminating between olive oil samples according to geographical region, shelf life, some storage conditions, and deliberate adulteration. Our results for monitoring oil accumulation in olives during the ripening season agree well with the complicated analytical studies carried out by other researchers.

  14. From olive drupes to olive oil. An HPLC-orbitrap-based qualitative and quantitative exploration of olive key metabolites.

    PubMed

    Kanakis, Periklis; Termentzi, Aikaterini; Michel, Thomas; Gikas, Evagelos; Halabalaki, Maria; Skaltsounis, Alexios-Leandros

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the current study was the qualitative exploration and quantitative monitoring of key olive secondary metabolites in different production steps (drupes, paste, first and final oil) throughout a virgin olive oil production line. The Greek variety Koroneiki was selected as one of the most representative olives, which is rich in biological active compounds. For the first time, an HPLC-Orbitrap platform was employed for both qualitative and quantitative purposes. Fifty-two components belonging to phenyl alcohols, secoiridoids, flavonoids, triterpenes, and lactones were identified based on HRMS and HRMS/MS data. Nine biologically and chemically significant metabolites were quantitatively determined throughout the four production steps. Drupes and paste were found to be rich in several components, which are not present in the final oil. The current study discloses the chemical nature of different olive materials in a successive and integrated way and reveals new sources of high added value constituents of olives.

  15. Extra virgin olive oil's polyphenols: biological activities.

    PubMed

    Visioli, Francesco; Bernardini, Elena

    2011-01-01

    In addition to its high proportion of oleic acid (which is considered as "neutral" in terms of cardioprotection), extra virgin olive oil is rich in phenolic compounds, which other vegetable oils do not contain. This review critically appraises the current scientific evidence of a healthful role of olive phenols, with particular emphasis on hydroxytyrosol and related molecules.

  16. Content of biogenic amines in table olives.

    PubMed

    García-García, P; Brenes-Balbuena, M; Hornero-Méndez, D; García-Borrego, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2000-01-01

    Content of biogenic amines in flesh and brines of table olives was determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis of their benzoyl derivatives. No biogenic amines were found in the flesh of fresh fruits at any stage of ripeness. Contents of biogenic amines in Spanish-style green or stored olives increased throughout the brining period but were always higher in the former. Putrescine was the amine found in the highest concentration. Small quantities of cadaverine were found in the samples taken after 3 months of brining. This compound and histamine, tyramine, and tryptamine were also found in samples taken after 12 months. Gordal cultivar showed the highest contents, followed by Manzanilla and Hojiblanca. No relationship was found between contents of biogenic amines and lactic acid production or table olive spoilages, although zapatera olives had considerably higher amounts than those brines that had undergone a normal process. Concentrations in directly brined olives were markedly lower than contents in Spanish-style olives. With respect to partition between flesh and brine, there was equilibrium between both media in the case of Spanish-style olives, whereas the contents in directly brined olives were higher in flesh than brine. PMID:10643779

  17. Olive Banks (1923-2006): An Appreciation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Purvis, June

    2008-01-01

    This Appreciation of Olive Banks (1923-2006) draws upon her memoir published in Women's History Review, Vol. 8, No. 3, 1999, pp. 401-410, and upon the author's recollections of and correspondence with her. Born into a solidly working-class family, Olive Banks overcame the disadvantages of her social class background and gender to become an…

  18. Determining the non-inferiority margin for patient reported outcomes.

    PubMed

    Gerlinger, Christoph; Schmelter, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    One of the cornerstones of any non-inferiority trial is the choice of the non-inferiority margin delta. This threshold of clinical relevance is very difficult to determine, and in practice, delta is often "negotiated" between the sponsor of the trial and the regulatory agencies. However, for patient reported, or more precisely patient observed outcomes, the patients' minimal clinically important difference (MCID) can be determined empirically by relating the treatment effect, for example, a change on a 100-mm visual analogue scale, to the patient's satisfaction with the change. This MCID can then be used to define delta. We used an anchor-based approach with non-parametric discriminant analysis and ROC analysis and a distribution-based approach with Norman's half standard deviation rule to determine delta in three examples endometriosis-related pelvic pain measured on a 100-mm visual analogue scale, facial acne measured by lesion counts, and hot flush counts. For each of these examples, all three methods yielded quite similar results. In two of the cases, the empirically derived MCIDs were smaller or similar of deltas used before in non-inferiority trials, and in the third case, the empirically derived MCID was used to derive a responder definition that was accepted by the FDA. In conclusion, for patient-observed endpoints, the delta can be derived empirically. In our view, this is a better approach than that of asking the clinician for a "nice round number" for delta, such as 10, 50%, π, e, or i. PMID:21932298

  19. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils.

    PubMed

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars-excluding clonal selections-is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis.

  20. Antioxidants in Greek Virgin Olive Oils

    PubMed Central

    Kalogeropoulos, Nick; Tsimidou, Maria Z.

    2014-01-01

    Greece is ranked third after Spain and Italy in virgin olive oil production. The number of Greek olive cultivars—excluding clonal selections—is greater than 40; however, more than 90% of the acreage is cultivated with 20 cultivars, adapted to a wide range of environmental conditions. Greek virgin olive oils, produced mainly with traditional, non-intensive cultivation practices, are mostly of exceptional quality. The benefits of consuming virgin olive oil, originally attributed to its high oleic acid content, are now considered to be the combined result of several nutrient and non-nutrient phytochemicals. The present work summarizes available data regarding natural antioxidants in Greek virgin olive oils (VOO) namely, polar phenolic compounds, tocopherols, squalene, and triterpenic acids. The literature survey indicated gaps in information, which should be filled in the near future so that the intrinsic properties of this major agricultural product of Greece will be substantiated on a solid scientific basis. PMID:26784878

  1. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  2. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  3. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  4. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as...

  5. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3752 - Types of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Types of canned ripe olives. 52.3752 Section 52.3752... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3752 Types of canned ripe olives. Canned ripe olives are processed as two distinct types. Unless a specific type is stated in this...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  8. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality of canned ripe olives of whole, pitted, halved, segmented, sliced,...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3753 - Styles of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Styles of canned ripe olives. 52.3753 Section 52.3753... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3753 Styles of canned ripe olives. (a) Whole. “Whole” olives are...

  10. Functional organization of the left inferior precentral sulcus: dissociating the inferior frontal eye field and the inferior frontal junction.

    PubMed

    Derrfuss, J; Vogt, V L; Fiebach, C J; von Cramon, D Y; Tittgemeyer, M

    2012-02-15

    Two eye fields have been described in the human lateral frontal cortex: the frontal eye field (FEF) and the inferior frontal eye field (iFEF). The FEF has been extensively studied and has been found to lie at the ventral part of the superior precentral sulcus. Much less research, however, has focused on the iFEF. Recently, it was suggested that the iFEF is located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. A similar location was proposed for the inferior frontal junction area (IFJ), an area thought to be involved in cognitive control processes. The present study used fMRI to clarify the topographical and functional relationship of the iFEF and the IFJ in the left hemispheres of individual participants. The results show that both the iFEF and the IFJ are indeed located at the dorsal part of the inferior precentral sulcus. Nevertheless, the activations were spatially dissociable in every individual examined. The IFJ was located more towards the depth of the inferior precentral sulcus, close to the junction with the inferior frontal sulcus, whereas the iFEF assumed a more lateral, posterior and superior position. Furthermore, the results provided evidence for a functional double dissociation: the iFEF was activated only in a comparison of saccades vs. button presses, but not in a comparison of incongruent vs. congruent Stroop conditions, while the opposite pattern was found at the IFJ. These results provide evidence for a spatial and functional dissociation of two directly adjacent areas in the left posterior frontal lobe.

  11. The historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

    PubMed

    Uylaşer, Vildan; Yildiz, Gökçen

    2014-01-01

    The olive tree (Olea europaea) is widely cultivated for the production of both oil and table olives and very significant because of its economic value. Olive and olive oil, a traditional food product with thousands of years of history, are the essential components of the Mediterranean diet and are largely consumed in the world. Beside of their economical contribution to national economy, these are an important food in terms of their nutritional value. Olive and olive oil may have a role in the prevention of coronary heart disease and certain cancers because of their high levels of monosaturated fatty acids and phenolic compounds. In addition, olives (Olea europaea L.) and olive oils provide a rich source of natural antioxidants. These make them both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. The aim of this paper is to define the historical development and nutritional importance of olive and olive oil constituted an important part of the Mediterranean diet.

  12. [Oliver Sacks and literary neurology].

    PubMed

    Guardiola, Elena; Banos, Josep E

    2014-03-16

    Introduccion. La literatura medica de divulgacion intenta poner al alcance del publico general temas medicos en un lenguaje desprovisto, en lo posible, de jerga medica para hacerlo mas inteligible. En el ambito de la neurologia, su complejidad hace dificil que los relatos de esta especialidad sean faciles de comprender para el publico sin formacion medica. Objetivo. El presente articulo revisa la obra de Oliver Sacks en el ambito de la neurologia dirigida al publico general; se presentan las principales caracteristicas y las situaciones clinicas que describe. Desarrollo. Se incluyen unas notas biograficas sobre Oliver Sacks y se analizan los 11 libros publicados a lo largo de los ultimos 40 años. Para cada uno de ellos, se realiza una contextualizacion historica y se comentan los aspectos mas destacados que justifican el interes de su lectura. En la mayoria de los casos, se explica la genesis de la obra, asi como sus caracteristicas mas relevantes. Conclusiones. La obra de Sacks contiene un amplio abanico de situaciones clinicas de gran interes que se explican, generalmente, con un lenguaje accesible para el publico general. A los neurologos les permite, ademas, una vision holistica de diversas situaciones clinicas con una discusion de sus componentes biograficos, historicos y evolutivos.

  13. A Rare Case of Angiofibroma Arising from Inferior Turbinate in a Female

    PubMed Central

    Agarwal, Shilpi; Arora, Rubeena; Doloi, Pankaj; Kumar, Deepak

    2016-01-01

    A rare case of extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma arising from the inferior turbinate in a young female of 28 years is presented. The case is discussed in light of scant contemporary literature on the cited subject. This clinical record highlights the distinct clinical nature of Extranasopharyngeal angiofibroma (ENA) and importance of Immunohistochemistry in diagnosis of such lesions. With this case we report a rare clinical entity which presented in an extremely rare manner. PMID:27190846

  14. Calcific thrombi of the inferior vena cava in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Schullinger, J N; Santulli, T V; Berdon, W E; Wigger, H J; MacMillan, R W; Demartini, P D; Baker, D H

    1978-08-01

    Calcified caval thrombus should be considered in any infant or child where calcifications are noted in the high right retroperitoneal area on plain x-rays of the abdomen. Although typically bullet-shaped in configuration, the calcium distribution in the neonate may be atypical or incompletely developed, suggesting neuroblastoma. Definitive diagnosis can be made by inferior vena cavagram. As no deaths or complications have been attributed to the lesion in the cases thus far reported, no specific treatment is recommended.

  15. [Inferior alveolar nerve repositioning in implant surgery].

    PubMed

    Ardekian, L; Salnea, J; Abu el-Naaj, I; Gutmacher, T; Peled, M

    2001-04-01

    Severe resorption of the posterior mandible possesses one of the most difficult restorative challenges to the implant surgery today. This resorption may prevent the placement of dental implants without the potentially damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. To create the opportunity of insertion dental implants of adequately length in those cases, the technique of nerve repositioning has been advocated. The purpose of this article is to describe two cases of nerve repositioning combined with placement of dental implants. Both cases showed appropriate postoperative healing without damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. The inferior alveolar nerve repositioning technique seems to be an acceptable alternative to augmentation procedure prior to dental implants placement in cases exhibiting atrophic posterior mandibular ridges. PMID:11494807

  16. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  17. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil.

  18. Application of compost of two-phase olive mill waste on olive grove: effects on soil, olive fruit and olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Hernández, Antonia; Roig, Asunción; Serramiá, Nuria; Civantos, Concepción García-Ortiz; Sánchez-Monedero, Miguel A

    2014-07-01

    Composting is a method for preparing organic fertilizers that represents a suitable management option for the recycling of two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW) in agriculture. Four different composts were prepared by mixing TPOMW with different agro-industrial by-products (olive pruning, sheep manure and horse manure), which were used either as bulking agents or as N sources. The mature composts were added during six consecutive years to a typical "Picual" olive tree grove in the Jaén province (Spain). The effects of compost addition on soil characteristics, crop yield and nutritional status and also the quality of the olive oil were evaluated at the end of the experiment and compared to a control treated only with mineral fertilization. The most important effects on soil characteristics included a significant increase in the availability of N, P, K and an increase of soil organic matter content. The application of TPOMW compost produced a significant increase in olive oil content in the fruit. The compost amended plots had a 15% higher olive oil content than those treatment with inorganic fertilization. These organics amendments maintained the composition and quality of the olive oil. PMID:24810202

  19. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option

    PubMed Central

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  20. Olives and Bone: A Green Osteoporosis Prevention Option.

    PubMed

    Chin, Kok-Yong; Ima-Nirwana, Soelaiman

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal degeneration due to aging, also known as osteoporosis, is a major health problem worldwide. Certain dietary components confer protection to our skeletal system against osteoporosis. Consumption of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols has been shown to improve bone health. This review aims to summarize the current evidence from cellular, animal and human studies on the skeletal protective effects of olives, olive oil and olive polyphenols. Animal studies showed that supplementation of olives, olive oil or olive polyphenols could improve skeletal health assessed via bone mineral density, bone biomechanical strength and bone turnover markers in ovariectomized rats, especially those with inflammation. The beneficial effects of olive oil and olive polyphenols could be attributed to their ability to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation. However, variations in the bone protective, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects between studies were noted. Cellular studies demonstrated that olive polyphenols enhanced proliferation of pre-osteoblasts, differentiation of osteoblasts and decreased the formation of osteoclast-like cells. However, the exact molecular pathways for its bone health promoting effects are yet to be clearly elucidated. Human studies revealed that daily consumption of olive oil could prevent the decline in bone mineral density and improve bone turnover markers. As a conclusion, olives, olive oil and its polyphenols are potential dietary interventions to prevent osteoporosis among the elderly. PMID:27472350

  1. Anatomy of Inferior Mesenteric Artery in Fetuses.

    PubMed

    Nuzhat, Ayesha

    2016-01-01

    Aim. To analyze Inferior Mesenteric Artery in fetuses through its site of origin, length, diameter, and variation of its branches. Method. 100 fetuses were collected from various hospitals in Warangal at Kakatiya Medical College in Andhra Pradesh, India, and were divided into two groups, group I (second-trimester fetuses) and group II (third-trimester fetuses), followed by dissection. Result. (1) Site of Origin. In group I fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra in 33 out of 34 fetuses (97.2%). In one fetus it was at first lumbar vertebra, 2.8%. In all group II fetuses, origin of Inferior Mesenteric Artery was at third lumbar vertebra. (2) Length. In group I fetuses it ranged between 18 and 30 mm, average being 24 mm except in one fetus where it was 48 mm. In group II fetuses the length ranged from 30 to 34 mm, average being 32 mm. (3) Diameter. In group I fetuses it ranged from 0.5 to 1 mm, and in group II fetuses it ranged from 1 to 2 mm, average being 1.5 mm. (4) Branches. Out of 34 fetuses of group I, 4 fetuses showed variation. In one fetus left colic artery was arising from abdominal aorta, 2.9%. In 3 fetuses, Inferior Mesenteric Artery was giving a branch to left kidney, 8.8%. Out of 66 fetuses in group II, 64 had normal branching. In one fetus left renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery, 1.5%, and in another fetus one accessory renal artery was arising from Inferior Mesenteric Artery and entering the lower pole of left kidney. Conclusion. Formation, course, and branching pattern of an artery depend on development and origin of organs to attain the actual adult position. PMID:27313956

  2. Oleuropein in Olive and its Pharmacological Effects

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Olive from Olea europaea is native to the Mediterranean region and, both the oil and the fruit are some of the main components of the Mediterranean diet. The main active constituents of olive oil include oleic acid, phenolic constituents, and squalene. The main phenolic compounds, hydroxytyrosol and oleuropein, give extra-virgin olive oil its bitter, pungent taste. The present review focuses on recent works that have analyzed the relationship between the major phenolic compound oleuropein and its pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-cancer activities, antimicrobial activity, antiviral activity, hypolipidemic and hypoglycemic effect. PMID:21179340

  3. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations.

  4. Effect of olive storage conditions on Chemlali olive oil quality and the effective role of fatty acids alkyl esters in checking olive oils authenticity.

    PubMed

    Jabeur, Hazem; Zribi, Akram; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2015-02-15

    The present paper accounts for the study of the storage of Chemlali olive fruits at two conditions of limited aerobiosis: in closed plastic bags and in open perforated plastic boxes for different periods before oil extraction. The ultimate objective is to investigate the effect of the container type of the postharvest fruit storage on the deterioration of the olive oil quality. The results have shown that the oil quality of Chemlali olives deteriorated more rapidly during fruit storage in closed plastic bags than in perforated plastic boxes. Therefore, the use of perforated plastic boxes is recommended for keeping the olives for longer periods of storage. The repeated measures analysis of variance of all parameters analyzed indicated that the olive oil quality is mainly affected by the olives storage conditions (containers type and storage periods). Finally, blends of extra-virgin olive oil and mildly deodorized low-quality olive oils can be detected by their alkyl esters concentrations. PMID:25236229

  5. Outcomes of Unilateral Inferior Oblique Myectomy Surgery in Inferior Oblique Overaction Due to Superior Oblique Palsy

    PubMed Central

    Yumuşak, Erhan; Yolcu, Ümit; Küçükevcilioğlu, Murat; Diner, Oktay; Mutlu, Fatih Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To present the outcomes of unilateral inferior oblique myectomy performed in patients with inferior oblique overaction due to superior oblique palsy. Materials and Methods: Twenty-seven eyes of 27 patients that underwent inferior oblique myectomy surgery for superior oblique palsy between 2002 and 2008 were included. Inferior oblique overaction scores (between 0-4) at preoperative, early postoperative (within 1 week after surgery) and late postoperative (earliest 6 months) visits were reviewed. Results: There were 12 male and 15 female patients. Eighteen were operated on the right eye, and 9 were operated on the left eye. The mean age was 15.62±13.31 years, and the mean follow-up was 17±11.28 months (range, 6-60 months). Patients who had horizontal component and V-pattern deviation were excluded. Preoperative and early postoperative inferior oblique overaction scores were 2.55±0.75 and 0.14±0.36, respectively, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.01). This improvement was maintained up to the late postoperative period. Conclusion: Due to its promising short-term and long-term results, inferior oblique myectomy can be the first choice of surgery for inferior oblique overaction due to superior oblique palsy. PMID:27800253

  6. Olive oil biophenols and women's health.

    PubMed

    Fistonić, Ivan; Situm, Mirna; Bulat, Vedrana; Harapin, Mario; Fistonić, Nikola; Verbanac, Donatella

    2012-02-01

    Olea europea, the olive tree, is an ancient tree that originates from the Mediterranean environment of Asia Minor. The edible olive fruit is also used for its oil, gained by the process of pressing, a nutrient with proven beneficial effects. Virgin olive oil is the natural juice of the olive fruit, which plays a major role in the healthy Mediterranean diet. The source of its health effects are the biophenols and squalenes (oleocanthal, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, oleuropein) it contains. They provide an exceptional antioxidative activity, removing harmful compounds from the body. Oxidants are essential in the genesis of many diseases and conditions, such as cardiovascular disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, Alzheimer disease, and premenstrual syndrome. Oleic acid, an unsaturated fatty acid, has demonstrated a significant effect in the prevention of malignant diseases such as colon cancer and breast cancer. Biophenols from olive oil successfully suppress the synthesis of LDL, a protein that is crucial in the development of cardiovascular disease, by reducing blood pressure and the development of atherosclerotic plaques. In addition, there is strong evidence of the antimicrobic effect of the biphenols from olive oil that successfully destroy colonies of microorganisms which may cause respiratory tract, intestinal, and genital tract infections. PMID:22634935

  7. The Microbiology of Olive Mill Wastes

    PubMed Central

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependant. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  8. Main antimicrobial compounds in table olives.

    PubMed

    Medina, Eduardo; Brenes, Manuel; Romero, Concepción; García, Aranzazu; de Castro, Antonio

    2007-11-28

    The inhibitors involved in the lactic acid fermentation of table olives were investigated in aseptic olive brines of the Manzanilla and Gordal varieties. Phenolic and oleosidic compounds in these brines were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry detection, and several substances were also characterized by nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these compounds, the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid linked to hydroxytyrosol showed the strongest antilactic acid bacteria activity, and its presence in brines could explain the growth inhibition of these microorganisms during olive fermentation. However, it was found that the dialdehydic form of decarboxymethyl elenolic acid, identified for the first time in table olives, and an isomer of oleoside 11-methyl ester were also effective against Lactobacillus pentosus and can, therefore, contribute to the antimicrobial activity of olive brines. It must also be stressed that the three new inhibitors discovered in table olive brines exerted a more potent antibacterial activity than the well-studied oleuropein and hydroxytyrosol. PMID:17970590

  9. The microbiology of olive mill wastes.

    PubMed

    Ntougias, Spyridon; Bourtzis, Kostas; Tsiamis, George

    2013-01-01

    Olive mill wastes (OMWs) are high-strength organic effluents, which upon disposal can degrade soil and water quality, negatively affecting aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. The main purpose of this review paper is to provide an up-to-date knowledge concerning the microbial communities identified over the past 20 years in olive mill wastes using both culture-dependent and independent approaches. A database survey of 16S rRNA gene sequences (585 records in total) obtained from olive mill waste environments revealed the dominance of members of Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Independent studies confirmed that OMW microbial communities' structure is cultivar dependent. On the other hand, the detection of fecal bacteria and other potential human pathogens in OMWs is of major concern and deserves further examination. Despite the fact that the degradation and detoxification of the olive mill wastes have been mostly investigated through the application of known bacterial and fungal species originated from other environmental sources, the biotechnological potential of indigenous microbiota should be further exploited in respect to olive mill waste bioremediation and inactivation of plant and human pathogens. The implementation of omic and metagenomic approaches will further elucidate disposal issues of olive mill wastes. PMID:24199199

  10. Host Suitability of the Olive Cultivars Arbequina and Picual for Plant-Parasitic Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Nico, A. I.; Jiménez-Díaz, R. M.; Castillo, P.

    2003-01-01

    Host suitability of olive cultivars Arbequina and Picual to several plant-parasitic nematodes was studied under controlled conditions. Arbequina and Picual were not suitable hosts for the root-lesion nematodes Pratylenchus fallax, P. thornei, and Zygotylenchus guevarai. However, the ring nematode Mesocriconema xenoplax and the spiral nematodes Helicotylenchus digonicus and H. pseudorobustus reproduced on both olive cultivars. The potential of Meloidogyne arenaria race 2, M. incognita race 1, and M. javanica, as well as P. vulnus and P. penetrans to damage olive cultivars, was also assessed. Picual planting stocks infected by root-knot nematodes showed a distinct yellowing affecting the uppermost leaves, followed by a partial defoliation. Symptoms were more severe on M. arenaria and M. javanica-infected plants than on M. incognita-infected plants. Inoculation of plants with 15,000 eggs + second-stage juveniles/pot of these Meloidogyne spp. suppressed the main height of shoot and number of nodes of Arbequina, but not Picual. Infection by each of the two lesion nematodes (5,000 nematodes/pot) or by each of the three Meloidogyne spp. suppressed (P < 0.05) the main stem diameter of both cultivars. On Arbequina, the reproduction rate of Meloidogyne spp. was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Pratylenchus spp.; on Picual, Pratylenchus spp. reproduction was higher (P < 0.05) than that of Meloidogyne spp. PMID:19265971

  11. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  12. [Endodontic treatment of a periapical lesion causing root separation].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented of a periapical lesion of a rather large size, which produced an important separation of two inferior incisor roots. The root canal was treated, with calcium hydroxide overextending the apex. Clinic and radiographic control after two years complete reparation of the periapex.

  13. [Endodontic treatment of a periapical lesion causing root separation].

    PubMed

    Canalda Sahli, C

    1990-01-01

    A case is presented of a periapical lesion of a rather large size, which produced an important separation of two inferior incisor roots. The root canal was treated, with calcium hydroxide overextending the apex. Clinic and radiographic control after two years complete reparation of the periapex. PMID:2168734

  14. Multidirectional Instability Accompanying an Inferior Labral Cyst

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Jong-Hun; Kim, Sung-Jae

    2010-01-01

    Paralabral cyst of the shoulder joint can be observed in 2% to 4% of the general population, particularly in men during the third and fourth decade. On average, these cysts measure 10 mm to 20 mm in diameter and are located preferentially on the postero-superior aspect of the glenoid. The MRI has increased the frequency of the diagnosis of paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint. Paralabral cysts of the shoulder joint usually develop in the proximity of the labrum. The relationship between shoulder instability and labral tears is well known, however, the association of shoulder instability with a paralabral cyst is rare. Shoulder instability may cause labral injury or labral injury may cause shoulder instability, and then injured tear develops paralabral cyst. In our patient, the inferior paralabral cyst may be associated with inferior labral tears and instability MRI. PMID:20514270

  15. Spirorchiid Infection in Olive Ridley Turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Testudines: Cheloniidae), from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Jerdy, H; Ribeiro, R B; Silva, M A; Medina, R M; Werneck, M R; Carvalho, E C Q

    2016-04-01

    The Olive Ridley turtle, Lepidochelys olivacea (Eschscholtz, 1829) (Testudines: Cheloniidae), is 1 of the 5 species of sea turtle found along the coast of Brazil. Little is known regarding infection by species of the family Spirorchiidae in the host, as only 1 report exists. This case report describes granulomas in different tissues associated to type 1 and 3 spirorchiid eggs in 5 L. olivacea from the Brazilian coast. The occurrence of the eggs was considered an incidental finding and may have contributed to the debility and death of the hosts. This is the second report of tissue lesions due to spirorchids eggs in this host and the first occurrence in Olive Ridley turtle from the Brazilian coast. PMID:26653792

  16. Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Straight on view of northeast side of Olive Switching Station from north side of San Fernando Road facing southwest - Olive Switching Station, 13355 San Fernando Road, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. Obtainment and characterization of a potential functional ingredient from olive.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Díaz-Rubio, M Elena; Saura-Calixto, Fulgencio

    2015-01-01

    Current olive oil production methods generate huge amounts of polluting waste, containing most of the health-related compounds in olive. Here, a new product is obtained from olive after pitting, drying and oil extraction, without generating waste. Its characterization showed the presence, within a single matrix, of more than 90% of the polyphenols present in olive, including hydroyxtyrosols (commonly not transferred to olive oil), dietary fiber, oleic acid and polyalcohols. This product is a potential new functional ingredient, consumption of which may lead to additive and/or synergic activities among its constituents; some of which already have approved health claims. Additionally, the olive oil obtained exhibits profiles of fatty acids and phenolic compounds similar to those of commercial olive oil. The procurement of this potential functional ingredient may represent a new approach to the revalorization of olive that additionally decreases waste.

  18. Anterior-inferior shoulder instability: treatment based on the Thal method.

    PubMed

    Russo, R; Giudice, G; Ciccarelli, M; Vernaglia Lombardi, L; Cautiero, F

    2005-01-01

    Purpose of this study is to analyze the results of a consecutive series of 139 patients affected with anterior-inferior shoulder instability and treated by arthroscopic capsuloplasty using the Thal method with absorbable and non-absorbable Mitek knotless anchors. Much attention was paid to the preoperative and intraoperative selection of patients, excluding from the arthroscopic procedure those with bony Bankart lesions measuring more than 25%, with an inverted-pear glenoid, with engaged Hill-Sachs lesions and patients with HAGL lesions. Pre- and postoperative clinical evaluation was carried out using the Rowe scale. Scores rose from 45-55 to 96 postoperatively. Intra-articular mobilization of the anchors did not occur and peri-metallic lysis was not manifested. Areas of bone resorption were observed in 7 cases (7/38, 18.4%) with the presence of peri-insertional geodes with biological anchors, but this had no effect on the clinical results.

  19. Maxillary antral lavage using inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia.

    PubMed

    Mochloulis, G; Hern, J D; Hollis, L J; Tolley, N S

    1996-08-01

    Antral puncture and lavage through the inferior meatus is a minor but common otolaryngological procedure, usually performed under local anaesthesia. We describe a new method of introducing local anaesthetic into the inferior meatus, via the use of a soft intravenous cannula connected to a syringe containing 10 per cent cocaine paste. We have called this new technique inferior meatal cannula anaesthesia (IMCA).

  20. Bioactive properties of the main triterpenes found in olives, virgin olive oil, and leaves of Olea europaea.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Quesada, Cristina; López-Biedma, Alicia; Warleta, Fernando; Campos, María; Beltrán, Gabriel; Gaforio, José J

    2013-12-18

    Oleanolic acid, maslinic acid, uvaol, and erythrodiol are the main triterpenes present in olives, olive tree leaves, and virgin olive oil. Their concentration in virgin olive oil depends on the quality of the olive oil and the variety of the olive tree. These triterpenes are described to present different properties, such as antitumoral activity, cardioprotective activity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antioxidant protection. Olive oil triterpenes are a natural source of antioxidants that could be useful compounds for the prevention of multiple diseases related to cell oxidative damage. However, special attention has to be paid to the concentrations used, because higher concentration may lead to cytotoxic or biphasic effects. This work explores all of the bioactive properties so far described for the main triterpenes present in virgin olive oil.

  1. Effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on chemical, oxidative and sensorial quality of marinated anchovy.

    PubMed

    Topuz, Osman Kadir; Yerlikaya, Pinar; Ucak, Ilknur; Gumus, Bahar; Büyükbenli, Hanife Aydan

    2014-07-01

    This study describes the potential use of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces as antioxidant, preservative and flavoring agent in fish marinades. The olive oil and sauces, produced from emulsifying of olive oil and pomegranate juice with gums, were blended with marinated anchovy (Engraulis encrasicholus) fillets. The aim of the present study was to produce a new polyphenol-rich marinade sauces by emulsifying pomegranate juice with olive oil in different proportions (25%, 35% and 50%v:v). In order to evaluate the effects of olive oil and olive oil-pomegranate juice sauces on quality of anchovy marinades, the chemical (TVB-N and TMA), oxidative (peroxides value, K230, thiobarbituric acid and K270) and sensory analyses were carried out during storage at 4°C. The present study showed that saucing of anchovy marinades with olive oil-pomegranate sauce can retard the undesirable quality changes, prolong the lipid oxidation and improve the sensory properties.

  2. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-29

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source.

  3. Olive Oil and the Hallmarks of Aging.

    PubMed

    Fernández del Río, Lucía; Gutiérrez-Casado, Elena; Varela-López, Alfonso; Villalba, José M

    2016-01-01

    Aging is a multifactorial and tissue-specific process involving diverse alterations regarded as the "hallmarks of aging", which include genomic instability, telomere attrition, epigenetic alterations, loss of proteostasis, deregulated nutrient sensing, mitochondrial dysfunction, cellular senescence, stem cell exhaustion and altered intracellular communication. Virtually all these hallmarks are targeted by dietary olive oil, particularly by virgin olive oil, since many of its beneficial effects can be accounted not only for the monounsaturated nature of its predominant fatty acid (oleic acid), but also for the bioactivity of its minor compounds, which can act on cells though both direct and indirect mechanisms due to their ability to modulate gene expression. Among the minor constituents of virgin olive oil, secoiridoids stand out for their capacity to modulate many pathways that are relevant for the aging process. Attenuation of aging-related alterations by olive oil or its minor compounds has been observed in cellular, animal and human models. How olive oil targets the hallmarks of aging could explain the improvement of health, reduced risk of aging-associated diseases, and increased longevity which have been associated with consumption of a typical Mediterranean diet containing this edible oil as the predominant fat source. PMID:26840281

  4. Isothermal microwave and microwave-convection drying of olive pomace

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive pomace is the residue produced when olives are pressed for oil. Valuable polyphenolic compounds can be extracted from olive pomace, but this material is more than 60% water (wet basis) and thus costly to transport and process in its original, wet form. The objective of this study was thus to ...

  5. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... to olives imported for charitable organizations or processing for oil, but shall be subject to the... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Olive Regulation 1. 944.401 Section...

  6. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  7. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  8. 75 FR 9536 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-03

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased... increase the assessment rate established for the California Olive Committee (Committee) for the 2010 and subsequent fiscal years from $28.63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee...

  9. 7 CFR 52.3756 - Grades of canned ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grades of canned ripe olives. 52.3756 Section 52.3756... PROCESSED FOOD PRODUCTS 1 United States Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives 1 Product Description, Types, Styles, and Grades § 52.3756 Grades of canned ripe olives. (a) U.S. Grade A is the quality...

  10. Inferior sinus venosus defects: anatomic features and echocardiographic correlates.

    PubMed

    Plymale, Jennifer; Kolinski, Kellen; Frommelt, Peter; Bartz, Peter; Tweddell, James; Earing, Michael G

    2013-02-01

    Inferior sinus venosus defects (SVDs) are rare imperfections located in the inferior portion of the atrial septum, leading to an overriding inferior vena cava (IVC) and an interatrial connection. These defects have increased risk of anomalous pulmonary venous return (PAPVR) and often are confused with secundum atrial septal defects (ASDs) with inferior extension. The authors sought to review their experience with inferior SVDs and to establish at their institution an echocardiographic definition that differentiates inferior SVDs from secundum ASDs with inferior extension. The study identified 161 patients 1.5 to 32 years of age who had undergone repair of a secundum ASD with inferior extension or inferior SVD over the preceding 10 years. All surgical notes, preoperative transthoracic echocardiograms (TTEs), and preoperative transesophageal echocardiograms (TEEs) were reviewed. Based on the surgical notes, 147 patients were classified as having a secundum ASD (147/161, 91 %) and 14 patients (9 %) as having an inferior SVD. The study identified PAPVR in 7 % (1/14) of the patients with inferior SVDs and 3.5 % (5/14) of the patients with secundum ASDs. Surgical diagnosis and preoperative TTE correlated for 143 (89 %) of the 161 patients. Using a strict anatomic and echocardiographic definition with a blinded observer, the majority of the defects (14/18, 78 %) were reclassified correctly after review of their TTE images, and 100 % of the defects were correctly reclassified after TEE image review. Accurate diagnosis of inferior SVDs remains challenging. The data from this study demonstrate that use of a strict anatomic and echocardiographic definition (a defect that originates in the mouth of the IVC and continues into the inferoposterior border of the left atrium, leaving no residual atrial septal tissue at the inferior margin) allows for accurate differentiation between secundum ASDs with inferior extension and inferior SVDs. This differentiation is extremely important

  11. [Elevated gastric lesions].

    PubMed

    de Careaga, B; Villagómez, G; Pabón, J; Calderón, O; Elío, D; Pérez, J; Martínez, M; Patiño, F; Ponce, R; Lora, J

    1986-01-01

    Elevated gastric lesions, represent an important group among gastric pathology. To establish its incidence in our experience, we studied the endoscopic reports of two important hospitals in La Paz city: Instituto de Gastroenterología Boliviano Japonés and Hospital Obrero No. 1. In order to make a good endoscopic diagnosis among different elevated lesions we use some parameters like: location, shape, size, diameter, surface of the lesion and surrounding mucosa and characteristics of the falls. 10.472 endoscopic reports were reviewed, 497 elevated gastric lesions were found, 475 corresponded to mucosal lesions (352 benign lesions and 123 malignant lesions), 11 to submucosal and 11 extragastric lesions.

  12. Obituary: John P. Oliver (1939-2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, Howard

    2011-12-01

    John P. Oliver, an emeritus professor of astronomy at the University of Florida in Gainesville, passed away Thursday, February 10, 2011, after a courageous and long battle with renal cancer. He left behind memories of a life and career to envy. During his forty years of service to his profession and department, this unique astronomer distinguished himself as a research scientist and instrumentalist, creative software designer, gifted teacher and speaker, a vocal advocate of public outreach, and friend to all who knew him. Oliver was born in New Rochelle, New York, during late fall 1939 on November 24. His father, James P. Oliver, was a naval officer and his mother was the former Dorothy Armstrong Cambell. Oliver's early days were spent in various cities due to his father's military life but he eventually received a high school diploma from Princess Ann High School in Virginia. Oliver subsequently graduated with a bachelor of science degree in physics in 1963 from the prestigious Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy. Lick Observatory awarded him a graduate assistantship so he moved west to California where he met and, on November 2, 1963, married Barbara Kay McKenna, who became his lifelong love and partner. In California Oliver had the good fortune to work with several eminent astronomers. This included Albert E. Whifford, director of Lick Observatory and known for his work on interstellar reddening, and Merle F. Walker, an expert in photometry, who also helped establish Pluto's rotation period. His close relation with Lawrence H. Aller, one of the 20th century's memorable astronomers, known for his ability to combine observation, theory and education, and for his care and kindness, helped bind Oliver and astronomy together for life. Oliver would also join the technical staff of the Aerospace Corporation, become an acting director of the Pine Mountain Observatory (University of Oregon), and a research assistant at the University of California in Los Angeles

  13. Inferior alveolar and lingual nerve imaging.

    PubMed

    Miloro, Michael; Kolokythas, Antonia

    2011-03-01

    At present, there are no objective testing modalities available for evaluation of iatrogenic injury to the terminal branches of the trigeminal nerve, making such clinical diagnosis and management complicated for the oral and maxillofacial surgeon. Several imaging modalities can assist in the preoperative risk assessment of the trigeminal nerve as related to commonly performed procedures in the vicinity of the nerve, mostly third molar surgery. This article provides a review of all available imaging modalities and their clinical application relative to preoperative injury risk assessment of the inferior alveolar nerve and lingual nerve, and postinjury and postsurgical repair recovery status.

  14. Mesoaortic entrapment of a left inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ashish; Naik, Nitish; Gulati, Gurpreet Singh

    2010-02-01

    A persistent left inferior vena cava (IVC) is a rare anomaly, with a reported incidence of only 0.2-0.5%. When present, it courses between the superior mesenteric artery and the aorta to continue as the right IVC, similar to the course of a left renal vein (LRV). This anomaly is usually asymptomatic, but there may be vague abdominal complaints if the IVC is compressed in the mesoaortic angle. Although symptomatic compression of the LRV (anterior nutcracker syndrome) is well recognized, there has been only one report in the literature of a similar compression of a persistent left IVC. Because of its rarity, this anomaly may be missed or mistaken for other conditions on imaging. An accurate diagnosis is crucial as the presence of this anomaly may have implications for surgical treatment of aortic lesions or placement of an IVC filter. Magnetic resonance angiography and, more recently, multidetector computed tomography scan, can provide an exquisite three-dimensional demonstration of vascular abnormalities.

  15. Combustion Analysis of Different Olive Residues

    PubMed Central

    Miranda, Teresa; Esteban, Alberto; Rojas, Sebastián; Montero, Irene; Ruiz, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    The Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA) techniques and concretely the study of the burning profile provide information that can be used to estimate the behaviour of the combustion of carbonous materials. Commonly, these techniques have been used for the study of carbons, but are also interesting for the analysis of biomass wastes, due to the different species present on the wastes affect directly to its thermal properties. In this work, techniques of thermal analysis have been applied to compare the behaviour of different wastes coming from olive oil mills. From these results, it is remarkable that the Concentrated Olive Mill Waste Water (COMWW) presents more unfavourable conditions for its combustion. PMID:19325766

  16. Olive Fruit Phenols Transfer, Transformation, and Partition Trail during Laboratory-Scale Olive Oil Processing.

    PubMed

    Jerman Klen, Tina; Golc Wondra, Alenka; Vrhovšek, Urška; Sivilotti, Paolo; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-05-13

    This work is the most comprehensive study on the quantitative behavior of olive fruit phenols during olive oil processing, providing insight into their transfer, transformation, and partition trail. In total, 69 phenols were quantified in 6 olive matrices from a three-phase extraction line employing ultra high pressure liquid chromatography-diode array detection analysis. Crushing had a larger effect than malaxation in terms of phenolic degradation and transformation, resulting in several new evolutions of respective derivatives. The peel and pulp together confined 95% of total fruit phenols, while stone only 5%. However, only 0.53% of all ended-up in olive oil, nearly 6% in wastewater, and 48% in pomace. Secoiridoids were the predominant class in all matrices, though represented by different individuals. Their partition behavior was rather similar to other phenolic classes, where with few minor exceptions only aglycones were partitioned to the oil, while other glycosides were lost with the wastes.

  17. Characterization of Virgin Olive Oils with Two Kinds of 'Frostbitten Olives' Sensory Defect.

    PubMed

    Romero, Inmaculada; Aparicio-Ruiz, Ramón; Oliver-Pozo, Celia; Aparicio, Ramón; García-González, Diego L

    2016-07-13

    The frost of olives on the tree due to drops of temperature can produce sensory defects in virgin olive oil (VOO). Temperature changes can be abrupt with freeze-thaw cycles or gradual, and they produce sensory and chemical variations in the oil. This study has analyzed the quality parameters (free fatty acids, peroxide value, UV absorption, and fatty acid ethyl esters) and phenols of VOOs described with the 'frostbitten olives' sensory defect. The phenol profiles allowed grouping these VOOs into two types. One of them, characterized with "soapy" and "strawberry-like" aroma descriptors, had higher values of 1-acetoxypinoresinol, pinoresinol, and aldehydic form of the ligstroside aglycon. The other one, characterized with "wood" and "humidity" descriptors, had higher concentrations of luteolin and apigenin. Most VOOs (75%) from the first group, associated with abrupt drops of temperature, have concentration of phenols higher than the value established by the health claim on olive oil polyphenols approved by the European Commission. PMID:27315238

  18. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing

    PubMed Central

    Puerto, Daniel Aguilera; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  19. Sorting Olive Batches for the Milling Process Using Image Processing.

    PubMed

    Aguilera Puerto, Daniel; Martínez Gila, Diego Manuel; Gámez García, Javier; Gómez Ortega, Juan

    2015-01-01

    The quality of virgin olive oil obtained in the milling process is directly bound to the characteristics of the olives. Hence, the correct classification of the different incoming olive batches is crucial to reach the maximum quality of the oil. The aim of this work is to provide an automatic inspection system, based on computer vision, and to classify automatically different batches of olives entering the milling process. The classification is based on the differentiation between ground and tree olives. For this purpose, three different species have been studied (Picudo, Picual and Hojiblanco). The samples have been obtained by picking the olives directly from the tree or from the ground. The feature vector of the samples has been obtained on the basis of the olive image histograms. Moreover, different image preprocessing has been employed, and two classification techniques have been used: these are discriminant analysis and neural networks. The proposed methodology has been validated successfully, obtaining good classification results. PMID:26147729

  20. Potential for biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp.

    PubMed

    Gavala, H N; Skiadas, I V; Ahring, B K; Lyberatos, G

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigates the potential for thermophilic biohydrogen and methane production from olive pulp, which is the semi-solid residue coming from the two-phase processing of olives. It focussed on: a) production of methane from the raw olive pulp, b) anaerobic bio-production of hydrogen from the olive pulp, and c) subsequent anaerobic treatment of the hydrogen-effluent with the simultaneous production of methane. Both continuous and batch experiments were performed. The hydrogen potential of the olive pulp amounted to 1.6 mmole H2 per g TS. The methane potential of the raw olive pulp and hydrogen-effluent was as high as 19 mmole CH4 per g TS. This suggests that olive pulp is an ideal substrate for methane production and it shows that biohydrogen production can be very efficiently coupled with a subsequent step for methane production.

  1. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/.

  2. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability

    PubMed Central

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/ PMID:26827236

  3. OGDD (Olive Genetic Diversity Database): a microsatellite markers' genotypes database of worldwide olive trees for cultivar identification and virgin olive oil traceability.

    PubMed

    Ben Ayed, Rayda; Ben Hassen, Hanen; Ennouri, Karim; Ben Marzoug, Riadh; Rebai, Ahmed

    2016-01-01

    Olive (Olea europaea), whose importance is mainly due to nutritional and health features, is one of the most economically significant oil-producing trees in the Mediterranean region. Unfortunately, the increasing market demand towards virgin olive oil could often result in its adulteration with less expensive oils, which is a serious problem for the public and quality control evaluators of virgin olive oil. Therefore, to avoid frauds, olive cultivar identification and virgin olive oil authentication have become a major issue for the producers and consumers of quality control in the olive chain. Presently, genetic traceability using SSR is the cost effective and powerful marker technique that can be employed to resolve such problems. However, to identify an unknown monovarietal virgin olive oil cultivar, a reference system has become necessary. Thus, an Olive Genetic Diversity Database (OGDD) (http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/) is presented in this work. It is a genetic, morphologic and chemical database of worldwide olive tree and oil having a double function. In fact, besides being a reference system generated for the identification of unkown olive or virgin olive oil cultivars based on their microsatellite allele size(s), it provides users additional morphological and chemical information for each identified cultivar. Currently, OGDD is designed to enable users to easily retrieve and visualize biologically important information (SSR markers, and olive tree and oil characteristics of about 200 cultivars worldwide) using a set of efficient query interfaces and analysis tools. It can be accessed through a web service from any modern programming language using a simple hypertext transfer protocol call. The web site is implemented in java, JavaScript, PHP, HTML and Apache with all major browsers supported. Database URL: http://www.bioinfo-cbs.org/ogdd/. PMID:26827236

  4. Philasterides dicentrarchi, a histophagous ciliate causing scuticociliatosis in olive flounder, Philasterides dicentrarchi--histopathology investigations.

    PubMed

    Harikrishnan, Ramasamy; Jin, Chang-Nam; Kim, Ju-Sang; Balasundaram, Chellam; Heo, Moon-Soo

    2012-03-01

    Philasterides dicentrarchi is a histophagous scuticociliate infecting Korean olive flounder farms in Jeju Island, South Korea, where it causes significant economic losses. However, the route of entry of these parasites in olive flounder is currently unknown. In the present study, we attempted experimental infection with different doses (concentrations) of P. dicentrarchi by intraperitoneal (IP) injection; maximum cumulative mortality of 95% was recorded on the administration of 2.1×10(8) ciliates/ml. In small size group (3 cm length, 24±2 gwt) the ciliates were found in connective tissues of muscle, fins, and nervous tissue while in large size group (5 cm length, 47±3 gwt), the ciliates were predominantly occurred with associated symptoms of liquefaction in the central nervous system. The major clinico-pathological manifestations were loss of scales, appearance of bleached spots that coalesced to form brownish patches, hemorrhagic, and severe dermal necrotic lesion. In addition there was degeneration of muscle fibers, necrosis of the hepatic parenchyma, and severe edema of the intestinal walls, extensive fouling, necrotic degeneration and hyperplasia in the gill bronchial epithelium. In this study, many ciliates were found in the blood vessel, brain, dorsal fins, muscle, kidney, and vertebra of infected flounder. The histopathological investigations are of significant importance in view of possible routes of entry into the host and doses of ciliates that trigger fast infection for potential utility of drugs as a strategy for the control of P. dicentrarchi in farmed olive flounder.

  5. The Making of a Special "Oliver!"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beall, Lee

    1985-01-01

    How trainable mentally handicapped high school students very successfully adapted Charles Dickens's novel "Oliver Twist" into a musical play is described. The project, which involved the entire school as well as the community, shows that handicapped people are capable of artistic endeavors and growth when given the proper environment. (RM)

  6. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  7. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  8. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  9. 7 CFR 932.109 - Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. 932.109... OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.109 Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type. (a) Canned ripe olives of the tree-ripened type means packaged olives, not oxidized in...

  10. Modeling olive-crop forecasting in Tunisia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Dhiab, Ali; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Oteros, Jose; Garcia-Mozo, Herminia; Domínguez-Vilches, Eugenio; Galán, Carmen; Abichou, Mounir; Msallem, Monji

    2016-01-01

    Tunisia is the world's second largest olive oil-producing region after the European Union. This paper reports on the use of models to forecast local olive crops, using data for Tunisia's five main olive-producing areas: Mornag, Jemmel, Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis. Airborne pollen counts were monitored over the period 1993-2011 using a Cour trap. Forecasting models were constructed using agricultural data (harvest size in tonnes of fruit/year) and data for several weather-related and phenoclimatic variables (rainfall, humidity, temperature, Growing Degree Days, and Chilling). Analysis of these data revealed that the amount of airborne pollen emitted over the pollen season as a whole (i.e., the Pollen Index) was the variable most influencing harvest size. Findings for all local models also indicated that the amount, timing, and distribution of rainfall (except during blooming) had a positive impact on final olive harvests. Air temperature also influenced final crop yield in three study provinces (Menzel Mhiri, Chaal, and Zarzis), but with varying consequences: in the model constructed for Chaal, cumulative maximum temperature from budbreak to start of flowering contributed positively to yield; in the Menzel Mhiri model, cumulative average temperatures during fruit development had a positive impact on output; in Zarzis, by contrast, cumulative maximum temperature during the period prior to flowering negatively influenced final crop yield. Data for agricultural and phenoclimatic variables can be used to construct valid models to predict annual variability in local olive-crop yields; here, models displayed an accuracy of 98, 93, 92, 91, and 88 % for Zarzis, Mornag, Jemmel, Chaal, and Menzel Mhiri, respectively.

  11. The vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for reconstruction of the inferior alveolar nerve defect.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kenji; Hiroto, Saijo; Morooka, Shin; Kuwabara, Kaoru; Fujioka, Masaki

    2015-03-01

    The sural nerve has been described for nerve reconstruction of the maxillofacial region since it provides many advantages. We report a case of a vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator for immediate reconstruction after the removal of intraosseous neuroma originating in the inferior alveolar nerve. The patient had a neuroma caused by iatrogenic injury to the inferior alveolar nerve. A 4-cm long neuroma existed in the inferior alveolar nerve and was resected. A peroneal perforator was chosen as the pedicle of the vascularized sural nerve graft for the nerve gap. The graft including the skin paddle for monitoring the perfusion supplied by this perforator was transferred to the lesion. The nerve gap between the two stumps of the inferior alveolar nerve was repaired using the 6-cm long vascularized sural nerve. The perforator of the peroneal artery was anastomosed to the branch of the facial artery in a perforator-to-perforator fashion. There was no need to sacrifice any main arteries. The skin paddle with 1 cm × 3 cm in size was inset into the incised medial neck. Perceptual function tests with a Semmes-Weinstein pressure esthesiometer and two-point discrimination in the lower lip and chin at 10 months after surgery showed recovery almost to the level of the normal side. This free vascularized sural nerve graft based on a peroneal artery perforator may be a good alternative for reconstruction of inferior alveolar nerve defects. PMID:25346479

  12. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Yogesh Ashok; Gladwin, V; Chand, Parkash

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures. PMID:27630832

  13. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Gladwin, V.; Chand, Parkash

    2016-01-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures. PMID:27630832

  14. Total laparoscopic retrieval of inferior vena cava filter

    PubMed Central

    Benrashid, Ehsan; Adkar, Shaunak Sanjay; Bennett, Kyla Megan; Zani, Sabino

    2015-01-01

    While there is some local variability in the use of inferior vena cava filters and there has been some evolution in the indications for filter placement over time, inferior vena cava filters remain a standard option for pulmonary embolism prophylaxis. Indications are clear in certain subpopulations of patients, particularly those with deep venous thrombosis and absolute contraindications to anticoagulation. There are, however, a variety of reported inferior vena cava filter complications in the short and long term, making retrieval of the filter desirable in most cases. Here, we present the case of a morbidly obese patient complaining of chronic abdominal pain after inferior vena cava filter placement and malposition of the filter with extensive protrusion outside the inferior vena cava. She underwent successful laparoscopic retrieval of her malpositioned inferior vena cava filters after failure of a conventional endovascular approach. PMID:27489697

  15. Olive leaf extract inhibits lead poisoning-induced brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Wang, Shengqing; Cui, Wenhui; He, Jiujun; Wang, Zhenfu; Yang, Xiaolu

    2013-01-01

    Olive leaves have an antioxidant capacity, and olive leaf extract can protect the blood, spleen and hippocampus in lead-poisoned mice. However, little is known about the effects of olive leaf extract on lead-induced brain injury. This study was designed to determine whether olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury, and whether this effect is associated with antioxidant capacity. First, we established a mouse model of lead poisoning by continuous intragastric administration of lead acetate for 30 days. Two hours after successful model establishment, lead-poisoned mice were given olive leaf extract at doses of 250, 500 or 1 000 mg/kg daily by intragastric administration for 50 days. Under the transmission electron microscope, olive leaf extract attenuated neuronal and capillary injury and reduced damage to organelles and the matrix around the capillaries in the frontal lobe of the cerebral cortex in the lead-poisoned mice. Olive leaf extract at a dose of 1 000 mg/kg had the greatest protective effect. Spectrophotometry showed that olive leaf extract significantly increased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, alkaline phosphatase and acid phosphatase, while it reduced malondialdehyde content, in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, immunohistochemical staining revealed that olive leaf extract dose-dependently decreased Bax protein expression in the cerebral cortex of lead-poisoned mice. Our findings indicate that olive leaf extract can inhibit lead-induced brain injury by increasing antioxidant capacity and reducing apoptosis. PMID:25206510

  16. Centennial olive trees as a reservoir of genetic diversity

    PubMed Central

    Díez, Concepción M.; Trujillo, Isabel; Barrio, Eladio; Belaj, Angjelina; Barranco, Diego; Rallo, Luis

    2011-01-01

    Background and Aims Genetic characterization and phylogenetic analysis of the oldest trees could be a powerful tool both for germplasm collection and for understanding the earliest origins of clonally propagated fruit crops. The olive tree (Olea europaea L.) is a suitable model to study the origin of cultivars due to its long lifespan, resulting in the existence of both centennial and millennial trees across the Mediterranean Basin. Methods The genetic identity and diversity as well as the phylogenetic relationships among the oldest wild and cultivated olives of southern Spain were evaluated by analysing simple sequence repeat markers. Samples from both the canopy and the roots of each tree were analysed to distinguish which trees were self-rooted and which were grafted. The ancient olives were also put into chronological order to infer the antiquity of traditional olive cultivars. Key Results Only 9·6 % out of 104 a priori cultivated ancient genotypes matched current olive cultivars. The percentage of unidentified genotypes was higher among the oldest olives, which could be because they belong to ancient unknown cultivars or because of possible intra-cultivar variability. Comparing the observed patterns of genetic variation made it possible to distinguish which trees were grafted onto putative wild olives. Conclusions This study of ancient olives has been fruitful both for germplasm collection and for enlarging our knowledge about olive domestication. The findings suggest that grafting pre-existing wild olives with olive cultivars was linked to the beginnings of olive growing. Additionally, the low number of genotypes identified in current cultivars points out that the ancient olives from southern Spain constitute a priceless reservoir of genetic diversity. PMID:21852276

  17. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing. PMID:25352157

  18. Where language meets meaningful action: a combined behavior and lesion analysis of aphasia and apraxia.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Peter H; Ubben, Simon D; Kaesberg, Stephanie; Kalbe, Elke; Kessler, Josef; Liebig, Thomas; Fink, Gereon R

    2016-01-01

    It is debated how language and praxis are co-represented in the left hemisphere (LH). As voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping in LH stroke patients with aphasia and/or apraxia may contribute to this debate, we here investigated the relationship between language and praxis deficits at the behavioral and lesion levels in 50 sub-acute stroke patients. We hypothesized that language and (meaningful) action are linked via semantic processing in Broca's region. Behaviorally, half of the patients suffered from co-morbid aphasia and apraxia. While 24% (n = 12) of all patients exhibited aphasia without apraxia, apraxia without aphasia was rare (n = 2, 4%). Left inferior frontal, insular, inferior parietal, and superior temporal lesions were specifically associated with deficits in naming, reading, writing, or auditory comprehension. In contrast, lesions affecting the left inferior frontal gyrus, premotor cortex, and the central region as well as the inferior parietal lobe were associated with apraxic deficits (i.e., pantomime, imitation of meaningful and meaningless gestures). Thus, contrary to the predictions of the embodied cognition theory, lesions to sensorimotor and premotor areas were associated with the severity of praxis but not language deficits. Lesions of Brodmann area (BA) 44 led to combined apraxic and aphasic deficits. Data suggest that BA 44 acts as an interface between language and (meaningful) action thereby supporting parcellation schemes (based on connectivity and receptor mapping) which revealed a BA 44 sub-area involved in semantic processing.

  19. An anomalous muscle linking superior and inferior rectus muscles in the orbit.

    PubMed

    Kakizaki, Hirohiko; Zako, Masahiro; Nakano, Takashi; Asamoto, Ken; Miyaishi, Osamu; Iwaki, Masayoshi

    2006-09-01

    Dissections of the bilateral orbits in a 45-year-old female cadaver, who had no ocular movement disorders in her lifetime, revealed anomalous muscles linking the superior and inferior rectus muscles. The muscles, situated between the optic nerve and the lateral rectus muscle, originated from the annulus of Zinn and branched off two heads; one inserted into the medial inferior side of the superior rectus muscle and the other inserted into the central superior side of the inferior rectus muscle. Each insertion was located on a distal site of the myoneural junction of each rectus muscle. Histological investigations showed that the muscles had a striated muscle structure. No definite nerve insertion was observed in the muscles. Although this type of anomalous muscle has been reported in a few Caucasian cases, the present study is the first report in an Asian person. Anomalous orbital structures, which are a rare cause of strabismus, are important in the differential diagnosis of intra-orbital space-occupying lesions, rather than the differential diagnosis of strabismus.

  20. Dynamic diaschisis: anatomically remote and context-sensitive human brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Price, C J; Warburton, E A; Moore, C J; Frackowiak, R S; Friston, K J

    2001-05-15

    Functional neuroimaging was used to investigate how lesions to the Broca's area impair neuronal responses in remote undamaged cortical regions. Four patients with speech output problems, but relatively preserved comprehension, were scanned while viewing words relative to consonant letter strings. In normal subjects, this results in left lateralized activation in the posterior inferior frontal, middle temporal, and posterior inferior temporal cortices. Each patient activated normally in the middle temporal region but abnormally in the damaged posterior inferior frontal cortex and the undamaged posterior inferior temporal cortex. In the damaged frontal region, activity was insensitive to the presence of words but in the undamaged posterior inferior temporal region, activity decreased in the presence of words rather than increasing as it did in the normal individuals. The reversal of responses in the left posterior inferior temporal region illustrate the context-sensitive nature of the abnormality and that failure to activate the left posterior temporal region could not simply be accounted for by insufficient demands on the underlying function. We propose that, in normal individuals, visual word presentation changes the effective connectivity among reading areas and, in patients, posterior temporal responses are abnormal when they depend upon inputs from the damaged inferior frontal cortex. Our results serve to introduce the concept of dynamic diaschisis; the anatomically remote and context-sensitive effects of focal brain lesions. Dynamic diaschisis reveals abnormalities of functional integration that may have profound implications for neuropsychological inference, functional anatomy and, vicariously, cognitive rehabilitation.

  1. Benign breast lesions: Ultrasound

    PubMed Central

    Masciadri, N.; Ferranti, C.

    2011-01-01

    Benign breast diseases constitute a heterogeneous group of lesions arising in the mammary epithelium or in other mammary tissues, and they may also be linked to vascular, inflammatory or traumatic pathologies. Most lesions found in women consulting a physician are benign. Ultrasound (US) diagnostic criteria indicating a benign lesion are described as well as US findings in the most frequent benign breast lesions. PMID:23396888

  2. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils.

  3. Characterization of filamentous fungi isolated from Moroccan olive and olive cake: toxinogenic potential of Aspergillus strains.

    PubMed

    Roussos, Sevastianos; Zaouia, Nabila; Salih, Ghislane; Tantaoui-Elaraki, Abdelrhafour; Lamrani, Khadija; Cheheb, Mostafa; Hassouni, Hicham; Verhé, Fréderic; Perraud-Gaime, Isabelle; Augur, Christopher; Ismaili-Alaoui, Mustapha

    2006-05-01

    During the 2003 and 2004 olive oil production campaigns in Morocco, 136 samples from spoiled olive and olive cake were analyzed and 285 strains were isolated in pure culture. Strains included 167 mesophilic strains belonging to ten genera: Penicillium, Aspergillus, Geotrichum, Mucor, Rhizopus, Trichoderma, Alternaria, Acremonium, Humicola, Ulocladium as well as 118 thermophilic strains isolated in 2003 and 2004, mainly belonging to six species: Aspergillus fumigatus, Paecilomyces variotii, Mucor pusillus, Thermomyces lanuginosus, Humicola grisea, and Thermoascus aurantiacus. Penicillium and Aspergillus, respectively, 32.3 and 26.9% of total isolates represented the majority of mesophilic fungi isolated. When considering total strains (including thermotolerant strains) Aspergillus were the predominant strains isolated; follow-up studies on mycotoxins therefore focused primarily on aflatoxins (AFs) and ochratoxin A (OTA) from the latter strains. All isolated Aspergillus flavus strains (9) and Aspergillus niger strains (36) were studied in order to evaluate their capacity to produce AFs and OTA, respectively, when grown on starch-based culture media. Seven of the nine tested A. flavus strains isolated from olive and olive cake produced AF B1 at concentrations between 48 and 95 microg/kg of dry rice weight. As for the A. niger strains, 27 of the 36 strains produced OTA.

  4. Combination of Fenton oxidation and composting for the treatment of the olive solid residue and the olive mile wastewater from the olive oil industry in Cyprus.

    PubMed

    Zorpas, Antonis A; Costa, Costa N

    2010-10-01

    Co-composting of olive oil solid residue (OOSR) and treated wastewaters (with Fenton) from the olive oil production process has been studied as an alternative method for the treatment of wastewater containing high organic and toxic pollutants in small olive oil industry in Cyprus. The experimental results indicated that the olive mill wastewater (OMW) is detoxified at the end of Fenton Process and the COD is reduced up to 70%. The final co-composted material of OOSR with the treated olive mile wastewater (TOMW) is presented with optimum characteristics and is suitable for agricultural purpose. The final product coming out from an in-Vessel reactor seems to mature faster than the product from the windrow system and is presented with a better soil conditioner. PMID:20627547

  5. Example based lesion segmentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2014-03-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer's disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  6. Example Based Lesion Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Snehashis; He, Qing; Carass, Aaron; Jog, Amod; Cuzzocreo, Jennifer L.; Reich, Daniel S.; Prince, Jerry; Pham, Dzung

    2016-01-01

    Automatic and accurate detection of white matter lesions is a significant step toward understanding the progression of many diseases, like Alzheimer’s disease or multiple sclerosis. Multi-modal MR images are often used to segment T2 white matter lesions that can represent regions of demyelination or ischemia. Some automated lesion segmentation methods describe the lesion intensities using generative models, and then classify the lesions with some combination of heuristics and cost minimization. In contrast, we propose a patch-based method, in which lesions are found using examples from an atlas containing multi-modal MR images and corresponding manual delineations of lesions. Patches from subject MR images are matched to patches from the atlas and lesion memberships are found based on patch similarity weights. We experiment on 43 subjects with MS, whose scans show various levels of lesion-load. We demonstrate significant improvement in Dice coefficient and total lesion volume compared to a state of the art model-based lesion segmentation method, indicating more accurate delineation of lesions.

  7. Lesion evidence for the critical role of the intraparietal sulcus in spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Gillebert, Céline R; Mantini, Dante; Thijs, Vincent; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Vandenberghe, Rik

    2011-06-01

    Based on lesion mapping studies, the inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction are considered the critical parietal regions for spatial-attentional deficits. Lesion evidence for a key role of the intraparietal sulcus, a region featuring prominently in non-human primate studies and human functional imaging studies of the intact brain, is still lacking, probably due to the exceptional nature of isolated intraparietal sulcus lesions. We combined behavioural testing and functional imaging in two patients with a focal intraparietal sulcus lesion sparing the inferior parietal lobule and temporoparietal junction to examine the critical contribution of the intraparietal sulcus to spatial attention. Case H.H. had a focal ischaemic lesion (1.8 cm3) that was confined to the posterior segment of the left intraparietal sulcus, whereas Case N.V. had a partially reversible lesion of the middle segment of the right intraparietal sulcus extending into the superior parietal lobule (13.8 cm3). The performance of these cases was contrasted with five cases with a classical inferior parietal lesion, as well as with a group of 31 age-matched controls. In the behavioural study, the patients performed an orientation discrimination task on a peripheral target (eccentricity 7.6°) that was preceded by a central spatial cue. We manipulated both the cue validity (17% trials with an invalid spatial cue) and the presence of a competing distracter in the visual field contralateral to the target (17% double stimulation trials). The ability of the patients with an intraparietal sulcus lesion to reorient their spatial focus of attention and to select between competing stimuli was impaired for contralesional targets compared with controls, similarly to what we saw in the inferior parietal group. Furthermore, we could observe that the deficit in Case N.V. resolved with regression of the lesion. To further evaluate the correspondence between spatial-attentional deficits and the

  8. Traditional olive orchards on sloping land: sustainability or abandonment?

    PubMed

    Duarte, Filomena; Jones, Nádia; Fleskens, Luuk

    2008-11-01

    Traditional olive orchards account for a large share of the area under olives in the EU, particularly in marginal areas, like those analysed in the OLIVERO project. In general, traditional olive growing can be described as a low-intensity production system, associated with old (sometimes very old) trees, grown at a low density, giving small yields and receiving low inputs of labour and materials. Though such systems are environmentally sustainable, their economic viability has become an issue, since EU policies favour more intensive and competitive systems. Orchards that have not been intensified seem to be threatened by the recent reform of the EU olive and olive oil policy, as income support has been decoupled from production. The main purpose of this paper is to identify the present constraints to traditional olive growing, and to recommend some private and public interventions to prevent its abandonment. During the OLIVERO project, traditional olive production systems were identified and described in five target areas (Trás-os-Montes--Portugal, Cordoba and Granada/Jaen--Spain, Basilicata/Salerno--Italy, and West Crete--Greece). The causes and consequences of abandonment are discussed, based on the analysis of the costs and returns, which revealed that these systems are barely economically sustainable. Their viability is only assured if reduced opportunity costs for family labour are accepted, and the olive growing is part-time. Based on these results, recommendations are made to prevent the abandonment of traditional olive growing and to preserve its environmental benefits.

  9. Effects of the planting density on virgin olive oil quality of "Chemlali" olive trees (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Guerfel, Mokhtar; Zaghdoud, Chokri; Jebahi, Khaled; Boujnah, Dalenda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2010-12-01

    Here, we report the characterization of virgin olive oil samples obtained from fruits of the main Tunisian olive cultivar (Chemlali) grown in four planting densities (156, 100, 69, and 51 trees ha(-1)). Olive oil samples obtained from fruits of trees grown at 100 trees ha(-1) had a higher content of oleic acid (65.5%), a higher content of chlorophyll and carotenoids, and a higher content in total phenols (1059.08 mg/kg). Interestingly, olives grown at the two highest planting densities yielded more stable oils than olives grown at the two lowest ones. Thus planting density is found to be a key factor for the quality of olive oils in arid regions.

  10. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil.

  11. Comparison of some chemical parameters of a naturally debittered olive (Olea europaea L.) type with regular olive varieties.

    PubMed

    Aktas, Ayse Burcu; Ozen, Banu; Tokatli, Figen; Sen, Ilknur

    2014-10-15

    Some olives grown in Karaburun peninsula in the west part of Turkey and mostly coming from Erkence variety lose their bitterness while still on the tree and are called Hurma among locals. This olive type does not require further processing to remove the bitter compounds. In this study, sugar, organic acid and fatty acid profiles of Hurma, Erkence (not naturally debittered) and Gemlik (commonly consumed as table olive) olives were determined throughout 8weeks of maturation period for two consecutive harvest seasons, and the results were analysed by principal component analysis (PCA). PCA of sugar and organic acid data revealed a differentiation in terms of harvest year but not on variety. Hurma olive is separated from others due to its fatty acid profile, and it has higher linoleic acid content compared to others. This might be an indication of increased desaturase enzyme activity for Hurma olives during natural debittering phase.

  12. Evaluation of processing factors for selected organic contaminants during virgin olive oil production: Distribution of BTEXS during olives processing.

    PubMed

    López-Blanco, Rafael; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Rojas-Jiménez, Rubén; Robles-Molina, José; Ramos-Martos, Natividad; García-Reyes, Juan F; Molina-Díaz, Antonio

    2016-05-15

    The presence of BTEXS (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes and styrene) in virgin olive oils can be attributed to environmental contamination, but also to biological processes during oil lipogenesis (styrene). In this work, the processing factor of BTEXS from olives to olive oil during its production was evaluated at lab-scale with an Abencor system. Benzene showed the lowest processing factor (15%), whereas toluene and xylenes showed an intermediate behavior (with 40-60% efficiency), and ethylbenzene and styrene were completely transferred (100%). In addition, an attempt to examine the contribution of potential sources to olives contamination with BTEXS was carried out for the first time. Two types of olives samples were classified according to their proximity to the contamination source (road). Although higher levels of BTEXS were found in samples close to roads, the concentrations were relatively low and do not constitute a major contribution to BTEXS usually detected in olive oil. PMID:26775971

  13. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal. PMID:27651881

  14. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations.

    PubMed

    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal. PMID:27651881

  15. The effect of ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor on the displacement pattern of inferior alveolar canal in CBCT examinations

    PubMed Central

    Abdi, Isa; Taheri Talesh, Kourosh; Yazdani, Javad; Keshavarz Meshkin Fam, Sareh; Ghavimi, Mohammad Ali; Arta, Seyed Ahmad

    2016-01-01

    Background. The inferior alveolar canal should be examined as a significant anatomical landmark, particularly in the posterior body and ramus of the mandible, for dental and surgical procedures. In the present study, the effects of two pathological lesions, ameloblastoma and keratocystic odontogenic tumor, on canal displacement were investigated. Methods. This study had a single-blinded design. Twenty-six patients with lesions in the mandible referred to Imam Reza Hospital, Tabriz, Iran, were studied in two equal groups (13 patients with a histopathological diagnosis of ameloblastoma and 13 with a histopathological diagnosis of odontogenic keratocyst). After confirming the initial incisional biopsy and pathological report, cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) of lesions larger than 3 cm mesiodistaly and those involving the mandibular posterior body and ramus were included in the study. Two maxillofacial surgeons in association with an oral and maxillofacial radiologist examined three points on CBCT images to determine the mandibular canal position relative to the lesions from the lingual and buccal aspects. Results. The results of statistical analyses showed that in ameloblastoma, the inferior alveolar canal had been displaced more buccally in the ramus area (point A) (84.6%) but in the distal region (point C), the displacement was less buccal (41.6%). The canal was displaced buccally in 53.8% of cases at point A and in 46.2% of cases at point C in KOT lesions. Finally chi-squared test did not show any statistically significant differences between these two lesions. Conclusion. The results of this study showed no relationship between these lesions and the displacement of the mandibular canal.

  16. Oscillatory activity, phase differences, and phase resetting in the inferior olivary nucleus.

    PubMed

    Lefler, Yaara; Torben-Nielsen, Benjamin; Yarom, Yosef

    2013-01-01

    The generation of temporal patterns is one of the most fascinating functions of the brain. Unlike the response to external stimuli temporal patterns are generated within the system and recalled for a specific use. To generate temporal patterns one needs a timing machine, a "master clock" that determines the temporal framework within which temporal patterns can be generated and implemented. Here we present the concept that in this putative "master clock" phase and frequency interact to generate temporal patterns. We define the requirements for a neuronal "master clock" to be both reliable and versatile. We introduce this concept within the inferior olive nucleus which at least by some scientists is regarded as the source of timing for cerebellar function. We review the basic properties of the subthreshold oscillation recorded from olivary neurons, analyze the phase relationships between neurons and demonstrate that the phase and onset of oscillation is tightly controlled by synaptic input. These properties endowed the olivary nucleus with the ability to act as a "master clock."

  17. Evaluation of vernier acuity near healed retinal laser lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1997-05-01

    Seven Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in own eye 6 years previously were evaluated for their vernier acuity by electrophysiologic recording techniques. In these experiments, 95 percent contrast vernier acuity targets were presented at high luminance levels to anesthetized primates. Visual evoked potentials were recorded by conventional means form scalp electrodes through hospital grade amplifiers. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses form a neodymium-YAG laser had produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, 'white dot' lesions and 'red dot' lesions in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. Vernier recording proved somewhat successful in smaller animals with less than contained retinal hemorrhage lesions in the fovea. Initial analyses demonstrated a significant decrease of the pattern response signal/noise in the experimental eye overall, and an apparent relative loss of vernier signal in some lesioned eyes. Animals with the more severe lesions have somewhat degraded small patten responses and no recordable vernier response. Apparent lesser losses produced less effect.

  18. Multiple Biological Effects of Olive Oil By-products such as Leaves, Stems, Flowers, Olive Milled Waste, Fruit Pulp, and Seeds of the Olive Plant on Skin.

    PubMed

    Kishikawa, Asuka; Ashour, Ahmed; Zhu, Qinchang; Yasuda, Midori; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2015-06-01

    As olive oil production increases, so does the amount of olive oil by-products, which can cause environmental problems. Thus, new ways to utilize the by-products are needed. In the present study, five bioactive characteristics of olive oil by-products were assessed, namely their antioxidant, anti-bacterial, anti-melanogenesis, anti-allergic, and collagen-production-promoting activities. First, the extracts of leaves (May and October), stems (May and October), flowers, olive milled waste, fruit pulp and seeds were prepared using two safe solvents, ethanol and water. According to HPLC and LC/MS analysis and Folin-Ciocalteu assay, the ethanol extracts of the leaves (May and October), stems (May and October) and flowers contained oleuropein, and the ethanol extract of the stems showed the highest total phenol content. Oleuropein may contribute to the antioxidant and anti-melanogenesis activities of the leaves, stems, and flowers. However, other active compounds or synergistic effects present in the ethanol extracts are also likely to contribute to the anti-bacterial activity of the leaves and flowers, the anti-melanogenesis activity of some parts, the anti-allergic activity of olive milled waste, and the collagen-production-promoting activity of the leaves, stems, olive milled waste and fruit pulp. This study provides evidence that the by-products of olive oil have the potential to be further developed and used in the skin care industry.

  19. Effects of olive mill wastes added to olive grove soils on erosion and soil properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lozano-García, Beatriz; Parras-Alcántara, Luis

    2014-05-01

    INTRODUCTION The increasing degradation of olive groves by effect of organic matter losses derived from intensive agricultural practices has promoted the use (by olive farmers) of olive mill wastes (olive leaves and alperujo) which contain large amounts of organic matter and are free of heavy metals and pathogenic microorganisms. In this work we compared the effects of these oil mill wastes on the decrease of soil erosion, also, we undertook the assessment of the organic carbon and nitrogen contents of soil, their distribution across the profile, the accumulation and Stratification ratios (SRs) of soil organic carbon (SOC) and total nitrogen (TN), and the C:N ratio, in Cambisols in Mediterranean olive groves treated with olive leaves and alperujo. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study area was a typical olive grove in southern Spain under conventional tillage (CT). Three plots were established. The first one was the control plot; the second one was treated with olive leaves (CTol) and the third one, with alperujo (CTa). 9 samples per plot were collected to examine the response of the soil 3 years after application of the wastes. Soil properties determined were: soil particle size, pH, bulk density, the available water capacity, SOC, TN and C:N ratio. SOC and N stock, expressed for a specific depth in Mg ha-1. Stratification ratios (SRs) (that can be used as an indicator of dynamic soil quality) for SOC and TN at three different depths were calculated. The erosion study was based on simulations of rain; that have been carried out in order to highlight differences in the phenomena of runoff and soil losses in the three plots considered. The effect of different treatments on soil properties was analyzed using a ANOVA, followed by an Anderson-Darling test. RESULTS Supplying the soil with the wastes significantly improved physical and chemical properties in the studied soils with respect to the control. C and N stocks increased, the SOC stock was 75.4 Mg ha-1 in CT, 91.5 Mg

  20. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%–65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%–0.67% of total transfer rate). ‘Picual’ was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas ‘Changlot Real’ was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  1. From Olive Fruits to Olive Oil: Phenolic Compound Transfer in Six Different Olive Cultivars Grown under the Same Agronomical Conditions.

    PubMed

    Talhaoui, Nassima; Gómez-Caravaca, Ana María; León, Lorenzo; De la Rosa, Raúl; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are responsible of the nutritional and sensory quality of extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The composition of phenolic compounds in EVOO is related to the initial content of phenolic compounds in the olive-fruit tissues and the activity of enzymes acting on these compounds during the industrial process to produce the oil. In this work, the phenolic composition was studied in six major cultivars grown in the same orchard under the same agronomical and environmental conditions in an effort to test the effects of cultivars on phenolic composition in fruits and oils as well as on transfer between matrices. The phenolic fractions were identified and quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-time-of-flight-mass spectrometry. A total of 33 phenolic compounds were determined in the fruit samples and a total of 20 compounds in their corresponding oils. Qualitative and quantitative differences in phenolic composition were found among cultivars in both matrices, as well as regarding the transfer rate of phenolic compounds from fruits to oil. The results also varied according to the different phenolic groups evaluated, with secoiridoids registering the highest transfer rates from fruits to oils. Moreover, wide-ranging differences have been noticed between cultivars for the transfer rates of secoiridoids (4.36%-65.63% of total transfer rate) and for flavonoids (0.18%-0.67% of total transfer rate). 'Picual' was the cultivar that transferred secoiridoids to oil at the highest rate, whereas 'Changlot Real' was the cultivar that transferred flavonoids at the highest rates instead. Principal-component analysis confirmed a strong genetic effect on the basis of the phenolic profile both in the olive fruits and in the oils. PMID:26959010

  2. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table... Obliza variety, shall be of such a size that not more than 35 percent, by count, of the olives may...

  3. Olive oil stability under deep-frying conditions.

    PubMed

    Casal, Susana; Malheiro, Ricardo; Sendas, Artur; Oliveira, Beatriz P P; Pereira, José Alberto

    2010-10-01

    The suitability of different commercial olive oil categories for domestic frying was investigated. Oil samples were taken every 3h of frying and evaluated for free acidity, peroxide and p-anisidine values, specific extinction coefficients, oxidative stability, fatty acids, vitamin E, β-carotene and total phenols, until the total polar compounds achieved the maximum legal value (25%). All olive oils were fried during more time than the commercial vegetable oil blend taken for comparison (from 24 to 27 h, against 15 h). The extra-virgin Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) olive oil was characterized by reduced levels of oxidation and hydrolysis, and superior amounts of minor antioxidant compounds. The "olive oil" commercial category behaves similarly, but "Cobrançosa" olive oils performance was slightly worse, and clearly different between years, highlighting the importance of blending different cultivars. The vegetable oil, despite containing significantly higher amounts of vitamin E, was highly susceptible to oxidation under frying conditions when compared to all olive oils. The results also show that the chemical composition of olive oils, particularly the amount of natural antioxidants, are important parameters in their predictive behavior along the frying process, but mostly that olive oil is clearly resistant to frying conditions, independently to the commercial category chosen.

  4. Sustainable technologies for olive mill wastewater management (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The California olive oil industry produces more than 600 million gallons of wastewater each year. Olive mill wastewater (OMWW) is considered a highly polluting effluent due to its high organic load and resistance to biological degradation. A current trend in OMWW management is to not only decrease e...

  5. VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW OF WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK AND DAM LOOKING NORTHEAST, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO RAILROAD BRIDGE IN FRONT OF LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE, NORTHPORT LEFT SIDE, TUSCALOOSA RIGHT SIDE, UNIVERSITY OF ALABAMA IN RIGHT BACKGROUND. - William Baker Oliver Lock & Dam, Spans Warrior River between Tuscaloosa & Northport, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  6. 78 FR 24979 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-29

    ... / Monday, April 29, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the... marketing order which regulates the handling of olives grown in California. Assessments upon olive...

  7. 75 FR 22211 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment rate....63 to $44.72 per assessable ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  8. Spatial selectivity in the temporoparietal junction, inferior frontal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Kathleen A; Chu, Carlton; Dickinson, Annelise; Pye, Brandon; Weller, J Patrick; Ungerleider, Leslie G

    2015-01-01

    Spatial selectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity patterns that vary consistently with the location of visual stimuli, has been documented in many human brain regions, notably the occipital visual cortex and the frontal and parietal regions that are active during endogenous, goal-directed attention. We hypothesized that spatial selectivity also exists in regions that are active during exogenous, stimulus-driven attention. To test this hypothesis, we acquired fMRI data while subjects maintained passive fixation. At jittered time intervals, a briefly presented wedge-shaped array of rapidly expanding circles appeared at one of three contralateral or one of three ipsilateral locations. Positive fMRI activations were identified in multiple brain regions commonly associated with exogenous attention, including the temporoparietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule, and the inferior frontal sulcus. These activations were not organized as a map across the cortical surface. However, multivoxel pattern analysis of the fMRI activity correctly classified every pair of stimulus locations, demonstrating that patterns of fMRI activity were correlated with spatial location. These observations held for both contralateral and ipsilateral stimulus pairs as well as for stimuli of different textures (radial checkerboard) and shapes (squares and rings). Permutation testing verified that the obtained accuracies were not due to systematic biases and demonstrated that the findings were statistically significant. PMID:26382006

  9. Spatial selectivity in the temporoparietal junction, inferior frontal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kathleen A.; Chu, Carlton; Dickinson, Annelise; Pye, Brandon; Weller, J. Patrick; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial selectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity patterns that vary consistently with the location of visual stimuli, has been documented in many human brain regions, notably the occipital visual cortex and the frontal and parietal regions that are active during endogenous, goal-directed attention. We hypothesized that spatial selectivity also exists in regions that are active during exogenous, stimulus-driven attention. To test this hypothesis, we acquired fMRI data while subjects maintained passive fixation. At jittered time intervals, a briefly presented wedge-shaped array of rapidly expanding circles appeared at one of three contralateral or one of three ipsilateral locations. Positive fMRI activations were identified in multiple brain regions commonly associated with exogenous attention, including the temporoparietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule, and the inferior frontal sulcus. These activations were not organized as a map across the cortical surface. However, multivoxel pattern analysis of the fMRI activity correctly classified every pair of stimulus locations, demonstrating that patterns of fMRI activity were correlated with spatial location. These observations held for both contralateral and ipsilateral stimulus pairs as well as for stimuli of different textures (radial checkerboard) and shapes (squares and rings). Permutation testing verified that the obtained accuracies were not due to systematic biases and demonstrated that the findings were statistically significant. PMID:26382006

  10. Variant Inferior Alveolar Nerves and Implications for Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kevin T; Brokaw, Everett J; Bell, Andrea; Joy, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present. Thorough understanding of variant anatomy of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves may determine the success of procedural anesthesia, the etiology of pathologic processes, and the avoidance of surgical misadventure.

  11. Ghost cell lesions

    PubMed Central

    Rajesh, E.; Jimson, Sudha; Masthan, K. M. K.; Balachander, N.

    2015-01-01

    Ghost cells have been a controversy for a long time. Ghost cell is a swollen/enlarged epithelial cell with eosnophilic cytoplasm, but without a nucleus. In routine H and E staining these cells give a shadowy appearance. Hence these cells are also called as shadow cells or translucent cells. The appearance of these cells varies from lesion to lesion involving odontogenic and nonodontogenic lesions. This article review about the origin, nature and significance of ghost cells in different neoplasms. PMID:26015694

  12. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-01

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses.

  13. Influence of Picual olive ripening on virgin olive oil alteration and stability during potato frying.

    PubMed

    Olivero-David, Raul; Mena, Carmen; Pérez-Jimenez, M Angeles; Sastre, Blanca; Bastida, Sara; Márquez-Ruiz, Gloria; Sánchez-Muniz, Francisco J

    2014-12-01

    Ripening modifies oil attributes and composition. However, the influence of olive ripening on virgin olive oil (VOO) thermal oxidative stability on food-frying has not been studied yet. Oils from Picual olives of low (VOO1), medium (VOO2), and high (VOO3) ripeness were obtained, and their thermal oxidative stability during 40 potato-fryings was tested. Unused VOO1 showed higher antioxidant content and oxidative stability than VOO2 and VOO3. Polar compounds (PC), oligomers, and altered fatty acid methyl esters (polar-FAME) increased, whereas linoleic acid, polyphenols, and tocopherols decreased in the three VOOs through frying. The alteration was lower in VOO1, followed by VOO2 (0.105, 0.117, and 0.042 g/100 g oil less of PC, oligomers and polar-FAME per frying, respectively, in VOO1 than in VOO3). In conclusion, VOO obtained from low-ripeness Picual olives should be preferred when frying fresh-potatoes due to its higher thermal and oxidative stability, permitting a higher number of potato-frying uses. PMID:25390818

  14. Characterization of Libyan olive, olea europaea L., cultivars using morpholigical data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive (Olea europaea L.) consumption and production are important socially and economically in Libya. Olive cultivars that are adapted to local conditions produce olives that have high quality and quantities of oil. Many of the important Libyan olive cultivars were included in this research. One goa...

  15. Troubleshooting OptEase inferior vena cava filter retrieval.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Masaya; Kobayashi, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Masayoshi

    2016-01-01

    For treatment of deep vein thrombosis and prevention of pulmonary thromboembolism, a retrievable inferior vena cava filter is commonly utilized as an effective bridge to anticoagulation. However, we have experienced difficulties in retrieving inferior vena cava filters. Endovascular retrieval assisted by disposable biopsy forceps is an appropriate approach because it provides a less-invasive low-cost way to remove a migrated filter. We suggest this troubleshooting technique to deal with filter hook migration into the caval wall.

  16. Preinvasive lesions

    Cancer.gov

    This definition is for allocation of lesions with preinvasive/borderline properties. It is currently aimed at newly identified neoplasms, which may be similar to those described in humans. In mouse pathology, many adenomas may be preinvasive/borderline lesions. However, their inclusion in the preinvasive category can be justified only upon development of better diagnostic criteria.

  17. Evaluation of retinal laser lesion healing by perimetric electroretinography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmeisser, Elmar T.

    1996-04-01

    Eight Cynomolgus fasciculata who had graded laser lesions placed in one eye 6 years previously were evaluated by a stimulation and electrophysiologic recording technique to produce maps of retinal function. All animal testing was performed under IACUC approved protocols. The single q-switched pulses from a neodymium-YAG laser produced lesions of 4 types: no visible change, minimal visible lesions, `white dot' lesions (localized circumscribed retinal blanching) and `red dot' lesions (contained retinal hemorrhage) in the eye at the time of placement. Single exposures had been made in four locations: 5 degrees superior, inferior and temporal to the fovea, and one foveally. The multifocal (perimetric) electroretinogram was recorded from specialized contact lenses through hospital grade amplifiers. Initial analyses gave field maps that demonstrated apparent relative loss of function in some lesion sites. However, these losses were variable and occasionally patchy (i.e. disconnected areas of low signal). Repeated examinations of the same retinal areas showed high variability, even with 15 minute acquisition times and no apparent gaze drift. Apparent losses did not appear to correlate with visible retinal changes at the lesion site. Further research is needed to determine the biological substrate for this variability in response topography.

  18. Imaging Pediatric Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Tuyet A.; Krakowski, Andrew C.; Naheedy, John H.; Kruk, Peter G.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular anomalies are commonly encountered in pediatric and dermatology practices. Most of these lesions are benign and easy to diagnose based on history and clinical exam alone. However, in some cases the diagnosis may not be clear. This may be of particular concern given that vascular anomalies may occasionally be associated with an underlying syndrome, congenital disease, or serious, life-threatening condition. Defining the type of vascular lesion early and correctly is particularly important to determine the optimal approach to management and treatment of each patient. The care of pediatric patients often requires collaboration from a multitude of specialties including pediatrics, dermatology, plastic surgery, radiology, ophthalmology, and neurology. Although early characterization of vascular lesions is important, consensus guidelines regarding the evaluation and imaging of vascular anomalies does not exist to date. Here, the authors provide an overview of pediatric vascular lesions, current classification systems for characterizing these lesions, the various imaging modalities available, and recommendations for appropriate imaging evaluation. PMID:26705446

  19. Extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion

    PubMed Central

    Gauci, James; Galea, Samuel; Galea, Joseph; Schembri, Mark

    2014-01-01

    A 74-year-old man on warfarin for aortic valve replacement presented with recurrent episodes of melaena. An initial oesophagogastroduodenoscopy (OGD) was normal, as were red cell scanning and colonoscopy. It was a third OGD that revealed the cause of the melaena—a vascular lesion in the duodenum, at the junction between D1 and D2. An extragastric Dieulafoy's lesion was diagnosed, and the lesion was injected with epinephrine and tattooed. Over the following months, episodes of bleeding recurred despite further attempts at injection. Percutaneous radiologically assisted embolisation of the gastroduodenal artery, and eventually duodenotomy and oversuturing of the lesion were performed to no avail. The patient has undergone over 10 endoscopies, and has received over 70 units of packed red cells to date, since his initial presentation 6 years ago. Attempts to stop the bleeding permanently have been difficult, highlighting the complexity of managing such a lesion. PMID:25216921

  20. Catalytic pyrolysis of olive mill wastewater sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdellaoui, Hamza

    From 2008 to 2013, an average of 2,821.4 kilotons/year of olive oil were produced around the world. The waste product of the olive mill industry consists of solid residue (pomace) and wastewater (OMW). Annually, around 30 million m3 of OMW are produced in the Mediterranean area, 700,000 m3 year?1 in Tunisia alone. OMW is an aqueous effluent characterized by an offensive smell and high organic matter content, including high molecular weight phenolic compounds and long-chain fatty acids. These compounds are highly toxic to micro-organisms and plants, which makes the OMW a serious threat to the environment if not managed properly. The OMW is disposed of in open air evaporation ponds. After evaporation of most of the water, OMWS is left in the bottom of the ponds. In this thesis, the effort has been made to evaluate the catalytic pyrolysis process as a technology to valorize the OMWS. The first section of this research showed that 41.12 wt. % of the OMWS is mostly lipids, which are a good source of energy. The second section proved that catalytic pyrolysis of the OMWS over red mud and HZSM-5 can produce green diesel, and 450 °C is the optimal reaction temperature to maximize the organic yields. The last section revealed that the HSF was behind the good fuel-like properties of the OMWS catalytic oils, whereas the SR hindered the bio-oil yields and quality.

  1. Fruit load governs transpiration of olive trees.

    PubMed

    Bustan, Amnon; Dag, Arnon; Yermiyahu, Uri; Erel, Ran; Presnov, Eugene; Agam, Nurit; Kool, Dilia; Iwema, Joost; Zipori, Isaac; Ben-Gal, Alon

    2016-03-01

    We tested the hypothesis that whole-tree water consumption of olives (Olea europaea L.) is fruit load-dependent and investigated the driving physiological mechanisms. Fruit load was manipulated in mature olives grown in weighing-drainage lysimeters. Fruit was thinned or entirely removed from trees at three separate stages of growth: early, mid and late in the season. Tree-scale transpiration, calculated from lysimeter water balance, was found to be a function of fruit load, canopy size and weather conditions. Fruit removal caused an immediate decline in water consumption, measured as whole-plant transpiration normalized to tree size, which persisted until the end of the season. The later the execution of fruit removal, the greater was the response. The amount of water transpired by a fruit-loaded tree was found to be roughly 30% greater than that of an equivalent low- or nonyielding tree. The tree-scale response to fruit was reflected in stem water potential but was not mirrored in leaf-scale physiological measurements of stomatal conductance or photosynthesis. Trees with low or no fruit load had higher vegetative growth rates. However, no significant difference was observed in the overall aboveground dry biomass among groups, when fruit was included. This case, where carbon sources and sinks were both not limiting, suggests that the role of fruit on water consumption involves signaling and alterations in hydraulic properties of vascular tissues and tree organs.

  2. Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act Science Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shafroth, Patrick B.; Brown, Curtis A.; Merritt, David M.

    2010-01-01

    The primary intent of this document is to provide the science assessment called for under The Saltcedar and Russian Olive Control Demonstration Act of 2006 (Public Law 109-320; the Act). A secondary purpose is to provide a common background for applicants for prospective demonstration projects, should funds be appropriated for this second phase of the Act. This document synthesizes the state-of-the-science on the following topics: the distribution and abundance (extent) of saltcedar (Tamarix spp.) and Russian olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia) in the Western United States, potential for water savings associated with controlling saltcedar and Russian olive and the associated restoration of occupied sites, considerations related to wildlife use of saltcedar and Russian olive habitat or restored habitats, methods to control saltcedar and Russian olive, possible utilization of dead biomass following removal of saltcedar and Russian olive, and approaches and challenges associated with revegetation or restoration following control efforts. A concluding chapter discusses possible long-term management strategies, needs for additional study, potentially useful field demonstration projects, and a planning process for on-the-ground projects involving removal of saltcedar and Russian olive.

  3. Pinoresinol of olive oil decreases vitamin D intestinal absorption.

    PubMed

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Margier, Marielle; Tagliaferri, Camille; Lebecque, Patrice; Georgé, Stéphane; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2016-09-01

    Enriching oils, such as olive oil, could be one solution to tackle the worldwide epidemic of vitamin D deficiency and to better fit with omega 3 (DHA) recommendations. However, data regarding the interactions occurring at the intestinal level between vitamin D and phenols from olive oil are scarce. We first determined the effect of polyphenols from a virgin olive oil, and a virgin olive oil enriched with DHA, on vitamin D absorption in rats. We then investigated the effects of 3 main olive oil phenols (oleuropein, hydroxytyrosol and pinoresinol) on vitamin D uptake by Caco-2 cells. The presence of polyphenols in the olive oil supplemented with DHA inhibited vitamin D postprandial response in rats (-25%, p<0.05). Similar results were obtained with a mix of the 3 polyphenols delivered to Caco-2 cells. However, this inhibitory effect was due to the presence of pinoresinol only. As the pinoresinol content can highly vary between olive oils, the present results should be taken into account to formulate an appropriate oil product enriched in vitamin D.

  4. Cardioprotective and neuroprotective roles of oleuropein in olive

    PubMed Central

    Omar, Syed Haris

    2010-01-01

    Traditional diets of people living in the Mediterranean basin are, among other components, very rich in extra-virgin olive oil, the most typical source of visible fat. Olive is a priceless source of monounsaturated and di-unsaturated fatty acids, polyphenolic antioxidants and vitamins. Oleuropein is the main glycoside in olives and is responsible for the bitter taste of immature and unprocessed olives. Chemically, oleuropein is the ester of elenolic acid and 3,4-dihydroxyphenyl ethanol, which possesses beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant, antiatherogenic, anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties. The phenolic fraction extracted from the leaves of the olive tree, which contains significant amounts of oleuropein, prevents lipoprotein oxidation. In addition, oleuropein has shown cardioprotective effect against acute adriamycin cardiotoxicity and an anti-ischemic and hypolipidemic activities. Recently, oleuropein has shown neuroprotection by forming a non-covalent complex with the Aβ peptide, which is a key hallmark of several degenerative diseases like Alzheimer and Parkinson. Thus, a large mass of research has been accumulating in the area of olive oil, in the attempt to provide evidence for the health benefits of olive oil consumption and to scientifically support the widespread adoption of traditional Mediterranean diet as a model of healthy eating. These results provide a molecular basis for some of the benefits potentially coming from oleuropein consumption and pave the way to further studies on the possible pharmacological use of oleuropein to prevent or to slow down the cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:23964170

  5. The activity of ozonated olive oil against Leishmania major promastigotes

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Omid; Sazgarnia, Ameneh; Abbasi, Fatemeh; Layegh, Pouran

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Cutaneous Leishmaniasis is a common and endemic disease in Khorasan province in North-East of Iran. The pentavalant antimony (Sb V) is the mainstay of treatment that has many side effects and resistance to the drug has been reported. The microbicidal effect of ozone was proven in different microorganisms. Since there is no study in this respect and to achieve a low cost and effective treatment, we decided to evaluate the efficacy of ozone against promastigotes of Leishmania major, in vitro. Materials and Methods: Ozonated olive oil was prepared after production of ozone by bubbling ozone-oxygen gas produced by ozone generator through olive oil until it solidified. Promastigotes of L. major were cultivated in two phasic media. After calculation of the number of promastigotes, they were incubated with ozonated olive oil (0, 0.626, 0.938, 1.25, 2.5, 5, 10 mcg/ml) at 28 °c for 24 hr. Parasites survival percentage was evaluated using MTS and microscopic assay, and then compared with Glucantime and non-ozonated olive oil. Results: According to the results, there were significant differences in parasites survival percentage between ozonated olive oil and non-ozonated olive oil, at similar concentrations (P<0.001). Ozonated olive oil was more effective than Glucantime. According to MTS results, Glucantime and ozonated olive oil gel concentrations that are required to inhibit the growth of L. major promastigotes by 50% (IC50), were 165 and 0.002 mg/ml, respectively. Conclusion: Ozonated olive oil has in vitro activity against the promastigotes of L. major and this effect is dose dependent. PMID:26523224

  6. Detection of fruit-fly infestation in olives using X-ray imaging: Algorithm development and prospects

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An algorithm using a Bayesian classifier was developed to automatically detect olive fruit fly infestations in x-ray images of olives. The data set consisted of 249 olives with various degrees of infestation and 161 non-infested olives. Each olive was x-rayed on film and digital images were acquired...

  7. Intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent bilateral multiple pulmonary nodules

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Guorui; Yu, Xin; Lang, Jinghe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Intravenous leiomyomatosis is a special type of uterine leiomyoma and features formation and growth of benign leiomyoma tissue within vascular wall. Benign metastatic leiomyoma refers to benign leiomyoma metastasizing to extra-uterine sites, dominantly lung. Solitary or multiple small nodules in the lung can be seen in image scans. Methods: We report 2 cases of intravenous leiomyomatosis with inferior vena cava or intracardiac extension and concurrent multiple nodules in bilateral lungs. Results: Case 1 was a 40-year-old woman with a large mass in pelvic cavity, masses in heart chambers, and disseminates pulmonary nodules detected at preoperative image scans. Masses in pelvic cavity and heart were resected in a 2-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules stayed stable during follow-up. Case 2 was a 37-year-old woman with 3 times of uterine-related surgeries. A pelvic mass appeared again and filling defect was observed in left ovarian vein, right renal vein, right common iliac vein, and inferior vena cava. Tumors in pelvic cavity and within vessels were removed in a 1-stage surgery. Histology examination confirmed the diagnosis of intravenous leiomyomatosis. Pulmonary nodules remained stable during follow-up. Conclusion: The incidence of benign metastatic leiomyoma in patients with intravenous leiomyomatosis might be relatively high. Metastasis of intravenous leiomyomatosis lesions was a possible source of benign metastatic leiomyoma in these cases. PMID:27583911

  8. Pseudoadenomatous Hyperplasia of the Inferior Forniceal Conjunctiva Due To Prosthetic Irritation in an Anophthalmic Socket.

    PubMed

    Jakobiec, Frederick A; Rashid, Alia; Massoud, Vicky; Fay, Aaron

    2016-01-01

    Secondary complications in an anophthalmic socket can include late appearing shrinkage due to scarring and squamous cell carcinoma. This article reports a 51-year-old man who 27 years after an enucleation developed an inability to retain his ocular prosthesis due to an acquired multilobular fleshy mass in his inferior fornix. The patient had worn his prosthesis without removal for years at a time. Microscopic evaluation of the excised lesion disclosed a pseudoadenomatous (pseudoglandular) hyperplasia of the conjunctival epithelium with myriad goblet cells and accompanying chronic inflammation. In cross section, these structures microscopically resembled an adenoma but were found to display multifocal origins from the surface epithelium resembling exaggerated pseudoglands of Henle. Simple excision without recurrence 6 months later has permitted a new prosthesis to be comfortably worn with stability.

  9. Multifocal vascular lesions.

    PubMed

    Levin, Laura E; Lauren, Christine T

    2016-03-01

    Multifocal vascular lesions are important to recognize and appropriately diagnose. Generally first noticed on the skin, multifocal vascular lesions may have systemic involvement. Distinguishing among the different types of multifocal vascular lesions is often based on clinical features; however, radiological imaging and/or biopsy are frequently needed to identify distinct features and guide treatment. Knowledge of the systemic associations that can occur with different vascular anomalies may reduce life-threatening complications, such as coagulopathy, bleeding, cardiac compromise, and neurologic sequelae. This review provides a synopsis of the epidemiology, pathogenesis, presentation, workup, and treatment of several well-recognized multifocal vascular tumors and malformations. PMID:27607324

  10. Oral Lesions in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Roopa S; Majumdar, Barnali; Jafer, Mohammed; Maralingannavar, Mahesh; Sukumaran, Anil

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Oral lesions in neonates represent a wide range of diseases often creating apprehension and anxiety among parents. Early examination and prompt diagnosis can aid in prudent management and serve as baseline against the future course of the disease. The present review aims to enlist and describe the diagnostic features of commonly encountered oral lesions in neonates. How to cite this article: Patil S, Rao RS, Majumdar B, Jafer M, Maralingannavar M, Sukumaran A. Oral Lesions in Neonates. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2016;9(2):131-138. PMID:27365934

  11. Retinal lesions in septicemia.

    PubMed

    Neudorfer, M; Barnea, Y; Geyer, O; Siegman-Igra, Y

    1993-12-15

    We explored the association between septicemia and specific retinal lesions in a prospective controlled study. Hemorrhages, cotton-wool spots, or Roth's spots were found in 24 of 101 septicemic patients (24%), compared to four of 99 age- and gender-matched control patients (4%) (P = .0002). There was no significant association between types of organisms or focus of infection and the presence of specific lesions. Histologic examination of affected eyes disclosed cytoid bodies in the nerve fiber layer without inflammation. A definite association between septicemia and retinal lesions was found and indicates the need for routine ophthalmoscopy in septicemic patients. PMID:8250076

  12. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    PubMed

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  13. Comparison of polyphenol extractions from olive pomace and solid fraction of olive mill waste water.

    PubMed

    Tercan, Sevgul; Seker, Mahmut

    2012-01-01

    The solid fraction of olive mill waste water (OMWW) was separated from OMWW and then the solutes in the solid fraction of OMWW were extracted with ethanol. The detection of polyphenols in the ethanol extract showed the presence of polyphenols in the solid fraction of OMWW. Effects of solvent-to-solid ratio, extraction and agitation time on the extraction of polyphenols from the solid fraction of OMWW were examined and the maximum amount of polyphenol was extracted from the solid fraction of OMWW with a solvent-to-solid ratio of 15 at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time. Percent yields and purities of the polyphenols extracted from solid fraction of OMWW were higher than those of the polyphenols extracted from olive pomace with ethanol at 70 min of extraction and 10 min of agitation time with solvent-to-solid ratio of 15.

  14. Skin lesion of blastomycosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... in: Africa Canada Central and southeastern United States India Israel Saudi Arabia A person gets infected by ... is diagnosed by identifying the fungus in a culture taken from a skin lesion. This usually requires ...

  15. A basic review on the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques

    PubMed Central

    Khalil, Hesham

    2014-01-01

    The inferior alveolar nerve block is the most common injection technique used in dentistry and many modifications of the conventional nerve block have been recently described in the literature. Selecting the best technique by the dentist or surgeon depends on many factors including the success rate and complications related to the selected technique. Dentists should be aware of the available current modifications of the inferior alveolar nerve block techniques in order to effectively choose between these modifications. Some operators may encounter difficulty in identifying the anatomical landmarks which are useful in applying the inferior alveolar nerve block and rely instead on assumptions as to where the needle should be positioned. Such assumptions can lead to failure and the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block has been reported to be 20-25% which is considered very high. In this basic review, the anatomical details of the inferior alveolar nerve will be given together with a description of its both conventional and modified blocking techniques; in addition, an overview of the complications which may result from the application of this important technique will be mentioned. PMID:25886095

  16. Inferior oblique muscle paresis as a sign of myasthenia gravis.

    PubMed

    Almog, Yehoshua; Ben-David, Merav; Nemet, Arie Y

    2016-03-01

    Myasthenia gravis may affect any of the six extra-ocular muscles, masquerading as any type of ocular motor pathology. The frequency of involvement of each muscle is not well established in the medical literature. This study was designed to determine whether a specific muscle or combination of muscles tends to be predominantly affected. This retrospective review included 30 patients with a clinical diagnosis of myasthenia gravis who had extra-ocular muscle involvement with diplopia at presentation. The diagnosis was confirmed by at least one of the following tests: Tensilon test, acetylcholine receptor antibodies, thymoma on chest CT scan, or suggestive electromyography. Frequency of involvement of each muscle in this cohort was inferior oblique 19 (63.3%), lateral rectus nine (30%), superior rectus four (13.3%), inferior rectus six (20%), medial rectus four (13.3%), and superior oblique three (10%). The inferior oblique was involved more often than any other muscle (p<0.01). Eighteen (60%) patients had ptosis, six (20%) of whom had bilateral ptosis. Diagnosing myasthenia gravis can be difficult, because the disease may mimic every pupil-sparing pattern of ocular misalignment. In addition diplopia caused by paresis of the inferior oblique muscle is rarely encountered (other than as a part of oculomotor nerve palsy). Hence, when a patient presents with vertical diplopia resulting from an isolated inferior oblique palsy, myasthenic etiology should be highly suspected.

  17. Acute nontraumatic liver lesions.

    PubMed

    Caremani, Marcello; Tacconi, Danilo; Lapini, Laura

    2013-11-26

    The principal conditions requiring emergency/urgent intervention in patients with nontraumatic liver lesions are hemorrhage (with or without tumor rupture), rupture of hydatid cysts (with or without infection), complications arising from liver abscesses or congenital liver cysts, rupture related to peliosis hepatis, and in rare cases spontaneous hemorrhage. This article examines each of these conditions, its appearance on ultrasound (the first-line imaging method of choice for assessing any urgent nontraumatic liver lesion) and indications for additional imaging studies.

  18. [Osteoarticular lesions from parachuting].

    PubMed

    Orso, C A; Valbonesi, L; Calabrese, B F; D'Onofrio, S

    1990-01-01

    Based on personal experience gained in a parachuting centre (Pescara Aero-club) from 1975 up to 1988, the authors report their evaluation on chronic and acute osteoarticular lesions. The review of the cases was not based on the incidence of the lesions nor on their characteristics, normally found in common traumatology, but it was related to the dynamics of the trauma during the landing and to painful syndromes following a prolonged parachuting activity.

  19. Mechanisms contributing to cluster formation in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice

    PubMed Central

    Kølvraa, Mathias; Müller, Felix C; Jahnsen, Henrik; Rekling, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The inferior olivary nucleus (IO) in in vitro slices from postnatal mice (P5.5–P15.5) spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous calcium transients, and intracellular recordings from IO neurons suggest that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synchronizing mechanism. Here, we studied the cluster-forming mechanism and find that clusters overlap extensively with an overlap distribution that resembles the distribution for a random overlap model. The average somatodendritic field size of single curly IO neurons was ∼6400 μm2, which is slightly smaller than the average IO cluster size. Eighty-seven neurons with overlapping dendrites were estimated to be contained in the principal olive mean cluster size, and about six non-overlapping curly IO neurons could be contained within the largest clusters. Clusters could also be induced by iontophoresis with glutamate. Induced clusters were inhibited by tetrodotoxin, carbenoxelone and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, suggesting that sodium action potentials and electrical coupling are involved in glutamate-induced cluster formation, which could also be induced by activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Spikelets and a small transient depolarizing response were observed during glutamate-induced cluster formation. Calcium transients spread with decreasing velocity during cluster formation, and somatic action potentials and cluster formation are accompanied by large dendritic calcium transients. In conclusion, cluster formation depends on gap junctions, sodium action potentials and spontaneous clusters occur randomly throughout the IO. The relative slow signal spread during cluster formation, combined with a strong dendritic influx of calcium, may signify that active dendritic properties contribute to cluster formation. PMID:24042500

  20. Mechanisms contributing to cluster formation in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Kølvraa, Mathias; Müller, Felix C; Jahnsen, Henrik; Rekling, Jens C

    2014-01-01

    The inferior olivary nucleus (IO) in in vitro slices from postnatal mice (P5.5-P15.5) spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous calcium transients, and intracellular recordings from IO neurons suggest that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synchronizing mechanism. Here, we studied the cluster-forming mechanism and find that clusters overlap extensively with an overlap distribution that resembles the distribution for a random overlap model. The average somatodendritic field size of single curly IO neurons was ∼6400 μm(2), which is slightly smaller than the average IO cluster size. Eighty-seven neurons with overlapping dendrites were estimated to be contained in the principal olive mean cluster size, and about six non-overlapping curly IO neurons could be contained within the largest clusters. Clusters could also be induced by iontophoresis with glutamate. Induced clusters were inhibited by tetrodotoxin, carbenoxelone and 18β-glycyrrhetinic acid, suggesting that sodium action potentials and electrical coupling are involved in glutamate-induced cluster formation, which could also be induced by activation of N-methyl-d-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptors. Spikelets and a small transient depolarizing response were observed during glutamate-induced cluster formation. Calcium transients spread with decreasing velocity during cluster formation, and somatic action potentials and cluster formation are accompanied by large dendritic calcium transients. In conclusion, cluster formation depends on gap junctions, sodium action potentials and spontaneous clusters occur randomly throughout the IO. The relative slow signal spread during cluster formation, combined with a strong dendritic influx of calcium, may signify that active dendritic properties contribute to cluster formation.

  1. Spontaneous cluster activity in the inferior olivary nucleus in brainstem slices from postnatal mice.

    PubMed

    Rekling, Jens C; Jensen, Kristian H R; Jahnsen, Henrik

    2012-04-01

    A distinctive property of the cerebellar system is olivocerebellar modules, where synchronized electrical activity in neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus (IO) evokes organized activity in the cerebellar cortex. However, the exact function of these modules, and how they are developed, is still largely unknown. Here we show that the IO in in vitro slices from postnatal mice spontaneously generates clusters of neurons with synchronous Ca(2+) transients. Neurons in the principal olive (PO), and the vestibular-related dorsomedial cell column (dmcc), showed an age-dependent increase in spontaneous calcium transients. The spatiotemporal activity pattern was occasionally organized in clusters of co-active neighbouring neurons,with regular (16 min-1) and irregular (2-3 min(-1)) repeating cluster activity in the dmcc and PO, respectively. IO clusters had a diameter of 100-170 μm, lasted~1 s, and increased in occurrence from postnatal day P5.5 to P12.5, followed by a sharp drop to near zero at P15.5. IO clusters were overlapping, and comprised nearly identical neurons at some time points, and a varied subset of neurons at others. Some neurons had hub-like properties, being co-active with many other neighbours, and some were co-active with separate clusters at different times. The coherence between calcium transients in IO neurons decreased with Euclidean distance between the cells reaching low values at 100-200 μm distances. Intracellular recordings from IO neurons during cluster formation revealed the presence of spikelet-like potentials, suggesting that electrical coupling between neighbouring IO neurons may serve as a synchronizing mechanism. In conclusion, the IO shows spontaneous cluster activity under in vitro conditions, coinciding with a critical postnatal period in olivocerebellar development. We propose that these clusters may be forerunners of the ensembles of IO neurons shown to be co-active in adult animals spontaneously and during motor acts.

  2. Cerebellar inhibitory output shapes the temporal dynamics of its somatosensory inferior olivary input.

    PubMed

    Hogri, Roni; Segalis, Eyal; Mintz, Matti

    2014-08-01

    The cerebellum is necessary and sufficient for the acquisition and execution of adaptively timed conditioned motor responses following repeated paired presentations of a conditioned stimulus and an unconditioned stimulus. The underlying plasticity depends on the convergence of conditioned and unconditioned stimuli signals relayed to the cerebellum by the pontine nucleus and the inferior olive (IO), respectively. Adaptive timing of conditioned responses relies on the correctly predicted onset of the unconditioned stimulus, usually a noxious somatosensory stimulus. We addressed two questions: First, does the IO relay information regarding the duration of somatosensory stimuli to the cerebellum? Multiple-unit recordings from the IO of anesthetized rats that received periorbital airpuffs of various durations revealed that sustained somatosensory stimuli are invariably transformed into phasic IO outputs. The phasic response was followed by a post-peak depression in IO activity as compared to baseline, providing the cerebellum with a highly synchronous signal, time-locked to the stimulus' onset. Second, we sought to examine the involvement of olivocerebellar interactions in this signal transformation. Cerebello-olivary inhibition was interrupted using temporary pharmacological inactivation of cerebellar output nuclei, resulting in more sustained (i.e., less synchronous) IO responses to sustained somatosensory stimuli, in which the post-peak depression was substituted with elevated activity as compared to baseline. We discuss the possible roles of olivocerebellar negative-feedback loops and baseline cerebello-olivary inhibition levels in shaping the temporal dynamics of the IO's response to somatosensory stimuli and the consequences of this shaping for cerebellar plasticity and its ability to adapt to varying contexts.

  3. Biorefinery based on olive biomass. State of the art and future trends.

    PubMed

    Romero-García, J M; Niño, L; Martínez-Patiño, C; Álvarez, C; Castro, E; Negro, M J

    2014-05-01

    With currently more than nine million hectares, olive tree cultivation has spread worldwide, table olives and olive oil as the main products. Moreover, a number of by-products and residues derived from both tree cultivation and the process of industrial olive oil production, most having no practical applications, are obtained yearly. This paper reviews the research regarding these by-products, namely biomass from olive tree pruning, olive stones, olive pomace and wastewaters obtained from the process of olive oil production. Furthermore, a wide range of compounds has been identified and can be produced using a broad definition of the term biorefinery based on olive tree biomass. As an example, this paper reviews ethanol production as one of the main proposed applications, as well as research on other value-added products. Finally, this paper also assesses recent technological advances, future perspectives and challenges in each stage of the process.

  4. Microbiota of table olive fermentations and criteria of selection for their use as starters

    PubMed Central

    Heperkan, Dilek

    2013-01-01

    Fermentation is one of the oldest methods for preserving of olives applied worldwide for thousands of years. However, olive processing is a speculative area where whether olives are fermented products or pickled products produced by organic acids and salt. Although lactobacilli and yeasts play a major role in the process, literature survey indicates that lactobacilli are less relevant at least in some types of natural green olives during fermentation. There have been significant advances recently in understanding the process to produce olives, especially the role of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts including biofilm formation on olive surfaces by these organisms. The purpose of this paper is to review the latest developments regarding the microbiota of olives on the basis of olive types, their role on the fermentation process, the interaction between both group of microorganisms and the olive surface, the possibility to use starter cultures and the criteria to select appropriate cultures. PMID:23781216

  5. Oliver Wendell Holmes Man of Medicine; Man of Letters

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Virginia

    1966-01-01

    This biographical sketch portrays Oliver Wendell Holmes as a leading figure both in American medicine and in American literature. Particular attention is directed to his classic essay, “The Contagiousness of Puerperal Fever.” PMID:5325818

  6. Origin assessment of EV olive oils by esterified sterols analysis.

    PubMed

    Giacalone, Rosa; Giuliano, Salvatore; Gulotta, Eleonora; Monfreda, Maria; Presti, Giovanni

    2015-12-01

    In this study extra virgin olive oils of Italian and non-Italian origin (from Spain, Tunisia and blends of EU origin) were differentiated by GC-FID analysis of sterols and esterified sterols followed by chemometric tools. PCA allowed to highlight the high significance of esterified sterols to characterise extra virgin olive oils in relation to their origin. SIMCA provided a sensitivity and specificity of 94.39% and 91.59% respectively; furthermore, an external set of 54 extra virgin olive oils bearing a designation of Italian origin on the labelling was tested by SIMCA. Prediction results were also compared with organoleptic assessment. Finally, the poor correlation found between ethylesters and esterified sterols allowed to hazard the guess, worthy of further investigations, that esterified sterols may prove to be promising in studies of geographical discrimination: indeed they appear to be independent of those factors causing the formation of ethyl esters and related to olive oil production.

  7. 74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    74. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  8. 73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. Oliver Street Bridge. New Haven, New Haven Co., CT. Sec. 4209, MP 73.08. - Northeast Railroad Corridor, Amtrak Route between New York/Connecticut & Connecticut/Rhode Island State Lines, New Haven, New Haven County, CT

  9. Reduction of virgin olive oil bitterness by fruit cold storage.

    PubMed

    Yousfi, Khaled; Cayuela, José A; García, José M

    2008-11-12

    Green mature olives (Olea europaea L. cv. 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial') were stored at 5 degrees C, and the oil extracted from them showed a middle intensity level of sensory-evaluated bitterness. The storage times necessary for this reduction were different for the three varieties tested, requiring 4, 6, and 8 weeks, respectively, for 'Manzanilla', 'Picual', and 'Verdial' olives. The level of commercial quality of the extracted oil did not deteriorate as a consequence of previous fruit storage. Olives matured during refrigeration at 5 degrees C, as the increase of maturation index and the decrease of color index and fruit firmness indicated. Similarly, as the fruit storage period progressed, the total phenolic compound content of the extracted oils decreased. Although the use of green mature olives may require a more prolonged storage time, it allows for a better postharvest handling of the fruits, which are more resistant to physical damage or fungal infections than the riper ones. PMID:18937491

  10. Soil amendment with olive mill wastes: impact on groundwater.

    PubMed

    Caputo, Maria Clementina; De Girolamo, Anna Maria; Volpe, Angela

    2013-12-15

    Two sets of soil lysimeters were amended with solid and liquid olive mill wastes and the composition of leachate was analysed. Five treatments were carried out using: olive mill wastewater (OMW) at two different rates (80 and 320 m(3)/ha); OMW pre-treated by catalytical digestion with MnO2; compost obtained by exhausted olive pomace; freshwater as the control. Electric conductivity, pH, potassium, total polyphenols and nitrates were monitored in the leachate as indexes of potential groundwater contamination. The study demonstrated that the impact of all the selected amendments on groundwater was the minimum. OMW was safely applied to soil even at four times the rate allowed by the Italian law, and pre-treatment by catalytical digestion was not necessary to further reduce the impact on groundwater. The application of olive pomace compost was equally safe.

  11. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds. PMID:20386648

  12. Cellulolytic Bacteria Associated with Sloughing Spoilage of California Ripe Olives

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Ishwarlal B.; Vaughn, Reese H.

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena. Images PMID:4568890

  13. Cellulolytic bacteria associated with sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives.

    PubMed

    Patel, I B; Vaughn, R H

    1973-01-01

    Sloughing spoilage of California ripe olives during processing is characterized by severe softening, skin rupture, and flesh sloughing. It was assumed that cellulolytic activity was responsible for skin rupture and sloughing of flesh, and so a deliberate search was made for cellulolytic bacteria from olives undergoing sloughing spoilage. A bacterium identified as Cellulomonas flavigena was highly cellulolytic, attacking filter paper, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) gel, and olive tissue. Other bacteria attacking CMC, but not filter paper, enhanced the activity of the Cellulomonas strain when grown in mixed culture, although they did not, in pure culture, have any effect on filter paper. These latter cultures (all degraded olive tissue) represented the genera Xanthomonas, Aerobacter, and Escherichia. Other noncellulolytic bacteria belonging to the genera Alcaligenes, Kurthia, and Micrococcus also were used for study of mixed culture fermentation of cellulose by C. flavigena. Cellobiose accumulation at levels of 1.0% (w/v) and above suppressed growth of C. flavigena.

  14. Ozonated olive oils and the troubles.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Bulent

    2014-01-01

    One of the commonly used methods for ozone therapy is ozonated oils. Most prominent type of used oils is extra virgin olive oil. But still, each type of unsaturated oils may be used for ozonation. There are a lot of wrong knowledge on the internet about ozonated oils and its use as well. Just like other ozone therapy studies, also the studies about ozone oils are inadequate to avoid incorrect knowledge. Current data about ozone oil and its benefits are produced by supplier who oversees financial interests and make misinformation. Despite the rapidly increasing ozone oil sales through the internet, its quality and efficacy is still controversial. Dozens of companies and web sites may be easily found to buy ozonated oil. But, very few of these products are reliable, and contain sufficiently ozonated oil. This article aimed to introduce the troubles about ozonated oils and so to inform ozonated oil users. PMID:26401346

  15. Guaianolide sesquiterpenes from Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv.

    PubMed

    Stavri, Michael; Mathew, K T; Gordon, Andrew; Shnyder, Steven D; Falconer, Robert A; Gibbons, Simon

    2008-06-01

    A phytochemical study of the asteraceous herb Pulicaria crispa (Forssk.) Oliv. resulted in the characterisation of three guaianolide sesquiterpenes, 2alpha,4alpha-dihydroxy-7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-1(5),11(13)-dien-8beta,12-olide (1), 1alpha,2alpha-epoxy-4beta-hydroxy-5alphaH,7alphaH,8alphaH,10alphaH-guaia-11(13)-en-8beta,12-olide (2) and 5,10-epi-2,3-dihydroaromatin (3). The structures were assigned on the basis of extensive 1 and 2D NMR experiments. Compound 3 exhibited weak antimycobacterial activity against Mycobacterium phlei with a minimum inhibitory concentration of 0.52 mM and cytotoxicity (IC50 of 5.8+/-0.2 microM) in a human bladder carcinoma cell line, EJ-138.

  16. Variant Inferior Alveolar Nerves and Implications for Local Anesthesia.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Kevin T; Brokaw, Everett J; Bell, Andrea; Joy, Anita

    2016-01-01

    A sound knowledge of anatomical variations that could be encountered during surgical procedures is helpful in avoiding surgical complications. The current article details anomalous morphology of inferior alveolar nerves encountered during routine dissection of the craniofacial region in the Gross Anatomy laboratory. We also report variations of the lingual nerves, associated with the inferior alveolar nerves. The variations were documented and a thorough review of literature was carried out. We focus on the variations themselves, and the clinical implications that these variations present. Thorough understanding of variant anatomy of the lingual and inferior alveolar nerves may determine the success of procedural anesthesia, the etiology of pathologic processes, and the avoidance of surgical misadventure. PMID:27269666

  17. Inferior oblique recession in thyroid-related orbitopathy.

    PubMed

    Salchow, Daniel J

    2015-06-01

    Thyroid-related orbitopathy is a form of orbital inflammation associated with thyroid dysfunction, developing in many patients with Graves disease. Fibrosis of the inferior rectus muscle can lead to restricted elevation and vertical ocular misalignment, which may be improved by recessing this muscle. In some patients, vertical misalignment persists after surgical weakening of one or more vertical rectus muscles. In this case series, unilateral inferior oblique recession as a secondary procedure after inferior rectus recession reduced hypertropia in primary gaze from 9(Δ) ± 3(Δ) to 1.3(Δ) ± 1.5(Δ) (mean ± standard deviation) and largest hypertropia in side gaze from 18.3 ± 2.1(Δ) to 3.3(Δ) ± 1.5(Δ). Postoperatively, all 3 patients were diplopia free in primary and downgaze. PMID:26059675

  18. Olive bagasse and nutshell as gamma shielding material

    SciTech Connect

    İnaç, Esra; Baytaş, A. Filiz

    2013-12-16

    Gamma ray linear attenuation coefficients have been measured experimentally for olive bagasse and nutshell by using narrow beam geometry for Co-60 and the values have been compared with soil. These values have been used calculate mean free path, half value layer and tenth value layer parameters. Besides, effect of multi-layered systems (soil + olive bagasse and soil + nutshell) has been analyzed in terms of half value layer.

  19. Seed size selection by olive baboons.

    PubMed

    Kunz, Britta Kerstin; Linsenmair, Karl Eduard

    2008-10-01

    Seed size is an important plant fitness trait that can influence several steps between fruiting and the establishment of a plant's offspring. Seed size varies considerably within many plant species, yet the relevance of the trait for intra-specific fruit choice by primates has received little attention. Primates may select certain seed sizes within a species for a number of reasons, e.g. to decrease indigestible seed load or increase pulp intake per fruit. Olive baboons (Papio anubis, Cercopithecidae) are known to select seed size in unripe and mature pods of Parkia biglobosa (Mimosaceae) differentially, so that pods with small seeds, and an intermediate seed number, contribute most to dispersal by baboons. We tested whether olive baboons likewise select for smaller ripe seeds within each of nine additional fruit species whose fruit pulp baboons commonly consume, and for larger seeds in one species in which baboons feed on the seeds. Species differed in fruit type and seed number per fruit. For five of these species, baboons dispersed seeds that were significantly smaller than seeds extracted manually from randomly collected fresh fruits. In contrast, for three species, baboons swallowed seeds that were significantly longer and/or wider than seeds from fresh fruits. In two species, sizes of ingested seeds and seeds from fresh fruits did not differ significantly. Baboons frequently spat out seeds of Drypetes floribunda (Euphorbiaceae) but not those of other plant species having seeds of equal size. Oral processing of D. floribunda seeds depended on seed size: seeds that were spat out were significantly larger and swallowed seeds smaller, than seeds from randomly collected fresh fruits. We argue that seed size selection in baboons is influenced, among other traits, by the amount of pulp rewarded per fruit relative to seed load, which is likely to vary with fruit and seed shape.

  20. Pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate causing epiphora.

    PubMed

    Erol, Bekir; Selçuk, Ömer Tarik; Gürses, Cemil; Osma, Üstün; Köroğlu, Mert; Süren, Dinç

    2013-01-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. A 62-year-old female patient presented with epiphora and was suffering from breathing difficulties. With the diagnostic nasal endoscopy, a mass, originating from right inferior nasal turbinate and filling the entire nasal cavity, was seen. Originating from the inferior nasal turbinate is a very rare entity. Paranasal sinus computed tomography and magnetic resonance images revealed a mass that fills and expands the right nasal cavity. Mass was hypoechoic in B-mode ultrasonography and hypovascular in color Doppler ultrasonography, and rate of tissue stiffness was high in sonoelastography. These were helpful for the diagnosis.

  1. Suprarenal symplastic leiomyoma of the inferior vena cava.

    PubMed

    Kepenekci, Ilknur; Demirkan, Arda; Sözener, Ulas; Cakmak, Atil; Demirer, Seher; Alaçayir, Iskender; Ekinci, Cemil

    2009-01-01

    We report on a case of a leiomyoma in the inferior vena cava that appeared in the image to be located in the adrenal gland. En bloc excision of the tumor with the right adrenal gland and the involved segment of the vena cava was carried out. Histopathological work-up of the tumor revealed smooth muscle fibers and marked nuclear pleomorphism consistent with symplastic leiomyoma. This case report presents a distinct histological variant of the rarely seen primary smooth muscle tumor of the inferior vena cava.

  2. Phenolic profile and antioxidant activities of olive mill wastewater.

    PubMed

    El-Abbassi, Abdelilah; Kiai, Hajar; Hafidi, Abdellatif

    2012-05-01

    Olive trees play an important role in the Moroccan agro-economy, providing both employment and export revenue. However, the olive oil industry generates large amounts of wastes and wastewaters. The disposal of these polluting by-products is a significant environmental problem that needs an adequate solution. On one hand, the phytotoxic and antimicrobial effects of olive mill wastewaters are mainly due to their phenolic content. The hydrophilic character of the polyphenols results in the major proportion of natural phenols being separated into the water phase during the olive processing. On other hand, the health benefits arising from a diet containing olive oil have been attributed to its richness in phenolic compounds that act as natural antioxidants and are thought to contribute to the prevention of heart diseases and cancers. Olive mill wastewater (OMW) samples have been analysed in terms of their phenolic constituents and antioxidant activities. The total phenolic content, flavonoids, flavanols, and proanthocyanidins were determined. The antioxidant and radical scavenging activity of phenolic extracts and microfiltred samples was evaluated using different tests (iron(II) chelating activity, total antioxidant capacity, DPPH assays and lipid peroxidation test). The obtained results reveal the considerable antioxidant capacity of the OMW, that can be considered as an inexpensive potential source of high added value powerful natural antioxidants comparable to some synthetic antioxidants commonly used in the food industry.

  3. Spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering using geostatistical techniques.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-02-01

    Analysis of flowering patterns in the olive (Olea europaea L.) are of considerable agricultural and ecological interest, and also provide valuable information for allergy-sufferers, enabling identification of the major sources of airborne pollen at any given moment by interpreting the aerobiological data recorded in pollen traps. The present spatiotemporal analysis of olive flowering in central Spain combined geostatistical techniques with the application of a Geographic Information Systems, and compared results for flowering intensity with airborne pollen records. The results were used to obtain continuous phenological maps which determined the pattern of the succession of the olive flowering. The results show also that, although the highest airborne olive-pollen counts were recorded during the greatest flowering intensity of the groves closest to the pollen trap, the counts recorded at the start of the pollen season were not linked to local olive groves, which had not yet begin to flower. To detect the remote sources of olive pollen several episodes of pollen recorded before the local flowering season were analysed using a HYSPLIT trajectory model and the findings showed that western, southern and southwestern winds transported pollen grains into the study area from earlier-flowering groves located outside the territory.

  4. Selective recognition of DNA from olive leaves and olive oil by PNA and modified-PNA microarrays

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Stefano; Calabretta, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Tullia; Sforza, Stefano; Arcioni, Sergio; Baldoni, Luciana; Corradini, Roberto; Marchelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    PNA probes for the specific detection of DNA from olive oil samples by microarray technology were developed. The presence of as low as 5% refined hazelnut (Corylus avellana) oil in extra-virgin olive oil (Olea europaea L.) could be detected by using a PNA microarray. A set of two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) from the Actin gene of Olive was chosen as a model for evaluating the ability of PNA probes for discriminating olive cultivars. Both unmodified and C2-modified PNAs bearing an arginine side-chain were used, the latter showing higher sequence specificity. DNA extracted from leaves of three different cultivars (Ogliarola leccese, Canino and Frantoio) could be easily discriminated using a microarray with unmodified PNA probes, whereas discrimination of DNA from oil samples was more challenging, and could be obtained only by using chiral PNA probes. PMID:22772038

  5. Modification of volatile compound profile of virgin olive oil due to hot-water treatment of olive fruit.

    PubMed

    Pérez, Ana G; Luaces, Pilar; Ríos, José J; García, José M; Sanz, Carlos

    2003-10-22

    The effect of hot-water treatments of olive fruits before processing on the biosynthesis of virgin olive oil aroma was investigated by quantifying the variation within the major classes of volatile compounds. Data showed that hot-water treatments gave rise to changes in the volatile aroma profile of virgin olive oil from the three olive cultivars under study, Manzanilla, Picual, and Verdial. Different effects by thermal treatments were observed according to cultivar. In general, these changes are mainly due to a decrease in the contents of C(6) aldehydes and C(5) compounds. Contents of C(6) alcohols and esters remained constant or decreased slightly when the temperature of the treatment was increased. Thus, heat treatments seemed to promote a partial deactivation of the lipoxygenase/hydroperoxide lyase enzyme system, whereas other enzymatic activities, within the lipoxygenase pathway, such as alcohol dehydrogenase and alcohol acyltransferase, remained apparently unaffected as a consequence of heat treatments. PMID:14558776

  6. CT-Guided Percutaneous Fine-Needle Aspiration Biopsy of the Inferior Vena Cava Wall: A Posterior Coaxial Approach

    SciTech Connect

    Kos, Sebastian Bilecen, Deniz; Baumhoer, Daniel; Guillaume, Nicolas; Jacob, Augustinus L.

    2010-02-15

    A 72-year-old man was referred to our department with an incidentally diagnosed bronchogenic carcinoma of the right upper lobe. Positron emission tomography (PET) combined with computed tomography (PET-CT) revealed an unexpected hot spot in the ventral wall of the infrarenal segment of the inferior vena cava (IVC). Diagnostic biopsy of this lesion was performed under CT guidance with semiautomated 20G fine-needle aspiration (FNA) through a 19G coaxial needle. Cytology revealed few carcinoma cells, which led to the remarkable diagnosis of a distant metastasis to the IVC wall. Both the immediate postinterventional CT control and the further surveillance period of the patient were unremarkable; in particular, no signs of bleeding complications were detected. We conclude that coaxial FNA of an IVC wall lesion is technically feasible and may even help diagnose distant metastasis.

  7. Meniscal Ramp Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Chahla, Jorge; Dean, Chase S.; Moatshe, Gilbert; Mitchell, Justin J.; Cram, Tyler R.; Yacuzzi, Carlos; LaPrade, Robert F.

    2016-01-01

    Meniscal ramp lesions are more frequently associated with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries than previously recognized. Some authors suggest that this entity results from disruption of the meniscotibial ligaments of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus, whereas others support the idea that it is created by a tear of the peripheral attachment of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans have been reported to have a low sensitivity, and consequently, ramp lesions often go undiagnosed. Therefore, to rule out a ramp lesion, an arthroscopic evaluation with probing of the posterior horn of the medial meniscus should be performed. Several treatment options have been reported, including nonsurgical management, inside-out meniscal repair, or all-inside meniscal repair. In cases of isolated ramp lesions, a standard meniscal repair rehabilitation protocol should be followed. However, when a concomitant ACL reconstruction (ACLR) is performed, the rehabilitation should follow the designated ACLR postoperative protocol. The purpose of this article was to review the current literature regarding meniscal ramp lesions and summarize the pertinent anatomy, biomechanics, diagnostic strategies, recommended treatment options, and postoperative protocol. PMID:27504467

  8. Monitoring pigmented skin lesions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wallace, Vincent P.; Bamber, Jeffery C.; Ott, Robert J.; Crawford, Diane C.; Mortimer, Peter S.

    2002-06-01

    The rising incidence of skin cancer has led to an increase in the number of patients with skin lesions that require diagnosis, mostly using subjective visual examination. Successful treatment depends on early diagnosis. Unfortunately diagnostic accuracy, even by experts, can be as low as 56%; therefore, an accurate, objective diagnostic aid is greatly needed. Reflectance characteristics of pigmented skin lesions were documented to evaluate their diagnostic potential. Reflectance spectra in the wavelength range 320-1100nm were obtained from 260 lesions. Differences between spectra from benign and malignant lesions were utilized by extracting features with the best discriminating power. Discrimination was evaluated using two techniques: multivariate statistical analysis and artificial neural networks, using histology as the standard. Each technique was tested in a blind study and assessed in terms of its ability to diagnose new cases and compared to the clinical diagnosis. The artificial neural network achieved the best diagnostic performance for discriminating between malignant melanoma and benign nevi, having a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 65%. Utilization of visible and infrared techniques for monitoring skin lesions has lead to improvements in diagnostic accuracy. We conclude that these techniques are worthy of further development and evaluation in clinical practice as a screening tool.

  9. New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Stroke Registry II. Vascular Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Wityk, RJ; Pazdera, L; Chang, H-M; Pessin, MS; DeWitt, LD

    2005-01-01

    Among 407 New England Medical Center Posterior Circulation Registry (NEMC-PCR) patients, the extracranial (ECVA) and intracranial vertebral arteries (ICVA) were the commonest sites of severe occlusive disease followed by the basilar artery (BA). Severe occlusive lesions were found in >1 large artery in 148 patients; 134 had unilateral or bilateral severe disease at one arterial location. Single arterial site occlusive disease occurred most often in the ECVA (52 patients, 15 bilateral) followed by the ICVA (40 patients, 12 bilateral) and the BA (46 patients). Involvement of the ICVAs and the BA was very common and some patients also had ECVA lesions. Hypertension, smoking, and coronary and peripheral vascular disease were most prevalent in patients with extracranial disease while diabetes and hyperlipidemia were more common when occlusive lesions were only intracranial. Intra-arterial embolism was the most common mechanism of brain infarction in patients with ECVA and ICVA occlusive disease. ICVA occlusive lesions infrequently caused infarction limited to the proximal territory (medulla and posterior inferior cerebellum). BA lesions most often caused infarcts limited to the middle posterior circulation territory (pons and anterior inferior cerebellum). Posterior cerebral artery occlusive lesions were predominantly embolic. Penetrating artery disease caused mostly pontine and thalamic infarcts. Prognosis was poorest in patients with BA disease. The best prognosis surprisingly was in patients who had multiple arterial occlusive lesions; they often had position-sensitive transient ischemic attacks during months or years. PMID:20396470

  10. Lesion-symptom mapping of the human cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Timmann, D; Brandauer, B; Hermsdörfer, J; Ilg, W; Konczak, J; Gerwig, M; Gizewski, E R; Schoch, B

    2008-01-01

    patients with focal cerebellar lesions, acquisition of eyeblink conditioning was significantly reduced in lesions including the cortex of the superior posterior lobe, but not the inferior posterior lobe. Disordered timing of conditioned eyeblink responses correlated with lesions of the anterior lobe. Findings are in good agreement with the animal literature. Different parts of the cerebellar cortex may be involved in acquisition and timing of conditioned eyeblink responses in humans. These examples demonstrate that MRI-based lesion-symptom mapping is helpful to study the contribution of functionally relevant cerebellar compartments in motor control and recovery in patients with cerebellar disease. In addition, information about the function of cerebellar cortex and nuclei can be gained.

  11. The molecular biology of the olive fly comes of age

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Olive cultivation blends with the history of the Mediterranean countries since ancient times. Even today, activities around the olive tree constitute major engagements of several people in the countryside of both sides of the Mediterranean basin. The olive fly is, beyond doubt, the most destructive pest of cultivated olives. The female fly leaves its eggs in the olive fruit. Upon emergence, the larvae feed on the olive sap, thus destroying the fruit. If untreated, practically all olives get infected. The use of chemical insecticides constitutes the principal olive fly control approach. The Sterile Insect Technique (SIT), an environmentally friendly alternative control method, had been tried in pilot field applications in the 1970's, albeit with no practical success. This was mainly attributed to the low, non-antagonistic quality of the mixed-sex released insects. Many years of experience from successful SIT applications in related species, primarily the Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata, demonstrated that efficient SIT protocols require the availability of fundamental genetic and molecular information. Results Among the primary systems whose understanding can contribute towards novel SIT approaches (or its recently developed alternative RIDL: Release of Insects carrying a Dominant Lethal) is the reproductive, since the ability to manipulate the reproductive system would directly affect the insect's fertility. In addition, the analysis of early embryonic promoters and apoptotic genes would provide tools that confer dominant early-embryonic lethality during mass-rearing. Here we report the identification of several genes involved in these systems through whole transcriptome analysis of female accessory glands (FAGs) and spermathecae, as well as male testes. Indeed, analysis of differentially expressed genes in these tissues revealed higher metabolic activity in testes than in FAGs/spermathecae. Furthermore, at least five olfactory-related genes

  12. Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle

    PubMed Central

    Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus following orbital reconstruction after a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers. PMID:21463958

  13. Corticofugal regulation of auditory sensitivity in the bat inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Jen, P H; Chen, Q C; Sun, X D

    1998-12-01

    Under free-field stimulation conditions, corticofugal regulation of auditory sensitivity of neurons in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the big brown bat, Eptesicus fuscus, was studied by blocking activities of auditory cortical neurons with Lidocaine or by electrical stimulation in auditory cortical neuron recording sites. The corticocollicular pathway regulated the number of impulses, the auditory spatial response areas and the frequency-tuning curves of inferior colliculus neurons through facilitation or inhibition. Corticofugal regulation was most effective at low sound intensity and was dependent upon the time interval between acoustic and electrical stimuli. At optimal inter-stimulus intervals, inferior colliculus neurons had the smallest number of impulses and the longest response latency during corticofugal inhibition. The opposite effects were observed during corticofugal facilitation. Corticofugal inhibitory latency was longer than corticofugal facilitatory latency. Iontophoretic application of gamma-aminobutyric acid and bicuculline to inferior colliculus recording sites produced effects similar to what were observed during corticofugal inhibition and facilitation. We suggest that corticofugal regulation of central auditory sensitivity can provide an animal with a mechanism to regulate acoustic signal processing in the ascending auditory pathway.

  14. A periodic network of neurochemical modules in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Chernock, Michelle L; Larue, David T; Winer, Jeffery A

    2004-02-01

    A new organization has been found in shell nuclei of rat inferior colliculus. Chemically specific modules with a periodic distribution fill about half of layer 2 of external cortex and dorsal cortex. Modules contain clusters of small glutamic acid decarboxylase-positive neurons and large boutons at higher density than in other inferior colliculus subdivisions. The modules are also present in tissue stained for parvalbumin, cytochrome oxidase, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase, and acetylcholinesterase. Six to seven bilaterally symmetrical modules extend from the caudal extremity of the external cortex of the inferior colliculus to its rostral pole. Modules are from approximately 800 to 2200 microm long and have areas between 5000 and 40,000 microm2. Modules alternate with immunonegative regions. Similar modules are found in inbred and outbred strains of rat, and in both males and females. They are absent in mouse, squirrel, cat, bat, macaque monkey, and barn owl. Modules are immunonegative for glycine, calbindin, serotonin, and choline acetyltransferase. The auditory cortex and ipsi- and contralateral inferior colliculi project to the external cortex. Somatic sensory influences from the dorsal column nuclei and spinal trigeminal nucleus are the primary ascending sensory input to the external cortex; ascending auditory input to layer 2 is sparse. If the immunopositive modular neurons receive this input, the external cortex could participate in spatial orientation and somatic motor control through its intrinsic and extrinsic projections. PMID:14759566

  15. Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L

    2011-04-01

    Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus after orbital reconstruction following a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers.

  16. Asymptomatic Lumbar Vertebral Erosion from Inferior Vena Cava Filter Perforation

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Wayne Hieb, Robert A.; Olson, Eric; Carrera, Guillermo F.

    2007-06-15

    In 2002, a 24-year-old female trauma patient underwent prophylactic inferior vena cava filter placement. Recurrent bouts of renal stones prompted serial CT imaging in 2004. In this brief report, we describe erosion and ossification of the L3 vertebral body by a Greenfield filter strut.

  17. Traumatic longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle.

    PubMed

    Laursen, Jessica; Demer, Joseph L

    2011-04-01

    Orbital floor fractures and associated injuries can cause strabismus. We present the case of a 34-year-old man with incomitant strabismus after orbital reconstruction following a high-impact baseball injury. Multipositional, high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging revealed extensive longitudinal splitting of the inferior rectus muscle by an orbital floor implant that separated its orbital and global layers. PMID:21463958

  18. Intraventricular mass lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, G.; Sobel, D.F.; Kelley, W.M.; Norman, D.

    1984-11-01

    Determining the precise etiology of an intraventricular mass can be a difficult diagnostic problem. CT and angiographic findings were reviewed in a series of 73 patients who had intraventricular masses. The histologic diagnosis can be suggested preoperatively by an analysis of the frequency of lesions occurring at a given ventricular location, lesion density before and after administration of contrast material, age, and sex of the patient, morphologic appearance of the mass, and presence or absence of hydrocephalus. Angiography is useful when meningioma, choroid plexus papilloma and carcinoma, or arteriovenous malformation are considered.

  19. Surgical outcomes of superior versus inferior glaucoma drainage device implantation

    PubMed Central

    Martino, Amy Z.; Iverson, Shawn; Feuer, William J.; Greenfield, David S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare the safety and intraocular pressure (IOP) lowering efficacy of initial glaucoma drainage device (GDD) implantation performed at the superior versus inferior limbus. Methods A retrospective chart review was conducted to identify glaucoma patients that had undergone initial Baerveldt GDD surgery at the inferior limbus for uncontrolled IOP. All eyes had a minimum of 6 months of postoperative follow-up. These eyes were frequency matched to eyes with initial Baerveldt GDD implantation performed at the superior limbus to within 5 years of age and 6 months of follow-up. Baseline demographic and clinical information, as well as preoperative and postoperative IOP, visual acuity, and number of anti-glaucoma medications were extracted. Failure was defined as IOP > 21 mmHg or not reduced by 20% below baseline on two consecutive follow-up visits after 3 months, IOP ≤ 5 mmHg on two consecutive follow-up visits after 3 months, reoperation for glaucoma, or loss of light perception vision. Statistical methods consisted of Student's t-tests, chi-squared test, and Kaplan-Meier time to failure analysis. Results Fifty eyes (17 inferior, 33 superior) of 43 patients were enrolled. Mean postoperative follow-up in both groups were similar (mean 26.2 ± 15.2 for inferior and 23.9 ± 10.43 months for superior, p=0.54). Prior trabeculectomy had been performed in 8/17 (47%) and 11/33 (33%) eyes (p=0.34) with inferior and superior implants, respectively. Mean preoperative IOP (mmHg) in the superior group (26 ± 11) was significantly higher (p=0.02) than in the inferior group (21 ± 7). Success rates were similar (p>0.05) between the inferior and superior GDD groups during the study period, with 64.7% and 75.8% classified as successful at 1-year of follow-up and 43.1% and 65.7% at 2-years of follow-up, respectively. There was no difference in cumulative proportions of eyes failing between the groups (p=0.20, log-rank test). Mean postoperative IOP and number of anti

  20. Gravity-dependent nystagmus and inner-ear dysfunction suggest anterior and posterior inferior cerebellar artery infarct.

    PubMed

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Miller, Benjamin R; Sundararajan, Sophia; Katirji, Bashar

    2014-04-01

    Cerebellar lesions may present with gravity-dependent nystagmus, where the direction and velocity of the drifts change with alterations in head position. Two patients had acute onset of hearing loss, vertigo, oscillopsia, nausea, and vomiting. Examination revealed gravity-dependent nystagmus, unilateral hypoactive vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), and hearing loss ipsilateral to the VOR hypofunction. Traditionally, the hypoactive VOR and hearing loss suggest inner-ear dysfunction. Vertigo, nausea, vomiting, and nystagmus may suggest peripheral or central vestibulopathy. The gravity-dependent modulation of nystagmus, however, localizes to the posterior cerebellar vermis. Magnetic resonance imaging in our patients revealed acute cerebellar infarct affecting posterior cerebellar vermis, in the vascular distribution of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA). This lesion explains the gravity-dependent nystagmus, nausea, and vomiting. Acute onset of unilateral hearing loss and VOR hypofunction could be the manifestation of inner-ear ischemic injury secondary to the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) compromise. In cases of combined AICA and PICA infarction, the symptoms of peripheral vestibulopathy might masquerade the central vestibular syndrome and harbor a cerebellar stroke. However, the gravity-dependent nystagmus allows prompt identification of acute cerebellar infarct.

  1. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia.

    PubMed

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  2. Endodontic periapical lesion-induced mental nerve paresthesia

    PubMed Central

    Shadmehr, Elham; Shekarchizade, Neda

    2015-01-01

    Paresthesia is a burning or prickling sensation or partial numbness, resulting from neural injury. The symptoms can vary from mild neurosensory dysfunction to total loss of sensation in the innervated area. Only a few cases have described apical periodontitis to be the etiological factor of impaired sensation in the area innervated by the inferior alveolar and mental nerves. The aim of the present paper is to report a case of periapical lesion-induced paresthesia in the innervation area of the mental nerve, which was successfully treated with endodontic retreatment. PMID:25878687

  3. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Olive (Olea europaea L.) fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively) during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF), suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the olive tree. Our data

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of liver lesions: exceptions and atypical lesions.

    PubMed

    van den Bos, Indra C; Hussain, Shahid M; de Man, Robert A; Zondervan, Pieter E; Ijzermans, Jan N M; Preda, A; Krestin, Gabriel P

    2008-01-01

    On state-of-the-art magnetic resonance imaging, most lesions can be detected and characterized with confidence according to well-known criteria. However, atypical characteristics in some common lesions and the incidental encounter with rare lesions may pose diagnostic difficulties. In this article, six challenging hepatic lesions will be discussed and evaluated on the most important magnetic resonance imaging sequences, with histological correlation when available. In addition, the background information concerning these lesions will be described based on the most recent available literature. By reading this article, the reader will be able to (1) categorize the lesion in solid and fluid-containing lesions, based on the T2 signal intensity; and (2) define the benign or malignant nature of the lesion, in relation to the signal intensity and dynamic enhancement pattern, despite the presence of atypical characteristics of some lesions. PMID:18436109

  5. On the origin of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene in extra virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Biedermann, M; Grob, K; Morchio, G

    1995-04-01

    Concentrations of benzene, toluene, C2-benzenes and styrene were determined in olives and the oils produced thereof, as well as at various intermediate steps during production. Concentrations were compared to those found in samples of air taken from the olive grove and the olive mills. In an exposition experiment in the laboratory, olives absorbed aromatic compounds, approaching saturation corresponding to the partition coefficient between air and oil. However, concentrations in olives delivered to the mills were 4-10 times higher than expected from the analysis of the air in the olive grove. In the olive mills, concentrations were increased further by a factor of up to 2 because of uptake from air which contained high concentrations of aromatics. Styrene concentrations strongly increased during storage of crushed olives at ambient temperature, which confirms the hypothesis that styrene is a product of metabolism.

  6. Neural correlates of impaired emotional face recognition in cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Adamaszek, Michael; Kirkby, Kenneth C; D'Agata, Fedrico; Olbrich, Sebastian; Langner, Sönke; Steele, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Busse, Stefan; Kessler, Christof; Hamm, Alfons

    2015-07-10

    Clinical and neuroimaging data indicate a cerebellar contribution to emotional processing, which may account for affective-behavioral disturbances in patients with cerebellar lesions. We studied the neurophysiology of cerebellar involvement in recognition of emotional facial expression. Participants comprised eight patients with discrete ischemic cerebellar lesions and eight control patients without any cerebrovascular stroke. Event-related potentials (ERP) were used to measure responses to faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Database (KDEF), interspersed in a stream of images with salient contents. Images of faces augmented N170 in both groups, but increased late positive potential (LPP) only in control patients without brain lesions. Dipole analysis revealed altered activation patterns for negative emotions in patients with cerebellar lesions, including activation of the left inferior prefrontal area to images of faces showing fear, contralateral to controls. Correlation analysis indicated that lesions of cerebellar area Crus I contribute to ERP deviations. Overall, our results implicate the cerebellum in integrating emotional information at different higher order stages, suggesting distinct cerebellar contributions to the proposed large-scale cerebral network of emotional face recognition. PMID:25912431

  7. Neural correlates of impaired emotional face recognition in cerebellar lesions.

    PubMed

    Adamaszek, Michael; Kirkby, Kenneth C; D'Agata, Fedrico; Olbrich, Sebastian; Langner, Sönke; Steele, Christopher; Sehm, Bernhard; Busse, Stefan; Kessler, Christof; Hamm, Alfons

    2015-07-10

    Clinical and neuroimaging data indicate a cerebellar contribution to emotional processing, which may account for affective-behavioral disturbances in patients with cerebellar lesions. We studied the neurophysiology of cerebellar involvement in recognition of emotional facial expression. Participants comprised eight patients with discrete ischemic cerebellar lesions and eight control patients without any cerebrovascular stroke. Event-related potentials (ERP) were used to measure responses to faces from the Karolinska Directed Emotional Faces Database (KDEF), interspersed in a stream of images with salient contents. Images of faces augmented N170 in both groups, but increased late positive potential (LPP) only in control patients without brain lesions. Dipole analysis revealed altered activation patterns for negative emotions in patients with cerebellar lesions, including activation of the left inferior prefrontal area to images of faces showing fear, contralateral to controls. Correlation analysis indicated that lesions of cerebellar area Crus I contribute to ERP deviations. Overall, our results implicate the cerebellum in integrating emotional information at different higher order stages, suggesting distinct cerebellar contributions to the proposed large-scale cerebral network of emotional face recognition.

  8. Lymphoepithelial duct lesions in Sjögren-type sialadenitis.

    PubMed

    Ihrler, S; Zietz, C; Sendelhofert, A; Riederer, A; Löhrs, U

    1999-04-01

    It is not clear, whether the so-called basal cells of the salivary striated ducts are an independent cell-type distinct from myoepithelial cells, making characterization of the cell proliferation typical of the duct lesions in Sjögren-type sialadenitis/benign lymphoepithelial lesion (BLEL) difficult. An immunohistochemical investigation including different cytokeratin subtypes, alpha-actin, Ki-67 and Bcl-2 was directed at the epithelial cytoskeleton in normal parotid parenchyma (n=8), BLEL (n=12), HIV-associated lymphoepithelial cysts (n=8) and palatine tonsils (n=8). There are profound morphological and functional differences between basal and myoepithelial cells in the normal salivary duct. Development of duct lesions in BLEL arises from basal cell hyperplasia of striated ducts with aberrant differentiation into a multi-layered and reticulated epithelium, characterized by profound alteration of the cytokeratin pattern. This functionally inferior, metaplastic epithelium is similar to the lymphoepithelial crypt epithelium of palatine tonsils. The often postulated participation of myoepithelial cells in duct lesions of Sjögren disease/BLEL cannot be supported. We regard the designations lymphoepithelial lesion and lymphoepithelial metaplasia as the most appropriate.

  9. Detection of Verticillium wilt of olive trees and downy mildew of opium poppy using hyperspectral and thermal UAV imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderón Madrid, Rocío; Navas Cortés, Juan Antonio; Montes Borrego, Miguel; Landa del Castillo, Blanca Beatriz; Lucena León, Carlos; Jesús Zarco Tejada, Pablo

    2014-05-01

    The present study explored the use of high-resolution thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery as indicators of the infections caused by Verticillium wilt (VW) in olive trees and downy mildew (DM) in opium poppy fields. VW, caused by the soil-borne fungus Verticillium dahliae, and DM, caused by the biotrophic obligate oomycete Peronospora arborescens, are the most economically limiting diseases of olive trees and opium poppy, respectively, worldwide. V. dahliae infects the plant by the roots and colonizes its vascular system, blocking water flow and eventually inducing water stress. P. arborescens colonizes the mesophyll, appearing the first symptoms as small chlorotic leaf lesions, which can evolve to curled and thickened tissues and systemic infections that become deformed and necrotic as the disease develops. The work conducted to detect VW and DM infection consisted on the acquisition of time series of airborne thermal, multispectral and hyperspectral imagery using 2-m and 5-m wingspan electric Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in spring and summer of three consecutive years (2009 to 2011) for VW detection and on three dates in spring of 2009 for DM detection. Two 7-ha commercial olive orchards naturally infected with V. dahliae and two opium poppy field plots artificially infected by P. arborescens were flown. Concurrently to the airborne campaigns, olive orchards and opium poppy fields were assessed "in situ" to assess actual VW severity and DM incidence. Furthermore, field measurements were conducted at leaf and crown level. The field results related to VW detection showed a significant increase in crown temperature (Tc) minus air temperature (Ta) and a decrease in leaf stomatal conductance (G) as VW severity increased. This reduction in G was associated with a significant increase in the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI570) and a decrease in chlorophyll fluorescence. DM asymptomatic leaves showed significantly higher NDVI and lower green/red index

  10. Inoculated fermentation of green olives with potential probiotic Lactobacillus pentosus and Lactobacillus plantarum starter cultures isolated from industrially fermented olives.

    PubMed

    Blana, Vasiliki A; Grounta, Athena; Tassou, Chrysoula C; Nychas, George-John E; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2014-04-01

    The performance of two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely Lactobacillus pentosus B281 and Lactobacillus plantarum B282, previously isolated from industrially fermented table olives and screened in vitro for probiotic potential, was investigated as starter cultures in Spanish style fermentation of cv. Halkidiki green olives. Fermentation was undertaken at room temperature in two different initial salt concentrations (8% and 10%, w/v, NaCl) in the brines. The strains were inoculated as single and combined cultures and the dynamics of their population on the surface of olives was monitored for a period of 114 days. The survival of inoculated strains on olives was determined using Pulsed Field Gel Electrophoresis (PFGE). Both probiotic strains successfully colonized the olive surface at populations ranged from 6.0 to 7.0 log CFU/g throughout fermentation. PFGE analysis revealed that L. pentosus B281 presented higher colonization in both salt levels at the end of fermentation (81.2% and 93.3% in 8% and 10% NaCl brines, respectively). For L. plantarum B282 a high survival rate (83.3%) was observed in 8% NaCl brines, but in 10% NaCl the strain could not colonize the surface of olives. L. pentosus B281 also dominated over L. plantarum B282 in inoculated fermentations when the two strains were used as combined culture. The biochemical profile (pH, organic acids, volatile compounds) attained during fermentation and the sensory analysis of the final product indicated a typical lactic acid fermentation process of green olives.

  11. Olive oil exhibits osteoprotection in ovariectomized rats without estrogenic effects

    PubMed Central

    ZHENG, XIAOHUA; HUANG, HUIJUAN; ZHENG, XIAOBING; LI, BAOHENG

    2016-01-01

    The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of olive oil on bone and uterus in ovariectomized rats. A total of 34 surgically ovariectomized or sham-operated virgin Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: i) Sham-operated control rats (sham group); ii) Ovariectomized rats (OVX group); iii) Olive oil-supplemented ovariectomized rats (olive group); and iv) Diethylstilbestrol-supplemented ovariectomized rats (E2 group). At 12 weeks following left ventricular blood sacrificed to detect plasma estradiol (E2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6 levels. Bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine was evaluated using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, and the left femur proximal 1/3 slices were observed using transmission electron microscopy. Uterine wet weight and the uterus index (ratio of uterine wet weight and body weight) were compared, and the uterine endometrium was observed using a light microscope. In the OVX group, serum E2 was significantly lower and IL-1β and IL-6 levels were significantly higher compared with the sham group. By contrast, serum E2 levels increased and IL-1β levels decreased in the olive group, but showed no significant difference compared with the sham group. The lumbar spine BMD in the olive group was increased compared with OVX group. Electron microscopy revealed sparse collagen fibers in the OVX group, with decreased density and multi-cavity, showing pathological features of osteoporosis. By contrast, the situation was improved in the E2 and olive groups, in which organelles such as the rough endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria and Golgi apparatus were visible and active. Compared with the sham group rats, the uterine wet weight and uterine index decreased in the OVX and olive groups; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in the E2 group. Furthermore, endometrial hyperplasia was not observed in the olive group, which were apparently different from E2 group. The present results suggest that olive

  12. Symbiotic bacteria enable olive fly larvae to overcome host defences.

    PubMed

    Ben-Yosef, Michael; Pasternak, Zohar; Jurkevitch, Edouard; Yuval, Boaz

    2015-07-01

    Ripe fruit offer readily available nutrients for many animals, including fruit fly larvae (Diptera: Tephritidae) and their associated rot-inducing bacteria. Yet, during most of their ontogeny, fruit remain chemically defended and effectively suppress herbivores and pathogens by high levels of secondary metabolites. Olive flies (Bactrocera oleae) are uniquely able to develop in unripe olives. Unlike other frugivorous tephritids, the larvae maintain bacteria confined within their midgut caeca. We examined the interaction between larvae, their associated bacteria, and fruit chemical defence, hypothesizing that bacterial contribution to larval development is contingent on the phenology of fruit defensive chemistry. We demonstrate that larvae require their natural complement of bacteria (Candidatus Erwinia dacicola: Enterobacteriaceae) in order to develop in unripe olives. Conversely, when feeding on ripe fruit, larval development proceeds independently of these bacteria. Our experiments suggest that bacteria counteract the inhibitory effect of oleuropein-the principal phenolic glycoside in unripe olives. In light of these results, we suggest that the unique symbiosis in olive flies, compared with other frugivorous tephritids, is understood by considering the relationship between the fly, bacteria and fruit chemistry. When applied in an evolutionary context, this approach may also point out the forces which shaped symbioses across the Tephritidae.

  13. Site and size of multiple sclerosis lesions predict enhanced or decreased female orgasmic function.

    PubMed

    Winder, Klemens; Seifert, Frank; Koehn, Julia; Deutsch, Martina; Engelhorn, Tobias; Dörfler, Arnd; Lee, De-Hyung; Linker, Ralf A; Hilz, Max J

    2015-12-01

    Neuroimaging identified brain areas involved in female orgasm. In women with multiple sclerosis (MS), associations between orgasmic function and the site and size of MS-related magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) changes are undetermined. This study intended to correlate MS-associated cerebral lesion load and location with clinical scores of female orgasmic function. In 50 women with MS (mean age 37.0 ± 9.9 years), we assessed Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI) scores for orgasmic frequency, difficulty and satisfaction. We determined disease duration, Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load and location using T2-weighed 1.5 T MRIs. We correlated FSFI scores for orgasm with patient age, disease duration, EDSS scores, and cerebral MS-lesion load (Spearman rank correlation; significance: p < 0.05). FSFI scores for orgasm correlated inversely with MS-lesion load in the left temporal periventricular white matter and right middle-inferior occipital area, but directly with MS-lesion load in the right frontal primary motor cortex, left prefrontal/inferior frontal cortex, right amygdala, left temporal middle-inferior and fusiform areas, and midbrain. FSFI scores for orgasm did not correlate with patient age, disease duration and EDSS scores (p > 0.05). In conclusion, our results indicate that MS-lesions in left temporal periventricular and right visual association areas deteriorate orgasmic function. In contrast, direct correlations between frontotemporal or midbrain lesions and higher FSFI scores, indicating enhanced or disinhibited orgasmic function, suggest that these brain regions normally buffer orgasmic responses. Moreover, our results indicate that orgasmic dysfunction in women with MS evolves independently of disease duration and physical disability. PMID:26459094

  14. Evaluation of the in Vitro Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Lipid Fractions of Olive Pomace, Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed and Gilthead Sea Bream (Sparus aurata) Fed with Olive Pomace Enriched Fish Feed

    PubMed Central

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Gogaki, Vassiliki; Stamatakis, Giorgos; Papaharisis, Leonidas; Demopoulos, Constantinos A.; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2013-01-01

    Given the pivotal role of Platelet-Activating-Factor (PAF) in atherosclerosis and the cardio-protective role of PAF-inhibitors derived from olive pomace, the inclusion of olive pomace in fish feed has been studied for gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata). The aim of the current research was to elucidate the anti-atherogenic properties of specific HPLC lipid fractions obtained from olive pomace, olive pomace enriched fish feed and fish fed with the olive pomace enriched fish feed, by evaluating their in vitro biological activity against washed rabbit platelets. This in vitro study underlines that olive pomace inclusion in fish feed improves the nutritional value of both fish feed and fish possibly by enriching the marine lipid profile of gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) with specific bioactive lipid compounds of plant origin. PMID:24084786

  15. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  16. Olive mill wastewater membrane filtration fraction: Drying techniques and quality assessment of the dried product (abstract)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A current trend in olive mill wastewater (OMWW) management is to not only decrease environmental pollution but also utilize valuable co-products. Recovery of phenolics from OMWW could help olive oil processors add value to their co-product, increasing the sustainability of olive oil production. The ...

  17. Availability of triazine herbicides in aged soils amended with olive oil mill waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive oil extraction generates a lot of organic waste, which can potentially cause adverse environmental impacts. Application of olive oil mill waste, alperujo, to the land could be an effective way to dispose of the waste. However, addition of olive oil mill wastes can modify the binding capacity o...

  18. High resolution NMR characterization of olive oils in terms of quality, authenticity and geographical origin.

    PubMed

    Mannina, Luisa; Sobolev, Anatoly P

    2011-12-01

    This review deals with the most relevant results obtained in the last 10 years of studies of olive oils by high field nuclear magnetic resonance. Among these, quality and authenticity of olive oils, as well as geographical and variety characterization of Mediterranean olive oils, are discussed.

  19. Olive quick decline in Italy is associated with unique strain of Xylella fastidiosa

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Olive quick decline syndrome (OQDS) is a destructive new disease currently affecting approximately 20,000 acres of olive in southern Italy—an area approximately the size of California’s table olive production in California. Symptoms of OQDS include extensive branch and twig dieback, yellow and brown...

  20. Recent progress in a classical biological control program for olive fruit fly in California

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae (Diptera: Tephritidae), causes severe damage to olive production worldwide. Control of olive fruit fly typically relies on pesticides, and under such conditions the impact of natural enemies is relatively low. About 15 years ago, the USDA-ARS European Biologic...

  1. 21 CFR 102.37 - Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. 102... for Specific Nonstandardized Foods § 102.37 Mixtures of edible fat or oil and olive oil. The common or... olive oil shall be as follows: (a) A descriptive name for the product meeting the requirements of §...

  2. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  3. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  4. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  5. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  6. 7 CFR 932.150 - Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ripe olives. 932.150 Section 932.150 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.150 Modified minimum quality requirements for canned green ripe olives. The minimum quality requirements prescribed in § 932.52 (a)(1)...

  7. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  8. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  9. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  10. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  11. 7 CFR 944.350 - Safeguard procedures for avocados, grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from grade, size..., grapefruit, kiwifruit, olives, oranges, prune variety plums (fresh prunes), and table grapes, exempt from..., kiwifruit, limes, olives, oranges, and prune variety plums (fresh prunes) for consumption by...

  12. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation.

  13. Determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olives by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Nortes-Méndez, Rocío; Robles-Molina, José; López-Blanco, Rafael; Vass, Andrea; Molina-Díaz, Antonio; Garcia-Reyes, Juan F

    2016-09-01

    This article reports the development of two HPLC-MS methods for the determination of polar pesticides in olive oil and olive samples by hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) separation followed by mass spectrometry detection with tandem mass spectrometry using a triple quadrupole instrument operated in multiple reaction monitoring mode (HILIC-MS/MS) or electrospray time-of-flight mass spectrometry (HILIC-TOFMS). The selected polar pesticides included in the study were: amitrol, cyromazine, diquat, paraquat, mepiquat, trimethylsulfonium (trimesium, glyphosate counterion) and fosetyl aluminium. The simple sample treatment procedure was based on liquid partitioning with methanol. The performance of the sample extraction was evaluated in terms of recovery rates and matrix effects in both olive oil and olives matrices. The results obtained for olive oil were satisfactory while, due to the high complexity of olives, poor recovery rates were obtained for the extraction of diquat, paraquat and amitrol, although with a reasonable precision enabling its use in routine analysis. Similarly, matrix effects were minor in the case of olive oil (ca. 20% suppression average), while significantly higher suppression was observed for olives (30-50% suppression average). The studied approaches were found to be useful for the determination of the pesticides studied in olive oil and olives with limits of quantitation below 5µgkg(-1) in most cases when tandem mass spectrometry was used, thus being in compliance with MRLs set by current EU regulation. PMID:27343599

  14. The effects of focal anterior and posterior brain lesions on verbal fluency.

    PubMed

    Stuss, D T; Alexander, M P; Hamer, L; Palumbo, C; Dempster, R; Binns, M; Levine, B; Izukawa, D

    1998-05-01

    Seventy-four patients with focal brain lesions were compared to a neurologically normal control group on tasks of letter-based and category-based list generation. When patients were divided only by right frontal, left frontal, or nonfrontal lesion sites, the pattern of fluency impairments confirmed prior claims. When more precise lesion sites within the frontal lobes were compared between groups classified based on their fluency performance, much more specific brain-behavior relations were uncovered. Damage to the right dorsolateral cortical or connecting striatal regions, the right posterior area, or the medial inferior frontal lobe of either hemisphere did not significantly affect letter-based fluency performance. Superior medial frontal damage, right or left, resulted in moderate impairment. Patients with left dorsolateral and/or striatal lesions were most impaired. Left parietal damage led to performance relatively equivalent to the superior medial and left dorsolateral groups. The same lesion sites produced impairments in category based fluency, but so did lesions of right dorsolateral and inferior medial regions. Task analysis and correlations with other measures revealed that different cognitive processes related to different brain regions underlie performance on verbal fluency tests. PMID:9623001

  15. [Managing focal incidental renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Nicolau, C; Paño, B; Sebastià, C

    2016-01-01

    Incidental renal lesions are relatively common in daily radiological practice. It is important to know the different diagnostic possibilities for incidentally detected lesions, depending on whether they are cystic or solid. The management of cystic lesions is guided by the Bosniak classification. In solid lesions, the goal is to differentiate between renal cancer and benign tumors such as fat-poor angiomyolipoma and oncocytoma. Radiologists need to know the recommendations for the management of these lesions and the usefulness of the different imaging techniques and interventional procedures in function of the characteristics of the incidental lesion and the patient's life expectancy.

  16. Abnormal Head Impulse Test in a Unilateral Cerebellar Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Seol-Hee; Jung, Jin-Man; Kwon, Do-Young; Park, Moon Ho; Choi, June; Kim, Ji-Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background The findings of head impulse tests (HIT) are usually normal in cerebellar lesions. Case Report A 46-year-old male presented with progressive dizziness and imbalance of 3 weeks duration. The patient exhibited catch-up saccades during bedside horizontal HIT to either side, which was more evident during the rightward HIT. However, results of bithermal caloric tests and rotatory chair test were normal. MRI revealed a lesion in the inferior cerebellum near the flocculus. Conclusions This case provides additional evidence that damage to the flocculus or its connections may impair the vestibulo-ocular reflex only during high-speed stimuli, especially when the stimuli are applied to the contralesional side. By observing accompanying cerebellar signs, the abnormal HIT findings caused by a cerebellar disorder can be distinguished from those produced by peripheral vestibular disorders. PMID:25749819

  17. Inferior turbinate osteoma as a cause of unilateral nose obstruction.

    PubMed

    Grabovac, Stjepan; Hadzibegović, Ana Danić; Markesić, Josip

    2012-11-01

    Osteomas are benign, slow growing bone tumors often seen in paranasal sinuses, mostly in the frontal sinus, whereas they are rare in the nasal cavity. Inferior turbinate osteoma is extremely rare and our case is the third reported in the literature to date. Symptoms vary depending on the location, size and spreading and nasal obstruction is the most common symptom. Treatment of osteomas is surgical and is reserved only for rapidly growing osteomas with symptoms of infection or compression. Although endoscopic surgery is preferred modality, external approach with lateral rhinotomy should be considered with larger osteomas especially those that involve the ethmoid labyrinth. In cases like ours, when large osteoma is localized on the inferior nasal turbinate, sublabial incision through the vestibulum is very suitable approach because it provides wide access and good visibility and leaves no visible scar.

  18. Deep Vein Thrombosis Provoked by Inferior Vena Cava Agenesis.

    PubMed

    Haddad, Raad A; Saadaldin, Mazin; Kumar, Binay; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-01

    Inferior vena cava agenesis (IVCA) is a rare congenital anomaly that can be asymptomatic or present with vague, nonspecific symptoms, such as abdominal or lower back pain, or deep vein thrombosis (DVT). Here, we present a 55-year-old male who came with painless swelling and redness of his left lower limb. On examination, swelling and redness were noted extending from the left foot to the upper thigh; it was also warm compared to his right lower limb. Venous Doppler ultrasound was done which showed DVT extending up to the common femoral vein. Subsequently, computed-tomography (CT) of the chest and abdomen was done to exclude malignancy or venous flow obstruction; it revealed congenital absence (agenesis) of the infrarenal inferior vena cava (IVC). PMID:26788400

  19. Pheochromocytoma with inferior vena cava thrombosis: An unusual association

    PubMed Central

    Kota, Sunil K.; Kota, Siva K.; Jammula, Sruti; Meher, Lalit K.; Modi, Kirtikumar D.

    2012-01-01

    Pheochromocytomas have been described in association with vascular abnormalities like renal artery stenosis. A 48-year-old man was admitted to our hospital with the complaints of headache, sweating, anxiety, dizziness, nausea, vomiting and hypertension. For last several days, he was having a dull aching abdominal pain. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed the presence of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. An inferior vena cava (IVC) venogram via the right jugular vein demonstrated occlusion of the IVC inferior to the right atrium. Surgical removal of pheochromocytoma was done, followed by anticoagulant treatment for IVC thrombosis, initially with subcutaneous low molecular weight heparin, and then with oral warfarin, resulting in restoration of patency. To the best of our knowledge, the occurrence of pheochromocytoma in IVC thrombosis has not been reported so far from India. Possible mechanisms of such an involvement are discussed. PMID:22629039

  20. Penetrating injuries of the abdominal inferior vena cava.

    PubMed Central

    Degiannis, E.; Velmahos, G. C.; Levy, R. D.; Souter, I.; Benn, C. A.; Saadia, R.

    1996-01-01

    This is a retrospective study of 74 patients with penetrating injuries of the abdominal inferior vena cava; the cause of injury was gunshot in 91% and stabbing in 9%. Of the patients, 77% underwent lateral venorrhaphy, 5% underwent infrarenal ligation of the inferior vena cava (IVC), and 18% died perioperatively before any caval repair could be carried out. There was an overall perioperative mortality of 39%. Persistent shock, the site of the venous injury, particularly in the retrohepatic position, and the number of associated vascular injuries were directly related to mortality. Irrespective of the improvements in resuscitation and the various operative methods available, penetrating trauma of the abdominal IVC remains a life-threatening injury. PMID:8943628

  1. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest.

  2. Olive fruits infested with olive fly larvae respond with an ethylene burst and the emission of specific volatiles.

    PubMed

    Alagna, Fiammetta; Kallenbach, Mario; Pompa, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesca; Rao, Rosa; Baldwin, Ian T; Bonaventure, Gustavo; Baldoni, Luciana

    2016-04-01

    Olive fly (Bactrocera oleae R.) is the most harmful insect pest of olive (Olea europaea L.) which strongly affects fruits and oil production. Despite the expanding economic importance of olive cultivation, up to now, only limited information on plant responses to B. oleae is available. Here, we demonstrate that olive fruits respond to B. oleae attack by producing changes in an array of different defensive compounds including phytohormones, volatile organic compounds (VOCs), and defense proteins. Bactrocera oleae-infested fruits induced a strong ethylene burst and transcript levels of several putative ethylene-responsive transcription factors became significantly upregulated. Moreover, infested fruits induced significant changes in the levels of 12-oxo-phytodienoic acid and C12 derivatives of the hydroperoxide lyase. The emission of VOCs was also changed quantitatively and qualitatively in insect-damaged fruits, indicating that B. oleae larval feeding can specifically affect the volatile blend of fruits. Finally, we show that larval infestation maintained high levels of trypsin protease inhibitors in ripe fruits, probably by affecting post-transcriptional mechanisms. Our results provide novel and important information to understand the response of the olive fruit to B. oleae attack; information that can shed light onto potential new strategies to combat this pest. PMID:25727685

  3. Effect of temperature and aeration rate on co-composting of olive mill wastewater with olive stone wooden residues.

    PubMed

    Vlyssides, Alphapostolos; Barampouti, Elli Maria; Mai, Sofia; Loizides, Michael

    2010-11-01

    Co-composting of the solid residues and wastewater from the olive oil production process was examined as a potential bioremediation treatment for these wastes. Experimental results from a semi batch laboratory pilot plant were reported. Composting was performed for 20 days under constant moisture 40% and the temperature ranged from 55 to 72°C and the oxygen partial pressure from 10 to 17%. An operational region of temperature and oxygen partial pressure was defined in order to achieve a ratio of total olive mill wastewater consumption to olive stone wooden residue stabilization equal or greater than 2.5, the typical ratio for an olive mill plant. Another critical parameter for the optimisation of the 20-day co-composting process that was examined was the biological efficiency of the process, as the carbon dioxide produced to the total carbon available to biomass. A strong sigmoid correlation of co-composting efficiency with temperature derived, reaching a maximum plateau of 0.50 at 68°C. The optimum conditions for a 20-day semi batch co-composting proved to be 68°C and 16-17% oxygen partial pressure, indicating that this process could be an integrated treatment scheme for olive mills. PMID:20401685

  4. The effect of the olive fruit fly (Bactrocera oleae) on quality parameters, and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Medjkouh, Lynda; Tamendjari, Abderezak; Keciri, Sonia; Santos, Joana; Nunes, M Antónia; Oliveira, M B P P

    2016-06-15

    The present study was performed on olives from two Algerian cultivars (Limli and Rougette de Metidja) with different rates of attack by the Bactrocera oleae fly (0%, not attacked; 100%, all attacked; and real attacked %) and the corresponding olive oils. The aim was to verify the attack effect on quality parameters (free fatty acid, peroxide value, K232 and K270, oxidation stability), bioactive compounds (fatty acids and tocopherols, and total phenols and flavonoids), and on the antioxidant (reducing power, FRAP, β-carotene bleaching inhibition, ABTS and DPPH) and antibacterial (against 8 referenced human enteropathogenic bacteria by the agar disc diffusion method) capacities. Oils from infested olives were downgraded to the virgin olive oil category. Rougette de Metidja, the cultivar with a higher drupe size, was more attacked than Limli. The B. oleae attack causes an important decrease in the total phenolic contents (>30%) but to a lesser degree in the case of tocopherols. Among them, α-tocopherol is the most affected. The antioxidant and antibacterial activities were highly correlated with phenolic levels. The results of this study show the importance of controlling the fly attack because it causes a decrease in the beneficial health effects of olive oils. PMID:27220688

  5. Novel lesion detection aids.

    PubMed

    Neuhaus, K W; Longbottom, C; Ellwood, R; Lussi, A

    2009-01-01

    Several non-invasive and novel aids for the detection of (and in some cases monitoring of) caries lesions have been introduced in the field of 'caries diagnostics' over the last 15 years. This chapter focusses on those available to dentists at the time of writing; continuing research is bound to lead to further developments in the coming years. Laser fluorescence is based on measurements of back-scattered fluorescence of a 655-nm light source. It enhances occlusal and (potentially) approximal lesion detection and enables semi-quantitative caries monitoring. Systematic reviews have identified false-positive results as a limitation. Quantitative light-induced fluorescence is another sensitive method to quantitatively detect and measure mineral loss both in enamel and some dentine lesions; again, the trade-offs with lower specificity when compared with clinical visual detection must be considered. Subtraction radiography is based on the principle of digitally superimposing two radiographs with exactly the same projection geometry. This method is applicable for approximal surfaces and occlusal caries involving dentine but is not yet widely available. Electrical caries measurements gather either site-specific or surface-specific information of teeth and tooth structure. Fixed-frequency devices perform best for occlusal dentine caries but the method has also shown promise for lesions in enamel and other tooth surfaces with multi-frequency approaches. All methods require further research and further validation in well-designed clinical trials. In the future, they could have useful applications in clinical practice as part of a personalized, comprehensive caries management system. PMID:19494675

  6. Atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation and inferior vena cava agenesis.

    PubMed

    Galand, Vincent; Pavin, Dominique; Behar, Nathalie; Mabo, Philippe; Martins, Raphaël P

    2016-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and very often diagnosed in asymptomatic patients during computed tomography performed for other purposes. These anomalies can have significant clinical implications, for example if electrophysiology procedures are needed. Diagnostic and ablation procedures are difficult since catheter manipulation and positioning are more complex. We present here a case of successful atrioventricular nodal reentrant tachycardia ablation in a patient with unexpected IVC agenesis, using an azygos route. PMID:27633734

  7. Leiomyosarcoma of the inferior vena cava: a case report.

    PubMed

    Nascif, Rafael Lemos; Antón, Ana Graziela Santana; Fernandes, Gabriel Lacerda; Dantas, George Caldas; Gomes, Vinícius de Araújo; Natal, Marcelo Ricardo Canuto

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a case of a 48 year-old female patient with moderate abdominal pain and bulging in the abdomen. Physical examination demonstrated the presence of a palpable abdominal mass. Computed tomography showed a heterogeneously enhancing retroperitoneal mass in close contact with the inferior vena cava. En bloc resection of the mass and of the attached vena cava segment was performed. Histological analysis revealed leiomyosarcoma.

  8. [Aneurysm of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery: case report].

    PubMed

    Adorno, Juan Oscar Alarcón; de Andrade, Guilherme Cabral

    2002-12-01

    The intracranial aneurysms of the posterior circulation have been reported between 5 and 10% of all cerebral aneurysms and the aneurysms of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) are considered rare, can cause cerebello pontine angle (CPA) syndrome with or without subarachnoid hemorrhage. Since 1948 few cases were described in the literature. We report on a 33 year-old female patient with subarachnoid hemorrhage due to sacular aneurysm of the left AICA. She was submitted to clipage of the aneurysm without complications.

  9. [One case of pleomorphic adenoma originates from inferior nasal turbinate].

    PubMed

    Hao, Fang; Xu, Xuehai

    2014-10-01

    Pleomorphic adenoma (PA) is the most common benign tumor of the salivary glands. Originating from the nasal cavity is very rare. This paper reports one case of pleomorphic adenoma of the inferior nasal turbinate to analyze the clinic characteristic of this disease. Although these tumors are rarely seen in everyday practice, one should consider this possibility as an uncommon aetiology when confronted with an intranasal mass.

  10. Characterization of fatty alcohol and sterol fractions in olive tree.

    PubMed

    Orozco-Solano, Mara; Ruiz-Jimenez, José; Luque De Castro, María D

    2010-07-14

    The determination of sterols and fatty alcohols is a part of the study of the metabolomic profile of the unsaponifiable fraction in olive tree. Leaves and drupes from three varieties of olive tree (Arbequina, Picual, and Manzanilla) were used. The content of the target compounds was studied in five ripeness stages and three harvesting periods for olive drupes and leaves, respectively. A method based on ultrasound-assisted extraction and derivatization for the individual identification and quantitation of sterols and fatty alcohols, involving chromatographic separation and mass spectrometry detection by selected ion monitoring, was used. The concentrations of alcohols and sterols in the drupes ranged between 0.1 and 1086.9 mug/g and between 0.1 and 5855.3 mug/g, respectively, which are higher than in leaves. Statistical studies were developed to show the relationship between the concentration of the target analytes and variety, ripeness stage, and harvesting period. PMID:20550122

  11. Modeling Free Energies of Solvation in Olive Oil

    PubMed Central

    Chamberlin, Adam C.; Levitt, David G.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Truhlar, Donald G.

    2009-01-01

    Olive oil partition coefficients are useful for modeling the bioavailability of drug-like compounds. We have recently developed an accurate solvation model called SM8 for aqueous and organic solvents (Marenich, A. V.; Olson, R. M.; Kelly, C. P.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Chem. Theory Comput. 2007, 3, 2011) and a temperature-dependent solvation model called SM8T for aqueous solution (Chamberlin, A. C.; Cramer, C. J.; Truhlar, D. G. J. Phys. Chem. B 2008, 112, 3024). Here we describe an extension of SM8T to predict air–olive oil and water–olive oil partitioning for drug-like solutes as functions of temperature. We also describe the database of experimental partition coefficients used to parameterize the model; this database includes 371 entries for 304 compounds spanning the 291–310 K temperature range. PMID:19434923

  12. Olive oil phenolic compounds affect the release of aroma compounds.

    PubMed

    Genovese, Alessandro; Caporaso, Nicola; Villani, Veronica; Paduano, Antonello; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-08-15

    Twelve aroma compounds were monitored and quantified by dynamic headspace analysis after their addition in refined olive oil model systems with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) biophenols to simulate EVOO aroma. The influence of polyphenols on aroma release was studied under simulated mouth conditions by using human saliva, and SPME-GC/MS analysis. While few differences were observed in orthonasal assay (without saliva), interesting results were obtained for retronasal aroma. Biophenols caused generally the lowest headspace release of almost all volatile compounds. However, only ethyl esters and linalool concentrations were significantly lower in retronasal than orthonasal assay. Saliva also caused higher concentration of hexanal, probably due to hydroperoxide lyase (HPL) action on linoleyl hydroperoxides. Epicatechin was compared to EVOO phenolics and the behaviour was dramatically different, likely to be due to salivary protein-tannin binding interactions, which influenced aroma headspace release. These results were also confirmed using two extra virgin olive oils. PMID:25794752

  13. Inferior hip dislocation after falling from height: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tekin, Ali Çağrı; Çabuk, Haluk; Büyükkurt, Cem Dinçay; Dedeoğlu, Süleyman Semih; İmren, Yunus; Gürbüz, Hakan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Traumatic inferior hip dislocation is the least common of all hip dislocations. Adult inferior hip dislocations usually occur after high-energy trauma, very few cases are reported without fracture. Presentation of case A 26-year-old female was brought to the emergency department with severe pain in the left hip, impaired posture and restricted movement following a fall from 15 m height. The hip joint was fixed in 90° flexion, 15° abduction, and 20° external rotation. No neurovascular impairment was determined. On radiologic examination, a left ischial type inferior hip dislocation was detected. Hemorrhagic shock which developed due to acute blood loss to thoracic and abdominal cavity and patient died at third hour after she was brought to the hospital. Discussion Traumatic hip dislocations have high morbidity and mortality rates due to multiple organ damage, primarily of the extremities, chest and abdomen. In the treatment of traumatic hip dislocation, closed reduction is recommended through muscle relaxation under general anesthesia or sedation. This procedure should be applied before any intervention for concomitant extremity injuries. A detailed evaluation on emergency presentation, a multi-disciplinary approach and early diagnosis with the rapid application of imaging methods could be life-saving for such patients. PMID:27058153

  14. Gaining Surgical Access for Repositioning the Inferior Alveolar Neurovascular Bundle

    PubMed Central

    Al-Siweedi, Saif Yousif Abdullah; Nambiar, P.; Shanmuhasuntharam, P.; Ngeow, W. C.

    2014-01-01

    This study is aimed at determining anatomical landmarks that can be used to gain access to the inferior alveolar neurovascular (IAN) bundle. Scanned CBCT (i-CAT machine) data of sixty patients and reconstructions performed using the SimPlant dental implant software were reviewed. Outcome variables were the linear distances of the mandibular canal to the inferior border and the buccal cortex of the mandible, measured immediately at the mental foramen (D1) and at 10, 20, 30, and 40 mm (D2–D5) distal to it. Predictor variables were age, ethnicity, and gender of subjects. Apicobasal assessment of the canal reveals that it is curving downward towards the inferior mandibular border until 20 mm (D3) distal to the mental foramen where it then curves upwards, making an elliptic-arc curve. The mandibular canal also forms a buccolingually oriented elliptic arc in relation to the buccal cortex. Variations due to age, ethnicity, and gender were evident and this study provides an accurate anatomic zone for gaining surgical access to the IAN bundle. The findings indicate that the buccal cortex-IAN distance was greatest at D3. Therefore, sites between D2 and D5 can be used as favorable landmarks to access the IAN bundle with the least complications to the patient. PMID:24892077

  15. Combination-sensitive neurons in the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Mittmann, D H; Wenstrup, J J

    1995-10-01

    We examined whether neurons in the inferior colliculus of the mustached bat (Pteronotus parnellii) are combination sensitive, responding to both low- and high-frequency components of the bat's sonar signal. These neurons, previously reported in the thalamus and cortex, analyze sonar target features including distance. Of 82 single units and 36 multiple units from the 58-112 kHz representations of the inferior colliculus, most (86%) displayed sensitivity to low-frequency sounds that was tuned in the range of the fundamental biosonar component (24-31 kHz). All histologically localized units were in the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC). There were two major types of combination-sensitive influences. Many neurons were facilitated by low-frequency sounds and selective for particular delays between the low- and high-frequency components. In other neurons, the low-frequency signal was inhibitory if presented simultaneously or a few milliseconds prior to the high-frequency signal. The results indicate that mechanisms creating specialized frequency comparisons and delay sensitivity in combination-sensitive neurons operate at the ICC or below. Since combination sensitivity or multipeaked tuning curves occur in the auditory systems of many species, ICC neurons in these animals may also respond to species-specific frequency combinations.

  16. [Inferior vertical nystagmus: is magnetic resonance imaging mandatory?].

    PubMed

    Esteban-Sánchez, Jonathan; Rueda-Marcos, Almudena; Sanz-Fernández, Ricardo; Martín-Sanz, Eduardo

    2016-02-01

    Introduccion. La aparicion de un nistagmo vertical inferior clasicamente obliga a descartar una patologia vascular o de la union craneocervical mediante resonancia magnetica (RM). Estudios recientes demuestran una baja rentabilidad de esta prueba, ya que sugieren que este signo oculomotor puede tener una causa vestibular periferica, sobre todo cuando el paciente presenta un vertigo posicional paroxistico benigno (VPPB) del canal semicircular superior. Objetivo. Comprobar la rentabilidad de la RM en una poblacion de pacientes con nistagmo de posicion vertical inferior. Pacientes y metodos. Estudio retrospectivo de 42 pacientes consecutivos a los que se les realizo una historia clinica, exploracion fisica, y pruebas vestibulares caloricas y rotatorias. A todos ellos se les practico una RM craneal y cervical. Resultados. El 52% de los pacientes con nistagmo de posicion vertical inferior presentaba una clinica y exploracion fisica compatibles con VPPB del canal semicircular superior. La RM fue normal en un 67%, un 26% mostraba datos de espondilopatia y un 5% de microangiopatia cerebral no relacionados con la clinica del paciente. La prevalencia de malformacion de Arnold-Chiari de tipo I fue de un 9% en la poblacion estudiada, sin que nadie tuviera un antecedente reciente de VPPB. Los resultados obtenidos en las pruebas complementarias vestibulares no aportaron informacion adicional para llegar a un diagnostico etiologico. Conclusion. En los pacientes con un VPPB, la RM craneal y las pruebas vestibulares tienen una baja rentabilidad diagnostica, y se debe evaluar la necesidad real de esta prueba con el contexto clinico.

  17. Soil organic carbon pools in olive groves of different age

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massaccesi, Luisa; De Feudis, Mauro; Nasini, Luigi; Regni, Luca; D'Ascoli, Rosaria; Castaldi, Simona; Proietti, Primo; Agnelli, Alberto

    2016-04-01

    In the last years, the practices which favor the increase of soil organic carbon in the agroecosystem have been widely studied because of their influence on the reduction of atmospheric CO2 (Lal, 1993; Schlesinger, 2000). The accumulation of the organic carbon into the soil depends to a great extent upon climate and pedological properties (Burke et al., 1989; Miller et al., 1994), although in the agricultural soils the cultivation system also plays a key role. The olive grove might potentially represent a relevant land use to improve C sequestration in soil, but there are few data available to support this hypothesis. In a study site located in central Italy (Deruta, PG), we analyzed the soil organic carbon (SOC) pools in two olive groves of different age (7 and 30 years) and, as control, in a site adjacent to the groves cropped with cereals for at least 30 years. With the aim to isolate and quantify the active, intermediate and passive functional SOC pools in the olive groves and in the control, we used a combined physical and chemical fractionation method (Zimmermann et al., 2007). The main results shown that the total organic carbon content in the Ap horizons was the highest in the 30-years-old olive grove, followed by the 7-years-old olive grove, and then by the control soil. The content of active C, in form of particulate organic matter (POM) and water soluble organic matter (WEOM), was greater in the olive grove compared to the control soil and increase with the age of the grove. About the amount of C in the intermediate and passive pools, no significant differences were found among the olive groves and the control. These preliminary results indicated that the greater total organic C content occurred in the 30-year-old olive grove with respect to the 7-years-old grove and the control, has to be ascribed to the greater content of active organic matter (POM and WEOM), and not to the accumulation in soil of organic C in a more stabilised form.

  18. Mandibular osteotomies after drawing out the inferior alveolar nerve along the canal.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hoon; Kim, Byung-Gun

    2003-01-01

    In some cases, the inferior alveolar nerve runs through a lower course than usual. In such cases, osteotomy of the mandible can injure the inferior alveolar nerves. In other instances, the course of the mandibular osteotomy can meet that of the inferior alveolar nerve. In these cases, a useful method may be excavating the canal and drawing the nerve out through it. With this technique, we can make the osteotomy as initially planned with minimal damage to the inferior alveolar nerve. PMID:14629066

  19. Association of SSR markers with contents of fatty acids in olive oil and genetic diversity analysis of an olive core collection.

    PubMed

    Ipek, M; Ipek, A; Seker, M; Gul, M K

    2015-03-27

    The purpose of this research was to characterize an olive core collection using some agronomic characters and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers and to determine SSR markers associated with the content of fatty acids in olive oil. SSR marker analysis demonstrated the presence of a high amount of genetic variation between the olive cultivars analyzed. A UPGMA dendrogram demonstrated that olive cultivars did not cluster on the basis of their geographic origin. Fatty acid components of olive oil in these cultivars were determined. The results also showed that there was a great amount of variation between the olive cultivars in terms of fatty acid composition. For example, oleic acid content ranged from 57.76 to 76.9% with standard deviation of 5.10%. Significant correlations between fatty acids of olive oil were observed. For instance, a very high negative correlation (-0.812) between oleic and linoleic acids was detected. A structured association analysis between the content of fatty acids in olive oil and SSR markers was performed. STRUCTURE analysis assigned olive cultivars to two gene pools (K = 2). Assignment of olive cultivars to these gene pools was not based on geographical origin. Association between fatty acid traits and SSR markers was evaluated using the general linear model of TASSEL. Significant associations were determined between five SSR markers and stearic, oleic, linoleic, and linolenic acids of olive oil. Very high associations (P < 0.001) between ssrOeUA-DCA14 and stearic acid and between GAPU71B and oleic acid indicated that these markers could be used for marker-assisted selection in olive.

  20. Isolation of megaritolactones and other bioactive metabolites from 'megaritiki' table olives and debittering water.

    PubMed

    Mousouri, Evgenia; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2014-01-22

    'Megaritiki' is an olive cultivar widely used in Greece for the production of low polyphenol olive oil and table olives. To investigate possible metabolic differentiation in comparison with other varieties, the composition of 'Megaritiki' olive fruits and wastewaters from the debittering procedure was studied. Moreover, the recovery of bioactive metabolites from wastewater using adsorption resin was studied to exploit this byproduct. Metabolites in fruits and wastewaters were monitored using NMR spectroscopy. The major constituents of wastewater were hydroxytyrosol-4-O-glucoside, 11-methyl-oleoside, hydroxytyrosol, and tyrosol but not oleuropein. Furthermore, wastewater afforded rengyoxide and rengyoside B, which are for the first time isolated from olives. The final edible olives, besides hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, contained rengyoxide and cleroindicin C, which are the first isolated from the species, haleridone for the first time isolated from edible olives, and four metabolites, which are the first reported as natural products, megaritodilactone, megaritolactonic acid, methyl ester of megaritolactonic acid B, and megaritolactonol.

  1. Single-cultivar extra virgin olive oil classification using a potentiometric electronic tongue.

    PubMed

    Dias, Luís G; Fernandes, Andreia; Veloso, Ana C A; Machado, Adélio A S C; Pereira, José A; Peres, António M

    2014-10-01

    Label authentication of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils is of great importance. A novel approach based on a potentiometric electronic tongue is proposed to classify oils obtained from single olive cultivars (Portuguese cvs. Cobrançosa, Madural, Verdeal Transmontana; Spanish cvs. Arbequina, Hojiblanca, Picual). A meta-heuristic simulated annealing algorithm was applied to select the most informative sets of sensors to establish predictive linear discriminant models. Olive oils were correctly classified according to olive cultivar (sensitivities greater than 97%) and each Spanish olive oil was satisfactorily discriminated from the Portuguese ones with the exception of cv. Arbequina (sensitivities from 61% to 98%). Also, the discriminant ability was related to the polar compounds contents of olive oils and so, indirectly, with organoleptic properties like bitterness, astringency or pungency. Therefore the proposed E-tongue can be foreseen as a useful auxiliary tool for trained sensory panels for the classification of monovarietal extra virgin olive oils.

  2. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause.

  3. Olive (Olea europaea L.) tree nitrogen status is a key factor for olive oil quality.

    PubMed

    Erel, Ran; Kerem, Zohar; Ben-Gal, Alon; Dag, Arnon; Schwartz, Amnon; Zipori, Isaac; Basheer, Loai; Yermiyahu, Uri

    2013-11-27

    The influence of macronutrient status on olive oil properties was studied for three years. Data were analyzed by a multivariate model considering N, P, K, and fruiting year as explanatory factors. Oil quality parameters were primarily associated with N concentration in leaves and fruits which increased with N in irrigation solution. The effect of P on oil quality was mainly indirect since increased P availability increased N accumulation. The potassium level had negligible effects. The oil phenolic content decreased linearly as a function of increased leaf N, indicating protein-phenol competition in leaves. The overall saturation level of the fatty acids decreased with fruit N, resulting in increased polyunsaturated fatty acids. Free fatty acids increased with increased levels of fruit N. High fruit load tended to reduce fruit N and subsequently improve oil quality. The effect of N on oil properties depended solely on its concentration in leaves or fruits, regardless of the cause. PMID:24245487

  4. Cystic Lesions of the Mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Daniel; Suby-Long, Thomas; Restrepo, Carlos S

    2016-06-01

    Cystic lesions are commonly seen in the mediastinum, and they may arise from virtually any organ. The vast majority of these lesions are benign and result in no symptoms. When large, cysts may produce symptoms related to compression of adjacent structures. The most common mediastinal cysts are pericardial and foregut duplication cysts. Both computed tomography and magnetic resonance are routinely used to evaluate these lesions. Although computed tomography offers superior spatial resolution, magnetic resonance is useful in differentiating cysts that contain proteinaceous material from solid lesions. Occasionally, cysts arise from solid lesions, such as thymoma or teratoma. Although cysts are alike in appearance, location helps narrowing the differential diagnoses.

  5. Lesion mimic mutants

    PubMed Central

    Moeder, Wolfgang

    2008-01-01

    Over the last decade a substantial number of lesion mimic mutants (LMM) have been isolated and a growing number of the genes have been cloned. It is now becoming clear that these mutants are valuable tools to dissect various aspects of programmed cell death (PCD) and pathogen resistance pathways in plants. Together with other forward genetics approaches LMMs shed light on the PCD machinery in plant cells and revealed important roles for sphingolipids, Ca2+ and chloroplast-derived porphyrin-metabolites during cell death development. PMID:19513227

  6. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Has the use of talc an effect on yield and extra virgin olive oil quality?

    PubMed

    Caponio, Francesco; Squeo, Giacomo; Difonzo, Graziana; Pasqualone, Antonella; Summo, Carmine; Paradiso, Vito Michele

    2016-08-01

    The maximization of both extraction yield and extra virgin olive oil quality during olive processing are the main objectives of the olive oil industry. As regards extraction yield, it can be improved by both acting on time/temperature of malaxation and using physical coadjuvants. It is well known that, generally, increasing temperature of malaxation gives an increase in oil extraction yield due to a reduction in oily phase viscosity; however, high malaxation temperature can compromise the nutritional and health values of extra virgin olive oil, leading to undesirable effects such as accelerated oxidative process and loss of volatile compounds responsible for oil flavor and fragrance. The addition of physical coadjuvants in olive oil processing during the malaxation phase, not excluded by EC regulations owing to its exclusively physical action, is well known to promote the breakdown of oil/water emulsions and consequently make oil extraction easier, thus increasing the yield. Among physical coadjuvants, micronized natural talc is used for olive oil processing above all for Spanish and Italian olive cultivars. The quality of extra virgin olive oil depends on numerous variables such as olive cultivar, ripeness degree and quality, machines utilized for processing, oil storage conditions, etc. However, the coadjuvants utilized in olive processing can also influence virgin olive oil characteristics. The literature highlights an increase in oil yield by micronized natural talc addition during olive processing, whereas no clear trend was observed as regards the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of extra virgin olive oil. Although an increase in oil stability was reported, no effect of talc was found on the evolution of virgin olive oil quality indices during storage. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26847164

  8. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in olive oils on the Italian market.

    PubMed

    Menichini, E; Bocca, A; Merli, F; Ianni, D; Monfredini, F

    1991-01-01

    The six olive oils and seven virgin olive oils which are most consumed in Italy were analysed for 28 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). The aim was to evaluate whether a carcinogenic hazard for the general population can derive from the dietary intake of this food, which is consumed particularly highly in the Mediterranean area. The analytical method involved extraction by liquid-liquid partition, filtration on silica gel, clean-up by thin-layer chromatography on silica gel, and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with a flame ionization detector. The 3- and 4-ring PAHs which are most abundant in the environment were found in all samples, at individual levels up to ca. 40 micrograms/kg (for phenanthrene); no important difference was observed between olive oils and virgin olive oils. PAHs which are most suspected of being carcinogenic for humans were not detected (limit of detection, ca. 3 micrograms/kg). The average yearly intake of the detected PAHs through this food was estimated at ca. 0.56 mg per capita. PMID:1778272

  9. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives.

    PubMed

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favorable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins, or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product.

  10. Presence of toxic microbial metabolites in table olives

    PubMed Central

    Medina-Pradas, Eduardo; Arroyo-López, Francisco Noé

    2015-01-01

    Table olives have an enormous importance in the diet and culture of many Mediterranean countries. Albeit there are different ways to produce this fermented vegetable, brining/salting, fermentation, and acidification are common practices for all of them. Preservation methods such as pasteurization or sterilization are frequently used to guarantee the stability and safety of fermented olives. However, final products are not always subjected to a heat treatment. Thus, microbiota is not always removed and appropriate levels of acidity and salt must be obtained before commercialization. Despite the physicochemical conditions not being favorable for the growth of foodborne pathogens, some illness outbreaks have been reported in the literature. Street markets, inappropriate manipulation and storage conditions were the origin of many of the samples in which foodborne pathogens or their metabolites were detected. Many authors have also studied the survival of pathogens in different styles of table olive elaboration, finding in general that olive environment is not appropriate for their presence. Inhibitory compounds such as polyphenols, low availability of nutrients, high salt content, low pH levels, bacteriocins, or the addition of preservatives act as hurdles against undesirable microorganisms, which contribute to obtaining a safe and good quality product. PMID:26379648

  11. 67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    67. Historic American Buildings Survey John Oliver Brostrup, Photographer August 12,1936 1:35 P. M. VIEW OF C.C.C. BOYS SCREENING FOR ARTIFACTS. - General John Mason House, Analostan Island or Theodore Roosevelt Island, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  12. Development of new composite biosorbents from olive pomace wastes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagnanelli, Francesca; Viggi, Carolina Cruz; Toro, Luigi

    2010-06-01

    In this study olive pomace was used as a source of binding substances for the development of composite biosorbents to be used in heavy metal removal from aqueous solutions. The aim was to obtain biosorbent material with an increased concentration of binding sites. The effects of two different extraction procedures (one using only methanol and the other one hexane followed by methanol) on the binding properties of olive pomace were tested by potentiometric titrations and batch biosorption tests for copper and cadmium removal. Titration modelling evidenced that both kinds of extractions generated a solid with a reduced amount of protonatable sites. Biosorption tests were organized according to full factorial designs. Analysis of variance denoted that both kinds of extractions determined a statistically significant negative effect on metal biosorption. In the case of cadmium extractions also determined a significant decrease of selectivity with respect to olive pomace. When the acid-base and binding properties of the substances extracted were determined, they were adsorbed onto a synthetic resin (octadecylsilane) and calcium alginate beads. In this way two kinds of composite biosorbents have been obtained both having an increased concentration of binding substances with respect to native olive pomace, also working more efficiently in metal removal.

  13. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table... and any mutations, sports, or other derivations of such varieties: Aghizi Shami, Amellau...

  14. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table... and any mutations, sports, or other derivations of such varieties: Aghizi Shami, Amellau...

  15. 7 CFR 944.401 - Olive Regulation 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... the current U.S. Standards for Grades of Canned Ripe Olives (7 CFR part 52) including the terms size... provided in table I of 7 CFR 52.38: Provided further, That there is no off flavor in any sample unit. Table... and any mutations, sports, or other derivations of such varieties: Aghizi Shami, Amellau...

  16. Transesterification of Waste Olive Oil by "Candida" Lipase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shen, Xiangping; Vasudevan, Palligarnai T.

    2008-01-01

    Biodiesel was produced by transesterification of waste olive oil with methanol and Novozym [R] 435. The effect of the molar ratio of methanol to triolein, mode of methanol addition, reaction temperature, and mixing speed on biodiesel yield was determined. The effect of different acyl acceptors and/or solvents on biodiesel yield was also evaluated.…

  17. Healthy virgin olive oil: a matter of bitterness.

    PubMed

    Vitaglione, Paola; Savarese, Maria; Paduano, Antonello; Scalfi, Luca; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Sacchi, Raffaele

    2015-01-01

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is the pillar fat of Mediterranean diet. It is made from olive fruits and obtained by squeezing olives without any solvent extraction. Respect to the seed oils, an unique polar polyphenol-rich fraction gives VOO a bitter and pungent taste. The recent substantiation by European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) of a health claim for VOO polyphenols may represent an efficient stimulus to get the maximum health benefit from one of the most valuable traditional product of Mediterranean countries educating consumers to the relationship between the VOO bitterness and its health effect. Agronomical practices and new processing technology to avoid phenolic oxidation and hydrolysis and to enhance the aromatic components of the VOO have been developed and they can be used to modulate taste and flavor to diversify the products on the market. VOOs having high concentration of phenol compounds are bitter and pungent therefore many people do not consume them, thus loosing the health benefits related to their intake. In this paper, the chemist's and nutritionist's point of view has been considered to address possible strategies to overcome the existing gap between the quality perceived by consumer and that established by expert tasters. Educational campaigns emphasizing the bitter-health link for olive oils should be developed.

  18. Olive Oil and its Potential Effects on Alzheimer's Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antony, Shan; Zhang, G. P.

    Alzheimer's disease is a neuro-degenerative brain disease that is responsible for affecting the lives of hundreds of thousands of people every year. There has been no evidence to suggest a cure for the disease and the only existing treatments have very low rates of success in trial patients. This is largely due to the fact that the brain is one of the most undiscovered parts of the human body. Brain chemistry is highly complex and responds to its environment in random and radical ways. My research includes testing the reactionary outcomes of combining compounds of olive oil with the 20 basic amino acids. Regions around the world with olive oil based diets show a direct correlation to lower rates of Alzheimer's. Testing few compounds of olive oil with chemicals already found in the brain may yield to a better understanding as to why that is. I took the compounds tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, and oleocanthal, and combined them with the 20 basic amino acids and calculated the total energy of the new molecule. The molecules produced with acceptably low energy values will be the center of further research. These molecules could lead to truly understanding olive oil's effect on the brain, and ultimately, the cure or prevention of Alzheimer's disease.

  19. Effect of irrigation on quality attributes of olive oil.

    PubMed

    Stefanoudaki, Evagelia; Williams, Mark; Chartzoulakis, Kostas; Harwood, John

    2009-08-12

    Two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees of the major commercial Cretan variety cv. Koroneiki, (a) irrigation with 0.4 evaporation class "A" pan and (b) rain-feed only, in two successive crop years to assess the effect of irrigation on olive oil quality. Olive fruits were harvested at their semiblack maturity stage. Data obtained indicated that irrigation increased fruit weight and oil content, but the standard quality indices (free fatty acids, peroxide value, K(232), and K(270)) of the oil were not affected significantly. However, irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition. There were changes in the proportions of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), triacylglycerol molecular species, sterols, and aliphatic alcohols. Furthermore, the concentrations of the dialdehydic form of elenolic acid linked to 3,4-DHPEA (3,4-DHPEA-EDA) and the isomer of oleuropeine aglycon (3,4-DHPEA-EA) were higher in oils from non-irrigated trees. Tocopherol and total volatiles were higher in the oil produced from the non-irrigated trees. Such oil was graded more pungent when compared to oils produced from fruits of irrigated trees, although both oils were graded satisfactory by consumers.

  20. Comparative study of phytosterol derivatives in monovarietal olive oils.

    PubMed

    Gómez-Coca, Raquel B; Fernandes, Gabriel D; Del Aguila-Sánchez, Chellah; Pérez-Camino, María Del Carmen; Moreda, Wenceslao

    2014-06-18

    Plant sterols and their derivatives are minor compounds that have been extensively studied in vegetable oils, mainly in olive oil, where they are closely related with its identity. The objective of this work is to determine the content of free and esterified steryl glucosides and their profiles in olive oil in relation to different geographical situation of olive orchards, cultivar, farming modality, and sampling time. The orchards under study were located in the outer ring of the submetropolitan area of Madrid (Spain), where olives from Cornicabra, Manzanilla Cacereña, Manzanilla Castellana, and Picual varieties were grown under traditional and organic modes, and harvested in four different samplings. Conclusions state that cultivar, farming mode, and light exposure do not have outstanding effects, whereas pedoclimate might affect the steryl glucoside presence in a substantial way. Further studies are being carried out presently in order to confirm such statement. Also glucoside derivative profiles are discussed, and reasons for differences with results in previous studies pointed out. PMID:24861171

  1. The color space of foods: virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Escolar, Daniel; Haro, María R; Ayuso, Jesús

    2007-03-21

    The CIE 1976 (L*, a*, and b*) color space for virgin olive oil was determined. Such a space encompasses any acceptable sample of this type of oil irrespective of the agronomic treatment that the olives have undergone because its color is due to two types of pigments, a systematic combination of which provides the whole range of theoretically possible colors. Color is quantified from the visible spectra for pure samples. Therefore, the pigment spectra, which were the averages of those for several samples, were determined in a medium highly similar to the source oil following application of a photochemical method. A combination of the pigment spectra provided 651 spectra for virtual samples, the colors of which spanned the entire color space for virgin olive oil. The positions of more than 100 Spanish olive oil samples of diverse origins in the color space were also determined, and the results were examined in relation to oil type and quality. Similar color spaces can be obtained for other foods, which can thus be characterized in terms of an additional physical property.

  2. Gold Olive Branch Left on the Moon by Neil Armstrong

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the gold replica of an olive branch, the traditional symbol of peace, left on the Moon's surface by Apollo 11 crewmembers. Astronaut Neil A. Armstrong, commander, placed the small replica (less than half a foot in length) on the Moon. The gesture represented a wish for peace for all mankind.

  3. Olive Banks and the Collective Biography of British Feminism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiner, Gaby

    2008-01-01

    This paper considers Olive Banks' work on charting the history and development of British feminism, and particularly her use of collective biography as a research and analytic tool. It is argued that while this has been seen as the least "fashionable" aspect of her work, it took forward C. Wright Mills' contention for one definition of sociology…

  4. VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW LOOKING NORTHEAST, WARRIOR RIVER, OLIVER LOCK IN RIGHT BACKGROUND, GULF MOBILE & OHIO BRIDGE IN MIDDLE GROUND, LURLEEN WALLACE BRIDGE IN FRONT OF GULF MOBILE & OHIO. - Gulf, Mobile & Ohio Railroad Bridge, Spans Black Warrior River between Northport & Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa County, AL

  5. Olive plants (Olea europaea L.) as a bioindicator for pollution.

    PubMed

    Eliwa, Amal Mohamed; Kamel, Ehab Abdel-Razik

    2013-06-15

    In the present work, olive plant (Olea europaea L.) was used as a biological indicator for pollution in which, molecular and physiological parameters were studied. Olive plants were collected from polluted and non-polluted areas in Jeddah - Saudi Arabia, traffic area as an air polluted area, sewage treatment station as water polluted area, industrial area as solid waste polluted, costal area as marine polluted area and an area without a direct source of pollution far away from the city center, which was used as control. These changes conducted with nucleic acid content, minerals content, pigments and some growth parameters. Results showed significant reductions in DNA and RNA contents under all polluted sites. Mineral contents were varied widely depending on the different pollutants and locations of olive plant. Generally, micro-elements varied (increase/decrease) significantly within collected samples and the source of pollution. All growth parameters were decreased significantly within the studied samples of all pollutant areas except the relative water content was increased. The content of chlorophyll a has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. While the content of chlorophyll b has increased significantly in all polluted leaves especially in air polluted leaves. The total content of carotenoid pigments has decreased highly significantly in all polluted leaves. It was concluded that olive plant can be used as a biological indicator to the environmental pollutants.

  6. 77 FR 51684 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-27

    ..., these costs are offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing order. In addition, the... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This rule increases the assessment...

  7. 77 FR 33104 - Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... producers. However, these costs would be offset by the benefits derived by the operation of the marketing...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 932 Olives Grown in California; Increased Assessment Rate AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule...

  8. 76 FR 11937 - Olives Grown in California; Decreased Assessment Rate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... / Friday, March 4, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Agricultural Marketing... Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Interim rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This rule decreases the... years from $44.72 to $16.61 per ton of olives handled. The Committee locally administers the...

  9. Yeasts in table olive processing: desirable or spoilage microorganisms?

    PubMed

    Arroyo-López, F N; Romero-Gil, V; Bautista-Gallego, J; Rodríguez-Gómez, F; Jiménez-Díaz, R; García-García, P; Querol, A; Garrido-Fernández, A

    2012-11-01

    Yeasts are unicellular eukaryotic microorganisms isolated from many foods, and are commonly found in table olive processing where they can play a double role. On one hand, these microorganisms can produce spoilage of fruits due to the production of bad odours and flavours, the accumulation of CO(2) leading to swollen containers, the clouding of brines, the softening of fruits and the degradation of lactic acid, which is especially harmful during table olive storage and packaging. But on the other hand, fortunately, yeasts also possess desirable biochemical activities (lipase, esterase, β-glucosidase, catalase, production of killer factors, etc.) with important technological applications in this fermented vegetable. Recently, the probiotic potential of olive yeasts has begun to be evaluated because many species are able to resist the passage through the gastrointestinal tract and show beneficial effects on the host. In this way, yeasts may improve consumers' health by decreasing cholesterol levels, inhibiting pathogens, degrading non assimilated compounds, producing antioxidants and vitamins, adhering to intestinal cells or by maintaining epithelial barrier integrity. Many yeast species, usually also found in table olive processing, such as Wicherhamomyces anomalus, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens and Kluyveromyces lactis, have been reported to exhibit some of these properties. Thus, the selection of the most appropriate strains to be used as starters, alone or in combination with lactic acid bacteria, is a promising research line to develop in a near future which might improve the added value of the commercialized product. PMID:23141644

  10. Anesthetic technique for inferior alveolar nerve block: a new approach

    PubMed Central

    PALTI, Dafna Geller; de ALMEIDA, Cristiane Machado; RODRIGUES, Antonio de Castro; ANDREO, Jesus Carlos; LIMA, José Eduardo Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Background Effective pain control in Dentistry may be achieved by local anesthetic techniques. The success of the anesthetic technique in mandibular structures depends on the proximity of the needle tip to the mandibular foramen at the moment of anesthetic injection into the pterygomandibular region. Two techniques are available to reach the inferior alveolar nerve where it enters the mandibular canal, namely indirect and direct; these techniques differ in the number of movements required. Data demonstrate that the indirect technique is considered ineffective in 15% of cases and the direct technique in 1329% of cases. Objective Objective: The aim of this study was to describe an alternative technique for inferior alveolar nerve block using several anatomical points for reference, simplifying the procedure and enabling greater success and a more rapid learning curve. Materials and Methods A total of 193 mandibles (146 with permanent dentition and 47 with primary dentition) from dry skulls were used to establish a relationship between the teeth and the mandibular foramen. By using two wires, the first passing through the mesiobuccal groove and middle point of the mesial slope of the distolingual cusp of the primary second molar or permanent first molar (right side), and the second following the oclusal plane (left side), a line can be achieved whose projection coincides with the left mandibular foramen. Results The obtained data showed correlation in 82.88% of cases using the permanent first molar, and in 93.62% of cases using the primary second molar. Conclusion This method is potentially effective for inferior alveolar nerve block, especially in Pediatric Dentistry. PMID:21437463

  11. Bruxism elicited by inferior alveolar nerve injury: a case report.

    PubMed

    Melis, Marcello; Coiana, Carlo; Secci, Simona

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this case report is to describe the history of a patient who received an injury to the right inferior alveolar nerve after placement of a dental implant, with bruxism noted afterward. The symptoms were managed by the use of an occlusal appliance worn at night and occasionally during the day, associated with increased awareness of parafunction during the day to reduce muscle pain and fatigue. Paresthesia of the teeth, gingiva, and lower lip persisted but were reduced during appliance use. PMID:22254232

  12. Evidence of mirror neurons in human inferior frontal gyrus.

    PubMed

    Kilner, James M; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J; Frith, Chris D

    2009-08-12

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans, we used a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG.

  13. Inferior Vena Cava Duplication: Incidental Case in a Young Woman.

    PubMed

    Coco, Danilo; Cecchini, Sara; Leanza, Silvana; Viola, Massimo; Ricci, Stefano; Campagnacci, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    A case of a double inferior vena cava (IVC) with retroaortic left renal vein, azygos continuation of the IVC, and presence of the hepatic portion of the IVC drained into the right renal vein is reported and the embryologic, clinical, and radiological significance is discussed. The diagnosis is suggested by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT), which reveals the aberrant vascular structures. Awareness of different congenital anomalies of IVC is necessary for radiologists to avoid diagnostic pitfalls and they should be remembered because they can influence several surgical interventions and endovascular procedures. PMID:27217964

  14. Leiomyosarcoma of the Inferior Vena Cava With Kidney Invasion.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Katherine; Attalla, Kyrollis; Husain, Fatima; Tsao, Che-Kai; Badani, Ketan K; Sfakianos, John P

    2016-11-01

    Primary leiomyosarcomas of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare tumors associated with poor prognosis, and surgical resection with the goal of obtaining negative margins is the gold standard for initial treatment. Tumor characteristics of both extraluminal extension into renal parenchyma and intraluminal extension of the subdiaphragmatic IVC are even less common. The prognosis of vascular leiomyosarcomas is determined by the location and the size of the tumor, as these factors determine the risk of local recurrence and metastasis. We present a case of a 30-year old female incidentally found to have a 14 cm right renal mass and IVC thrombus. PMID:27679758

  15. Laparoscopic management of inferior lumbar hernia (Petit triangle hernia).

    PubMed

    Ipek, T; Eyuboglu, E; Aydingoz, O

    2005-05-01

    Lumbar hernias are rare defects in the posterolateral abdominal wall that may be congenital or acquired. We present a case of laparoscopic approach to repair an acquired inferior triangle (Petit) lumbar hernia in a woman by using polytetrafluoroethylene mesh. The size of the hernia was 8 x 10 cm. The length of her hospital stay was 2 days. The patient resumed normal activities in less than 2 weeks. The main advantage of this approach is excellent operative visualization, thus avoiding injury to structures near the hernia during repair. Patients benefit from a minimally invasive approach with less pain, shortened hospital course, less analgesic requirements, better cosmetic result, and minimal life-style interference.

  16. Left Inferior Vena Cava and Right Retroaortic Renal Vein

    PubMed Central

    Nania, Alberto; Capilli, Fabio; Longo, Eugenia

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, incidental anatomical variants are frequent findings, due to the widespread diffusion of cross-sectional imaging. This case report illustrates a fairly uncommon anatomical variant, that is, the copresence of left inferior vena cava and retroaortic right renal vein reported in a 46-year-old lady, undergoing a staging CT for breast cancer. Although the patient was asymptomatic, the authors highlight potential risks related to the above-mentioned condition and the importance of correct identification and diagnosis of the findings. PMID:26955497

  17. Inferior alveolar nerve injuries associated with mandibular fractures at risk: a two-center retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Boffano, Paolo; Roccia, Fabio; Gallesio, Cesare; Karagozoglu, K; Forouzanfar, Tymour

    2014-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence of the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury in mandibular fractures. This study is based on two databases that have continuously recorded patients hospitalized with maxillofacial fractures in two departments-Department of Maxillofacial Surgery, Vrije Universiteit University Medical Center, Amsterdam, the Netherlands, and Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, San Giovanni Battista Hospital, Turin, Italy. Demographic, anatomic, and etiology variables were considered for each patient and statistically assessed in relation to the neurosensory IAN impairment. Statistically significant associations were found between IAN injury and fracture displacement (p = 0.03), isolated mandibular fractures (p = 0.01), and angle fractures (p = 0.004). A statistically significant association was also found between IAN injury and assaults (p = 0.03). Displaced isolated mandibular angle fractures could be considered at risk for increased incidence of IAN injury. Assaults seem to be the most important etiological factor that is responsible for IAN lesions. PMID:25383147

  18. Dissociable roles of the inferior longitudinal fasciculus and fornix in face and place perception.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, Carl J; Postans, Mark; Shine, Jonathan P; Jones, Derek K; Lawrence, Andrew D; Graham, Kim S

    2015-01-01

    We tested a novel hypothesis, generated from representational accounts of medial temporal lobe (MTL) function, that the major white matter tracts converging on perirhinal cortex (PrC) and hippocampus (HC) would be differentially involved in face and scene perception, respectively. Diffusion tensor imaging was applied in healthy participants alongside an odd-one-out paradigm sensitive to PrC and HC lesions in animals and humans. Microstructure of inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF, connecting occipital and ventro-anterior temporal lobe, including PrC) and fornix (the main HC input/output pathway) correlated with accuracy on odd-one-out judgements involving faces and scenes, respectively. Similarly, blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in PrC and HC, elicited during oddity judgements, was correlated with face and scene oddity performance, respectively. We also observed associations between ILF and fornix microstructure and category-selective BOLD response in PrC and HC, respectively. These striking three-way associations highlight functionally dissociable, structurally instantiated MTL neurocognitive networks for complex face and scene perception. PMID:26319355

  19. Characterization of virgin olive oils produced with autochthonous Galician varieties.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, Patricia; González-Barreiro, Carmen; Cancho-Grande, Beatriz; Valli, Enrico; Bendini, Alessandra; Gallina Toschi, Tullia; Simal-Gandara, Jesus

    2016-12-01

    The interest of Galician oil producers (NW Spain) in recovering the ancient autochthonous olive varieties Brava and Mansa has increased substantially in recent years. Virgin olive oils produced by co-crushing both varieties in two different proportions, reflecting the usual and most common practice adopted in this region, have gradually emerged for the production of virgin olive oils. Herein, the sensory and chemical characteristics of such oils were characterized by quality and genuineness-related parameters. The results of chemical analysis are discussed in terms of their effective contribution to the sensory profile, which suggests useful recommendations for olive oil producers to improve the quality of oils. Antioxidant compounds, together with aromas and coloured pigments were determined, and their contribution in determining the functional value and the sensory properties of oils was investigated. In general, given the high levels of phenolic compounds (ranging between 254 and 375mg/kg oil), tocopherols (about 165mg/kg oil) and carotenoids (10-12mg/kg oil); these are oils with long stability, especially under dark storage conditions, because stability is reinforced with the contribution of chlorophylls (15-22mg/kg oil). A major content of phenolic compounds, as well as a predominance of trans-2-hexen-1-al within odor-active compounds (from 897 to 1645μg/kg oil), responsible for bitter sensory notes. This characterization allows to developing new antioxidant-rich and flavour-rich VOOs, when co-crushing with a higher proportion of Brava olives, satisfying the consumers' demand in having access to more healthy dishes and peculiar sensory attributes. PMID:27374520

  20. Detoxification of olive mill wastewater using superabsorbent polymers.

    PubMed

    Davies, L C; Novais, J M; Martins-Dias, S

    2004-01-01

    The detoxification of agro-industrial effluents using superabsorbent polymers is a new and innovative process. Olive mill wastewater constitutes a major environmental problem in Mediterranean countries due to the large volumes generated, the seasonality of the industry, and the high content of polyphenols and organic matter. The application of superabsorbent polymers allows olive mill wastewater to be used as a fertilizer, as it is immobilized, increasing the biological activity that decreases its phytotoxicity, thus making its water, organic matter and mineral content usable for plant nutrition. Various parameters that characterise olive mill wastewater were evaluated after absorption in 2 different superabsorbent polymers (SAP1 and SAP2). The organic matter was equally distributed in both phases, while there was a concentration of protein and sodium in solution. The K:Na ratio decreased from 70:1 to 2:1. The polyphenol desorption from the gel into solution was found to follow Fick's law. The mass transfer coefficients were 0.147 min(-1) and 0.0085 min(-1) for SAP1 and SAP2, respectively. Phytotoxicity tests were carried out with SAP2. Olive mill wastewater in SAP2 with polyphenol concentrations up to 200 mg l(-1) revealed no phytotoxicity, and even stimulated Lepidium sativum growth, while olive mill wastewater without superabsorbent polymer revealed growth inhibition for all concentrations tested. Caffeic acid degradation by the immobilised biomass followed zero order kinetics. Degradation constants of 0.087 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) and 1.156 mg l(-1) min(-1) gSAP2(-1) were found. Fungi that developed in the plant growth medium were identified as Aspergillus sp. and Penicillium sp. PMID:15027653

  1. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series.

  2. Quality of extra virgin olive oils produced in an emerging olive growing area in north-western Spain.

    PubMed

    Reboredo-Rodríguez, P; González-Barreiro, C; Cancho-Grande, B; Simal-Gándara, J

    2014-12-01

    Systematic studies of physico-chemical and stability-related properties, and chemical composition, of extra virgin olive oils (EVOOs) obtained from drupes cropped in specific regions are of special agricultural interest. This is particularly so with new production areas, where careful selection of the most suitable olive varieties for EVOO production is required. This paper reports the first comprehensive chemical characterisation of EVOOs obtained from three different olive varieties (viz., Picual, Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla) grown in a new cultivation area in Galicia (NW Spain). The Morisca variety was that providing the highest industrial oil yield (21%). However, the three types of EVOO exhibited no statistically significant differences in standard quality-related indices other than acidity. Morisca EVOO was that with the lowest content in oleic acid (mean=68%) and highest content in linoleic acid (mean=13%). Also, Morisca EVOO exhibited the highest sterol levels (mean=1,616 mg/kg) and Picual EVOO the lowest (mean=1,160 mg/kg). Picual EVOO contained greater amounts of the phenolic compounds luteolin and pinoresinol than both Morisca and Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOOs. Finally, Manzanilla de Sevilla EVOO exhibited differential attributes, with banana and olive fruit aromatic series prevailing predominantly over bitter-like, pungent-like and leaf series. PMID:24996353

  3. Enlargement of cultivated olive fruit reduces the efficiency of the larval olive fruit fly parasitoid Psyttalia concolor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cultivated olive fruit are greatly enlarged as a result of domestication. In this study, we examined the effects of fruit size within a cultivar (Sevillano) and across four different-sized cultivars (in order of decreasing size: Sevillano, Ascolano, Manzanillo, and Mission) grown in California on th...

  4. Indaziflam adsorption in soils amended with olive cake and olive cake biochar: Effect of dose and temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indaziflam has been approved by the USEPA for weed control in residential and commercial areas, golf courses, and nurseries. Recently, the use has been expanded to citrus, walnuts and olives, among other crops. According to the USEPA, indaziflam is a herbicide that can be mobile in soils, leaching ...

  5. Cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of the mixture of olive oil and lime cream in vitro conditions.

    PubMed

    Sumer, Zeynep; Yildirim, Gulay; Sumer, Haldun; Yildirim, Sahin

    2013-01-01

    The mixture of olive oil and lime cream has been traditionally used to treat external burns in the region of Hatay/Antakya and middle Anatolia. Olive oil and lime cream have been employed by many physicians to treat many ailments in the past. A limited number of studies have shown the antibacterial effect of olive oil and that it does not have any toxic effect on the skin. But we did not find any reported studies on the mixture of olive oil and lime cream. The aim of this paper is to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream individually or/and in combination in vitro conditions, by using disk-diffusion method and in cell culture. The main purpose in using this mixture is usually to clear burns without a trace. Agar overlay, MTT (Cytotoxicity assay) and antibacterial susceptibility tests were used to investigate the cytotoxic and antibacterial activity of olive oil and lime cream. We found that lime cream has an antibacterial activity but also cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. On the other hand olive oil has limited or no antibacterial effect and it has little or no cytotoxic on the fibroblasts. When we combined lime cream and olive oil, olive oil reduced its cytotoxic impact. These results suggest that mixture of olive oil and lime cream is not cytotoxic and has antimicrobial activity.

  6. Valuable nutrients and functional bioactives in different parts of olive (Olea europaea L.)-a review.

    PubMed

    Ghanbari, Rahele; Anwar, Farooq; Alkharfy, Khalid M; Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Saari, Nazamid

    2012-01-01

    The Olive tree (Olea europaea L.), a native of the Mediterranean basin and parts of Asia, is now widely cultivated in many other parts of the world for production of olive oil and table olives. Olive is a rich source of valuable nutrients and bioactives of medicinal and therapeutic interest. Olive fruit contains appreciable concentration, 1-3% of fresh pulp weight, of hydrophilic (phenolic acids, phenolic alchohols, flavonoids and secoiridoids) and lipophilic (cresols) phenolic compounds that are known to possess multiple biological activities such as antioxidant, anticarcinogenic, antiinflammatory, antimicrobial, antihypertensive, antidyslipidemic, cardiotonic, laxative, and antiplatelet. Other important compounds present in olive fruit are pectin, organic acids, and pigments. Virgin olive oil (VOO), extracted mechanically from the fruit, is also very popular for its nutritive and health-promoting potential, especially against cardiovascular disorders due to the presence of high levels of monounsaturates and other valuable minor components such as phenolics, phytosterols, tocopherols, carotenoids, chlorophyll and squalene. The cultivar, area of production, harvest time, and the processing techniques employed are some of the factors shown to influence the composition of olive fruit and olive oil. This review focuses comprehensively on the nutrients and high-value bioactives profile as well as medicinal and functional aspects of different parts of olives and its byproducts. Various factors affecting the composition of this food commodity of medicinal value are also discussed.

  7. Influence of antioxidants in virgin olive oil on the formation of heterocyclic amines in fried beefburgers.

    PubMed

    Persson, E; Graziani, G; Ferracane, R; Fogliano, V; Skog, K

    2003-11-01

    An association between the intake of heterocyclic amines (HAs) and the development of cancer has been observed in some epidemiological studies, while in other studies no such correlation has been found. HAs are mutagenic/carcinogenic compounds formed at low levels via the Maillard reaction and a free radical mechanism during cooking of animal tissue. The addition of pure antioxidants or foods containing antioxidants has previously been shown to decrease the amount of HAs formed during cooking. In this study, beefburgers were fried in six different oils: refined olive oil, virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil depleted of phenols, rapeseed oil, virgin olive oil with rosemary extract and refined olive oil with rosemary extract. The content of antioxidative compounds in the virgin olive oil and the rosemary extract was determined. The beefburgers were analysed with regards to 12 different HAs by solid phase extraction and HPLC analysis. MeIQx, 4,8-DiMeIQx, PhIP, Harman and Norharman were detected in all beefburgers fried in the different oils, but the relative amounts varied. Frying in virgin olive oil reduced the formation of HAs compared with refined olive oil. This effect is probably due to the content of phenols in the virgin olive oil. The HA-reducing effect of virgin olive oil decreased during storage, but the addition of rosemary extract may prevent this decrease.

  8. Effect of processing systems on the quality and stability of Chemlali olive oils.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Sonda; Zribi, Akram; Ben Mansour, Amir; Ayadi, Mohamed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to ascertain the influence of different processing systems employed in olive process on the chemical composition, quality and stability of three Chemlali olive oils. Among these oils, two were classified as extra-virgin olive oils and the third named repassed olive oil was classified as an ordinary virgin olive oil. The analysis of the effect of the processing (two- and three-phases) on the analytical determinations values, revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in some parameters, mainly in oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, total waxes, total phenols, o-diphenols and α-tocopherol contents as well as phenolic composition. The phenolic composition values were higher in the extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the two-phase system than in that obtained from the three-phase processing because it does not require the addition of water to the olive paste. Nevertheless, they were lower in the ordinary virgin olive oil (repassed olive oil) which was obtained by introducing hot water to the wet residues into the centrifugation processing at two-phases, than those in the extra-virgin olive oils obtained from the two- and three-phase processing. PMID:24599103

  9. Consumption of olive oil has opposite effects on plasma total cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Geelen, M J; Beynen, A C

    2000-05-01

    The hypothesis that olive-oil consumption alters plasma sphingomyelin concentrations and hepatic sphingomyelin metabolism was tested. Rats were fed on purified, high-cholesterol diets with either coconut fat or olive-oil (180 g/kg). In accordance with previous work, olive-oil v. coconut-fat consumption significantly elevated hepatic and total plasma cholesterol concentrations. During the course of the experiment, the concentration of plasma sphingomyelin rose in the coconut-fat group and remained constant in the olive-oil group. When compared with the coconut-fat-fed group, the plasma sphingomyelin levels were significantly lower in the olive-oil-fed group after 14 and 21 d of treatment. Dietary olive oil raised the amounts of cholesterol and sphingomyelin in the VLDL density region, and this change was associated with a reduction in the cholesterol and sphingomyelin contents of the LDL and HDL density ranges. Olive-oil consumption reduced the activity of serine palmitoyltransferase, while the activities of phosphatidylcholine:ceramide cholinephosphotransferase and phosphatidylethanolamine:ceramide ethanolaminephosphotransferase were left unchanged. Dietary olive oil also enhanced the activity of acidic sphingomyelinase, but not that of neutral sphingomyelinase. The present data indicate that dietary olive oil v. coconut fat has opposite effects on total plasma cholesterol and sphingomyelin concentrations. The lower plasma sphingomyelin levels observed in olive-oil-fed, as compared with coconut-fat-fed rats, may be explained by a simultaneous elevation and reduction in sphingomyelin catabolism and synthesis respectively, as based on the measured enzyme activities.

  10. Effect of cultivar and processing method on the contents of polyphenols in table olives.

    PubMed

    Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel; Yousfi, Khaled; García, Pedro; García, Aranzazu; Garrido, Antonio

    2004-02-11

    Polyphenols were determined by HPLC in the juice and oil of packed table olives. The phenolic compositions of the two phases were very different, hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol being the main polyphenols in olive juice and tyrosol acetate, hydroxtyrosol acetate, hydroxytyrosol, tyrosol, and lignans (1-acetoxypinoresinol and pinoresinol) in oil. The type of processing had a marked influence on the concentration of polyphenols in olive juice and little on the content in oil. The analyses carried out on 48 samples showed that turning color olives in brine had the highest concentration in polyphenols ( approximately 1200 mg/kg), whereas oxidized olives had the lowest ( approximately 200 mg/kg). Among olive cultivars, Manzanilla had a higher concentration than Hojiblanca and Gordal. The type of olive presentation also influenced the concentration of polyphenols in olives, decreasing in the order plain > pitted > stuffed. The results obtained in this work indicate that table olives can be considered a good source of phenolic antioxidants, although their concentration depends on olive cultivar and processing method. PMID:14759136

  11. The genetic polymorphisms and colonization process of olive fly populations in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  12. Effect of processing systems on the quality and stability of Chemlali olive oils.

    PubMed

    Ammar, Sonda; Zribi, Akram; Ben Mansour, Amir; Ayadi, Mohamed; Abdelhedi, Ridha; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The present work has been carried out to ascertain the influence of different processing systems employed in olive process on the chemical composition, quality and stability of three Chemlali olive oils. Among these oils, two were classified as extra-virgin olive oils and the third named repassed olive oil was classified as an ordinary virgin olive oil. The analysis of the effect of the processing (two- and three-phases) on the analytical determinations values, revealed statistically significant differences (p<0.05) in some parameters, mainly in oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, total waxes, total phenols, o-diphenols and α-tocopherol contents as well as phenolic composition. The phenolic composition values were higher in the extra-virgin olive oil obtained from the two-phase system than in that obtained from the three-phase processing because it does not require the addition of water to the olive paste. Nevertheless, they were lower in the ordinary virgin olive oil (repassed olive oil) which was obtained by introducing hot water to the wet residues into the centrifugation processing at two-phases, than those in the extra-virgin olive oils obtained from the two- and three-phase processing.

  13. The Genetic Polymorphisms and Colonization Process of Olive Fly Populations in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dogaç, Ersin; Kandemir, İrfan; Taskin, Vatan

    2013-01-01

    The olive fruit fly, Bactrocera oleae, is the most important pest of olives in olive growing regions worldwide, especially in the Mediterranean basin and North America. Despite the economic importance of the olive fly, the colonization route of this species is unclear. We used nuclear microsatellite markers and mitochondrial DNA to provide information about the population structure and invasion route of olive fly populations in Turkey, as representative of the Eastern Mediterranean region. Adult fly samples were collected from 38 sublocations covering all olive growing regions in Turkey. The simple sequence variability data revealed a significant genetic variability in olive fly populations and a certain degree of differentiation between Mediterranean and Aegean populations. Mediterranean populations harbor higher levels of microsatellite variation than Aegean populations, which points to the eastern part of the Mediterranean as the putative source of invasion. mtDNA results suggest olive flies from the western part of Turkey are closely related to Italo-Aegean flies of the Mediterranean basin and the olive fly populations have invaded the northern part of the Mediterranean basin through western Turkey. In addition, finding specific American haplotypes in high frequencies might indicate that Turkey is the possible source of American olive fly populations. In order to more precisely characterize the population structure and invasion routes of this organism, more DNA-based sequence analysis should be carried out worldwide. PMID:23457499

  14. Physiological, biochemical and molecular changes occurring during olive development and ripening.

    PubMed

    Conde, Carlos; Delrot, Serge; Gerós, Hernâni

    2008-10-01

    Since ancient times the olive tree (Olea europaea), an evergreen drought- and moderately salt-tolerant species, has been cultivated for its oil and fruit in the Mediterranean basin. Olive is unique among the commercial important oil crops for many reasons. Today, it ranks sixth in the world's production of vegetable oils. Due to its nutritional quality, olive oil has a high commercial value compared with most other plant oils. Olive oil has a well-balanced composition of fatty acids, with small amounts of palmitate, and it is highly enriched in the moneonic acid oleate. This makes it both fairly stable against auto-oxidation and suitable for human health. Nevertheless, it is the presence of minor components, in particular phenolics, contributing for oil's high oxidative stability, color and flavor, that makes olive oil unique among other oils. Moreover, as a result of their demonstrated roles in the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular diseases, olive phenolics have gained much attention during the past years. Also unique to virgin olive oil is its characteristic aroma. This results from the formation of volatile compounds, namely, aldehydes and alcohols of six carbon atoms, which is triggered when olives are crushed during the process of oil extraction. The biochemistry of the olive tree is also singular. O. europaea is one of the few species able to synthesize both polyols (mannitol) and oligosaccharides (raffinose and stachyose) as the final products of the photosynthetic CO(2) fixation in the leaf. These carbohydrates, together with sucrose, can be exported from leaves to fruits to fulfill cellular metabolic requirements and act as precursors to oil synthesis. Additionally, developing olives contain active chloroplasts capable of fixing CO(2) and thus contributing to the carbon economy of the fruit. The overall quality of table olives and olive oil is influenced by the fruit ripening stage. Olive fruit ripening is a combination of physiological and

  15. Ectopic supernumerary tooth on the inferior nasal concha.

    PubMed

    Ray, Bappaditya; Singh, Lav Kumar; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Roy, T S

    2006-01-01

    Variations regarding the location of an ectopic tooth in the human nasal cavity, although rare, are documented in the literature, but presence of an ectopic tooth on the inferior nasal concha (INC) has not been reported. We observed an anomalous tooth projecting from the posterior margin of the right INC in two adult female skulls. A small quadrangular tooth projected beyond the posterior margin of the hard palate in one of the skulls and a medium sized conical tooth was observed in the other skull. The affected INC in both skulls were located more inferiorly compared to the opposite side and were in close approximation with the hard palate. No similar findings were noted on the contralateral side nor were there any associated congenital or iatrogenic deformity. The phylogenetic, ontogenetic, and clinical importance of this variant is described. Knowledge of such an anomaly is of paramount importance to otorhinolaryngologists, reconstructive and dental surgeons, and radiologists for identification of such rarities encountered during invasive or non-invasive procedures. PMID:16283635

  16. Thalamic Lesions: A Radiological Review

    PubMed Central

    Renard, Dimitri; Campello, Chantal; Bouly, Stephane; Le Floch, Anne; Thouvenot, Eric; Waconge, Anne; Taieb, Guillaume

    2014-01-01

    Background. Thalamic lesions are seen in a multitude of disorders including vascular diseases, metabolic disorders, inflammatory diseases, trauma, tumours, and infections. In some diseases, thalamic involvement is typical and sometimes isolated, while in other diseases thalamic lesions are observed only occasionally (often in the presence of other typical extrathalamic lesions). Summary. In this review, we will mainly discuss the MRI characteristics of thalamic lesions. Identification of the origin of the thalamic lesion depends on the exact localisation inside the thalamus, the presence of extrathalamic lesions, the signal changes on different MRI sequences, the evolution of the radiological abnormalities over time, the history and clinical state of the patient, and other radiological and nonradiological examinations. PMID:25100900

  17. High-power ultrasound in olive paste pretreatment. Effect on process yield and virgin olive oil characteristics.

    PubMed

    Jiménez, A; Beltrán, G; Uceda, M

    2007-09-01

    The effect of high-power ultrasound on olive paste, on laboratory thermo-mixing operations for virgin olive oil extraction, has been studied. Direct sonication by an ultrasound probe horn (105 W cm(-2) and 24 kHz) and indirect sonication with an ultrasound-cleaning bath (150 W and 25 kHz) were applied and their effects compared with the conventional thermal treatment. A quick-heating of olive paste, from ambient (12-20 degrees C) to optimal temperature conditions (28-30 degrees C), and an oil extractability improvement were observed when applying sonication. Better extractability was obtained by direct sonication for high moisture olives (>50%) whereas indirect sonication gave greater extractability for low moisture olive fruits (<50%). Optimal application of ultrasound was achieved with direct sonication for 4 min at the beginning of paste malaxation and with indirect sonication during the malaxation time. Effect of high-power ultrasound on oil quality parameters and nutritional and sensory characteristics were studied. Changes in quality parameters (free acidity value, peroxide value, K270 and K232) were not found, however significant effects on the levels of bitterness, polyphenols, tocopherols (vitamin E), chlorophyll and carotenoids were observed. Oils from sonicated pastes showed lower bitterness and higher content of tocopherols, chlorophylls and carotenoids. Related to sensory characteristics, off-flavour volatiles were not detected in oils from sonication treatments. Total peak areas of volatiles and the ratio hexanal/E-2-hexenal, as determined by SPME analysis, were lower than non-sonicated reference oils; sensory evaluation by panel test showed higher intensity of positive attributes and lesser of negative characteristics than those untreated.

  18. Transcript levels of CHL P gene, antioxidants and chlorophylls contents in olive (Olea europaea L.) pericarps: a comparative study on eleven olive cultivars harvested in two ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana Ada

    2011-03-01

    The effects of ripening stage on the antioxidant content in olive pericarps were evaluated in eleven olive genotypes grown in the same bioagronomic conditions in Southern Italy. We examined the transcript levels of geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) gene and the content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds and chlorophylls in the pericarps. The examined genotypes showed an increase of CHL P transcripts during pericarps ripening. Significant differences were reported in the antioxidant proportions in the same cultivars at different pericarp ripening stage. We show an inverse correlation between phenols and tocopherols content. In particular, during the ripening phase, tocopherols increased rapidly in olive pericarps while phenolic compounds and chlorophyll levels declined significantly. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of olive drupes and its products (table olives and olive oil). We suggest, for the first time, a link between CHL P transcript levels and tocopherols content during the ripening of olive pericarps. Besides, we revealed that this trend of CHL P transcript levels during pericarps ripening is independent from the olive genotypes.

  19. Transcript levels of CHL P gene, antioxidants and chlorophylls contents in olive (Olea europaea L.) pericarps: a comparative study on eleven olive cultivars harvested in two ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Muzzalupo, Innocenzo; Stefanizzi, Francesca; Perri, Enzo; Chiappetta, Adriana Ada

    2011-03-01

    The effects of ripening stage on the antioxidant content in olive pericarps were evaluated in eleven olive genotypes grown in the same bioagronomic conditions in Southern Italy. We examined the transcript levels of geranylgeranyl reductase (CHL P) gene and the content of tocopherols, phenolic compounds and chlorophylls in the pericarps. The examined genotypes showed an increase of CHL P transcripts during pericarps ripening. Significant differences were reported in the antioxidant proportions in the same cultivars at different pericarp ripening stage. We show an inverse correlation between phenols and tocopherols content. In particular, during the ripening phase, tocopherols increased rapidly in olive pericarps while phenolic compounds and chlorophyll levels declined significantly. The significant amounts of these antioxidants confirm the nutritional and medicinal value of olive drupes and its products (table olives and olive oil). We suggest, for the first time, a link between CHL P transcript levels and tocopherols content during the ripening of olive pericarps. Besides, we revealed that this trend of CHL P transcript levels during pericarps ripening is independent from the olive genotypes. PMID:21253861

  20. Identification of leaf volatiles from olive (Olea europaea) and their possible role in the ovipositional preferences of olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi) (Diptera: Tephritidae).

    PubMed

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Casal, Susana; Cunha, Sara C; Baptista, Paula; Pereira, José Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The olive fly, Bactrocera oleae (Rossi), is a monophagous pest that displays an oviposition preference among cultivars of olive (Olea europaea L.). To clarify the oviposition preference, the olive leaf volatiles of three olive cultivars (Cobrançosa, Madural and Verdeal Transmontana) were assessed by headspace solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS-SPME-GC/MS) at six different periods of olive fruit maturation and degrees of infestation. A total of 39 volatiles were identified, mainly esters and alcohols, with a minor percentage of aldehydes, ketones and terpenic compounds, including sesquiterpenes. At sampling dates with higher degrees of infestation, cv. Cobrançosa had, simultaneously, significantly lower infestation degrees and higher volatile amounts than the other two cultivars, with a probable deterrent effect for oviposition. The green leaf volatiles (GLVs) (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol and (Z)-3-hexen-1-ol acetate) were the main compounds identified in all cultivars, together with toluene. The abundance of GLVs decreased significantly throughout maturation, without significant differences among cultivars, while toluene showed a general increase and positive correlation with olive fly infestation levels. The results obtained could broaden our understanding of the roles of various types and amounts of olive volatiles in the environment, especially in olive fly host selection and cultivar preference.

  1. Mediterranean savanna system: understanding and modeling of olive orchard.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brilli, Lorenzo; Moriondo, Marco; Bindi, Marco

    2013-04-01

    Nowadays most of the studies on C and N exchange were focused on forest ecosystems and crop systems, while only few studies have been focused on so called "savanna systems". They are long-term agro-ecosystems (fruit trees, grapevines and olive trees, etc.) usually characterized by two different layers (ground vegetation and trees). Generally, there is a lack of knowledge about these systems due to their intrinsic structural complexity (different eco-physiological characteristics so as agricultural practices). However, given their long-term carbon storage capacity, these systems can play a fundamental role in terms of global C cycle. Among all of them, the role that olive trees can play in C sequestration should not be neglected, especially in Mediterranean areas where they typify the rural landscape and are widely cultivated (Loumou and Giourga, 2003). It is therefore fundamental modelling the C-fluxes exchanges coming from these systems through a tool able to well reproduce these dynamics in one of the most exposed areas to the risk of climate change (IPCC, 2007). In this work, 2 years of Net CO2 Ecosystem Exchange (NEE) measures from eddy covariance were used to test the biogeochemistry model DayCent. The study was conducted in a rain-fed olive orchard situated in Follonica, South Tuscany, Italy (42 ° 55'N, 10 ° 45'E), in an agricultural area near the coast. The instrumentation for flux measurement was placed 1.9 m above the canopy top (6.5 m from the ground) so that the footprint area, expressed as the area containing 90% of the observed flux, was almost entirely contained within the olive orchard limits (Brilli et al., in press). Ancillary slow sensors have included soil temperature profiles, global radiation, air temperature and humidity, rain gauge. Fluxes of sensible heat, latent heat, momentum and CO2 as well as ancillary data were derived at half-hourly time resolution. Specific soil (texture, current and historical land use and vegetation cover) and

  2. Pigmented Lesion of Buccal Mucosa

    PubMed Central

    Bajpai, Manas; Kumar, Malay; Kumar, Manish; Agarwal, Deshant

    2014-01-01

    Pigmented lesions are commonly found in the mouth. Such lesions represent a variety of clinical entities, ranging from physiologic changes to manifestation of systemic illness and malignant neoplasm. Diagnosis of such lesions requires a proper case history, extraoral and intraoral examination, and, in some cases, biopsy, aspiration cytology, and laboratory investigations. Here we present a case of purple lesion on the buccal mucosa of a 34-year-old male patient which was provisionally diagnosed as mucocele but on the basis of histopathological picture it was finally diagnosed as angiofibroma, and we also discuss the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis. PMID:25161669

  3. Stress-induced cervical lesions.

    PubMed

    Braem, M; Lambrechts, P; Vanherle, G

    1992-05-01

    The increasing occurrence of dental lesions at the cervical surfaces requires more knowledge of the causes of the process. Acidic and abrasive mechanisms have clearly been documented as causes but the stress theory by Lee and Eakle is still controversial. This report describes several incidences of possible stress-induced lesions according to the characteristics described by Lee and Eakle. The occurrences of subgingival lesions lend credence to the stress-induction theory by exclusion of other superimposing etiologic factors. With the current concepts, a perceptive approach to the treatment of cervical lesions can be executed. PMID:1527763

  4. Aneurysm in the anterior inferior cerebellar artery-posterior inferior cerebellar artery variant: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Saad; Azeem, Abdul; Jiwani, Amyna; Javed, Gohar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction There are variations in the anatomy of the vertebrobasilar system amongst which the Anterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery-Posterior Inferior Cerebellar Artery (AICA-PICA) variant is thought to have a prevalence of 20–24% (based on retrospective studies). Despite this, aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. We present a case of an AICA-PICA aneurysm and discuss its presentation and management, along with a review of literature. Presentation of case We describe the case of a 35 year old female who presented with signs of meningismus. On the basis of radiological imaging it was initially misdiagnosed as a thrombosed arteriovenous malformation (AVM). The patient was eventually discharged with a plan of interval imaging and interventional radiology (if required). The patient presented again with similar signs and symptoms. Re-evaluation of imaging revealed an aneurysm of the AICA-PICA variant which was managed surgically. Discussion Aneurysms of the AICA-PICA variant are rare. The radiological features and surgical management represent a unique clinical entity and are discussed below. Conclusion The prevalence of the AICA-PICA variant might be high but aneurysms in this vessel are rare. The scant knowledge available on this subject makes it a diagnostic difficulty. PMID:27017276

  5. Soil Properties and Olive Cultivar Determine the Structure and Diversity of Plant-Parasitic Nematode Communities Infesting Olive Orchards Soils in Southern Spain

    PubMed Central

    Palomares-Rius, Juan E.; Castillo, Pablo; Montes-Borrego, Miguel; Navas-Cortés, Juan A.; Landa, Blanca B.

    2015-01-01

    This work has studied for the first time the structure and diversity of plant-parasitic nematodes (PPNs) infesting olive orchard soils in a wide-region in Spain that included 92 locations. It aims at determining which agronomical or environmental factors associated to the olive orchards are the main drivers of the PPNs community structure and diversity. Classical morphological and morphometric identification methods were used to determine the frequency and densities of PPNs. Thirteen families, 34 genera and 77 species of PPNs were identified. The highest diversity was found in Helicotylenchus genus, with six species previously reported in Spain and with H. oleae being a first report. Neodolichorhynchus microphasmis and Diptenchus sp., Diphtherophora sp., and Discotylenchus sp., usually considered fungal feeders, were also reported for the first time associated to olive rhizosphere. PPNs abundance ranged from 66 to 16,288 individuals/500-cm3 of soil with Helicotylenchus digonicus being the most prevalent species, followed by Filenchus sp., Merlinius brevidens and Xiphinema pachtaicum. Nematode abundance and diversity indexes were influenced by olive cultivar, and orchard and soil management practices; while olive variety and soil texture were the main factors driving PPN community composition. Soil physicochemical properties and climatic characteristics most strongly associated to the PPN community composition included pH, sand content and exchangeable K, and maximum and minimum average temperature of the sampled locations. Our data suggests that there is a high diversity of PPNs associated to olive in Southern Spain that can exert different damage to olive roots depending on the olive variety and their abundance. Further analysis to determine the resistance levels of most common olive varieties to the prevalent PPNs in Spain will help to choose the most appropriate ones for the establishment of new plantations. This choice will take into consideration the specific

  6. Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2015-03-15

    The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit.

  7. Beginnings of Olive Cultivation in Eastern Spain in Relation to Holocene Bioclimatic Changes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Terral, Jean-Frederic; Arnold-Simard, Genevieve

    1996-09-01

    Morphometric analyses show quantitative differences in anatomical characters of wood and charcoal between wild and cultivated olive. Samples from modern olive wood in eastern Spain (Levante) provide five distinctive anatomical criteria: growth width ring, vessel surface, number of vessels per group, vessel density, and vulnerability ratio. Multivariate analysis shows that growth ring width and number of vessels per group are both significant criteria for discriminating between wild and cultivated olive. Moreover, bioclimatic environments of wild olive (thermomediterranean and mesomediterranean stages) are distinguished by vessel density. Ancient olive charcoal from archaeological sites at Valencia and Alicante implies increasing aridification from the Cardial Neolithic to the Roman Period. This pattern may reflect the onset of a Mediterranean climate and human deforestation. Charcoal from cultivated specimens of early Neolithic age shows that the olive tree is the earliest cultivated temperate fruit.

  8. Ultrasonic and thermal pretreatments to enhance the anaerobic bioconversion of olive husks.

    PubMed

    Gianico, A; Braguglia, C M; Mescia, D; Mininni, G

    2013-11-01

    Olive husks, typical solid by-products from the olive oil industry, were selected to carry out anaerobic digestion tests. Before digestion, olive husks were subjected to ultrasonic or thermal pretreatments in order to release the organic matter into solution. Both sonication and thermal pretreatment allowed to solubilize the particulate matter with 22% and 72% increase in soluble organics of olive husks, respectively. Nevertheless, such pretreatments caused the release of unwanted molecules in solution, with the related risks of inhibition of the methanogenic process. Biochemical Methane Potential (BMP) tests on olive husks mixed with olive-mill wastewater and dairy wastewater, either pretreated or not, showed that ultrasound pretreatment resulted in 15% increase in volatile solids reduction and a 13% increase in biogas production, while after thermal pretreatment no benefits were observed. PMID:24035286

  9. Cultivar origin and admixture detection in Turkish olive oils by SNP-based CAPS assays.

    PubMed

    Uncu, Ali Tevfik; Frary, Anne; Doganlar, Sami

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a DNA-based identification key to ascertain the cultivar origin of Turkish monovarietal olive oils. To reach this aim, we sequenced short fragments from five olive genes for SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism) identification and developed CAPS (cleaved amplified polymorphic DNA) assays for SNPs that alter restriction enzyme recognition motifs. When applied on the oils of 17 olive cultivars, a maximum of five CAPS assays were necessary to discriminate the varietal origin of the samples. We also tested the efficiency and limit of our approach for detecting olive oil admixtures. As a result of the analysis, we were able to detect admixing down to a limit of 20%. The SNP-based CAPS assays developed in this work can be used for testing and verification of the authenticity of Turkish monovarietal olive oils, for olive tree certification, and in germplasm characterization and preservation studies.

  10. A review of olive mill solid wastes to energy utilization techniques.

    PubMed

    Christoforou, Elias; Fokaides, Paris A

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, the utilization of olive industry by-products for energy purposes has gained significant research interest and many studies have been conducted focused on the exploitation of olive mill solid waste (OMSW) derived from the discontinuous or continuous processing of olive fruits. In this review study, the primary characteristics of OMSW and the techniques used to define their thermal performance are described. The theoretical background of the main waste-to-energy conversion pathways of solid olive mill wastes, as well as the basic pre-treatment techniques for upgrading solid fuels, are presented. The study aims to present the main findings and major conclusions of previously published works undertaken in the last two decades focused on the characterization of olive mill solid wastes and the utilization of different types of solid olive mill residues for energy purposes. The study also aims to highlight the research challenges in this field.

  11. Observation of eight ancient olive trees (Olea europaea L.) growing in the Garden of Gethsemane.

    PubMed

    Petruccelli, Raffaella; Giordano, Cristiana; Salvatici, Maria Cristina; Capozzoli, Laura; Ciaccheri, Leonardo; Pazzini, Massimo; Lain, Orietta; Testolin, Raffaele; Cimato, Antonio

    2014-05-01

    For thousands of years, olive trees (Olea europaea L.) have been a significant presence and a symbol in the Garden of Gethsemane, a place located at the foot of the Mount of Olives, Jerusalem, remembered for the agony of Jesus Christ before his arrest. This investigation comprises the first morphological and genetic characterization of eight olive trees in the Garden of Gethsemane. Pomological traits, morphometric, and ultrastructural observations as well as SSR (Simple Sequence Repeat) analysis were performed to identify the olive trees. Statistical analyses were conducted to evaluate their morphological variability. The study revealed a low morphological variability and minimal dissimilarity among the olive trees. According to molecular analysis, these trees showed the same allelic profile at all microsatellite loci analyzed. Combining the results of the different analyses carried out in the frame of the present work, we could conclude that the eight olive trees of the Gethsemane Garden have been propagated from a single genotype.

  12. Combined use of nitrogen and coatings to improve the quality of mechanically harvested Manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Eva; Sánchez, Antonio H; Romero, Concepción; Brenes, Manuel

    2015-03-15

    The combined effect of an edible coating and a nitrogen atmosphere on the quality of Manzanilla olives mechanically harvested and processed as Spanish-style green olives was assessed. The percentage of olives free of any brown spots ranged between 35-50%, 10-25% and 50-65% for fruit directly processed, storage under nitrogen and coated and storage under nitrogen respectively. Moreover, olives stored in the open air developed brown spots due to the oxidation of oleuropein. By contrast, the anoxic conditions prevented oleuropein from undergoing enzymatic oxidation but not from its enzymatic hydrolysis. Hence, the phenolic derivative HyEDA was formed in olives stored under nitrogen, and this substance was rapidly oxidized in the open air to give rise to brown spots although to a lesser extent in the coated fruit. Therefore, the postharvest storage of coated olives under nitrogen can be a good method to prevent bruise damage in mechanically harvested fruit. PMID:25308641

  13. Cortical Auditory Deafferentation Induces Long-Term Plasticity in the Inferior Colliculus of Adult Rats: Microarray and qPCR Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Cheryl; Herrero-Turrión, M. Javier; Merchán, Miguel A.

    2012-01-01

    The cortico-collicular pathway is a bilateral excitatory projection from the cortex to the inferior colliculus (IC). It is asymmetric and predominantly ipsilateral. Using microarrays and RT-qPCR we analyzed changes in gene expression in the IC after unilateral lesions of the auditory cortex, comparing the ICs ipsi- and contralateral to the lesioned side. At 15 days after surgery there were mainly changes in gene expression in the IC ipsilateral to the lesion. Regulation primarily involved inflammatory cascade genes, suggesting a direct effect of degeneration rather than a neuronal plastic reorganization. Ninety days after the cortical lesion the ipsilateral IC showed a significant up-regulation of genes involved in apoptosis and axonal regeneration combined with a down-regulation of genes involved in neurotransmission, synaptic growth, and gap junction assembly. In contrast, the contralateral IC at 90 days post-lesion showed an up-regulation in genes primarily related to neurotransmission, cell proliferation, and synaptic growth. There was also a down-regulation in autophagy and neuroprotection genes. These findings suggest that the reorganization in the IC after descending pathway deafferentation is a long-term process involving extensive changes in gene expression regulation. Regulated genes are involved in many different neuronal functions, and the number and gene rearrangement profile seems to depend on the density of loss of the auditory cortical inputs. PMID:23233834

  14. Ripening and storage conditions of Chétoui and Arbequina olives: Part II. Effect on olive endogenous enzymes and virgin olive oil secoiridoid profile determined by high resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; Cortes-Francisco, Nuria; Caixach, Josep; Gargouri, Mohamed; Vichi, Stefania

    2016-11-01

    Several factors affect virgin olive oil (VOO) phenolic profile. The aim of this study was to monitor olive hydrolytic (β-glucosidase) and oxidative (peroxydase, POX, and polyphenoloxydase, PPO) enzymes during olive ripening and storage and to determine their capacity to shape VOO phenolic profile. To this end, olives from the cultivars Chétoui and Arbequina were stored at 4°C or 25°C for 4weeks and their enzymatic activities and oil phenolic profiles were compared to those of ripening olives. We observed different trends in enzymes activities according to cultivar and storage temperature. Secoiridoid compounds, determined by high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS), and their deacetoxylated, oxygenated, and deacetoxy-oxygenated derivatives were identified and their contents differed between the cultivars according to olive ripening degree and storage conditions. These differences could be due to β-glucosidase, POX and PPO activities changes during olive ripening and storage. Results also show that oxidised phenolic compounds could be a marker of VOO ''freshness".

  15. Azathioprine versus Beta Interferons for Relapsing-Remitting Multiple Sclerosis: A Multicentre Randomized Non-Inferiority Trial

    PubMed Central

    Massacesi, Luca; Tramacere, Irene; Amoroso, Salvatore; Battaglia, Mario A.; Benedetti, Maria Donata; Filippini, Graziella; La Mantia, Loredana; Repice, Anna; Solari, Alessandra; Tedeschi, Gioacchino; Milanese, Clara

    2014-01-01

    For almost three decades in many countries azathioprine has been used to treat relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. However its efficacy was usually considered marginal and following approval of β interferons for this indication it was no longer recommended as first line treatment, even if presently no conclusive direct β interferon-azathioprine comparison exists. To compare azathioprine efficacy versus the currently available β interferons in relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis, a multicenter, randomized, controlled, single-blinded, non-inferiority trial was conducted in 30 Italian multiple sclerosis centers. Eligible patients (relapsing-remitting course; ≥2 relapses in the last 2 years) were randomly assigned to azathioprine or β interferons. The primary outcome was annualized relapse rate ratio (RR) over 2 years. Key secondary outcome was number of new brain MRI lesions. Patients (n = 150) were randomized in 2 groups (77 azathioprine, 73 β interferons). At 2 years, clinical evaluation was completed in 127 patients (62 azathioprine, 65 β interferons). Annualized relapse rate was 0.26 (95% Confidence Interval, CI, 0.19–0.37) in the azathioprine and 0.39 (95% CI 0.30–0.51) in the interferon group. Non-inferiority analysis showed that azathioprine was at least as effective as β interferons (relapse RRAZA/IFN 0.67, one-sided 95% CI 0.96; p<0.01). MRI outcomes were analyzed in 97 patients (50 azathioprine and 47 β interferons). Annualized new T2 lesion rate was 0.76 (95% CI 0.61–0.95) in the azathioprine and 0.69 (95% CI 0.54–0.88) in the interferon group. Treatment discontinuations due to adverse events were higher (20.3% vs. 7.8%, p = 0.03) in the azathioprine than in the interferon group, and concentrated within the first months of treatment, whereas in the interferon group discontinuations occurred mainly during the second year. The results of this study indicate that efficacy of azathioprine is not inferior to that of

  16. Influence of pasteurization and lye treatment on the fermentation of spanish-style manzanilla olives.

    PubMed

    Y Alcaĺa, J M; Ferńandez-Diez, M J; Gonźalez-Cancho, F

    1969-05-01

    The effect of lye concentration and pasteurization on the fermentation of Spanish-style Manzanilla green olives was investigated. Results showed that a rapid, normal fermentation always occurred when the proper lye was used, and only in the case of an inappropriate alkaline treatment could pasteurization help the growth of lactobacilli. Although pasteurization does not seem to affect color of processed olives, texture tests gave lower values for pasteurized samples than for those obtained from nonpasteurized olives. PMID:16349845

  17. [The focal renal lesions].

    PubMed

    Tuma, Jan

    2013-06-01

    The focal renal lesions are altogether common. Most frequently are found Columna Bertini hypertrophies (so called pseudotumors) and simple renal cysts. The role of sonography in the practice is to distinguish pseudotumors from real renal tumors, and simple renal cysts from complex cysts. The differentiation of complex renal cysts is possible with the help of the CEUS (= contrast enhanced ultrasound) and other imaging modalities such as CT or MRI. In these cases, the CEUS imaging agent has clear advantages over CT and MRI, because it is composed of gas bubbles, which are only slightly smaller than red blood cells and remains exclusively intravascularly while the CT and MRI contrast agents diffuse into the interstitial space without any real perfusion. The real tumors can be differentiated from certain focal non-tumorous changes based on the ultrasound and clinic. The further differentiation of individual kidney tumors and metastases using ultrasound, MRI, CT and CEUS is only partly possible. In all uncertain or unclear cases, therefore, an open or ultrasound-guided biopsy is useful.

  18. ['Non-inferiority' trials. Tips for the critical reader. Research methodology 3].

    PubMed

    Soonawala, Darius; Dekkers, Olaf M

    2012-01-01

    The aim of non-inferiority trials is to show that a new treatment is not less effective than standard treatment, in other words 'non-inferior'. The non-inferiority margin should be determined before a study commences. This margin determines the maximal magnitude of difference in effectiveness permissible if it is to be concluded that a new treatment is not less effective than the standard treatment. There is usually a good reason for a non-inferiority design. For example, because the new treatment is easier to use, provides better cost-effectiveness or has fewer side effects. The reader of a non-inferiority trial should consider a number of aspects critically: (a) the reason for use of this study design, (b) the assumed benefit of the new treatment, (c) the rationale for the choice of non-inferiority margin and (d) the choice of the standard therapy with which the new treatment is compared.

  19. Posttransplant Complex Inferior Venacava Balloon Dilatation After Hepatic Vein Stenting

    SciTech Connect

    Kohli, Vikas; Wadhawan, Manav; Gupta, Subhash; Roy, Vipul

    2010-02-15

    Orthotopic and living related liver transplantation is an established mode of treatment of end-stage liver disease. One of the major causes of postoperative complications is vascular anastomotic stenosis. One such set of such complications relates to hepatic vein, inferior vena cava (IVC), or portal vein stenosis, with a reported incidence of 1-3%. The incidence of vascular complications is reported to be higher in living donor versus cadaveric liver transplants. We encountered a patient with hepatic venous outflow tract obstruction, where the hepatic vein had been previously stented, but the patient continued to have symptoms due to additional IVC obstruction. The patient required double-balloon dilatation of the IVC simultaneously from the internal jugular vein and IVC.

  20. Infrahepatic inferior vena cava agenesis with bilateral renal vein thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Skeik, Nedaa; Wickstrom, Kelly K; Schumacher, Clark W; Sullivan, Timothy M

    2013-10-01

    Congenital anomalies of the inferior vena cava (IVC) are rare and are estimated to be present in 0.07-8.7% of the general population. IVC agenesis (IVCA) is found in approximately 5% of cases of unprovoked lower extremity deep vein thrombosis in patients <30 years of age. Renal vein thrombosis (RVT) is an extremely rare and unusual presentation of IVCA. We report a unique case of a 23-year-old previously healthy man presenting with infrahepatic IVCA-induced bilateral RVT with azygos and hemiazygos continuation. To our knowledge, this is the third reported case in the literature of IVCA-induced RVT and the first to affect the bilateral renal veins in the absence of any other thrombogenic risk factors or any lower extremity venous complications. We also present a literature review of IVCA-induced vein thrombosis and highlight the lack of literature to manage this condition.

  1. Inhibition and the right inferior frontal cortex: one decade on.

    PubMed

    Aron, Adam R; Robbins, Trevor W; Poldrack, Russell A

    2014-04-01

    In our TICS Review in 2004, we proposed that a sector of the right inferior frontal cortex (rIFC) in humans is critical for inhibiting response tendencies. Here we survey new evidence, discuss ongoing controversies, and provide an updated theory. We propose that the rIFC (along with one or more fronto-basal-ganglia networks) is best characterized as a brake. This brake can be turned on in different modes (totally, to outright suppress a response; or partially, to pause), and in different contexts (externally, by stop or salient signals; or internally, by goals). We affirm inhibition as a central component of executive control that relies upon the rIFC and associated networks, and explain why rIFC disruption could generally underpin response control disorders.

  2. Anesthetic Efficacy of Bupivacaine Solutions in Inferior Alveolar Nerve Block

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Maria Cristina; Ranali, José; Ramacciato, Juliana Cama; de Oliveira, Patrícia Cristine; Ambrosano, Glaúcia Maria Bovi; Groppo, Francisco Carlos

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the anesthetic efficacy of 2 bupivacaine solutions. Twenty-two volunteers randomly received in a crossover, double-blinded manner 2 inferior alveolar nerve blocks with 1.8 mL of racemic bupivacaine and a mixture of 75% levobupivacaine and 25% dextrobupivacaine, both 0.5% and with 1 : 200,000 epinephrine. Before and after the injection, the first mandibular pre-molar was evaluated every 2 minutes until no response to the maximal output (80 reading) of the pulp tester and then again every 20 minutes. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired test and the paired t test. No differences were found between the solutions for onset and duration of pulpal anesthesia and duration of soft tissue anesthesia (P > .05). It was concluded that the solutions have similar anesthetic efficacy. PMID:16596912

  3. Auditory recognition memory is inferior to visual recognition memory

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael A.; Horowitz, Todd S.; Wolfe, Jeremy M.

    2009-01-01

    Visual memory for scenes is surprisingly robust. We wished to examine whether an analogous ability exists in the auditory domain. Participants listened to a variety of sound clips and were tested on their ability to distinguish old from new clips. Stimuli ranged from complex auditory scenes (e.g., talking in a pool hall) to isolated auditory objects (e.g., a dog barking) to music. In some conditions, additional information was provided to help participants with encoding. In every situation, however, auditory memory proved to be systematically inferior to visual memory. This suggests that there exists either a fundamental difference between auditory and visual stimuli, or, more plausibly, an asymmetry between auditory and visual processing. PMID:19307569

  4. Scorpion envenomation-induced acute thrombotic inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Baykan, Ahmet Oytun; Gür, Mustafa; Acele, Armağan; Şeker, Taner; Çaylı, Murat

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a serious cardiac emergency following scorpion envenomation has rarely been reported and, when so, mostly presented as non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction, cardiogenic shock, or myocarditis. Possible mechanisms include imbalance in blood pressure and coronary vasospasm caused by the combination of sympathetic excitation, scorpion venom-induced release of catecholamines, and the direct effect of the toxin on the myocardium. We report a case of a 55-year-old man who presented with acute inferior wall myocardial infarction (MI) within 2 h of being stung by a scorpion. Coronary angiogram revealed total thrombotic occlusion of the left circumflex artery, which was treated successfully with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor, thrombus aspiration, antivenom serum, and supportive therapy. Therefore, life-threatening MI can complicate the clinical course during some types of scorpion envenomation and should be managed as an acute coronary syndrome. PMID:26875137

  5. Evidence of Mirror Neurons in Human Inferior Frontal Gyrus

    PubMed Central

    Kilner, James M.; Neal, Alice; Weiskopf, Nikolaus; Friston, Karl J.; Frith, Chris D.

    2009-01-01

    There is much current debate about the existence of mirror neurons in humans. To identify mirror neurons in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of humans we employed a repetition suppression paradigm while measuring neural activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Subjects either executed or observed a series of actions. Here we show that in the IFG, responses were suppressed both when an executed action was followed by the same rather than a different observed action and when an observed action was followed by the same rather than a different executed action. This pattern of responses is consistent with that predicted by mirror neurons and is evidence of mirror neurons in the human IFG. PMID:19675249

  6. Indications, Management, and Complications of Temporary Inferior Vena Cava Filters

    SciTech Connect

    Linsenmaier, Ulrich; Rieger, Johannes; Schenk, Franz; Rock, Clemens; Mangel, Eugen; Pfeifer, Klaus Juergen

    1998-11-15

    Purpose: We describe the results of a preliminary prospective study using different recently developed temporary and retrievable inferior vena cava (IVC) filters. Methods: Fifty temporary IVC filters (Guenther, Guenther Tulip, Antheor) were inserted in 47 patients when the required period of protection against pulmonary embolism (PE) was estimated to be less than 2 weeks. The indications were documented deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and temporary contraindications for anticoagulation, a high risk for PE, and PE despite DVT prophylaxis. Results: Filters were removed 1-12 days after placement and nine (18%) had captured thrombi. Complications were one PE during and after removal of a filter, two minor filter migrations, and one IVC thrombosis. Conclusion: Temporary filters are effective in trapping clots and protecting against PE, and the complication rate does not exceed that of permanent filters. They are an alternative when protection from PE is required temporarily, and should be considered in patients with a normal life expectancy.

  7. Protection of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels against hepatotoxicity induced by Dioscorea bulbifera L. and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    Niu, Chengwei; Wang, Junming; Ji, Lili; Wang, Zhengtao

    2014-10-01

    Dioscorea bulbifera L., a traditionally used medicinal plant in China, is reported to induce hepatotoxicity. The present study is designed to investigate the protection of an ethanol extract of Angelica sinensis (Oliv) Diels (AE) against an ethyl acetate fraction of D. bulbifera (EF)-induced liver injury and its engaged mechanism. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that the amount of diosbulbin B in EF was 16.03% and ferulic acid in AE was 0.18%. EF (350 mg/kg) increased serum alanine/aspartate aminotransferase (ALT/AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total bilirubin (TB) amount, while AE inhibited such an increase. Liver histological evaluation showed that AE prevented development of severe hepatic lesions induced by EF. Further results showed that EF decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and induced the cleaved activation of caspase-9 and -3, and all those effects were reversed by AE. AE also reversed EF-induced decreased expression of the inhibitor of kappa B (IκB), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Taken together, our results demonstrate that AE can prevent EF-induced hepatotoxicity via preventing apoptosis, meanwhile IκB, SOD, and GPx may be involved in such protection.

  8. Sensitivity of rat inferior colliculus neurons to frequency distributions.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Björn; Parthasarathy, Aravindakshan; Han, Emily X; Obleser, Jonas; Bartlett, Edward L

    2015-11-01

    Stimulus-specific adaptation refers to a neural response reduction to a repeated stimulus that does not generalize to other stimuli. However, stimulus-specific adaptation appears to be influenced by additional factors. For example, the statistical distribution of tone frequencies has recently been shown to dynamically alter stimulus-specific adaptation in human auditory cortex. The present study investigated whether statistical stimulus distributions also affect stimulus-specific adaptation at an earlier stage of the auditory hierarchy. Neural spiking activity and local field potentials were recorded from inferior colliculus neurons of rats while tones were presented in oddball sequences that formed two different statistical contexts. Each sequence consisted of a repeatedly presented tone (standard) and three rare deviants of different magnitudes (small, moderate, large spectral change). The critical manipulation was the relative probability with which large spectral changes occurred. In one context the probability was high (relative to all deviants), while it was low in the other context. We observed larger responses for deviants compared with standards, confirming previous reports of increased response adaptation for frequently presented tones. Importantly, the statistical context in which tones were presented strongly modulated stimulus-specific adaptation. Physically and probabilistically identical stimuli (moderate deviants) in the two statistical contexts elicited different response magnitudes consistent with neural gain changes and thus neural sensitivity adjustments induced by the spectral range of a stimulus distribution. The data show that already at the level of the inferior colliculus stimulus-specific adaptation is dynamically altered by the statistical context in which stimuli occur. PMID:26354316

  9. Adams-Oliver Syndrome: A Case with Full Expression

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashtian, Amir; Dehdashtian, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Adams-Oliver syndrome (AOS) is characterized by the combination of congenital scalp defects (aplasia cutis congenita) and terminal transverse limb defects of variable severity. It is believed that Adams-Oliver syndrome without major organ abnormalities does not necessarily alter the normal lifespan. We present a case without detectable major organ abnormality contrary to life but with poor weight gain. A male infant with scalp and skin cutis aplasia, generalized cutis aplasia, dilated veins over scalp and trunk, hypoplastic toes and nails of feet, glaucoma, poor feeding and poor weight gain. This report shows a case of AOS without major multiple organ abnormalities but with poor feeding and abnormal weight gain that may be alter the normal lifespan. PMID:27433307

  10. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage.

  11. Phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity of virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Franco, Ma Nieves; Galeano-Díaz, Teresa; López, Oscar; Fernández-Bolaños, José G; Sánchez, Jacinto; De Miguel, Concepción; Gil, Ma Victoria; Martín-Vertedor, Daniel

    2014-11-15

    The characterisation of virgin olive oil from Arbequina, Carrasqueña, Corniche, Manzanilla Cacereña, Morisca, Picual, and Verdial de Badajoz varieties according to the individual phenolic compounds at different ripening stage was carried out. In all olive oil varieties studied, secoiridoid derivatives were most abundant, followed by phenolic alcohols, flavonoids and phenolic acids. The secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol were the most important complex phenols for Picual and Carrasqueña, whereas the tyrosol derivatives were the major ones found in Manzanilla Cacereña, and Verdial de Badajoz. For secoiridoid derivatives of hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol, Arbequina was the oil variety showing the lowest concentration. Tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, vanillic acid, p-cumaric acid, luteolin, and apigenin levels were greater in early harvested samples in almost all oils analysed. Antioxidant activity measurements (antiradical, lipid peroxide inhibition, H2O2 and NO scavenging) were also accomplished for the seven varieties in the first ripening stage. PMID:24912728

  12. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin. PMID:26447789

  13. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil. PMID:26852311

  14. Effects of the olive-derived polyphenol oleuropein on human health.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

  15. Chemical and Biological Investigation of Olive Mill Waste Water - OMWW Secoiridoid Lactones.

    PubMed

    Vougogiannopoulou, Konstantina; Angelopoulou, Maria T; Pratsinis, Harris; Grougnet, Raphaël; Halabalaki, Maria; Kletsas, Dimitris; Deguin, Brigitte; Skaltsounis, Leandros A

    2015-08-01

    Olive mill waste water is the major byproduct of the olive oil industry containing a range of compounds related to Olea europaea and olive oil constituents. Olive mill waste water comprises an important environmental problem in olive oil producing countries, but it is also a valuable material for the isolation of high added value compounds. In this study, an attempt to investigate the secoiridoid content of olive mill waste water is described with the aid of ultrahigh-performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (±)-high-resolution mass spectrometry and centrifugal partition chromatography methods. In total, seven secoiridoid lactones were isolated, four of which are new natural products. This is the first time that a conjugate of hydroxytyrosol and a secoiridoid lactone has been isolated from olive mill waste water and structurally characterized. Furthermore, the range of isolated compounds allowed for the proposal of a hypothesis for the biotransformation of olive secoiridoids during the production of olive mill waste water. Finally, the ability of the representative compounds to reduce the intracellular reactive oxygen species was assessed with the dichlorofluorescein assay in conjunction with the known antioxidant agent hydroxytyrosol.

  16. Comparison Between Different Flavored Olive Oil Production Techniques: Healthy Value and Process Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Clodoveo, Maria Lisa; Dipalmo, Tiziana; Crupi, Pasquale; Durante, Viviana; Pesce, Vito; Maiellaro, Isabella; Lovece, Angelo; Mercurio, Annalisa; Laghezza, Antonio; Corbo, Filomena; Franchini, Carlo

    2016-03-01

    Three different flavoring methods of olive oil were tested employing two different herbs, thyme and oregano. The traditional method consist in the infusion of herbs into the oil. A second scarcely diffused method is based on the addition of herbs to the crushed olives before the malaxation step during the extraction process. The third innovative method is the implementation of the ultrasound before the olive paste malaxation. The objective of the study is to verify the effect of the treatments on the quality of the product, assessed by means of the chemical characteristics, the phenol composition and the radical scavenging activity of the resulting oils. The less favorable method was the addition of herbs directly to the oil. A positive effect was achieved by the addition of herbs to the olive paste and other advantages were attained by the employment of ultrasound. These last two methods allow to produce oils "ready to sell", instead the infused oils need to be filtered. Moreover, the flavoring methods applied during the extraction process determine a significant increment of phenolic content and radical scavenging activity of olive oils. The increments were higher when oregano is used instead of thyme. Ultrasound inhibited the olive polyphenoloxidase, the endogenous enzyme responsible for olive oil phenol oxidation. This treatment of olive paste mixed with herbs before malaxation was revealed as the most favorable method due to the best efficiency, reduced time consumption and minor labor, enhancing the product quality of flavored olive oil.

  17. NaOH-Debittering Induces Changes in Bacterial Ecology during Table Olives Fermentation

    PubMed Central

    Cocolin, Luca; Alessandria, Valentina; Botta, Cristian; Gorra, Roberta; De Filippis, Francesca; Ercolini, Danilo; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2013-01-01

    Limited information is available on the impact of the NaOH treatment on table olive fermentations, and for this reason a polyphasic approach has been adopted here to investigate its effect on the fermentation dynamics and bacterial biodiversity. The microbial counts of the main groups involved in the transformation have not shown any differences, apart from a more prompt start of the fermentation when the olives were subjected to the NaOH treatment. The data produced by culture-independent analyses highlighted that the fermentation of table olives not treated with NaOH is the result of the coexistence of two different ecosystems: the surface of the olives and the brines. A sodium hydroxide treatment not only eliminates this difference, but also affects the bacterial ecology of the olives to a great extent. As proved by high-throughput sequencing, the fermentation of the olives not treated with NaOH was characterized by the presence of halophilic bacteria, which were substituted by Lactobacillus at the later stages of the fermentation, while enterobacteria were dominant when the olives were treated with sodium hydroxide. Higher biodiversity was found for Lactobacillus plantarum isolated during untreated fermentation. Different biotypes were found on the olive surface and in the brines. When the debittering process was carried out, a decrease in the number of L. plantarum biotypes were observed and those originating from the surface of the olive did not differentiate from the ones present in the brines. PMID:23935928

  18. In Lactobacillus pentosus, the olive brine adaptation genes are required for biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Perpetuini, G; Pham-Hoang, B N; Scornec, H; Tofalo, R; Schirone, M; Suzzi, G; Cavin, J F; Waché, Y; Corsetti, A; Licandro-Seraut, H

    2016-01-01

    Lactobacillus pentosus is one of the few lactic acid bacteria (LAB) species capable of surviving in olive brine, and thus desirable during table olive fermentation. We have recently generated mutants of the efficient strain L. pentosus C11 by transposon mutagenesis and identified five mutants unable to survive and adapt to olive brine conditions. Since biofilm formation represents one of the main bacterial strategy to survive in stressful environments, in this study, the capacity of adhesion and formation of biofilm on olive skin was investigated for this strain and five derivative mutants which are interrupted in metabolic genes (enoA1 and gpi), and in genes of unknown function ("oba" genes). Confocal microscopy together with bacteria count revealed that the sessile state represented the prevailing L. pentosus C11 life-style during table olive fermentation. The characterization of cell surface properties showed that mutants present less hydrophobic and basic properties than the wild type (WT). In fact, their ability to adhere to both abiotic (polystyrene plates) and biotic (olive skin) surfaces was lower than that of the WT. Confocal microscopy revealed that mutants adhered sparsely to the olive skin instead of building a thin, multilayer biofilm. Moreover, RT-qPCR showed that the three genes enoA1, gpi and obaC were upregulated in the olive biofilm compared to the planktonic state. Thus enoA1, gpi and "oba" genes are necessary in L. pentosus to form an organized biofilm on the olive skin.

  19. Effects of the Olive-Derived Polyphenol Oleuropein on Human Health

    PubMed Central

    Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2014-01-01

    The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. PMID:25318054

  20. Effects of the olive-derived polyphenol oleuropein on human health.

    PubMed

    Barbaro, Barbara; Toietta, Gabriele; Maggio, Roberta; Arciello, Mario; Tarocchi, Mirko; Galli, Andrea; Balsano, Clara

    2014-10-14

    The use of the products derived from the olive tree on human health dates back centuries. In several civilizations, the olive tree had and still has a very strong cultural and religious symbolism. Notably, the official seal and emblem of the World Health Organization features the rod of Asclepius over a world map surrounded by olive tree branches, chosen as a symbol of peace and health. Recently, accumulating experimental, clinical and epidemiological data have provided support to the traditional beliefs of the beneficial effect provided by olive derivates. In particular, the polyphenols present in olive leaves, olives, virgin (unrefined) olive oil and olive mill waste are potent antioxidant and radical scavengers with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory properties. Here, we review the positive impact on human health of oleuropein, the most prevalent polyphenol present in olives. In addition, we provide data collected in our laboratory on the role of oleuropein in counteracting lipid accumulation in a mouse model of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease.

  1. Valorization of solid waste products from olive oil industry as potential adsorbents for water pollution control--a review.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Amit; Kaczala, Fabio; Hogland, William; Marques, Marcia; Paraskeva, Christakis A; Papadakis, Vagelis G; Sillanpää, Mika

    2014-01-01

    The global olive oil production for 2010 is estimated to be 2,881,500 metric tons. The European Union countries produce 78.5% of the total olive oil, which stands for an average production of 2,136,000 tons. The worldwide consumption of olive oil increased of 78% between 1990 and 2010. The increase in olive oil production implies a proportional increase in olive mill wastes. As a consequence of such increasing trend, olive mills are facing severe environmental problems due to lack of feasible and/or cost-effective solutions to olive-mill waste management. Therefore, immediate attention is required to find a proper way of management to deal with olive mill waste materials in order to minimize environmental pollution and associated health risks. One of the interesting uses of solid wastes generated from olive mills is to convert them as inexpensive adsorbents for water pollution control. In this review paper, an extensive list of adsorbents (prepared by utilizing different types of olive mill solid waste materials) from vast literature has been compiled, and their adsorption capacities for various aquatic pollutants removal are presented. Different physicochemical methods that have been used to convert olive mill solid wastes into efficient adsorbents have also been discussed. Characterization of olive-based adsorbents and adsorption mechanisms of various aquatic pollutants on these developed olive-based adsorbents have also been discussed in detail. Conclusions have been drawn from the literature reviewed, and suggestions for future research are proposed.

  2. Robust control charts in industrial production of olive oil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilo, Luís M.; Mateus, Dina M. R.; Alves, Ana C.; Grilo, Helena L.

    2014-10-01

    Acidity is one of the most important variables in the quality analysis and characterization of olive oil. During the industrial production we use individuals and moving range charts to monitor this variable, which is not always normal distributed. After a brief exploratory data analysis, where we use the bootstrap method, we construct control charts, before and after a Box-Cox transformation, and compare their robustness and performance.

  3. Oliver Wendell Holmes: The Professor and Autocrat Addresses Medical Matters

    PubMed Central

    Bergey, Gregory Kent

    1977-01-01

    Oliver Wendell Holmes, the physician, poet and novelist, was a frequent and at times outspoken commentator on the practice of medicine. His speeches and writings reveal Holmes's remarkable wit and facility in addressing such topics as medical education, drug prescription and medicine in society. Although delivered in the previous century his comments often seem to retain remarkable relevance in the current medical forum. PMID:345633

  4. Genetic relationships analysis of olive cultivars grown in China.

    PubMed

    Zhan, M M; Cheng, Z Z; Su, G C; Wang, A Y; Chen, H P; Shan, Z; Yang, Z S; Huang, Q M

    2015-06-01

    The olive tree is an iconic tree of the Mediterranean, and is used extensively to produce high-quality olive oil. Although the China olive industry has just begun to be valued, there were also existed mislabeling and synonyms in introduced cultivars. The aim of this study was to analyze genetic similarities among olive cultivars in China using SSR and ISSR techniques. Thirty-two samples were collected from Xichang. Five of these cultivars were issued from a Chinese breeding program. Genomic DNA samples were extracted from young leaves and PCR was used to generate SSR and ISSR markers. A total of 107 polymorphic bands were detected on thirteen SSR loci, with an average of eight alleles per locus. The observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.785 (DCA03) to 0.990 (GAPU47), and the expected heterozygosity varied between 0.782 (DCA03) and 0.940 (GAPU103A). The discrimination power ranged from 0.57 to 0.83, while the polymorphism information content values ranged from 0.768 (DCA03) to 0.934 (GAPU103A). Nine ISSR primers generated 85 reproducible bands of which 78 (91.8%) were polymorphic. Based on our data, genetic similarity between cultivars ranged from 0.57 to 0.83. Cluster analysis revealed that 32 cultivars were clustered into six groups, which supports similar morphology such as use, oil content and fruit weight but not similar geographical origins. Our data also allow the identification of unknown cultivars and cases of synonyms.

  5. Micronutrient dynamics after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste.

    PubMed

    Almansa, Ana R; Rodriguez-Galan, Monica; Borja, Rafael; Fermoso, Fernando G

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated metal dynamics, and their bioavailability, before and after thermal pretreatment of olive mill solid waste (OMSW), using a sequential metal extraction scheme. The 11.5% increase of cobalt in the most available fraction after the pretreatment coupled to the increase of methane production rate have been a good indicator that the OMSW anaerobic digestion might be metal limited due to the lack of cobalt.

  6. The Olive Project: An Oral History Project in Multiple Modes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Erin R.

    2011-01-01

    This project is devoted to the memory of my grandmother, Olive. It is at once her life story and not a story at all. In a sense it represents the product of an intimate family collaboration and of the close journey we shared in collecting and preserving her oral history. But this project is not a product, nor is it entirely about my grandma, about…

  7. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery

    PubMed Central

    Altas, Yakup; Ulugg, Ali Veysel

    2016-01-01

    ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient’s history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. PMID:27555777

  8. A bypass case due to an acute inferior myocardial infarction caused by vascular occlusion of the left subclavian artery and left anterior descending artery.

    PubMed

    Altas, Yakup; Ulugg, Ali Veysel

    2016-01-01

    ST segment elevation is the most common electrocardiographic finding in acute myocardial infarction. ST elevation in chest leads generally represents left anterior descending artery occlusion, while elevation in DII and III, and aVF represents right coronary and circumflex artery occlusion. A female patient aged 66 years was admitted to our emergency service with ST elevation in leads DIII and aVF. A diagnosis of acute inferior myocardial infarction was made. The patient's history included coronary artery bypass graft involving the left internal mammary artery to the left anterior descending coronary artery and aorta to the right coronary artery. The patient was taken to the cardiac catheterization laboratory for primary percutaneous coronary intervention and a lesion in the left anterior descending artery was identified. Additionally, the left subclavian artery was totally occluded. Following intervention to the lesion, the patient was discharged on day 4 of admission. PMID:27555777

  9. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves.

    PubMed

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  10. Models for forecasting the flowering of Cornicabra olive groves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rojo, Jesús; Pérez-Badia, Rosa

    2015-11-01

    This study examined the impact of weather-related variables on flowering phenology in the Cornicabra olive tree and constructed models based on linear and Poisson regression to forecast the onset and length of the pre-flowering and flowering phenophases. Spain is the world's leading olive oil producer, and the Cornicabra variety is the second largest Spanish variety in terms of surface area. However, there has been little phenological research into this variety. Phenological observations were made over a 5-year period (2009-2013) at four sampling sites in the province of Toledo (central Spain). Results showed that the onset of the pre-flowering phase is governed largely by temperature, which displayed a positive correlation with the temperature in the start of dormancy (November) and a negative correlation during the months prior to budburst (January, February and March). A similar relationship was recorded for the onset of flowering. Other weather-related variables, including solar radiation and rainfall, also influenced the succession of olive flowering phenophases. Linear models proved the most suitable for forecasting the onset and length of the pre-flowering period and the onset of flowering. The onset and length of pre-flowering can be predicted up to 1 or 2 months prior to budburst, whilst the onset of flowering can be forecast up to 3 months beforehand. By contrast, a nonlinear model using Poisson regression was best suited to predict the length of the flowering period.

  11. The concentration of oleocanthal in olive oil waste.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, S; Conlan, X A; Barnett, N W; Keast, R S J

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the concentration of oleocanthal in olive pomace waste and compare this to its concentration in extra-virgin olive oil (EVOO). The concentration of oleocanthal in freshly pressed EVOO and its subsequent waste was analysed at early, mid and late season harvests. Oleocanthal concentrations were quantified using high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. In oil, oleocanthal concentration was as follows: 123.24 ± 6.48 mg kg(-1) in early harvest, 114.20 ± 17.42 mg kg(-1) in mid harvest and 152.22 ± 10.54 mg kg(-1) in late harvest. Its concentration in waste was determined to be: 128.25 ± 11.33 mg kg(-1) in early harvest, 112.15 ± 1.51 mg kg(-1) in mid harvest and 62.35 ± 8.00 mg kg(-1) in late harvest. Overall, olive pomace waste is a valuable source of oleocanthal. PMID:21391116

  12. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    PubMed

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P < 0·05). After the consumption of VOO, the maximum concentration of these peaks was reached at 60 min, while EVOO shifted this maximum to 120 min. Despite these differences, the wide variability of results indicates that the absorption and metabolism of olive oil phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  13. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification.

  14. Olive Oil Based Emulsions in Frozen Puff Pastry Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Lupi, F. R.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Puff pastry is an interesting food product having different industrial applications. It is obtained by laminating layers of dough and fats, mainly shortenings or margarine, having specific properties which provides required spreading characteristic and able to retain moisture into dough. To obtain these characteristics, pastry shortenings are usually saturated fats, however the current trend in food industry is mainly oriented towards unsatured fats such as olive oil, which are thought to be safer for human health. In the present work, a new product, based on olive oil, was studied as shortening replacer in puff pastry production. To ensure the desired consistency, for the rheological matching between fat and dough, a water-in-oil emulsion was produced based on olive oil, emulsifier and a hydrophilic thickener agent able to increase material structure. Obtained materials were characterized by rheological dynamic tests in linear viscoelastic conditions, aiming to setup process and material consistency, and rheological data were analyzed by using the weak gel model. Results obtained for tested emulsions were compared to theological properties of a commercial margarine, adopted as reference value for texture and stability. Obtained emulsions are characterized by interesting rheological properties strongly dependent on emulsifier characteristics and water phase composition. However a change in process temperature during fat extrusion and dough lamination seems to be necessary to match properly typical dough rheological properties.

  15. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater

    PubMed Central

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  16. Endopathogenic lifestyle of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive knots

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez‐Moreno, Luis; Jiménez, Antonio J.; Ramos, Cayo

    2009-01-01

    Summary The endophytic phase of Pseudomonas savastanoi pv. savastanoi in olive stems and the structural and ultrastructural histogenesis of olive knots have been studied. Construction of a stable plasmid vector expressing the green fluorescent protein, in combination with the use of in vitro olive plants, allowed real‐time monitoring of P. savastanoi pv. savastanoi infection. The infection process was also examined by bright field and epifluorescence microscopy as well as by scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Hypertrophy of the stem tissue was concomitant with the formation of bacterial aggregates, microcolonies and multilayer biofilms, over the cell surfaces and the interior of plasmolysed cells facing the air‐tissue interface of internal opened fissures, and was followed by invasion of the outer layers of the hypertrophied tissue. Pathogenic invasion of the internal lumen of newly formed xylem vessels, which were connected with the stem vascular system, was also observed in late stages of infection. Ultrastructural analysis of knot sections showed the release of outer membrane vesicles from the pathogen surface, a phenomenon not described before for bacterial phytopathogens during host infection. This is the first real‐time monitoring of P. savastanoi disease development and the first illustrated description of the ultrastructure of P. savastanoi‐induced knots. PMID:21255279

  17. Extraction of Oleic Acid from Moroccan Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Elkacmi, Reda; Kamil, Noureddine; Bennajah, Mounir; Kitane, Said

    2016-01-01

    The production of olive oil in Morocco has recently grown considerably for its economic and nutritional importance favored by the country's climate. After the extraction of olive oil by pressing or centrifuging, the obtained liquid contains oil and vegetation water which is subsequently separated by decanting or centrifugation. Despite its treatment throughout the extraction process, this olive mill wastewater, OMW, still contains a very important oily residue, always regarded as a rejection. The separated oil from OMW can not be intended for food because of its high acidity of 3.397% which exceeds the international standard for human consumption defined by the standard of the Codex Alimentarius, proving its poor quality. This work gives value addition to what would normally be regarded as waste by the extraction of oleic acid as a high value product, using the technique of inclusion with urea for the elimination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids through four successive crystallizations at 4°C and 20°C to have a final phase with oleic acid purity of 95.49%, as a biodegradable soap and a high quality glycerin will be produced by the reaction of saponification and transesterification. PMID:26933663

  18. Properties of lignin, cellulose, and hemicelluloses isolated from olive cake and olive stones: binding of water, oil, bile acids, and glucose.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gutiérrez, Guillermo; Rubio-Senent, Fátima; Lama-Muñoz, Antonio; García, Aránzazu; Fernández-Bolaños, Juan

    2014-09-10

    A process based on a steam explosion pretreatment and alkali solution post-treatment was applied to fractionate olive stones (whole and fragmented, without seeds) and olive cake into their main constitutive polymers of cellulose (C), hemicelluloses (H), and lignin (L) under optimal conditions for each fraction according to earlier works. The chemical characterization (chromatographic method and UV and IR spectroscopy) and the functional properties (water- and oil-holding capacities, bile acid binding, and glucose retardation index) of each fraction were analyzed. The in vitro studies showed a substantial bile acid binding activity in the fraction containing lignin from olive stones (L) and the alkaline extractable fraction from olive cake (Lp). Lignin bound significantly more bile acid than any other fraction and an amount similar to that bound by cholestyramine (a cholesterol-lowering, bile acid-binding drug), especially when cholic acid (CA) was tested. These results highlight the health-promoting potential of lignin from olive stones and olive cake extracted from olive byproducts.

  19. The Effects of Different Irrigation Treatments on Olive Oil Quality and Composition: A Comparative Study between Treated and Olive Mill Wastewater.

    PubMed

    Ben Brahim, Samia; Gargouri, Boutheina; Marrakchi, Fatma; Bouaziz, Mohamed

    2016-02-17

    In the present paper, two irrigation treatments were applied to olive trees cv. Chemlali: irrigation with treated wastewater (TWW) and with olive mill wastewater (OMW), which was spread at three levels (50, 100, and 200 m(3)/ha). This work is interested in two topics: (1) the influence of different irrigation treatments on olive oil composition and quality and (2) the comparison between OMW and TWW application using different statistical analyses. The obtained variance analysis (ANOVA) has confirmed that there are no significant differences in oil quality indices and flavonoids between the control and treatments amended by OMW or TWW (p > 0.05). However, the irrigation affected some aspects of olive oil composition such as the reduction in palmitic acid (16.32%) and increase in linoleic acid (19.55%). Furthermore, the total phenols and α-tocopherol contents increased significantly following OMW and TWW treatments. Principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) defined three irrigation groups: OMW 50 and 100 m(3)/ha, OMW 200 m(3)/ha and control, and TWW treatment. The full factorial design revealed that OMW amendment by 100 m(3)/ha is the best irrigation treatment. Thus, the optimal performances in terms of olive oil quality and composition were shown by olive oil extracted from olives grown under irrigation with 100 m(3)/ha of OMW.

  20. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products. PMID:27138726

  1. Detoxification of Olive Mill Wastewater and Bioconversion of Olive Crop Residues into High-Value-Added Biomass by the Choice Edible Mushroom Hericium erinaceus.

    PubMed

    Koutrotsios, Georgios; Larou, Evangelia; Mountzouris, Konstantinos C; Zervakis, Georgios I

    2016-09-01

    Environmentally acceptable disposal of olive cultivation residues (e.g., olive prunings; olive pruning residues (OLPR)) and olive mill wastes is of paramount importance since they are generated in huge quantities within a short time. Moreover, olive mill wastewater (OMW) or sludge-like effluents ("alperujo"; two-phase olive mill waste (TPOMW)) are highly biotoxic. Hericium erinaceus is a white-rot fungus which produces choice edible mushrooms on substrates rich in lignocellulosics, and its suitability for the treatment of olive by-products was examined for the first time. Fungal growth resulted in a notable reduction of OMW's pollution parameters (i.e., 65 % decolorization, 47 % total phenolic reduction, and 52 % phytotoxicity decrease) and correlated with laccase and manganese peroxidase activities. Solid-state fermentation of various mixtures of OLPR, TPOMW, and beech sawdust (control) by H. erinaceus qualified OLPR in subsequent cultivation experiments, where it exhibited high mushroom yields and biological efficiency (31 %). Analyses of proximate composition and bioactive compound content revealed that mushrooms deriving from OLPR substrates showed significantly higher crude fat, total glucan, β-glucan, total phenolics, and ferric-reducing antioxidant potential values than the control. H. erinaceus demonstrated the potential to detoxify OMW and bioconvert OLPR into high-quality biomass, and hence, this fungus could be successfully exploited for the treatment of such by-products.

  2. β-cyclodextrin and caffeine complexes with natural polyphenols from olive and olive oils: NMR, thermodynamic, and molecular modeling studies.

    PubMed

    Rescifina, Antonio; Chiacchio, Ugo; Iannazzo, Daniela; Piperno, Anna; Romeo, Giovanni

    2010-11-24

    Complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) and caffeine (Caf) with biophenols present in olive and olive oil (tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, homovanillic acid, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, and protocatechuic acid) were investigated by NMR spectroscopy and thermodynamical-molecular dynamic studies to verify the formation of supermolecular aggregates. The obtained results indicated that the investigated biophenols form inclusion complexes with β-CD in a molar ratio of 1:1 in aqueous solution having binding constant values from 10- to 40-fold bigger than those of the corresponding complexes with Caf. Then, β-CD preferentially encloses the biophenol molecule, decreasing its bitter taste and, at the same time, preserving it against chemical and physical decomposition reactions that occur during storage.

  3. [Embolization of head and neck hypervascular lesions. A retrospective study of 5 cases].

    PubMed

    Hatem, Rajhi; Lamia, Trabelsi; Raouf, Chammakhi; Azza, Salem; Karima, Zitouni; Nadia, Ezzine; Najla, Mnif; Radhi, Hamza

    2005-10-01

    Embolisation of head and neck hypervascular tumours and arterioveinous malformations (AVMs) is now a well-established therapeutic procedure. The purpose of this study was to analyse the technique and to evaluate the safety and value of preoperative embolization of hypervascular lesions. We retrospectively reviewed the records of 5 patients, agged between 14 and 47 years, with hypervascular tumours and AVMs in the head and neck. Lesions were distributed as follow: nasal angiofibroma (n = I), nasal angioleiomyoma (n = I), nasopharyngeal angiofibroma (n = I), aneurysmal bone cyst in the posterior element of the second cervical vertebra (n = I) and AVM of the inferior lip (n = I). Angiography and embolization were carried out at the same time. Complete exclusion of lesions was obtained without any complications. Complementary surgical resection was performed with not notable blood loss.

  4. Visual object agnosia and pure word alexia: correlation of functional magnetic resonance imaging and lesion localization.

    PubMed

    Salvan, Carmen V; Ulmer, John L; DeYoe, Edgar A; Wascher, Thomas; Mathews, Vincent P; Lewis, James W; Prost, Robert W

    2004-01-01

    We present a case of a 64-year-old, right-handed female with a metastatic breast cancer lesion involving the left posterior inferior temporal lobe causing complete loss of the ability to recognize visually common objects and words. After her symptoms resolved on corticosteroid therapy, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) mapping demonstrated strong left-hemispheric dominance for word recognition and right-hemispheric dominance for object recognition. The case illustrates the relationships among ventral occipito-temporal cortical activation, lesion localization, and lesion-induced deficits of higher visual function. The relationship between hemispheric dominance determined by fMRI and risk of postoperative deficit depends on the specific visual function of interest.

  5. Effects of combined frontal and temporal lesions on learned behaviors in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Harlow, H F; Schiltz, K A; Blomquist, A J; Thompson, C I

    1970-06-01

    Delayed response ability, and to a lesser extent visual discrimination performance, is seriously impaired by extensive bilateral damage to the frontal lobes. Reciprocal anatomical connections between the frontal and temporal lobes suggested that massive lesions in both lobes might produce an impairment more complete than that resulting from frontal lobectomy alone. Five monkeys were given combined bilateral frontal and anterior-temporal lesions, and were found to be inferior to both frontal lobectomized monkeys and to unoperated controls on the object discrimination task. The combined lesion did not increase the deficit on delayed response over that obtained after only bilateral frontal lobectomy. Results indicate that the anterior-temporal neocortex is involved in the mediation of visual discrimination ability.

  6. Phenolic Profiling of Olives and Olive Oil Process-Derived Matrices Using UPLC-DAD-ESI-QTOF-HRMS Analysis.

    PubMed

    Klen, Tina Jerman; Wondra, Alenka Golc; Vrhovšek, Urška; Vodopivec, Branka Mozetič

    2015-04-22

    All of the matrices entailed in olive oil processing were screened for the presence of known and new phenol constituents in a single study, combining an ultra high pressure liquid chromatography system with diode array and electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight high resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-QTOF-HRMS) detection. Their trail was followed from the fruit (peel/pulp and stone) to the paste and final products, i.e. pomace, wastewater, and oil, providing important insight into the origin, disappearance, and evolution of each during the operational steps. Eighty different phenols, composed of fruit native representatives and their technologically formed and/or released derivatives, were detected in six olive matrices and fully characterized on the basis of HRMS and UV-vis spectroscopic data. In addition to phenols already known in olive matrices, four new molecular formulas were proposed and three new tentative identities assigned to newly discovered phenols, i.e., β-methyl-OH-verbascoside, methoxynüzhenide, and methoxynüzhenide 11-methyl oleoside.

  7. Voxelwise Bayesian Lesion Deficit Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Rong; Hillis, Argye E.; Pawlak, Mikolaj; Herskovits, Edward H

    2008-01-01

    Relating cognitive deficits to the presence of lesions has been an important means of delineating structure-function associations in the human brain. We propose a voxel-based Bayesian method for lesion-deficit analysis, which identifies complex linear or nonlinear associations among brain-lesion locations, and neurological status. We validated this method using a simulated data set, and we applied this algorithm to data obtained from an acute-stroke study to identify associations among voxels with infarct or hypoperfusion, and impaired word reading. We found that a distributed region involving Brodmann areas (BA) 22, 37, 39, and 40 was implicated in word reading. PMID:18328733

  8. Nerve lesioning with direct current

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravid, E. Natalie; Shi Gan, Liu; Todd, Kathryn; Prochazka, Arthur

    2011-02-01

    Spastic hypertonus (muscle over-activity due to exaggerated stretch reflexes) often develops in people with stroke, cerebral palsy, multiple sclerosis and spinal cord injury. Lesioning of nerves, e.g. with phenol or botulinum toxin is widely performed to reduce spastic hypertonus. We have explored the use of direct electrical current (DC) to lesion peripheral nerves. In a series of animal experiments, DC reduced muscle force by controlled amounts and the reduction could last several months. We conclude that in some cases controlled DC lesioning may provide an effective alternative to the less controllable molecular treatments available today.

  9. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Sumanth M; Shetty, Rashmi G; Mattigatti, Sudha; Managoli, Noopur A; Rairam, Surabhi G; Patil, Ashwini M

    2013-01-01

    Abfraction or Theory of Abfraction is a theory explaining the non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). It suggests that they are caused by flexural forces, usually from cyclic loading; the enamel, especially at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ), undergoes this pattern of destruction by separating the enamel rods. Clinical aspect importance of these ineart lesions are at most important to be detected for early intervention and treatment modalities as options during the progression of the disease. How to cite this article: Shetty SM, Shetty RG, Mattigatti S, Managoli NA, Rairam SG, Patil AM. No Carious Cervical Lesions: Abfraction. J Int Oral Health 2013; 5(5):142-5. PMID:24324319

  10. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  11. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S.; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P. G.; Ferguson, Lynnette R.

    2016-01-01

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols. PMID:27548217

  12. Effects of pectinolytic yeast on the microbial composition and spoilage of olive fermentations.

    PubMed

    Golomb, Benjamin L; Morales, Vanessa; Jung, Alesia; Yau, Bianca; Boundy-Mills, Kyria L; Marco, Maria L

    2013-02-01

    This study resulted in the identification of pectinolytic yeasts in directly brined Sicilian-style green olive fermentations and examination of the influence of those yeasts on the microbial composition and quality of fermented olives. Firstly, defective olives processed in Northern California from 2007 to 2008 and characterized by high levels of mesocarp tissue degradation were found to contain distinct yeast and bacterial populations according to DNA sequence-based analyses. Strains of (pectinolytic) Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia manshurica, Pichia kudriavzevii, and Candida boidinii isolated from directly brined olives were then inoculated into laboratory-scale olive fermentations to quantify the effects of individual yeast strains on the olives. The pH, titratable acidity, and numbers of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts varied between the fermentations and fermentations inoculated with P. kudriavzevii and C. boidinii promoted the development of LAB populations. Olive tissue structural integrity declined significantly within 30, 74, and 192 days after the inoculation of pectinolytic S. cerevisiae, P. manshurica and C. boidinii, respectively. In comparison, tissue integrity of olives in control fermentations remained intact although pectinolytic yeasts were present. Notably, pectinolytic yeasts were not found in fermentations inoculated with (non-pectinolytic) P. kudriavzevii and olives exposed to a 1:1 ratio of P. kudriavzevii and P. manshurica exhibited no significant tissue defects. This study showed that pectinolytic yeast are important components of directly brined green olive fermentations and damage caused by pectinolytic yeasts might be prevented by other microbial colonists of the olives. PMID:23122507

  13. Evidence to Support the Anti-Cancer Effect of Olive Leaf Extract and Future Directions.

    PubMed

    Boss, Anna; Bishop, Karen S; Marlow, Gareth; Barnett, Matthew P G; Ferguson, Lynnette R

    2016-08-19

    The traditional Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with long life and lower prevalence of cardiovascular disease and cancers. The main components of this diet include high intake of fruit, vegetables, red wine, extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) and fish, low intake of dairy and red meat. Olive oil has gained support as a key effector of health benefits and there is evidence that this relates to the polyphenol content. Olive leaf extract (OLE) contains a higher quantity and variety of polyphenols than those found in EVOO. There are also important structural differences between polyphenols from olive leaf and those from olive fruit that may improve the capacity of OLE to enhance health outcomes. Olive polyphenols have been claimed to play an important protective role in cancer and other inflammation-related diseases. Both inflammatory and cancer cell models have shown that olive leaf polyphenols are anti-inflammatory and protect against DNA damage initiated by free radicals. The various bioactive properties of olive leaf polyphenols are a plausible explanation for the inhibition of progression and development of cancers. The pathways and signaling cascades manipulated include the NF-κB inflammatory response and the oxidative stress response, but the effects of these bioactive components may also result from their action as a phytoestrogen. Due to the similar structure of the olive polyphenols to oestrogens, these have been hypothesized to interact with oestrogen receptors, thereby reducing the prevalence and progression of hormone related cancers. Evidence for the protective effect of olive polyphenols for cancer in humans remains anecdotal and clinical trials are required to substantiate these claims idea. This review aims to amalgamate the current literature regarding bioavailability and mechanisms involved in the potential anti-cancer action of olive leaf polyphenols.

  14. Distribution within the barn owl's inferior colliculus of neurons projecting to the optic tectum and thalamus.

    PubMed

    Arthur, Ben J

    2005-11-01

    Behavioral studies in barn owls indicate that both the optic tectum (OT) and the auditory arcopallium (AAr) mediate sound localization through the presence of neurons that respond only when sound comes from a circumscribed direction in space. The early stages of the computations leading to these so-called space-specific neurons are shared in a common brainstem pathway, which then splits at the level of the inferior colliculus (IC) such that the last computational stage is thought to be duplicated. The study presented here addresses whether the space-specific neurons in OT and AAr are indeed partially independent of each other by using anatomical methods more precise than those used in previous studies. Specifically, projection neurons in IC were retrogradely labelled with injections of fluorescein- and rhodamine-conjugated dextran amines into OT and nucleus ovoidalis (OV), the thalamic nucleus leading to AAr. By labelling the OT-projecting and OV-projecting neurons in the same owl, it was confirmed that neurons in IC project to either OV or OT but not both. However, although a segregation was generally observed between the medially positioned OV-projecting neurons and the laterally positioned OT-projecting neurons, there was also a slight overlap between the two populations. Moreover, electrolytic lesions demarcating physiological tuning properties indicate that many OV-projecting neurons are within the area containing space-specific neurons. These results highlight the need for more detailed studies elucidating the microcircuitry and corresponding physiology of IC, such as have been done in the cortices of the mammalian cerebellum and cerebrum. PMID:16175562

  15. Electrocautery for Precancerous Anal Lesions

    Cancer.gov

    Results from a randomized clinical trial conducted in Amsterdam suggest that electrocautery is better than topical imiquimod or fluorouracil at treating potentially precancerous anal lesions in HIV-positive men who have sex with men.

  16. Gram stain of skin lesion

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be done along with this test. Other studies are often done on a skin sample to determine if cancer is present. Viral skin lesions like herpes simplex are examined by other tests or a viral culture.

  17. Osteochondral Lesions of Major Joints

    PubMed Central

    Durur-Subasi, Irmak; Durur-Karakaya, Afak; Yildirim, Omer Selim

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides information about osteochondral lesions (OCL) and example cases of OCL occurring in major joints, some of which are rarely seen. This simple tutorial is presented in question and answer format. PMID:26180500

  18. 77 FR 61026 - Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... COMMISSION Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition Between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries AGENCY...-537, Olive Oil: Conditions of Competition between U.S. and Major Foreign Supplier Industries. DATES... commercial olive oil industry in the United States and major supplier countries, including production...

  19. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...

  20. 7 CFR 932.153 - Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... for processed olives for limited uses. 932.153 Section 932.153 Agriculture Regulations of the..., Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE OLIVES GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Rules and Regulations § 932.153 Establishment of minimum quality and size requirements for processed olives for limited uses. (a)...