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Sample records for inferior parietal lobule

  1. Language outcomes after resection of dominant inferior parietal lobule gliomas.

    PubMed

    Southwell, Derek G; Riva, Marco; Jordan, Kesshi; Caverzasi, Eduardo; Li, Jing; Perry, David W; Henry, Roland G; Berger, Mitchel S

    2017-10-01

    OBJECTIVE The dominant inferior parietal lobule (IPL) contains cortical and subcortical regions essential for language. Although resection of IPL tumors could result in language deficits, little is known about the likelihood of postoperative language morbidity or the risk factors predisposing to this outcome. METHODS The authors retrospectively examined a series of patients who underwent resections of gliomas from the dominant IPL. Postoperative language outcomes were characterized across the patient population. To identify factors associated with postoperative language morbidity, the authors then compared features between those patients who experienced postoperative deficits and those who experienced no postoperative language dysfunction. RESULTS Twenty-four patients were identified for analysis. Long-term language deficits occurred in 29.2% of patients (7 of 24): 3 of these patients had experienced preoperative language deficits, whereas new long-term language deficits occurred in 4 patients (16.7%; 4 of 24). Of those patients who exhibited preoperative language deficits, 62.5% (5 of 8) experienced long-term resolution of their language deficits with surgical treatment. All patients underwent intraoperative brain mapping by direct electrical stimulation. Awake, intraoperative cortical language mapping was performed on 17 patients (70.8%). Positive cortical language sites were identified in 23.5% of these patients (4 of 17). Awake, intraoperative subcortical language mapping was performed in 8 patients (33.3%). Positive subcortical language sites were identified in 62.5% of these patients (5 of 8). Patients with positive cortical language sites exhibited a higher rate of long-term language deficits (3 of 4, 75%), compared with those who did not (1 of 13, 7.7%; p = 0.02). Although patients with positive subcortical language sites exhibited a higher rate of long-term language deficits than those who exhibited only negative sites (40.0% vs 0.0%, respectively), this

  2. Abstract Representations of Object-Directed Action in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanjing; Garcea, Frank E; Jacobs, Robert A; Mahon, Bradford Z

    2017-06-09

    Prior neuroimaging and neuropsychological research indicates that the left inferior parietal lobule in the human brain is a critical substrate for representing object manipulation knowledge. In the present functional MRI study we used multivoxel pattern analyses to test whether action similarity among objects can be decoded in the inferior parietal lobule independent of the task applied to objects (identification or pantomime) and stimulus format in which stimuli are presented (pictures or printed words). Participants pantomimed the use of objects, cued by printed words, or identified pictures of objects. Classifiers were trained and tested across task (e.g., training data: pantomime; testing data: identification), stimulus format (e.g., training data: word format; testing format: picture) and specific objects (e.g., training data: scissors vs. corkscrew; testing data: pliers vs. screwdriver). The only brain region in which action relations among objects could be decoded across task, stimulus format and objects was the inferior parietal lobule. By contrast, medial aspects of the ventral surface of the left temporal lobe represented object function, albeit not at the same level of abstractness as actions in the inferior parietal lobule. These results suggest compulsory access to abstract action information in the inferior parietal lobe even when simply identifying objects. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Spatial selectivity in the temporoparietal junction, inferior frontal sulcus, and inferior parietal lobule

    PubMed Central

    Hansen, Kathleen A.; Chu, Carlton; Dickinson, Annelise; Pye, Brandon; Weller, J. Patrick; Ungerleider, Leslie G.

    2015-01-01

    Spatial selectivity, as measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity patterns that vary consistently with the location of visual stimuli, has been documented in many human brain regions, notably the occipital visual cortex and the frontal and parietal regions that are active during endogenous, goal-directed attention. We hypothesized that spatial selectivity also exists in regions that are active during exogenous, stimulus-driven attention. To test this hypothesis, we acquired fMRI data while subjects maintained passive fixation. At jittered time intervals, a briefly presented wedge-shaped array of rapidly expanding circles appeared at one of three contralateral or one of three ipsilateral locations. Positive fMRI activations were identified in multiple brain regions commonly associated with exogenous attention, including the temporoparietal junction, the inferior parietal lobule, and the inferior frontal sulcus. These activations were not organized as a map across the cortical surface. However, multivoxel pattern analysis of the fMRI activity correctly classified every pair of stimulus locations, demonstrating that patterns of fMRI activity were correlated with spatial location. These observations held for both contralateral and ipsilateral stimulus pairs as well as for stimuli of different textures (radial checkerboard) and shapes (squares and rings). Permutation testing verified that the obtained accuracies were not due to systematic biases and demonstrated that the findings were statistically significant. PMID:26382006

  4. Does the left inferior parietal lobule contribute to multiplication facts?

    PubMed

    van Harskamp, Natasja J; Rudge, Peter; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2005-12-01

    We report a single case, who presents with a selective and severe impairment for multiplication and division facts. His ability to retrieve subtraction and addition facts was entirely normal. His brain lesion affected the left superior temporal and to lesser extent in the left middle temporal gyri and the left precentral gyrus extending inferiorly to the pars opercularis of the left frontal lobe. Interestingly, the left supramarginal and angular gyri (SMG/AG) were spared. This finding realised a double dissociation with a previously reported patient, who despite lesions in the SMG/AG did not have a multiplication impairment (van Harskamp et al., 2002). The previously suggested crucial role of the SMG/AG in the retrieval of simple multiplication facts is therefore poorly supported (Cohen et al., 2000; Lee, 2000).

  5. White matter connections of the inferior parietal lobule: A study of surgical anatomy.

    PubMed

    Burks, Joshua D; Boettcher, Lillian B; Conner, Andrew K; Glenn, Chad A; Bonney, Phillip A; Baker, Cordell M; Briggs, Robert G; Pittman, Nathan A; O'Donoghue, Daniel L; Wu, Dee H; Sughrue, Michael E

    2017-04-01

    Interest in the function of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) has resulted in increased understanding of its involvement in visuospatial and cognitive functioning, and its role in semantic networks. A basic understanding of the nuanced white-matter anatomy in this region may be useful in improving outcomes when operating in this region of the brain. We sought to derive the surgical relationship between the IPL and underlying major white-matter bundles by characterizing macroscopic connectivity. Data of 10 healthy adult controls from the Human Connectome Project were used for tractography analysis. All IPL connections were mapped in both hemispheres, and distances were recorded between cortical landmarks and major tracts. Ten postmortem dissections were then performed using a modified Klingler technique to serve as ground truth. We identified three major types of connections of the IPL. (1) Short association fibers connect the supramarginal and angular gyri, and connect both of these gyri to the superior parietal lobule. (2) Fiber bundles from the IPL connect to the frontal lobe by joining the superior longitudinal fasciculus near the termination of the Sylvian fissure. (3) Fiber bundles from the IPL connect to the temporal lobe by joining the middle longitudinal fasciculus just inferior to the margin of the superior temporal sulcus. We present a summary of the relevant anatomy of the IPL as part of a larger effort to understand the anatomic connections of related networks. This study highlights the principle white-matter pathways and highlights key underlying connections.

  6. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation.

  7. Morphometric characteristics of neuropeptide Y immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Krivokuća, Dragan; Puskas, Laslo; Puskas, Nela; Erić, Mirela

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to demonstrate and precisely define the morphology of neurons immunoreactive to neuropeptide Y (NPY) in cortex of human inferior parietal lobule (IPL). Five human brains were used for immunohistochemical investigation of the shape and laminar distribution of NPY neurons in serial section in the supramarginal and angular gyrus. Immunoreactivity to NPY was detected in all six layers of the cortex of human IPL. However a great number of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found in the white matter under the IPL cortex. The following types of NPY immunoreactive neurons were found: Cajal-Retzius, pyramidal, inverted pyramidal, "double bouquet" (bitufted), rare type 6, multipolar nonspinous, bipolar, voluminous "basket", and chandelier cells. These informations about morphometric characteristics of NPY immunoreactive neurons in cortical layers, together with morphometric data taken from brains having schizophrenia or Alzheimer's-type dementia may contribute to better understanding patogenesis of these neurological diseases. The finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons immunoreactive to NPY points to the need for further investigations because of great importance of these cells in neurogenesis and involvement in mentioned diseases instead of their rarity.

  8. Quantitative phosphoproteomic analyses of the inferior parietal lobule from three different pathological stages of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Triplett, Judy C; Swomley, Aaron M; Cai, Jian; Klein, Jon B; Butterfield, D Allan

    2016-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common age-related neurodegenerative disorder, is clinically characterized by progressive neuronal loss resulting in loss of memory and dementia. AD is histopathologically characterized by the extensive distribution of senile plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, and synapse loss. Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is generally accepted to be an early stage of AD. MCI subjects have pathology and symptoms that fall on the scale intermediately between 'normal' cognition with little or no pathology and AD. A rare number of individuals, who exhibit normal cognition on psychometric tests but whose brains show widespread postmortem AD pathology, are classified as 'asymptomatic' or 'preclinical' AD (PCAD). In this study, we evaluated changes in protein phosphorylation states in the inferior parietal lobule of subjects with AD, MCI, PCAD, and control brain using a 2-D PAGE proteomics approach in conjunction with Pro-Q Diamond phosphoprotein staining. Statistically significant changes in phosphorylation levels were found in 19 proteins involved in energy metabolism, neuronal plasticity, signal transduction, and oxidative stress response. Changes in the disease state phosphoproteome may provide insights into underlying mechanisms for the preservation of memory with expansive AD pathology in PCAD and the progressive memory loss in amnestic MCI that escalates to the dementia and the characteristic pathology of AD brain.

  9. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination

    PubMed Central

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T.; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination. PMID:27195523

  10. Activation in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule Reflects the Representation of Musical Structure beyond Simple Pitch Discrimination.

    PubMed

    Royal, Isabelle; Vuvan, Dominique T; Zendel, Benjamin Rich; Robitaille, Nicolas; Schönwiesner, Marc; Peretz, Isabelle

    2016-01-01

    Pitch discrimination tasks typically engage the superior temporal gyrus and the right inferior frontal gyrus. It is currently unclear whether these regions are equally involved in the processing of incongruous notes in melodies, which requires the representation of musical structure (tonality) in addition to pitch discrimination. To this aim, 14 participants completed two tasks while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging, one in which they had to identify a pitch change in a series of non-melodic repeating tones and a second in which they had to identify an incongruous note in a tonal melody. In both tasks, the deviants activated the right superior temporal gyrus. A contrast between deviants in the melodic task and deviants in the non-melodic task (melodic > non-melodic) revealed additional activity in the right inferior parietal lobule. Activation in the inferior parietal lobule likely represents processes related to the maintenance of tonal pitch structure in working memory during pitch discrimination.

  11. Functional topography of the right inferior parietal lobule structured by anatomical connectivity profiles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wei, Xuehu; Zheng, Dingchen; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-12-01

    The nature of the relationship between structure and function is a fundamental question in neuroscience, especially at the macroscopic neuroimaging level. Although mounting studies have revealed that functional connectivity reflects structural connectivity, whether similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can reveal corresponding similarities in the structural and functional topography remains an open problem. In our current study, we used the right inferior parietal lobule (RIPL), which has been demonstrated to have similar anatomical and functional connectivity patterns at the subregional level, to directly test the hypothesis that similar structural and functional connectivity patterns can inform the corresponding topography of this area. In addition, since the association between the RIPL regions and particular functions and networks is still largely unknown, post-hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed to identify the main functions and cortical networks in which each subregion participated. Anatomical and functional connectivity-based parcellations of the RIPL have consistently identified five subregions. Our functional characterization using meta-analysis-based behavioral and connectivity analyses revealed that the two anterior subregions (Cl1 and Cl2) primarily participate in interoception and execution, respectively; whereas the posterior subregion (Cl3) in the SMG primarily participates in attention and action inhibition. The two posterior subregions (Cl4, Cl5) in the AG were primarily involved in social cognition and spatial cognition, respectively. These results indicated that similar anatomical and functional connectivity patterns of the RIPL are reflected in corresponding structural and functional topographies. The identified cortical connectivity and functional characterization of each subregion may facilitate RIPL-related clinical research. Hum Brain Mapp 37:4316-4332, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals

  12. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The role of the left inferior parietal lobule in second language learning: An intensive language training fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Barbeau, Elise B; Chai, Xiaoqian J; Chen, Jen-Kai; Soles, Jennika; Berken, Jonathan; Baum, Shari; Watkins, Kate E; Klein, Denise

    2017-04-01

    Research to date suggests that second language acquisition results in functional and structural changes in the bilingual brain, however, in what way and how quickly these changes occur remains unclear. To address these questions, we studied fourteen English-speaking monolingual adults enrolled in a 12-week intensive French language-training program in Montreal. Using functional MRI, we investigated the neural changes associated with new language acquisition. The participants were scanned before the start of the immersion program and at the end of the 12 weeks. The fMRI scan aimed to investigate the brain regions recruited in a sentence reading task both in English, their first language (L1), and in French, their second language (L2). For the L1, fMRI patterns did not change from Time 1 to Time 2, while for the L2, the brain response changed between Time 1 and Time 2 in language-related areas. Of note, for the L2, there was higher activation at Time 2 compared to Time 1 in the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) including the supramarginal gyrus. At Time 2 this higher activation in the IPL correlated with faster L2 reading speed. Moreover, higher activation in the left IPL at Time 1 predicted improvement in L2 reading speed from Time 1 to Time 2. Our results suggest that learning-induced plasticity occurred as early as 12 weeks into immersive second-language training, and that the IPL appears to play a special role in language learning. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. White matter volume in the brainstem and inferior parietal lobule is related to motor performance in children with autism spectrum disorder: A voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Hanaie, Ryuzo; Mohri, Ikuko; Kagitani-Shimono, Kuriko; Tachibana, Masaya; Matsuzaki, Junko; Hirata, Ikuko; Nagatani, Fumiyo; Watanabe, Yoshiyuki; Fujita, Norihiko; Taniike, Masako

    2016-09-01

    Many studies have reported poor motor performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD); however, the underlying brain mechanisms remain unclear. Recent neuroimaging studies have suggested that abnormalities of the white matter (WM) are related to the features of ASD. In this study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to investigate which WM regions correlate with motor performance in children with ASD, and whether the WM volume in those brain regions differed between children with ASD and typically developing (TD) children. The subjects included 19 children with ASD and 20 TD controls. Motor performance was assessed using the Movement Assessment Battery for Children 2 (M-ABC 2). Children with ASD showed poorer motor performance than did the controls. There was a significant positive correlation between the total test score on the M-ABC 2 and the volume of WM in the brainstem and WM adjacent to the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). In addition, compared with the TD controls, children with ASD had a decreased volume of WM in the brainstem and adjacent to the left intraparietal sulcus, which is close to the SMG. These findings suggest that structural changes in the WM in the brainstem and left inferior parietal lobule may contribute to poor motor performance in children with ASD. Autism Res 2016, 9: 981-992. © 2016 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Brief Exposure to Leftward Prismatic Adaptation Enhances the Representation of the Ipsilateral, Right Visual Field in the Right Inferior Parietal Lobule.

    PubMed

    Crottaz-Herbette, Sonia; Fornari, Eleonora; Tissieres, Isabel; Clarke, Stephanie

    2017-01-01

    A brief exposure to rightward prismatic adaptation (PA) was shown to shift visual field representation within the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) from the right to the left hemisphere. This change in hemispheric dominance could be interpreted as (1) a general effect of discrepancy in visuomotor alignment caused by PA or (2) a direction-specific effect of rightward PA. To test these hypotheses, we compared the effects of rightward and leftward PA on visual representation in normal human subjects. Three groups of normal subjects underwent an fMRI evaluation using a simple visual detection task before and after brief PA exposure using leftward- or rightward-deviating prisms or no prisms (L-PA, R-PA, neutral groups). A two-way ANOVA group × session revealed a significant interaction suggesting that PA-induced modulation is direction specific. Post hoc analysis showed that L-PA enhanced the representation of the right visual field within the right IPL. Thus, a brief exposure to L-PA enhanced right hemispheric dominance within the ventral attentional system, which is the opposite effect of the previously described shift in hemispheric dominance following R-PA. The direction-specific effects suggest that the underlying neural mechanisms involve the fine-tuning of specific visuomotor networks. The enhancement of right hemispheric dominance following L-PA offers a parsimonious explanation for neglect-like symptoms described previously in normal subjects.

  16. Correspondent Functional Topography of the Human Left Inferior Parietal Lobule at Rest and Under Task Revealed Using Resting-State fMRI and Coactivation Based Parcellation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaojian; Xie, Sangma; Guo, Xin; Becker, Benjamin; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2017-03-01

    The human left inferior parietal lobule (LIPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive functions and is an important node in the default mode network (DMN). Although many previous studies have proposed different parcellation schemes for the LIPL, the detailed functional organization of the LIPL and the exact correspondence between the DMN and LIPL subregions remain unclear. Mounting evidence indicates that spontaneous fluctuations in the brain are strongly associated with cognitive performance at the behavioral level. However, whether a consistent functional topographic organization of the LIPL during rest and under task can be revealed remains unknown. Here, they used resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and task-related coactivation patterns separately to parcellate the LIPL and identified seven subregions. Four subregions were located in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) and three subregions were located in the angular gyrus (AG). The subregion-specific networks and functional characterization revealed that the four anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in sensorimotor processing, movement imagination and inhibitory control, audition perception and speech processing, and social cognition, whereas the three posterior subregions were mainly involved in episodic memory, semantic processing, and spatial cognition. The results revealed a detailed functional organization of the LIPL and suggested that the LIPL is a functionally heterogeneous area. In addition, the present study demonstrated that the functional architecture of the LIPL during rest corresponds with that found in task processing. Hum Brain Mapp 38:1659-1675, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network. PMID:27047351

  18. The Neuroanatomical Basis for Posterior Superior Parietal Lobule Control Lateralization of Visuospatial Attention.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan; Wang, Jiaojian; Zhang, Yun; Zheng, Dingchen; Zhang, Jinfeng; Rong, Menglin; Wu, Huawang; Wang, Yinyan; Zhou, Ke; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    The right hemispheric dominance in visuospatial attention in human brain has been well established. Converging evidence has documented that ventral posterior parietal cortex (PPC) plays an important role in visuospatial attention. The role of dorsal PPC subregions, especially the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in visuospatial attention is still controversial. In the current study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques to test the role of posterior SPL in visuospatial attention and to investigate the potential neuroanatomical basis for right hemisphere dominance in visuospatial function. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) results unraveled that the right SPL predominantly mediated visuospatial attention compared to left SPL. Anatomical connections analyses between the posterior SPL and the intrahemispheric frontal subregions and the contralateral PPC revealed that right posterior SPL has stronger anatomical connections with the ipsilateral middle frontal gyrus (MFG), with the ipsilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), and with contralateral PPC than that of the left posterior SPL. Furthermore, these asymmetric anatomical connections were closely related to behavioral performances. Our findings indicate that SPL plays a crucial role in regulating visuospatial attention, and dominance of visuospatial attention results from unbalanced interactions between the bilateral fronto-parietal networks and the interhemispheric parietal network.

  19. Decoding the superior parietal lobule connections of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Kamali, A; Sair, H I; Radmanesh, A; Hasan, K M

    2014-09-26

    The temporo-parietal (TP) white matter connections between the inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus as part of the superior longitudinal fasciculus/arcuate fasciculus (SLF/AF) or middle longitudinal fasciculus (MdLF) have been studied in prior diffusion tensor tractography (DTT) studies. However, few studies have been focusing on the higher TP connections of the superior parietal lobule with the temporal lobe. These higher TP connections have been shown to have a role in core processes such as attention, memory, emotions, and language. Our most recent study, for the first time, hinted to the possibility of a long white matter connection interconnecting the superior parietal lobule (SPL) with the posterior temporal lobe in human brain which we call the SLF/AF TP-SPL and for a shorter abbreviation, the TP-SPL. We decided to further investigate this white matter connection using fiber assignment by continuous tracking deterministic tractography and high spatial resolution diffusion tensor imaging on 3T. Five healthy right-handed men (age range 24-37 years) were studied. We delineated the SPL connections of the SLF/AF TP bilaterally in five normal adult human brains. Using a high resolution DTT technique, we demonstrate for the first time, the trajectory of a long fiber bundle connectivity between the SPL and posterior temporal lobe, called the SLF/AF TP-SPL (or the TP-SPL), bilaterally in five healthy adult human brains. We also demonstrate the trajectory of the vertically oriented posterior TP connections, interconnecting the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) with the posterior temporal lobe (TP-IPL) in relation to the TP-SPL, arcuate fasciculus and other major language pathways. In the current study, for the first time, we categorized the TP connections into the anterior and posterior connectivity groups and subcategorized each one into the SPL or IPL connections. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Functional Connectivity Between Superior Parietal Lobule and Primary Visual Cortex "at Rest" Predicts Visual Search Efficiency.

    PubMed

    Bueichekú, Elisenda; Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Miró-Padilla, Anna; Parcet, María-Antonia; Ávila, César

    2015-10-01

    Spatiotemporal activity that emerges spontaneously "at rest" has been proposed to reflect individual a priori biases in cognitive processing. This research focused on testing neurocognitive models of visual attention by studying the functional connectivity (FC) of the superior parietal lobule (SPL), given its central role in establishing priority maps during visual search tasks. Twenty-three human participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging session that featured a resting-state scan, followed by a visual search task based on the alphanumeric category effect. As expected, the behavioral results showed longer reaction times and more errors for the within-category (i.e., searching a target letter among letters) than the between-category search (i.e., searching a target letter among numbers). The within-category condition was related to greater activation of the superior and inferior parietal lobules, occipital cortex, inferior frontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, and the superior colliculus than the between-category search. The resting-state FC analysis of the SPL revealed a broad network that included connections with the inferotemporal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and dorsal frontal areas like the supplementary motor area and frontal eye field. Noteworthy, the regression analysis revealed that the more efficient participants in the visual search showed stronger FC between the SPL and areas of primary visual cortex (V1) related to the search task. We shed some light on how the SPL establishes a priority map of the environment during visual attention tasks and how FC is a valuable tool for assessing individual differences while performing cognitive tasks.

  1. Audio-visual multisensory integration in superior parietal lobule revealed by human intracranial recordings.

    PubMed

    Molholm, Sophie; Sehatpour, Pejman; Mehta, Ashesh D; Shpaner, Marina; Gomez-Ramirez, Manuel; Ortigue, Stephanie; Dyke, Jonathan P; Schwartz, Theodore H; Foxe, John J

    2006-08-01

    Intracranial recordings from three human subjects provide the first direct electrophysiological evidence for audio-visual multisensory processing in the human superior parietal lobule (SPL). Auditory and visual sensory inputs project to the same highly localized region of the parietal cortex with auditory inputs arriving considerably earlier (30 ms) than visual inputs (75 ms). Multisensory integration processes in this region were assessed by comparing the response to simultaneous audio-visual stimulation with the algebraic sum of responses to the constituent auditory and visual unisensory stimulus conditions. Significant integration effects were seen with almost identical morphology across the three subjects, beginning between 120 and 160 ms. These results are discussed in the context of the role of SPL in supramodal spatial attention and sensory-motor transformations.

  2. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  3. High Frequency rTMS over the Left Parietal Lobule Increases Non-Word Reading Accuracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe…

  4. The anterior superior parietal lobule and its interactions with language and motor areas during writing.

    PubMed

    Segal, Emily; Petrides, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Past neuroimaging studies of writing demonstrate activation foci in several regions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The present study aimed to dissociate the role of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) from the other PPC regions using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and functional connectivity. First, parametric event-related fMRI permitted the categorical comparison of experimental writing conditions with control conditions that were carefully chosen to match the experimental conditions in terms of variables extraneous to the motor act of writing, such as visual stimulus characteristics, and generating and retrieving verbal information. A selective focus of increased activation in the PPC restricted to the rostral part of the SPL (area PE) in the left hemisphere was demonstrated. Subsequently, functional connectivity analysis showed that area PE flexibly interacts with different language areas depending on the linguistic demands of the writing task. Activity in area PE correlates with the left angular gyrus, a region implicated in reading, when the writing is in response to words that are read; in sharp contrast, when the writing is in response to pictured objects, then area PE correlates with the supramarginal gyrus, a region involved in the articulatory and phonological loop, as well as with prefrontal regions that are involved in the retrieval and selection of semantic information. The results suggest that area PE serves as a critical interface between posterior cortical regions in the left hemisphere involved in language processing and the central motor and sensory regions that are directly involved in the control of movement.

  5. Overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in caudal superior parietal lobule of macaques

    PubMed Central

    Dal Bo', Giulia; Breveglieri, Rossella; Galletti, Claudio; Fattori, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    Reaching movements in the real world have typically a direction and a depth component. Despite numerous behavioral studies, there is no consensus on whether reach coordinates are processed in separate or common visuomotor channels. Furthermore, the neural substrates of reach depth in parietal cortex have been ignored in most neurophysiological studies. In the medial posterior parietal area V6A, we recently demonstrated the strong presence of depth signals and the extensive convergence of depth and direction information on single neurons during all phases of a fixate-to-reach task in 3-dimensional (3D) space. Using the same task, in the present work we examined the processing of direction and depth information in area PEc of the caudal superior parietal lobule (SPL) in three Macaca fascicularis monkeys. Across the task, depth and direction had a similar, high incidence of modulatory effect. The effect of direction was stronger than depth during the initial fixation period. As the task progressed toward arm movement execution, depth tuning became more prominent than directional tuning and the number of cells modulated by both depth and direction increased significantly. Neurons tuned by depth showed a small bias for far peripersonal space. Cells with directional modulations were more frequently tuned toward contralateral spatial locations, but ipsilateral space was also represented. These findings, combined with results from neighboring areas V6A and PE, support a rostral-to-caudal gradient of overlapping representations for reach depth and direction in SPL. These findings also support a progressive change from visuospatial (vergence angle) to somatomotor representations of 3D space in SPL. PMID:26269557

  6. Changes in effective connectivity of human superior parietal lobule under multisensory and unisensory stimulation.

    PubMed

    Moran, R J; Molholm, S; Reilly, R B; Foxe, J J

    2008-05-01

    Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies have identified the superior parietal lobule (SPL) as actively multisensory. This study compares effective, or contextually active, connections to this region under unisensory and multisensory conditions. Effective connectivity, the influence of one brain region over another, during unisensory visual, unisensory auditory and multisensory audiovisual stimulation was investigated. ERPs were recorded from subdural electrodes placed over the parietal lobe of three patients while they conducted a rapid reaction-time task. A generative model of interacting neuronal ensembles for ERPs was inverted in a scheme allowing investigation of the connections from and to the SPL, a multisensory processing area. Important features of the ensemble model include inhibitory and excitatory feedback connections to pyramidal cells and extrinsic input to the stellate cell pool, with extrinsic forward and backward connections delineated by laminar connection differences between ensembles. The framework embeds the SPL in a plausible connection of distinct neuronal ensembles mirroring the integrated brain regions involved in the response task. Bayesian model comparison was used to test competing feed-forward and feed-backward models of how the electrophysiological data were generated. Comparisons were performed between multisensory and unisensory data. Findings from three patients show differences in summed unisensory and multisensory ERPs that can be accounted for by a mediation of both forward and backward connections to the SPL. In particular, a negative gain in all forward and backward connections to the SPL from other regions was observed during the period of multisensory integration, while a positive gain was observed for forward projections that arise from the SPL.

  7. Ultra-high field parallel imaging of the superior parietal lobule during mental maze solving.

    PubMed

    Jerde, Trenton A; Lewis, Scott M; Goerke, Ute; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Tzagarakis, Charidimos; Lynch, Joshua; Moeller, Steen; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Adriany, Gregor; Trangle, Jeran; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2008-06-01

    We used ultra-high field (7 T) fMRI and parallel imaging to scan the superior parietal lobule (SPL) of human subjects as they mentally traversed a maze path in one of four directions (up, down, left, right). A counterbalanced design for maze presentation and a quasi-isotropic voxel (1.46 x 1.46 x 2 mm thick) collection were implemented. Fifty-one percent of single voxels in the SPL were tuned to the direction of the maze path. Tuned voxels were distributed throughout the SPL, bilaterally. A nearest neighbor analysis revealed a "honeycomb" arrangement such that voxels tuned to a particular direction tended to occur in clusters. Three-dimensional (3D) directional clusters were identified in SPL as oriented centroids traversing the cortical depth. There were 13 same-direction clusters per hemisphere containing 22 voxels per cluster, on the average; the mean nearest-neighbor, same-direction intercluster distance was 9.4 mm. These results provide a much finer detail of the directional tuning in SPL, as compared to those obtained previously at 4 T (Gourtzelidis et al. Exp Brain Res 165:273-282, 2005). The more accurate estimates of quantitative clustering parameters in 3D brain space in this study were made possible by the higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios afforded by the higher magnetic field of 7 T as well as the quasi-isotropic design of voxel data collection.

  8. Ultra-high field parallel imaging of the superior parietal lobule during mental maze solving

    PubMed Central

    Jerde, Trenton A.; Lewis, Scott M.; Goerke, Ute; Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Tzagarakis, Charidimos; Lynch, Joshua; Moeller, Steen; Van de Moortele, Pierre-François; Adriany, Gregor; Trangle, Jeran; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2014-01-01

    We used ultra-high field (7 T) fMRI and parallel imaging to scan the superior parietal lobule (SPL) of human subjects as they mentally traversed a maze path in one of four directions (up, down, left, right). A counterbalanced design for maze presentation and a quasi-isotropic voxel (1.46 × 1.46 × 2 mm thick) collection were implemented. Fifty-one percent of single voxels in the SPL were tuned to the direction of the maze path. Tuned voxels were distributed throughout the SPL, bilaterally. A nearest neighbor analysis revealed a “honeycomb” arrangement such that voxels tuned to a particular direction tended to occur in clusters. Three-dimensional (3D) directional clusters were identified in SPL as oriented centroids traversing the cortical depth. There were 13 same-direction clusters per hemisphere containing 22 voxels per cluster, on the average; the mean nearest-neighbor, same-direction intercluster distance was 9.4 mm. These results provide a much finer detail of the directional tuning in SPL, as compared to those obtained previously at 4 T (Gourtzelidis et al. Exp Brain Res 165:273–282, 2005). The more accurate estimates of quantitative clustering parameters in 3D brain space in this study were made possible by the higher signal-to-noise and contrast-to-noise ratios afforded by the higher magnetic field of 7 T as well as the quasi-isotropic design of voxel data collection. PMID:18305932

  9. Mental maze solving: directional fMRI tuning and population coding in the superior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Gourtzelidis, Pavlos; Tzagarakis, Charidimos; Lewis, Scott M; Crowe, David A; Auerbach, Edward; Jerde, Trenton A; Uğurbil, Kâmil; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2005-09-01

    The superior parietal lobule (SPL) of six human subjects was imaged at 4 T during mental traversing of a directed maze path. Here we demonstrate the orderly involvement of the SPL in this function, as follows. Forty-two percent of the voxels were tuned with respect to the direction of the maze path. This suggests a coherent tuning of local neuronal populations contributing to the change of the single-voxel BOLD signal. Preferred directions ranged throughout the directional continuum of 360 degrees. Voxels with similar preferred directions tended to cluster together: on average there were seven same-direction clusters per slice, with an average cluster membership of five voxels/cluster and an average nearest-neighbor same-direction intercluster distance of 13.1 mm. On the other hand, the average nearest-neighbor intercluster distance between a given direction and all other directions was 3.1 mm. This suggests a patchy arrangement such that patches of directionally tuned voxels, containing voxels with different preferred directions, alternate with patches of non-tuned voxels. Finally, the population vector predicted accurately the direction of the maze path (with an error of 12.7 degrees), and provided good estimates (with an error of 29 degrees) when calculated within parts of the SPL. Altogether, these findings document a new, orderly functional organization of the SPL with respect to mental tracing.

  10. Convergent Functional Architecture of the Superior Parietal Lobule Unraveled with Multimodal Neuroimaging Approaches

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaojian; Yang, Yong; Fan, Lingzhong; Xu, Jinping; Li, Changhai; Liu, Yong; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Yu, Chunshui; Jiang, Tianzi

    2014-01-01

    The superior parietal lobule (SPL) plays a pivotal role in many cognitive, perceptive and motor-related processes. This implies that a mosaic of distinct functional and structural subregions may exist in this area. Recent studies have demonstrated that the ongoing spontaneous fluctuations in the brain at rest are highly structured and, like co-activation patterns, reflect the integration of cortical locations into long-distance networks. This suggests that the internal differentiation of a complex brain region may be revealed by interaction-patterns that are reflected in different neuroimaging modalities. On the basis of this perspective, we aimed to identify a convergent functional organization of the SPL using multimodal neuroimaging approaches. The SPL was first parcellated based on its structural connections as well as on its resting-state connectivity and coactivation patterns. Then, post-hoc functional characterizations and connectivity analyses were performed for each subregion. The three types of connectivity-based parcellations consistently identified five subregions in the SPL of each hemisphere. The two anterior subregions were found to be primarily involved in action processes and in visually guided visuomotor functions, whereas the three posterior subregions were primarily associated with visual perception, spatial cognition, reasoning, working memory, and attention. This parcellation scheme for the SPL was further supported by revealing distinct connectivity patterns for each sub-region in all the employed modalities. These results thus indicate a convergent functional architecture of the SPL that can be revealed based on different types of connectivity and is reflected by different functions and interactions. PMID:25181023

  11. Inferior parietal rtms affects performance in an addition task.

    PubMed

    Göbell, Silke M; Rushworth, Matthew F; Walsh, Vincent

    2006-07-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies strongly suggest that the inferior parietal cortex is important for calculation. However, the evidence from neuroimaging experiments for a left hemispheric dominance in calculation is not as clear as one would expect from the studies of patients. Often a concomitant activation of the homologous inferior parietal region of the right hemisphere is reported in the same tasks. The objective of this study was to replicate basic findings of acalculic patients and to investigate discrepancies between data from patients and results from neuroimaging studies in an addition task. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied over inferior parietal areas and the adjacent intraparietal sulcus (IPS) while subjects solved double-digit addition tasks. From studies of acalculic patients it was hypothesised that left hemispheric rTMS stimulation should result in longer reaction times (RTs) in the addition task. On addition trials without TMS subjects showed the classical problem size effect with longer RTs the larger the sum of the two operands. Magnetic stimulation over left inferior parietal areas disrupted performance significantly. The effect was specific to the left hemisphere stimulation. There was no increase in RTs for rTMS stimulation over the right hemisphere.

  12. High frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobule increases non-word reading accuracy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), which operates in phonological computation. This study aimed to clarify the specific contribution of IPL and STG to reading aloud and to evaluate the possibility of modulating healthy participants' task performance using high frequency repetitive TMS (hf-rTMS). The main finding is that hf-rTMS over the left IPL improves non-word reading accuracy (fewer errors), whereas hf-rTMS over the right STG selectively decreases text-reading accuracy (more errors). These results confirm the prevalent role of the left IPL in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. The non-word reading improvement after Left-IPL stimulation provide a direct link between left IPL activation and advantages in sublexical procedures, mainly involved in non-word reading. Results indicate also the specific involvement of STG in reading morphologically complex words and in processing the representation of the text. The text reading impairment after stimulation of the right STG can be interpreted in light of an inhibitory influence on the homologous area. In sum, data document that hf-rTMS is effective in modulating the reading accuracy of expert readers and that the modulation is task related and site specific. These findings suggest new perspectives for the treatment of reading disorders.

  13. [Morphological and laminar distribution of cholecystokinin-immunoreactive neurons in cortex of human inferior parietal lobe and their clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Puskas, Laslo; Draganić-Gajić, Saveta; Malobabić, Slobodan; Puskas, Nela; Krivokuća, Dragan; Stanković, Gordana

    2008-01-01

    Cholecystocinine is a neuropeptide whose function in the cortex has not yet been clarified, although its relation with some psychic disorders has been noticed. Previous studies have not provided detailed data about types, or arrangement of neurons that contain those neuropeptide in the cortex of human inferior parietal lobe. The aim of this study was to examine precisely the morphology and typography of neurons containing cholecytocinine in the human cortex of inferior parietal lobule. There were five human brains on which we did the immunocystochemical research of the shape and laminar distribution of cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons on serial sections of supramarginal gyrus and angular gyrus. The morphological analysis of cholecystocinine-immunoreactive neurons was done on frozen sections using avidin-biotin technique, by antibody to cholecystocinine diluted in the proportion 1:6000 using diamine-benzedine. Cholecystocinine immunoreactive neurons were found in the first three layers of the cortex of inferior parietal lobule, and their densest concentration was in the 2nd and 3rd layer. The following types of neurons were found: bipolar neurons, then its fusiform subtype, Cajal-Retzius neurons (in the 1st layer), reverse pyramidal (triangular) and unipolar neurons. The diameters of some types of neurons were from 15 to 35 microm, and the diameters of dendritic arborization were from 85-207 microm. A special emphasis is put on the finding of Cajal-Retzius neurons that are immunoreactive to cholecystocinine, which demands further research. Bearing in mind numerous clinical studies pointing out the role of cholecystokinine in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia, the presence of a great number of cholecystokinine immunoreactive neurons in the cortex of inferior parietal lobule suggests their role in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.

  14. Differential contributions of the superior and inferior parietal cortex to feedback versus feedforward control of tools

    PubMed Central

    Macuga, Kristen L.; Frey, Scott H.

    2016-01-01

    Damage to the superior and/or inferior parietal lobules (SPL, IPL) (Sirigu et al., 1996) or cerebellum (Grealy and Lee, 2011) can selectively disrupt motor imagery, motivating the hypothesis that these regions participate in predictive (i.e., feedforward) control. If so, then the SPL, IPL, and cerebellum should show greater activity as the demands on feedforward control increase from visually-guided execution (closed-loop) to execution without visual feedback (open-loop) to motor imagery. Using fMRI and a Fitts’ reciprocal aiming task with tools directed at targets in far space, we found that the SPL and cerebellum exhibited greater activity during closed-loop control. Conversely, open-loop and imagery conditions were associated with increased activity within the IPL and prefrontal areas. These results are consistent with a superior-to-inferior gradient in the representation of feedback-to-feedforward control within the posterior parietal cortex. Additionally, the anterior SPL displayed greater activity when aiming movements were performed with a stick vs. laser pointer. This may suggest that it is involved in the remapping of far into near (reachable) space (Maravita and Iriki, 2004), or in distalization of the end-effector from hand to stick (Arbib et al., 2009). PMID:24473100

  15. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language.

    PubMed

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2016-09-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower- versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Left inferior parietal lobe engagement in social cognition and language

    PubMed Central

    Bzdok, Danilo; Hartwigsen, Gesa; Reid, Andrew; Laird, Angela R.; Fox, Peter T.; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2017-01-01

    Social cognition and language are two core features of the human species. Despite distributed recruitment of brain regions in each mental capacity, the left parietal lobe (LPL) represents a zone of topographical convergence. The present study quantitatively summarizes hundreds of neuroimaging studies on social cognition and language. Using connectivity-based parcellation on a meta-analytically defined volume of interest (VOI), regional coactivation patterns within this VOI allowed identifying distinct subregions. Across parcellation solutions, two clusters emerged consistently in rostro-ventral and caudo-ventral aspects of the parietal VOI. Both clusters were functionally significantly associated with social-cognitive and language processing. In particular, the rostro-ventral cluster was associated with lower-level processing facets, while the caudo-ventral cluster was associated with higher-level processing facets in both mental capacities. Contrarily, in the (less stable) dorsal parietal VOI, all clusters reflected computation of general-purpose processes, such as working memory and matching tasks, that are frequently co-recruited by social or language processes. Our results hence favour a rostro-caudal distinction of lower-versus higher-level processes underlying social cognition and language in the left inferior parietal lobe. PMID:27241201

  17. Association of dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus fibers in the deep parietal lobe with both reading and writing processes: a brain mapping study.

    PubMed

    Motomura, Kazuya; Fujii, Masazumi; Maesawa, Satoshi; Kuramitsu, Shunichiro; Natsume, Atsushi; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-07-01

    Alexia and agraphia are disorders common to the left inferior parietal lobule, including the angular and supramarginal gyri. However, it is still unclear how these cortical regions interact with other cortical sites and what the most important white matter tracts are in relation to reading and writing processes. Here, the authors present the case of a patient who underwent an awake craniotomy for a left inferior parietal lobule glioma using direct cortical and subcortical electrostimulation. The use of subcortical stimulation allowed identification of the specific white matter tracts associated with reading and writing. These tracts were found as portions of the dorsal inferior frontooccipital fasciculus (IFOF) fibers in the deep parietal lobe that are responsible for connecting the frontal lobe to the superior parietal lobule. These findings are consistent with previous diffusion tensor imaging tractography and functional MRI studies, which suggest that the IFOF may play a role in the reading and writing processes. This is the first report of transient alexia and agraphia elicited through intraoperative direct subcortical electrostimulation, and the findings support the crucial role of the IFOF in reading and writing.

  18. Reaching in depth: hand position dominates over binocular eye position in the rostral superior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Ferraina, Stefano; Brunamonti, Emiliano; Giusti, Maria Assunta; Costa, Stefania; Genovesio, Aldo; Caminiti, Roberto

    2009-09-16

    Neural activity was recorded in area PE (dorsorostral part of Brodmann's area 5) of the posterior parietal cortex while monkeys performed arm reaching toward memorized targets located at different distances from the body. For any given distance, arm movements were performed while the animal kept binocular eye fixation constant. Under these conditions, the activity of a large proportion (36%) of neurons was modulated by reach distance during the memory period. By varying binocular eye position (vergence angle) and initial hand position, we found that the reaching-related activity of most neurons (61%) was influenced by changing the starting position of the hand, whereas that of a smaller, although substantial, population (13%) was influenced by changes of binocular eye position (i.e., by the angle of vergence). Furthermore, the modulation of the neural activity was better explained expressing the reach movement end-point, corresponding to the memorized target location, in terms of distance from the initial hand position, rather than from the body. These results suggest that the activity of neurons in area PE combines information about eye and hand position to encode target distance for reaching in depth predominantly in hand coordinates. This encoding mechanism is consistent with the position of PE in the functional gradient that characterizes the parieto-frontal network underlying reaching.

  19. The role of inferior frontal and parietal areas in differentiating meaningful and meaningless object-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Newman-Norlund, Roger; van Schie, Hein T; van Hoek, Marline E C; Cuijpers, Raymond H; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-02-22

    Over the past two decades single cell recordings in primates and neuroimaging experiments in humans have uncovered the key properties of visuo-motor mirror neurons located in monkey premotor cortex and parietal cortices as well as homologous areas in the human inferior frontal and inferior parietal cortices which presumably house neurons with similar response properties. One of the most interesting claims regarding the human mirror neuron system (MNS) is that its activity reflects high-level action understanding. If this was the case, one would expect signal in the MNS to differentiate between meaningful and meaningless actions. In the current experiment we tested this prediction using a novel paradigm. Functional magnetic resonance images were collected while participants viewed (i) short films of object-directed actions (ODAs) which were either semantically meaningful, i.e. a hand pressed a stapler or semantically meaningless, i.e. a foot pressed a stapler, (ii) short films of pantomimed actions and (iii) static pictures of objects. Consistent with the notion that the MNS represents high-level action understanding, meaningful and meaningless actions elicited BOLD signal differences at bilateral sites in the supramarginal gyrus (SMG) of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) where we observed a double dissociation between BOLD response and meaningfullness of actions. Comparison of superadditive responses in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and IPL (supramarginal) regions revealed differential contributions to action understanding. These data further specify the role of specific components of the MNS in understanding object-directed actions.

  20. Motor learning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder: activation in superior parietal lobule related to learning and repetitive behaviors.

    PubMed

    Travers, Brittany G; Kana, Rajesh K; Klinger, Laura G; Klein, Christopher L; Klinger, Mark R

    2015-02-01

    Motor-linked implicit learning is the learning of a sequence of movements without conscious awareness. Although motor symptoms are frequently reported in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), recent behavioral studies have suggested that motor-linked implicit learning may be intact in ASD. The serial reaction time (SRT) task is one of the most common measures of motor-linked implicit learning. The present study used a 3T functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner to examine the behavioral and neural correlates of real-time motor sequence learning in adolescents and adults with ASD (n = 15) compared with age- and intelligence quotient-matched individuals with typical development (n = 15) during an SRT task. Behavioral results suggested less robust motor sequence learning in individuals with ASD. Group differences in brain activation suggested that individuals with ASD, relative to individuals with typical development, showed decreased activation in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL) and right precuneus (Brodmann areas 5 and 7, and extending into the intraparietal sulcus) during learning. Activation in these areas (and in areas such as the right putamen and right supramarginal gyrus) was found to be significantly related to behavioral learning in this task. Additionally, individuals with ASD who had more severe repetitive behavior/restricted interest symptoms demonstrated greater decreased activation in these regions during motor learning. In conjunction, these results suggest that the SPL may play an important role in motor learning and repetitive behavior in individuals with ASD.

  1. Cortical laminar thickness and column spacing in human temporal and inferior parietal lobes: intra-individual anatomical relations.

    PubMed

    Seldon, H L

    2006-05-01

    Harasty, Seldon, Chan, Halliday, and Harding (2003) and Seldon (2005) have proposed a "balloon model" which suggests that myelin growth stretches the cerebral cortex, causing the cortical thickness to decrease and the columnar spacing to increase, in turn affecting the cortical capacity to differentiate afferent signals. This has been tested using temporal lobe (area TA) and inferior parietal lobule (areas PG, PF) histological specimens from human donors. The temporal and inferior parietal regions differ in ways that have never been described. Correlations between the thickness of laminae II-III and columnar spacing in lamina III within individual cytoarchitectonic areas in both hemispheres of each donor were calculated. Those in areas PG/PF are predominantly negative in both hemispheres, as predicted by the model. This is also true for the left hemisphere TA, but the right hemisphere TA shows no correlations between thickness and spacing. Comparisons of thickness and spacing between left and right hemispheres in PG/PF of each donor show no consistent direction, whereas those in TA fairly consistently show thinner laminae and wider column intervals on the left. In the left area TA, females have thinner laminae than males. Thus, intra-area predictions of the balloon model are supported in most areas, whereas the hemispheric asymmetry predictions appear to hold for TA, but not for the inferior parietal lobe.

  2. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  3. The Contribution of the Inferior Parietal Cortex to Spoken Language Production

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Brownsett, Sonia L. E.; Leech, Robert; Beckmann, Christian F.; Woodhead, Zoe; Wise, Richard J. S.

    2012-01-01

    This functional MRI study investigated the involvement of the left inferior parietal cortex (IPC) in spoken language production (Speech). Its role has been apparent in some studies but not others, and is not convincingly supported by clinical studies as they rarely include cases with lesions confined to the parietal lobe. We compared Speech with…

  4. Sensorimotor integration for speech motor learning involves the inferior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Shum, Mamie; Shiller, Douglas M; Baum, Shari R; Gracco, Vincent L

    2011-12-01

    Sensorimotor integration is important for motor learning. The inferior parietal lobe, through its connections with the frontal lobe and cerebellum, has been associated with multisensory integration and sensorimotor adaptation for motor behaviors other than speech. In the present study, the contribution of the inferior parietal cortex to speech motor learning was evaluated using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) prior to a speech motor adaptation task. Subjects' auditory feedback was altered in a manner consistent with the auditory consequences of an unintended change in tongue position during speech production, and adaptation performance was used to evaluate sensorimotor plasticity and short-term learning. Prior to the feedback alteration, rTMS or sham stimulation was applied over the left supramarginal gyrus (SMG). Subjects who underwent the sham stimulation exhibited a robust adaptive response to the feedback alteration whereas subjects who underwent rTMS exhibited a diminished adaptive response. The results suggest that the inferior parietal region, in and around SMG, plays a role in sensorimotor adaptation for speech. The interconnections of the inferior parietal cortex with inferior frontal cortex, cerebellum and primary sensory areas suggest that this region may be an important component in learning and adapting sensorimotor patterns for speech.

  5. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  6. Atrophy of the Parietal Lobe in Preclinical Dementia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Heidi I. L.; Van Boxtel, Martin P. J.; Uylings, Harry B. M.; Gronenschild, Ed H. B. M.; Verhey, Frans R.; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-01-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults…

  7. Effect of the stimulus frequency and pulse number of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the inter-reversal time of perceptual reversal on the right superior parietal lobule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nojima, Kazuhisa; Ge, Sheng; Katayama, Yoshinori; Ueno, Shoogo; Iramina, Keiji

    2010-05-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the stimulus frequency and pulses number of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on the inter-reversal time (IRT) of perceptual reversal on the right superior parietal lobule (SPL). The spinning wheel illusion was used as the ambiguous figures stimulation in this study. To investigate the rTMS effect over the right SPL during perceptual reversal, 0.25 Hz 60 pulse, 1 Hz 60 pulse, 0.5 Hz 120 pulse, 1 Hz 120 pulse, and 1 Hz 240 pulse biphasic rTMS at 90% of resting motor threshold was applied over the right SPL and the right posterior temporal lobe (PTL), respectively. As a control, a no TMS was also conducted. It was found that rTMS on 0.25 Hz 60 pulse and 1 Hz 60 pulse applied over the right SPL caused shorter IRT. In contrast, it was found that rTMS on 1 Hz 240-pulse applied over the right SPL caused longer IRT. On the other hand, there is no significant difference between IRTs when the rTMS on 0.5 Hz 120 pulse and 1 Hz 120 pulse were applied over the right SPL. Therefore, the applying of rTMS over the right SPL suggests that the IRT of perceptual reversal is effected by the rTMS conditions such as the stimulus frequency and the number of pulses.

  8. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens' arithmetic scores.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Wang, Yunqi; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children's arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren.

  9. Individual structural differences in left inferior parietal area are associated with schoolchildrens' arithmetic scores

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongxin; Hu, Yuzheng; Wang, Yunqi; Weng, Jian; Chen, Feiyan

    2013-01-01

    Arithmetic skill is of critical importance for academic achievement, professional success and everyday life, and childhood is the key period to acquire this skill. Neuroimaging studies have identified that left parietal regions are a key neural substrate for representing arithmetic skill. Although the relationship between functional brain activity in left parietal regions and arithmetic skill has been studied in detail, it remains unclear about the relationship between arithmetic achievement and structural properties in left inferior parietal area in schoolchildren. The current study employed a combination of voxel-based morphometry (VBM) for high-resolution T1-weighted images and fiber tracking on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to examine the relationship between structural properties in the inferior parietal area and arithmetic achievement in 10-year-old schoolchildren. VBM of the T1-weighted images revealed that individual differences in arithmetic scores were significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter (GM) volume in the left intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Fiber tracking analysis revealed that the forceps major, left superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF), bilateral inferior longitudinal fasciculus (ILF) and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) were the primary pathways connecting the left IPS with other brain areas. Furthermore, the regression analysis of the probabilistic pathways revealed a significant and positive correlation between the fractional anisotropy (FA) values in the left SLF, ILF and bilateral IFOF and arithmetic scores. The brain structure-behavior correlation analyses indicated that the GM volumes in the left IPS and the FA values in the tract pathways connecting left IPS were both related to children's arithmetic achievement. The present findings provide evidence that individual structural differences in the left IPS are associated with arithmetic scores in schoolchildren. PMID:24367320

  10. Inferior parietal and right frontal contributions to trial-by-trial adaptations of attention to memory.

    PubMed

    Kizilirmak, Jasmin M; Rösler, Frank; Bien, Siegfried; Khader, Patrick H

    2015-07-21

    The attention to memory theory (AtoM) proposes that the same brain regions might be involved in selective processing of perceived stimuli (selective attention) and memory representations (selective retrieval). Although this idea is compelling, given consistently found neural overlap between perceiving and remembering stimuli, recent comparisons brought evidence for overlap as well as considerable differences. Here, we present a paradigm that enables the investigation of the AtoM hypothesis from a novel perspective to gain further insight into the neural resources involved in AtoM. Selective attention in perception is often investigated as a control process that shows lingering effects on immediately following trials. Here, we employed a paradigm capable of modulating selective retrieval in a similarly dynamic manner as in such selective-attention paradigms by inducing trial-to-trial shifts between relevant and irrelevant memory representations as well as changes of the width of the internal focus on memory. We found evidence for an involvement of bilateral inferior parietal lobe and right inferior frontal gyrus in reorienting the attentional focus on previously accessed memory representations. Moreover, we could dissociate the right inferior from the parietal activation in separate contrasts, suggesting that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in facilitating attentional reorienting to memory representations when competing representations have been activated in the preceding trial, potentially by resolving this competition. Our results support the AtoM theory, i.e. that ventral frontal and parietal regions are involved in automatic attentional reorienting in memory, and highlight the importance of further investigations of the overlap and differences between regions involved in internal (memory) and external (perceptual) attentional selection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Connectivity architecture and subdivision of the human inferior parietal cortex revealed by diffusion MRI.

    PubMed

    Ruschel, Michael; Knösche, Thomas R; Friederici, Angela D; Turner, Robert; Geyer, Stefan; Anwander, Alfred

    2014-09-01

    The human inferior parietal cortex convexity (IPCC) is an important association area, which integrates auditory, visual, and somatosensory information. However, the structural organization of the IPCC is a controversial issue. For example, cytoarchitectonic parcellations reported in the literature range from 2 to 7 areas. Moreover, anatomical descriptions of the human IPCC are often based on experiments in the macaque monkey. In this study, we used diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging combined with probabilistic tractography to quantify the connectivity of the human IPCC, and used this information to parcellate this cortex area. This provides a new structural map of the human IPCC, comprising 3 subareas (inferior parietal cortex anterior, IPC middle, and IPC posterior) of comparable size, in a rostro-caudal arrangement in the left and right hemispheres. Each subarea is characterized by a connectivity fingerprint, and the parcellation is similar to the subdivision reported for the macaque IPCC with 3 areas in a rostro-caudal arrangement (PF, PFG, and PG). However, the present study also reliably demonstrates new structural features in the connectivity pattern of the human IPCC, which are not known to exist in the macaque. This study quantifies intersubject variability by providing a population representation of the subarea arrangement and demonstrates the substantial lateralization of the connectivity patterns of the IPCC. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Modulation of medial prefrontal and inferior parietal cortices when thinking about past, present, and future selves.

    PubMed

    D'Argembeau, Arnaud; Stawarczyk, David; Majerus, Steve; Collette, Fabienne; Van der Linden, Martial; Salmon, Eric

    2010-01-01

    Recent functional neuroimaging studies have shown that reflecting on representations of the present self versus temporally distant selves is associated with higher activity in the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). In the current fMRI study, we investigated whether this effect of temporal perspective is symmetrical between the past and future. The main results revealed that the MPFC showed higher activity when reflecting on the present self than when reflecting on past and future selves, with no difference between past and future selves. Temporal perspective also modulated activity in the right inferior parietal cortex but in the opposite direction, activity in this brain region being higher when reflecting on past and future selves relative to the present self (with again no difference between past and future selves). These findings show that differences in brain activity when thinking about current versus temporally distant selves are symmetrical between the past and the future. It is suggested that by processing degrees of self-relatedness, the MPFC might sustain the process of identifying oneself with current representations of the self, whereas the right inferior parietal cortex might be involved in distinguishing the present self from temporally distant selves.

  13. Developmental changes in mental arithmetic: evidence for increased functional specialization in the left inferior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Rivera, S M; Reiss, A L; Eckert, M A; Menon, V

    2005-11-01

    Arithmetic reasoning is arguably one of the most important cognitive skills a child must master. Here we examine neurodevelopmental changes in mental arithmetic. Subjects (ages 8-19 years) viewed arithmetic equations and were asked to judge whether the results were correct or incorrect. During two-operand addition or subtraction trials, for which accuracy was comparable across age, older subjects showed greater activation in the left parietal cortex, along the supramarginal gyrus and adjoining anterior intra-parietal sulcus as well as the left lateral occipital temporal cortex. These age-related changes were not associated with alterations in gray matter density, and provide novel evidence for increased functional maturation with age. By contrast, younger subjects showed greater activation in the prefrontal cortex, including the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex, suggesting that they require comparatively more working memory and attentional resources to achieve similar levels of mental arithmetic performance. Younger subjects also showed greater activation of the hippocampus and dorsal basal ganglia, reflecting the greater demands placed on both declarative and procedural memory systems. Our findings provide evidence for a process of increased functional specialization of the left inferior parietal cortex in mental arithmetic, a process that is accompanied by decreased dependence on memory and attentional resources with development.

  14. Atrophy of the parietal lobe in preclinical dementia.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Heidi I L; Van Boxtel, Martin P J; Uylings, Harry B M; Gronenschild, Ed H B M; Verhey, Frans R; Jolles, Jelle

    2011-03-01

    Cortical grey matter atrophy patterns have been reported in healthy ageing and Alzheimer disease (AD), but less consistently in the parietal regions of the brain. We investigated cortical grey matter volume patterns in parietal areas. The grey matter of the somatosensory cortex, superior and inferior parietal lobule was measured in 75 older adults (38 cognitively stable and 37 individuals with cognitive decline after 3 years). Dementia screening 6 years after scanning resulted in nine AD cases from the cognitively stable (n=3) and cognitive decline group (n=6), who were assigned to a third group, the preclinical AD group. When regional differences in cortical volume in the parietal lobe areas were compared between groups, significant differences were found between either the cognitive decline or stable group on the one hand and preclinical AD individuals on the other hand in the inferior parietal lobule. Group membership was best predicted by the grey matter volume of the inferior parietal lobule, compared to the other parietal lobe areas. The parietal lobe was characterised by a differential atrophy pattern based on cognitive status, which is in agreement with the 'last-developed-first-atrophied' principle. Future studies should investigate the surplus value of the inferior parietal lobe as a potential marker for the diagnosis of AD compared to other brain regions, such as the medial temporal lobe and the prefrontal lobe. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The left inferior parietal lobe represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others' object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g., hammer—nail). The availability of actor information (i.e., presenting a hand grasping the central object) and the number of possible target objects (i.e., 0, 1, or 2 target objects) were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON). Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and the left premotor cortex (PMC) increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other's actions as well. PMID:24795681

  16. The left inferior parietal lobe represents stored hand-postures for object use and action prediction.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Action semantics enables us to plan actions with objects and to predict others' object-directed actions as well. Previous studies have suggested that action semantics are represented in a fronto-parietal action network that has also been implicated to play a role in action observation. In the present fMRI study it was investigated how activity within this network changes as a function of the predictability of an action involving multiple objects and requiring the use of action semantics. Participants performed an action prediction task in which they were required to anticipate the use of a centrally presented object that could be moved to an associated target object (e.g., hammer-nail). The availability of actor information (i.e., presenting a hand grasping the central object) and the number of possible target objects (i.e., 0, 1, or 2 target objects) were independently manipulated, resulting in different levels of predictability. It was found that making an action prediction based on actor information resulted in an increased activation in the extrastriate body area (EBA) and the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON). Predicting actions involving a target object resulted in increased activation in the bilateral IPL and frontal motor areas. Within the AON, activity in the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) and the left premotor cortex (PMC) increased as a function of the level of action predictability. Together these findings suggest that the left IPL represents stored hand-postures that can be used for planning object-directed actions and for predicting other's actions as well.

  17. Functional heterogeneity of inferior parietal cortex during mathematical cognition assessed with cytoarchitectonic probability maps.

    PubMed

    Wu, S S; Chang, T T; Majid, A; Caspers, S; Eickhoff, S B; Menon, V

    2009-12-01

    Although the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) has been consistently implicated in mathematical cognition, the functional roles of its subdivisions are poorly understood. We address this problem using probabilistic cytoarchitectonic maps of IPC subdivisions intraparietal sulcus (IPS), angular gyrus (AG), and supramarginal gyrus. We quantified IPC responses relative to task difficulty and individual differences in task proficiency during mental arithmetic (MA) tasks performed with Arabic (MA-A) and Roman (MA-R) numerals. The 2 tasks showed similar levels of activation in 3 distinct IPS areas, hIP1, hIP2, and hIP3, suggesting their obligatory role in MA. Both AG areas, PGa and PGp, were strongly deactivated in both tasks, with stronger deactivations in posterior area PGp. Compared with the more difficult MA-R task, the MA-A task showed greater responses in both AG areas, but this effect was driven by less deactivation in the MA-A task. AG deactivations showed prominent overlap with lateral parietal nodes of the default mode network, suggesting a nonspecific role in MA. In both tasks, greater bilateral AG deactivation was associated with poorer performance. Our findings suggest a close link between IPC structure and function and they provide new evidence for behaviorally salient functional heterogeneity within the IPC during mathematical cognition.

  18. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory.

    PubMed

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R; Ye, Donald; D'Esposito, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such "recency effects" have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength) of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations - the memory strength and "expectancy" hypotheses, respectively - of the parietal lobe recency effect.

  19. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL. PMID:23403477

  20. USING ACTION UNDERSTANDING TO UNDERSTAND THE LEFT INFERIOR PARIETAL CORTEX IN THE HUMAN BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Passingham, RE; Chung, A; Goparaju, B; Cowey, A; Vaina, LM

    2015-01-01

    In an fMRI study we tried to establish whether the areas in the human brain that are involved in the understanding of actions are homologous with the inferior parietal cortex (area PFG) in macaque monkeys. Cells have been described in area PFG that discharge differentially depending upon whether the observer sees food being brought to the mouth or a small object being put in a container. In our study the observers saw videos in which the use of different objects was demonstrated in pantomime; and after viewing the videos, the subject had to pick the object that was appropriate to the pantomime. We found a cluster of activated voxels in parietal areas PFop and PFt and this cluster was greater in the left hemisphere than in the right. We suggest a mechanism that could account for this asymmetry, relate our results to handedness and suggest that they shed light on the human syndrome of apraxia. Finally, we suggest that during the evolution of the hominids, this same pantomime mechanism could have been used to ‘name’ or request objects. PMID:25086203

  1. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL.

  2. Recency Effects in the Inferior Parietal Lobe during Verbal Recognition Memory

    PubMed Central

    Buchsbaum, Bradley R.; Ye, Donald; D'Esposito, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The most recently encountered information is often most easily remembered in psychological tests of memory. Recent investigations of the neural basis of such “recency effects” have shown that activation in the lateral inferior parietal cortex (LIPC) tracks the recency of a probe item when subjects make recognition memory judgments. A key question regarding recency effects in the LIPC is whether they fundamentally reflect the storage (and strength) of information in memory, or whether such effects are a consequence of task difficulty or an upswing in resting state network activity. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we show that recency effects in the LIPC are independent of the difficulty of recognition memory decisions, that they are not a by-product of an increase in resting state network activity, and that they appear to dissociate from regions known to be involved in verbal working memory maintenance. We conclude with a discussion of two alternative explanations – the memory strength and “expectancy” hypotheses, respectively – of the parietal lobe recency effect. PMID:21811449

  3. How do we infer others' goals from non-stereotypic actions? The outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing in right inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortex.

    PubMed

    Liepelt, Roman; Von Cramon, D Yves; Brass, Marcel

    2008-12-01

    Humans permanently monitor others' behaviour and reason about their goals and intentions. Recent studies provided evidence suggesting that a very simple mechanism might underlie these functions. When observing stereotypic actions of others, goal inference seems to work through internal simulation of these actions in the self. However, less is known about the functional mechanisms and brain areas that are involved in inferring goals from others' actions when these actions are not stereotypic. Here we investigated the neural processes that are involved in goal inference processing of simple, non-stereotypic actions using functional brain imaging. We developed a paradigm in which we compared four simple finger lifting movements that differed in plausibility and intentionality as varied by action context. We found three regions that seem to be involved in goal inference processing of non-stereotypic implausible actions: (1) The superior temporal sulcus, (2) the right inferior parietal cortex, at the junction with the posterior temporal cortex (TPJ), and (3) the angular gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule. In line with teleological reasoning accounts of action understanding, inferring others' goals from non-stereotypic actions seems to be the outcome of context-sensitive inferential processing. In agreement with previous findings, we found the mirror system to be more strongly activated for intentionally produced actions [Iacoboni, M., Molnar-Szakacs, I., Gallese, V., Buccino, G., Mazziotta, J.C., Rizzolatti, G., 2005. Grasping the intentions of others with one's own mirror neuron system. PLoS Biol. 3, e79.], indicating an involvement of the IFG in representing intentional actions. Our findings support the idea that goal inference processing for non-stereotypic actions is primarily mediated by reasoning about action and context rather than by a direct mapping process via the mirror system.

  4. Potential role of monkey inferior parietal neurons coding action semantic equivalences as precursors of parts of speech

    PubMed Central

    Yamazaki, Yumiko; Yokochi, Hiroko; Tanaka, Michio; Okanoya, Kazuo; Iriki, Atsushi

    2010-01-01

    The anterior portion of the inferior parietal cortex possesses comprehensive representations of actions embedded in behavioural contexts. Mirror neurons, which respond to both self-executed and observed actions, exist in this brain region in addition to those originally found in the premotor cortex. We found that parietal mirror neurons responded differentially to identical actions embedded in different contexts. Another type of parietal mirror neuron represents an inverse and complementary property of responding equally to dissimilar actions made by itself and others for an identical purpose. Here, we propose a hypothesis that these sets of inferior parietal neurons constitute a neural basis for encoding the semantic equivalence of various actions across different agents and contexts. The neurons have mirror neuron properties, and they encoded generalization of agents, differentiation of outcomes, and categorization of actions that led to common functions. By integrating the activities of these mirror neurons with various codings, we further suggest that in the ancestral primates' brains, these various representations of meaningful action led to the gradual establishment of equivalence relations among the different types of actions, by sharing common action semantics. Such differential codings of the components of actions might represent precursors to the parts of protolanguage, such as gestural communication, which are shared among various members of a society. Finally, we suggest that the inferior parietal cortex serves as an interface between this action semantics system and other higher semantic systems, through common structures of action representation that mimic language syntax. PMID:20119879

  5. Why I tense up when you watch me: Inferior parietal cortex mediates an audience’s influence on motor performance

    PubMed Central

    Yoshie, Michiko; Nagai, Yoko; Critchley, Hugo D.; Harrison, Neil A.

    2016-01-01

    The presence of an evaluative audience can alter skilled motor performance through changes in force output. To investigate how this is mediated within the brain, we emulated real-time social monitoring of participants’ performance of a fine grip task during functional magnetic resonance neuroimaging. We observed an increase in force output during social evaluation that was accompanied by focal reductions in activity within bilateral inferior parietal cortex. Moreover, deactivation of the left inferior parietal cortex predicted both inter- and intra-individual differences in socially-induced change in grip force. Social evaluation also enhanced activation within the posterior superior temporal sulcus, which conveys visual information about others’ actions to the inferior parietal cortex. Interestingly, functional connectivity between these two regions was attenuated by social evaluation. Our data suggest that social evaluation can vary force output through the altered engagement of inferior parietal cortex; a region implicated in sensorimotor integration necessary for object manipulation, and a component of the action-observation network which integrates and facilitates performance of observed actions. Social-evaluative situations may induce high-level representational incoherence between one’s own intentioned action and the perceived intention of others which, by uncoupling the dynamics of sensorimotor facilitation, could ultimately perturbe motor output. PMID:26787326

  6. Cerebello-thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the macaque monkey.

    PubMed

    Amino, Y; Kyuhou, S; Matsuzaki, R; Gemba, H

    2001-08-17

    The cerebello-thalamo-posterior parietal cortical projections were investigated electrophysiologically and morphologically in macaque monkeys. In anesthetized monkeys, electrical stimulation of every cerebellar nucleus evoked marked surface-positive, depth-negative (s-P, d-N) cortical field potentials in the superior parietal lobule and the cortical bank of the intraparietal sulcus, but no responses in the inferior parietal lobule. Tract-tracing experiments combining the anterograde method with the retrograde one indicated that the interposed and lateral cerebellar nuclei projected to the posterior parietal cortex mainly through the nucleus ventral lateralis caudalis of the thalamus. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with cognitive functions.

  7. Left inferior-parietal lobe activity in perspective tasks: identity statements

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Aditi; Weiss, Benjamin; Schurz, Matthias; Aichhorn, Markus; Wieshofer, Rebecca C.; Perner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the theory that the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is closely associated with tracking potential differences of perspective. Developmental studies find that perspective tasks are mastered at around 4 years of age. Our first study, meta-analyses of brain imaging studies shows that perspective tasks specifically activate a region in the left IPL and precuneus. These tasks include processing of false belief, visual perspective, and episodic memory. We test the location specificity theory in our second study with an unusual and novel kind of perspective task: identity statements. According to Frege's classical logical analysis, identity statements require appreciation of modes of presentation (perspectives). We show that identity statements, e.g., “the tour guide is also the driver” activate the left IPL in contrast to a control statements, “the tour guide has an apprentice.” This activation overlaps with the activations found in the meta-analysis. This finding is confirmed in a third study with different types of statements and different comparisons. All studies support the theory that the left IPL has as one of its overarching functions the tracking of perspective differences. We discuss how this function relates to the bottom-up attention function proposed for the bilateral IPL. PMID:26175677

  8. The functional role of the inferior parietal lobe in the dorsal and ventral stream dichotomy

    PubMed Central

    Singh-Curry, Victoria; Husain, Masud

    2009-01-01

    Current models of the visual pathways have difficulty incorporating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) into dorsal or ventral streams. Some recent proposals have attempted to integrate aspects of IPL function that were not hitherto dealt with well, such as differences between the left and right hemisphere and the role of the right IPL in responding to salient environmental events. However, we argue that these models also fail to capture adequately some important findings regarding the functions of the IPL. Here we critically appraise existing proposals regarding the functional architecture of the visual system, with special emphasis on the role of this region, particularly in the right hemisphere. We review evidence that shows the right IPL plays an important role in two different, but broadly complementary, aspects of attention: maintaining attentive control on current task goals as well as responding to salient new information or alerting stimuli in the environment. In our view, findings from functional imaging, electrophysiological and lesion studies are all consistent with the view that this region is part of a system that allows flexible reconfiguration of behaviour between these two alternative modes of operation. Damage to the right IPL leads to deficits in both maintaining attention and also responding to salient events, impairments that contribute to hemineglect, the classical syndrome that follows lesions of this region. PMID:19138694

  9. Left inferior-parietal lobe activity in perspective tasks: identity statements.

    PubMed

    Arora, Aditi; Weiss, Benjamin; Schurz, Matthias; Aichhorn, Markus; Wieshofer, Rebecca C; Perner, Josef

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the theory that the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) is closely associated with tracking potential differences of perspective. Developmental studies find that perspective tasks are mastered at around 4 years of age. Our first study, meta-analyses of brain imaging studies shows that perspective tasks specifically activate a region in the left IPL and precuneus. These tasks include processing of false belief, visual perspective, and episodic memory. We test the location specificity theory in our second study with an unusual and novel kind of perspective task: identity statements. According to Frege's classical logical analysis, identity statements require appreciation of modes of presentation (perspectives). We show that identity statements, e.g., "the tour guide is also the driver" activate the left IPL in contrast to a control statements, "the tour guide has an apprentice." This activation overlaps with the activations found in the meta-analysis. This finding is confirmed in a third study with different types of statements and different comparisons. All studies support the theory that the left IPL has as one of its overarching functions the tracking of perspective differences. We discuss how this function relates to the bottom-up attention function proposed for the bilateral IPL.

  10. The Role of Right Inferior Parietal Cortex in Auditory Spatial Attention: A Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Karhson, Debra S.; Mock, Jeffrey R.; Golob, Edward J.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral studies support the concept of an auditory spatial attention gradient by demonstrating that attentional benefits progressively diminish as distance increases from an attended location. Damage to the right inferior parietal cortex can induce a rightward attention bias, which implicates this region in the construction of attention gradients. This study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to define attention-related gradients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the right inferior parietal cortex. Subjects (n = 16) listened to noise bursts at five azimuth locations (left to right: -90°, -45°, 0° midline, +45°, +90°) and responded to stimuli at one target location (-90°, +90°, separate blocks). ERPs as a function of non-target location were examined before (baseline) and after 0.9 Hz rTMS. Results showed that ERP attention gradients were observed in three time windows (frontal 230–340, parietal 400–460, frontal 550–750 ms). Significant transient rTMS effects were seen in the first and third windows. The first window had a voltage decrease at the farthest location when attending to either the left or right side. The third window had on overall increase in positivity, but only when attending to the left side. These findings suggest that rTMS induced a small contraction in spatial attention gradients within the first time window. The asymmetric effect of attended location on gradients in the third time window may relate to neglect of the left hemispace after right parietal injury. Together, these results highlight the role of the right inferior parietal cortex in modulating frontal lobe attention network activity. PMID:26636333

  11. Amygdala, pulvinar, and inferior parietal cortex contribute to early processing of faces without awareness

    PubMed Central

    Troiani, Vanessa; Schultz, Robert T.

    2013-01-01

    The goals of the present study were 2-fold. First, we wished to investigate the neural correlates of stimulus-driven processing of stimuli strongly suppressed from awareness and in the absence of top-down influences. We accomplished this using a novel approach in which participants performed an orthogonal task atop a flash suppression noise image to prevent top-down search. Second, we wished to investigate the extent to which amygdala responses differentiate between suppressed stimuli (fearful faces and houses) based on their motivational relevance. Using continuous flash suppression (CFS) in conjunction with fMRI, we presented fearful faces, houses, and a no stimulus control to one eye while participants performed an orthogonal task that appeared atop the flashing Mondrian image presented to the opposite eye. In 29 adolescents, we show activation in subcortical regions, including the superior colliculus, amygdala, thalamus, and hippocampus for suppressed objects (fearful faces and houses) compared to a no stimulus control. Suppressed stimuli showed less activation compared to a no stimulus control in early visual cortex (EVC), indicating that object information was being suppressed from this region. Additionally, we find no activation in regions associated with conscious processing of these percepts (fusiform gyrus and/or parahippocampal cortex) as assessed by mean activations and multi-voxel patterns. A psychophysiological interaction analysis (PPI) that seeded the amygdala showed task-specific (fearful faces greater than houses) modulation of right pulvinar and left inferior parietal cortex. Taken together, our results support a role for the amygdala in stimulus-driven attentional guidance toward objects of relevance and a potential mechanism for successful suppression of rivalrous stimuli. PMID:23761748

  12. Human middle longitudinal fascicle: Segregation and behavioral-clinical implications of two distinct fiber connections linking temporal pole and superior temporal gyrus with the angular gyrus or superior parietal lobule using multi-tensor tractography

    PubMed Central

    Makris, N.; Preti, M.G.; Wassermann, D.; Rathi, Y.; Papadimitriou, G. M.; Yergatian, C.; Dickerson, B. C.; Shenton, M. E.; Kubicki, M.

    2013-01-01

    The middle longitudinal fascicle (MdLF) is a major fiber connection running principally between the superior temporal gyrus and the parietal lobe, neocortical regions of great biological and clinical interest. Although one of the most prominent cerebral association fiber tracts it has only recently been discovered in humans. In this high angular resolution diffusion imaging (HARDI) MRI study, we delineated the two major fiber connections of the human MdLF, by examining morphology, topography, cortical connections, biophysical measures, volume and length in seventy-four brains. These two fiber connections course together through the dorsal temporal pole and the superior temporal gyrus maintaining a characteristic topographic relationship in the mediolateral and ventrodorsal dimensions. As these pathways course towards the parietal lobe, they split to form separate fiber pathways, one following a ventrolateral trajectory and connecting with the angular gyrus and the other following a dorsomedial route and connecting with the superior parietal lobule. Based on the functions of their cortical affiliations, we suggest that the superior temporal-angular connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)AG plays a role in language and attention, whereas the superior temporal-superior parietal connection of the MdLF, i.e., STG(MdLF)SPL is involved in visuospatial and integrative audiovisual functions. Furthermore, the MdLF may have clinical implications in neurodegenerative disorders such as primary progressive aphasia, frontotemporal dementia, posterior cortical atrophy, corticobulbar degeneration and Alzheimer’s disease as well as attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and schizophrenia. PMID:23686576

  13. Anarchic hand with abnormal agency following right inferior parietal lobe damage: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jenkinson, Paul M; Edelstyn, Nicola M J; Preston, Catherine; Ellis, Simon J

    2015-01-01

    Anarchic hand syndrome (AHS) is characterized by goal-directed movements performed without volitional control (agency). Different AHS subtypes have been identified; however, few studies have examined the posterior subtype. We report a case of AHS following right-hemisphere parietal damage, with left-sided somatosensory and proprioceptive impairment. Agency was examined for nonanarchic (volitional) movements performed using the anarchic hand. The patient experienced abnormal agency for movements whether motor intention and visual feedback were congruent or incongruent, but not when intention was absent (passive movement). Findings suggest a general disturbance of veridical motor awareness and agency in this case of parietal AHS.

  14. Metrical rhythm implicitly orients attention in time as indexed by improved target detection and left inferior parietal activation.

    PubMed

    Bolger, Deirdre; Coull, Jennifer T; Schön, Daniele

    2014-03-01

    When we direct attentional resources to a certain point in time, expectation and preparedness is heightened and behavior is, as a result, more efficient. This future-oriented attending can be guided either voluntarily, by externally defined cues, or implicitly, by perceived temporal regularities. Inspired by dynamic attending theory, our aim was to study the extent to which metrical structure, with its beats of greater or lesser relative strength, modulates attention implicitly over time and to uncover the neural circuits underlying this process of dynamic attending. We used fMRI to investigate whether auditory meter generated temporal expectancies and, consequently, how it affected processing of auditory and visual targets. Participants listened to a continuous auditory metrical sequence and pressed a button whenever an auditory or visual target was presented. The independent variable was the time of target presentation with respect to the metrical structure of the sequence. Participants' RTs to targets occurring on strong metrical positions were significantly faster than responses to events falling on weak metrical positions. Events falling on strong beats were accompanied by increased activation of the left inferior parietal cortex, a region crucial for orienting attention in time, and, by greater functional connectivity between the left inferior parietal cortex and the visual and auditory cortices, the SMA and the cerebellum. These results support the predictions of the dynamic attending theory that metrical structure with its relative strong and weak beats modulates attentional resources over time and, in turn, affects the functioning of both perceptual and motor preparatory systems.

  15. The left occipitotemporal system in reading: disruption of focal fMRI connectivity to left inferior frontal and inferior parietal language areas in children with dyslexia.

    PubMed

    van der Mark, Sanne; Klaver, Peter; Bucher, Kerstin; Maurer, Urs; Schulz, Enrico; Brem, Silvia; Martin, Ernst; Brandeis, Daniel

    2011-02-01

    Developmental dyslexia is a severe reading disorder, which is characterized by dysfluent reading and impaired automaticity of visual word processing. Adults with dyslexia show functional deficits in several brain regions including the so-called "Visual Word Form Area" (VWFA), which is implicated in visual word processing and located within the larger left occipitotemporal VWF-System. The present study examines functional connections of the left occipitotemporal VWF-System with other major language areas in children with dyslexia. Functional connectivity MRI was used to assess connectivity of the VWF-System in 18 children with dyslexia and 24 age-matched controls (age 9.7-12.5 years) using five neighboring left occipitotemporal regions of interest (ROIs) during a continuous reading task requiring phonological and orthographic processing. First, the results revealed a focal origin of connectivity from the VWF-System, in that mainly the VWFA was functionally connected with typical left frontal and parietal language areas in control children. Adjacent posterior and anterior VWF-System ROIs did not show such connectivity, confirming the special role that the VWFA plays in word processing. Second, we detected a significant disruption of functional connectivity between the VWFA and left inferior frontal and left inferior parietal language areas in the children with dyslexia. The current findings add to our understanding of dyslexia by showing that functional disconnection of the left occipitotemporal system is limited to the small VWFA region crucial for automatic visual word processing, and emerges early during reading acquisition in children with dyslexia, along with deficits in orthographic and phonological processing of visual word forms.

  16. Neural networks underlying parietal lobe seizures: a quantified study from intracerebral recordings.

    PubMed

    Bartolomei, Fabrice; Gavaret, Martine; Hewett, Russell; Valton, Luc; Aubert, Sandrine; Régis, Jean; Wendling, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick

    2011-02-01

    In this study we have quantified the "epileptogenicity" of several brain regions in seizures originating in the posterior parietal cortex in 17 patients investigated by intracerebral recordings using stereotactic EEG (SEEG). Epileptogenicity of brain structures was quantified according to the "epileptogenicity index" (EI), a way to quantify rapid discharges at seizure onset. Seven patients had maximal epileptogenicity in the superior parietal lobule-BA area 7 (Gr1), 2 patients in the superior parietal lobule-area 5 (Gr2), 4 patients in inferior parietal lobule (Gr3) and 4 in the opercular region (Gr4). A large majority of patients (15/17 (88%)) reported to have at least one aura during the course of their disease. Somato-sensory manifestations were reported in the four groups. Vestibular disturbance was observed mainly in seizures from the superior parietal lobule (Gr1 and 2). Ipsilateral version was the most frequent objective manifestation (64%). Hyperkinetic behaviour (motor agitation) was found to be frequent, observed in 4/17 cases (23%) and observed in seizures from inferior parietal regions. In conclusion, the electrophysiological organization and the clinical manifestations of PLS are various and complex. The subjective manifestations are frequent and often suggestive, therefore must be actively sought. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal superior longitudinal fasciculus III network.

    PubMed

    Morita, Tomoyo; Saito, Daisuke N; Ban, Midori; Shimada, Koji; Okamoto, Yuko; Kosaka, Hirotaka; Okazawa, Hidehiko; Asada, Minoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2017-04-21

    Proprioception is somatic sensation that allows us to sense and recognize position, posture, and their changes in our body parts. It pertains directly to oneself and may contribute to bodily awareness. Likewise, one's face is a symbol of oneself, so that visual self-face recognition directly contributes to the awareness of self as distinct from others. Recently, we showed that right-hemispheric dominant activity in the inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF III), is associated with proprioceptive illusion (awareness), in concert with sensorimotor activity. Herein, we tested the hypothesis that visual self-face recognition shares brain regions active during proprioceptive illusion in the right inferior fronto-parietal SLF III network. We scanned brain activity using functional magnetic resonance imaging while twenty-two right-handed healthy adults performed two tasks. One was a proprioceptive illusion task, where blindfolded participants experienced a proprioceptive illusion of right hand movement. The other was a visual self-face recognition task, where the participants judged whether an observed face was their own. We examined whether the self-face recognition and the proprioceptive illusion commonly activated the inferior fronto-parietal cortices connected by the SLF III in a right-hemispheric dominant manner. Despite the difference in sensory modality and in the body parts involved in the two tasks, both tasks activated the right inferior fronto-parietal cortices, which are likely connected by the SLF III, in a right-side dominant manner. Here we discuss possible roles for right inferior fronto-parietal activity in bodily awareness and self-awareness.

  18. Parcellation of left parietal tool representations by functional connectivity

    PubMed Central

    Garcea, Frank E.; Z. Mahon, Bradford

    2014-01-01

    Manipulating a tool according to its function requires the integration of visual, conceptual, and motor information, a process subserved in part by left parietal cortex. How these different types of information are integrated and how their integration is reflected in neural responses in the parietal lobule remains an open question. Here, participants viewed images of tools and animals during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). K-means clustering over time series data was used to parcellate left parietal cortex into subregions based on functional connectivity to a whole brain network of regions involved in tool processing. One cluster, in the inferior parietal cortex, expressed privileged functional connectivity to the left ventral premotor cortex. A second cluster, in the vicinity of the anterior intraparietal sulcus, expressed privileged functional connectivity with the left medial fusiform gyrus. A third cluster in the superior parietal lobe expressed privileged functional connectivity with dorsal occipital cortex. Control analyses using Monte Carlo style permutation tests demonstrated that the clustering solutions were outside the range of what would be observed based on chance ‘lumpiness’ in random data, or mere anatomical proximity. Finally, hierarchical clustering analyses were used to formally relate the resulting parcellation scheme of left parietal tool representations to previous work that has parcellated the left parietal lobule on purely anatomical grounds. These findings demonstrate significant heterogeneity in the functional organization of manipulable object representations in left parietal cortex, and outline a framework that generates novel predictions about the causes of some forms of upper limb apraxia. PMID:24892224

  19. Inferior-frontal cortex phase synchronizes with the temporal-parietal junction prior to successful change detection.

    PubMed

    Micheli, Cristiano; Kaping, Daniel; Westendorff, Stephanie; Valiante, Taufik A; Womelsdorf, Thilo

    2015-10-01

    The inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) are believed to be core structures of human brain networks that activate when sensory top-down expectancies guide goal directed behavior and attentive perception. But it is unclear how activity in IFG and TPJ coordinates during attention demanding tasks and whether functional interactions between both structures are related to successful attentional performance. Here, we tested these questions in electrocorticographic (ECoG) recordings in human subjects using a visual detection task that required sustained attentional expectancy in order to detect non-salient, near-threshold visual events. We found that during sustained attention the successful visual detection was predicted by increased phase synchronization of band-limited 15-30 Hz beta band activity that was absent prior to misses. Increased beta-band phase alignment during attentional engagement early during the task was restricted to inferior and lateral prefrontal cortex, but with sustained attention it extended to long-range IFG-TPJ phase synchronization and included superior prefrontal areas. In addition to beta, a widely distributed network of brain areas comprising the occipital cortex showed enhanced and reduced alpha band phase synchronization before correct detections. These findings identify long-range phase synchrony in the 15-30 Hz beta band as the mesoscale brain signal that predicts the successful deployment of attentional expectancy of sensory events. We speculate that localized beta coherent states in prefrontal cortex index 'top-down' sensory expectancy whose coupling with TPJ subregions facilitates the gating of relevant visual information.

  20. Activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex signals the accumulation of evidence in a probability learning task.

    PubMed

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Fornari, Eleonora; Bossaerts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes.

  1. Activity in Inferior Parietal and Medial Prefrontal Cortex Signals the Accumulation of Evidence in a Probability Learning Task

    PubMed Central

    d'Acremont, Mathieu; Fornari, Eleonora; Bossaerts, Peter

    2013-01-01

    In an uncertain environment, probabilities are key to predicting future events and making adaptive choices. However, little is known about how humans learn such probabilities and where and how they are encoded in the brain, especially when they concern more than two outcomes. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), young adults learned the probabilities of uncertain stimuli through repetitive sampling. Stimuli represented payoffs and participants had to predict their occurrence to maximize their earnings. Choices indicated loss and risk aversion but unbiased estimation of probabilities. BOLD response in medial prefrontal cortex and angular gyri increased linearly with the probability of the currently observed stimulus, untainted by its value. Connectivity analyses during rest and task revealed that these regions belonged to the default mode network. The activation of past outcomes in memory is evoked as a possible mechanism to explain the engagement of the default mode network in probability learning. A BOLD response relating to value was detected only at decision time, mainly in striatum. It is concluded that activity in inferior parietal and medial prefrontal cortex reflects the amount of evidence accumulated in favor of competing and uncertain outcomes. PMID:23401673

  2. Parietal versus temporal lobe components in spatial cognition: Setting the mid-point of a horizontal line.

    PubMed

    Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vallar, Giuseppe

    2009-09-01

    Recent anatomo-clinical correlation studies have extended to the superior temporal gyrus, the right hemisphere lesion sites associated with the left unilateral spatial neglect, in addition to the traditional posterior-inferior-parietal localization of the responsible lesion (supramarginal gyrus, at the temporo-parietal junction). The study aimed at teasing apart, by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), the contribution of the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus versus supramarginal gyrus) and of the superior temporal gyrus of the right hemisphere, in making judgments about the mid-point of a horizontal line, a widely used task for detecting and investigating spatial neglect. rTMS trains at 25 Hz frequency were delivered over the inferior parietal lobule (angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus), the superior temporal gyrus and the anterior parietal lobe of the right hemisphere, in 10 neurologically unimpaired participants, performing a line bisection judgment task. rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule at the level of the supramarginal gyrus brought about a rightward error in the bisection judgment, ipsilateral to the side of the rTMS, with stimulation over the other sites being ineffective. The neural correlates of computing the mid-point of a horizontal segment include the right supramarginal gyrus in the inferior parietal lobule and do not extend to the angular gyrus and the superior temporal gyrus. These rTMS data in unimpaired subjects constrain the evidence from lesion studies in brain-damaged patients, emphasizing the major role of a subset of relevant regions.

  3. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline "look" condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, "regulating regions") were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, "regulated regions") were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react.

  4. Reappraising social emotions: the role of inferior frontal gyrus, temporo-parietal junction and insula in interpersonal emotion regulation

    PubMed Central

    Grecucci, Alessandro; Giorgetta, Cinzia; Bonini, Nicolao; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have reported the effect of emotion regulation (ER) strategies on both individual and social decision-making, however, the effect of regulation on socially driven emotions independent of decisions is still unclear. In the present study, we investigated the neural effects of using reappraisal to both up- and down-regulate socially driven emotions. Participants played the Dictator Game (DG) in the role of recipient while undergoing fMRI, and concurrently applied the strategies of either up-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as more negative), down-regulation (reappraising the proposer's intentions as less negative), as well as a baseline “look” condition. Results showed that regions responding to the implementation of reappraisal (effect of strategy, that is, “regulating regions”) were the inferior and middle frontal gyrus, temporo parietal junction and insula bilaterally. Importantly, the middle frontal gyrus activation correlated with the frequency of regulatory strategies in daily life, with the insula activation correlating with the perceived ability to reappraise the emotions elicited by the social situation. Regions regulated by reappraisal (effect of regulation, that is, “regulated regions”) were the striatum, the posterior cingulate and the insula, showing increased activation for the up-regulation and reduced activation for down-regulation, both compared to the baseline condition. When analyzing the separate effects of partners' behavior, selfish behavior produced an activation of the insula, not observed when subjects were treated altruistically. Here we show for the first time that interpersonal ER strategies can strongly affect neural responses when experiencing socially driven emotions. Clinical implications of these findings are also discussed to understand how the way we interpret others' intentions may affect the way we emotionally react. PMID:24027512

  5. Transcranial alternating current stimulation to the inferior parietal lobe decreases mu suppression to egocentric, but not allocentric hand movements.

    PubMed

    Berntsen, Monica B; Cooper, Nicholas R; Romei, Vincenzo

    2017-03-06

    Egocentric vs. allocentric perspective during observation of hand movements has been related to self-other differentiation such that movements observed from an egocentric viewpoint have been considered as self-related while movements observed from an allocentric viewpoint have been considered as belonging to someone else. Correlational studies have generally found that egocentric perspective induces greater neurophysiological responses and larger behavioral effects compared to an allocentric perspective. However, recent studies question previous findings by reporting greater (μ) suppression and greater transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during observation of allocentric compared to egocentric movements. Furthermore, self-other differentiation has been generally related to activity within the inferior parietal lobe (IPL), but direct evidence for a causal and functional role of IPL in self-other differentiation is lacking. The current study was therefore designed to investigate the influence that IPL exerts on self-other differentiation. To this aim, we measured the impact of individually adjusted alpha-tuned transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) applied over IPL on μ-suppression during hands movement observation from an egocentric and allocentric perspective. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded during movement observation before and immediately after tACS. Results demonstrated that tACS decreased μ-reactivity over sensorimotor (but not visual) regions for egocentric (but not allocentric) movement observation providing direct evidence for a causal involvement of IPL in the observation of self- but not other-related hand movement. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. μ-suppression during action observation and execution correlates with BOLD in dorsal premotor, inferior parietal, and SI cortices.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Dan; Cui, Fang; Keysers, Christian; Maurits, Natasha M; Gazzola, Valeria

    2011-10-05

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey, that fire during both the execution and the observation of the same action, sparked great interest in studying the human equivalent. For over a decade, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been used to quantify activity in the human mirror neuron system (MNS)-yet, little is still known about how fMRI and EEG measures of the MNS relate to each other. To test the frequent assumption that regions of the MNS as evidenced by fMRI are the origin of the suppression of the EEG μ-rhythm during both action execution and observation, we recorded EEG and BOLD-fMRI signals simultaneously while participants observed and executed actions. We found that the suppression of the μ-rhythm in EEG covaried with BOLD activity in typical MNS regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL), dorsal premotor (dPM) and primary somatosensory cortex (BA2), during both action observation and execution. In contrast, in BA44, only nonoverlapping voxels correlated with μ-suppression during observation and execution. These findings provide direct support for the notion that μ-suppression is a valid indicator of MNS activity in BA2, IPL, and dPM, but argues against the idea that mirror neurons in BA44 are the prime source of μ-suppression. These results shed light on the neural basis of μ-suppression and provide a basis for integrating more closely the flourishing but often separate literatures on the MNS using fMRI and EEG.

  7. Sense of agency is related to gamma band coupling in an inferior parietal-preSMA circuitry.

    PubMed

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Nielsen, Jens B; Christensen, Mark S

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we tested whether sense of agency (SoA) is reflected by changes in coupling between right medio-frontal/supplementary motor area (SMA) and inferior parietal cortex (IPC). Twelve healthy adult volunteers participated in the study. They performed a variation of a line-drawing task (Nielsen, 1963; Fourneret and Jeannerod, 1998), in which they moved a cursor on a digital tablet with their right hand without seeing the hand. Visual feedback displayed on a computer monitor was either in correspondence with or deviated from the actual movement. This made participants uncertain as to the agent of the movement and they reported SoA in approximately 50% of trials when the movement was computer-generated. We tested whether IPC-preSMA coupling was associated with SoA, using dynamic causal modeling (DCM) for induced responses (Chen et al., 2008; Herz et al., 2012). Nine different DCMs were constructed for the early and late phases of the task, respectively. All models included two regions: a superior medial gyrus (preSMA) region and a right supramarginal gyrus (IPC) region. Bayesian models selection (Stephan et al., 2009) favored a model with input to IPC and modulation of the forward connection to SMA in the late task phase, and a model with input to preSMA and modulation of the backward connection was favored for the early task phase. The analysis shows that IPC source activity in the 50-60 Hz range modulated preSMA source activity in the 40-70 Hz range in the presence of SoA compared with no SoA in the late task phase, but the test of the early task phase did not reveal any differences between presence and absence of SoA. We show that SoA is associated with a directionally specific between frequencies coupling from IPC to preSMA in the higher gamma (ɣ) band in the late task phase. This suggests that SoA is a retrospective perception, which is highly dependent on interpretation of the outcome of the performed action.

  8. Thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Matsuzaki, Ryuichi; Kyuhou, Shin-ichi; Matsuura-Nakao, Kazuko; Gemba, Hisae

    2004-01-23

    Thalamo-cortical projections to the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) were investigated electrophysiologically in the monkey. Cortical field potentials evoked by the thalamic stimulation were recorded with electrodes chronically implanted on the cortical surface and at a 2.0-3.0 mm cortical depth in the PPC. The stimulation of the nucleus lateralis posterior (LP), nucleus ventralis posterior lateralis pars caudalis (VPLc), and nucleus pulvinaris lateralis (Pul.l) and medialis (Pul.m) induced surface-negative, depth-positive potentials in the PPC. The LP and VPLc projected mainly to the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and the anterior bank of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), and the Pul.m mainly to the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and the posterior bank of the IPS. The Pul.l had projections to all of the SPL, the IPL and both the banks. The significance of the projections is discussed in connection with motor functions.

  9. Praxis-induced reflex seizures mainly precipitated by writing due to a parietal focal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Racicot, Frédéric; Obaid, Sami; Bouthillier, Alain; Guillon-Létourneau, Laurent; Clément, Jean-François; Nguyen, Dang Khoa

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a 23-year-old left-handed woman with medically intractable praxis-induced reflex seizures mainly precipitated by writing. Selective resection of subtle end-of-sulcus cortical dysplasia in the right inferior parietal lobule resulted in freedom from seizures. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of praxis-induced reflex seizures mainly precipitated by writing in which a focal lesion was found and treated successfully by surgery.

  10. Acoustic cue selection and discrimination under degradation: differential contributions of the inferior parietal and posterior temporal cortices.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Obleser, Jonas

    2015-02-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill for perceiving the acoustic environment. Categorization depends on the discriminability of the sensory input as well as on the ability of the listener to adaptively make use of the relevant features of the sound. Previous studies on categorization have focused either on speech sounds when studying discriminability or on visual stimuli when assessing optimal cue utilization. Here, by contrast, we examined neural sensitivity to stimulus discriminability and optimal cue utilization when categorizing novel, non-speech auditory stimuli not affected by long-term familiarity. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment, listeners categorized sounds from two category distributions, differing along two acoustic dimensions: spectral shape and duration. By introducing spectral degradation after the first half of the experiment, we manipulated both stimulus discriminability and the relative informativeness of acoustic cues. Degradation caused an overall decrease in discriminability based on spectral shape, and therefore enhanced the informativeness of duration. A relative increase in duration-cue utilization was accompanied by increased activity in left parietal cortex. Further, discriminability modulated right planum temporale activity to a higher degree when stimuli were spectrally degraded than when they were not. These findings provide support for separable contributions of parietal and posterior temporal areas to perceptual categorization. The parietal cortex seems to support the selective utilization of informative stimulus cues, while the posterior superior temporal cortex as a primarily auditory brain area supports discriminability particularly under acoustic degradation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Xenomelia: a new right parietal lobe syndrome.

    PubMed

    McGeoch, Paul D; Brang, David; Song, Tao; Lee, Roland R; Huang, Mingxiong; Ramachandran, V S

    2011-12-01

    Damage to the right parietal lobe has long been associated with various disorders of body image. The authors have recently suggested that an unusual behavioural condition in which otherwise rational individuals desire the amputation of a healthy limb might also arise from right parietal dysfunction. Four subjects who desired the amputation of healthy legs (two right, one left and one, at first, bilateral and then left only) were recruited and underwent magnetoencephalography (MEG) scans during tactile stimulation of sites above and below the desired amputation line. Regions of interest (ROIs) in each hemisphere (superior parietal lobule (SPL), inferior parietal lobule, S1, M1, insula, premotor cortex and precuneus) were defined using FreeSurfer software. Analysis of average MEG activity across the 40-140 ms post-stimulation timeframe was carried out using an unpaired t test. This revealed significantly reduced activation only in the right SPL ROI for the subjects' affected legs when compared with both subjects' unaffected legs and that of controls. The right SPL is a cortical area that appears ideally placed to unify disparate sensory inputs to create a coherent sense of having a body. The authors propose that inadequate activation of the right SPL leads to the unnatural situation in which the sufferers can feel the limb in question being touched without it actually incorporating into their body image, with a resulting desire for amputation. The authors introduce the term 'xenomelia' as a more appropriate name than apotemnophilia or body integrity identity disorder, for what appears to be an unrecognised right parietal lobe syndrome.

  12. DIFFUSION-WEIGHTED IMAGING TRACTOGRAPHY-BASED PARCELLATION OF THE HUMAN PARIETAL CORTEX AND COMPARISON WITH HUMAN AND MACAQUE RESTING STATE FUNCTIONAL CONNECTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Mars, Rogier B.; Jbabdi, Saad; Sallet, Jérôme; O’Reilly, Jill X.; Croxson, Paula L.; Olivier, Etienne; Noonan, MaryAnn P.; Bergmann, Caroline; Mitchell, Anna S.; Baxter, Mark G.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Tomassini, Valentina; Miller, Karla L.; Rushworth, Matthew F.S.

    2011-01-01

    Despite the prominence of parietal activity in human neuromaging investigations of sensorimotor and cognitive processes there remains uncertainty about basic aspects of parietal cortical anatomical organization. Descriptions of human parietal cortex draw heavily on anatomical schemes developed in other primate species but the validity of such comparisons has been questioned by claims that there are fundamental differences between the parietal cortex in humans and other primates. A scheme is presented for parcellation of human lateral parietal cortex into component regions on the basis of anatomical connectivity and the functional interactions of the resulting clusters with other brain regions. Anatomical connectivity was estimated using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance image (MRI) based tractography and functional interactions were assessed by correlations in activity measured with functional MRI (fMRI) at rest. Resting state functional connectivity was also assessed directly in the rhesus macaque lateral parietal cortex in an additional experiment and the patterns found reflected known neuroanatomical connections. Cross-correlation in the tractography-based connectivity patterns of parietal voxels reliably parcellated human lateral parietal cortex into ten component clusters. The resting state functional connectivity of human superior parietal and intraparietal clusters with frontal and extrastriate cortex suggested correspondences with areas in macaque superior and intraparietal sulcus. Functional connectivity patterns with parahippocampal cortex and premotor cortex again suggested fundamental correspondences between inferior parietal cortex in humans and macaques. In contrast, the human parietal cortex differs in the strength of its interactions between the central inferior parietal lobule region and the anterior prefrontal cortex. PMID:21411650

  13. The Left Superior Longitudinal Fasciculus within the Primary Sensory Area of Inferior Parietal Lobe Plays a Role in Dysgraphia of Kana Omission within Sentences

    PubMed Central

    Shinoura, Nobusada; Midorikawa, Akira; Onodera, Toshiyuki; Yamada, Ryozi; Tabei, Yusuke; Onda, Yasumitsu; Itoi, Chihiro; Saito, Seiko; Yagi, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Functional neurological changes after surgery combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography can directly provide evidence of anatomical localization of brain function. Using these techniques, a patient with dysgraphia before surgery was analyzed at our hospital in 2011. The patient showed omission of kana within sentences before surgery, which improved after surgery. The brain tumor was relatively small and was located within the primary sensory area (S1) of the inferior parietal lobe (IPL). DTI tractography before surgery revealed compression of the branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) by the brain tumor. These results suggest that the left SLF within the S1 of IPL plays a role in the development of dysgraphia of kana omission within sentences. PMID:22713399

  14. Transcortical mixed aphasia due to cerebral infarction in left inferior frontal lobe and temporo-parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Maeshima, S; Toshiro, H; Sekiguchi, E; Okita, R; Yamaga, H; Ozaki, F; Moriwaki, H; Matsumoto, T; Ueyoshi, A; Roger, P

    2002-02-01

    We present a case of transcortical mixed aphasia caused by a cerebral embolism. A 77-year-old right-handed man was admitted to our hospital with speech disturbance and a right hemianopia. His spontaneous speech was remarkably reduced, and object naming, word fluency, comprehension, reading and writing were all severely disturbed. However, repetition of phonemes and sentences and reading aloud were fully preserved. Although magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed cerebral infarcts in the left frontal and parieto-occipital lobe which included the inferior frontal gyrus and angular gyrus, single photon emission CT revealed a wider area of low perfusion over the entire left hemisphere except for part of the left perisylvian language areas. The amytal (Wada) test, which was performed via the left internal carotid artery, revealed that the left hemisphere was dominant for language. Hence, it appears that transcortical mixed aphasia may be caused by the isolation of perisylvian speech areas, even if there is a lesion in the inferior frontal gyrus, due to disconnection from surrounding areas.

  15. Projections to the superior colliculus from inferior parietal, ventral premotor, and ventrolateral prefrontal areas involved in controlling goal-directed hand actions in the macaque.

    PubMed

    Borra, Elena; Gerbella, Marzio; Rozzi, Stefano; Tonelli, Simone; Luppino, Giuseppe

    2014-04-01

    We found that the macaque inferior parietal (PFG and anterior intraparietal [AIP]), ventral premotor (F5p and F5a), and ventrolateral prefrontal (rostral 46vc and intermediate 12r) areas forming a network involved in controlling purposeful hand actions ("lateral grasping network") are a source of corticotectal projections. Based on injections of anterograde tracers at the cortical level, the results showed that all these areas displayed relatively dense projections to the intermediate and deep gray layers of the ipsilateral superior colliculus (SC) and to the ventrally adjacent mesencephalic reticular formation. In the SC, the labeling tended to be richer in the lateral part along almost the entire rostro-caudal extent, that is, in regions controlling microsaccades and downward gaze shifts and hosting arm-related neurons and neurons modulated by the contact of the hand with the target. These projections could represent a descending motor pathway for controlling proximo-distal arm synergies. Furthermore, they could broadcast to the SC information related to hand action goals and object affordances extraction and selection. This information could be used in the SC for controlling orienting behavior (gaze and reaching movements) to the targets of object-oriented actions and for the eye-hand coordination necessary for appropriate hand-object interactions.

  16. Increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K K; Okur, O O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C

    2007-01-01

    The training to acquire or practicing to perform a skill, which may lead to structural changes in the brain, is called experience-dependent structural plasticity. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains, which may develop after long-term practice of mathematic thinking. Twenty-six volunteer mathematicians, who have been working as academicians, were enrolled in the study. We applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry in the mathematicians and the age- and sex-matched control subjects. We assessed the gray and white matter density differences in mathematicians and the control subjects. Moreover, the correlation between the cortical density and the time spent as an academician was investigated. We found that cortical gray matter density in the left inferior frontal and bilateral inferior parietal lobules of the mathematicians were significantly increased compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, increase in gray matter density in the right inferior parietal lobule of the mathematicians was strongly correlated with the time spent as an academician (r = 0.84; P < .01). Left-inferior frontal and bilateral parietal regions are involved in arithmetic processing. Inferior parietal regions are also involved in high-level mathematic thinking, which requires visuospatial imagery, such as mental creation and manipulation of 3D objects. The voxel-based morphometric analysis of mathematicians' brains revealed increased gray matter density in the cortical regions related to mathematic thinking. The correlation between cortical density increase and the time spent as an academician suggests experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains.

  17. Understanding the parietal lobe syndrome from a neurophysiological and evolutionary perspective.

    PubMed

    Caminiti, Roberto; Chafee, Matthew V; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Averbeck, Bruno B; Crowe, David A; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2010-06-01

    In human and nonhuman primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, optic ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the inferior parietal lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL. Second, the number of IPL areas identified in the monkey is paradoxically higher than that so far described in man, although this issue will probably be reconsidered in future years, thanks to comparative imaging studies. Third, the consequences of parietal lesions in monkeys do not always match those observed in humans. This is another paradox if one considers that, in certain cases, the functional properties of neurons in the monkey's IPL would predict the presence of behavioral skills, such as construction capacity, that however do not seem to emerge in the wild. Therefore, constructional apraxia, which is well characterized in man, has never been described in monkeys and apes. Finally, only certain aspects, i.e. hand directional hypokinesia and gaze apraxia (Balint's psychic paralysis of gaze), of the multifaceted syndrome hemispatial neglect have been described in monkeys. These similarities, differences and paradoxes, among many others, make the study of the evolution and function of parietal cortex a challenging case.

  18. UNDERSTANDING THE PARIETAL LOBE SYNDROME FROM A NEUROPHYSIOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY PERSPECTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Caminiti, Roberto; Chafee, Matthew V.; Battaglia-Mayer, Alexandra; Averbeck, Bruno B.; Crowe, David A.; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P.

    2010-01-01

    In human and non-human primates parietal cortex is formed by a multiplicity of areas. For those of the Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL) there exists a certain homology between man and macaques. As a consequence, Optic Ataxia, a disturbed visual control of hand reaching, has similar features in man and monkeys. Establishing such correspondence has proven difficult for the areas of the Inferior Parietal Lobule (IPL). This difficulty depends on many factors. First, no physiological information is available in man on the dynamic properties of cells in the IPL. Second, the number of IPL areas identified in the monkey is paradoxically higher that that so far described in man, although this issue will probably be reconsidered in future years, thanks to comparative imaging studies. Third, the consequences of parietal lesions in monkeys do not always match those observed in humans. This is another paradox if one considers that, in certain cases, the functional properties of neurons in the monkeys IPL would predict the presence of behavioral skills, such as construction capacity, that however do not seem to emerge in the wild. Therefore, Constructional Apraxia, which is well characterized in man, has never been described in monkeys and apes. Finally, only certain aspects, i.e. hand Directional Hypokinesia and Gaze Apraxia (Balint's Psychic Paralysis of Gaze), of the multifaceted syndrome Hemispatial Neglect have been described in monkeys. These similarities, differences and paradoxes, among many others, make the study of the evolution and function of parietal cortex a challenging “case”. PMID:20550568

  19. Pre-orthographic character string processing and parietal cortex: a role for visual attention in reading?

    PubMed

    Lobier, Muriel; Peyrin, Carole; Le Bas, Jean-François; Valdois, Sylviane

    2012-07-01

    The visual front-end of reading is most often associated with orthographic processing. The left ventral occipito-temporal cortex seems to be preferentially tuned for letter string and word processing. In contrast, little is known of the mechanisms responsible for pre-orthographic processing: the processing of character strings regardless of character type. While the superior parietal lobule has been shown to be involved in multiple letter processing, further data is necessary to extend these results to non-letter characters. The purpose of this study is to identify the neural correlates of pre-orthographic character string processing independently of character type. Fourteen skilled adult readers carried out multiple and single element visual categorization tasks with alphanumeric (AN) and non-alphanumeric (nAN) characters under fMRI. The role of parietal cortex in multiple element processing was further probed with a priori defined anatomical regions of interest (ROIs). Participants activated posterior parietal cortex more strongly for multiple than single element processing. ROI analyses showed that bilateral SPL/BA7 was more strongly activated for multiple than single element processing, regardless of character type. In contrast, no multiple element specific activity was found in inferior parietal lobules. These results suggests that parietal mechanisms are involved in pre-orthographic character string processing. We argue that in general, attentional mechanisms are involved in visual word recognition, as an early step of word visual analysis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Spatial orientation and the representation of space with parietal lobe lesions.

    PubMed Central

    Karnath, H O

    1997-01-01

    Damage to the human parietal cortex leads to disturbances of spatial perception and of motor behaviour. Within the parietal lobe, lesions of the superior and of the inferior lobule induce quite different, characteristic deficits. Patients with inferior (predominantly right) parietal lobe lesions fail to explore the contralesional part of space by eye or limb movements (spatial neglect). In contrast, superior parietal lobe lesions lead to specific impairments of goal-directed movements (optic ataxia). The observations reported in this paper support the view of dissociated functions represented in the inferior and the superior lobule of the human parietal cortex. They suggest that a spatial reference frame for exploratory behaviour is disturbed in patients with neglect. Data from these patients' visual search argue that their failure to explore the contralesional side is due to a disturbed input transformation leading to a deviation of egocentric space representation to the ipsilesional side. Data further show that this deviation follows a rotation around the earth-vertical body axis to the ipsilesional side rather than a translation towards that side. The results are in clear contrast to explanations that assume a lateral gradient ranging from a minimum of exploration in the extreme contralesional to a maximum in the extreme ipsilesional hemispace. Moreover, the failure to orient towards and to explore the contralesional part of space appears to be distinct from those deficits observed once an object of interest has been located and releases reaching. Although patients with neglect exhibit a severe bias of exploratory movements, their hand trajectories to targets in peripersonal space may follow a straight path. This result suggests that (i) exploratory and (ii) goal-directed behaviour in space do not share the same neural control mechanisms. Neural representation of space in the inferior parietal lobule seems to serve as a matrix for spatial exploration and for

  1. Functional integration of parietal lobe activity in early Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, H I L; Van Boxtel, M P J; Heinecke, A; Gronenschild, E H B M; Backes, W H; Ramakers, I H G B; Jolles, J; Verhey, F R J

    2012-01-31

    Parietal lobe dysfunction is an important characteristic of early Alzheimer disease (AD). Functional studies have shown conflicting parietal activation patterns indicative of either compensatory or dysfunctional mechanisms. This study aimed at examining activation differences in early AD using a visuospatial task. We focused on functional characteristics of the parietal lobe and examined compensation or disconnection mechanisms by combining a fMRI task with effective connectivity measures from Granger causality mapping (GCM). Eighteen male patients with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) and 18 male cognitively healthy older individuals were given a mental rotation task with different rotation angles. There were no behavioral group differences on the fMRI task. Separate measurements at each angle revealed widespread activation group differences. More temporal and parietal activation in the higher angle condition was observed in patients with aMCI. The parametric modulation, which identifies regions associated with increasing angle, confirmed these results. The GCM showed increased connectivity within the parietal lobe and between parietal and temporal regions in patients with aMCI. Decreased connectivity was found between the inferior parietal lobule and posterior cingulate gyrus. Connectivity patterns correlated with memory performance scores in patients with aMCI. Our results demonstrate increased effective temporoparietal connectivity in patients with aMCI, while maintaining intact behavioral performance. This might be a compensational mechanism to counteract a parietal-posterior cingulate gyrus disconnection. These findings highlight the importance of connectivity changes in the pathophysiology of AD. In addition, effective connectivity may be a promising method for evaluating interventions aimed at the promotion of compensatory mechanisms.

  2. [Parietal Cortices and Body Information].

    PubMed

    Naito, Eiichi; Amemiya, Kaoru; Morita, Tomoyo

    2016-11-01

    Proprioceptive signals originating from skeletal muscles and joints contribute to the formation of both the human body schema and the body image. In this chapter, we introduce various types of bodily illusions that are elicited by proprioceptive inputs, and we discuss distinct functions implemented by different parietal cortices. First, we illustrate the primary importance of the motor network in the processing of proprioceptive (kinesthetic) signals originating from muscle spindles. Next, we argue that the right inferior parietal cortex, in concert with the inferior frontal cortex (both regions connected by the inferior branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus-SLF III), may be involved in the conscious experience of body image. Further, we hypothesize other functions of distinct parietal regions: the association between internal hand motor representation with external object representation in the left inferior parietal cortex, visuo-kinesthetic processing in the bilateral posterior parietal cortices, and the integration of somatic signals from different body parts in the higher-order somatosensory parietal cortices. Our results indicate that a distinct parietal region, in concert with its anatomically and functionally connected frontal regions, probably plays specialized roles in the processing of body-related information.

  3. Pathways to lexical ambiguity: fMRI evidence for bilateral fronto-parietal involvement in language processing.

    PubMed

    Klepousniotou, Ekaterini; Gracco, Vincent L; Pike, G Bruce

    2014-04-01

    Numerous functional neuroimaging studies reported increased activity in the pars opercularis and the pars triangularis (Brodmann's areas 44 and 45) of the left hemisphere during the performance of linguistic tasks. The role of these areas in the right hemisphere in language processing is not understood and, although there is evidence from lesion studies that the right hemisphere is involved in the appreciation of semantic relations, no specific anatomical substrate has yet been identified. This event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared brain activity during the performance of language processing trials in which either dominant or subordinate meaning activation of ambiguous words was required. The results show that the ventral part of the pars opercularis both in the left and the right hemisphere is centrally involved in language processing. In addition, they highlight the bilateral co-activation of this region with the supramarginal gyrus of the inferior parietal lobule during the processing of this type of linguistic material. This study, thus, provides the first evidence of co-activation of Broca's region and the inferior parietal lobule, succeeding in further specifying the relative contribution of these cortical areas to language processing.

  4. Anatomical substrates of the alerting, orienting and executive control components of attention: focus on the posterior parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Yin, Xuntao; Zhao, Lu; Xu, Junhai; Evans, Alan C; Fan, Lingzhong; Ge, Haitao; Tang, Yuchun; Khundrakpam, Budhachandra; Wang, Jian; Liu, Shuwei

    2012-01-01

    Both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging studies have identified that the posterior parietal lobe (PPL) is critical for the attention function. However, the unique role of distinct parietal cortical subregions and their underlying white matter (WM) remains in question. In this study, we collected both magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data in normal participants, and evaluated their attention performance using attention network test (ANT), which could isolate three different attention components: alerting, orienting and executive control. Cortical thickness, surface area and DTI parameters were extracted from predefined PPL subregions and correlated with behavioural performance. Tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) was used for the voxel-wise statistical analysis. Results indicated structure-behaviour relationships on multiple levels. First, a link between the cortical thickness and WM integrity of the right inferior parietal regions and orienting performance was observed. Specifically, probabilistic tractography demonstrated that the integrity of WM connectivity between the bilateral inferior parietal lobules mediated the orienting performance. Second, the scores of executive control were significantly associated with the WM diffusion metrics of the right supramarginal gyrus. Finally, TBSS analysis revealed that alerting performance was significant correlated with the fractional anisotropy of local WM connecting the right thalamus and supplementary motor area. We conclude that distinct areas and features within PPL are associated with different components of attention. These findings could yield a more complete understanding of the nature of the PPL contribution to visuospatial attention.

  5. Interactions between visual attention and episodic retrieval: dissociable contributions of parietal regions during gist-based false recognition.

    PubMed

    Guerin, Scott A; Robbins, Clifford A; Gilmore, Adrian W; Schacter, Daniel L

    2012-09-20

    The interaction between episodic retrieval and visual attention is relatively unexplored. Given that systems mediating attention and episodic memory appear to be segregated, and perhaps even in competition, it is unclear how visual attention is recruited during episodic retrieval. We investigated the recruitment of visual attention during the suppression of gist-based false recognition, the tendency to falsely recognize items that are similar to previously encountered items. Recruitment of visual attention was associated with activity in the dorsal attention network. The inferior parietal lobule, often implicated in episodic retrieval, tracked veridical retrieval of perceptual detail and showed reduced activity during the engagement of visual attention, consistent with a competitive relationship with the dorsal attention network. These findings suggest that the contribution of the parietal cortex to interactions between visual attention and episodic retrieval entails distinct systems that contribute to different components of the task while also suppressing each other.

  6. Interactions between Visual Attention and Episodic Retrieval: Dissociable Contributions of Parietal Regions during Gist-Based False Recognition

    PubMed Central

    Guerin, Scott A.; Robbins, Clifford A.; Gilmore, Adrian W.; Schacter, Daniel L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY The interaction between episodic retrieval and visual attention is relatively unexplored. Given that systems mediating attention and episodic memory appear to be segregated, and perhaps even in competition, it is unclear how visual attention is recruited during episodic retrieval. We investigated the recruitment of visual attention during the suppression of gist-based false recognition, the tendency to falsely recognize items that are similar to previously encountered items. Recruitment of visual attention was associated with activity in the dorsal attention network. The inferior parietal lobule, often implicated in episodic retrieval, tracked veridical retrieval of perceptual detail and showed reduced activity during the engagement of visual attention, consistent with a competitive relationship with the dorsal attention network. These findings suggest that the contribution of the parietal cortex to interactions between visual attention and episodic retrieval entails distinct systems that contribute to different components of the task while also suppressing each other. PMID:22998879

  7. Space and the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Husain, Masud; Nachev, Parashkev

    2007-01-01

    Current views of the parietal cortex have difficulty accommodating the human inferior parietal lobe (IPL) within a simple dorsal versus ventral stream dichotomy. In humans, lesions of the right IPL often lead to syndromes such as hemispatial neglect that are seemingly in accord with the proposal that this region has a crucial role in spatial processing. However, recent imaging and lesion studies have revealed that inferior parietal regions have non-spatial functions, such as in sustaining attention, detecting salient events embedded in a sequence of events and controlling attention over time. Here, we review these findings and show that spatial processes and the visual guidance of action are only part of the repertoire of parietal functions. Although sub-regions in the human superior parietal lobe and intraparietal sulcus contribute to vision-for-action and spatial functions, more inferior parietal regions have distinctly non-spatial attributes that are neither conventionally ‘dorsal’ nor conventionally ‘ventral’ in nature. PMID:17134935

  8. Thalamic and parietal brain morphology predicts auditory category learning.

    PubMed

    Scharinger, Mathias; Henry, Molly J; Erb, Julia; Meyer, Lars; Obleser, Jonas

    2014-01-01

    Auditory categorization is a vital skill involving the attribution of meaning to acoustic events, engaging domain-specific (i.e., auditory) as well as domain-general (e.g., executive) brain networks. A listener's ability to categorize novel acoustic stimuli should therefore depend on both, with the domain-general network being particularly relevant for adaptively changing listening strategies and directing attention to relevant acoustic cues. Here we assessed adaptive listening behavior, using complex acoustic stimuli with an initially salient (but later degraded) spectral cue and a secondary, duration cue that remained nondegraded. We employed voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to identify cortical and subcortical brain structures whose individual neuroanatomy predicted task performance and the ability to optimally switch to making use of temporal cues after spectral degradation. Behavioral listening strategies were assessed by logistic regression and revealed mainly strategy switches in the expected direction, with considerable individual differences. Gray-matter probability in the left inferior parietal lobule (BA 40) and left precentral gyrus was predictive of "optimal" strategy switch, while gray-matter probability in thalamic areas, comprising the medial geniculate body, co-varied with overall performance. Taken together, our findings suggest that successful auditory categorization relies on domain-specific neural circuits in the ascending auditory pathway, while adaptive listening behavior depends more on brain structure in parietal cortex, enabling the (re)direction of attention to salient stimulus properties. © 2013 Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Dissociations between spatial-attentional processes within parietal cortex: insights from hybrid spatial cueing and change detection paradigms.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, Rik; Gillebert, Céline R

    2013-01-01

    Spatial cueing has been used by many different groups under multiple forms to study spatial attention processes. We will present evidence obtained in brain-damaged patients and healthy volunteers using a variant of this paradigm, the hybrid spatial cueing paradigm, which, besides single-target trials with valid and invalid cues, also contains trials where a target is accompanied by a contralateral competing stimulus (competition trials). This allows one to study invalidity-related processes and selection between competing stimuli within the same paradigm. In brain-damaged patients, lesions confined to the intraparietal sulcus result in contralesional attentional deficits, both during competition and invalid trials, according to a pattern that does not differ from that observed following inferior parietal lesions. In healthy volunteers, however, selection between competing stimuli and invalidity-related processes are partially dissociable, the former relying mainly on cytoarchitectonic areas hIP1-3 in the intraparietal sulcus, the latter on cytoarchitectonic area PF in the right inferior parietal lobule. The activity profile in more posterior inferior parietal areas PFm and PGa, does not distinguish between both types of trials. The functional account for right PF and adjacent areas is further constrained by the activity profile observed during other experimental paradigms. In a change detection task with variable target and distracter set size, for example, these inferior parietal areas show highest activity when the stimulus array consists of only one single target, while the intraparietal sulcus show increased activity as the array contains more targets and distracters. Together, these findings lead us to the hypothesis that right PF functions as a target singleton detector, which is activated when a target stands out from the background, referring both to the temporal background (expectancy) and the momentaneous background (stimulus-driven saliency).

  10. Dissociations between spatial-attentional processes within parietal cortex: insights from hybrid spatial cueing and change detection paradigms

    PubMed Central

    Vandenberghe, Rik; Gillebert, Céline R.

    2013-01-01

    Spatial cueing has been used by many different groups under multiple forms to study spatial attention processes. We will present evidence obtained in brain-damaged patients and healthy volunteers using a variant of this paradigm, the hybrid spatial cueing paradigm, which, besides single-target trials with valid and invalid cues, also contains trials where a target is accompanied by a contralateral competing stimulus (competition trials). This allows one to study invalidity-related processes and selection between competing stimuli within the same paradigm. In brain-damaged patients, lesions confined to the intraparietal sulcus result in contralesional attentional deficits, both during competition and invalid trials, according to a pattern that does not differ from that observed following inferior parietal lesions. In healthy volunteers, however, selection between competing stimuli and invalidity-related processes are partially dissociable, the former relying mainly on cytoarchitectonic areas hIP1-3 in the intraparietal sulcus, the latter on cytoarchitectonic area PF in the right inferior parietal lobule. The activity profile in more posterior inferior parietal areas PFm and PGa, does not distinguish between both types of trials. The functional account for right PF and adjacent areas is further constrained by the activity profile observed during other experimental paradigms. In a change detection task with variable target and distracter set size, for example, these inferior parietal areas show highest activity when the stimulus array consists of only one single target, while the intraparietal sulcus show increased activity as the array contains more targets and distracters. Together, these findings lead us to the hypothesis that right PF functions as a target singleton detector, which is activated when a target stands out from the background, referring both to the temporal background (expectancy) and the momentaneous background (stimulus-driven saliency). PMID

  11. Aberrant functional network recruitment of posterior parietal cortex in Turner syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bray, Signe; Hoeft, Fumiko; Hong, David S; Reiss, Allan L

    2013-12-01

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder caused by the complete or partial absence of an X chromosome in affected women. Individuals with TS show characteristic difficulties with executive functions, visual-spatial and mathematical cognition, with relatively intact verbal skills, and congruent abnormalities in structural development of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). The functionally heterogeneous PPC has recently been investigated using connectivity-based clustering methods, which sub-divide a given region into clusters of voxels showing similar structural or functional connectivity to other brain regions. In the present study, we extended this method to compare connectivity-based clustering between groups and investigate whether functional networks differentially recruit the PPC in TS. To this end, we parcellated the PPC into sub-regions based on temporal correlations with other regions of the brain. fMRI data were collected from 15 girls with TS and 14 typically developing (TD) girls, aged 7-14, while they performed a visual-spatial task. Temporal correlations between voxels in the PPC and a set of seed regions were calculated, and the PPC divided into clusters of voxels showing similar connectivity. It was found that in general the PPC parcellates similarly in TS and TD girls, but that regions in bilateral inferior parietal lobules, and posterior right superior parietal lobule, were reliably recruited by different networks in TS relative to TD participants. These regions showed weaker correlation in TS with a set of regions involved in visual processing. These results suggest that abnormal development of visuospatial functional networks in TS may relate to the well documented cognitive difficulties in this disorder. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study.

    PubMed

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K; van der Meer, Elke; Grafman, Jordan

    2011-10-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents' brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion-attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior.

  13. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability.

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J; Bunge, Silvia A

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6-18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12-18-year olds. For 9-11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6-8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Fronto-Parietal Network Reconfiguration Supports the Development of Reasoning Ability

    PubMed Central

    Wendelken, Carter; Ferrer, Emilio; Whitaker, Kirstie J.; Bunge, Silvia A.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this fMRI study was to examine how well developmental improvements in reasoning ability can be explained by changes in functional connectivity between specific nodes in prefrontal and parietal cortices. To this end, we examined connectivity within the lateral fronto-parietal network (LFPN) and its relation to reasoning ability in 132 children and adolescents aged 6–18 years, 56 of whom were scanned twice over the course of 1.5 years. Developmental changes in strength of connections within the LFPN were most prominent in late childhood and early adolescence. Reasoning ability was related to functional connectivity between left rostrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) and inferior parietal lobule (IPL), but only among 12–18-year olds. For 9–11-year olds, reasoning ability was most strongly related to connectivity between left and right RLPFC; this relationship was mediated by working memory. For 6–8-year olds, significant relationships between connectivity and performance were not observed; in this group, processing speed was the primary mediator of improvement in reasoning ability. We conclude that different connections best support reasoning at different points in development and that RLPFC-IPL connectivity becomes an important predictor of reasoning during adolescence. PMID:25824536

  15. Fronto-parietal regulation of media violence exposure in adolescents: a multi-method study

    PubMed Central

    Strenziok, Maren; Krueger, Frank; Deshpande, Gopikrishna; Lenroot, Rhoshel K.; van der Meer, Elke

    2011-01-01

    Adolescents spend a significant part of their leisure time watching TV programs and movies that portray violence. It is unknown, however, how the extent of violent media use and the severity of aggression displayed affect adolescents’ brain function. We investigated skin conductance responses, brain activation and functional brain connectivity to media violence in healthy adolescents. In an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment, subjects repeatedly viewed normed videos that displayed different degrees of aggressive behavior. We found a downward linear adaptation in skin conductance responses with increasing aggression and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Our results further revealed adaptation in a fronto-parietal network including the left lateral orbitofrontal cortex (lOFC), right precuneus and bilateral inferior parietal lobules, again showing downward linear adaptations and desensitization towards more aggressive videos. Granger causality mapping analyses revealed attenuation in the left lOFC, indicating that activation during viewing aggressive media is driven by input from parietal regions that decreased over time, for more aggressive videos. We conclude that aggressive media activates an emotion–attention network that has the capability to blunt emotional responses through reduced attention with repeated viewing of aggressive media contents, which may restrict the linking of the consequences of aggression with an emotional response, and therefore potentially promotes aggressive attitudes and behavior. PMID:20934985

  16. Scene-Selectivity and Retinotopy in Medial Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silson, Edward H.; Steel, Adam D.; Baker, Chris I.

    2016-01-01

    surface, the caudal inferior parietal lobule (cIPL). However, the differential connectivity in medial parietal cortex was found principally anterior of MPA. We suggest that there is posterior–anterior gradient within medial parietal cortex, with posterior regions in the POS showing retinotopically based scene-selectivity and more anterior regions showing connectivity that may be more reflective of abstract, navigationally pertinent and possibly mnemonic representations. PMID:27588001

  17. Time Adaptation Shows Duration Selectivity in the Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Masamichi J.; Ditye, Thomas; Harada, Tokiko; Hashiguchi, Maho; Sadato, Norihiro; Carlson, Synnöve; Walsh, Vincent; Kanai, Ryota

    2015-01-01

    Although psychological and computational models of time estimation have postulated the existence of neural representations tuned for specific durations, empirical evidence of this notion has been lacking. Here, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) adaptation paradigm, we show that the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) (corresponding to the supramarginal gyrus) exhibited reduction in neural activity due to adaptation when a visual stimulus of the same duration was repeatedly presented. Adaptation was strongest when stimuli of identical durations were repeated, and it gradually decreased as the difference between the reference and test durations increased. This tuning property generalized across a broad range of durations, indicating the presence of general time-representation mechanisms in the IPL. Furthermore, adaptation was observed irrespective of the subject’s attention to time. Repetition of a nontemporal aspect of the stimulus (i.e., shape) did not produce neural adaptation in the IPL. These results provide neural evidence for duration-tuned representations in the human brain. PMID:26378440

  18. CERES: A new cerebellum lobule segmentation method.

    PubMed

    Romero, Jose E; Coupé, Pierrick; Giraud, Rémi; Ta, Vinh-Thong; Fonov, Vladimir; Park, Min Tae M; Chakravarty, M Mallar; Voineskos, Aristotle N; Manjón, Jose V

    2017-02-15

    The human cerebellum is involved in language, motor tasks and cognitive processes such as attention or emotional processing. Therefore, an automatic and accurate segmentation method is highly desirable to measure and understand the cerebellum role in normal and pathological brain development. In this work, we propose a patch-based multi-atlas segmentation tool called CERES (CEREbellum Segmentation) that is able to automatically parcellate the cerebellum lobules. The proposed method works with standard resolution magnetic resonance T1-weighted images and uses the Optimized PatchMatch algorithm to speed up the patch matching process. The proposed method was compared with related recent state-of-the-art methods showing competitive results in both accuracy (average DICE of 0.7729) and execution time (around 5 minutes).

  19. Right parietal dominance in spatial egocentric discrimination.

    PubMed

    Loayza, F R; Fernández-Seara, M A; Aznárez-Sanado, M; Pastor, M A

    2011-03-15

    Egocentric tactile perception is crucial for skilled hand motor control. In order to better understand the brain functional underpinnings related to this basic sensorial perception, we performed a tactile perception functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment with two aims. The first aim consisted of characterizing the neural substrate of two types of egocentric tactile discrimination: the spatial localization (SLD) and simultaneity succession discrimination (SSD) in both hands to define hemispheric dominance for these tasks. The second goal consisted of characterizing the brain activation related to the spatial attentional load, the functional changes and their connectivity patterns induced by the psychometric performance (PP) during SLD. We used fMRI in 25 right-handed volunteers, applying pairs of sinusoidal vibratory stimuli on eight different positions in the palmar surface of both hands. Subjects were required either to identify the stimulus location with respect to an imaginary midline (SLD), to discriminate the simultaneity or succession of a stimuli pair (SSD) or to simply respond to stimulus detection. We found a fronto-parietal network for SLD and frontal network for SSD. During SLD we identified right hemispheric dominance with increased BOLD activation and functional interaction of the right supramarginal gyrus with contralateral intra-parietal sulcus for right and left hand independently. Brain activity correlated to spatial attentional load was found in bilateral structures of intra-parietal sulcus, precuneus extended to superior parietal lobule, pre-supplementary motor area, frontal eye fields and anterior insulae for both hands. We suggest that the right supramarginal gyrus and its interaction with intra-parietal lobule may play a pivotal role in the phenomenon of tactile neglect in right fronto-parietal lesions. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional properties of parietal hand manipulation-related neurons and mirror neurons responding to vision of own hand action.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Kazutaka; Ishida, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Katsumi; Inase, Masahiko; Murata, Akira

    2015-03-01

    Parietofrontal pathways play an important role in visually guided motor control. In this pathway, hand manipulation-related neurons in the inferior parietal lobule represent 3-D properties of an object and motor patterns to grasp it. Furthermore, mirror neurons show visual responses that are concerned with the actions of others and motor-related activity during execution of the same grasping action. Because both of these categories of neurons integrate visual and motor signals, these neurons may play a role in motor control based on visual feedback signals. The aim of this study was to investigate whether these neurons in inferior parietal lobule including the anterior intraparietal area and PFG of macaques represent visual images of the monkey's own hand during a self-generated grasping action. We recorded 235 neurons related to hand manipulation tasks. Of these, 54 responded to video clips of the monkey's own hand action, the same as visual feedback during that action or clips of the experimenter's hand action in a lateral view. Of these 54 neurons, 25 responded to video clips of the monkey's own hand, even without an image of the target object. We designated these 25 neurons as "hand-type." Thirty-three of 54 neurons that were defined as mirror neurons showed visual responses to the experimenter's action and motor responses. Thirteen of these mirror neurons were classified as hand-type. These results suggest that activity of hand manipulation-related and mirror neurons in anterior intraparietal/PFG plays a fundamental role in monitoring one's own body state based on visual feedback.

  1. Early Left Parietal Activity Elicited by Direct Gaze: A High-Density EEG Study

    PubMed Central

    Burra, Nicolas; Kerzel, Dirk; George, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Gaze is one of the most important cues for human communication and social interaction. In particular, gaze contact is the most primary form of social contact and it is thought to capture attention. A very early-differentiated brain response to direct versus averted gaze has been hypothesized. Here, we used high-density electroencephalography to test this hypothesis. Topographical analysis allowed us to uncover a very early topographic modulation (40–80 ms) of event-related responses to faces with direct as compared to averted gaze. This modulation was obtained only in the condition where intact broadband faces–as opposed to high-pass or low-pas filtered faces–were presented. Source estimation indicated that this early modulation involved the posterior parietal region, encompassing the left precuneus and inferior parietal lobule. This supports the idea that it reflected an early orienting response to direct versus averted gaze. Accordingly, in a follow-up behavioural experiment, we found faster response times to the direct gaze than to the averted gaze broadband faces. In addition, classical evoked potential analysis showed that the N170 peak amplitude was larger for averted gaze than for direct gaze. Taken together, these results suggest that direct gaze may be detected at a very early processing stage, involving a parallel route to the ventral occipito-temporal route of face perceptual analysis. PMID:27880776

  2. Functional architecture of spatial attention in the parietal cortex of behaving monkey

    PubMed Central

    Raffi, Milena; Siegel, Ralph M.

    2007-01-01

    Functional architectures facilitate orderly transmittal of representations between cortices, allow for local interactions between neurons, and ensure a uniform distribution of feature representations with respect to larger scale topographies. We sought to correlate such topographies with internal cognitive states. A psychophysical task for which the monkey was required to detect a change in one of two identical peripheral expanding flow fields tested for spatial shifts of attention. The monkey was cued as to which flow would change with a small cue near the fixation points. Reaction time data indicates that the monkey's performance in the optic flow detection task depended on the cue's location. Using optical imaging of intrinsic signals, we show that a monkey's internally generated locus of attention is correlated with an 800-860 μm patchy topological architecture across the cortical surface of the inferior parietal lobule. The attentional patches vary in location, but are stable in spatial frequency. The patches are embedded in a larger scale and stable representation of eye position. Trial-by-trial analysis of the images indicates that the organizational scheme with simultaneous stable and variable sub-components occurs within a day's experiment as well as across days. This novel functional architecture is the first to be correlated with attentional mechanisms and could support a fine scale functional architecture underlying hemispatial neglect, an attentional deficit caused by parietal lesions. PMID:15917457

  3. Emotion unfolded by motion: a role for parietal lobe in decoding dynamic facial expressions.

    PubMed

    Sarkheil, Pegah; Goebel, Rainer; Schneider, Frank; Mathiak, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Facial expressions convey important emotional and social information and are frequently applied in investigations of human affective processing. Dynamic faces may provide higher ecological validity to examine perceptual and cognitive processing of facial expressions. Higher order processing of emotional faces was addressed by varying the task and virtual face models systematically. Blood oxygenation level-dependent activation was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging in 20 healthy volunteers while viewing and evaluating either emotion or gender intensity of dynamic face stimuli. A general linear model analysis revealed that high valence activated a network of motion-responsive areas, indicating that visual motion areas support perceptual coding for the motion-based intensity of facial expressions. The comparison of emotion with gender discrimination task revealed increased activation of inferior parietal lobule, which highlights the involvement of parietal areas in processing of high level features of faces. Dynamic emotional stimuli may help to emphasize functions of the hypothesized 'extended' over the 'core' system for face processing.

  4. Multisensory maps in parietal cortex☆

    PubMed Central

    Sereno, Martin I; Huang, Ruey-Song

    2014-01-01

    Parietal cortex has long been known to be a site of sensorimotor integration. Recent findings in humans have shown that it is divided up into a number of small areas somewhat specialized for eye movements, reaching, and hand movements, but also face-related movements (avoidance, eating), lower body movements, and movements coordinating multiple body parts. The majority of these areas contain rough sensory (receptotopic) maps, including a substantial multisensory representation of the lower body and lower visual field immediately medial to face VIP. There is strong evidence for retinotopic remapping in LIP and face-centered remapping in VIP, and weaker evidence for hand-centered remapping. The larger size of the functionally distinct inferior parietal default mode network in humans compared to monkeys results in a superior and medial displacement of middle parietal areas (e.g., the saccade-related LIP's). Multisensory superior parietal areas located anterior to the angular gyrus such as AIP and VIP are less medially displaced relative to macaque monkeys, so that human LIP paradoxically ends up medial to human VIP. PMID:24492077

  5. Dissociable Memory- and Response-Related Activity in Parietal Cortex During Auditory Spatial Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Alain, Claude; Shen, Dawei; Yu, He; Grady, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Attending and responding to sound location generates increased activity in parietal cortex which may index auditory spatial working memory and/or goal-directed action. Here, we used an n-back task (Experiment 1) and an adaptation paradigm (Experiment 2) to distinguish memory-related activity from that associated with goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, participants indicated, in separate blocks of trials, whether the incoming stimulus was presented at the same location as in the previous trial (1-back) or two trials ago (2-back). Prior to a block of trials, participants were told to use their left or right index finger. Accuracy and reaction times were worse for the 2-back than for the 1-back condition. The analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data revealed greater sustained task-related activity in the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and superior frontal sulcus during 2-back than 1-back after accounting for response-related activity elicited by the targets. Target detection and response execution were also associated with enhanced activity in the IPL bilaterally, though the activation was anterior to that associated with sustained task-related activity. In Experiment 2, we used an event-related design in which participants listened (no response required) to trials that comprised four sounds presented either at the same location or at four different locations. We found larger IPL activation for changes in sound location than for sounds presented at the same location. The IPL activation overlapped with that observed during the auditory spatial working memory task. Together, these results provide converging evidence supporting the role of parietal cortex in auditory spatial working memory which can be dissociated from response selection and execution. PMID:21833258

  6. The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production.

    PubMed

    Heim, Stefan; Amunts, Katrin; Hensel, Tanja; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-01-01

    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focused on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca's region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions has yet to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether motor sequencing of hand vs. speech actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable "po" once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables ("po-pi-po"). Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca's region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45). In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of) speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a previously underspecified role of the SPL in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the motor system.

  7. The Role of Human Parietal Area 7A as a Link between Sequencing in Hand Actions and in Overt Speech Production

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Stefan; Amunts, Katrin; Hensel, Tanja; Grande, Marion; Huber, Walter; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Eickhoff, Simon B.

    2012-01-01

    Research on the evolutionary basis of the human language faculty has proposed the mirror neuron system as a link between motor processing and speech development. Consequently, most work has focused on the left inferior frontal cortex, in particular Broca’s region, and the left inferior parietal cortex. However, the direct link between planning of hand motor and speech actions has yet to be elucidated. Thus, the present study investigated whether motor sequencing of hand vs. speech actions has a common neural denominator. For the hand motor task, 25 subjects performed single, repeated, or sequenced button presses with either the left or right hand. The speech task was in analogy; the same subjects produced the syllable “po” once or repeatedly, or a sequence of different syllables (“po-pi-po”). Speech motor vs. hand motor effectors resulted in increased perisylvian activation including Broca’s region (left area 44 and areas medially adjacent to left area 45). In contrast, common activation for sequenced vs. repeated production of button presses and syllables revealed the effector-independent involvement of left area 7A in the superior parietal lobule (SPL) in sequencing. These data demonstrate that sequencing of vocal gestures, an important precondition for ordered utterances and ultimately human speech, shares area 7A, rather than inferior parietal regions, as a common cortical module with hand motor sequencing. Interestingly, area 7A has previously also been shown to be involved in the observation of hand and non-hand actions. In combination with the literature, the present data thus suggest a distinction between area 44, which is specifically recruited for (cognitive aspects of) speech, and SPL area 7A for general aspects of motor sequencing. In sum, the study demonstrates a previously underspecified role of the SPL in the origins of speech, and may be discussed in the light of embodiment of speech and language in the motor system. PMID:23227016

  8. Mathematical modeling of the circulation in the liver lobule.

    PubMed

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Leungchavaphongse, Kritsada; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, we develop a mathematical model of blood circulation in the liver lobule. We aim to find the pressure and flux distributions within a liver lobule. We also investigate the effects of changes in pressure that occur following a resection of part of the liver, which often leads to high pressure in the portal vein. The liver can be divided into functional units called lobules. Each lobule has a hexagonal cross-section, and we assume that its longitudinal extent is large compared with its width. We consider an infinite lattice of identical lobules and study the two-dimensional flow in the hexagonal cross-sections. We model the sinusoidal space as a porous medium, with blood entering from the portal tracts (located at each of the vertices of the cross-section of the lobule) and exiting via the centrilobular vein (located in the center of the cross-section). We first develop and solve an idealized mathematical model, treating the porous medium as rigid and isotropic and blood as a Newtonian fluid. The pressure drop across the lobule and the flux of blood through the lobule are proportional to one another. In spite of its simplicity, the model gives insight into the real pressure and velocity distribution in the lobule. We then consider three modifications of the model that are designed to make it more realistic. In the first modification, we account for the fact that the sinusoids tend to be preferentially aligned in the direction of the centrilobular vein by considering an anisotropic porous medium. In the second, we account more accurately for the true behavior of the blood by using a shear-thinning model. We show that both these modifications have a small quantitative effect on the behavior but no qualitative effect. The motivation for the final modification is to understand what happens either after a partial resection of the liver or after an implantation of a liver of small size. In these cases, the pressure is observed to rise significantly, which

  9. Inferior frontal gyrus links visual and motor cortices during a visuomotor precision grip force task.

    PubMed

    Papadelis, Christos; Arfeller, Carola; Erla, Silvia; Nollo, Giandomenico; Cattaneo, Luigi; Braun, Christoph

    2016-11-01

    Coordination between vision and action relies on a fronto-parietal network that receives visual and proprioceptive sensory input in order to compute motor control signals. Here, we investigated with magnetoencephalography (MEG) which cortical areas are functionally coupled on the basis of synchronization during visuomotor integration. MEG signals were recorded from twelve healthy adults while performing a unimanual visuomotor (VM) task and control conditions. The VM task required the integration of pinch motor commands with visual sensory feedback. By using a beamformer, we localized the neural activity in the frequency range of 1-30Hz during the VM compared to rest. Virtual sensors were estimated at the active locations. A multivariate autoregressive model was used to estimate the power and coherence of estimated activity at the virtual sensors. Event-related desynchronisation (ERD) during VM was observed in early visual areas, the rostral part of the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right IFG, the superior parietal lobules, and the left hand motor cortex (M1). Functional coupling in the alpha frequency band bridged the regional activities observed in motor and visual cortices (the start and the end points in the visuomotor loop) through the left or right IFG. Coherence between the left IFG and left M1 correlated inversely with the task performance. Our results indicate that an occipital-prefrontal-motor functional network facilitates the modulation of instructed motor responses to visual cues. This network may supplement the mechanism for guiding actions that is fully incorporated into the dorsal visual stream.

  10. Morphology and digitally aided morphometry of the human paracentral lobule.

    PubMed

    Spasojević, Goran; Malobabic, Slobodan; Pilipović-Spasojević, Olivera; Djukić-Macut, Nataša; Maliković, Aleksandar

    2013-02-01

    The human paracentral lobule, the junction of the precentral and postcentral gyri at the medial hemispheric surface, contains several important functional regions, and its variable morphology requires exact morphological and quantitativedata. In order to obtain precise data we investigated the morphology of the paracentral lobule and quantified its visible (extrasulcal) surface. This surface corresponds to commonly used magnetic resonance imaging scout images. We studied 84 hemispheres of adult persons (42 brains; 26 males and 16 females; 20-65 years) fixed in neutral formalin for at least 4 weeks. The medial hemispheric surface was photographed at standard distance and each digital photo was calibrated. Using the intercommissural line system (commissura anterior-commissura posterior or CA-CP line), we performed standardised measurements of the paracentral lobule. Exact determination of its boundaries and morphological types was followed by digital morphometry of its extrasulcal surface using AutoCAD software. We found two distinct morphological types of the human paracentral lobule: continuous type, which was predominant (95.2%), and rare segmented type (4.8%). In hemispheres with segmented cingulate sulcus we also found the short transitional lobulo-limbic gyrus (13.1%). The mean extrasulcal surface of the left paracentral lobule was significantly larger, both in males (left 6.79 cm2 vs. right 5.76 cm2) and in females (left 6.05 cm2 vs. right 5.16 cm2). However, even larger average surfaces in males were not significantly different than the same in females. Reported morphological and quantitative data will be useful during diagnostics and treatment of pathologies affecting the human paracentral lobule, and in further studies of its cytoarchitectonic and functional parcellations.

  11. The ‘when’ pathway of the right parietal lobe

    PubMed Central

    Battelli, Lorella; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Cavanagh, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The order of events, whether two events are seen as simultaneous or successive, sets the stage for the moment-to-moment interpretation of the visual world. Evidence from patients who have lesions to the parietal lobes and transcranial magnetic stimulation studies in normal subjects suggest that the right inferior parietal lobe underlies this analysis of event timing. Judgment of temporal order, simultaneity and high-level motion are all compromised following right parietal lesions and degraded after transcranial magnetic stimulation over the right parietal but not elsewhere. The results suggest that the right parietal lobe serves as part of a when pathway for both visual fields. We propose that the disruption of this mechanism is the underlying cause of a wide range of seemingly unrelated tasks being impaired in right parietal patients. PMID:17379569

  12. Prefrontal-parietal effective connectivity during working memory in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heinzel, Stephan; Lorenz, Robert C; Duong, Quynh-Lam; Rapp, Michael A; Deserno, Lorenz

    2017-09-01

    Theoretical models and preceding studies have described age-related alterations in neuronal activation of frontoparietal regions in a working memory (WM) load-dependent manner. However, to date, underlying neuronal mechanisms of these WM load-dependent activation changes in aging remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate these mechanisms in terms of effective connectivity by application of dynamic causal modeling with Bayesian Model Selection. Eighteen healthy younger (age: 20-32 years) and 32 older (60-75 years) participants performed an n-back task with 3 WM load levels during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Behavioral and conventional fMRI results replicated age group by WM load interactions. Importantly, the analysis of effective connectivity derived from dynamic causal modeling, indicated an age- and performance-related reduction in WM load-dependent modulation of connectivity from dorsolateral prefrontal cortex to inferior parietal lobule. This finding provides evidence for the proposal that age-related WM decline manifests as deficient WM load-dependent modulation of neuronal top-down control and can integrate implications from theoretical models and previous studies of functional changes in the aging brain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial relations and spatial locations are dissociated within prefrontal and parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Christopher M.

    2012-01-01

    Item-specific spatial information is essential for interacting with objects and for binding multiple features of an object together. Spatial relational information is necessary for implicit tasks such as recognizing objects or scenes from different views but also for explicit reasoning about space such as planning a route with a map and for other distinctively human traits such as tool construction. To better understand how the brain supports these two different kinds of information, we used functional MRI to directly contrast the neural encoding and maintenance of spatial relations with that for item locations in equivalent visual scenes. We found a double dissociation between the two: whereas item-specific processing implicates a frontoparietal attention network, including the superior frontal sulcus and intraparietal sulcus, relational processing preferentially recruits a cognitive control network, particularly lateral prefrontal cortex (PFC) and inferior parietal lobule. Moreover, pattern classification revealed that the actual meaning of the relation can be decoded within these same regions, most clearly in rostrolateral PFC, supporting a hierarchical, representational account of prefrontal organization. PMID:22896722

  14. Temporal order processing of syllables in the left parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Moser, Dana; Baker, Julie M; Sanchez, Carmen E; Rorden, Chris; Fridriksson, Julius

    2009-10-07

    Speech processing requires the temporal parsing of syllable order. Individuals suffering from posterior left hemisphere brain injury often exhibit temporal processing deficits as well as language deficits. Although the right posterior inferior parietal lobe has been implicated in temporal order judgments (TOJs) of visual information, there is limited evidence to support the role of the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in processing syllable order. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the left inferior parietal lobe is recruited during temporal order judgments of speech stimuli. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were collected on 14 normal participants while they completed the following forced-choice tasks: (1) syllable order of multisyllabic pseudowords, (2) syllable identification of single syllables, and (3) gender identification of both multisyllabic and monosyllabic speech stimuli. Results revealed increased neural recruitment in the left inferior parietal lobe when participants made judgments about syllable order compared with both syllable identification and gender identification. These findings suggest that the left inferior parietal lobe plays an important role in processing syllable order and support the hypothesized role of this region as an interface between auditory speech and the articulatory code. Furthermore, a breakdown in this interface may explain some components of the speech deficits observed after posterior damage to the left hemisphere.

  15. The contribution of fronto-parietal regions to sentence comprehension: insights from the Moses illusion.

    PubMed

    Raposo, Ana; Marques, J Frederico

    2013-12-01

    To interpret a sentence, the reader must not only process the linguistic input, but many times has also to draw inferences about what is implicitly stated. In some cases, the generation and integration of inferred information may lead to semantic illusions. In these sentences, subjects fail to detect errors such as in "It was two animals of each kind that Moses took on the ark" despite knowing that the correct answer is Noah, not Moses. The relative inability to notice these errors raises questions about how people establish and integrate inferences and which conditions improve error detection. To unravel the neural processes underlying inference and error detection in language comprehension, we carried out an fMRI study in which participants read sentences containing true or false statements. The false statements either took the form of more obvious (i.e., clearly false) or subtle (i.e., semantic illusions) inconsistent relations. Participants had to decide if each statement was true or false. Processing semantic illusions relative to true and clearly false sentences significantly engaged the right inferior parietal lobule, suggesting higher demands in establishing coherence. Successful versus unsuccessful error detection revealed a network of regions, including right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, orbitofrontal, insula/putamen and anterior cingulate cortex. Such activation was significantly correlated with overall response accuracy to the illusions. These results suggest that to detect the semantic conflict, people must inhibit the tendency to draw pragmatic inferences. These findings demonstrate that fronto-parietal areas are involved in inference and inhibition processes necessary for establishing semantic coherence. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resting-State Functional Connectivity between Fronto-Parietal and Default Mode Networks in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Stern, Emily R.; Fitzgerald, Kate D.; Welsh, Robert C.; Abelson, James L.; Taylor, Stephan F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by an excessive focus on upsetting or disturbing thoughts, feelings, and images that are internally-generated. Internally-focused thought processes are subserved by the “default mode network" (DMN), which has been found to be hyperactive in OCD during cognitive tasks. In healthy individuals, disengagement from internally-focused thought processes may rely on interactions between DMN and a fronto-parietal network (FPN) associated with external attention and task execution. Altered connectivity between FPN and DMN may contribute to the dysfunctional behavior and brain activity found in OCD. Methods The current study examined interactions between FPN and DMN during rest in 30 patients with OCD (17 unmedicated) and 32 control subjects (17 unmedicated). Timecourses from seven fronto-parietal seeds were correlated across the whole brain and compared between groups. Results OCD patients exhibited altered connectivity between FPN seeds (primarily anterior insula) and several regions of DMN including posterior cingulate cortex, medial frontal cortex, posterior inferior parietal lobule, and parahippocampus. These differences were driven largely by a reduction of negative correlations among patients compared to controls. Patients also showed greater positive connectivity between FPN and regions outside DMN, including thalamus, lateral frontal cortex, and somatosensory/motor regions. Conclusions OCD is associated with abnormal intrinsic functional connectivity between large-scale brain networks. Alteration of interactions between FPN and DMN at rest may contribute to aspects of the OCD phenotype, such as patients' inability to disengage from internally-generated scenarios and thoughts when performing everyday tasks requiring external attention. PMID:22570705

  17. Mechanisms of spatial attention control in frontal and parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Szczepanski, Sara M.; Konen, Christina S.; Kastner, Sabine

    2010-01-01

    Theories of spatial attentional control have been largely based upon studies of patients suffering from visuo-spatial neglect, resulting from circumscribed lesions of frontal and posterior parietal cortex. In the intact brain, the control of spatial attention has been related to a distributed fronto-parietal attention network. Little is known about the nature of the control mechanisms exerted by this network. Here, we used a novel region-of-interest approach to relate activations of the attention network to recently described topographic areas in frontal (FEF, PreCC/IFS) and parietal cortex (IPS1-IPS5, SPL1) and to examine their spatial attention signals. We found that attention signals in most topographic areas were spatially-specific, with stronger responses when attention was directed to the contralateral than to the ipsilateral visual field. Importantly, two hemispheric asymmetries were found. First, a region in only right, but not left superior parietal lobule (SPL1) carried spatial attention signals. Second, left FEF and left posterior parietal cortex (IPS1/2) generated stronger contralateral biasing signals than their counterparts in the right hemisphere. These findings are the first to characterize spatial attention signals in topographic frontal and parietal cortex and provide a neural basis in support of an interhemispheric competition account of spatial attentional control. PMID:20053897

  18. Early aphasia rehabilitation is associated with functional reactivation of the left inferior frontal gyrus: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Mattioli, Flavia; Ambrosi, Claudia; Mascaro, Lorella; Scarpazza, Cristina; Pasquali, Patrizia; Frugoni, Marina; Magoni, Mauro; Biagi, Laura; Gasparotti, Roberto

    2014-02-01

    Early poststroke aphasia rehabilitation effects and their functional MRI (fMRI) correlates were investigated in a pilot, controlled longitudinal study. Twelve patients with mild/moderate aphasia (8 Broca, 3 anomic, and 1 Wernicke) were randomly assigned to daily language rehabilitation for 2 weeks (starting 2.2 [mean] days poststroke) or no rehabilitation. The Aachen Aphasia Test and fMRI recorded during an auditory comprehension task were performed at 3 time intervals: mean 2.2 (T1), 16.2 (T2), and 190 (T3) days poststroke. Groups did not differ in terms of age, education, aphasia severity, lesions volume, baseline fMRI activations, and in task performance during fMRI across examinations. Rehabilitated patients significantly improved in naming and written language tasks (P<0.05) compared with no rehabilitation group both at T2 and T3. Functional activity at T1 was reduced in language-related cortical areas (right and left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule and superior temporal gyrus) in patients compared with controls. T2 and T3 follow-ups revealed a cortical activation increase, with significantly greater activation in the left hemisphere areas in rehabilitated patients at T2 and T3, and a time×treatment effect at T2 in the left inferior Broca area after rehabilitation. Left inferior frontal gyrus activation at T2 significantly correlated with naming improvement. Early poststroke aphasia treatment is useful, has durable effects, and may lead to early enhanced recruitment of brain areas, particularly the left inferior frontal gyrus, which persists in the chronic phase.

  19. Mathematically gifted adolescents use more extensive and more bilateral areas of the fronto-parietal network than controls during executive functioning and fluid reasoning tasks.

    PubMed

    Desco, Manuel; Navas-Sanchez, Francisco J; Sanchez-González, Javier; Reig, Santiago; Robles, Olalla; Franco, Carolina; Guzmán-De-Villoria, Juan A; García-Barreno, Pedro; Arango, Celso

    2011-07-01

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the neural substrates of fluid reasoning and visuospatial working memory in adolescents with precocious mathematical ability. The study population comprised two groups of adolescents: 13 math-gifted adolescents and 14 controls with average mathematical skills. Patterns of activation specific to reasoning tasks in math-gifted subjects were examined using functional magnetic resonance images acquired while the subjects were performing Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices (RAPM) and the Tower of London (TOL) tasks. During the tasks, both groups showed significant activations in the frontoparietal network. In the math-gifted group, clusters of activation were always bilateral and more regions were recruited, especially in the right hemisphere. In the TOL task, math-gifted adolescents showed significant hyper-activations relative to controls in the precuneus, superior occipital lobe (BA 19), and medial temporal lobe (BA 39). The maximum differences between the groups were detected during RAPM tasks at the highest level of difficulty, where math-gifted subjects showed significant activations relative to controls in the right inferior parietal lobule (BA 40), anterior cingulated gyrus (BA 32), and frontal (BA 9, and BA 6) areas. Our results support the hypothesis that greater ability for complex mathematical reasoning may be related to more bilateral patterns of activation and that increased activation in the parietal and frontal regions of math-gifted adolescents is associated with enhanced skills in visuospatial processing and logical reasoning.

  20. Parietal cell vagotomy.

    PubMed

    Cumberland, V H; Coupland, G A

    1975-07-12

    In a series of 100 consecutive patients who had parietal cell vagotomy performed, no drainage procedure was performed in 56 while 44 were drained. Dumping was significantly less in those who were not drained. All patients were tested for adequacy of vagotomy and for function of the nerve of Latarget at operation. Four patients have had further operations, two for proven recurrent ulcers. Parietal cell vagotomy has given excellent clinical results in this group of patients.

  1. Representation of numerosity in posterior parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Roitman, Jamie D.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Platt, Michael L.

    2012-01-01

    Humans and animals appear to share a similar representation of number as an analog magnitude on an internal, subjective scale. Neurological and neurophysiological data suggest that posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is a critical component of the circuits that form the basis of numerical abilities in humans. Patients with parietal lesions are impaired in their ability to access the deep meaning of numbers. Acalculiac patients with inferior parietal damage often have difficulty performing arithmetic (2 + 4?) or number bisection (what is between 3 and 5?) tasks, but are able to recite multiplication tables and read or write numerals. Functional imaging studies of neurologically intact humans performing subtraction, number comparison, and non-verbal magnitude comparison tasks show activity in areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). Taken together, clinical cases and imaging studies support a critical role for parietal cortex in the mental manipulation of numerical quantities. Further, responses of single PPC neurons in non-human primates are sensitive to the numerosity of visual stimuli independent of low-level stimulus qualities. When monkeys are trained to make explicit judgments about the numerical value of such stimuli, PPC neurons encode their cardinal numerical value; without such training PPC neurons appear to encode numerical magnitude in an analog fashion. Here we suggest that the spatial and integrative properties of PPC neurons contribute to their critical role in numerical cognition. PMID:22666194

  2. Pure agnosia for mirror stimuli after right inferior parietal lesion.

    PubMed

    Priftis, Konstantinos; Rusconi, Elena; Umiltà, Carlo; Zorzi, Marco

    2003-04-01

    This study reports the experimental investigation of G.R., a patient suffering from a highly specific disorder in discriminating mirror stimuli following a right temporoparietal cerebrovascular accident. G.R. showed intact perceptual, attentional, mnestic, linguistic and executive abilities. Object recognition was accurate even under unusual viewing conditions. He was highly accurate in defining the canonical orientation of common objects and in discriminating misoriented objects among identical distracters. However, he was severely impaired in tasks requiring mirror-stimulus discrimination, a deficit that persisted even when the object's coordinates were systematically misaligned with respect to his body. The disorder was also dependent upon the frame of reference (allocentric versus egocentric) activated on the basis of task demands. These results demonstrate the existence of a highly specific disorder in discriminating mirror stimuli defined in object-based coordinates, suggesting a failure in processing the directionality of an object's intrinsic x-axis.

  3. The role of parietal cortex during sustained visual spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Thakral, Preston P; Slotnick, Scott D

    2009-12-11

    The control of spatial attention-shifting attention between visual field locations or sustaining attention to one location-involves the prefrontal cortex and parietal cortex. Within the parietal cortex, shifting attention has been linked to the superior parietal lobule; however, the neural substrates associated with sustained attention are still unknown. In the present fMRI study, we aimed to identify generalized control regions associated with sustained attention using two different protocols. The motion protocol alternated between periods of moving or stationary dots, and the flicker protocol alternated between periods of flickering or stationary checkerboards (each period lasted 14 s). During moving and flickering periods, the behavioral task alternated between sustained attention and perception. A region-of-interest analysis confirmed that the motion but not flicker protocol produced attention effects-greater activity associated with sustained attention than perception-in motion processing region MT+. A whole brain conjunction analysis identified regions commonly associated with sustained attention for both protocols, which included the right intraparietal sulcus (BA 7/40), the right middle frontal gyrus (BA 9/46), the right superior temporal gyrus (BA 22), the right insula (BA 13), and the left cerebellum. Coupled with previous results, the present findings suggest a functional-anatomic organization of parietal cortex where shifts in attention are mediated by superior regions and sustained attention is mediated by more lateral regions.

  4. Functional connectivity indicates differential roles for the intraparietal sulcus and the superior parietal lobule in multiple object tracking.

    PubMed

    Alnæs, Dag; Sneve, Markus H; Richard, Geneviève; Skåtun, Kristina C; Kaufmann, Tobias; Nordvik, Jan Egil; Andreassen, Ole A; Endestad, Tor; Laeng, Bruno; Westlye, Lars T

    2015-12-01

    Attentive tracking requires sustained object-based attention, rather than passive vigilance or rapid attentional shifts to brief events. Several theories of tracking suggest a mechanism of indexing objects that allows for attentional resources to be directed toward the moving targets. Imaging studies have shown that cortical areas belonging to the dorsal frontoparietal attention network increase BOLD-signal during multiple object tracking (MOT). Among these areas, some studies have assigned IPS a particular role in object indexing, but the neuroimaging evidence has been sparse. In the present study, we tested participants on a continuous version of the MOT task in order to investigate how cortical areas engage in functional networks during attentional tracking. Specifically, we analyzed the data using eigenvector centrality mapping (ECM) analysis, which provides estimates of individual voxels' connectedness with hub-like parts of the functional network. The results obtained using permutation based voxel-wise statistics support the proposed role for the IPS in object indexing as this region displayed increased centrality during tracking as well as increased functional connectivity with both prefrontal and visual perceptual cortices. In contrast, the opposite pattern was observed for the SPL, with decreasing centrality, as well as reduced functional connectivity with the visual and frontal cortices, in agreement with a hypothesized role for SPL in attentional shifts. These findings provide novel evidence that IPS and SPL serve different functional roles during MOT, while at the same time being highly engaged during tracking as measured by BOLD-signal changes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Superior Parietal Lobule Dysfunction in a Homogeneous Group of Dyslexic Children with a Visual Attention Span Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyrin, C.; Demonet, J. F.; N'Guyen-Morel, M. A.; Le Bas, J. F.; Valdois, S.

    2011-01-01

    A visual attention (VA) span disorder has been reported in dyslexic children as potentially responsible for their poor reading outcome. The purpose of the current paper was to identify the cerebral correlates of this VA span disorder. For this purpose, 12 French dyslexic children with severe reading and VA span disorders and 12 age-matched control…

  6. Cerebellar lobule atrophy and disability in progressive MS.

    PubMed

    Cocozza, Sirio; Petracca, Maria; Mormina, Enricomaria; Buyukturkoglu, Korhan; Podranski, Kornelius; Heinig, Monika M; Pontillo, Giuseppe; Russo, Camilla; Tedeschi, Enrico; Russo, Cinzia Valeria; Costabile, Teresa; Lanzillo, Roberta; Harel, Asaff; Klineova, Sylvia; Miller, Aaron; Brunetti, Arturo; Morra, Vincenzo Brescia; Lublin, Fred; Inglese, Matilde

    2017-08-26

    To investigate global and lobular cerebellar volumetries in patients with progressive multiple sclerosis (MS), testing the contribution of cerebellar lobular atrophy to both motor and cognitive performances. Eighty-two patients with progressive MS and 46 healthy controls (HC) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. Clinical evaluation included motor and cognitive testing: Expanded Disability Status Scale, cerebellar Functional System score, Timed 25-Foot Walk Test, 9-Hole Peg Test (9-HPT), Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT), Brief Visuospatial Memory Test-Revised (BVMT) and California Verbal Learning Test II (CVLT). Cerebellar volumes were automatically obtained using the Spatially Unbiased Infratentorial Toolbox. A hierarchical multiple linear regression analysis was performed to assess the relationship between MRI variables of supratentorial and cerebellar damage (grey matter fraction, T2 lesion volume, metrics of cerebellar atrophy and cerebellar lesion volume) and motor/cognitive scores. Patients with MS exhibited lower cerebellar volumes compared with HC. Regression analysis showed that cerebellar metrics accounted for extra variance in both motor and cognitive performances, with cerebellar lesion volume, cerebellar Lobules VI, Crus I and VIIIa atrophy being independent predictors of 9-HPT, SDMT, BVMT and CVLT performances. Atrophy of specific cerebellar lobules explains different aspects of motor and cognitive disability in patients with progressive MS. Investigation of cerebellar involvement provides further insight into the pathophysiological basis of clinical disability in progressive MS. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  7. Ear Lobule Rejuvenation in Face-Lifting: The Role of Fat Augmentation

    PubMed Central

    Hammoudeh, Ziyad S.; Small, Kevin; Unger, Jacob G.; Stark, Ran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Ear lobule ptosis and deflation are characteristics of facial aging. A rhytidectomy without rejuvenation of a deflated ear lobule may fail to address all aspects of facial aging. Fillers have been used to treat ear lobule deflation; however, autologous fat transfer has never been utilized for ear lobule rejuvenation. This investigation studies the success of autologous fat transfer to the ear lobule as part of volume augmentation rhytidectomy. Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent rhytidectomy between 2000 and 2014 by a single surgeon was performed. Patients between 2000 and 2004 who did not receive autologous fat transfer served as controls (group A). Patients between 2010 and 2014 who received autologous fat transfer to the ear lobule formed the treatment group (group B). Three independent observers reviewed preoperative and postoperative photographs for both groups at 1 year postoperatively. The following ear lobule volume grading scale was applied to numerically assess the patients: concave = 0, flat = 1, convex = 2, and round = 3. Results: Groups A and B each consisted of 65 consecutive patients (130 ears). In group A, the mean preoperative ear lobule grading score was 1.20, and the mean postoperative score was 1.22 (mean difference, 0.02; P = 0.42). In group B, the mean preoperative ear lobule grading score was 0.98, and the mean postoperative score was 2.00 (mean difference, 1.02; P < 0.0001). Conclusion: In patients receiving autologous fat transfer to the ear lobule during rhytidectomy, there was a significant change from a deflated ear lobule preoperatively to a more voluminous lobule at 1 year postoperatively. PMID:27104096

  8. Impaired perception of mnemonic oldness, but not mnemonic newness, after parietal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Hower, Kylie H; Wixted, John; Berryhill, Marian E; Olson, Ingrid R

    2014-04-01

    In studies of episodic memory retrieval, recognition paradigms are known to elicit robust activations in the inferior parietal lobe. However, damage to this region does not produce severe deficits in episodic memory performance as indexed by typical accuracy measures. Rather, because problems with memory confidence are frequently reported, the observed deficits may be best described as "metamemory" or subjective memory deficits. Here, we further investigated the inferior parietal lobe's role in recognition memory as well as metamemory. We tested the hypothesis that the inferior parietal lobe gauges the perceived oldness of items, given several neuroimaging findings suggesting that a portion of the left inferior parietal lobe is sensitive to perceived oldness. We tested two patients with bilateral parietal lobe lesions and matched controls on an old/new recognition task. From these data we constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by fitting the data with the unequal-variance signal-detection (UVSD) model. The results revealed no memory impairment in terms of patients' accuracy. However, patients exhibited lower hit rates and false alarms rates at high confidence levels. Further, patients and controls differed in how they set decision criteria for making recognition responses. Patients' decision criteria for "old" responses were shifted in a conservative fashion such that they were unwilling to endorse recognized target items with high levels of confidence. These findings provide constraints on models of inferior parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Impaired Perception of Mnemonic Oldness, but not Mnemonic Newness, After Parietal Lobe Damage

    PubMed Central

    Hower, Kylie H.; Wixted, John; Berryhill, Marian E.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2014-01-01

    In studies of episodic memory retrieval, recognition paradigms are known to elicit robust activations in the inferior parietal lobe. However, damage to this region does not produce severe deficits in episodic memory performance as indexed by typical accuracy measures. Rather, because problems with memory confidence are frequently reported, the observed deficits may be best described as “metamemory” or subjective memory deficits. Here, we further investigated the inferior parietal lobe's role in recognition memory as well as metamemory. We tested the hypothesis that the inferior parietal lobe gauges the perceived oldness of items, given several neuroimaging findings suggesting that a portion of the left inferior parietal lobe is sensitive to perceived oldness. We tested two patients with bilateral parietal lobe lesions and matched controls on an old/new recognition task. From these data we constructed receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves by fitting the data with the unequal-variance signal-detection (UVSD) model. The results revealed no memory impairment in terms of patients' accuracy. However, patients exhibited lower hit rates and false alarms rates at high confidence levels. Further, patients and controls differed in how they set decision criteria for making recognition responses. Patients' decision criteria for “old” responses were shifted in a conservative fashion such that they were unwilling to endorse recognized target items with high levels of confidence. These findings provide constraints on models of inferior parietal lobe contributions to episodic memory retrieval. PMID:24565734

  10. Parietal cortex and representation of the mental Self

    PubMed Central

    Lou, Hans C.; Luber, Bruce; Crupain, Michael; Keenan, Julian P.; Nowak, Markus; Kjaer, Troels W.; Sackeim, Harold A.; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2004-01-01

    For a coherent and meaningful life, conscious self-representation is mandatory. Such explicit “autonoetic consciousness” is thought to emerge by retrieval of memory of personally experienced events (“episodic memory”). During episodic retrieval, functional imaging studies consistently show differential activity in medial prefrontal and medial parietal cortices. With positron-emission tomography, we here show that these medial regions are functionally connected and interact with lateral regions that are activated according to the degree of self-reference. During retrieval of previous judgments of Oneself, Best Friend, and the Danish Queen, activation increased in the left lateral temporal cortex and decreased in the right inferior parietal region with decreasing self-reference. Functionally, the former region was preferentially connected to medial prefrontal cortex, the latter to medial parietal. The medial parietal region may, then, be conceived of as a nodal structure in self-representation, functionally connected to both the right parietal and the medial prefrontal cortices. To determine whether medial parietal cortex in this network is essential for episodic memory retrieval with self-representation, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation over the region to transiently disturb neuronal circuitry. There was a decrease in the efficiency of retrieval of previous judgment of mental Self compared with retrieval of judgment of Other with transcranial magnetic stimulation at a latency of 160 ms, confirming the hypothesis. This network is strikingly similar to the network of the resting conscious state, suggesting that self-monitoring is a core function in resting consciousness. PMID:15096584

  11. Parietal lobe epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Salanova, Vicenta

    2012-10-01

    Patients with parietal lobe epilepsy (PLE) exhibit an electroclinical epilepsy syndrome that is rarely seen even at large epilepsy centers. Clinically, most patients with PLE exhibit a somatosensory aura that may include painful dysesthesias, though vertigo, aphasia, disturbances of one's body image also occur, when ictal propagation occurs from the parietal lobe to the supplementary motor area, hypermotor manifestations are noted. When temporolimbic propagation occurs, complex visual or auditory hallucinations and automatisms may appear. Scalp electroencephalogram (EEG) is often nonlocalizing. Ictal EEG is rarely localizing in PLE, and invasive EEG is often required for definitive localization and functional mapping. Recent advances in clinical neurophysiology during the evaluation of patients with refractory partial epilepsy include Ictal magnetic source imaging (MSI). Combined EEG and functional magnetic resonance imaging (EEG-fMRI) may be useful for patients with PLE to refine the localization in patients undergoing a presurgical evaluation. High-frequency oscillations (HFOs) are more concentrated inside the seizure onset zone (SOZ), indicating that they may be used as interictal scalp EEG biomarker for the SOZ. When medical therapy fails, resective epilepsy surgery can result in seizure freedom or significant reduction especially when a lesion is present.

  12. Decoding Movement Goals from the Fronto-Parietal Reach Network

    PubMed Central

    Gertz, Hanna; Lingnau, Angelika; Fiehler, Katja

    2017-01-01

    During reach planning, fronto-parietal brain areas need to transform sensory information into a motor code. It is debated whether these areas maintain a sensory representation of the visual cue or a motor representation of the upcoming movement goal. Here, we present results from a delayed pro-/anti-reach task which allowed for dissociating the position of the visual cue from the reach goal. In this task, the visual cue was combined with a context rule (pro vs. anti) to infer the movement goal. Different levels of movement goal specification during the delay were obtained by presenting the context rule either before the delay together with the visual cue (specified movement goal) or after the delay (underspecified movement goal). By applying functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) multivoxel pattern analysis (MVPA), we demonstrate movement goal encoding in the left dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) and bilateral superior parietal lobule (SPL) when the reach goal is specified. This suggests that fronto-parietal reach regions (PRRs) maintain a prospective motor code during reach planning. When the reach goal is underspecified, only area PMd but not SPL represents the visual cue position indicating an incomplete state of sensorimotor integration. Moreover, this result suggests a potential role of PMd in movement goal selection. PMID:28286476

  13. Impaired speech repetition and left parietal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Fridriksson, Julius; Kjartansson, Olafur; Morgan, Paul S; Hjaltason, Haukur; Magnusdottir, Sigridur; Bonilha, Leonardo; Rorden, Christopher

    2010-08-18

    Patients with left hemisphere damage and concomitant aphasia usually have difficulty repeating others' speech. Although impaired speech repetition, the primary symptom of conduction aphasia, has been associated with involvement of the left arcuate fasciculus, its specific lesion correlate remains elusive. This research examined speech repetition among 45 stroke patients who underwent aphasia testing and MRI examination. Based on lesion-behavior mapping, the primary structural damage most closely associated with impaired speech repetition was found in the posterior portion of the left arcuate fasciculus. However, perfusion-weighted MRI revealed that tissue dysfunction, in the form of either frank damage or hypoperfusion, to the left inferior parietal lobe, rather than the underlying white matter, was associated with impaired speech repetition. This latter result suggests that integrity of the left inferior parietal lobe is important for speech repetition and, as importantly, highlights the importance of examining cerebral perfusion for the purpose of lesion-behavior mapping in acute stroke.

  14. Apraxia and the Parietal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The widely held belief in a central role of left parietal lesions for apraxia can be traced back to Liepmann's model of a posterior to anterior stream converting mental images of intended action into motor execution. Although this model has undergone significant changes, its modern descendants still attribute the parietal contribution to the…

  15. Apraxia and the Parietal Lobes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2009-01-01

    The widely held belief in a central role of left parietal lesions for apraxia can be traced back to Liepmann's model of a posterior to anterior stream converting mental images of intended action into motor execution. Although this model has undergone significant changes, its modern descendants still attribute the parietal contribution to the…

  16. Flow dynamics analyses of pathophysiological liver lobules using porous media theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jinrong; Lü, Shouqin; Feng, Shiliang; Long, Mian

    2017-08-01

    Blood flow inside the liver plays a key role in hepatic functions, and abnormal hemodynamics are highly correlated with liver diseases. To date, the flow field in an elementary building block of the organ, the liver lobule, is difficult to determine experimentally in humans due to its complicated structure, with radially branched microvasculature and the technical difficulties that derive from its geometric constraints. Here we established a set of 3D computational models for a liver lobule using porous media theory and analyzed its flow dynamics in normal, fibrotic, and cirrhotic lobules. Our simulations indicated that those approximations of ordinary flow in portal tracts (PTs) and the central vein, and of porous media flow in the sinusoidal network, were reasonable only for normal or fibrotic lobules. Models modified with high resistance in PTs and collateral vessels inside sinusoids were able to describe the flow features in cirrhotic lobules. Pressures, average velocities, and volume flow rates were profiled and the predictions compared well with experimental data. This study furthered our understanding of the flow dynamics features of liver lobules and the differences among normal, fibrotic, and cirrhotic lobules.

  17. Prolonged rock climbing activity induces structural changes in cerebellum and parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Margherita; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2013-10-01

    This article analyzes whether climbing, a motor activity featured by upward movements by using both feet and hands, generation of new strategies of motor control, maintenance of not stable equilibrium and adoption of long-lasting quadrupedal posture, is able to modify specific brain areas. MRI data of 10 word-class mountain climbers (MC) and 10 age-matched controls, with no climbing experience were acquired. Combining region-of-interest analyses and voxel-based morphometry we investigated cerebellar volumes and correlation between cerebellum and whole cerebral gray matter. In comparison to controls, world-class MC showed significantly larger vermian lobules I-V volumes, with no significant difference in other cerebellar vermian lobules or hemispheres. The cerebellar enlargement was associated with an enlargement of right medial posterior parietal area. The specific features of the motor climbing skills perfectly fit with the plastic anatomical changes we found. The enlargement of the vermian lobules I-V seems to be related to highly dexterous hand movements and to eye-hand coordination in the detection of and correction of visuomotor errors. The concomitant enlargement of the parietal area is related to parallel work in predicting sensory consequences of action to make movement corrections. Motor control and sensory-motor prediction of actions make the difference between survive or not at extreme altitude.

  18. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception.

    PubMed

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-02-15

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions.

  19. Brain activity dynamics in human parietal regions during spontaneous switches in bistable perception

    PubMed Central

    Megumi, Fukuda; Bahrami, Bahador; Kanai, Ryota; Rees, Geraint

    2015-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying conscious visual perception have been extensively investigated using bistable perception paradigms. Previous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that the right anterior superior parietal (r-aSPL) and the right posterior superior parietal lobule (r-pSPL) have opposite roles in triggering perceptual reversals. It has been proposed that these two areas are part of a hierarchical network whose dynamics determine perceptual switches. However, how these two parietal regions interact with each other and with the rest of the brain during bistable perception is not known. Here, we investigated such a model by recording brain activity using fMRI while participants viewed a bistable structure-from-motion stimulus. Using dynamic causal modeling (DCM), we found that resolving such perceptual ambiguity was specifically associated with reciprocal interactions between these parietal regions and V5/MT. Strikingly, the strength of bottom-up coupling between V5/MT to r-pSPL and from r-pSPL to r-aSPL predicted individual mean dominance duration. Our findings are consistent with a hierarchical predictive coding model of parietal involvement in bistable perception and suggest that visual information processing underlying spontaneous perceptual switches can be described as changes in connectivity strength between parietal and visual cortical regions. PMID:25512040

  20. Models of breast morphogenesis based on localization of stem cells in the developing mammary lobule.

    PubMed

    Honeth, Gabriella; Schiavinotto, Tommaso; Vaggi, Federico; Marlow, Rebecca; Kanno, Tokuwa; Shinomiya, Ireneusz; Lombardi, Sara; Buchupalli, Bharath; Graham, Rosalind; Gazinska, Patrycja; Ramalingam, Vernie; Burchell, Joy; Purushotham, Anand D; Pinder, Sarah E; Csikasz-Nagy, Attila; Dontu, Gabriela

    2015-04-14

    Characterization of normal breast stem cells is important for understanding their role in breast development and in breast cancer. However, the identity of these cells is a subject of controversy and their localization in the breast epithelium is not known. In this study, we utilized a novel approach to analyze the morphogenesis of mammary lobules, by combining one-dimensional theoretical models and computer-generated 3D fractals. Comparing predictions of these models with immunohistochemical analysis of tissue sections for candidate stem cell markers, we defined distinct areas where stem cells reside in the mammary lobule. An increased representation of stem cells was found in smaller, less developed lobules compared to larger, more mature lobules, with marked differences in the gland of nulliparous versus parous women and that of BRCA1/2 mutation carriers versus non-carriers.

  1. Automated Segmentation of the Cerebellar Lobules using Boundary Specific Classification and Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Bogovic, John A.; Bazin, Pierre-Louis; Ying, Sarah H.; Prince, Jerry L.

    2014-01-01

    The cerebellum is instrumental in coordinating many vital functions ranging from speech and balance to eye movement. The effect of cerebellar pathology on these functions is frequently examined using volumetric studies that depend on consistent and accurate delineation, however, no existing automated methods adequately delineate the cerebellar lobules. In this work, we describe a method we call the Automatic Classification of Cerebellar Lobules Algorithm using Implicit Multi-boundary evolution (ACCLAIM). A multiple object geometric deformable model (MGDM) enables each boundary surface of each individual lobule to be evolved under different level set speeds. An important innovation described in this work is that the speed for each lobule boundary is derived from a classifier trained specifically to identify that boundary. We compared our method to segmentations obtained using the atlas-based and multi-atlas fusion techniques, and demonstrate ACCLAIM’s superior performance. PMID:24683958

  2. Prenatal assessment of cerebellar vermian lobulation: fetal MRI with 3 Tesla post-mortem correlation.

    PubMed

    Dovjak, Gregor O; Brugger, Peter C; Gruber, Gerlinde M; Song, Jae W; Weber, Michael; Langs, Georg; Bettelheim, Dieter; Prayer, Daniela; Kasprian, Gregor

    2017-08-06

    To optimize the imaging assessment of fetal hindbrain malformations, this observational MRI study aimed to provide quantitative biometric data in normal vermian development in human fetal brains in vivo. In this retrospective, review board approved study, 78 fetuses (18-32 gestational weeks (GW)) scanned prenatally at 1.5T, and seven fetuses (16-30GW), scanned within 24 hours post-mortem at 3T,were included. All fetal brains were segmented on a T2-weighted midline sagittal slice. The mean relative area contribution (MRAC, proportion of the lobule relative to total vermian area) of all discernable vermian lobules was determined. Inter- and intrarater variability of a representative selection (22 cases) was determined with the Intraclass correlation coefficient based on voxel based differences. Furthermore, a linear regression model was used to assess the correlation between vermian lobules and gestational age. After 22GW 7 of 9 vermian lobules could be reliably discriminated. MRAC showed a mean difference of 2.89 ± 3.01% between in vivo and post-mortem measurements. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of voxel based interrater differences was 0.91 ± 0.05 and intrarater ICC was 0.95 ± 0.03. Growth of cerebellar lobules was non-uniform - the MRAC of Culmen and DFT (Declive + Folium + Tuber) increased with gestational age, whereas Lingula, Centralis, Pyramis and Nodulus decreased. Vermian lobulation can be accurately and reliably assessed prenatally, on exact midsagittal T2-weighted sequences after 22GW. Fetal vermian lobules show non-uniform growth, with an expansion of DFT and Culmen at the expense of spinocerebellar structures. An evaluation of vermian lobulation could supply a better characterization of fetuses with hindbrain malformations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Role of the right inferior frontal gyrus in turn-based cooperation and competition: A near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Tao; Saito, Hirofumi; Oi, Misato

    2015-10-01

    Interpersonal interaction can be classified into two types: concurrent and turn-based interaction, requiring synchronized body-movement and complementary behaviors across persons, respectively. To examine the neural mechanism of turn-based interaction, we simultaneously measured paired participants activations in their bilateral inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the bilateral inferior parietal lobule (IPL) in a turn-taking game using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). Pairs of participants were assigned to either one of two roles (game builder and the partner) in the game. The builder's task was to make a copy of a target disk-pattern by placing disks on a monitor, while the partner's task was to aid the builder in his/her goal (cooperation condition) or to obstruct it (competition condition). The builder always took the initial move and the partner followed. The NIRS data demonstrated an interaction of role (builder vs. partner) by task-type (cooperation vs. competition) in the right IFG. The builder in the cooperation condition showed higher activation than the cooperator, but the same builder in the competition condition showed lower activation than in the cooperation condition. The activations in the competitor-builder pairs showed positive correlation between their right IFG, but the activations in the cooperator-builder pairs did not. These results suggest that the builder's activation in the right IFG is reduced/increased in the context of interacting with a cooperative/competitive partner. Also, the competitor may actively trace the builder's disk manipulation, leading to deeper mind-set synchronization in the competition condition, while the cooperator may passively follow the builder's move, leading to shallower mind-set synchronization in the cooperation condition.

  4. Interhemispheric transfalcine approach and awake cortical mapping for resection of peri-atrial gliomas associated with the central lobule.

    PubMed

    Malekpour, Mahdi; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-02-01

    Medial posterior frontal and parietal gliomas extending to the peri-atrial region are difficult to reach surgically because of the working angle required to expose the lateral aspect of the tumor and the proximity of the tumor to the sensorimotor lobule; retraction of the sensorimotor cortex may lead to morbidity. The interhemispheric transfalcine approach is favorable and safe for resection of medial hemispheric tumors adjacent to the falx cerebri, but the literature on this approach is scarce. Awake cortical mapping using this operative route for tumors associated with the sensorimotor cortex has not been previously reported to our knowledge. We present the first case of a right medial posterior frontoparietal oligoastrocytoma that was resected through the interhemispheric transfalcine approach using awake cortical and subcortical mapping. Through a contralateral frontoparietal craniotomy, we excised a section of the falx and exposed the contralateral medial hemisphere. Cortical stimulation allowed localization of the supplementary motor cortex, and suprathreshold stimulation mapping excluded the primary motor cortex corresponding to the leg area. Gross total tumor resection was accomplished without any intraoperative or postoperative deficits. Awake cortical mapping using the contralateral transfalcine approach allows a "cross-court" operative route to map functional cortices and resect peri-atrial low-grade gliomas. This technique can minimize the otherwise necessary retraction on the ipsilateral hemisphere through an ipsilateral craniotomy.

  5. Altered synthesis of some secretory proteins in pancreatic lobules isolated from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, R.D.; Erlanson-Albertsson, C. )

    1990-03-01

    The in vitro incorporation of (35S)cysteine into lipase, colipase, amylase, procarboxypeptidase A and B, and the serine proteases and total proteins was studied in pancreatic lobules isolated from normal and diabetic rats with or without insulin treatment. The incorporation of (35S)cysteine into total proteins was 65% greater in pancreatic lobules from diabetic animals than from normal rats. The increased incorporation was partly reversed by insulin treatment (2 U/100 g/day for 5 days) of diabetic rats. The relative rates of biosynthesis for amylase and the procarboxypeptidases in diabetic pancreatic lobules were decreased by 75 and 25%, respectively, after 1 h of incubation, while those for lipase, colipase, and the serine proteases were increased by 90, 85, and 35%, respectively. The absolute rates of synthesis for these enzymes changed in the same direction as the relative rates in diabetic lobules, except that for the procarboxypeptidases, which did not change. The changed rates of biosynthesis for the pancreatic enzymes were reversed by insulin treatment of the diabetic rats. Kinetic studies showed that the incorporation of (35S)cysteine into amylase, lipase, and colipase was linear until up to 2 h of incubation in normal pancreatic lobules, while in the diabetic lobules the incorporation into lipase and colipase was accelerated, reaching a plateau level already after 1 h of incubation. It is concluded that the biosynthesis of pancreatic secretory proteins in diabetic rats is greatly changed both in terms of quantity and kinetics.

  6. Working memory load influences perceptual ambiguity by competing for fronto-parietal attentional resources.

    PubMed

    Intaitė, Monika; Duarte, João Valente; Castelo-Branco, Miguel

    2016-11-01

    A visual stimulus is defined as ambiguous when observers perceive it as having at least two distinct and spontaneously alternating interpretations. Neuroimaging studies suggest an involvement of a right fronto-parietal network regulating the balance between stable percepts and the triggering of alternative interpretations. As spontaneous perceptual reversals may occur even in the absence of attention to these stimuli, we investigated neural activity patterns in response to perceptual changes of ambiguous Necker cube under different amounts of working memory load using a dual-task design. We hypothesized that the same regions that process working memory load are involved in perceptual switching and confirmed the prediction that perceptual reversals led to fMRI responses that linearly depended on load. Accordingly, posterior Superior Parietal Lobule, anterior Prefrontal and Dorsolateral Prefrontal cortices exhibited differential BOLD signal changes in response to perceptual reversals under working memory load. Our results also suggest that the posterior Superior Parietal Lobule may be directly involved in the emergence of perceptual reversals, given that it specifically reflects both perceptual versus real changes and load levels. The anterior Prefrontal and Dorsolateral Prefrontal cortices, showing a significant interaction between reversal levels and load, might subserve a modulatory role in such reversals, in a mirror symmetric way: in the former activation is suppressed by the highest loads, and in the latter deactivation is reduced by highest loads, suggesting a more direct role of the aPFC in reversal generation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Atypical parietal lobe activity to subliminal faces in youth with a family history of alcoholism

    PubMed Central

    Peraza, Jennifer; Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M.; Nagel, Bonnie J.

    2015-01-01

    Background Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show different behavioral and neurological functioning during emotional processing tasks from healthy controls. Adults with a family history (FHP) of AUD also show different activation in limbic brain areas, such as the amygdala. However, it is unclear if this pattern exists during adolescence before any episodes of heavy alcohol use. Objectives We hypothesized that the amygdalar response to subliminally-presented fearful faces would be reduced in FHP adolescents compared to peers who were family history negative (FHN) for AUD. Method An adapted Masked Faces paradigm was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent response to subliminal fearful vs. neutral faces in 14 FHP (6 females, 8 males) and 15 FHN (6 females, 9 males) youth, ages 11–15 years. Both FHP and FHN youth had no history of heavy alcohol consumption. Results A significant difference was seen between groups in the left superior parietal lobule FHN youth showed deactivation to fearful and neutral masked faces compared to baseline, whereas FHP youth showed deactivation only to fearful masked faces. No significant differences in amygdalar activation were seen between groups. Conclusion The left superior parietal lobule is part of the fronto-parietal network, which has been implicated in attentional control. Lack of reduced neural activity to neutral faces among FHP youth may represent differences in suppressing attention networks to less salient emotional stimuli, or perhaps, a higher threshold of saliency for emotional stimuli among at-risk youth. PMID:25268683

  8. Atypical parietal lobe activity to subliminal faces in youth with a family history of alcoholism.

    PubMed

    Peraza, Jennifer; Cservenka, Anita; Herting, Megan M; Nagel, Bonnie J

    2015-03-01

    Adults with alcohol use disorders (AUDs) show different behavioral and neurological functioning during emotional processing tasks from healthy controls. Adults with a family history (FHP) of AUD also show different activation in limbic brain areas, such as the amygdala. However, it is unclear if this pattern exists during adolescence before any episodes of heavy alcohol use. We hypothesized that the amygdalar response to subliminally-presented fearful faces would be reduced in FHP adolescents compared to peers who were family history negative (FHN) for AUD. An adapted Masked Faces paradigm was used to examine blood oxygen level-dependent response to subliminal fearful vs. neutral faces in 14 FHP (6 females, 8 males) and 15 FHN (6 females, 9 males) youth, ages 11-15 years. Both FHP and FHN youth had no history of heavy alcohol consumption. A significant difference was seen between groups in the left superior parietal lobule FHN youth showed deactivation to fearful and neutral masked faces compared to baseline, whereas FHP youth showed deactivation only to fearful masked faces. No significant differences in amygdalar activation were seen between groups. The left superior parietal lobule is part of the fronto-parietal network, which has been implicated in attentional control. Lack of reduced neural activity to neutral faces among FHP youth may represent differences in suppressing attention networks to less salient emotional stimuli, or perhaps, a higher threshold of saliency for emotional stimuli among at-risk youth.

  9. Apraxia and the parietal lobes.

    PubMed

    Goldenberg, Georg

    2009-05-01

    The widely held belief in a central role of left parietal lesions for apraxia can be traced back to Liepmann's model of a posterior to anterior stream converting mental images of intended action into motor execution. Although this model has undergone significant changes, its modern descendants still attribute the parietal contribution to the existence of mental representations of intended movements which precede and direct their motor execution. They predict that pantomime of tool use should be particularly vulnerable to parietal lesions. A review of clinical studies contradicts these assumptions: The impact of parietal lobe damage on pantomime of tool use is inconstant if not absent altogether. The domains of action which are most affected by left parietal damage are the imitation of meaningless gestures and, although probably only in the context of additional more widespread brain damage, actual use of tools and objects. I hypothesize that imitation of meaningless gestures and use of tool and objects depend on left parietal lobe integrity because of their demands on categorical apprehension of spatial relationships between multiple objects or between multiple parts of objects. For use of tools and objects the spatial relationships are between the hand, the tool, its recipient, and the material it acts upon. Categorical apprehension concentrates on features of these relations which determine mechanical interactions. For imitation of meaningless gestures, categorical apprehension of demonstrated gesture results in "body part coding" which reduces the visual appearance of the demonstrated gestures to simple spatial relationships between a limited set of discrete body parts. The hypothesis that the role of the left parietal lobe in apraxia concerns categorical apprehension of spatial relationships fits well with more general theories of parietal lobe function and hemisphere asymmetries.

  10. Abnormal Parietal Brain Function in ADHD: Replication and Extension of Previous EEG Beta Asymmetry Findings

    PubMed Central

    Hale, T. Sigi; Kane, Andrea M.; Tung, Kelly L.; Kaminsky, Olivia; McGough, James J.; Hanada, Grant; Loo, Sandra K.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Abundant work indicates ADHD abnormal posterior brain structure and function, including abnormal structural and functional asymmetries and reduced corpus callosum size. However, this literature has attracted considerably less research interest than fronto-striatal findings. Objective: To help address this imbalance, the current study replicates and extends our previous work showing abnormal parietal brain function in ADHD adults during the Conner’s Continuous Performance Test (CPT). Method: Our previous study found that ADHD adults had increased rightward EEG beta (16–21 Hz) asymmetry in inferior parietal brain regions during the CPT (p = 0.00001), and that this metric exhibited a lack of normal correlation (i.e., observed in controls) with beta asymmetry at temporal–parietal regions. We re-tested these effects in a new ADHD sample and with both new and old samples combined. We additionally examined: (a) EEG asymmetry in multiple frequency bands, (b) unilateral effects for all asymmetry findings, and (c) the association between EEG asymmetry and a battery of cognitive tests. Results: We replicated our original findings by demonstrating abnormal rightward inferior parietal beta asymmetry in adults with ADHD during the CPT, and again this metric exhibited abnormal reduced correlation to temporal–parietal beta asymmetry. Novel analyses also demonstrated a broader pattern of rightward beta and theta asymmetry across inferior, superior, and temporal–parietal brain regions, and showed that rightward parietal asymmetry in ADHD was atypically associated with multiple cognitive tests. Conclusion: Abnormal increased rightward parietal EEG beta asymmetry is an important feature of ADHD. We speculate that this phenotype may occur with any form of impaired capacity for top-down task-directed control over sensory encoding functions, and that it may reflect associated increase of attentional shifting and compensatory sustained/selective attention. PMID

  11. Postpartum breast involution reveals regression of secretory lobules mediated by tissue-remodeling

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction A postpartum diagnosis of breast cancer is an independent predictor of metastases, however the reason is unknown. In rodents, the window of postpartum mammary gland involution promotes tumor progression, suggesting a role for breast involution in the poor prognosis of human postpartum breast cancers. Rodent mammary gland involution is characterized by the programmed elimination of the secretory lobules laid down in preparation for lactation. This tissue involution process involves massive epithelial cell death, stromal remodeling, and immune cell infiltration with similarities to microenvironments present during wound healing and tumor progression. Here, we characterize breast tissue from premenopausal women with known reproductive histories to determine the extent, duration and cellular mechanisms of postpartum lobular involution in women. Methods Adjacent normal breast tissues from premenopausal women (n = 183) aged 20 to 45 years, grouped by reproductive categories of nulliparous, pregnant and lactating, and by time since last delivery were evaluated histologically and by special stain for lobular area, lobular type composition, apoptosis and immune cell infiltration using computer assisted quantitative methods. Results Human nulliparous glands were composed dominantly of small (approximately 10 acini per lobule) and medium (approximately 35 acini per lobule) sized lobules. With pregnancy and lactation, a >10 fold increase in breast epithelial area was observed compared to nulliparous cases, and lactating glands were dominated by mature lobules (>100 acini per lobule) with secretory morphology. Significant losses in mammary epithelial area and mature lobule phenotypes were observed within 12 months postpartum. By 18 months postpartum, lobular area content and lobule composition were indistinguishable from nulliparous cases, data consistent with postpartum involution facilitating regression of the secretory lobules developed in preparation for

  12. Liver-cell patterning lab chip: mimicking the morphology of liver lobule tissue.

    PubMed

    Ho, Chen-Ta; Lin, Ruei-Zeng; Chen, Rong-Jhe; Chin, Chung-Kuang; Gong, Song-En; Chang, Hwan-You; Peng, Hwei-Ling; Hsu, Long; Yew, Tri-Rung; Chang, Shau-Feng; Liu, Cheng-Hsien

    2013-09-21

    A lobule-mimetic cell-patterning technique for on-chip reconstruction of centimetre-scale liver tissue of heterogeneous hepatic and endothelial cells via an enhanced field-induced dielectrophoresis (DEP) trap is demonstrated and reported. By mimicking the basic morphology of liver tissue, the classic hepatic lobule, the lobule-mimetic-stellate-electrodes array was designed for cell patterning. Through DEP manipulation, well-defined and enhanced spatial electric field gradients were created for in-parallel manipulation of massive individual cells. With this liver-cell patterning labchip design, the original randomly distributed hepatic and endothelial cells inside the microfluidic chamber can be manipulated separately and aligned into the desired pattern that mimicks the morphology of liver lobule tissue. Experimental results showed that both hepatic and endothelial cells were orderly guided, snared, and aligned along the field-induced orientation to form the lobule-mimetic pattern. About 95% cell viability of hepatic and endothelial cells was also observed after cell-patterning demonstration via a fluorescent assay technique. The liver function of CYP450-1A1 enzyme activity showed an 80% enhancement for our engineered liver tissue (HepG2+HUVECs) compared to the non-patterned pure HepG2 for two-day culturing.

  13. [Repair of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap].

    PubMed

    Fengjing, Zhao; Jianmin, Yao; Xingqun, Zhang; Liang, Ma; Longchun, Zhang; Yibo, Xu; Peng, Wang; Zhen, Zhu

    2015-11-01

    To explore the clinical effect of the lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap in repairing soft tissue defect in hand or foot. Since March 2012 to September 2014, 6 cases with soft tissue defects in hands or feet were treated by lobulated medial sural artery flaps pedicled with 1st musculo-cutaneous perforator and 2st musculo-cutaneous perforator of the medial sural artery. The size of the flaps ranged from 4.5 cm x 10.0 cm to 6.0 cm x 17.0 cm. 5 cases of lobulated flap survived smoothly, only 1 lobulated flap had venous articulo, but this flap also survived after the articulo was removed by vascular exploration. All flaps had desirable appearance and sensation and the two-point discrimination was 6 mm in mean with 4 to 12 months follow-up (average, 7 months). Linear scar was left in donor sites in 3 cases and skin scar in 3 cases. There was no malfunction in donor sites. Lobulated medial sural artery perforator flap is feasible and ideal method for the treatment of soft tissue defect in hand or foot with satisfactory effect.

  14. Convergence of prefrontal and parietal anatomical projections in a connectional hub in the striatum.

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun Young; Tanimura, Yoko; Vage, Priti R; Yates, Ellen H; Haber, Suzanne N

    2017-02-01

    Visual attentional bias forms for rewarding and punishing stimuli in the environment. While this attentional bias is adaptive in healthy situations, it is maladaptive in disorders such as drug addiction or PTSD. In both these disorders, the ability to exert control over this attentional bias is associated with drug abstinence rates or reduced PTSD symptoms, indicating the interaction of visual attention, cognitive control, and stimulus association. The inferior parietal lobule (IPL) is central to attention, while the prefrontal cortex (PFC) is critical for reward, cognitive control, and attention. Importantly, regions of the IPL and PFC commonly project to the rostral dorsal caudate (rdCaud) of the striatum. We propose an anatomical network architecture in which IPL projections converge with PFC projections in a connectional hub in the rdCaud, providing an anatomical substrate for the interaction of these projections and their competitive influence on striatal processing. To investigate this, we mapped the dense projections from the caudal IPL and prefrontal (dlPFC, vlPFC, OFC, dACC, and dmPFC) regions that project to the medial rdCaud with anatomical tract-tracing tracer injections in monkeys. These inputs converge in a precise site in the medial rdCaud, rostral to the anterior commissure. Small retrograde tracer injections confirmed these inputs to the medial rdCaud and showed that a proximal ventral striatal location has a very different pattern of cortical inputs. We next used human resting-state functional connectivity MRI (fcMRI) to examine whether a striatal hub exists in the human medial rdCaud. Seed regions in the human medial rdCaud revealed cortical correlation maps similar to the monkey retrograde injection results. A subsequent analysis of these correlated cortical regions showed that their peak correlation within the striatum is in the medial rdCaud, indicating that this is a connectional hub. In contrast, this peak striatal correlation was not found

  15. Fronto-parietal network supports context-dependent speech comprehension.

    PubMed

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Glerean, Enrico; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-10-01

    Knowing the context of a discourse is an essential prerequisite for comprehension. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to disclose brain networks supporting context-dependent speech comprehension. During fMRI, 20 participants listened to 1-min spoken narratives preceded by pictures that were either contextually matching or mismatching with the narrative. Matching pictures increased narrative comprehension, decreased hemodynamic activity in Broca׳s area, and enhanced its functional connectivity with left anterior superior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Further, the anterior (BA 45) and posterior (BA 44) portions of Broca׳s area differed in their functional connectivity patterns. Both BA 44 and BA 45 have shown increased connectivity with right angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Whereas BA 44 showed increased connectivity with left angular gyrus, left inferior/middle temporal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus, BA 45 showed increased connectivity with right posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior inferior frontal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that a fronto-parietal functional network supports context-dependent narrative comprehension, and that Broca׳s area is involved in resolving ambiguity from speech when appropriate contextual cues are lacking.

  16. Fronto-parietal network supports context-dependent speech comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Smirnov, Dmitry; Glerean, Enrico; Lahnakoski, Juha M.; Salmi, Juha; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P.; Sams, Mikko; Nummenmaa, Lauri

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the context of a discourse is an essential prerequisite for comprehension. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to disclose brain networks supporting context-dependent speech comprehension. During fMRI, 20 participants listened to 1-min spoken narratives preceded by pictures that were either contextually matching or mismatching with the narrative. Matching pictures increased narrative comprehension, decreased hemodynamic activity in Broca׳s area, and enhanced its functional connectivity with left anterior superior frontal gyrus, bilateral inferior parietal cortex, as well as anterior and posterior cingulate cortex. Further, the anterior (BA 45) and posterior (BA 44) portions of Broca׳s area differed in their functional connectivity patterns. Both BA 44 and BA 45 have shown increased connectivity with right angular gyrus and supramarginal gyrus. Whereas BA 44 showed increased connectivity with left angular gyrus, left inferior/middle temporal gyrus and left postcentral gyrus, BA 45 showed increased connectivity with right posterior cingulate cortex, right anterior inferior frontal gyrus, lateral occipital cortex and anterior cingulate cortex. Our results suggest that a fronto-parietal functional network supports context-dependent narrative comprehension, and that Broca׳s area is involved in resolving ambiguity from speech when appropriate contextual cues are lacking. PMID:25218167

  17. Distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence and their interaction in parallel following a temporal hierarchy.

    PubMed

    Styliadis, Charis; Ioannides, Andreas A; Bamidis, Panagiotis D; Papadelis, Christos

    2015-04-15

    The cerebellum participates in emotion-related neural circuits formed by different cortical and subcortical areas, which sub-serve arousal and valence. Recent neuroimaging studies have shown a functional specificity of cerebellar lobules in the processing of emotional stimuli. However, little is known about the temporal component of this process. The goal of the current study is to assess the spatiotemporal profile of neural responses within the cerebellum during the processing of arousal and valence. We hypothesized that the excitation and timing of distinct cerebellar lobules is influenced by the emotional content of the stimuli. By using magnetoencephalography, we recorded magnetic fields from twelve healthy human individuals while passively viewing affective pictures rated along arousal and valence. By using a beamformer, we localized gamma-band activity in the cerebellum across time and we related the foci of activity to the anatomical organization of the cerebellum. Successive cerebellar activations were observed within distinct lobules starting ~160ms after the stimuli onset. Arousal was processed within both vermal (VI and VIIIa) and hemispheric (left Crus II) lobules. Valence (left VI) and its interaction (left V and left Crus I) with arousal were processed only within hemispheric lobules. Arousal processing was identified first at early latencies (160ms) and was long-lived (until 980ms). In contrast, the processing of valence and its interaction to arousal was short lived at later stages (420-530ms and 570-640ms respectively). Our findings provide for the first time evidence that distinct cerebellar lobules process arousal, valence, and their interaction in a parallel yet temporally hierarchical manner determined by the emotional content of the stimuli.

  18. Left medial parietal lobe and receptive language functions: mixed transcortical aphasia after left anterior cerebral artery infarction.

    PubMed

    Ross, E D

    1980-02-01

    Three aphasic patients with infarctions involving the left anterior cerebral artery have been studied. Two had trancortical motor aphasia, and one had mixed transcortical (or isolation) aphasia. Based on computerized tomography in two patients and whole-brain sections in one, the patient with mixed transcortical aphasia had a lesion that went beyond the rolandic fissure to involve the anterior precuneus lobule of the left medial parietal lobe. In the patients with transcortical motor aphasia, the lesion was confined to the frontal lobe. From these cases and other data, it seems likely that the left medial parietal lobe has receptive language functions analogous to the motor language functions of the left medial frontal lobe, thus accounting for the mixed transcortical aphasia observed in the patient whose left anterior cerebral artery infarction involved both the medial parietal and medial frontal lobes.

  19. Multiple parietal-frontal pathways mediate grasping in macaque monkeys

    PubMed Central

    Gharbawie, Omar A.; Stepniewska, Iwona; Qi, Huixin; Kaas, Jon H.

    2011-01-01

    The nodes of a parietal-frontal pathway that mediates grasping in primates are in anterior intraparietal area (AIP) and ventral premotor cortex (PMv). Nevertheless, multiple somatosensory and motor representations of the hand, respectively in parietal and frontal cortex, suggest that additional pathways remain unrealized. We explored this possibility in macaque monkeys by injecting retrograde tracers into grasp zones identified in M1, PMv, and area 2 with long train electrical stimulation. The M1 grasp zone was densely connected with other frontal cortex motor regions. The remainder of the connections originated from somatosensory areas 3a and S2/PV, and from the medial bank and fundus of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS). The PMv grasp zone was also densely connected with frontal cortex motor regions, albeit to a lesser extent than the M1 grasp zone. The remainder of the connections originated from areas S2/PV and aspects of the inferior parietal lobe such as PF, PFG, AIP, and the tip of the IPS. The area 2 grasp zone was densely connected with the hand representations of somatosensory areas 3b, 1, and S2/PV. The remainder of the connections was with areas 3a and 5 and the medial bank and fundus of the IPS. Connections with frontal cortex were relatively weak and concentrated in caudal M1. Thus, the three grasp zones may be nodes of parallel parietal-frontal pathways. Differential points of origin and termination of each pathway suggest varying functional specializations. Direct and indirect connections between those parietal-frontal pathways likely coordinate their respective functions into an accurate grasp. PMID:21832196

  20. A selective working memory impairment after transcranial direct current stimulation to the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Wencil, Elaine B; Branch Coslett, H; Olson, Ingrid R

    2010-08-02

    The role of the posterior parietal cortex in working memory (WM) is poorly understood. We previously found that patients with parietal lobe damage exhibited a selective WM impairment on recognition but not recall tasks. We hypothesized that this dissociation reflected strategic differences in the utilization of attention. One concern was that these findings, and our subsequent interpretation, would not generalize to normal populations because of the patients' older age, progressive disease processes, and/or possible brain reorganization following injury. To test whether our findings extended to a normal population we applied transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to right inferior parietal cortex. tDCS is a technique by which low electric current applied to the scalp modulates the resting potentials of underlying neural populations and can be used to test structure-function relationships. Eleven normal young adults received cathodal, anodal, or sham stimulation over right inferior posterior parietal cortex and then performed separate blocks of an object WM task probed by recall or recognition. The results showed that cathodal stimulation selectively impaired WM on recognition trials. These data replicate and extend our previous findings of preserved WM recall and impaired WM recognition in patients with parietal lobe lesions. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Action outcomes are represented in human inferior frontoparietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Grafton, Scott T

    2008-05-01

    The simple action of pressing a switch has many possible interpretations--the actor could be turning on a light, deleting critical files from a computer, or even turning off a life-support system. In each of these cases, the motor parameters of the action are the same but the physical outcome differs. We report evidence of suppressed responses in right inferior parietal and right inferior frontal cortex when participants saw repeated movies showing the same action outcome, but these regions did not distinguish the kinematic parameters by which the action was accomplished. Thus, these brain areas encode the physical outcomes of human actions in the world. These results are compatible with a hierarchical model of human action understanding in which a cascade of specialized processes from occipital to parietal and frontal regions allow humans to understand the physical consequences of actions in the world and the intentions underlying those actions.

  2. Microstructure analysis of the secondary pulmonary lobules by 3D synchrotron radiation CT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuoka, Y.; Kawata, Y.; Niki, N.; Umetani, K.; Nakano, Y.; Ohmatsu, H.; Moriyama, N.; Itoh, H.

    2014-03-01

    Recognition of abnormalities related to the lobular anatomy has become increasingly important in the diagnosis and differential diagnosis of lung abnormalities at clinical routines of CT examinations. This paper aims a 3-D microstructural analysis of the pulmonary acinus with isotropic spatial resolution in the range of several micrometers by using micro CT. Previously, we demonstrated the ability of synchrotron radiation micro CT (SRμCT) using offset scan mode in microstructural analysis of the whole part of the secondary pulmonary lobule. In this paper, we present a semiautomatic method to segment the acinar and subacinar airspaces from the secondary pulmonary lobule and to track small vessels running inside alveolar walls in human acinus imaged by the SRμCT. The method beains with and segmentation of the tissues such as pleural surface, interlobular septa, alveola wall, or vessel using a threshold technique and 3-D connected component analysis. 3-D air space are then conustructed separated by tissues and represented branching patterns of airways and airspaces distal to the terminal bronchiole. A graph-partitioning approach isolated acini whose stems are interactively defined as the terminal bronchiole in the secondary pulmonary lobule. Finally, we performed vessel tracking using a non-linear sate space which captures both smoothness of the trajectories and intensity coherence along vessel orientations. Results demonstrate that the proposed method can extract several acinar airspaces from the 3-D SRμCT image of secondary pulmonary lobule and that the extracted acinar airspace enable an accurate quantitative description of the anatomy of the human acinus for interpretation of the basic unit of pulmonary structure and function.

  3. Characterization of lobulated fibers in limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A by gene expression profiling.

    PubMed

    Keira, Yoko; Noguchi, Satoru; Kurokawa, Rumi; Fujita, Masako; Minami, Narihiro; Hayashi, Yukiko K; Kato, Takashi; Nishino, Ichizo

    2007-04-01

    Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2A (LGMD2A) is caused by mutations in CAPN3, which encodes an intracellular cysteine protease. To elucidate the fundamental molecular changes that may be responsible for the pathological features of LGMD2A, we employed cDNA microarray analysis. We divided LGMD2A muscles into two groups according to specific pathological features: an early-stage group characterized by the presence of active necrosis and a regeneration process and a later-stage group characterized by the presence of lobulated fibers. After comparing the gene expression profiles of the two groups of LGMD2A muscles with control muscles, we identified 29 genes whose mRNA expression profiles were specifically altered in muscles with lobulated fibers. Interestingly, this group included genes that encode actin filament binding and regulatory proteins, such as gelsolin, PDZ and LIM domain 3 (PDLIM3) and troponin I1. Western blot analysis confirmed the upregulation of these proteins. From these results, we propose that abnormal increased expression of actin filament binding proteins may contribute to the changes of the intra-myofiber structures, observed in lobulated fibers in LGMD2A.

  4. Spatio-temporal Model of Xenobiotic Distribution and Metabolism in an in Silico Mouse Liver Lobule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xiao; Sluka, James; Clendenon, Sherry; Glazier, James; Ryan, Jennifer; Dunn, Kenneth; Wang, Zemin; Klaunig, James

    Our study aims to construct a structurally plausible in silico model of a mouse liver lobule to simulate the transport of xenobiotics and the production of their metabolites. We use a physiologically-based model to calculate blood-flow rates in a network of mouse liver sinusoids and simulate transport, uptake and biotransformation of xenobiotics within the in silico lobule. Using our base model, we then explore the effects of variations of compound-specific (diffusion, transport and metabolism) and compound-independent (temporal alteration of blood flow pattern) parameters, and examine their influence on the distribution of xenobiotics and metabolites. Our simulations show that the transport mechanism (diffusive and transporter-mediated) of xenobiotics and blood flow both impact the regional distribution of xenobiotics in a mouse hepatic lobule. Furthermore, differential expression of metabolic enzymes along each sinusoid's portal to central axis, together with differential cellular availability of xenobiotics, induce non-uniform production of metabolites. Thus, the heterogeneity of the biochemical and biophysical properties of xenobiotics, along with the complexity of blood flow, result in different exposures to xenobiotics for hepatocytes at different lobular locations. We acknowledge support from National Institute of Health GM 077138 and GM 111243.

  5. Transaminase abnormalities and adaptations of the liver lobule manifest at specific cut-offs of steatosis

    PubMed Central

    Hall, Andrew; Covelli, Claudia; Manuguerra, Roberta; Luong, Tu Vinh; Buzzetti, Elena; Tsochatzis, Emmanuel; Pinzani, Massimo; Dhillon, Amar Paul

    2017-01-01

    There is little documented evidence suggesting that liver fat is responsible for liver injury in the absence of other disease processes. We investigated the relationships between liver fat, aminotransferases and hepatic architecture in liver biopsies with simple steatosis. We identified 136 biopsies with simple steatosis from the Royal Free Hospital Archives with both clinical data and sufficient material. Digital image analysis was employed to measure fat proportionate area (mFPA). Hepatocyte area (HA) and lobule radius (LR) were also measured. There were significant increases in ALT (p < 0.001) and AST (p = 0.013) with increased fat content and evidence to suggest both 5% and 20% mFPA as a cut-off for raised ALT. In liver with increased fat content there were significant increases in HA (p < 0.001). LR also increased as mFPA increased to 10% (p < 0.001), at which point the lobule ceased to expand further and was counterbalanced with a decrease in the number of hepatocytes per lobule (p = 0.029). Consequently there are mechanisms of adaption in the liver architecture to accommodate the accumulation of fat and these are accompanied by significant increases in transaminases. These results support the generally accepted cut-off of 5% fat for steatosis and indicate 20% as a threshold of more severe liver injury. PMID:28106158

  6. Parietal bone osteomyelitis in melioidosis

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Hariprasad Sadanand; Mallela, Ajay Raj; Shastry, Barkur Ananthakrishna; Acharya, Vasudeva

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a 55-year-old man with uncontrolled diabetes who presented with pneumonia. During his hospital stay his clinical status worsened and he had a focal seizure. MRI showed central nervous system involvement and parietal bone osteomyelitis. As the patient's blood culture and endotracheal aspirate grew Burkholderia pseudomallei, melioidosis was diagnosed. He was treated with meropenem after failure to respond to ceftazidime. He gradually improved over a period of 4 weeks and was discharged. Early diagnosis and therapy resulted in improved outcome. PMID:25725029

  7. Differences of cerebral activation between superior and inferior learners during motor sequence encoding and retrieval.

    PubMed

    Heun, Reinhard; Freymann, Nikolaus; Granath, Dirk Oliver; Stracke, Christian Paul; Jessen, Frank; Barkow, Katrin; Reul, Jürgen

    2004-11-15

    Cerebral activation during memory encoding and retrieval might depend on subjects' learning capacity, either by corresponding to better performance in superior learners or by reflecting increased effort in inferior learners. To investigate these alternative hypotheses, the study compared cerebral activation during encoding and retrieval of a motor sequence in groups of subjects with superior and inferior learning performances. Ten healthy subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while performing a motor sequence encoding paradigm (i.e. finger tapping sequence) and a retrieval paradigm (i.e. reproduction of the learned sequence). Subjects were divided into superior and inferior learners according to the correctness of sequence reproduction during retrieval. During encoding, there was strong bilateral activation in the middle frontal gyrus, the supplementary motor area (SMA), the lateral parietal lobe and the cerebellum. During retrieval, again strong activation was found in identical areas of the prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobe and the cerebellum. During encoding, inferior learners showed more left-sided activations in the left middle frontal and inferior parietal gyri. Superior learners showed increased activation in the corresponding right-sided brain areas during encoding as well as during retrieval. Differences of cerebral activations in the prefrontal and parietal cortex during encoding and retrieval were found to be related to retrieval performance, i.e. success and effort. Further intervention studies are needed to assess whether these interindividual differences are the cause or the consequence of differences in memory performance.

  8. Left superior parietal cortex involvement in writing: integrating fMRI with lesion evidence.

    PubMed

    Menon, V; Desmond, J E

    2001-10-01

    Writing is a uniquely human skill that we utilize nearly everyday. Lesion studies in patients with Gerstmann's syndrome have pointed to the parietal cortex as being critical for writing. Very little information is, however, available about the precise anatomical location of brain regions subserving writing in normal healthy individuals. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate parietal lobe function during writing to dictation. Significant clusters of activation were observed in left superior parietal lobe (SPL) and the dorsal aspects of the inferior parietal cortex (IPC) bordering the SPL. Localized clusters of activation were also observed in the left premotor cortex, sensorimotor cortex and supplementary motor area. No activation cluster was observed in the right hemisphere. These results clearly indicate that writing appears to be primarily organized in the language-dominant hemisphere. Further analysis revealed that within the parietal cortex, activation was significantly greater in the left SPL, compared to left IPC. Together with lesion studies, findings from the present study provide further evidence for the essential role of the left SPL in writing. Deficits to the precise left hemisphere parietal cortex regions identified in the present study may specifically underlie disorders of writing observed in Gerstmann's syndrome and apractic agraphia.

  9. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-01-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region. PMID:27494544

  10. The impact of top-down spatial attention on laterality and hemispheric asymmetry in the human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Su Keun; Xu, Yaoda

    2016-08-01

    The human parietal cortex exhibits a preference to contralaterally presented visual stimuli (i.e., laterality) as well as an asymmetry between the two hemispheres with the left parietal cortex showing greater laterality than the right. Using visual short-term memory and perceptual tasks and varying target location predictability, this study examined whether hemispheric laterality and asymmetry are fixed characteristics of the human parietal cortex or whether they are dynamic and modulated by the deployment of top-down attention to the target present hemifield. Two parietal regions were examined here that have previously been shown to be involved in visual object individuation and identification and are located in the inferior and superior intraparietal sulcus (IPS), respectively. Across three experiments, significant laterality was found in both parietal regions regardless of attentional modulation with laterality being greater in the inferior than superior IPS, consistent with their roles in object individuation and identification, respectively. Although the deployment of top-down attention had no effect on the superior IPS, it significantly increased laterality in the inferior IPS. The deployment of top-down spatial attention can thus amplify the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry, on the other hand, was absent in both brain regions and only emerged in the inferior but not the superior IPS with the deployment of top-down attention. Interestingly, the strength of hemispheric asymmetry significantly correlated with the strength of laterality in the inferior IPS. Hemispheric asymmetry thus seems to only emerge when there is a sufficient amount of laterality present in a brain region.

  11. Microstructural analyses of the posterior cerebellar lobules in relapsing-onset multiple sclerosis and their implication in cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Moroso, Amandine; Ruet, Aurélie; Lamargue-Hamel, Delphine; Munsch, Fanny; Deloire, Mathilde; Coupé, Pierrick; Charré-Morin, Julie; Saubusse, Aurore; Ouallet, Jean-Christophe; Planche, Vincent; Tourdias, Thomas; Dousset, Vincent; Brochet, Bruno

    2017-01-01

    The posterior cerebellar lobules seem to be the anatomical substrate of cognitive cerebellar processes, but their microstructural alterations in multiple sclerosis (MS) remain unclear. To correlate diffusion metrics in lobules VI to VIIIb in persons with clinically isolated syndrome (PwCIS) and in cognitively impaired persons with MS (CIPwMS) with their cognitive performances. Sixty-nine patients (37 PwCIS, 32 CIPwMS) and 36 matched healthy subjects (HS) underwent 3T magnetic resonance imaging, including 3D T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) were calculated within each lobule and in the cerebellar peduncles. We investigated the correlations between cognitive outcomes and the diffusion parameters of cerebellar sub-structures and performed multiple linear regression analysis to predict cognitive disability. FA was generally lower and MD was higher in the cerebellum and specifically in the vermis Crus II, lobules VIIb and VIIIb in CIPwMS compared with PwCIS and HS. In hierarchical regression analyses, 31% of the working memory z score variance was explained by FA in the left lobule VI and in the left superior peduncle. Working memory was also associated with MD in the vermis Crus II. FA in the left lobule VI and right VIIIa predicted part of the information processing speed (IPS) z scores. DTI indicators of cerebellar microstructural damage were associated with cognitive deficits in MS. Our results suggested that cerebellar lobular alterations have an impact on attention, working memory and IPS.

  12. Multi-lobulation of the nucleus in prolonged S phase by nuclear expression of Chk tyrosine kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, Yuji; Yamaguchi, Naoto . E-mail: nyama@p.chiba-u.ac.jp

    2005-04-01

    Chk tyrosine kinase phosphorylates Src-family tyrosine kinases and suppresses their kinase activity. We recently showed that Chk localizes to the nucleus as well as the cytoplasm and inhibits cell proliferation. To investigate the role of nuclear Chk in proliferation, various Chk mutants were constructed and expressed. Nuclear localization of Chk-induced dynamic multi-lobulation of the nucleus and prolonged S phase of the cell cycle. The N-terminal domain of Chk and a portion of its kinase domain but not the kinase activity were responsible for induction of the multi-lobulation. Cell sorting analysis revealed that nuclear multi-lobulated cells were enriched in late S phase. Multi-lobulated nuclei were surrounded with lamin B1 that was particularly concentrated in concave regions of the nuclei. Furthermore, treatment with nocodazole or taxol disrupted multi-lobulation of the nucleus. These results suggest that nuclear multi-lobulation in late S phase, which is dependent on polymerization and depolymerization of microtubules, may be involved in nuclear Chk-induced inhibition of proliferation.

  13. Seeing is not feeling: posterior parietal but not somatosensory cortex engagement during touch observation.

    PubMed

    Chan, Annie W-Y; Baker, Chris I

    2015-01-28

    Observing touch has been reported to elicit activation in human primary and secondary somatosensory cortices and is suggested to underlie our ability to interpret other's behavior and potentially empathy. However, despite these reports, there are a large number of inconsistencies in terms of the precise topography of activation, the extent of hemispheric lateralization, and what aspects of the stimulus are necessary to drive responses. To address these issues, we investigated the localization and functional properties of regions responsive to observed touch in a large group of participants (n = 40). Surprisingly, even with a lenient contrast of hand brushing versus brushing alone, we did not find any selective activation for observed touch in the hand regions of somatosensory cortex but rather in superior and inferior portions of neighboring posterior parietal cortex, predominantly in the left hemisphere. These regions in the posterior parietal cortex required the presence of both brush and hand to elicit strong responses and showed some selectivity for the form of the object or agent of touch. Furthermore, the inferior parietal region showed nonspecific tactile and motor responses, suggesting some similarity to area PFG in the monkey. Collectively, our findings challenge the automatic engagement of somatosensory cortex when observing touch, suggest mislocalization in previous studies, and instead highlight the role of posterior parietal cortex.

  14. Discrete object representation, attention switching, and task difficulty in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Cusack, Rhodri; Mitchell, Daniel J; Duncan, John

    2010-01-01

    An important component of perception, attention, and memory is the structuring of information into subsets ("objects"), which allows some parts to be considered together but kept separate from others. Portions of the posterior parietal lobe respond proportionally to the number of objects in the scope of attention and short-term memory, up to a capacity limit of around four, suggesting they have a role in this important process. This study investigates the relationship of discrete object representation to other parietal functions. Two experiments and two supplementary analyses were conducted to evaluate responsivity in parietal regions to the number of objects, the number of spatial locations, attention switching, and general task difficulty. Using transparent motion, it was found that a posterior and inferior parietal response to multiple objects persists even in the absence of a change in visual extent or the number of spatial locations. In a monitoring task, it was found that attention switching (or task difficulty) and object representation have distinct neural signatures, with the former showing greater recruitment of an anterior and lateral intraparietal sulcus (IPS) region, but the latter in a posterior and lateral region. A dissociation was also seen between selectivity for object load across tasks in the inferior IPS and feature or object-related memory load in the superior IPS.

  15. A 64-year-old woman with a left upper-lung field lobulated mass.

    PubMed

    De Dios, Jose Angelo; Javaid, Adnan; Mesologites, Thalia; Lahiri, Bimalin

    2011-04-01

    Pulmonary mucinous cystic neoplasia (PMCN) is an uncommon primary lung malignancy. Approximately 80 cases have been reported in the literature. We describe a case and review the literature on this malignancy. Our patient was asymptomatic and presented with a left upper-lung field lobulated mass. Primary PMCN is a spectrum of mucinous cystic lesions that should be considered as a separate lung tumor entity due to its unique morphologic features and its distinct clinical behavior. Prognosis is generally better than other more common lung malignancies.

  16. Sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis manifesting as suspicious microcalcifications with Hashimoto's thyroiditis in a young woman.

    PubMed

    Park, Sung Hee; Choi, Seung Joon; Jung, Hyun Kyung

    2013-01-01

    Sclerosing lymphocytic lobulitis (SLL) is a rare inflammatory disorder, which is also known as fibrous mastopathy and lymphocytic mastitis. It is commonly associated with autoimmune disorders, particularly type 1 diabetes and thyroiditis. We report the case of a 28-year-old woman diagnosed as SLL with Hashimoto's thyroiditis, but without diabetes. She presented suspicious microcalcifications without palpable mass in routine mammograms in both breasts. She had been diagnosed as Hashimoto's thyroiditis several years before and had been followed up in endo-clinics.

  17. Inferior vestibular neuritis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ji-Soo; Kim, Hyo Jung

    2012-08-01

    Vestibular neuritis (VN) mostly involves the superior portion of the vestibular nerve and labyrinth. This study aimed to describe the clinical features of VN involving the inferior vestibular labyrinth and its afferents only. Of the 703 patients with a diagnosis of VN or labyrinthitis at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital from 2004 to 2010, we retrospectively recruited 9 patients (6 women, age range 15-75) with a diagnosis of isolated inferior VN. Diagnosis of isolated inferior VN was based on torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus, abnormal head-impulse test (HIT) for the posterior semicircular canal (PC), and abnormal cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) in the presence of normally functioning horizontal and anterior semicircular canals, as determined by normal HIT and bithermal caloric tests. All patients presented with acute vertigo with nausea, vomiting, and imbalance. Three patients also had tinnitus and hearing loss in the involved side. The rotation axis of torsional downbeating spontaneous nystagmus was best aligned with that of the involved PC. HIT was also positive only for the involved PC. Cervical VEMP was abnormal in seven patients, and ocular VEMP was normal in all four patients tested. Ocular torsion and subjective visual vertical tests were mostly within the normal range. Since isolated inferior VN lacks the typical findings of much more prevalent superior VN, it may be mistaken for a central vestibular disorder. Recognition of this rare disorder may help avoid unnecessary workups in patients with acute vestibulopathy.

  18. Inferiority is compex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wade, Jess

    2017-07-01

    In Inferior: How Science Got Women Wrong and the New Research That's Rewriting the Story, author Angela Saini puts forward the idea that bad science has been used to endorse the cultural prejudice that women are both biologically and psychologically second rate to men.

  19. Ultrasonography of histologically normal parathyroid glands and thyroid lobules in normocalcemic dogs.

    PubMed

    Liles, Sofija R; Linder, Keith E; Cain, Brandon; Pease, Anthony P

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize the sonographic appearance of canine parathyroid glands using high-resolution ultrasonography. Ten cadaver dogs were studied after euthanasia for reasons not relating to the parathyroid. The cervical region was examined using a 13-5 MHz linear transducer in right and left recumbency. Ultrasonographic features of the parathyroid and thyroid glands were compared with the gross and histopathologic findings. Thirty-five structures were identified sonographically as parathyroid glands but only 26 of 35 glands (74% positive predictive value) were proven to be normal parathyroid glands histopathologically. Of the nine false positives, five (14%) were proven to be lobular thyroid tissue. The remaining four (11%) structures were visible grossly or found histopathologically. There were no statistical differences between ultrasonographic and gross measurements of the parathyroid glands. The average size as seen sonographically was 3.3 x 2.2 x 1.7 mm and the average gross size was 3.7 x 2.6 x 1.6 mm (length, width, height). The average size of the thyroid lobules assessed sonographically was 2.3 x1.6 x 0.8 mm (length, width, height). Normal parathyroid glands can be identified using high-resolution ultrasonography. But some thyroid lobules will be misinterpreted as parathyroid glands; this will result in false positives when identifying parathyroid glands with ultrasonography.

  20. Estimating frontal and parietal involvement in cognitive estimation: a study of focal neurodegenerative diseases

    PubMed Central

    Bisbing, Teagan A.; Olm, Christopher A.; McMillan, Corey T.; Rascovsky, Katya; Baehr, Laura; Ternes, Kylie; Irwin, David J.; Clark, Robin; Grossman, Murray

    2015-01-01

    We often estimate an unknown value based on available relevant information, a process known as cognitive estimation. In this study, we assess the cognitive and neuroanatomic basis for quantitative estimation by examining deficits in patients with focal neurodegenerative disease in frontal and parietal cortex. Executive function and number knowledge are key components in cognitive estimation. Prefrontal cortex has been implicated in multilevel reasoning and planning processes, and parietal cortex has been associated with number knowledge required for such estimations. We administered the Biber cognitive estimation test (BCET) to assess cognitive estimation in 22 patients with prefrontal disease due to behavioral variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD), to 17 patients with parietal disease due to corticobasal syndrome (CBS) or posterior cortical atrophy (PCA) and 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Both bvFTD and CBS/PCA patients had significantly more difficulty with cognitive estimation than controls. MCI were not impaired on BCET relative to controls. Regression analyses related BCET performance to gray matter atrophy in right lateral prefrontal and orbital frontal cortices in bvFTD, and to atrophy in right inferior parietal cortex, right insula, and fusiform cortices in CBS/PCA. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that a frontal-parietal network plays a crucial role in cognitive estimation. PMID:26089786

  1. Parietal connectivity mediates multisensory facilitation.

    PubMed

    Brang, David; Taich, Zachary J; Hillyard, Steven A; Grabowecky, Marcia; Ramachandran, V S

    2013-09-01

    Our senses interact in daily life through multisensory integration, facilitating perceptual processes and behavioral responses. The neural mechanisms proposed to underlie this multisensory facilitation include anatomical connections directly linking early sensory areas, indirect connections to higher-order multisensory regions, as well as thalamic connections. Here we examine the relationship between white matter connectivity, as assessed with diffusion tensor imaging, and individual differences in multisensory facilitation and provide the first demonstration of a relationship between anatomical connectivity and multisensory processing in typically developed individuals. Using a whole-brain analysis and contrasting anatomical models of multisensory processing we found that increased connectivity between parietal regions and early sensory areas was associated with the facilitation of reaction times to multisensory (auditory-visual) stimuli. Furthermore, building on prior animal work suggesting the involvement of the superior colliculus in this process, using probabilistic tractography we determined that the strongest cortical projection area connected with the superior colliculus includes the region of connectivity implicated in our independent whole-brain analysis.

  2. Perceptual Pseudoneglect in Schizophrenia: Candidate Endophenotype and the Role of the Right Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Ribolsi, Michele; Lisi, Giulia; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Koch, Giacomo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Magni, Valentina; Pezzarossa, Bianca; Saya, Anna; Rociola, Giuseppe; Rubino, Ivo A.; Niolu, Cinzia; Siracusano, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    Several contributions have reported an altered expression of pseudoneglect in psychiatric disorders, highlighting the existence of an anomalous brain lateralization in affected subjects. Surprisingly, no studies have yet investigated pseudoneglect in first-degree relatives (FdR) of psychiatric patients. We investigated performance on “paper and pencil” line bisection (LB) tasks in 68 schizophrenic patients (SCZ), 42 unaffected FdR, 41 unipolar depressive patients (UP), and 103 healthy subjects (HS). A subgroup of 20 SCZ and 16 HS underwent computerized LB and mental number line bisection (MNL) tasks requiring judgment of prebisected lines and numerical intervals. Moreover, we evaluated, in a subgroup of 15 SCZ, performance on LB and MNL before and after parietal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). In comparison to HS and UP, SCZ showed a systematic rightward bias on LB, partially corrected by selective right posterior parietal tDCS. Interestingly, even FdR showed a lack of pseudoneglect on LB, expressing a mean error lying in the middle between those of HS and SCZ. On the other hand, our results showed no significant difference between the performance of SCZ and HS on MNL. Both groups showed a comparable leftward bias that could not be significantly altered after left or right parietal tDCS. These findings confirm the existence of reduced lateralization in SCZ, suggesting specific impaired functioning of the right parietal lobule. Notably, we report a lack of pseudoneglect not only in SCZ but also in FdR, raising the hypothesis that an inverted laterality pattern may be considered a concrete marker of schizotypal traits. PMID:22419195

  3. Gelastic seizures involving the left parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Machado, René Andrade; Astencio, Adriana Goicoechea

    2012-01-01

    Gelastic seizures have been described in various epilepsies arising from the temporal or frontal lobes, although the most commonly encountered form is related to the presence of a hypothalamic hamartoma. We describe a patient with gelastic seizures involving the left parietal lobe. Our patient, an 8-year-old girl, underwent interictal video/EEG monitoring and MRI. The seizures consisted of brief staring followed by smiling and laughing. Electroencephalography during the gelastic seizures showed rhythmic spikes and waves in the left parietal lobe. MRI revealed the characteristic features of focal cortical dysplasia. Our findings suggest that the left parietal lobe may actively participate in the particular epileptogenic network generating gelastic seizures.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: enlarged parietal foramina

    MedlinePlus

    ... parietal foramina is an inherited condition of impaired skull development. It is characterized by enlarged openings (foramina) ... that form the top and sides of the skull. This condition is due to incomplete bone formation ( ...

  5. Gelastic seizures involving the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hee-Young; Hong, Seung Bong; Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Han, Sun Jung; Cho, Jae Wook; Seo, Dae Won; Kim, Sun Hyung; Lee, Jong-Min; Kim, Sun I

    2006-09-01

    Gelastic seizures have been described in various epilepsies arising from the temporal or frontal lobes, although the most commonly encountered form is related to the presence of an hypothalamic hamartoma. We report a patient with gelastic seizures involving the right parietal lobe. Our patient, a 32-year-old man, underwent video-EEG monitoring, interictal and ictal brain SPECTs during gelastic seizures. Subtraction ictal SPECT co-registered to MRI (SISCOM), was performed to localize any ictal hyperperfusion during these gelastic seizures. The seizures consisted of brief staring followed by smiling and laughing. Electroencephalography during the gelastic seizures showed rhythmic sharp waves in the right parietal lobe. SISCOM showed ictal hyperperfusion in the right parietal lobe and medial portions of right cerebellum. Our findings suggest that the right parietal lobe may actively participate in the particular epileptogenic network generating gelastic seizures.

  6. Dramatic Cataplexy Improvement Following Right Parietal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Fam, David J.; Shammi, Prathiba; Mainprize, Todd G.; Murray, Brian J.

    2015-01-01

    This is the case of a 34-year-old woman with severe narcolepsy with cataplexy who experienced a dramatic reduction in cataplexy symptoms after resection of a right parietal astrocytoma. The patient underwent detailed neurological exam, neuropsychological testing, polysomnography and multiple sleep latency testing following surgery. Citation: Fam DJ, Shammi P, Mainprize TG, Murray BJ. Dramatic cataplexy improvement following right parietal surgery. J Clin Sleep Med 2015;11(7):829–830. PMID:25902819

  7. Prostate Cancer Presenting with Parietal Bone Metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Pare, Abdoul Karim; Abubakar, Babagana Mustapha; Kabore, Moussa

    2017-01-01

    Bone metastases from prostate cancer are very common. They are usually located on the axial skeleton. However, cranial bone metastases especially to the parietal bone are rare. We report a case of metastatic prostate cancer presenting with left parietal bone metastasis in a patient with no urological symptoms or signs. We should consider prostate cancer in any man above 60 years presenting unusual bone lesions.

  8. Ultrastructure of spermatogonia and spermatocyte lobules in Taenia solium strobilae (Cestoda, Cyclophyllidea, Taeniidae) from golden hamsters.

    PubMed

    Willms, Kaethe; Caro, Jose Antonio; Robert, Lilia

    2003-08-01

    Golden hamsters ( Mesocricetus auratus) were infected with Taenia solium metacestodes dissected from infected pig meat. Adult worms were collected from hamster intestines of animals killed 5-60 days post-infection (dpi), incubated in RPMI 1640 medium with or without colchicine, fixed and processed for transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sections for light microscopy from 40 different blocks with scolex, immature and mature proglottids were photographed. Thin sections were cut from 25 selected blocks, examined and photographed with TEM. Metaphase mitosis figures were observed in the subtegument of the germinative tissue and interpreted as germ cell precursors. In immature proglottids (20 dpi), discrete cell clusters of three to four cells surrounded by a thin cytoplasmic envelope were identified along the inner border of the lateral excretory ducts. These were also observed in more mature proglottids (40-60 dpi) as clusters of eight cells enclosed in a cytoplasmic envelope, with nuclei of spermatogonia exhibiting the synaptolems of primary meiotic cells. In mature proglottids from 45 dpi, a large number of spermatocyte lobules were found, exhibiting different stages of spermatogenesis from primary spermatocytes to mature filiform spermatids with a single axoneme, annular nucleus and spiral cortical microtubules, similar to spermatozoa described for type III spermiogenesis of species of the family Taeniidae. All mature spermatocyte lobules were enclosed in a highly organized cellular envelope and surrounded by a basal lamina. The envelopes contained a number of distinct organelles, seen in cross-section as discrete lattices of microtubules located between two layers of plasma membrane, as well as thickened furled cytoplasm with numerous strands of rough endoplasmic reticulum and pockets of microtubules.

  9. Isolated inferior mesenteric portal hypertension with giant inferior mesenteric vein and anomalous inferior mesenteric vein insertion

    PubMed Central

    Prasad, G. Raghavendra; Billa, Srikar; Bhandari, Pavaneel; Hussain, Aijaz

    2013-01-01

    Extrahepatic portal hypertension is not an uncommon disease in childhood, but isolated inferior mesenteric portal varices and lower gastrointestinal (GI) bleed have not been reported till date. A 4-year-old girl presented with lower GI bleed. Surgical exploration revealed extrahepatic portal vein obstruction with giant inferior mesenteric vein and colonic varices. Inferior mesenteric vein was joining the superior mesenteric vein. The child was treated successfully with inferior mesenteric – inferior vena caval anastomosis. The child was relieved of GI bleed during the follow-up. PMID:23798814

  10. Inferior vena cava filters.

    PubMed

    Duffett, L; Carrier, M

    2017-01-01

    Use of inferior vena cava (IVC) filters has increased dramatically in recent decades, despite a lack of evidence that their use has impacted venous thromboembolism (VTE)-related mortality. This increased use appears to be primarily driven by the insertion of retrievable filters for prophylactic indications. A growing body of evidence, however, suggests that IVC filters are frequently associated with clinically important adverse events, prompting a closer look at their role. We sought to narratively review the current evidence on the efficacy and safety of IVC filter placements. Inferior vena cava filters remain the only treatment option for patients with an acute (within 2-4 weeks) proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism and an absolute contraindication to anticoagulation. In such patients, anticoagulation should be resumed and IVC filters removed as soon as the contraindication has passed. For all other indications, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of IVC filters and high-quality trials are required. In patients where an IVC filter remains, regular follow-up to reassess removal and screen for filter-related complications should occur. © 2016 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Functional Heterogeneity in Posterior Parietal Cortex Across Attention and Episodic Memory Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Weiner, Kevin S.; Bressler, David W.; Silver, Michael A.; Preston, Alison R.; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2014-01-01

    While attention is critical for event memory, debate has arisen regarding the extent to which posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation during episodic retrieval reflects engagement of PPC-mediated mechanisms of attention. Here, we directly examined the relationship between attention and memory, within and across subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-mapping and episodic retrieval paradigms. During retrieval, 4 functionally dissociable PPC regions were identified. Specifically, 2 PPC regions positively tracked retrieval outcomes: lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) indexed graded item memory strength, whereas angular gyrus (AnG) tracked recollection. By contrast, 2 other PPC regions demonstrated nonmonotonic relationships with retrieval: superior parietal lobule (SPL) tracked retrieval reaction time, consistent with a graded engagement of top-down attention, whereas temporoparietal junction displayed a complex pattern of below-baseline retrieval activity, perhaps reflecting disengagement of bottom-up attention. Analyses of retrieval effects in PPC topographic spatial attention maps (IPS0-IPS5; SPL1) revealed that IPS5 and SPL1 exhibited a nonmonotonic relationship with retrieval outcomes resembling that in the SPL region, further suggesting that SPL activation during retrieval reflects top-down attention. While demands on PPC attention mechanisms vary during retrieval attempts, the present functional parcellation of PPC indicates that 2 additional mechanisms (mediated by latIPS and AnG) positively track retrieval outcomes. PMID:23019246

  12. Double dissociation between motor and visual imagery in the posterior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Pelgrims, Barbara; Andres, Michael; Olivier, Etienne

    2009-10-01

    Because motor imagery (MI) and visual imagery (VI) are influenced differently by factors such as biomechanical constraints or stimulus size, it is conceivable that they rely on separate processes, possibly involving distinct cortical networks, a view corroborated by neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies. In the posterior parietal cortex, it has been suggested that the superior parietal lobule (SPL) underlies VI, whereas MI relies on the supramarginalis gyrus (SMG). However, because several brain imaging studies have also shown an overlap of activations in SPL and SMG during VI or MI, the question arises as to which extent these 2 subregions really contribute to distinct imagery processes. To address this issue, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation to induce virtual lesions of either SMG or SPL in subjects performing a MI (hand drawing rotation) or a VI (letter rotation) task. Whatever hemisphere was stimulated, SMG lesions selectively altered MI, whereas SPL lesions only affected VI, demonstrating a double dissociation between MI and VI. Because these deficits were not influenced by the angular distance of the stimuli, we suggest that SMG and SPL are involved in the reenactment of the motor and visual representations, respectively, and not in mental rotation processes per se.

  13. Reduced parietal connectivity with a premotor writing area in writer's cramp.

    PubMed

    Delnooz, Cathérine C S; Helmich, Rick C; Toni, Ivan; van de Warrenburg, Bart P C

    2012-09-15

    Writer's cramp is a task-specific form of dystonia with symptoms characterized by abnormal movements and postures of the hand and arm evident only during writing. Its pathophysiology has been related to faulty sensorimotor integration, abnormal sensory processing, and impaired motor planning. Its symptoms might appear when the computational load of writing pushes a tonically altered circuit outside its operational range. Using resting-state fMRI, we tested whether writer's cramp patients have altered intrinsic functional connectivity in the premotor-parietal circuit. Sixteen patients with right-sided writer's cramp and 19 control subjects were studied. We show that writer's cramp patients have reduced connectivity between the superior parietal lobule and a dorsal precentral region that controls writing movements. This difference between patients and controls occurred in the absence of writing and only in the hemisphere contralateral to the affected hand. This finding adds a novel element to the pathophysiological substrate for writer's cramp, namely, task-independent alterations within a writing-related circuit.

  14. Functional versus effector-specific organization of the human posterior parietal cortex: revisited

    PubMed Central

    Leone, Frank T. M.; Medendorp, W. Pieter

    2016-01-01

    It has been proposed that the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is characterized by an effector-specific organization. However, strikingly similar functional MRI (fMRI) activation patterns have been found in the PPC for hand and foot movements. Because the fMRI signal is related to average neuronal activity, similar activation levels may result either from effector-unspecific neurons or from intermingled subsets of effector-specific neurons within a voxel. We distinguished between these possibilities using fMRI repetition suppression (RS). Participants made delayed, goal-directed eye, hand, and foot movements to visual targets. In each trial, the instructed effector was identical or different to that of the previous trial. RS effects indicated an attenuation of the fMRI signal in repeat trials. The caudal PPC was active during the delay but did not show RS, suggesting that its planning activity was effector independent. Hand and foot-specific RS effects were evident in the anterior superior parietal lobule (SPL), extending to the premotor cortex, with limb overlap in the anterior SPL. Connectivity analysis suggested information flow between the caudal PPC to limb-specific anterior SPL regions and between the limb-unspecific anterior SPL toward limb-specific motor regions. These results underline that both function and effector specificity should be integrated into a concept of PPC action representation not only on a regional but also on a fine-grained, subvoxel level. PMID:27466132

  15. Functional heterogeneity in posterior parietal cortex across attention and episodic memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Hutchinson, J Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R; Weiner, Kevin S; Bressler, David W; Silver, Michael A; Preston, Alison R; Wagner, Anthony D

    2014-01-01

    While attention is critical for event memory, debate has arisen regarding the extent to which posterior parietal cortex (PPC) activation during episodic retrieval reflects engagement of PPC-mediated mechanisms of attention. Here, we directly examined the relationship between attention and memory, within and across subjects, using functional magnetic resonance imaging attention-mapping and episodic retrieval paradigms. During retrieval, 4 functionally dissociable PPC regions were identified. Specifically, 2 PPC regions positively tracked retrieval outcomes: lateral intraparietal sulcus (latIPS) indexed graded item memory strength, whereas angular gyrus (AnG) tracked recollection. By contrast, 2 other PPC regions demonstrated nonmonotonic relationships with retrieval: superior parietal lobule (SPL) tracked retrieval reaction time, consistent with a graded engagement of top-down attention, whereas temporoparietal junction displayed a complex pattern of below-baseline retrieval activity, perhaps reflecting disengagement of bottom-up attention. Analyses of retrieval effects in PPC topographic spatial attention maps (IPS0-IPS5; SPL1) revealed that IPS5 and SPL1 exhibited a nonmonotonic relationship with retrieval outcomes resembling that in the SPL region, further suggesting that SPL activation during retrieval reflects top-down attention. While demands on PPC attention mechanisms vary during retrieval attempts, the present functional parcellation of PPC indicates that 2 additional mechanisms (mediated by latIPS and AnG) positively track retrieval outcomes.

  16. Gastrin receptors on isolated canine parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Soll, A.H.; Amirian, D.A.; Thomas, L.P.; Reedy, T.J.; Elashoff, J.D.

    1984-05-01

    The receptors in the fundic mucosa that mediate gastrin stimulation of acid secretion have been studied. Synthetic human gastrin-17-I (G17) with a leucine substitution in the 15th position ((Leu15)-G17) was iodinated by chloramine T; high saturable binding was found to enzyme-dispersed canine fundic mucosal cells. /sup 127/I-(Leu15)-G17, but not /sup 127/I-G17, retained binding potency and biological activity comparable with uniodinated G17. Fundic mucosal cells were separated by size by using an elutriator rotor, and specific /sup 125/I-(Leu-15)-G17 binding in the larger cell fractions was highly correlated with the distribution of parietal cells. There was, however, specific gastrin binding in the small cell fractions, not accounted for by parietal cells. Using sequential elutriation and stepwise density gradients, highly enriched parietal and chief cell fractions were prepared; /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding correlated positively with the parietal cell (r . 0.98) and negatively with chief cell content (r . -0.96). In fractions enriched to 45-65% parietal cells, specific /sup 125/I-(Leu15)-G17 binding was rapid, reaching a steady state at 37 degrees C within 30 min. Dissociation was also rapid, with the rate similar after 100-fold dilution or dilution plus excess pentagastrin. At a tracer concentration from 10 to 30 pM, saturable binding was 7.8 +/- 0.8% per 10(6) cells (mean +/- SE) and binding in the presence of excess pentagastrin accounted for 11% of total binding. G17 and carboxyl terminal octapeptide of cholecystokinin (26-33) were equipotent in displacing tracer binding and in stimulating parietal cell function ((/sup 14/C)aminopyrine accumulation), whereas the tetrapeptide of gastrin (14-17) had a much lower potency. Proglumide inhibited gastrin binding and selectively inhibited gastrin stimulation of parietal cell function.

  17. Assessment of Cortical Dysfunction in Patients with Intermittent Exotropia: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Junran; Gong, Qiyong; Liu, Longqian

    2016-01-01

    Neural imaging studies have found the connection between strabismus and brain cortex. However, the pathological mechanisms of intermittent exotropia are still not fully understood. In the present study, changes of binocular fusion related cortices in intermittent exotropia were investigated with blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging. Activated cortices induced by fusion stimulus were found to be distributed in several regions such as bilateral middle occipital gyrus, bilateral middle temporal gyrus, left superior parietal lobule and so on. Compared with normal subjects, the increased activation intensity was observed in bilateral superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule in subjects with intermittent exotropia. These findings indicate that binocular fusion involves a complicated brain network including several regions. And cortical activities of bilateral superior parietal lobule and inferior parietal lobule compensate for the binocular fusion dysfunction in intermittent exotropia. PMID:27501391

  18. Abnormal parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fen; Wang, Jun-Yuan; Xu, Yi; Huang, Man-Li

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: It is widely believed that structural abnormalities of the brain contribute to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. The parietal lobe is a central hub of multisensory integration, and abnormities in this region might account for the clinical features of schizophrenia. However, few cases of parietal encephalomalacia associated with schizophrenia have been described. Patient concerns and Diagnoses: In this paper, we present a case of a 25-year-old schizophrenia patient with abnormal parietal encephalomalacia. The patient had poor nutrition and frequently had upper respiratory infections during childhood and adolescence. She showed severe schizophrenic symptoms such as visual hallucinations for 2 years. After examining all her possible medical conditions, we found that the patient had a lesion consistent with the diagnosis of encephalomalacia in her right parietal lobe and slight brain atrophy. Interventions: The patient was prescribed olanzapine (10 mg per day). Outcomes: Her symptoms significantly improved after antipsychotic treatment and were still well controlled 1 year later. Lessons: This case suggested that parietal encephalomalacia, which might be caused by inflammatory and infectious conditions in early life and be aggravated by undernutrition, might be implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia. PMID:28272261

  19. Left posterior-dorsal area 44 couples with parietal areas to promote speech fluency, while right area 44 activity promotes the stopping of motor responses.

    PubMed

    Neef, Nicole E; Bütfering, Christoph; Anwander, Alfred; Friederici, Angela D; Paulus, Walter; Sommer, Martin

    2016-11-15

    Area 44 is a cytoarchitectonically distinct portion of Broca's region. Parallel and overlapping large-scale networks couple with this region thereby orchestrating heterogeneous language, cognitive, and motor functions. In the context of stuttering, area 44 frequently comes into focus because structural and physiological irregularities affect developmental trajectories, stuttering severity, persistency, and etiology. A remarkable phenomenon accompanying stuttering is the preserved ability to sing. Speaking and singing are connatural behaviours recruiting largely overlapping brain networks including left and right area 44. Analysing which potential subregions of area 44 are malfunctioning in adults who stutter, and what effectively suppresses stuttering during singing, may provide a better understanding of the coordination and reorganization of large-scale brain networks dedicated to speaking and singing in general. We used fMRI to investigate functionally distinct subregions of area 44 during imagery of speaking and imaginary of humming a melody in 15 dextral males who stutter and 17 matched control participants. Our results are fourfold. First, stuttering was specifically linked to a reduced activation of left posterior-dorsal area 44, a subregion that is involved in speech production, including phonological word processing, pitch processing, working memory processes, sequencing, motor planning, pseudoword learning, and action inhibition. Second, functional coupling between left posterior area 44 and left inferior parietal lobule was deficient in stuttering. Third, despite the preserved ability to sing, males who stutter showed bilaterally a reduced activation of area 44 when imagine humming a melody, suggesting that this fluency-enhancing condition seems to bypass posterior-dorsal area 44 to achieve fluency. Fourth, time courses of the posterior subregions in area 44 showed delayed peak activations in the right hemisphere in both groups, possibly signaling the

  20. Functional imaging of the parietal cortex during action execution and observation.

    PubMed

    Evangeliou, Mina N; Raos, Vassilis; Galletti, Claudio; Savaki, Helen E

    2009-03-01

    We used the (14)C-deoxyglucose method to map the functional activity in the cortex of the lateral and medial parietal convexity, the intraparietal and the parietoccipital sulci of monkeys which either reached and grasped a 3D-object or observed the same reaching-to-grasp movements executed by a human. Execution of reaching-to-grasp induced activations in the superior parietal areas SI-forelimb/convexity, PE, PE caudal (PEc); in the intraparietal areas PE intraparietal (PEip), medial intraparietal (MIP), 5 intraparietal posterior, ventral intraparietal (VIP), anterior intraparietal (AIP), lateral intraparietal dorsal; in the inferior parietal areas PF, PFG, PG; in the parietoccipital areas V6, V6A-dorsal; in the medial cortical areas PGm/7m and retrosplenial cortex. Observation of reaching-to-grasp activated areas SI-forelimb/convexity, PE lateral, PEc, PEip, MIP, VIP, AIP, PF, V6, PGm/7m, 31, and retrosplenial cortex. The common activations were stronger for execution than for observation and the interhemispheric differences were smaller for observation than for execution, contributing to the attribution of action to the correct agent. The extensive overlap of parietal networks activated for action execution and observation supports the "mental simulation theory" which assigns the role of understanding others' actions to the entire distributed neural network responsible for the execution of actions, and not the concept of "mirroring" which reflects the function of a certain class of cells in a couple of cortical areas.

  1. Decreases in frontal and parietal lobe regional cerebral blood flow related to habituation.

    PubMed

    Warach, S; Gur, R C; Gur, R E; Skolnick, B E; Obrist, W D; Reivich, M

    1992-07-01

    We previously reported decreased mean CBF between consecutive resting conditions, ascribed to habituation. Here we address the regional specificity of habituation over three consecutive flow studies. Regional CBF (rCBF) was measured in 55 adults (12 right-handed men, 12 right-handed women, 14 left-handed men, 17 left-handed women), with the 133Xe inhalation technique, during three conditions: resting, verbal tasks (analogies), and spatial tasks (line orientation). Changes in rCBF attributable to the cognitive tasks were eliminated by correcting these values to a resting equivalent. There was a progressive decrease in mean rCBF over time, reflecting habituation. This effect differed by region, with specificity at frontal (prefrontal, inferior frontal, midfrontal, superior frontal) and inferior parietal regions. In the inferior parietal region, habituation was more marked in the left than the right hemisphere. Right-handers showed greater habituation than did left-handers. There was no sex difference in global habituation, but males showed greater left whereas females showed greater right hemispheric habituation. The results suggest that habituation to the experimental setting has measurable effects on rCBF, which are differently lateralized for men and women. These effects are superimposed on task activation and are most pronounced in regions that have been implicated in attentional processes. Thus, regional decrement in brain activity related to habituation seems to complement attentional effects, suggesting a neural network for habituation reciprocating that for attention.

  2. A method for determination in situ of variations within the hepatic lobule of hepatocyte function and metabolite concentrations.

    PubMed Central

    Burns, S P; Cohen, R D; Iles, R A; Germain, J P; Going, T C; Evans, S J; Royston, P

    1996-01-01

    A method is described for the production of detailed maps of intralobular variations of hepatocyte function and metabolite concentrations, based on variable destruction by digitonin of the lobule from the centrilobular direction. Instead of the conventional approach, in which isolated hepatocytes are then prepared and studied in suspension, perfusion is continued after digitonin treatment and the function of the unaffected lobular remnants is determined, or mean metabolite concentrations are measured by 31P-NMR. These measurements are plotted against the degree of destruction, determined precisely after each study by automated quantitative histomorphometry. These plots are transformed into curves of the function or metabolite concentration of nominal single cells at any point along the radius of the lobule. Gluconeogenesis from lactate remained stable, although reduced, even after 85-90% lobular destruction, predominated periportally and disappeared by 50% along the radius of the lobule. In 31P-NMR studies, employing 1.5 mM lactate as substrate, narrowing of the intracellular P1 resonance was observed as digitonin destruction increased; this was attributed to a decrease in the intralobular heterogeneity of the intracellular pH, which fell from approx. 7.9 to < 7.4 along the first 16% of the lobular radius (from the periportal end) and to < 7.3 in the remainder of the lobule. The ATP concentration rose, and then fell, along the radius of the lobule in a centripetal direction. The method is potentially generally applicable to a wide range of hepatocellular functions and to the measurement of metabolite concentrations, most conveniently those susceptible to estimation by NMR. PMID:8912670

  3. Parietal Lobes in Schizophrenia: Do They Matter?

    PubMed Central

    Yildiz, Murat; Borgwardt, Stefan J.; Berger, Gregor E.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. Despite observations that abnormal parietal lobe (PL) function is associated with psychotic-like experiences, our knowledge about the nature of PL involvement in schizophrenia is modest. The objective of this paper is to investigate the role of the PL in schizophrenia. Method. Medline databases were searched for English language publications using the following key words: parietal lobe, combined with schizophrenia, lesions, epilepsy, cognition, rare genetic disorders, MRI, fMRI, PET, and SPECT, respectively, followed by cross-checking of references. Results. Imaging studies in childhood onset schizophrenia suggest that grey matter abnormalities start in parietal and occipital lobes and proceed to frontal regions. Although, the findings are inconsistent, several studies with patients at risk to develop schizophrenia indicate early changes in the PL. Conclusions. We want to propose that in a proportion of individuals with emerging schizophrenia structural and functional alterations may start in the PL and progress to frontal regions. PMID:22937268

  4. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  5. Spatial updating in human parietal cortex

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merriam, Elisha P.; Genovese, Christopher R.; Colby, Carol L.

    2003-01-01

    Single neurons in monkey parietal cortex update visual information in conjunction with eye movements. This remapping of stimulus representations is thought to contribute to spatial constancy. We hypothesized that a similar process occurs in human parietal cortex and that we could visualize it with functional MRI. We scanned subjects during a task that involved remapping of visual signals across hemifields. We observed an initial response in the hemisphere contralateral to the visual stimulus, followed by a remapped response in the hemisphere ipsilateral to the stimulus. We ruled out the possibility that this remapped response resulted from either eye movements or visual stimuli alone. Our results demonstrate that updating of visual information occurs in human parietal cortex.

  6. Cortical connectivity suggests a role in limb coordination for macaque area PE of the superior parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Bakola, Sophia; Passarelli, Lauretta; Gamberini, Michela; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-04-10

    In macaques, superior parietal lobule area 5 has been described as occupying an extensive region, which includes the caudal half of the postcentral convexity as well as the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus. Modern neuroanatomical methods have allowed the identification of various areas within this region. In the present study, we investigated the corticocortical afferent projections of one of these subdivisions, area PE. Our results demonstrate that PE, defined as a single architectonic area that contains a topographic map of the body, forms specific connections with somatic and motor fields. Thus, PE receives major afferents from parietal areas, mainly area 2, PEc, several areas in the medial bank of the intraparietal sulcus, opercular areas PGop/PFop, and the retroinsular area, frontal afferents from the primary motor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the caudal subdivision of dorsal premotor cortex, as well as afferents from cingulate areas PEci, 23, and 24. The presence and relative strength of these connections depend on the location of injection sites, so that lateral PE receives preferential input from anterior sectors of the medial bank of intraparietal sulcus and from the ventral premotor cortex, whereas medial PE forms denser connections with area PEc and motor fields. In contrast with other posterior parietal areas, there are no projections to PE from occipital or prefrontal cortices. Overall, the sensory and motor afferents to PE are consistent with functions in goal-directed movement but also hint at a wider variety of motor coordination roles.

  7. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Niessen, E; Fink, G R; Weiss, P H

    2014-01-01

    Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a frequent and outcome-relevant sequel of left hemispheric stroke. Deficient pantomiming of object use constitutes a key symptom of apraxia and is assessed when testing for apraxia. To date the neural basis of pantomime remains controversial. We here review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the relevant structural and functional imaging (fMRI/PET) studies. Based on a systematic literature search, 10 structural and 12 functional imaging studies were selected. Structural lesion studies associated pantomiming deficits with left frontal, parietal and temporal lesions. In contrast, functional imaging studies associate pantomimes with left parietal activations, with or without concurrent frontal or temporal activations. Functional imaging studies that selectively activated parietal cortex adopted the most stringent controls. In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal)-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies) and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies) may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly.

  8. Apraxia, pantomime and the parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Niessen, E.; Fink, G.R.; Weiss, P.H.

    2014-01-01

    Apraxia, a disorder of higher motor cognition, is a frequent and outcome-relevant sequel of left hemispheric stroke. Deficient pantomiming of object use constitutes a key symptom of apraxia and is assessed when testing for apraxia. To date the neural basis of pantomime remains controversial. We here review the literature and perform a meta-analysis of the relevant structural and functional imaging (fMRI/PET) studies. Based on a systematic literature search, 10 structural and 12 functional imaging studies were selected. Structural lesion studies associated pantomiming deficits with left frontal, parietal and temporal lesions. In contrast, functional imaging studies associate pantomimes with left parietal activations, with or without concurrent frontal or temporal activations. Functional imaging studies that selectively activated parietal cortex adopted the most stringent controls. In contrast to previous suggestions, current analyses show that both lesion and functional studies support the notion of a left-hemispheric fronto-(temporal)-parietal network underlying pantomiming object use. Furthermore, our review demonstrates that the left parietal cortex plays a key role in pantomime-related processes. More specifically, stringently controlled fMRI-studies suggest that in addition to storing motor schemas, left parietal cortex is also involved in activating these motor schemas in the context of pantomiming object use. In addition to inherent differences between structural and functional imaging studies and consistent with the dedifferentiation hypothesis, the age difference between young healthy subjects (typically included in functional imaging studies) and elderly neurological patients (typically included in structural lesion studies) may well contribute to the finding of a more distributed representation of pantomiming within the motor-dominant left hemisphere in the elderly. PMID:24967158

  9. Effect of plasma proteins on Buprenorphine transfer across dually perfused placental lobule

    PubMed Central

    Nanovskaya, TN; Bowen, RS; Patrikeeva, SL; Hankins, GDV; Ahmed, MS

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this investigation is to determine the effect of human serum albumin (HSA) and α-acid glycoprotein (AAG) on buprenorphine (BUP) transplacental transfer and distribution. Methods The technique of dual perfusion of placental lobule (DPPL) was utilized. Buprenorphine was co-perfused with the marker compound antipyrine (AP). In each experiment, the radiolabeled isotopes [3H]-buprenorphine and [14C]-AP were added to enhance their detection limits. Human plasma proteins, HSA and AAG, were added to both the maternal and fetal circuits separately and in combination at their physiological concentrations in maternal and fetal circulations close to term. Results Transplacental transfer of BUP, in absence of plasma proteins, is a 2-step process: the first is its uptake by the syncytiotrophoblast from the maternal circuit, and the second is its transfer/release from the tissue to the fetal circuit. The addition of HSA to the perfusion medium affected only the second step of BUP transfer, but AAG affected both steps. The combined effect of HSA and AAG was not different from that observed in presence of the latter alone. Conclusions Binding of BUP to circulating AAG could have an important role in the transfer of the drug from the maternal to fetal circulation. PMID:19544152

  10. Sulcus topography of the parietal opercular region: an anatomic and MR study.

    PubMed

    Steinmetz, H; Ebeling, U; Huang, Y X; Kahn, T

    1990-05-01

    The study describes the sulcal and gyral topography, variability, and left-right asymmetry of the parietal operculum. Eighty postmortem hemispheres as well as sagittal magnetic resonance images from 20 health volunteers (40 hemispheres) were evaluated. Four different types of parietal opercular sulcus topography were recognized. Most frequently, and conforming with the anatomic "textbook pattern", the inferior postcentral sulcus (POCS) is the sulcus anterior to the posterior ascending ramus (PAR) of the Sylvian fissure (type 1). Variations were the following: lack of a PAR (type 2), interposition of an intermediate opercular sulcus and gyrus between PAR and POCS (type 3), and direct transition of PAR into POCS with subsequent lack of a classical supramarginal gyrus (type 4). Inconstancy of the sulcal standard arrangement was especially pronounced among left hemispheres, where the patterns differed from type 1 in one third of the cases. Types 2 and 3 were significantly more frequent in left hemispheres, whereas type 4 occurred significantly more frequently in right hemispheres. Upon intraindividual left-right comparison, a remarkable 38% of the brains showed gross asymmetry of the parietal opercular sulcus patterns, characterized by a left type 2 or 3 and/or a right type 4; another 5% exhibited a reverse type of asymmetry. The findings supplement previous data on gross variability and left-right asymmetry of the posterior Sylvian fissure and its lower bank. They indicate that the Sylvian fissure is an unreliable landmark with respect to inferior parietal structures especially in left hemispheres. Individual mapping of perisylvian topography may contribute to studies on structural-functional relationship.

  11. Magnetoencephalography study of right parietal lobe dysfunction of the evoked mirror neuron system in antipsychotic-free schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Yutaka; Muramatsu, Taro; Kato, Motoichiro; Shibukawa, Yoshiyuki; Shintani, Masuro; Mimura, Masaru

    2011-01-01

    Patients with schizophrenia commonly exhibit deficits of non-verbal communication in social contexts, which may be related to cognitive dysfunction that impairs recognition of biological motion. Although perception of biological motion is known to be mediated by the mirror neuron system, there have been few empirical studies of this system in patients with schizophrenia. Using magnetoencephalography, we examined whether antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients displayed mirror neuron system dysfunction during observation of biological motion (jaw movement of another individual). Compared with normal controls, the patients with schizophrenia had fewer components of both the waveform and equivalent current dipole, suggesting aberrant brain activity resulting from dysfunction of the right inferior parietal cortex. They also lacked the changes of alpha band and gamma band oscillation seen in normal controls, and had weaker phase-locking factors and gamma-synchronization predominantly in right parietal cortex. Our findings demonstrate that untreated patients with schizophrenia exhibit aberrant mirror neuron system function based on the right inferior parietal cortex, which is characterized by dysfunction of gamma-synchronization in the right parietal lobe during observation of biological motion.

  12. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force‐related‐BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations

    PubMed Central

    Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S.; Friston, Karl J.; Toosy, Ahmed T.; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler‐Kingshott, Claudia A.M.

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum‐optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non‐linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non‐linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD‐force relationship that is region‐dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp 38:2566–2579, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:28240422

  13. Cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei mirror cortical force-related-BOLD responses: Beyond all (linear) expectations.

    PubMed

    Alahmadi, Adnan A S; Pardini, Matteo; Samson, Rebecca S; Friston, Karl J; Toosy, Ahmed T; D'Angelo, Egidio; Gandini Wheeler-Kingshott, Claudia A M

    2017-02-27

    The relationship between the BOLD response and an applied force was quantified in the cerebellum using a power grip task. To investigate whether the cerebellum responds in an on/off way to motor demands or contributes to motor responses in a parametric fashion, similarly to the cortex, five grip force levels were investigated under visual feedback. Functional MRI data were acquired in 13 healthy volunteers and their responses were analyzed using a cerebellum-optimized pipeline. This allowed us to evaluate, within the cerebellum, voxelwise linear and non-linear associations between cerebellar activations and forces. We showed extensive non-linear activations (with a parametric design), covering the anterior and posterior lobes of the cerebellum with a BOLD-force relationship that is region-dependent. Linear responses were mainly located in the anterior lobe, similarly to the cortex, where linear responses are localized in M1. Complex responses were localized in the posterior lobe, reflecting its key role in attention and executive processing, required during visually guided movement. Given the highly organized responses in the cerebellar cortex, a key question is whether deep cerebellar nuclei show similar parametric effects. We found positive correlations with force in the ipsilateral dentate nucleus and negative correlations on the contralateral side, suggesting a somatotopic organization of the dentate nucleus in line with cerebellar and cortical areas. Our results confirm that there is cerebellar organization involving all grey matter structures that reflect functional segregation in the cortex, where cerebellar lobules and dentate nuclei contribute to complex motor tasks with different BOLD response profiles in relation to the forces. Hum Brain Mapp, 2017. © 2017 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Contribution of the posterior parietal cortex in reaching, grasping, and using objects and tools

    PubMed Central

    Vingerhoets, Guy

    2014-01-01

    Neuropsychological and neuroimaging data suggest a differential contribution of posterior parietal regions during the different components of a transitive gesture. Reaching requires the integration of object location and body position coordinates and reaching tasks elicit bilateral activation in different foci along the intraparietal sulcus. Grasping requires a visuomotor match between the object's shape and the hand's posture. Lesion studies and neuroimaging confirm the importance of the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus for human grasping. Reaching and grasping reveal bilateral activation that is generally more prominent on the side contralateral to the hand used or the hemifield stimulated. Purposeful behavior with objects and tools can be assessed in a variety of ways, including actual use, pantomimed use, and pure imagery of manipulation. All tasks have been shown to elicit robust activation over the left parietal cortex in neuroimaging, but lesion studies have not always confirmed these findings. Compared to pantomimed or imagined gestures, actual object and tool use typically produces activation over the left primary somatosensory region. Neuroimaging studies on pantomiming or imagery of tool use in healthy volunteers revealed neural responses in possibly separate foci in the left supramarginal gyrus. In sum, the parietal contribution of reaching and grasping of objects seems to depend on a bilateral network of intraparietal foci that appear organized along gradients of sensory and effector preferences. Dorsal and medial parietal cortex appears to contribute to the online monitoring/adjusting of the ongoing prehensile action, whereas the functional use of objects and tools seems to involve the inferior lateral parietal cortex. This functional input reveals a clear left lateralized activation pattern that may be tuned to the integration of acquired knowledge in the planning and guidance of the transitive movement. PMID:24634664

  15. Neural correlates of relational reasoning and the symbolic distance effect: involvement of parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Hinton, E C; Dymond, S; von Hecker, U; Evans, C J

    2010-06-16

    A novel, five-term relational reasoning paradigm was employed during functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate neural correlates of the symbolic distance effect (SDE). Prior to scanning, participants learned a series of more-than (E>D>C>B>A) or less-than (AA) and nonadjacent one-step (AA, D>B and E>C) and two-step (AA and E>B) combinatorial entailed tasks. In terms of brain activation, the SDE was identified in the inferior frontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and bilateral parietal cortex with a graded activation pattern from adjacent to one-step and two-step relations. We suggest that this captures the behavioural SDE of increased accuracy and decreased reaction time from adjacent to two-step relations. One-step relations involving endpoints A or E resulted in greater parietal activation compared to one-step relations without endpoints. Novel contrasts found enhanced activation in right parietal and prefrontal cortices during mutually entailed tasks only for participants who had learned all less-than relations. Increased parietal activation was found for one-step tasks that were inconsistent with prior training. Overall, the findings demonstrate a crucial role for parietal cortex during relational reasoning with a spatially ordered array.

  16. Monitoring for target objects: activation of right frontal and parietal cortices with increasing time on task.

    PubMed

    Coull, J T; Frackowiak, R S; Frith, C D

    1998-12-01

    The right prefrontal and parietal cortices have been implicated in attentional processing in both neuropsychological and functional neuroimaging literature. However, attention is a heterogeneous collection of processes, each of which may be underpinned by different neural networks. These attentional networks may interact, such that engaging one type of attentional process could influence the efficiency of another via overlapping neural substrates. We investigated the hypothesis that right frontal and parietal cortices provide the neuroanatomical location of the functional interaction between sustained attention and the process of selectively monitoring for target objects. Six healthy volunteers performed one of two tasks which required either selective or non-selective responding. The task lasted continuously for 18 min, during which time 3 Positron Emission Tomography (PET) scans were acquired for each task. This was repeated to obtain 12 PET measurements of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) for each subject. The right inferior frontal and parietal cortices were differentially activated by increasing time on task during the selective (S) vs non-selective (NS) task. Specifically, rCBF decreased with increasing time spent performing the NS task but not the S task. This result suggests that the normal deactivation in these areas as time on task increases is counteracted by the extra cognitive demands of selectively responding to target objects. Therefore, we have confirmed our hypothesis that right frontal and parietal cortices provide the neuroanatomical location for the modulation of object selection by sustained attention. We also identified the neuroanatomical correlates of each process separately, and confirmed earlier reports of prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate activation associated with selective responding, and a fronto-parietal-thalamic network associated with sustained attention.

  17. From visual affordances in monkey parietal cortex to hippocampo-parietal interactions underlying rat navigation.

    PubMed Central

    Arbib, M A

    1997-01-01

    This paper explores the hypothesis that various subregions (but by no means all) of the posterior parietal cortex are specialized to process visual information to extract a variety of affordances for behaviour. Two biologically based models of regions of the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey are introduced. The model of the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) emphasizes its roles in dynamic remapping of the representation of targets during a double saccade task, and in combining stored, updated input with current visual input. The model of the anterior intraparietal area (AIP) addresses parietal-premotor interactions involved in grasping, and analyses the interaction between the AIP and premotor area F5. The model represents the role of other intraparietal areas working in concert with the inferotemporal cortex as well as with corollary discharge from F5 to provide and augment the affordance information in the AIP, and suggests how various constraints may resolve the action opportunities provided by multiple affordances. Finally, a systems-level model of hippocampo parietal interactions underlying rat navigation is developed, motivated by the monkey data used in developing the above two models as well as by data on neurones in the posterior parietal cortex of the monkey that are sensitive to visual motion. The formal similarity between dynamic remapping (primate saccades) and path integration (rat navigation) is noted, and certain available data on rat posterior parietal cortex in terms of affordances for locomotion are explained. The utility of further modelling, linking the World Graph model of cognitive maps for motivated behaviour with hippocampal-parietal interactions involved in navigation, is also suggested. These models demonstrate that posterior parietal cortex is not only itself a network of interacting subsystems, but functions through cooperative computation with many other brain regions. PMID:9368931

  18. Beyond Natural Numbers: Negative Number Representation in Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Blair, Kristen P.; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M.; Schwartz, Daniel L.; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference <4) or far apart (difference >6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation. PMID:22363276

  19. Frontal and Parietal Contributions to Probabilistic Association Learning

    PubMed Central

    Rushby, Jacqueline A.; Vercammen, Ans; Loo, Colleen; Short, Brooke

    2011-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown both dorsolateral prefrontal (DLPFC) and inferior parietal cortex (iPARC) activation during probabilistic association learning. Whether these cortical brain regions are necessary for probabilistic association learning is presently unknown. Participants' ability to acquire probabilistic associations was assessed during disruptive 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left DLPFC, left iPARC, and sham using a crossover single-blind design. On subsequent sessions, performance improved relative to baseline except during DLPFC rTMS that disrupted the early acquisition beneficial effect of prior exposure. A second experiment examining rTMS effects on task-naive participants showed that neither DLPFC rTMS nor sham influenced naive acquisition of probabilistic associations. A third experiment examining consecutive administration of the probabilistic association learning test revealed early trial interference from previous exposure to different probability schedules. These experiments, showing disrupted acquisition of probabilistic associations by rTMS only during subsequent sessions with an intervening night's sleep, suggest that the DLPFC may facilitate early access to learned strategies or prior task-related memories via consolidation. Although neuroimaging studies implicate DLPFC and iPARC in probabilistic association learning, the present findings suggest that early acquisition of the probabilistic cue-outcome associations in task-naive participants is not dependent on either region. PMID:21216842

  20. Beyond natural numbers: negative number representation in parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Blair, Kristen P; Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Tsang, Jessica M; Schwartz, Daniel L; Menon, Vinod

    2012-01-01

    Unlike natural numbers, negative numbers do not have natural physical referents. How does the brain represent such abstract mathematical concepts? Two competing hypotheses regarding representational systems for negative numbers are a rule-based model, in which symbolic rules are applied to negative numbers to translate them into positive numbers when assessing magnitudes, and an expanded magnitude model, in which negative numbers have a distinct magnitude representation. Using an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we examined brain responses in 22 adults while they performed magnitude comparisons of negative and positive numbers that were quantitatively near (difference <4) or far apart (difference >6). Reaction times (RTs) for negative numbers were slower than positive numbers, and both showed a distance effect whereby near pairs took longer to compare. A network of parietal, frontal, and occipital regions were differentially engaged by negative numbers. Specifically, compared to positive numbers, negative number processing resulted in greater activation bilaterally in intraparietal sulcus (IPS), middle frontal gyrus, and inferior lateral occipital cortex. Representational similarity analysis revealed that neural responses in the IPS were more differentiated among positive numbers than among negative numbers, and greater differentiation among negative numbers was associated with faster RTs. Our findings indicate that despite negative numbers engaging the IPS more strongly, the underlying neural representation are less distinct than that of positive numbers. We discuss our findings in the context of the two theoretical models of negative number processing and demonstrate how multivariate approaches can provide novel insights into abstract number representation.

  1. Ethanol exposure during development reduces GABAergic/glycinergic neuron numbers and lobule volumes in the mouse cerebellar vermis.

    PubMed

    Nirgudkar, Pranita; Taylor, Devin H; Yanagawa, Yuchio; Valenzuela, C Fernando

    2016-10-06

    Cerebellar alterations are a hallmark of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders and are thought to be responsible for deficits in fine motor control, motor learning, balance, and higher cognitive functions. These deficits are, in part, a consequence of dysfunction of cerebellar circuits. Although the effect of developmental ethanol exposure on Purkinje and granule cells has been previously characterized, its actions on other cerebellar neuronal populations are not fully understood. Here, we assessed the impact of repeated ethanol exposure on the number of inhibitory neurons in the cerebellar vermis. We exposed pregnant mice to ethanol in vapor inhalation chambers during gestational days 12-19 and offspring during postnatal days 2-9. We used transgenic mice expressing the fluorescent protein, Venus, in GABAergic/glycinergic neurons. Using unbiased stereology techniques, we detected a reduction in Venus positive neurons in the molecular and granule cell layers of lobule II in the ethanol exposed group at postnatal day 16. In contrast, ethanol produced a more widespread reduction in Purkinje cell numbers that involved lobules II, IV-V and IX. We also found a reduction in the volume of lobules II, IV-V, VI-VII, IX and X in ethanol-exposed pups. These findings indicate that second and third trimester-equivalent ethanol exposure has a greater impact on Purkinje cells than interneurons in the developing cerebellar vermis. The decrease in the volume of most lobules could be a consequence of a reduction in cell numbers, dendritic arborizations, or axonal projections. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Effective brain connectivity in children with reading difficulties during phonological processing.

    PubMed

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R

    2008-11-01

    Using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined effective connectivity between three left hemisphere brain regions (inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus) and bilateral medial frontal gyrus in 12 children with reading difficulties (M age=12.4, range: 8.11-14.10) and 12 control children (M age=12.3, range: 8.9-14.11) during rhyming judgments to visually presented words. More difficult conflicting trials either had similar orthography but different phonology (e.g. pint-mint) or similar phonology but different orthography (e.g. jazz-has). Easier non-conflicting trials had similar orthography and phonology (e.g. dime-lime) or different orthography and phonology (e.g. staff-gain). The modulatory effect from left fusiform gyrus to left inferior parietal lobule was stronger in controls than in children with reading difficulties only for conflicting trials. Modulatory effects from left fusiform gyrus and left inferior parietal lobule to left inferior frontal gyrus were stronger for conflicting trials than for non-conflicting trials only in control children but not in children with reading difficulties. Modulatory effects from left inferior frontal gyrus to inferior parietal lobule, from medial frontal gyrus to left inferior parietal lobule, and from left inferior parietal lobule to medial frontal gyrus were positively correlated with reading skill only in control children. These findings suggest that children with reading difficulties have deficits in integrating orthography and phonology utilizing left inferior parietal lobule, and in engaging phonological rehearsal/segmentation utilizing left inferior frontal gyrus possibly through the indirect pathway connecting posterior to anterior language processing regions, especially when the orthographic and phonological information is conflicting.

  3. Dissociable Changes of Frontal and Parietal Cortices in Inherent Functional Flexibility across the Human Life Span.

    PubMed

    Yin, Dazhi; Liu, Wenjing; Zeljic, Kristina; Wang, Zhiwei; Lv, Qian; Fan, Mingxia; Cheng, Wenhong; Wang, Zheng

    2016-09-28

    Extensive evidence suggests that frontoparietal regions can dynamically update their pattern of functional connectivity, supporting cognitive control and adaptive implementation of task demands. However, it is largely unknown whether this flexibly functional reconfiguration is intrinsic and occurs even in the absence of overt tasks. Based on recent advances in dynamics of resting-state functional resonance imaging (fMRI), we propose a probabilistic framework in which dynamic reconfiguration of intrinsic functional connectivity between each brain region and others can be represented as a probability distribution. A complexity measurement (i.e., entropy) was used to quantify functional flexibility, which characterizes heterogeneous connectivity between a particular region and others over time. Following this framework, we identified both functionally flexible and specialized regions over the human life span (112 healthy subjects from 13 to 76 years old). Across brainwide regions, we found regions showing high flexibility mainly in the higher-order association cortex, such as the lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC), lateral parietal cortex, and lateral temporal lobules. In contrast, visual, auditory, and sensory areas exhibited low flexibility. Furthermore, we observed that flexibility of the right LPFC improved during maturation and reduced due to normal aging, with the opposite occurring for the left lateral parietal cortex. Our findings reveal dissociable changes of frontal and parietal cortices over the life span in terms of inherent functional flexibility. This study not only provides a new framework to quantify the spatiotemporal behavior of spontaneous brain activity, but also sheds light on the organizational principle behind changes in brain function across the human life span. Recent neuroscientific research has demonstrated that the human capability of adaptive task control is primarily the result of the flexible operation of frontal brain networks. However

  4. Maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese in perfused human placental lobule in vitro.

    PubMed

    Nandakumaran, Moorkath; Al-Sannan, Baydaa; Al-Sarraf, Hameed; Al-Shammari, Majed

    2016-01-01

    There have been no detailed reports relating to maternal-fetal transport kinetics of manganese, an essential trace element in the human pregnancies, and hence we have attempted to study the transport kinetics of this trace element in the human placenta in vitro. Human placentae from normal uncomplicated pregnancies were collected postpartum. Manganese chloride solution (GFS Chem Inc., Columbus, OH), 10 times the physiological concentrations, along with antipyrine (Sigma Chem Co., St. Louis, MO) as reference marker were then injected as a single bolus (100 µl) into the maternal arterial circulation of perfused placental lobules and perfusate samples collected from maternal and fetal circulations over a period of five minutes. National Culture and Tissue Collection medium, diluted with Earle's buffered salt solution was used as the perfusate and serial perfusate samples from fetal venous perfusate collected for a period of 30 min. Concentration of manganese in perfusate samples was assessed by atomic absorption spectrophotometry, while that of antipyrine was assessed by spectrophotometry. Transport kinetics of substances studied were computed using established permeation parameters. Differential transport rates of manganese and antipyrine in 12 perfusions differed significantly for 25.75, 90% efflux fractions (ANOVA test, p < 0.05), while those of 10 and 50% efflux fractions were not significantly different between the study and reference substances. Transport fraction (TF) of manganese averaged 54.9% of bolus dose in 12 perfusions, whereas that of antipyrine averaged 89% of bolus dose, representing 61.80% of reference marker TF. The difference observed in TF values of manganese and antipyrine was statistically significant (Student's t-test, p < 0.05). Pharmacokinetic parameters such as area under the curve, clearance, absorption rate, elimination rate of manganese compared to reference marker were significantly different (ANOVA test, p < 0

  5. Social Distance Evaluation in Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Yamakawa, Yoshinori; Kanai, Ryota; Matsumura, Michikazu; Naito, Eiichi

    2009-01-01

    Across cultures, social relationships are often thought of, described, and acted out in terms of physical space (e.g. “close friends” “high lord”). Does this cognitive mapping of social concepts arise from shared brain resources for processing social and physical relationships? Using fMRI, we found that the tasks of evaluating social compatibility and of evaluating physical distances engage a common brain substrate in the parietal cortex. The present study shows the possibility of an analytic brain mechanism to process and represent complex networks of social relationships. Given parietal cortex's known role in constructing egocentric maps of physical space, our present findings may help to explain the linguistic, psychological and behavioural links between social and physical space. PMID:19204791

  6. Electrocorticography reveals the temporal dynamics of posterior parietal cortical activity during recognition memory decisions

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez, Alex; Hutchinson, J. Benjamin; Uncapher, Melina R.; Chen, Janice; LaRocque, Karen F.; Foster, Brett L.; Rangarajan, Vinitha; Parvizi, Josef; Wagner, Anthony D.

    2015-01-01

    Theories of the neurobiology of episodic memory predominantly focus on the contributions of medial temporal lobe structures, based on extensive lesion, electrophysiological, and imaging evidence. Against this backdrop, functional neuroimaging data have unexpectedly implicated left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in episodic retrieval, revealing distinct activation patterns in PPC subregions as humans make memory-related decisions. To date, theorizing about the functional contributions of PPC has been hampered by the absence of information about the temporal dynamics of PPC activity as retrieval unfolds. Here, we leveraged electrocorticography to examine the temporal profile of high gamma power (HGP) in dorsal PPC subregions as participants made old/new recognition memory decisions. A double dissociation in memory-related HGP was observed, with activity in left intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left superior parietal lobule (SPL) differing in time and sign for recognized old items (Hits) and correctly rejected novel items (CRs). Specifically, HGP in left IPS increased for Hits 300–700 ms poststimulus onset, and decayed to baseline ∼200 ms preresponse. By contrast, HGP in left SPL increased for CRs early after stimulus onset (200−300 ms) and late in the memory decision (from 700 ms to response). These memory-related effects were unique to left PPC, as they were not observed in right PPC. Finally, memory-related HGP in left IPS and SPL was sufficiently reliable to enable brain-based decoding of the participant’s memory state at the single-trial level, using multivariate pattern classification. Collectively, these data provide insights into left PPC temporal dynamics as humans make recognition memory decisions. PMID:26283375

  7. Towards an understanding of parietal mnemonic processes: some conceptual guideposts

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Daniel A.

    2012-01-01

    The posterior parietal lobes have been implicated in a range of episodic memory retrieval tasks, but the nature of parietal contributions to remembering remains unclear. In an attempt to identify fruitful avenues of further research, several heuristic questions about parietal mnemonic activations are considered in light of recent empirical findings: Do such parietal activations reflect memory processes, or their contents? Do they precede, follow, or co-occur with retrieval? What can we learn from their pattern of lateralization? Do they index access to episodic representations, or the feeling of remembering? Are parietal activations graded by memory strength, quantity of retrieved information, or the type of retrieval? How do memory-related activations map onto functional parcellation of parietal lobes suggested by other cognitive phenomena? Consideration of these questions can promote understanding of the relationship between parietal mnemonic effects and perceptual, attentional, and action-oriented cognitive processes. PMID:22783175

  8. Morbidity profile following aggressive resection of parietal lobe gliomas.

    PubMed

    Sanai, Nader; Martino, Juan; Berger, Mitchel S

    2012-06-01

    The impact of parietal lobe gliomas is typically studied in the context of parietal lobe syndromes. However, critical language pathways traverse the parietal lobe and are susceptible during tumor resection. The authors of this study reviewed their experience with parietal gliomas to characterize the impact of resection and the morbidity associated with language. The study population included adults who had undergone resection of parietal gliomas of all grades. Tumor location was identified according to a proposed classification system for parietal region gliomas. Low- and high-grade tumors were volumetrically analyzed using FLAIR and T1-weighted contrast-enhanced MR imaging. One hundred nineteen patients with parietal gliomas were identified--34 with low-grade gliomas and 85 with high-grade gliomas. The median patient age was 45 years, and most patients (53) presented with seizures, whereas only 4 patients had an appreciable parietal lobe syndrome. The median preoperative tumor volume was 31.3 cm(3), the median extent of resection was 96%, and the median postoperative tumor volume was 0.9 cm(3). Surprisingly, the most common early postoperative neurological deficit was dysphasia (16 patients), not weakness (12 patients), sensory deficits (14 patients), or parietal lobe syndrome (10 patients). A proposed parietal glioma classification system, based on surgical anatomy, was predictive of language deficits. This is the largest reported experience with parietal lobe gliomas. The findings suggested that parietal language pathways are compromised at a surprisingly high rate. The proposed parietal glioma classification system is predictive of postoperative morbidity associated with language and can assist with preoperative planning. Taken together, these data emphasize the value of identifying language pathways when operating within the parietal lobe.

  9. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Branca, Mario

    2010-09-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior" mirage.2 The most common example of an inferior mirage is when, on a hot day, a stretch of dry road off in the distance appears to be wet (see Fig. 1). Many lab activities have been described that simulate the formation of superior mirages. In these demonstrations light beams curve downward as they pass through a nonuni-form fluid.3-6 Much less common are laboratory demonstrations of upward-curving light rays of the kind responsible for inferior mirages. This paper describes a simple version of such a demonstration.

  10. Multisensory Interactions Influence Neuronal Spike Train Dynamics in the Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    VanGilder, Paul; Shi, Ying; Apker, Gregory; Dyson, Keith; Buneo, Christopher A.

    2016-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made in understanding multisensory interactions at the behavioral level, their underlying neural mechanisms remain relatively poorly understood in cortical areas, particularly during the control of action. In recent experiments where animals reached to and actively maintained their arm position at multiple spatial locations while receiving either proprioceptive or visual-proprioceptive position feedback, multisensory interactions were shown to be associated with reduced spiking (i.e. subadditivity) as well as reduced intra-trial and across-trial spiking variability in the superior parietal lobule (SPL). To further explore the nature of such interaction-induced changes in spiking variability we quantified the spike train dynamics of 231 of these neurons. Neurons were classified as Poisson, bursty, refractory, or oscillatory (in the 13–30 Hz “beta-band”) based on their spike train power spectra and autocorrelograms. No neurons were classified as Poisson-like in either the proprioceptive or visual-proprioceptive conditions. Instead, oscillatory spiking was most commonly observed with many neurons exhibiting these oscillations under only one set of feedback conditions. The results suggest that the SPL may belong to a putative beta-synchronized network for arm position maintenance and that position estimation may be subserved by different subsets of neurons within this network depending on available sensory information. In addition, the nature of the observed spiking variability suggests that models of multisensory interactions in the SPL should account for both Poisson-like and non-Poisson variability. PMID:28033334

  11. Functional organization of human posterior parietal cortex: grasping- and reaching-related activations relative to topographically organized cortex

    PubMed Central

    Konen, Christina S.; Mruczek, Ryan E. B.; Montoya, Jessica L.

    2013-01-01

    The act of reaching to grasp an object requires the coordination between transporting the arm and shaping the hand. Neurophysiological, neuroimaging, neuroanatomic, and neuropsychological studies in macaque monkeys and humans suggest that the neural networks underlying grasping and reaching acts are at least partially separable within the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). To better understand how these neural networks have evolved in primates, we characterized the relationship between grasping- and reaching-related responses and topographically organized areas of the human intraparietal sulcus (IPS) using functional MRI. Grasping-specific activation was localized to the left anterior IPS, partially overlapping with the most anterior topographic regions and extending into the postcentral sulcus. Reaching-specific activation was localized to the left precuneus and superior parietal lobule, partially overlapping with the medial aspects of the more posterior topographic regions. Although the majority of activity within the topographic regions of the IPS was nonspecific with respect to movement type, we found evidence for a functional gradient of specificity for reaching and grasping movements spanning posterior-medial to anterior-lateral PPC. In contrast to the macaque monkey, grasp- and reach-specific activations were largely located outside of the human IPS. PMID:23515795

  12. Transcriptional Landscape of Glomerular Parietal Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gharib, Sina A.; Pippin, Jeffrey W.; Ohse, Takamoto; Pickering, Scott G.; Krofft, Ronald D.; Shankland, Stuart J.

    2014-01-01

    Very little is known about the function of glomerular parietal epithelial cells (PECs). In this study, we performed genome-wide expression analysis on PEC-enriched capsulated vs. PEC-deprived decapsulated rat glomeruli to determine the transcriptional state of PECs under normal conditions. We identified hundreds of differentially expressed genes that mapped to distinct biologic modules including development, tight junction, ion transport, and metabolic processes. Since developmental programs were highly enriched in PECs, we characterized several of their candidate members at the protein level. Collectively, our findings confirm that PECs are multifaceted cells and help define their diverse functional repertoire. PMID:25127402

  13. Autologus parietal grafts in preprosthethic surgery

    PubMed Central

    GHERLONE, E.F.; VINCI, R.; D’AVERSA, L.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY Edentulous patients usually request implant supported/fixed rehabilitation. Ridge resorption after teeth loss usually affect three-dimensional implant position. Vertical and/or horizontal bone augmentation procedures are often the only choice the clinician has to deliver prosthetic guided restoration. Gold standard for augmentation procedures such as sinus lift, onlay or inlay grafts, is still autologous bone. The patient in this report underwent a pre-prosthetic reconstruction of the jaws with parietal bone, followed by fixtures insertion and fixed prosthetic rehabilitation. This clinical report aims to underline the importance of multidisciplinary treatment to optimize the results of the rehabilitation. PMID:23285358

  14. Abstract categories of functions in anterior parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Leshinskaya, Anna; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-09-01

    Knowledge of function is critical for selecting objects to meet action goals, even when the affordances of those objects are not mechanical-for instance, both a painting and a vase can decorate a room. To identify neural representations of such abstract function concepts, we asked participants in an fMRI scanner to view a variety of objects and evaluate their utility to each of four goals (two Decoration goals: dress up for a night out and decorate a house, and two Protection goals: protect your body from the cold and keep objects dry in a flooded basement). These task conditions differed in the kind of functional evaluation participants had to perform over objects, but did not vary in the objects themselves. We performed a searchlight multivariate pattern analysis to identify cortical representations in which neural patterns were more similar for the pairs of similar-goal than dissimilar-goal task conditions (Decorate vs. Protect). We report such effects in anterior inferior parietal lobe (aIPL) close to regions typically reported for processing tool-related actions, and thought to be important for representing how they are manipulated. However, the current study design fully controlled for manipulation similarity, which predicted orthogonal relationships among the conditions. We conclude that the aIPL likely has nearby, but distinct, representations of both manipulation and function knowledge, and thereby may have a broader role in understanding how objects can be used, representing not just physical affordances but also abstract functional criteria such as esthetic value or purpose categories such as decorate. This pattern of localization has implications for how semantic knowledge is organized in the brain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Number processing pathways in human parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Santens, Seppe; Roggeman, Chantal; Fias, Wim; Verguts, Tom

    2010-01-01

    Numerous studies have identified the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) as an area critically involved in numerical processing. IPS neurons in macaques are tuned to a preferred numerosity, hence neurally coding numerosity in a number-selective way. Neuroimaging studies in humans have demonstrated number-selective processing in the anterior parts of the IPS. Nevertheless, the processes that convert visual input into a number-selective neural code remain unknown. Computational studies have suggested that a neural coding stage that is sensitive, but not selective to number, precedes number-selective coding when processing nonsymbolic quantities but not when processing symbolic quantities. In Experiment 1, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to localize number-sensitive areas in the human brain by searching for areas exhibiting increasing activation with increasing number, carefully controlling for nonnumerical parameters. An area in posterior superior parietal cortex was identified as a substrate for the intermediate number-sensitive steps required for processing nonsymbolic quantities. In Experiment 2, the interpretation of Experiment 1 was confirmed with a connectivity analysis showing that a shared number-selective representation in IPS is reached through different pathways for symbolic versus nonsymbolic quantities. The preferred pathway for processing nonsymbolic quantities included the number-sensitive area in superior parietal cortex, whereas the pathway for processing symbolic quantities did not.

  16. The right parietal lobe is critical for visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Olson, Ingrid R

    2008-01-01

    Visual working memory (VWM) permits the maintenance of object identities and their locations across brief delays such as those accompanying eye movements. Recent neuroimaging studies have emphasized the role of the posterior parietal lobe in this process although the specific nature of this involvement in VWM remains controversial. Neuroimaging findings suggest that the parietal lobe may have a general role in remembering various types of visual information whereas neuropsychological findings suggest that parietal involvement is primarily related to motor spatial attention and spatial memory. In the present study, patients with unilateral right parietal lobe damage, lacking symptoms of neglect, were tested in several VWM old/new recognition tasks. Parietal damage lead to impaired performance on all VWM tasks, including spatial, object, and object/spatial conjunction tasks. Deficits were found across several stimulus categories. These results provide neuropsychological support for neuroimaging results, and more generally indicate that the parietal lobe serves a general role in diverse forms of VWM.

  17. Is the parietal lobe necessary for recollection in humans?

    PubMed

    Simons, Jon S; Peers, Polly V; Hwang, David Y; Ally, Brandon A; Fletcher, Paul C; Budson, Andrew E

    2008-03-07

    An intriguing puzzle in cognitive neuroscience over recent years has been the common observation of parietal lobe activation in functional neuroimaging studies during the performance of human memory tasks. These findings have surprised scientists and clinicians because they challenge decades of established thinking that the parietal lobe does not support memory function. However, direct empirical investigation of whether circumscribed parietal lobe lesions might indeed be associated with human memory impairment has been lacking. Here we confirm using functional magnetic resonance imaging that significant parietal lobe activation is observed in healthy volunteers during a task assessing recollection of the context in which events previously occurred. However, patients with parietal lobe lesions that overlap closely with the regions activated in the healthy volunteers nevertheless exhibit normal performance on the same recollection task. Thus, although the processes subserved by the human parietal lobe appear to be recruited to support memory function, they are not a necessary requirement for accurate remembering to occur.

  18. Sleep paralysis and "the bedroom intruder": the role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection.

    PubMed

    Jalal, Baland; Ramachandran, Vilayanur S

    2014-12-01

    Sleep paralysis (SP) is a common condition occurring either at sleep onset or sleep offset. During SP the sleeper experiences gross motor paralysis while the sensory system is clear. Hypnogogic and hypnopompic hallucinations are common during SP and may involve seeing, hearing, and sensing the presence of menacing intruders in one's bedroom. This "intruder" is often perceived as a shadowy humanoid figure. Supernatural accounts of this hallucinated intruder are common across cultures. In this paper, we postulate that a functional disturbance of the right parietal cortex explains the shadowy nocturnal bedroom intruder hallucination during SP. This hallucination may arise due to a disturbance in the multisensory processing of body and self at the temporoparietal junction. We specifically propose that this perceived intruder is the result of a hallucinated projection of the genetically "hard-wired" body image (homunculus), in the right parietal region; namely, the same circuits that dictate aesthetic and sexual preference of body morphology. One way to test this hypothesis would be to study clinical populations who may have genetically acquired "irregularities" in their internal hard-wired body image in the right superior parietal lobule (SPL); for example, individuals with apotemnophilia or anorexia nervosa. If such individuals experience SP (e.g., induced in a sleep lab), and they hallucinate this shadowy figure, one would predict that they would see humanoid shadows and shapes with body irregularities, mirroring their own internal body image morphology. If correct, our hypothesis will offer a neurological explanation for this nocturnal bedroom intruder that has been a source of controversy, and striking and implausible cultural interpretations throughout history. Indeed, if our proposed hypothesis is tested and corroborated, dissemination of such findings would provide great relief to SP experiencers worldwide and could potentially be used in a therapeutic context.

  19. Distinct contributions by frontal and parietal cortices support working memory.

    PubMed

    Mackey, Wayne E; Curtis, Clayton E

    2017-07-21

    Although subregions of frontal and parietal cortex both contribute and coordinate to support working memory (WM) functions, their distinct contributions remain elusive. Here, we demonstrate that perturbations to topographically organized human frontal and parietal cortex during WM maintenance cause distinct but systematic distortions in WM. The nature of these distortions supports theories positing that parietal cortex mainly codes for retrospective sensory information, while frontal cortex codes for prospective action.

  20. Prolonged ictal monoparesis with parietal Periodic Lateralised Epileptiform Discharges (PLEDs).

    PubMed

    Murahara, Takashi; Kinoshita, Masako; Usami, Kiyohide; Matsui, Masashi; Yamashita, Kouhei; Takahashi, Ryosuke; Ikeda, Akio

    2013-06-01

    We report a patient with prolonged monoparesis and parietal periodic lateralised epileptiform discharges (PLEDs). The patient was a 73-year-old man with chronic myelomonocytic leukaemia who developed persisting monoparesis of the right arm, sensory aphasia, and finger agnosia, initially associated with focal clonic seizures. These neurological deficits remained for seven days without subsequent focal clonic seizures. The EEG showed left-sided PLEDs, maximal in the left occipito-parietal area. Ten days later, following phenytoin treatment, these symptoms suddenly improved and parietal PLEDs disappeared. Sustained PLEDs in the left parietal region may have been causally associated with ictal paresis in this patient.

  1. Alzheimer's disease: the downside of a highly evolved parietal lobe?

    PubMed

    Bruner, Emiliano; Jacobs, Heidi I L

    2013-01-01

    Clinical grade Alzheimer's disease (AD) is only described in humans. Recent imaging studies in early AD patients showed that the parietal areas display the most prominent metabolic impairments. So far, neuroimaging studies have not been able to explain why the medial parietal regions possess this hub characteristic in AD. Paleoneurological and neuroanatomical studies suggest that our species, Homo sapiens, has a unique and derived organization of the parietal areas, which are involved in higher cognitive functions. Combining evidence from neuroimaging, paleontology, and comparative anatomy, we suggest that the vulnerability of the parietal lobe to neurodegenerative processes may be associated with the origin of our species. The species-specific parietal morphology in modern humans largely influenced the brain spatial organization, and it involved changes in vascularization and energy management, which may underlie the sensitivity of these areas to metabolic impairment. Metabolic constraints and anatomical evolutionary changes in the medial parietal regions of modern humans may be important in early AD onset. Taking into account the species-specific adaptations of the modern human parietal areas and their association with AD, we hypothesize that AD can be the evolutionary drawback of the specialized structure of our parietal lobes. The cognitive advantage is associated with increased sensitivity to neurodegenerative processes which, being limited to the post-reproductive period, have a minor effect on the overall genetic fitness. The changes of energy requirements associated with form and size variations at the parietal areas may support the hypothesis of AD as a metabolic syndrome.

  2. Callosal alien hand sign following a right parietal lobe infarction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Do; Lee, Eek-Sung; Lee, Kwang-Soo; Kim, Joong-Seok

    2010-06-01

    Callosal alien hand syndrome is characterized primarily by intermanual conflict and is associated with an anterior callosal lesion. We report a patient who presented with topographical disorientation and the callosal type alien hand sign. An MRI of the brain showed a right parietal lobe infarction. This is a rare example of callosal alien hand sign associated with a right parietal lesion. The right parietal lobe appeared to be responsible for the callosal hand sign in this patient, possibly due to interference with peristriate outflow pathways toward the parietal zones, where visual somatosensory interactions are likely to occur. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Age-related temporal and parietal cortical thinning in autism spectrum disorders.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Gregory L; Dankner, Nathan; Kenworthy, Lauren; Giedd, Jay N; Martin, Alex

    2010-12-01

    Studies of head size and brain volume in autism spectrum disorders have suggested that early cortical overgrowth may be followed by prematurely arrested growth. However, the few investigations quantifying cortical thickness have yielded inconsistent results, probably due to variable ages and/or small sample sizes. We assessed differences in cortical thickness between high-functioning adolescent and young adult males with autism spectrum disorders (n = 41) and matched typically developing males (n = 40). We hypothesized thinner cortex, particularly in frontal, parietal and temporal regions, for individuals with autism spectrum disorders in comparison with typically developing controls. Furthermore, we expected to find an age × diagnosis interaction: with increasing age, more pronounced cortical thinning would be observed in autism spectrum disorders than typically developing participants. T(1)-weighted magnetization prepared rapid gradient echo 3 T magnetic resonance imaging scans were acquired from high-functioning males with autism spectrum disorders and from typically developing males matched group-wise on age (range 12-24 years), intelligence quotient (≥ 85) and handedness. Both gyral-level and vertex-based analyses revealed significantly thinner cortex in the autism spectrum disorders group that was located predominantly in left temporal and parietal regions (i.e. the superior temporal sulcus, inferior temporal, postcentral/superior parietal and supramarginal gyri). These findings remained largely unchanged after controlling for intelligence quotient and after accounting for psychotropic medication usage and comorbid psychopathology. Furthermore, a significant age × diagnosis interaction was found in the left fusiform/inferior temporal cortex: participants with autism spectrum disorders had thinner cortex in this region with increasing age to a greater degree than did typically developing participants. Follow-up within group comparisons revealed significant

  4. Is the Posterior Parietal Lobe Involved in Working Memory Retrieval? Evidence from Patients with Bilateral Parietal Lobe Damage

    PubMed Central

    Berryhill, Marian E.; Olson, Ingrid R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the parietal lobe has an important role in memory retrieval, yet neuropsychology is largely silent on this topic. Recently, we reported that unilateral parietal lobe damage impairs various forms of visual working memory when tested by old/new recognition. Here, we investigate whether parietal lobe working memory deficits are linked to problems at retrieval. We tested two patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage in a series of visual working memory tasks that probed recall and old/new recognition. Stimuli were presented sequentially and several stimulus categories were tested. The results of these experiments show that parietal lobe damage disproportionately impairs old/new recognition as compared to cued recall across stimulus categories. The observed performance dissociation suggests that the posterior parietal lobe plays a particularly vital role in working memory retrieval. PMID:18439630

  5. Is the posterior parietal lobe involved in working memory retrieval? Evidence from patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage

    PubMed Central

    Berryhill, M.E.; Olson, I.R.

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the parietal lobe has an important role in memory retrieval, yet neuropsychology is largely silent on this topic. Recently, we reported that unilateral parietal lobe damage impairs various forms of visual working memory when tested by old/new recognition. Here, we investigate whether parietal lobe working memory deficits are linked to problems at retrieval. We tested two patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage in a series of visual working memory tasks that probed recall and old/new recognition. Stimuli were presented sequentially and several stimulus categories were tested. The results of these experiments show that parietal lobe damage disproportionately impairs old/new recognition as compared to cued recall across stimulus categories. The observed performance dissociation suggests that the posterior parietal lobe plays a particularly vital role in working memory retrieval. PMID:18308348

  6. Is the posterior parietal lobe involved in working memory retrieval? Evidence from patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage.

    PubMed

    Berryhill, Marian E; Olson, Ingrid R

    2008-01-01

    Neuroimaging evidence suggests that the parietal lobe has an important role in memory retrieval, yet neuropsychology is largely silent on this topic. Recently, we reported that unilateral parietal lobe damage impairs various forms of visual working memory when tested by old/new recognition. Here, we investigate whether parietal lobe working memory deficits are linked to problems at retrieval. We tested two patients with bilateral parietal lobe damage in a series of visual working memory tasks that probed recall and old/new recognition. Stimuli were presented sequentially and several stimulus categories were tested. The results of these experiments show that parietal lobe damage disproportionately impairs old/new recognition as compared to cued recall across stimulus categories. The observed performance dissociation suggests that the posterior parietal lobe plays a particularly vital role in working memory retrieval.

  7. Muscarinic responses of gastric parietal cells

    SciTech Connect

    Wilkes, J.M.; Kajimura, M.; Scott, D.R.; Hersey, S.J.; Sachs, G. )

    1991-06-01

    Isolated rabbit gastric glands were used to study the nature of the muscarinic cholinergic responses of parietal cells. Carbachol stimulation of acid secretion, as measured by the accumulation of aminopyrine, was inhibited by the M1 antagonist, pirenzepine, with an IC50 of 13 microM; by the M2 antagonist, 11,2-(diethylamino)methyl-1 piperidinyl acetyl-5,11-dihydro-6H-pyrido 2,3-b 1,4 benzodiazepin-6-one (AF-DX 116), with an IC50 of 110 microM; and by the M1/M3 antagonist, diphenyl-acetoxy-4-methylpiperidinemethiodide, with an IC50 of 35 nM. The three antagonists displayed equivalent IC50 values for the inhibition of carbachol-stimulated production of 14CO2 from radiolabeled glucose, which is a measure of the turnover of the H,K-ATPase, the final step of acid secretion. Intracellular calcium levels were measured in gastric glands loaded with FURA 2. Carbachol was shown to both release calcium from an intracellular pool and to promote calcium entry across the plasma membrane. The calcium entry was inhibitable by 20 microM La3+. The relative potency of the three muscarinic antagonists for inhibition of calcium entry was essentially the same as for inhibition of acid secretion or pump related glucose oxidation. Image analysis of the glands showed the effects of carbachol, and of the antagonists, on intracellular calcium were occurring largely in the parietal cell. The rise in cell calcium due to release of calcium from intracellular stores was inhibited by 4-DAMP with an IC50 of 1.7 nM, suggesting that the release pathway was regulated by a low affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state; Ca entry and acid secretion are regulated by a high affinity M3 muscarinic receptor or state, inhibited by higher 4-DAMP concentrations, suggesting that it is the steady-state elevation of Ca that is related to parietal cell function rather than the (Ca)i transient.

  8. Malignant pilomatricoma in the parietal area.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Takeshi; Tanaka, Yoshio

    2006-01-01

    A 27-year-old Japanese woman presented with a 2.5-cm nodular subcutaneous lesion in the parietal area. The nodule was well demarcated and situated in the dermis and subcutis. Histologically, the tumor was diagnosed as malignant pilomatricoma. The tumor was excised, the postoperative course was uneventful, no evidence of local recurrence or distant metastasis was observed, and the patient continues to be under close follow-up. Malignant pilomatricoma, a locally aggressive counterpart of benign pilomatricoma, is also referred to as pilomatrix carcinoma. Most cases are excised as benign tumors; however, when the excision is incomplete local recurrence is likely, and distant metastases have also been reported. Histologically, the diagnosis can be challenging because no clear histologic criteria are available. Because of the rarity of malignant pilomatricoma, no welldefined standards in the surgical management of this neoplasm have been established. Moreover, since distant metastases have been described, close followup of the lesion is requisite.

  9. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior"…

  10. Simulation of the Inferior Mirage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Branca, Mario

    2010-01-01

    A mirage can occur when a continuous variation in the refractive index of the air causes light rays to follow a curved path. As a result, the image we see is displaced from the location of the object. If the image appears higher in the air than the object, it is called a "superior" mirage, while if it appears lower it is called an "inferior"…

  11. Mandatory Housing Requirements: The Constitutionality of Parietal Rules

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa Law Review, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Analyzes the validity of parietal rules under both the due process and equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment. Models of substantive due process and equal protection are developed and applied to the various types of parietal rules that have been implemented at universities throughout the nation. (Author/JT)

  12. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  13. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Dobbins, Ian G; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S

    2012-11-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues ("Likely Old" or "Likely New"; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the "Likely New" cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Use of explicit memory cues following parietal lobe lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dobbins, Ian G.; Jaeger, Antonio; Studer, Bettina; Simons, Jon S.

    2013-01-01

    The putative role of the lateral parietal lobe in episodic memory has recently become a topic of considerable debate, owing primarily to its consistent activation for studied materials during functional magnetic resonance imaging studies of recognition. Here we examined the performance of patients with parietal lobe lesions using an explicit memory cueing task in which probabilistic cues (“Likely Old” or “Likely New”; 75% validity) preceded the majority of verbal recognition memory probes. Without cues, patients and control participants did not differ in accuracy. However, group differences emerged during the “Likely New” cue condition with controls responding more accurately than parietal patients when these cues were valid (preceding new materials) and trending towards less accuracy when these cues were invalid (preceding old materials). Both effects suggest insufficient integration of external cues into memory judgments on the part of the parietal patients whose cued performance largely resembled performance in the complete absence of cues. Comparison of the parietal patients to a patient group with frontal lobe lesions suggested the pattern was specific to parietal and adjacent area lesions. Overall, the data indicate that parietal lobe patients fail to appropriately incorporate external cues of novelty into recognition attributions. This finding supports a role for the lateral parietal lobe in the adaptive biasing of memory judgments through the integration of external cues and internal memory evidence. We outline the importance of such adaptive biasing through consideration of basic signal detection predictions regarding maximum possible accuracy with and without informative environmental cues. PMID:22975148

  15. The Role of Human Parietal Cortex in Attention Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, Shihui; Jiang, Yi; Gu, Hua; Rao, Hengyi; Mao, Lihua; Cui, Yong; Zhai, Renyou

    2004-01-01

    The parietal cortex has been proposed as part of the neural network for guiding spatial attention. However, it is unclear to what degree the parietal cortex contributes to the attentional modulations of activities of the visual cortex and the engagement of the frontal cortex in the attention network. We recorded behavioural performance and…

  16. Agnosia for Mirror Stimuli: A New Case Report with a Small Parietal Lesion

    PubMed Central

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-01-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination. PMID:25037846

  17. Agnosia for mirror stimuli: a new case report with a small parietal lesion.

    PubMed

    Martinaud, Olivier; Mirlink, Nicolas; Bioux, Sandrine; Bliaux, Evangéline; Lebas, Axel; Gerardin, Emmanuel; Hannequin, Didier

    2014-11-01

    Only seven cases of agnosia for mirror stimuli have been reported, always with an extensive lesion. We report a new case of an agnosia for mirror stimuli due to a circumscribed lesion. An extensive battery of neuropsychological tests and a new experimental procedure to assess visual object mirror and orientation discrimination were assessed 10 days after the onset of clinical symptoms, and 5 years later. The performances of our patient were compared with those of four healthy control subjects matched for age. This test revealed an agnosia for mirror stimuli. Brain imaging showed a small right occipitoparietal hematoma, encompassing the extrastriate cortex adjoining the inferior parietal lobe. This new case suggests that: (i) agnosia for mirror stimuli can persist for 5 years after onset and (ii) the posterior part of the right intraparietal sulcus could be critical in the cognitive process of mirror stimuli discrimination.

  18. Compensatory fronto-parietal hyperactivation during set-shifting in unmedicated patients with Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Gerrits, Niels J H M; van der Werf, Ysbrand D; Verhoef, Kim M W; Veltman, Dick J; Groenewegen, Henk J; Berendse, Henk W; van den Heuvel, Odile A

    2015-02-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) often suffer from impairments in executive functions, such as mental rigidity, which can be measured as impaired set-shifting. Previous studies have shown that set-shifting deficits in patients with PD result from hypo-excitation of the caudate nucleus and lateral prefrontal cortices. The results of these studies may have been influenced by the inclusion of patients on dopaminergic medication, and by choosing set-shifting paradigms in which performance also depends on other cognitive mechanisms, such as matching-to-sample. To circumvent these potential confounding factors, we tested patients with PD that were not on dopamine replacement therapy, and we developed a new feedback-based paradigm to measure the cognitive construct set-shifting more accurately. In this case-control study, 18 patients with PD and 35 well-matched healthy controls performed the set-shifting task, while task-related neural activation was recorded using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Behaviourally, PD patients, compared with healthy controls, made more errors during repeat trials, but not set-shift trials. The patients, compared with controls, showed increased task-related activation of the bilateral inferior parietal cortex, and the right superior frontal gyrus, and decreased activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex during set-shift trials. Our findings suggest that, despite decreased task-related activation of the right ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, these early-stage unmedicated patients with PD do not yet suffer from set-shifting deficits due to compensatory hyperactivation in the inferior parietal cortex and the superior frontal gyrus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Fronto-Parietal Contributions to Phonological Processes in Successful Artificial Grammar Learning

    PubMed Central

    Goranskaya, Dariya; Kreitewolf, Jens; Mueller, Jutta L.; Friederici, Angela D.; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison, and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes. PMID:27877120

  20. Dissociable effects of surprise and model update in parietal and anterior cingulate cortex

    PubMed Central

    O’Reilly, Jill X.; Schüffelgen, Urs; Cuell, Steven F.; Behrens, Timothy E. J.; Mars, Rogier B.; Rushworth, Matthew F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Brains use predictive models to facilitate the processing of expected stimuli or planned actions. Under a predictive model, surprising (low probability) stimuli or actions necessitate the immediate reallocation of processing resources, but they can also signal the need to update the underlying predictive model to reflect changes in the environment. Surprise and updating are often correlated in experimental paradigms but are, in fact, distinct constructs that can be formally defined as the Shannon information (IS) and Kullback–Leibler divergence (DKL) associated with an observation. In a saccadic planning task, we observed that distinct behaviors and brain regions are associated with surprise/IS and updating/DKL. Although surprise/IS was associated with behavioral reprogramming as indexed by slower reaction times, as well as with activity in the posterior parietal cortex [human lateral intraparietal area (LIP)], the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) was specifically activated during updating of the predictive model (DKL). A second saccade-sensitive region in the inferior posterior parietal cortex (human 7a), which has connections to both LIP and ACC, was activated by surprise and modulated by updating. Pupillometry revealed a further dissociation between surprise and updating with an early positive effect of surprise and late negative effect of updating on pupil area. These results give a computational account of the roles of the ACC and two parietal saccade regions, LIP and 7a, by which their involvement in diverse tasks can be understood mechanistically. The dissociation of functional roles between regions within the reorienting/reprogramming network may also inform models of neurological phenomena, such as extinction and Balint syndrome, and neglect. PMID:23986499

  1. Fronto-Parietal Contributions to Phonological Processes in Successful Artificial Grammar Learning.

    PubMed

    Goranskaya, Dariya; Kreitewolf, Jens; Mueller, Jutta L; Friederici, Angela D; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2016-01-01

    Sensitivity to regularities plays a crucial role in the acquisition of various linguistic features from spoken language input. Artificial grammar learning paradigms explore pattern recognition abilities in a set of structured sequences (i.e., of syllables or letters). In the present study, we investigated the functional underpinnings of learning phonological regularities in auditorily presented syllable sequences. While previous neuroimaging studies either focused on functional differences between the processing of correct vs. incorrect sequences or between different levels of sequence complexity, here the focus is on the neural foundation of the actual learning success. During functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), participants were exposed to a set of syllable sequences with an underlying phonological rule system, known to ensure performance differences between participants. We expected that successful learning and rule application would require phonological segmentation and phoneme comparison. As an outcome of four alternating learning and test fMRI sessions, participants split into successful learners and non-learners. Relative to non-learners, successful learners showed increased task-related activity in a fronto-parietal network of brain areas encompassing the left lateral premotor cortex as well as bilateral superior and inferior parietal cortices during both learning and rule application. These areas were previously associated with phonological segmentation, phoneme comparison, and verbal working memory. Based on these activity patterns and the phonological strategies for rule acquisition and application, we argue that successful learning and processing of complex phonological rules in our paradigm is mediated via a fronto-parietal network for phonological processes.

  2. Patterns of Activity in the Human Frontal and Parietal Cortex Differentiate Large and Small Saccades

    PubMed Central

    Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2016-01-01

    A vast literature indicates that small and large saccades, respectively, subserve different perceptual and cognitive strategies and may rely on different programming modes. While it is well-established that in monkeys’ main oculomotor brain regions small and large eye movements are controlled by segregated neuronal populations, the representation of saccade amplitude in the human brain remains unclear. To address this question we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to scan participants while they performed saccades toward targets at either short (4°) or large (30°) eccentricity. A regional multivoxel pattern analysis reveals that patterns of activity in the frontal eye-field and parietal eye fields discriminate between the execution of large or small saccades. This was not the case in the supplementary eye-fields nor in the inferior precentral cortex. These findings provide the first evidence of a representation of saccadic eye movement size in the fronto-parietal occulomotor circuit. They shed light on the respective roles of the different cortical oculomotor regions with respect to space perception and exploration, as well as on the homology of eye movement control between human and non-human primates. PMID:27833536

  3. Abnormal Parietal Function in Conversion Paresis

    PubMed Central

    van Beilen, Marije; de Jong, Bauke M.; Gieteling, Esther W.; Renken, Remco; Leenders, Klaus L.

    2011-01-01

    The etiology of medically unexplained symptoms such as conversion disorder is poorly understood. This is partly because the interpretation of neuroimaging results in conversion paresis has been complicated by the use of different control groups, tasks and statistical comparisons. The present study includes these different aspects in a single data set. In our study we included both normal controls and feigners to control for conversion paresis. We studied both movement execution and imagery, and we contrasted both within-group and between-group activation. Moreover, to reveal hemisphere-specific effects that have not been reported before, we performed these analyses using both flipped and unflipped data. This approach resulted in the identification of abnormal parietal activation which was specific for conversion paresis patients. Patients also showed reduced activity in the prefrontal cortex, supramarginal gyrus and precuneus, including hemisphere-specific activation that is lateralized in the same hemisphere, regardless of right- or left-sided paresis. We propose that these regions are candidates for an interface between psychological mechanisms and disturbed higher-order motor control. Our study presents an integrative neurophysiological view of the mechanisms that contribute to the etiology of this puzzling psychological disorder, which can be further investigated with other types of conversion symptoms. PMID:22039428

  4. Uncertain relational reasoning in the parietal cortex.

    PubMed

    Ragni, Marco; Franzmeier, Imke; Maier, Simon; Knauff, Markus

    2016-04-01

    The psychology of reasoning is currently transitioning from the study of deductive inferences under certainty to inferences that have degrees of uncertainty in both their premises and conclusions; however, only a few studies have explored the cortical basis of uncertain reasoning. Using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), we show that areas in the right superior parietal lobe (rSPL) are necessary for solving spatial relational reasoning problems under conditions of uncertainty. Twenty-four participants had to decide whether a single presented order of objects agreed with a given set of indeterminate premises that could be interpreted in more than one way. During the presentation of the order, 10-Hz TMS was applied over the rSPL or a sham control site. Right SPL TMS during the inference phase disrupted performance in uncertain relational reasoning. Moreover, we found differences in the error rates between preferred mental models, alternative models, and inconsistent models. Our results suggest that different mechanisms are involved when people reason spatially and evaluate different kinds of uncertain conclusions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The role of the right parietal lobe in anorexia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Nico, D; Daprati, E; Nighoghossian, N; Carrier, E; Duhamel, J-R; Sirigu, A

    2010-09-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) overestimate their size despite being severely underweight. Whether this misperception echoes an underlying emotional disturbance or also reflects a genuine body-representation deficit is debatable. Current measures inquire directly about subjective perception of body image, thus distinguishing poorly between top-down effects of emotions/attitudes towards the body and disturbances due to proprioceptive disorders/distorted body schema. Disorders of body representation also emerge following damage to the right parietal lobe. The possibility that parietal dysfunction might contribute to AN is suspected, based on the demonstrated association of spatial impairments, comparable to those found after parietal lesion, with this syndrome. We used a behavioral task to compare body knowledge in severe anorexics (n=8), healthy volunteers (n=11) and stroke patients with focal damage to the left/right parietal lobe (n=4). We applied a psychophysical procedure based on the perception, in the dark, of an approaching visual stimulus that was turned off before reaching the observer. Participants had to predict whether the stimulus would have hit/missed their body, had it continued its linear motion. Healthy volunteers and left parietal patients estimated body boundaries very close to the real ones. Conversely, anorexics and right parietal patients underestimated eccentricity of their left body boundary. These findings are in line with the role the parietal cortex plays in developing and maintaining body representation, and support the possibility for a neuropsychological component in the pathogenesis of anorexia, offering alternative approaches to treatment of the disorder.

  6. INTERDEPENDENT SUPERIORITY AND INFERIORITY FEELINGS

    PubMed Central

    Ingham, Harrington V.

    1949-01-01

    It is postulated that in neurotic persons who have unrealistic feelings of superiority and inferiority the two are interdependent. This is a departure from the concept of previous observers that either one or the other is primary and its opposite is overcompensation. The author postulates considerable parallelism, with equal importance for each. He submits that the neurotic person forms two logic-resistant compartments for the two opposed self-estimates and that treatment which makes inroads of logic upon one compartment, simultaneously does so upon the other. Two examples are briefly reported. The neurotic benefits sought in exaggeration of capability are the same as those sought in insistence upon inferiority: Presumption of superiority at once bids for approbation and delivers the subject from the need to prove himself worthy of it in dreaded competition; exaggeration of incapability baits sympathy and makes competition unnecessary because failure is conceded. Some of the characteristics of abnormal self-estimates that distinguish them from normal are: Preoccupation with self, resistance to logical explanation of personality problems, inconsistency in reasons for beliefs in adequacy on the one hand and inadequacy on the other, unreality, rationalization of faults, and difficulty and vacillation in the selection of adequate goals. PMID:15390573

  7. Parietal Neural Prosthetic Control of a Computer Cursor in a Graphical-User-Interface Task

    PubMed Central

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-01-01

    Objective To date, the majority of Brain Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in Area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like “Face in a Crowd” task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the “Crowd”) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the Crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a “Crowd Off” condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main Results Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the Crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  8. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task.

    PubMed

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson N S; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A

    2014-12-01

    To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like 'Face in a Crowd' task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the 'Crowd') using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a 'Crowd Off' condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet computers.

  9. Parietal neural prosthetic control of a computer cursor in a graphical-user-interface task

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Revechkis, Boris; Aflalo, Tyson NS; Kellis, Spencer; Pouratian, Nader; Andersen, Richard A.

    2014-12-01

    Objective. To date, the majority of Brain-Machine Interfaces have been used to perform simple tasks with sequences of individual targets in otherwise blank environments. In this study we developed a more practical and clinically relevant task that approximated modern computers and graphical user interfaces (GUIs). This task could be problematic given the known sensitivity of areas typically used for BMIs to visual stimuli, eye movements, decision-making, and attentional control. Consequently, we sought to assess the effect of a complex, GUI-like task on the quality of neural decoding. Approach. A male rhesus macaque monkey was implanted with two 96-channel electrode arrays in area 5d of the superior parietal lobule. The animal was trained to perform a GUI-like ‘Face in a Crowd’ task on a computer screen that required selecting one cued, icon-like, face image from a group of alternatives (the ‘Crowd’) using a neurally controlled cursor. We assessed whether the crowd affected decodes of intended cursor movements by comparing it to a ‘Crowd Off’ condition in which only the matching target appeared without alternatives. We also examined if training a neural decoder with the Crowd On rather than Off had any effect on subsequent decode quality. Main results. Despite the additional demands of working with the Crowd On, the animal was able to robustly perform the task under Brain Control. The presence of the crowd did not itself affect decode quality. Training the decoder with the Crowd On relative to Off had no negative influence on subsequent decoding performance. Additionally, the subject was able to gaze around freely without influencing cursor position. Significance. Our results demonstrate that area 5d recordings can be used for decoding in a complex, GUI-like task with free gaze. Thus, this area is a promising source of signals for neural prosthetics that utilize computing devices with GUI interfaces, e.g. personal computers, mobile devices, and tablet

  10. Parietal contributions to visual working memory depend on task difficulty.

    PubMed

    Jones, Kevin T; Berryhill, Marian E

    2012-01-01

    The nature of parietal contributions to working memory (WM) remain poorly understood but of considerable interest. We previously reported that posterior parietal damage selectively impaired WM probed by recognition (Berryhill and Olson, 2008a). Recent studies provided support using a neuromodulatory technique, transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) applied to the right parietal cortex (P4). These studies confirmed parietal involvement in WM because parietal tDCS altered WM performance: anodal current tDCS improved performance in a change detection task, and cathodal current tDCS impaired performance on a sequential presentation task. Here, we tested whether these complementary results were due to different degrees of parietal involvement as a function of WM task demands, WM task difficulty, and/or participants' WM capacity. In Experiment 1, we applied cathodal and anodal tDCS to the right parietal cortex and tested participants on both previously used WM tasks. We observed an interaction between tDCS (anodal, cathodal), WM task difficulty, and participants' WM capacity. When the WM task was difficult, parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal) improved WM performance selectively in participants with high WM capacity. In the low WM capacity group, parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal) impaired WM performance. These nearly equal and opposite effects were only observed when the WM task was challenging, as in the change detection task. Experiment 2 probed the interplay of WM task difficulty and WM capacity in a parametric manner by varying set size in the WM change detection task. Here, the effect of parietal stimulation (anodal or cathodal) on the high WM capacity group followed a linear function as WM task difficulty increased with set size. The low WM capacity participants were largely unaffected by tDCS. These findings provide evidence that parietal involvement in WM performance depends on both WM capacity and WM task demands. We discuss these findings

  11. Nonlesional central lobule seizures: use of awake cortical mapping and subdural grid monitoring for resection of seizure focus.

    PubMed

    Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A; Britton, Jeffrey W; Collignon, Frederic P; Bates, Lisa M; Cascino, Gregory D; Meyer, Fredric B

    2003-06-01

    Surgical treatment options for intractable seizures caused by a nonlesional epileptogenic focus located in the central sulcus region are limited. The authors describe an alternative surgical approach for treating medically refractory nonlesional perirolandic epilepsy. Five consecutive patients who were treated between 1996 and 2000 for nonlesional partial epilepsy that had originated in the central lobule were studied. The patients' ages ranged from 16 to 56 years (mean 28.6 years; there were four men and one woman). The duration of their epilepsy ranged from 8 to 39 years (mean 20.2 years), with a mean seizure frequency of 19 partial seizures per week. Preoperative assessment included video electroencephalography (EEG) and subtracted ictal-interictal single-photon emission computerized tomography coregistered with magnetic resonance imaging (SISCOM). Patients underwent an awake craniotomy stereotactically guided by the ictal EEG and SISCOM studies. Cortical stimulation was used to identify the sensorimotor cortex and to reproduce the patient's aura. A subdural grid was then implanted based on these results. Subsequent postoperative ictal electrocorticographic recordings and cortical stimulation further delineated the site of seizure onset and functional anatomy. During a second awake craniotomy, a limited resection of the epileptogenic central lobule region was performed while function was continuously monitored intraoperatively. One resection was limited to the precentral gyrus, two to the postcentral gyrus, and in two the excisions involved regions of both the pre- and postcentral gyri. In three patients a hemiparesis occurred postsurgery but later resolved. In the four patients whose resection involved the postcentral gyms, transient cortical sensory loss and apraxia occurred, which completely resolved in three. Two patients are completely seizure free, two have experienced occasional nondisabling seizures, and one patient has benefited from a more than 75

  12. The nucleus "k" of Meessen and Olszewski efferents to the cerebellar paramedian lobule: a retrograde tracing histochemical (HRP) study in the rabbit and the cat.

    PubMed

    Grottel, K; Zimny, R; Jakielska, D

    1986-01-01

    The group "k" of Meessen and Olszewski (1949) was identified in the brain stems of normal rabbits and cats. In the rabbit, a topographical subdivision of the group "k" into the well defined cell aggregations k1, k2 and k3 was found. In the cat, the nucleus corporis pontobulbaris was subdivised into a posterodorsal and a anteroventral part. The former was located ventrally to the motor and principal sensory trigeminal nuclei, the latter was wedgeshaped and situated more anteriorly at the lateroventral margin of the pons. In 9 rabbits and 7 cats the neurons of origin for cerebellar paramedian lobule afferents were identified with retrograde transport of horseradish peroxidase within the nucleus "k" and nucleus corporis pontobulbaris, respectively. In both species, most projections to the paramedian lobule were seen as originating ipsilaterally with only a small contralateral component. The study suggests that there are certain segregated projections of the nucleus "k" or the nucleus corporis pontobulbaris to the cortex of the anterior and posterior parts of the paramedian lobule, with some valid species differences. In the cat, the whole projection was found to originate in the more anterior and ventral parts of the nucleus "k" (nucleus corporis pontobulbaris). The posterior part of the paramedian lobule in the rabbit receives afferents from the homolateral subdivisions k3 and, to a minor degree, from k2; while in the cat, afferents are bilateral with an ipsilateral preponderance and originate from the posterior cellular group of the nucleus corporis pontobulbaris dispersed among and medially to the exiting motor root of the trigeminal nerve. The anterior part of the paramedian lobule afferents in the rabbit originates bilaterally within subdivision k1, to a minor degree ipsilaterally in the dorsal region of subdivision k3, and occasionally in subdivision k2, whereas in the cat afferents originate from the anterior and posterior levels of the corpus pontobulbaris

  13. Impact of cannabis use on prefrontal and parietal cortex gyrification and surface area in adolescents and emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Shollenbarger, Skyler G; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista

    2015-12-01

    Regions undergoing maturation with CB1 receptors may be at increased risk for cannabis-induced alterations. Here, we examine the relationships between cannabis use and prefrontal (PFC) and inferior parietal gyrification and surface area (SA) in youth. Participants included 33 cannabis users and 35 controls (ages 18-25). Exclusions included co-morbid psychiatric/neurologic disorders and heavy other drug use. Multiple regressions and Pearson r correlations examined the effects of cannabis use on gyrification, SA and cognition. Cannabis use was associated with decreased gyrification in: ventral-medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); and frontal poles (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]). No differences were observed in bilateral hemispheres, PFC, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, or inferior parietal ROIs. Cannabis use was associated with marginally decreased SA in left: medial PFC [FDR corrected p=.09], and ventral lateral PFC: [FDR corrected p=.09]. In cannabis users, increased gyrification was associated with improved working-memory performance in right medial (p=.003), ventral-medial (p=.03), and frontal pole ROIs (p=.007). Cannabis use was associated with reduced gyrification in PFC regions implicated in self-referential thought and social cognition. Results suggest that these gyrification characteristics may have cognitive implications. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  14. Impact of Cannabis Use on Prefrontal and Parietal Cortex Gyrification and Surface Area in Adolescents and Emerging Adults

    PubMed Central

    Shollenbarger, Skyler G.; Price, Jenessa; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista

    2017-01-01

    Background Regions undergoing maturation with CB1 receptors may be at increased risk for cannabis-induced alterations. Here, we examine the relationships between cannabis use and prefrontal (PFC) and inferior parietal gyrification and surface area (SA) in youth. Methods Participants included 33 cannabis users and 35 controls (ages 18–25). Exclusions included co-morbid psychiatric/neurologic disorders and heavy other drug use. Multiple regressions and Pearson r correlations examined the effects of cannabis use on gyrification, SA and cognition. Results Cannabis use was associated with decreased gyrification in: ventral-medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02] LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); medial PFC (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]); and frontal poles (RH: [FDR corrected p=.02], LH: [FDR corrected p=.02]). No differences were observed in bilateral hemispheres, PFC, dorsolateral, ventrolateral, or inferior parietal ROIs. Cannabis use was associated with marginally decreased SA in left: medial PFC [FDR corrected p=.09], and ventral lateral PFC: [FDR corrected p=.09]. In cannabis users, increased gyrification was associated with improved working-memory performance in right medial (p=.003), ventral-medial (p=.03), and frontal pole ROIs (p=.007). Conclusions Cannabis use was associated with reduced gyrification in PFC regions implicated in self-referential thought and social cognition. Results suggest that these gyrification characteristics may have cognitive implications. PMID:26233614

  15. Increased BOLD Variability in the Parietal Cortex and Enhanced Parieto-Occipital Connectivity during Tactile Perception in Congenitally Blind Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Leo, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas. PMID:22792493

  16. Increased BOLD variability in the parietal cortex and enhanced parieto-occipital connectivity during tactile perception in congenitally blind individuals.

    PubMed

    Leo, Andrea; Bernardi, Giulio; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies in early blind individuals posited a possible role of parieto-occipital connections in conveying nonvisual information to the visual occipital cortex. As a consequence of blindness, parietal areas would thus become able to integrate a greater amount of multimodal information than in sighted individuals. To verify this hypothesis, we compared fMRI-measured BOLD signal temporal variability, an index of efficiency in functional information integration, in congenitally blind and sighted individuals during tactile spatial discrimination and motion perception tasks. In both tasks, the BOLD variability analysis revealed many cortical regions with a significantly greater variability in the blind as compared to sighted individuals, with an overlapping cluster located in the left inferior parietal/anterior intraparietal cortex. A functional connectivity analysis using this region as seed showed stronger correlations in both tasks with occipital areas in the blind as compared to sighted individuals. As BOLD variability reflects neural integration and processing efficiency, these cross-modal plastic changes in the parietal cortex, even if described in a limited sample, reinforce the hypothesis that this region may play an important role in processing nonvisual information in blind subjects and act as a hub in the cortico-cortical pathway from somatosensory cortex to the reorganized occipital areas.

  17. Evolution of posterior parietal cortex and parietal-frontal networks for specific actions in primates.

    PubMed

    Kaas, Jon H; Stepniewska, Iwona

    2016-02-15

    Posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is an extensive region of the human brain that develops relatively late and is proportionally large compared with that of monkeys and prosimian primates. Our ongoing comparative studies have led to several conclusions about the evolution of this posterior parietal region. In early placental mammals, PPC likely was a small multisensory region much like PPC of extant rodents and tree shrews. In early primates, PPC likely resembled that of prosimian galagos, in which caudal PPC (PPCc) is visual and rostral PPC (PPCr) has eight or more multisensory domains where electrical stimulation evokes different complex motor behaviors, including reaching, hand-to-mouth, looking, protecting the face or body, and grasping. These evoked behaviors depend on connections with functionally matched domains in premotor cortex (PMC) and motor cortex (M1). Domains in each region compete with each other, and a serial arrangement of domains allows different factors to influence motor outcomes successively. Similar arrangements of domains have been retained in New and Old World monkeys, and humans appear to have at least some of these domains. The great expansion and prolonged development of PPC in humans suggest the addition of functionally distinct territories. We propose that, across primates, PMC and M1 domains are second and third levels in a number of parallel, interacting networks for mediating and selecting one type of action over others.

  18. Parietal cortex and information granularity in labile and stable learning.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiuzhen; Zhong, Ning; Lu, Shengfu; Liu, Chunnian; Gu, Weiquan

    2010-01-27

    We investigated the effects of rule learning based on information granularity. Using two homogeneous Boolean arithmetic tasks, we examined parietal cortex activity during the calculation of labile and stabilized learning. The results revealed stability-related behavioral advantages in a comparison of granularity-based effects with labile learning of Boolean problems. The functional MRI results revealed that different regions within the parietal cortex exhibited increased activity while solving Boolean problems in both the conditions. The calculation of labile rule learning based on low-granularity Boolean rules was significantly correlated with activation in bilateral parietal cortex, whereas stable rule learning based on high-granularity Boolean rules was correlated with activation in the left parietal cortex.

  19. Parietal damage impairs learning of a visuomotor tracking skill.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Sara; Anderson, Steven W; Chen, Kuan-Hua; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Damasio, Hanna

    2015-12-01

    This study evaluated the consequences of damage to the parietal lobe for learning a visuomotor tracking skill. Thirty subjects with a single unilateral brain lesion (13 with and 17 without parietal damage) and 23 demographically comparable healthy subjects performed the Rotary Pursuit task. For each group, time on target increased significantly across the four learning blocks. Subjects with parietal lesions had smaller improvements on the Rotary Pursuit from the 1st to the 4th block than subjects with lesions in other brain areas and healthy comparison subjects. The improvements on task performance from the 1st to the 2nd and from the 1st to the 3rd learning blocks were similar between groups. The parietal lobe appears to play an important role in the acquisition of a new visuomotor tracking skill, in particular during a relatively late phase of learning. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Content Specific Fronto-Parietal Synchronization during Visual Working Memory

    PubMed Central

    Salazar, RF; Dotson, NM; Bressler, SL; Gray, CM

    2014-01-01

    Lateral prefrontal and posterior parietal cortical areas exhibit task-dependent activation during working memory tasks in humans and monkeys. Neurons in these regions become synchronized during attention demanding tasks, but the contribution of these interactions to working memory is largely unknown. Using simultaneous recordings of neural activity from multiple areas in both regions, we find widespread, task-dependent and content specific synchronization of activity across the fronto-parietal network during visual working memory. The patterns of synchronization are prevalent among stimulus selective neurons and are governed by influences arising in parietal cortex. These results indicate that short-term memories are represented by large-scale patterns of synchronized activity across the fronto-parietal network. PMID:23118014

  1. Antisaccade generation is impaired after parietal lobe lesions.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, James A; Cheng, Ping; Eizenman, Moshe

    2011-09-01

    Antisaccades are directed away from visual targets. Impaired antisaccade generation has been attributed to frontal lobe damage. We studied antisaccades in patients with unilateral focal parietal lobe lesions. Normal subjects (N = 10) instructed to make 10° antisaccades opposite to a 100-ms target flash 10° to the right or left of center made antisaccades in 86.1% of trials. Patients (N = 13) made antisaccades contraversive to their lesions in 55.4% of trials and 50.5% of ipsiversive trials. In other trials, reflexive saccades occurred toward the target flash. Nine patients with imaged lesions overlapping in parietal lobe white matter showed subnormal antisaccade generation. Antisaccades provide a means of measuring voluntary saccade function of the parietal lobes independent of visual guidance. Impaired suppression of reflexive saccades and generation of antisaccades is attributed to disconnection of parietal lobe from frontal lobe ocular motor areas. © 2011 New York Academy of Sciences.

  2. Shape recognition and inferior temporal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, E L; Desimone, R; Albright, T D; Gross, C G

    1983-01-01

    Inferior temporal cortex plays an important role in shape recognition. To study the shape selectivity of single inferior temporal neurons, we recorded their responses to a set of shapes systematically varying in boundary curvature. Many inferior temporal neurons were selective for stimuli of specific boundary curvature and maintained this selectivity over changes in stimulus size or position. The method of describing boundary curvature was that of Fourier descriptors. PMID:6577453

  3. Parietal lobe epilepsy: the great imitator among focal epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Ristić, Aleksandar J; Alexopoulos, Andreas V; So, Norman; Wong, Chong; Najm, Imad M

    2012-03-01

    Comprising large areas of association cortex, the parietal lobe is part of an extensive synaptic network elaborately intertwined with other brain regions. We hypothesize that such widespread projections are responsible for producing inaccurate localisation readings on scalp EEG and clinical semiology in patients with parietal lobe epilepsies, as opposed to frontal or temporal lobe epilepsies. Our study included 50 patients with pharmacoresistant focal epilepsy, who were subsequently rendered seizure-free for ≥12 months (median: 23 months) following resections limited to the frontal (n=17), temporal (n=17), or parietal (n=16) lobes. Interictal and ictal EEG data with accompanying seizure video recordings were extracted from archived files of scalp video-EEG monitoring. Two blinded raters independently reviewed the EEG according to predetermined criteria. Videos of seizures were then observed, as raters formulated their final electroclinical impression (ECI), identifying patients' abnormal neuronal activities with parietal, temporal, and frontal lobe epilepsy, or unspecified localisation. Groups did not differ significantly in demographics, age at epilepsy onset, or presence of MRI abnormalities. Interictal discharges in parietal lobe epilepsy showed the greatest magnitude of scatter outside the lobe of origin; the majority of patients with parietal lobe epilepsy had more than one spike population (p<0.045). Localised ictal EEG recognition was most frequent in temporal, followed by frontal and parietal lobe epilepsy cases (p=0.024). Whenever raters confidently limited their ECI to one lobar subtype, overall accuracy was excellent. Lobar classifications by ECI were highly accurate for temporal lobe epilepsy, vacillating in frontal lobe epilepsy, and least accurate in parietal lobe epilepsy subjects. Scalp EEG readings of parietal lobe epilepsy patients showed a more variable scatter of interictal discharges and a lower localisation value of ictal recordings

  4. Primary Hemangiopericytoma of the Parietal Bone: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sipal, Sare; Demirci, Elif; Calık, Muhammet; Gundogdu, Betul; Sengul, Goksin; Gundogdu, Cemal

    2009-01-01

    Summary Hemangiopericytomas are rare hypervascular tumors arising from Zimmerman’s pericytes. They usually occur in the soft tissue, and intraosseous lesions are very rare. Surgical excision is the first choice for treatment. Many studies show that patients should be monitored for some time following treatment because of a high rate of recurrence and metastasis after radical resection. This report introduces a 56-year-old patient with a hemangiopericytoma in his parietal bone. Keywords: Parietal bone, Hemangiopericytoma PMID:25610105

  5. Parietal lesion effects on cued recall following pair associate learning.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Shir; Soroker, Nachum; Levy, Daniel A

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the involvement of the posterior parietal cortex in episodic memory in a lesion-effects study of cued recall following pair-associate learning. Groups of patients who had experienced first-incident stroke, generally in middle cerebral artery territory, and exhibited damage that included lateral posterior parietal regions, were tested within an early post-stroke time window. In three experiments, patients and matched healthy comparison groups executed repeated study and cued recall test blocks of pairs of words (Experiment 1), pairs of object pictures (Experiment 2), or pairs of object pictures and environmental sounds (Experiment 3). Patients' brain CT scans were subjected to quantitative analysis of lesion volumes. Behavioral and lesion data were used to compute correlations between area lesion extent and memory deficits, and to conduct voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping. These analyses implicated lateral ventral parietal cortex, especially the angular gyrus, in cued recall deficits, most pronouncedly in the cross-modal picture-sound pairs task, though significant parietal lesion effects were also found in the unimodal word pairs and picture pairs tasks. In contrast to an earlier study in which comparable parietal lesions did not cause deficits in item recognition, these results indicate that lateral posterior parietal areas make a substantive contribution to demanding forms of recollective retrieval as represented by cued recall, especially for complex associative representations.

  6. Parietal and frontal eye field neglect in the rat.

    PubMed

    Crowne, D P; Richardson, C M; Dawson, K A

    1986-12-01

    Rats were given unilateral aspiration lesions of parietal, medial frontal, or dorsolateral frontal (motor) cortex and then tested for visual, auditory and tactile neglect, and for circling. All medial frontal lesion animals showed contralateral neglect in each modality and circled ipsiversively. The parietal lesion rats initially displayed contralateral visual and auditory neglect as severe as that in the medial frontal group. Three weeks after the lesions, the parietal group had a smaller residual deficit on the visual test than the medial frontal group. In the first week, parietal animals responded less than the medial frontals to stroking the vibrissae but were more responsive to mild pinching of a toe contralateral to the lesion side. In striking contrast to the medial frontal animals, the parietal group circled strongly to the contralateral side. No rat with a motor cortex lesion neglected or circled preferentially. Like medial frontal cortex, unilateral parietal lesions also produce neglect and circling, but there are important features distinguishing unilateral lesion effects in these two regions.

  7. Sex Differences in Parietal Lobe Structure and Development

    PubMed Central

    Salinas, Joel; Mills, Elizabeth D.; Conrad, Amy L.; Koscik, Timothy; Andreasen, Nancy C.; Nopoulos, Peg

    2012-01-01

    Structural MRI studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, particularly in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, there are no studies examining sex differences of parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The current study evaluated sex difference in the structure of the parietal lobe in children (7-17 years of age). Also, by adding the cohort of previously studied adults (18-50 years of age), sex differences of parietal lobe morphology were examined across the age span of 7-50 years. In the youth sample, we found that, similar to adults, the ratio of parietal lobe cortex to white matter was greater in females. Unlike the adult sample, there were no sex differences in surface area. When examining effects of age, surface area had a significant sex-by-age interaction. Males had essentially no decrease in surfaces area over time, but females had a significant decrease in surface area over time. These findings support the notion of structural sex differences in the parietal lobe, not only in the context of cross sectional assessment, but also in terms of differences of developmental trajectories. PMID:22333522

  8. Sex differences in parietal lobe structure and development.

    PubMed

    Salinas, Joel; Mills, Elizabeth D; Conrad, Amy L; Koscik, Timothy; Andreasen, Nancy C; Nopoulos, Peg

    2012-02-01

    Structural magnetic resonance imaging studies provide evidence for sex differences in the human brain. Differences in surface area and the proportion of gray to white matter volume are observed, in particular in the parietal lobe. To our knowledge, no studies have examined sex differences in parietal lobe structure in younger populations or in the context of development. The present study evaluated sex differences in the structure of the parietal lobe in children aged 7 to 17 years. In addition, by adding a cohort of previously studied adults aged 18 to 50 years, sex differences in parietal lobe structure were examined across the age span of 7 to 50 years. Compared with the adult sample, the younger sample showed that the ratio of parietal lobe cortex to white matter was greater in female brains, but no sex differences in surface area. When examining the effects of age, surface area exhibited a significant sex-age interaction. In male brains, there was essentially no decrease in surfaces area over time, whereas in female brains, there was a significant decrease in surface area over time. These findings support the notion of structural sex differences in the parietal lobe, not only in the context of cross-sectional assessment but also in terms of differences in developmental trajectories. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The Repetition Paradigm: Enhancement of Novel Metaphors and Suppression of Conventional Metaphors in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Faust, Miriam; Beeman, Mark; Mashal, Nira

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the process of understanding novel and conventional metaphoric expressions remain unclear largely because the specific brain regions that support the formation of novel semantic relations are still unknown. A well established way to study distinct cognitive processes specifically associated with an event of…

  10. The Repetition Paradigm: Enhancement of Novel Metaphors and Suppression of Conventional Metaphors in the Left Inferior Parietal Lobe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Faust, Miriam; Beeman, Mark; Mashal, Nira

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms underlying the process of understanding novel and conventional metaphoric expressions remain unclear largely because the specific brain regions that support the formation of novel semantic relations are still unknown. A well established way to study distinct cognitive processes specifically associated with an event of…

  11. Perceptual distortions and delusional thinking following ketamine administration are related to increased pharmacological MRI signal changes in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Stone, James; Kotoula, Vasileia; Dietrich, Craige; De Simoni, Sara; Krystal, John H; Mehta, Mitul A

    2015-09-01

    Ketamine produces effects in healthy humans that resemble the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia. We investigated the effect of ketamine administration on brain activity as indexed by blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal change response, and its relationship to ketamine-induced subjective changes, including perceptual distortion. Thirteen healthy participants volunteered for the study. All underwent a 15-min functional MRI acquisition with a ketamine infusion commencing after 5 min (approx 0.26 mg/kg over 20s followed by an infusion of approx. 0.42 mg/kg/h). Following the scan, participants self-rated ketamine-induced effects using the Psychotomimetic States Inventory. Ketamine led to widespread cortical and subcortical increases in BOLD response (FWE-corrected p < 0.01). Self-rated perceptual distortions and delusional thoughts correlated with increased BOLD response in the paracentral lobule (FWE-corrected p < 0.01). The findings suggest that BOLD increases in parietal cortices reflect ketamine effects on circuits that contribute to its capacity to produce perceptual alterations and delusional interpretations. © The Author(s) 2015.

  12. Inhibition of parietal cell function by human gammaglobulin containing gastric parietal cell antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Loveridge, N; Bitensky, L; Chayen, J; Hausamen, T U; Fisher, J M; Taylor, K B; Gardner, J D; Bottazzo, G F; Doniach, D

    1980-01-01

    Parietal cell antibodies (PCA) are found in up to 90% of sera from pernicious anaemia patients but it is often stated that they could represent an epiphenomenon without being directly responsible for the achlorhydria. In the present studies a direct effect of these antibodies on the secretory function of gastric acid-secreting cells has been demonstrated in two different experimental systems. In one set of experiments IgGs containing PCA activity were shown to inhibit acid secretion specifically in the living gastric mucosa of the bull frog suspended as a diaphragm between two chambers. The other system demonstrated their inhibition of carbonic anhydrase activity in a cytochemical bioassay for human G17-gastrin, suggesting a blocking effect on the gastrin receptors in the canalicular microvilli or the cell membrane. These experiments suggest a direct pathogenic role for PCA in autoimmune fundal gastritis and in pernicious anaemia. PMID:6777102

  13. Inferior vena caval masses identified by echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Asher, C. R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, V.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Novick, A. C.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.

  14. Inferior vena caval masses identified by echocardiography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sun, J. P.; Asher, C. R.; Xu, Y.; Huang, V.; Griffin, B. P.; Stewart, W. J.; Novick, A. C.; Thomas, J. D.

    1999-01-01

    The most common cause of an inferior vena caval mass is renal cell carcinoma that extends through the lumen, occurring in 47 of 62 patients (85%). Detection of an inferior vena caval mass affects the surgical approach requiring cardiopulmonary bypass for resection when the mass extends to the heart.

  15. Prefrontal and parietal correlates of cognitive control related to the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder diagnosed in childhood.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Kurt P; Li, Xiaobo; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Fan, Jin; Berwid, Olga G; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2017-02-20

    The protracted and highly variable development of prefrontal cortex regions that support cognitive control has been purported to shape the adult outcome of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This neurodevelopmental model was tested in a prospectively followed sample of 27 adult probands who were diagnosed with ADHD in childhood and 28 carefully matched comparison subjects aged 21-28 years. Probands were classified with persistent ADHD or remitted ADHD. Behavioral and neural responses to the Stimulus and Response Conflict Task (SRCT) performed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were compared in probands and comparison subjects and in probands with persistent and remitted ADHD. Response speed and accuracy for stimulus, response, and combined conflicts did not differ across groups. Orbitofrontal, inferior frontal and parietal activation was lower in probands than comparison subjects, but only for combined conflicts, when demand for cognitive control was highest. Reduced activation for combined conflicts in probands was almost wholly attributable to the persistence of ADHD; orbitofrontal, inferior frontal, anterior cingulate and parietal activation was lower in probands with persistent ADHD than both probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects, but did not differ between probands with remitted ADHD and comparison subjects. These data provide the first evidence that prefrontal and parietal activation during cognitive control parallels the adult outcome of ADHD diagnosed in childhood, with persistence of symptoms linked to reduced activation and symptom recovery associated with activation indistinguishable from adults with no history of ADHD.

  16. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling

    PubMed Central

    Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo

    2016-01-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing’s syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88–100% and 67–100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50–70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres. PMID:27352844

  17. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling.

    PubMed

    Zampetti, Benedetta; Grossrubatscher, Erika; Dalino Ciaramella, Paolo; Boccardi, Edoardo; Loli, Paola

    2016-07-01

    Simultaneous bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) plays a crucial role in the diagnostic work-up of Cushing's syndrome. It is the most accurate procedure in the differential diagnosis of hypercortisolism of pituitary or ectopic origin, as compared with clinical, biochemical and imaging analyses, with a sensitivity and specificity of 88-100% and 67-100%, respectively. In the setting of hypercortisolemia, ACTH levels obtained from venous drainage of the pituitary are expected to be higher than the levels of peripheral blood, thus suggesting pituitary ACTH excess as the cause of hypercortisolism. Direct stimulation of the pituitary corticotroph with corticotrophin-releasing hormone enhances the sensitivity of the procedure. The procedure must be undertaken in the presence of hypercortisolemia, which suppresses both the basal and stimulated secretory activity of normal corticotrophic cells: ACTH measured in the sinus is, therefore, the result of the secretory activity of the tumor tissue. The poor accuracy in lateralization of BIPSS (positive predictive value of 50-70%) makes interpetrosal ACTH gradient alone not sufficient for the localization of the tumor. An accurate exploration of the gland is recommended if a tumor is not found in the predicted area. Despite the fact that BIPSS is an invasive procedure, the occurrence of adverse events is extremely rare, particularly if it is performed by experienced operators in referral centres.

  18. Lobulated Enhancement Evaluation in the Follow-Up of Liver Metastases Treated by Stereotactic Body Radiation Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarraya, Hajer; Borde, Paul; Mirabel, Xavier; Ernst, Olivier; Boulanger, Thomas; Lartigau, Eric; Ceugnart, Luc; Kramar, Andrew; Taieb, Sophie

    2015-06-01

    Objective: The Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) can have limitations when used to evaluate local treatments for cancer, especially for liver malignancies treated by stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT). The aim of this study was to validate the relationship between the occurrence of lobulated enhancement (LE) and local relapse and to evaluate the utility of this relationship for predicting local progression. Patients and Methods: Imaging data of 59 lesions in 46 patients, including 281 computed tomographic (CT) scans, were retrospectively and blindly reviewed by 3 radiologists. One radiologist measured the lesion size, for each CT and overall, to classify responses using RECIST threshold criteria. The second studied LE occurrence. A third radiologist was later included and studied LE occurrence to evaluate the interobserver consistency for LE evaluation. Results: The mean duration of follow-up was 13.6 months. LE was observed in 16 of 18 progressive lesions, occurring before size-based progression in 50% of cases, and the median delay of LE detection was 3.2 months. The sensitivity of LE to predict progression was 89%, and its specificity was 100%. The positive predictive value was 100%, the negative predictive value was 95.3%, and the overall accuracy was 97%. The probability of local progression-free survival at 12 months was significantly higher for lesions without LE compared with all lesions: 0.80 (CI 95%: 0.65-0.89) versus 0.69 (CI 95%: 0.54-0.80), respectively. The overall concordance rate between the 2 readers of LE was 97.9%. Conclusion: Response assessment of liver metastases treated by SBRT can be improved by including LE. This study demonstrates the diagnostic and predictive utility of LE for assessing local progression at a size still eligible for local salvage treatment.

  19. Effective Brain Connectivity in Children with Reading Difficulties during Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined effective connectivity between three left hemisphere brain regions (inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus) and bilateral medial frontal gyrus in 12 children with reading difficulties (M age = 12.4, range: 8.11-14.10) and 12…

  20. Effective Brain Connectivity in Children with Reading Difficulties during Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Bitan, Tali; Booth, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Using Dynamic Causal Modeling (DCM) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined effective connectivity between three left hemisphere brain regions (inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus) and bilateral medial frontal gyrus in 12 children with reading difficulties (M age = 12.4, range: 8.11-14.10) and 12…

  1. Extensive nuclear lobulation in the cells of a patient with acute myelomonocytic leukemia. The role of electron microscopy for establishment of a correct diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Djaldetti, M; Cohen, A; Gardyn, J; Bendayan, D

    1990-07-01

    Extensive nuclear convolution and lobulation was found in the peripheral blood cells of a patient with acute leukemia. While the morphology of the cells, such as observed with the light microscope, was compatible with the diagnosis of acute myeloid leukemia, the finding of Sezary-like cells with the electron microscope helped to establish the diagnosis of acute myelomonocytic leukemia. This report emphasizes the importance of the electron microscope for the correct diagnosis of leukemias.

  2. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  3. Material-dependent and material-independent selection processes in the frontal and parietal lobes: an event-related fMRI investigation of response competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hazeltine, Eliot; Bunge, Silvia A.; Scanlon, Michael D.; Gabrieli, John D E.

    2003-01-01

    The present study used the flanker task [Percept. Psychophys. 16 (1974) 143] to identify neural structures that support response selection processes, and to determine which of these structures respond differently depending on the type of stimulus material associated with the response. Participants performed two versions of the flanker task while undergoing event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Both versions of the task required participants to respond to a central stimulus regardless of the responses associated with simultaneously presented flanking stimuli, but one used colored circle stimuli and the other used letter stimuli. Competition-related activation was identified by comparing Incongruent trials, in which the flanker stimuli indicated a different response than the central stimulus, to Neutral stimuli, in which the flanker stimuli indicated no response. A region within the right inferior frontal gyrus exhibited significantly more competition-related activation for the color stimuli, whereas regions within the middle frontal gyri of both hemispheres exhibited more competition-related activation for the letter stimuli. The border of the right middle frontal and inferior frontal gyri and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) were significantly activated by competition for both types of stimulus materials. Posterior foci demonstrated a similar pattern: left inferior parietal cortex showed greater competition-related activation for the letters, whereas right parietal cortex was significantly activated by competition for both materials. These findings indicate that the resolution of response competition invokes both material-dependent and material-independent processes.

  4. Inferior alveolar nerve block: Alternative technique

    PubMed Central

    Thangavelu, K.; Kannan, R.; Kumar, N. Senthil

    2012-01-01

    Background: Inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) is a technique of dental anesthesia, used to produce anesthesia of the mandibular teeth, gingivae of the mandible and lower lip. The conventional IANB is the most commonly used the nerve block technique for achieving local anesthesia for mandibular surgical procedures. In certain cases, however, this nerve block fails, even when performed by the most experienced clinician. Therefore, it would be advantageous to find an alternative simple technique. Aim and Objective: The objective of this study is to find an alternative inferior alveolar nerve block that has a higher success rate than other routine techniques. To this purpose, a simple painless inferior alveolar nerve block was designed to anesthetize the inferior alveolar nerve. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in Oral surgery department of Vinayaka Mission's dental college Salem from May 2009 to May 2011. Five hundred patients between the age of 20 years and 65 years who required extraction of teeth in mandible were included in the study. Out of 500 patients 270 were males and 230 were females. The effectiveness of the IANB was evaluated by using a sharp dental explorer in the regions innervated by the inferior alveolar, lingual, and buccal nerves after 3, 5, and 7 min, respectively. Conclusion: This study concludes that inferior alveolar nerve block is an appropriate alternative nerve block to anesthetize inferior alveolar nerve due to its several advantages. PMID:25885503

  5. Subcutaneous Construction of Engineered Adipose Tissue with Fat Lobule-Like Structure Using Injectable Poly-Benzyl-L-Glutamate Microspheres Loaded with Adipose-Derived Stem Cells.

    PubMed

    Sun, Wentao; Fang, Jianjun; Yong, Qi; Li, Sufang; Xie, Qingping; Yin, Jingbo; Cui, Lei

    2015-01-01

    Porous microcarriers were fabricated from synthesized poly(γ-benzyl-L-glutamate) (PBLG) polymer to engineer adipose tissue with lobule-like structure via the injectable approach. The adipogenic differentiation of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) seeded on porous PBLG microcarriers was determined by adipogenic gene expression and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enzyme activity. In vitro adipogenic cultivation was performed for 7 days, and induced hASC/PBLG complex (Adi-ASC/PBLG group) was subcutaneously injected into nude mice. Injections of PBLG microcarriers alone (PBLG group) and non-induced hASC/PBLG complex (ASC/PBLG group) served as controls. Newly formed tissues were harvested after 4 and 8 weeks. Generation of subcutaneous adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure separated by fibrous septa was observed upon injection of adipogenic-induced hASC/microsphere complex. Adipogenesis significantly increased in the Adi-ASC/PBLG group compared with the control groups. The angiogenesis in the engineered adipose tissue was comparable to that in normal tissue as determined by capillary density and luminal diameter. Cell tracking assay demonstrated that labeled hASCs remained detectable in the neo-generated tissues 8 weeks post-injection using green fluorescence protein-labeled hASCs. These results indicate that adipose tissue with typical lobule-like structure could be engineered using injectable porous PBLG microspheres loaded with adipogenic-induced hASCs.

  6. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    PubMed

    Wendelken, Carter

    2014-01-01

    Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). But PPC is involved in many basic operations-including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language-and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: (1) reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing; (2) reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC; and (3) reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest (ROI). Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC's contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific to reasoning.

  7. Neural dissociation of number from letter recognition and its relationship to parietal numerical processing.

    PubMed

    Park, Joonkoo; Hebrank, Andrew; Polk, Thad A; Park, Denise C

    2012-01-01

    The visual recognition of letters dissociates from the recognition of numbers at both the behavioral and neural level. In this article, using fMRI, we investigate whether the visual recognition of numbers dissociates from letters, thereby establishing a double dissociation. In Experiment 1, participants viewed strings of consonants and Arabic numerals. We found that letters activated the left midfusiform and inferior temporal gyri more than numbers, replicating previous studies, whereas numbers activated a right lateral occipital area more than letters at the group level. Because the distinction between letters and numbers is culturally defined and relatively arbitrary, this double dissociation provides some of the strongest evidence to date that a neural dissociation can emerge as a result of experience. We then investigated a potential source of the observed neural dissociation. Specifically, we tested the hypothesis that lateralization of visual number recognition depends on lateralization of higher-order numerical processing. In Experiment 2, the same participants performed addition, subtraction, and counting on arrays of nonsymbolic stimuli varying in numerosity, which produced neural activity in and around the intraparietal sulcus, a region associated with higher-order numerical processing. We found that individual differences in the lateralization of number activity in visual cortex could be explained by individual differences in the lateralization of numerical processing in parietal cortex, suggesting a functional relationship between the two regions. Together, these results demonstrate a neural double dissociation between letter and number recognition and suggest that higher-level numerical processing in parietal cortex may influence the neural organization of number processing in visual cortex.

  8. Meta-analysis: how does posterior parietal cortex contribute to reasoning?

    PubMed Central

    Wendelken, Carter

    2015-01-01

    Reasoning depends on the contribution of posterior parietal cortex (PPC). But PPC is involved in many basic operations—including spatial attention, mathematical cognition, working memory, long-term memory, and language—and the nature of its contribution to reasoning is unclear. Psychological theories of the processes underlying reasoning make divergent claims about the neural systems that are likely to be involved, and better understanding the specific contribution of PPC can help to inform these theories. We set out to address several competing hypotheses, concerning the role of PPC in reasoning: (1) reasoning involves application of formal logic and is dependent on language, with PPC activation for reasoning mainly reflective of linguistic processing; (2) reasoning involves probabilistic computation and is thus dependent on numerical processing mechanisms in PPC; and (3) reasoning is built upon the representation and processing of spatial relations, and PPC activation associated with reasoning reflects spatial processing. We conducted two separate meta-analyses. First, we pooled data from our own studies of reasoning in adults, and examined activation in PPC regions of interest (ROI). Second, we conducted an automated meta-analysis using Neurosynth, in which we examined overlap between activation maps associated with reasoning and maps associated with other key functions of PPC. In both analyses, we observed reasoning-related activation concentrated in the left Inferior Parietal Lobe (IPL). Reasoning maps demonstrated the greatest overlap with mathematical cognition. Maintenance, visuospatial, and phonological processing also demonstrated some overlap with reasoning, but a large portion of the reasoning map did not overlap with the map for any other function. This evidence suggests that the PPC’s contribution to reasoning may be most closely related to its role in mathematical cognition, but that a core component of this contribution may be specific to

  9. Effects of marijuana use on prefrontal and parietal volumes and cognition in emerging adults.

    PubMed

    Price, Jenessa S; McQueeny, Tim; Shollenbarger, Skyler; Browning, Erin L; Wieser, Jon; Lisdahl, Krista M

    2015-08-01

    Chronic marijuana (MJ) use among adolescents has been associated with structural and functional abnormalities, particularly in developing regions responsible for higher order cognition. This study investigated prefrontal (PFC) and parietal volumes and executive function in emerging adult MJ users and explored potential gender differences. Participants (ages 18-25) were 27 MJ users and 32 controls without neurologic or psychiatric disorders or heavy other drug use. A series of multiple regressions examined whether group status, past year MJ use, and their interactions with gender predicted ROI volumes. Post hoc analyses consisted of brain-behavior correlations between volumes and cognitive variables and Fisher's z tests to assess group differences. MJ users demonstrated significantly smaller medial orbitofrontal (mOFC; p = 0.004, FDR p = 0.024) and inferior parietal volumes (p = 0.04, FDR p = 0.12); follow-up regressions found that increased past year MJ use did not significantly dose-dependently predict smaller mOFC volume in a sub-sample of individuals with at least one past year MJ use. There were no significant gender interactions. There was a significant brain-behavior difference by group, such that smaller mOFC volumes were associated with poorer complex attention for MJ users (p < 0.05). Smaller mOFC volumes among MJ users suggest disruption of typical neurodevelopmental processes associated with regular MJ use for both genders. These results highlight the need for longitudinal, multi-modal imaging studies providing clearer information on timing of neurodevelopmental processes and neurocognitive impacts of youth MJ initiation.

  10. Subregions of human parietal cortex selectively encoding object orientation.

    PubMed

    Aso, Toshihiko; Hanakawa, Takashi; Matsuo, Kayako; Toma, Keiichiro; Shibasaki, Hiroshi; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Nakai, Toshiharu

    2007-03-30

    Computation of object orientation could be an independent process from those of other object features, but currently neither the location of human brain areas selectively coding orientation information nor an optimum experimental paradigm have yet been established. In this study, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to investigate brain activation in the parietal cortices related to object orientation. Using an Arabic digit whose spatial attributes were carefully manipulated, we found parietal areas exclusively sensitive to object orientation, but not to general spatial attention. It seems that, by excluding confounds such as mental manipulation or working memory as well as inherent spatial information within the stimuli, functional segregation within the parietal lobe can be effectively probed.

  11. Attenuating illusory binding with TMS of the right parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Esterman, Michael; Verstynen, Timothy; Robertson, Lynn C.

    2007-01-01

    A number of neuroimaging and neuropsychology studies have implicated various regions of parietal cortex as playing a critical role in the binding of color and form into conjunctions. The current study investigates the role of two such regions by examining how parietal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) influences binding errors known as ‘illusory conjunctions.’ Participants made fewer binding errors after 1 Hz rTMS of the right intraparietal sulcus (IPS), while basic perception of features (colors and shape) was unaffected. No perceptual effects were found following left IPS stimulation, or stimulation of the right angular gyrus at the junction of the transverse occipital sulcus (IPS/TOS). These results support a role for the parietal cortex in feature binding but in ways that may require rethinking. PMID:17336097

  12. Parietal endoderm secreted SPARC promotes early cardiomyogenesis in vitro.

    PubMed

    Stary, Martina; Pasteiner, Waltraud; Summer, Alexandra; Hrdina, Astrid; Eger, Andreas; Weitzer, Georg

    2005-11-01

    Cardiomyogenesis proceeds in the presence of signals emanating from extra-embryonic lineages emerging before and during early eutherian gastrulation. In embryonic stem cell derived embryoid bodies, primitive endoderm gives rise to visceral and parietal endoderm. Parietal endoderm undergoes an epithelial to mesenchymal transition shortly before first cardiomyocytes start to contract rhythmically. Here, we demonstrate that Secreted Protein, Acidic, Rich in Cysteine, SPARC, predominantly secreted by mesenchymal parietal endoderm specifically promotes early myocardial cell differentiation in embryoid bodies. SPARC enhanced the expression of bmp2 and nkx2.5 in embryoid bodies and fetal cardiomyocytes. Inhibition of either SPARC or Bmp2 attenuated in both cases cardiomyogenesis and downregulated nkx2.5 expression. Thus, SPARC directly affects cardiomyogenesis, modulates Bmp2 signaling, and contributes to a positive autoregulatory loop of Bmp2 and Nkx2.5 in cardiomyocytes.

  13. Posterior parietal cortex and the dissociable components of prism adaptation.

    PubMed

    Newport, R; Jackson, S R

    2006-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in adaptation to optical displacing prisms. It has been suggested that PPC contributes to the strategic component of prism adaptation necessary for perceptual realignment (true adaptation). It has also been suggested, however, that the part of PPC responsible for corrections to ongoing movements (a putative strategic component) may not be necessary for successful adaptation. A patient presenting with bilateral posterior parietal damage (patient JJ) was tested with both hands on two versions of a prism adaptation task--one using prism goggles and one using a virtual prism arrangement. JJ displayed independent deficits: his right hand failed to show strategic control, yet adapted fully to the prisms whereas his left hand showed evidence of strategic control without subsequent adaptation. The data indicates that the ability to implement control strategies may not be necessary for successful adaptation to prisms. A proposed model for the role of posterior parietal cortex in prism adaptation is also presented.

  14. Importance of human right inferior frontoparietal network connected by inferior branch of superior longitudinal fasciculus tract in corporeal awareness of kinesthetic illusory movement.

    PubMed

    Amemiya, Kaoru; Naito, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    It is generally believed that the human right cerebral hemisphere plays a dominant role in corporeal awareness, which is highly associated with conscious experience of the physical self. Prompted by our previous findings, we examined whether the right frontoparietal activations often observed when people experience kinesthetic illusory limb movement are supported by a large-scale brain network connected by a specific branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus fiber tracts (SLF I, II, and III). We scanned brain activity with functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) while nineteen blindfolded healthy volunteers experienced illusory movement of the right stationary hand elicited by tendon vibration, which was replicated after the scanning. We also scanned brain activity when they executed and imagined right hand movement, and identified the active brain regions during illusion, execution, and imagery in relation to the SLF fiber tracts. We found that illusion predominantly activated the right inferior frontoparietal regions connected by SLF III, which were not substantially recruited during execution and imagery. Among these regions, activities in the right inferior parietal cortices and inferior frontal cortices showed right-side dominance and correlated well with the amount of illusion (kinesthetic illusory awareness) experienced by the participants. The results illustrated the predominant involvement of the right inferior frontoparietal network connected by SLF III when people recognize postural changes of their limb. We assume that the network bears a series of functions, specifically, monitoring the current status of the musculoskeletal system, and building-up and updating our postural model (body schema), which could be a basis for the conscious experience of the physical self.

  15. Parietal hemineglect and motor deficits in the monkey.

    PubMed

    Deuel, R K; Regan, D J

    1985-01-01

    To study the parietal hemineglect syndrome, we trained and operated nine Macaca fasicularis monkeys. Contralateral to the lesion they showed response abnormalities to visual and somatic sensory stimuli, and misreaching toward targets in visual space, abberant finger and wrist postures and lack of pincer grasp. The latter did not appear during performance of a preoperatively practised task, nor depend for severity upon lesion size, whereas sensory response abnormalities did. We conclude that abnormal motor patterns are separable from hemineglect in parietal animals, and are worst when the movement is directed to a visual target in extrapersonal space.

  16. [Inferior vestibular neuritis: diagnosis using VEMP].

    PubMed

    Walther, L E; Repik, I

    2012-02-01

    Vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMP) are a new method to establish the functional status of the otolith organs. The sacculocollic reflex of the cervical VEMP to air conduction (AC) reflects predominantly saccular function due to saccular afferents to the inferior vestibular nerve. We describe a case of inferior vestibular neuritis as a rare differential diagnosis of vestibular neuritis. Clinical signs were a normal caloric response, unilaterally absent AC cVEMPs and bilaterally preserved ocular VEMPs (AC oVEMPs).

  17. Robotic inferior vena cava surgery.

    PubMed

    Davila, Victor J; Velazco, Cristine S; Stone, William M; Fowl, Richard J; Abdul-Muhsin, Haidar M; Castle, Erik P; Money, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    Inferior vena cava (IVC) surgery is uncommon and has traditionally been performed through open surgical approaches. Renal cell carcinoma with IVC extension generally requires vena cavotomy and reconstruction. Open removal of malpositioned IVC filters (IVCF) is occasionally required after endovascular retrieval attempts have failed. As our experience with robotic surgery has advanced, we have applied this technology to surgery of the IVC. We reviewed our institution's experience with robotic surgical procedures involving the IVC to determine its safety and efficacy. All patients undergoing robotic surgery that included cavotomy and repair from 2011 to 2014 were retrospectively reviewed. Data were obtained detailing preoperative demographics, operative details, and postoperative morbidity and mortality. Ten patients (6 men) underwent robotic vena caval procedures at our institution. Seven patients underwent robotic nephrectomy with removal of IVC tumor thrombus and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. Three patients underwent robotic explantation of an IVCF after multiple endovascular attempts at removal had failed. The patients with renal cell carcinoma were a mean age of was 65.4 years (range, 55-74 years). Six patients had right-sided malignancy. All patients had T3b lesions at time of diagnosis. Mean tumor length extension into the IVC was 5 cm (range, 1-8 cm). All patients underwent robotic radical nephrectomy, with caval tumor thrombus removal and retroperitoneal lymph node dissection. The average operative time for patients undergoing surgery for renal cell carcinoma was 273 minutes (range, 137-382 minutes). Average intraoperative blood loss was 428 mL (range, 150-1200 mL). The patients with IVCF removal were a mean age of 33 years (range, 24-41 years). Average time from IVCF placement until robotic removal was 35.5 months (range, 4.3-57.3 months). Before robotic IVCF removal, a minimum of two endovascular retrievals were attempted. Average operative time

  18. Role of Prefrontal and Parietal Cortices in Associative Learning

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, John R.; Byrne, Dana; Fincham, Jon M.; Gunn, Pat

    2017-01-01

    Two studies were performed that compared a “Paired” condition in which participants studied paired associates with a “Generated” condition in which participants completed word fragments to produce paired associates. In both tasks, participants were responsible for memory of the material either studied or generated. The experiments revealed significant differences between the responses of a predefined prefrontal region and a predefined parietal region. The parietal region responded more in the Generated condition than the Paired condition, whereas there was no difference in the prefrontal region. On the other hand, the prefrontal region responded to the delay between study and test in both the Paired and Generated conditions, whereas the parietal region only responded to delay in the Generated condition. This pattern of results is consistent with the hypothesis that the parietal region is responsive to changes in problem representation and the prefrontal region to retrieval operations. An information-processing model embodying these assumptions was fit to the blood oxygen level–dependent responses in these regions. PMID:17675369

  19. Topographic Maps of Visual Spatial Attention in Human Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Silver, Michael A.; Ress, David; Heeger, David J.

    2008-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to measure activity in human parietal cortex during performance of a visual detection task in which the focus of attention systematically traversed the visual field. Critically, the stimuli were identical on all trials (except for slight contrast changes in a fully randomized selection of the target locations) whereas only the cued location varied. Traveling waves of activity were observed in posterior parietal cortex consistent with shifts in covert attention in the absence of eye movements. The temporal phase of the fMRI signal in each voxel indicated the corresponding visual field location. Visualization of the distribution of temporal phases on a flattened representation of parietal cortex revealed at least two distinct topographically organized cortical areas within the intraparietal sulcus (IPS), each representing the contralateral visual field. Two cortical areas were proposed based on this topographic organization, which we refer to as IPS1 and IPS2 to indicate their locations within the IPS. This nomenclature is neutral with respect to possible homologies with well-established cortical areas in the monkey brain. The two proposed cortical areas exhibited relatively little response to passive visual stimulation in comparison with early visual areas. These results provide evidence for multiple topographic maps in human parietal cortex. PMID:15817643

  20. Histamine-stimulated phosphorylation of gastric parietal cell proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Chew, C.S.; Brown, M.R.

    1987-05-01

    Parietal cells from rabbit gastric mucosa respond to histamine with increased HCl secretion. Histamine also increases cAMP and activates cAMP-dependent protein kinase(s) in these cells. cAMP analogues and forskolin appear to mimic these effects. More recently histamine and forskolin but not cAMP-stimulated increases in (Ca/sup 2 +/)/sub i/ have been detected in parietal cells enriched to 98 +/- 2% (n=10) purity using a combined Nycodenz density gradient/centrifugal elutriation technique. In the present experiments parietal cells were loaded with /sup 32/P to label ATP pools then stimulated with histamine or chlorophenylthio-cAMP plus the H/sub 2/ receptor antagonist, cimetidine. Total cell extracts were separated via 2D-gel electrophoresis and analyzed with a Masscomp computer and PDQuest software. Results indicate that histamine stimulates phosphorylation of at least two proteins with molecular weights 49 and 33 kDa and respective pI's of 6.4 and 6.0. Changes in phosphorylation are detected within 1 min of stimulation and remain elevated for at least 15 min. No change in specific activity of samples was detected during this time. A third protein also showed increased phosphorylation but the response appeared more transient. They conclude that histamine increases phosphorylation of several parietal cell proteins via a cAMP-dependent mechanism. The relationship between changes in phosphorylation and onset of HCl secretion remains to be determined.

  1. Alzheimer's disease with asymmetric parietal lobe atrophy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kaida, K; Takeda, K; Nagata, N; Kamakura, K

    1998-09-18

    A 52-year-old, right-handed female presented with visuospatial dysfunction including left hemineglect, incomplete Balint's syndrome, and environmental agnosia, together with left-sided motor symptoms such as unskillful movement, dystonic postures, and myoclonus in the left hand, without significant dementia. Symptoms progressed to akinetic mutism prior to her death 10 years after onset of illness. Imaging studies such as MRI, SPECT, and PET studies showed severe, predominantly right-sided involvement of parietal and parieto-occipital areas. The motor signs might originate from the right parietal lesions such as area five or somatosensory area. Neuropathologic studies including immunocytochemistry showed tau-positive neurofibrillary tangles and abundant neuritic plaques with amyloid deposits, confirming the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. An analysis of serum apolipoprotein E revealed epsilon3/epsilon3 homozygosity. This case represents a variant of Alzheimer's disease conspicuous for progressive motor signs and visuospatial dysfunction with a striking laterality, reflecting asymmetric parietal involvement. Alzheimer's disease with asymmetric parietal atrophy is difficult to be clinically distinguished from corticobasal degeneration characterized by progressive unilateral motor signs and focal cortical signs.

  2. Parietal cortex mediates perceptual Gestalt grouping independent of stimulus size.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Pablo R; Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2016-06-01

    The integration of local moving elements into a unified gestalt percept has previously been linked to the posterior parietal cortex. There are two possible interpretations for the lack of involvement of other occipital regions. The first is that parietal cortex is indeed uniquely functionally specialized to perform grouping. Another possibility is that other visual regions can perform grouping as well, but that the large spatial separation of the local elements used previously exceeded their neurons' receptive field (RF) sizes, preventing their involvement. In this study we distinguished between these two alternatives. We measured whole-brain activity using fMRI in response to a bistable motion illusion that induced mutually exclusive percepts of either an illusory global Gestalt or of local elements. The stimulus was presented in two sizes, a large version known to activate IPS only, and a version sufficiently small to fit into the RFs of mid-level dorsal regions such as V5/MT. We found that none of the separately localized motion regions apart from parietal cortex showed a preference for global Gestalt perception, even for the smaller version of the stimulus. This outcome suggests that grouping-by-motion is mediated by a specialized size-invariant mechanism with parietal cortex as its anatomical substrate.

  3. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  4. Parietal network underlying movement control: disturbances during subcortical electrostimulation.

    PubMed

    Almairac, Fabien; Herbet, Guillaume; Moritz-Gasser, Sylvie; Duffau, Hugues

    2014-07-01

    Our understanding of brain movement control has changed over the last two decades. Recent findings in the monkey and in humans have led to a parallel and interconnected network. Nevertheless, little is known about these networks. Here, we present two cases of patients with a parietal low-grade glioma. They underwent surgery under local anesthesia with cortical and subcortical mapping. For patient 1, subcortical electrostimulation immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced movement disorders, with an inhibition of leg and arm movements medially and, more laterally, an acceleration of arm movement. For patient 2, electrostimulation of white matter immediately posterior to thalamocortical fibers induced an inhibition of both arm movement. It means that the detected fibers in the parietal lobe may be involved in the motor control modulation. They are distributed veil-like immediately posterior to thalamocortical pathways and could correspond to a fronto-parietal movement control subnetwork. These two cases highlight the major role of the subcortical connectivity in movement regulation, involving parietal lobe, thus the necessity to be identified and preserved during brain surgery.

  5. Spatiotemporal Segregation in Visual Search: Evidence from Parietal Lesions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olivers, Christian N. L.; Humphreys, Glyn W.

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying segmentation and selection of visual stimuli over time were investigated in patients with posterior parietal damage. In a modified visual search task, a preview of old objects preceded search of a new set for a target while the old items remained. In Experiment 1, control participants ignored old and prioritized new…

  6. Body and movement: consciousness in the parietal lobes.

    PubMed

    Daprati, Elena; Sirigu, Angela; Nico, Daniele

    2010-02-01

    A critical issue related to the notion of identity concerns our ability to discriminate between internally and externally generated stimuli. This basic mechanism likely relies on perceptual and motor information, and requires that both motor plans and the resulting activity be continuously mapped on a reliable body representation. It has been widely demonstrated that the parietal cortices of the two hemispheres play a crucial role, albeit differently specialized, in both monitoring internal representation of our own actions and sustaining body representation. Ample neuropsychological evidence indicates that while damage to the left parietal cortex affects the ability to generate and/or monitor an internal model of one's own movement, lesions of the right parietal lobe are largely responsible for severe perturbations of the internal representation of one's own body. In the present paper, we discuss the processes involved in body perception and self-recognition and propose a tentative model describing how the right and left parietal cortices contribute in integrating various sources of information to produce the unique, elementary experience of one's own body in motion. The ecological value of this process in constructing identity and autobiographical experience will be discussed.

  7. Replenishment of the podocyte compartment by parietal epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kopp, Jeffrey B

    2015-11-01

    While progressive podocytopenia is a characteristic feature of chronic glomerular disease, the visceral epithelial niche can be replenished from the parietal epithelium. Two new reports demonstrate this process in genetically engineered mice, using fate mapping, and in human renal biopsies manifesting segmental glomerulosclerosis in diverse settings, using cellular and extracellular matrix markers.

  8. Impairments in Tactile Search Following Superior Parietal Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skakoon-Sparling, Shayna P.; Vasquez, Brandon P.; Hano, Kate; Danckert, James

    2011-01-01

    The superior parietal cortex is critical for the control of visually guided actions. Research suggests that visual stimuli relevant to actions are preferentially processed when they are in peripersonal space. One recent study demonstrated that visually guided movements towards the body were more impaired in a patient with damage to superior…

  9. Functional connectivity of parietal cortex during temporal selective attention.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Sarah C; Dasgupta, Samhita; Agosta, Sara; Battelli, Lorella; Grossman, Emily D

    2015-04-01

    Perception of natural experiences requires allocation of attention towards features, objects, and events that are moving and changing over time. This allocation of attention is controlled by large-scale brain networks that, when damaged, cause widespread cognitive deficits. In particular, damage to ventral parietal cortex (right lateralized TPJ, STS, supramarginal and angular gyri) is associated with failures to selectively attend to and isolate features embedded within rapidly changing visual sequences (Battelli, Pascual-Leone, & Cavanagh, 2007; Husain, Shapiro, Martin, & Kennard, 1997). In this study, we used fMRI to investigate the neural activity and functional connectivity of intact parietal cortex while typical subjects judged the relative onsets and offsets of rapidly flickering tokens (a phase discrimination task in which right parietal patients are impaired). We found two regions in parietal cortex correlated with task performance: a bilateral posterior TPJ (pTPJ) and an anterior right-lateralized TPJ (R aTPJ). Both regions were deactivated when subjects engaged in the task but showed different patterns of functional connectivity. The bilateral pTPJ was strongly connected to nodes within the default mode network (DMN) and the R aTPJ was connected to the attention network. Accurate phase discriminations were associated with increased functional correlations between sensory cortex (hMT+) and the bilateral pTPJ, whereas accuracy on a control task was associated with yoked activity in the hMT+ and the R aTPJ. We conclude that temporal selective attention is particularly sensitive for revealing information pathways between sensory and core cognitive control networks that, when damaged, can lead to nonspatial attention impairments in right parietal stroke patients.

  10. ROLE OF A LATERALIZED PARIETAL-BASAL GANGLIA CIRCUIT IN HIERARCHICAL PATTERN PERCEPTION

    PubMed Central

    Schendan, Haline E.; Amick, Melissa M.; Cronin-Golomb, Alice

    2009-01-01

    The role of corticostriatal circuits in hierarchical pattern perception was examined in Parkinson’s disease. The hypothesis was tested that patients with right-side onset of motor symptoms (RPD, left hemisphere dysfunction) would be impaired at local level processing because the left posterior temporoparietal junction (TP) emphasizes processing of local information. By contrast, left-side onset patients (LPD; right hemisphere dysfunction) would show impaired global processing because right TP emphasizes global processing. Participants identified targets at local or global levels without and with attention biased toward those levels. Despite normal attentional control between levels, LPD patients showed a single dissociation, demonstrating abnormal global level processing under all conditions, whereas RPD patients showed abnormal local level processing mainly when attention was biased toward the local level. These findings link side of motor symptom onset to visuospatial cognitive abilities that depend upon the contralateral TP, highlighting that side of onset can predict visuospatial impairments, and provide evidence that an inferior parietal - basal ganglia pathway involving the caudate head and the hemispherically asymmetrical TP region is necessary for hierarchical pattern perception. PMID:19170437

  11. Gray matter increases in fronto-parietal regions of depression patients with aripiprazole monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hou, Yi-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We investigated the treatment effects of aripiprazole monotherapy in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The accompanying changes in the gray matter volume (GMV) were also explored. Fifteen patients completed the trial and received structural scans by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and partially responding state (sixth week). To account for the test–retest bias, 27 healthy controls were scanned twice within 6 weeks. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry with different comparisons between groups. The partially responding patients with MDD had greater GMV in left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus when compared with baseline. However, they had decreases in the GMV of right orbitofrontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus after response. The partially responding patients with MDD still had residual GMV deficits in right superior frontal gyrus when compared with controls. However, the lack of second patient group without aripiprazole intervention would be a significant limitation to interpret the aripiprazole-specific effects on GMV. The changes in the GMV of fronto-parieto-temporal regions and residual GMV deficits in the superior frontal gyrus might represent “state-dependent brain changes” and “residual-deficit brain regions,” respectively, for aripiprzole monotherapy in MDD. PMID:27559967

  12. [Brodmann Areas 39 and 40: Human Parietal Association Area and Higher Cortical Function].

    PubMed

    Sakurai, Yasuhisa

    2017-04-01

    The anatomy and function of the angular gyrus (Brodmann Area 39) and supramarginal gyrus (Brodmann Area 40) are described here. Both gyri constitute the inferior part of the parietal lobe. Association fibers from the angular gyrus project to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex via the superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) II/arcuate fasciculus (AF), whereas those from the supramarginal gyrus project to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex via SLF III/AF. Damage to the left angular gyrus causes kanji agraphia (lexical agraphia) and mild anomia, whereas damage to the left supramarginal gyrus causes kana alexia (phonological dyslexia) and kana agraphia (phonological agraphia). Damage to either gyrus causes Gerstmann's syndrome (finger agnosia, left-right disorientation, agraphia and acalculia) and verbal short-term memory impairment. "Angular alexia with agraphia" results from damage to the middle occipital gyrus posterior to the angular gyrus. Alexia and agraphia, with lesions in the angular or supramarginal gyrus, are characterized by kana transposition errors in reading words, which suggests the impairment of sequential phonological processing.

  13. Parietal structure and function explain human variation in working memory biases of visual attention.

    PubMed

    Soto, David; Rotshtein, Pia; Kanai, Ryota

    2014-04-01

    Recent research indicates that human attention appears inadvertently biased by items that match the contents of working memory (WM). WM-biases can lead to attentional costs when the memory content matches goal-irrelevant items and to attentional benefits when it matches the sought target. Here we used functional and structural MRI data to determine the neural basis of human variation in WM biases. We asked whether human variation in WM-benefits and WM-costs merely reflects the process of attentional capture by the contents of WM or whether variation in WM biases may be associated with distinct forms of cognitive control over internal WM signals based on selection goals. Human ability to use WM contents to facilitate selection was positively correlated with gray matter volume in the left superior posterior parietal cortex (PPC), while the ability to overcome interference by WM-matching distracters was associated with the left inferior PPC in the anterior IPS. Functional activity in the left PPC, measured by functional MRI, also predicted the magnitude of WM-costs on selection. Both structure and function of left PPC mediate the expression of WM biases in human visual attention.

  14. Individual differences in reasoning and visuospatial attention are associated with prefrontal and parietal white matter tracts in healthy older adults.

    PubMed

    Monge, Zachary A; Greenwood, Pamela M; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-07-01

    Although reasoning and attention are 2 cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Sixty-one adults ages 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess fractional anisotropy (FA), a measure of white matter integrity. A principle components analysis of the test scores yielded 2 components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  15. Individual Differences in Reasoning and Visuospatial Attention are Associated with Prefrontal and Parietal White Matter Tracts in Healthy Older Adults

    PubMed Central

    Monge, Zachary A.; Greenwood, Pamela M.; Parasuraman, Raja; Strenziok, Maren

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although reasoning and attention are two cognitive processes necessary for ensuring the efficiency of many everyday activities in older adults, the role of white matter integrity in these processes has been little studied. This is an important question due to the role of white matter integrity as a neural substrate of cognitive aging. Here, we sought to examine the white matter tracts subserving reasoning and visuospatial attention in healthy older adults. Method Sixty-one adults aged 60 and older completed a battery of cognitive tests to assess reasoning and visuospatial attention. In addition, diffusion tensor images were collected to assess Fractional Anisotropy (FA) – a measure of white matter integrity. A principle component analysis of the test scores yielded two components: reasoning and visuospatial attention. Whole-brain correlations between FA and the cognitive components were submitted to probabilistic tractography analyses for visualization of cortical targets of tracts. Results For reasoning, bilateral thalamo-anterior prefrontal, anterior corpus callosum, and corpus callosum body tracts interconnecting the superior frontal cortices and right cingulum bundle were found. For visuospatial attention, a right inferior fronto-parietal tract, and bilateral parietal and temporal connections were found. Conclusions We conclude that in older adults, prefrontal cortex white matter tracts and interhemispheric communication are important in higher order cognitive functioning. On the other hand, right-sided fronto-parietal tracts appear to be critical for supporting control of cognitive processes, such as redirecting attention. Researchers may use our results to develop neuroscience-based interventions for older adults targeting brain mechanisms involved in cognitive plasticity. PMID:26986750

  16. Retinotopic Organization of Scene Areas in Macaque Inferior Temporal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Primates have specialized domains in inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are responsive to particular image categories. Though IT traditionally has been regarded as lacking retinotopy, several recent studies in monkeys have shown that retinotopic maps extend to face patches along the lower bank of the superior temporal sulcus (STS) and neighboring regions of IT cortex. Here, we used fMRI to map the retinotopic organization of medial ventral temporal cortex in four monkeys (2 male and 2 female). We confirm the presence of visual field maps within and around the lower bank of the STS and extend these prior findings to scene-selective cortex in the ventral-most regions of IT. Within the occipitotemporal sulcus (OTS), we identified two retinotopic areas, OTS1 and OTS2. The polar angle representation of OTS2 was a mirror reversal of the OTS1 representation. These regions contained representations of the contralateral periphery and were selectively active for scene versus face, body, or object images. The extent of this retinotopy parallels that in humans and shows that the organization of the scene network is preserved across primate species. In addition retinotopic maps were identified in dorsal extrastriate, posterior parietal, and frontal cortex as well as the thalamus, including both the lateral geniculate nucleus and pulvinar. Together, it appears that most, if not all, of the macaque visual system contains organized representations of visual space. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Primates have specialized domains in inferior temporal (IT) cortex that are responsive to particular image categories. Though retinotopic maps are considered a fundamental organizing principle of posterior visual cortex, IT traditionally has been regarded as lacking retinotopy. Recent imaging studies have demonstrated the presence of several visual field maps within the lateral IT. Using neuroimaging, we found multiple representations of visual space within ventral IT cortex of macaques that

  17. Extracellular calcium and cholinergic stimulation of isolated canine parietal cells.

    PubMed Central

    Soll, A H

    1981-01-01

    The role of calcium gating in cholinergic stimulation of the function of parietal cells was studied using cells isolated from canine fundic mucosa by treatment with collagenase and EDTA and enriched by velocity separation in an elutriator rotor. Monitoring the accumulation of [14C[ aminopyrine as an index of parietal cell response, stimulation by carbachol, but not by histamine, was highly dependent upon the concentration of extracellular calcium. Incubation of parietal cells in 0-.1 mM calcium, rather than the usual 1.8 mM concentration, reduced the response to 100 microM carbachol by 92 +/- 2%, whereas histamine stimulation was impaired by 28 +/- 5%. A similar reduction in extracellular calcium suppressed the response to gastrin (100 nM) by 67 +/- 7%. The impairment of cholinergic stimulation found at low extracellular calcium concentrations was rapidly reversed with the readdition of calcium. Lanthanum, which blocks calcium movement across membranes, caused a similar pattern of effects on secretagogue stimulation of aminopyrine accumulation, with 100 microM lanthanum suppressing carbachol stimulation by 83 +/- 2%. This concentration of lanthanum suppressed gastrin stimulation by 40 +/- 7% and histamine stimulation by only 12 +/- 9%. Carbachol, but not histamine nor gastrin, stimulated 45Ca++ uptake. The magnitude of carbachol-stimulated calcium uptake correlated with the parietal cell content of the fractions examined (r = 0.88), and was dose responsive over carbachol concentrations from 1 microM to 1 mM. Atropine (100 nM) caused surmountable inhibition, and these effects of carbachol and atropine on calcium uptake correlated with their effects on oxygen consumption (r = 0.93) and [14C]-aminopyrine accumulation (r = 0.90). Cells preloaded with 45Ca++ lost cellular calcium in a time-dependent fashion; however, this rate of egress was not accelerated by treatment with histamine, gastrin, or carbachol, thus failing to implicate mobilization of intracellular calcium

  18. Lateralization Technique and Inferior Alveolar Nerve Transposition

    PubMed Central

    Sanches, Marco Antonio; Ramalho, Gabriel Cardoso; Manzi, Marcello Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Bone resorption of the posterior mandible can result in diminished bone edge and, therefore, the installation of implants in these regions becomes a challenge, especially in the presence of the mandibular canal and its contents, the inferior alveolar nerve. Several treatment alternatives are suggested: the use of short implants, guided bone regeneration, appositional bone grafting, distraction osteogenesis, inclined implants tangential to the mandibular canal, and the lateralization of the inferior alveolar nerve. The aim was to elucidate the success rate of implants in the lateralization technique and in inferior alveolar nerve transposition and to determine the most effective sensory test. We conclude that the success rate is linked to the possibility of installing implants with long bicortical anchor which favors primary stability and biomechanics. PMID:27433360

  19. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  20. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  1. Dissociation of Subtraction and Multiplication in the Right Parietal Cortex: Evidence from Intraoperative Cortical Electrostimulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Xiaodan; Chen, Chuansheng; Pu, Song; Wu, Chenxing; Li, Yongnian; Jiang, Tao; Zhou, Xinlin

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has consistently shown that the left parietal cortex is critical for numerical processing, but the role of the right parietal lobe has been much less clear. This study used the intraoperative cortical electrical stimulation approach to investigate neural dissociation in the right parietal cortex for subtraction and…

  2. Overlapping Parietal Activity in Memory and Perception: Evidence for the Attention to Memory Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cabeza, Roberto; Mazuz, Yonatan S.; Stokes, Jared; Kragel, James E.; Woldorff, Marty G.; Ciaramelli, Elisa; Olson, Ingrid R.; Moscovitch, Morris

    2011-01-01

    The specific role of different parietal regions to episodic retrieval is a topic of intense debate. According to the Attention to Memory (AtoM) model, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) mediates top-down attention processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) mediates bottom-up attention processes captured by the retrieval…

  3. Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage

    PubMed Central

    Marslen-Wilson, William D.; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J.; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A.

    2011-01-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left hemisphere damage and healthy participants to ask whether the left inferior frontal gyrus is essential for syntactic processing. In a functional neuroimaging study, participants listened to spoken sentences that either contained a syntactically ambiguous or matched unambiguous phrase. Behavioural data on three tests of syntactic processing were subsequently collected. In controls, syntactic processing co-activated left hemisphere Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Activity in a left parietal cluster was sensitive to working memory demands in both patients and controls. Exploiting the variability in lesion location and performance in the patients, voxel-based correlational analyses showed that tissue integrity and neural activity—primarily in left Brodmann area 45 and posterior middle temporal gyrus—were correlated with preserved syntactic performance, but unlike the controls, patients were insensitive to syntactic preferences, reflecting their syntactic deficit. These results argue for the essential contribution of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic analysis and highlight the functional relationship between left Brodmann area 45 and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, suggesting that when this relationship breaks down, through damage to either region or to the connections between them, syntactic processing is impaired. On this view, the left inferior frontal gyrus may not itself be specialized for syntactic processing, but plays an essential role in the neural network that carries out syntactic computations. PMID:21278407

  4. Left inferior frontal cortex and syntax: function, structure and behaviour in patients with left hemisphere damage.

    PubMed

    Tyler, Lorraine K; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Randall, Billi; Wright, Paul; Devereux, Barry J; Zhuang, Jie; Papoutsi, Marina; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A

    2011-02-01

    For the past 150 years, neurobiological models of language have debated the role of key brain regions in language function. One consistently debated set of issues concern the role of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic processing. Here we combine measures of functional activity, grey matter integrity and performance in patients with left hemisphere damage and healthy participants to ask whether the left inferior frontal gyrus is essential for syntactic processing. In a functional neuroimaging study, participants listened to spoken sentences that either contained a syntactically ambiguous or matched unambiguous phrase. Behavioural data on three tests of syntactic processing were subsequently collected. In controls, syntactic processing co-activated left hemisphere Brodmann areas 45/47 and posterior middle temporal gyrus. Activity in a left parietal cluster was sensitive to working memory demands in both patients and controls. Exploiting the variability in lesion location and performance in the patients, voxel-based correlational analyses showed that tissue integrity and neural activity-primarily in left Brodmann area 45 and posterior middle temporal gyrus-were correlated with preserved syntactic performance, but unlike the controls, patients were insensitive to syntactic preferences, reflecting their syntactic deficit. These results argue for the essential contribution of the left inferior frontal gyrus in syntactic analysis and highlight the functional relationship between left Brodmann area 45 and the left posterior middle temporal gyrus, suggesting that when this relationship breaks down, through damage to either region or to the connections between them, syntactic processing is impaired. On this view, the left inferior frontal gyrus may not itself be specialized for syntactic processing, but plays an essential role in the neural network that carries out syntactic computations.

  5. Inferior Vena Cava Filters for Recurrent Thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Salil H.; Patel, Rima

    2007-01-01

    Inferior vena cava filters are often used as alternatives to anticoagulant therapy for the prevention of pulmonary embolism. Many of the clinical data that support the use of these devices stem from relatively limited retrospective studies. The dual purpose of this review is to examine the incidence of thrombotic complications associated with inferior vena cava filters and to discuss the role of anticoagulant therapy concurrent with filter placement. Device-associated morbidity and overall efficacy can be considered only in the context of rates of vena cava thrombosis, insertion-site thrombosis, recurrent deep venous thrombosis, and recurrent pulmonary embolism. PMID:17622366

  6. Gelastic seizures and fever originating from a parietal cortical dysplasia.

    PubMed

    Chaouki, Sana; Boujraf, Saïd; Atmani, Samir; Elarqam, Larbi; Messouak, Wafae

    2013-01-01

    Gelastic seizures (GS) is an uncommon seizure type characterized by sudden inappropriate attacks of uncontrolled and unmotivated laugh and its diagnostic criteria were elaborated by Gascon. These criteria included stereotypical recurrence of laugh, which is unjustified by the context, associated signs compatible with seizure, and ictal or interictal abnormalities. GS can be cryptogenic or symptomatic of a variety of cerebral lesions, the most common being hypothalamic hamartoma. However, GS associated with other types of cerebral lesions are exceedingly rare. The physiopathologic mechanisms of this type of seizure are still undefined. Two reports have described a non-lesional GS arising from a parietal focus. In this paper, we report the first case of lesional GS associated to the parietal area of the brain in a child and this case has associated fever that is likely an ictal symptom.

  7. Optic ataxia: from Balint's syndrome to the parietal reach region.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Richard A; Andersen, Kristen N; Hwang, Eun Jung; Hauschild, Markus

    2014-03-05

    Optic ataxia is a high-order deficit in reaching to visual goals that occurs with posterior parietal cortex (PPC) lesions. It is a component of Balint's syndrome that also includes attentional and gaze disorders. Aspects of optic ataxia are misreaching in the contralesional visual field, difficulty preshaping the hand for grasping, and an inability to correct reaches online. Recent research in nonhuman primates (NHPs) suggests that many aspects of Balint's syndrome and optic ataxia are a result of damage to specific functional modules for reaching, saccades, grasp, attention, and state estimation. The deficits from large lesions in humans are probably composite effects from damage to combinations of these functional modules. Interactions between these modules, either within posterior parietal cortex or downstream within frontal cortex, may account for more complex behaviors such as hand-eye coordination and reach-to-grasp.

  8. [Right parietal lesions, spatial neglect and egocentric reference].

    PubMed

    Bartolomeo, P; Chokron, S; Degos, J D

    2000-02-01

    Using a proprioceptive "straight-ahead" pointing task, we determined the position of the subjective sagittal middle in thirty unselected patients with unilateral vascular lesions in the right hemisphere and twenty-two normal controls. Patients with extensive right parietal damage (n = 16) showed an ipsilesional (rightward) deviation of their egocentric reference, whereas patients with lesions that substantially spared the right parietal lobe (n = 14) showed a contralesional (leftward) deviation. No significant correlation emerged between the position of the egocentric reference and the performance on a neglect battery. These results can help explain some dissociations between left neglect signs and ipsilesional deviation of the egocentric reference, and raise some questions about the links among lesion location, neglect signs and egocentric frame of reference.

  9. Neuronal oscillations form parietal/frontal networks during contour integration.

    PubMed

    Castellano, Marta; Plöchl, Michael; Vicente, Raul; Pipa, Gordon

    2014-01-01

    The ability to integrate visual features into a global coherent percept that can be further categorized and manipulated are fundamental abilities of the neural system. While the processing of visual information involves activation of early visual cortices, the recruitment of parietal and frontal cortices has been shown to be crucial for perceptual processes. Yet is it not clear how both cortical and long-range oscillatory activity leads to the integration of visual features into a coherent percept. Here, we will investigate perceptual grouping through the analysis of a contour categorization task, where the local elements that form contour must be linked into a coherent structure, which is then further processed and manipulated to perform the categorization task. The contour formation in our visual stimulus is a dynamic process where, for the first time, visual perception of contours is disentangled from the onset of visual stimulation or from motor preparation, cognitive processes that until now have been behaviorally attached to perceptual processes. Our main finding is that, while local and long-range synchronization at several frequencies seem to be an ongoing phenomena, categorization of a contour could only be predicted through local oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal sources, which in turn, would synchronize at gamma (>30 Hz) frequency. Simultaneously, fronto-parietal beta (13-30 Hz) phase locking forms a network spanning across neural sources that are not category specific. Both long range networks, i.e., the gamma network that is category specific, and the beta network that is not category specific, are functionally distinct but spatially overlapping. Altogether, we show that a critical mechanism underlying contour categorization involves oscillatory activity within parietal/frontal cortices, as well as its synchronization across distal cortical sites.

  10. Dynamic premotor-to-parietal interactions during spatial imagery.

    PubMed

    Sack, Alexander T; Jacobs, Christianne; De Martino, Federico; Staeren, Noel; Goebel, Rainer; Formisano, Elia

    2008-08-20

    The neurobiological processes underlying mental imagery are a matter of debate and controversy among neuroscientists, cognitive psychologists, philosophers, and biologists. Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrated that the execution of mental imagery activates large frontoparietal and occipitotemporal networks in the human brain. These previous imaging studies, however, neglected the crucial interplay within and across the widely distributed cortical networks of activated brain regions. Here, we combined time-resolved event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging with analyses of interactions between brain regions (functional and effective brain connectivity) to unravel the premotor-parietal dynamics underlying spatial imagery. Participants had to sequentially construct and spatially transform a mental visual object based on either verbal or visual instructions. By concurrently accounting for the full spatiotemporal pattern of brain activity and network connectivity, we functionally segregated an early from a late premotor-parietal imagery network. Moreover, we revealed that the modality-specific information upcoming from sensory brain regions is first sent to the premotor cortex and then to the medial-dorsal parietal cortex, i.e., top-down from the motor to the perceptual pole during spatial imagery. Importantly, we demonstrate that the premotor cortex serves as the central relay station, projecting to parietal cortex at two functionally distinct stages during spatial imagery. Our approach enabled us to disentangle the multicomponential cognitive construct of mental imagery into its different cognitive subelements. We discuss and explicitly assign these mental subprocesses to each of the revealed effective brain connectivity networks and present an integrative neurobiological model of spatial imagery.

  11. Selective tuning of the right inferior frontal gyrus during target detection

    PubMed Central

    Hampshire, Adam; Thompson, Russell; Duncan, John; Owen, Adrian M.

    2010-01-01

    In the human brain, a network of frontal and parietal regions is commonly recruited during tasks that demand the deliberate, focused control of thought and action. Previously, using a simple target detection task, we reported striking differences in the selectivity of the BOLD response in anatomically distinct subregions of this network. In particular, it was observed that the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) followed a tightly tuned function, selectively responding only to the current target object. Here, we examine this functional specialization further, using adapted versions of our original task. Our results demonstrate that the response of the right IFG to targets is a strong and replicable phenomenon. It occurs under increased attentional load, when targets and distractors are equally frequent, and when controlling for inhibitory processes. These findings support the hypothesis that the right IFG responds selectively to those items that are of the most relevance to the currently intended task schema. PMID:19246331

  12. Bottom-up Visual Integration in the Medial Parietal Lobe.

    PubMed

    Pflugshaupt, Tobias; Nösberger, Myriam; Gutbrod, Klemens; Weber, Konrad P; Linnebank, Michael; Brugger, Peter

    2016-03-01

    Largely based on findings from functional neuroimaging studies, the medial parietal lobe is known to contribute to internally directed cognitive processes such as visual imagery or episodic memory. Here, we present 2 patients with behavioral impairments that extend this view. Both had chronic unilateral lesions of nearly the entire medial parietal lobe, but in opposite hemispheres. Routine neuropsychological examination conducted >4 years after the onset of brain damage showed little deficits of minor severity. In contrast, both patients reported persistent unusual visual impairment. A comprehensive series of tachistoscopic experiments with lateralized stimulus presentation and comparison with healthy participants revealed partial visual hemiagnosia for stimuli presented to their contralesional hemifield, applying inferential single-case statistics to evaluate deficits and dissociations. Double dissociations were found in 4 experiments during which participants had to integrate more than one visual element, either through comparison or formation of a global gestalt. Against the background of recent neuroimaging findings, we conclude that of all medial parietal structures, the precuneus is the most likely candidate for a crucial involvement in such bottom-up visual integration.

  13. Gestalt perception is associated with reduced parietal beta oscillations.

    PubMed

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Bartels, Andreas

    2015-05-15

    The ability to perceive composite objects as a whole is fundamental for visual perception in a complex and cluttered natural environment. This ability may be mediated by increased communication between neural representations of distinct object elements, and has been linked to increased synchronization of oscillatory brain activity in the gamma band. Previous studies of perceptual grouping either guided attention between local and global aspects of a given stimulus or manipulated its physical properties to achieve grouped and ungrouped perceptual conditions. In contrast to those studies, we fully matched the physical properties underlying global and local percepts using a bistable stimulus that causes the viewer to perceive either local motion of multiple elements or global motion of two illusory shapes without any external change. To test the synchronization hypothesis we recorded brain activity with EEG, while human participants viewed the stimulus and reported changes in their perception. In contrast to previous findings we show that power of the beta-band was lower during perception of global Gestalt than during that of local elements. Source localization places these differences in the posterior parietal cortex, overlapping with a site previously associated with both attention and Gestalt perception. These findings reveal a role of parietal beta-band activity in internally, rather than externally or attention-driven processes of Gestalt perception. They also add to the growing evidence for shared neural substrates of attention and Gestalt perception, both being linked to parietal cortex.

  14. Spatio-Temporal Updating in the Left Posterior Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Makoto; Takano, Kouji; Ikegami, Shiro; Ora, Hiroki; Spence, Charles; Kansaku, Kenji

    2012-01-01

    Adopting an unusual posture can sometimes give rise to paradoxical experiences. For example, the subjective ordering of successive unseen tactile stimuli delivered to the two arms can be affected when people cross them. A growing body of evidence now highlights the role played by the parietal cortex in spatio-temporal information processing when sensory stimuli are delivered to the body or when actions are executed; however, little is known about the neural basis of such paradoxical feelings resulting from such unusual limb positions. Here, we demonstrate increased fMRI activation in the left posterior parietal cortex when human participants adopted a crossed hands posture with their eyes closed. Furthermore, by assessing tactile temporal order judgments (TOJs) in the same individuals, we observed a positive association between activity in this area and the degree of reversal in TOJs resulting from crossing arms. The strongest positive association was observed in the left intraparietal sulcus. This result implies that the left posterior parietal cortex may be critically involved in monitoring limb position and in spatio-temporal binding when serial events are delivered to the limbs. PMID:22768126

  15. Early recurrence and ongoing parietal driving during elementary visual processing

    PubMed Central

    Plomp, Gijs; Hervais-Adelman, Alexis; Astolfi, Laura; Michel, Christoph M.

    2015-01-01

    Visual stimuli quickly activate a broad network of brain areas that often show reciprocal structural connections between them. Activity at short latencies (<100 ms) is thought to represent a feed-forward activation of widespread cortical areas, but fast activation combined with reciprocal connectivity between areas in principle allows for two-way, recurrent interactions to occur at short latencies after stimulus onset. Here we combined EEG source-imaging and Granger-causal modeling with high temporal resolution to investigate whether recurrent and top-down interactions between visual and attentional brain areas can be identified and distinguished at short latencies in humans. We investigated the directed interactions between widespread occipital, parietal and frontal areas that we localized within participants using fMRI. The connectivity results showed two-way interactions between area MT and V1 already at short latencies. In addition, the results suggested a large role for lateral parietal cortex in coordinating visual activity that may be understood as an ongoing top-down allocation of attentional resources. Our results support the notion that indirect pathways allow early, evoked driving from MT to V1 to highlight spatial locations of motion transients, while influence from parietal areas is continuously exerted around stimulus onset, presumably reflecting task-related attentional processes. PMID:26692466

  16. A Parcellation Scheme for Human Left Lateral Parietal Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Nelson, Steven M.; Cohen, Alexander L.; Power, Jonathan D.; Wig, Gagan S.; Miezin, Francis M.; Wheeler, Mark E.; Velanova, Katerina; Donaldson, David I.; Phillips, Jeffrey S.; Schlaggar, Bradley L.; Petersen, Steven E.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The parietal lobe has long been viewed as a collection of architectonic and functional subdivisions. Though much parietal research has focused on mechanisms of visuospatial attention and control-related processes, more recent functional neuroimaging studies of memory retrieval have reported greater activity in left lateral parietal cortex (LLPC) when items are correctly identified as previously studied (“old”) vs. unstudied (“new”). These studies have suggested functional divisions within LLPC that may provide distinct contributions towards recognition memory judgments. Here, we define regions within LLPC by developing a novel parcellation scheme that integrates data from resting state functional connectivity MRI (rsfcMRI) and functional MRI (fMRI). This combined approach results in a six-fold parcellation of LLPC based on the presence (or absence) of memory retrieval-related activity, dissociations in the profile of task-evoked timecourses, and membership in large-scale brain networks. This parcellation should serve as a roadmap for future investigations aimed at understanding LLPC function. PMID:20624599

  17. Developmental Phases of the Seminal Vesicle related to the Spermatogenic Stages in the Testicular Lobules of Neptunea (Barbitonia) cumingii (Gastropoda: Buccinidae)

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sung Han

    2016-01-01

    Cytological changes of the epithelial cells according to the developmenatal phases of the seminal vesicle related to the spermatogenic stages in the testicular lobules during spermagenesis in male Neptunea (Barbitonia) cumingii (Gastropoda: Buccinidae) were investigated monthly by electron microscopical and histological observations. N. (B) cumingii is dioecious, and an internal fertilization species. The male genital organ is located near the tentacles. The spermatozoon is approximatley 50 μm in length. The axoneme of the tail flagellum consists of nine pairs of microtubles at the periphery and one pair at the center. The process of germ cell development during spermatogenesis can be divided into five succesive stages: (1) spermatogonia, (2) primary spermatocytes, (3) secondary spermatocytes, (4) spermatids, and (5) spermatozoa. A considerable amount of spermatozoa make their appearance in the testicular lobules (or acini) and some of them are tranported from the testis towards the seminal vesicles until late July. In this study, the developmental phases of the epithelial cells of the seminal vesicles of N. (B.) cumingii could be classified into four phases: (1) S-I phase (resting), (2) S-Ⅱphase (early accumulating), (3) S-Ⅲ phase (accumulating), and (4) S-IV phase (spent). However, in case of N. (B.) arthritica cumingii, the developmental phases of the seminal vesicle were devided into three phases: (1) resting, (2) accumulating and (3) spent. Granular bodies in the inner layer of the seminal vesicles are involved in resorption of digestion of residual spermatozoa. PMID:27796006

  18. Gating of transmission in climbing fibre paths to cerebellar cortical C1 and C3 zones in the rostral paramedian lobule during locomotion in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Richard; Lee, Stephen

    1999-01-01

    Climbing fibre field potentials evoked by low intensity (non-noxious) electrical stimulation of the ipsilateral superficial radial nerve have been recorded in the rostral paramedian lobule (PML) in awake cats. Chronically implanted microwires were used to monitor the responses at eight different C1 and C3 zone sites during quiet rest and during steady walking on a moving belt. The latency and other characteristics of the responses identified them as mediated mainly via the dorsal funiculus-spino-olivocerebellar path (DF-SOCP). At each site, mean size of response (measured as the area under the field, in mV ms) varied systematically during the step cycle without parallel fluctuations in size of the peripheral nerve volley. Largest responses occurred overwhelmingly during the stance phase of the step cycle in the ipsilateral forelimb while smallest responses occurred most frequently during swing. Simultaneous recording from pairs of C1 zone sites located in the anterior lobe (lobule V) and C1 or C3 zone sites in rostral PML revealed markedly different patterns of step-related modulation. The findings shed light on the extent to which the SOCPs projecting to different parts of a given zone can be regarded as functionally uniform and have implications as to their reliability as channels for conveying peripheral signals to the cerebellum during locomotion. PMID:10200433

  19. Ectopic overexpression of engrailed-2 in cerebellar Purkinje cells causes restricted cell loss and retarded external germinal layer development at lobule junctions.

    PubMed

    Baader, S L; Sanlioglu, S; Berrebi, A S; Parker-Thornburg, J; Oberdick, J

    1998-03-01

    Members of the En and Wnt gene families seem to play a key role in the early specification of the brain territory that gives rise to the cerebellum, the midhindbrain junction. To analyze the possible continuous role of the En and Wnt signaling pathway in later cerebellar patterning and function, we expressed En-2 ectopically in Purkinje cells during late embryonic and postnatal cerebellar development. As a result of this expression, the cerebellum is greatly reduced in size, and Purkinje cell numbers throughout the cerebellum are reduced by more than one-third relative to normal animals. Detailed analysis of both adult and developing cerebella reveals a pattern of selectivity to the loss of Purkinje cells and other cerebellar neurons. This is observed as a general loss of prominence of cerebellar fissures that is highlighted by a total loss of sublobular fissures. In contrast, mediolateral patterning is generally only subtly affected. That En-2 overexpression selectively affects Purkinje cells in the transition zone between lobules is evidenced by direct observation of selective Purkinje cell loss in certain fissures and by the observation that growth and migration of the external germinal layer (EGL) is selectively retarded in the deep fissures during early postnatal development. Thus, in addition to demonstrating the critical role of Purkinje cells in the generation and migration of granule cells, the heterogeneous distribution of cellular effects induced by ectopic En expression suggests a relatively late morphogenetic role for this and other segment polarity proteins, mainly oriented at lobule junctions.

  20. The Role of the Frontal and Parietal Cortex in Proactive and Reactive Inhibitory Control: A Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation Study.

    PubMed

    Cai, Ying; Li, Siyao; Liu, Jing; Li, Dawei; Feng, Zifang; Wang, Qiang; Chen, Chuansheng; Xue, Gui

    2016-01-01

    Mounting evidence suggests that response inhibition involves both proactive and reactive inhibitory control, yet its underlying neural mechanisms remain elusive. In particular, the roles of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and inferior parietal lobe (IPL) in proactive and reactive inhibitory control are still under debate. This study aimed at examining the causal role of the right IFG and IPL in proactive and reactive inhibitory control, using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and the stop signal task. Twenty-two participants completed three sessions of the stop signal task, under anodal tDCS in the right IFG, the right IPL, or the primary visual cortex (VC; 1.5 mA for 15 min), respectively. The VC stimulation served as the active control condition. The tDCS effect for each condition was calculated as the difference between pre- and post-tDCS performance. Proactive control was indexed by the RT increase for go trials (or preparatory cost), and reactive control by the stop signal RT. Compared to the VC stimulation, anodal stimulation of the right IFG, but not that of the IPL, facilitated both proactive and reactive control. However, the facilitation of reactive control was not mediated by the facilitation of proactive control. Furthermore, tDCS did not affect the intraindividual variability in go RT. These results suggest a causal role of the right IFG, but not the right IPL, in both reactive and proactive inhibitory control.

  1. Spatio-Temporal Dynamics of Human Intention Understanding in Temporo-Parietal Cortex: A Combined EEG/fMRI Repetition Suppression Paradigm

    PubMed Central

    Ortigue, Stephanie; Thompson, James C.; Parasuraman, Raja; Grafton, Scott T.

    2009-01-01

    Inferring the intentions of other people from their actions recruits an inferior fronto-parietal action observation network as well as a putative social network that includes the posterior superior temporal sulcus (STS). However, the functional dynamics within and among these networks remains unclear. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and high-density electroencephalogram (EEG), with a repetition suppression design, to assess the spatio-temporal dynamics of decoding intentions. Suppression of fMRI activity to the repetition of the same intention was observed in inferior frontal lobe, anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), and right STS. EEG global field power was reduced with repeated intentions at an early (starting at 60 ms) and a later (∼330 ms) period after the onset of a hand-on-object encounter. Source localization during these two intervals involved right STS and aIPS regions highly consistent with RS effects observed with fMRI. These results reveal the dynamic involvement of temporal and parietal networks at multiple stages during the intention decoding and without a strict segregation of intention decoding between these networks. PMID:19750227

  2. Efferent pathways modulate hyperactivity in inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Mulders, Wilhelmina Henrica A M; Seluakumaran, Kumar; Robertson, Donald

    2010-07-14

    Animal models have demonstrated that mild hearing loss caused by acoustic trauma results in spontaneous hyperactivity in the central auditory pathways. This hyperactivity has been hypothesized to be involved in the generation of tinnitus, a phantom auditory sensation. We have recently shown that such hyperactivity, recorded in the inferior colliculus, is still dependent on cochlear neural output for some time after recovery (up to 6 weeks). We have now studied the capacity of an intrinsic efferent system, i.e., the olivocochlear system, to alter hyperactivity. This system is known to modulate cochlear neural output. Anesthetized guinea pigs were exposed to a loud sound and after 2 or 3 weeks of recovery, single-neuron recordings in inferior colliculus were made to confirm hyperactivity. Olivocochlear axons were electrically stimulated and effects on cochlear neural output and on highly spontaneous neurons in inferior colliculus were assessed. Olivocochlear stimulation suppressed spontaneous hyperactivity in the inferior colliculus. This result is in agreement with our earlier finding that hyperactivity can be modulated by altering cochlear neural output. Interestingly, the central suppression was generally much larger and longer lasting than reported previously for primary afferents. Blockade of the intracochlear effects of olivocochlear system activation eliminated some but not all of the effects observed on spontaneous activity, suggesting also a central component to the effects of stimulation. More research is needed to investigate whether these central effects of olivocochlear efferent stimulation are due to central intrinsic circuitry or to coactivation of central efferent collaterals to the cochlear nucleus.

  3. Immunofluorescent staining of rat gastric parietal cells by human antibody unrelated to pernicious anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Muller, H. K.; McGiven, A. R.; Nairn, R. C.

    1971-01-01

    Immunofluorescence tests on 94 human sera reacting with rat gastric parietal cells revealed that 41 (44%) of the sera contained antibody to a rat parietal cell antigen that was distinct from the pernicious anaemia autoantigen. Ten of the sera contained antibodies to both parietal cell antigens. The remaining 53 (56%) sera contained only parietal cell antibodies of the pernicious anaemia type. We recommend that mouse gastric mucosa, which does not react with the heterologous rat parietal cell antibody, replace rat gastric mucosa for immunofluorescence diagnostic tests. PMID:4929573

  4. A simple method to record parietal cells in the fundic mucosa in baboons.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A; Owston, Michael; Orrego, Abiel; Dick, Edward J

    2010-01-01

    Gastric parietal cells in a baboon were recently found to be auto-fluorescent. To study gastric sections with a fluorescent microscope in a cohort of baboons. Gastric sections from 38 baboons were stained with hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) and examined in a fluorescence microscope (FLM). The thickness of the parietal cell population was assessed at x 10 magnification. H&E stained all mucosal cells: fovelar, parietal and chief cells. When the same sections were analyzed with an FLM, only parietal cells were auto-fluorescent, whereas fovelar and chief cells remained non-fluorescent. Parietal cells formed a distinct, continuous auto-fluorescent band. The ratio of the auto-fluorescent parietal cell band/total mucosa ranged between 0.20 and 0.30. Gastric parietal cells became auto-fluorescent when H&E-stained sections from baboon stomachs were observed with an FLM. Eosin was the stain responsible for this optical phenomenon.

  5. On the Role of the Inferior Intraparietal Sulcus in Visual Working Memory for Lateralized Single-feature Objects.

    PubMed

    Brigadoi, Sabrina; Cutini, Simone; Meconi, Federica; Castellaro, Marco; Sessa, Paola; Marangon, Mattia; Bertoldo, Alessandra; Jolicœur, Pierre; Dell'Acqua, Roberto

    2017-02-01

    A consolidated practice in cognitive neuroscience is to explore the properties of human visual working memory through the analysis of electromagnetic signals using cued change detection tasks. Under these conditions, EEG/MEG activity increments in the posterior parietal cortex scaling with the number of memoranda are often reported in the hemisphere contralateral to the objects' position in the memory array. This highly replicable finding clashes with several reported failures to observe compatible hemodynamic activity modulations using fMRI or fNIRS in comparable tasks. Here, we reconcile this apparent discrepancy by acquiring fMRI data on healthy participants and employing a cluster analysis to group voxels in the posterior parietal cortex based on their functional response. The analysis identified two distinct subpopulations of voxels in the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) showing a consistent functional response among participants. One subpopulation, located in the superior IPS, showed a bilateral response to the number of objects coded in visual working memory. A different subpopulation, located in the inferior IPS, showed an increased unilateral response when the objects were displayed contralaterally. The results suggest that a cluster of neurons in the inferior IPS is a candidate source of electromagnetic contralateral responses to working memory load in cued change detection tasks.

  6. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    PubMed Central

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J.S.

    2015-01-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic ‘hub’ must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal ‘output’ systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including ‘classic’ Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (sup

  7. Semantic retrieval during overt picture description: Left anterior temporal or the parietal lobe?

    PubMed

    Geranmayeh, Fatemeh; Leech, Robert; Wise, Richard J S

    2015-09-01

    Retrieval of semantic representations is a central process during overt speech production. There is an increasing consensus that an amodal semantic 'hub' must exist that draws together modality-specific representations of concepts. Based on the distribution of atrophy and the behavioral deficit of patients with the semantic variant of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, it has been proposed that this hub is localized within both anterior temporal lobes (ATL), and is functionally connected with verbal 'output' systems via the left ATL. An alternative view, dating from Geschwind's proposal in 1965, is that the angular gyrus (AG) is central to object-based semantic representations. In this fMRI study we examined the connectivity of the left ATL and parietal lobe (PL) with whole brain networks known to be activated during overt picture description. We decomposed each of these two brain volumes into 15 regions of interest (ROIs), using independent component analysis. A dual regression analysis was used to establish the connectivity of each ROI with whole brain-networks. An ROI within the left anterior superior temporal sulcus (antSTS) was functionally connected to other parts of the left ATL, including anterior ventromedial left temporal cortex (partially attenuated by signal loss due to susceptibility artifact), a large left dorsolateral prefrontal region (including 'classic' Broca's area), extensive bilateral sensory-motor cortices, and the length of both superior temporal gyri. The time-course of this functionally connected network was associated with picture description but not with non-semantic baseline tasks. This system has the distribution expected for the production of overt speech with appropriate semantic content, and the auditory monitoring of the overt speech output. In contrast, the only left PL ROI that showed connectivity with brain systems most strongly activated by the picture-description task, was in the superior parietal lobe (supPL). This region

  8. Refractory Lesional Parietal Lobe Epilepsy: Clinical, Electroencephalographic and Neurodiagnostic Findings

    PubMed Central

    KURŞUN, Oğuzhan; KARATAŞ, Hülya; DERİCİOĞLU, Neşe; SAYGI, Serap

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Specialized centers, in the management and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, emphasize the importance of differentiating the varieties of localization related epilepsies. There has been considerable recent interest in temporal and frontal lobe epileptic syndromes and less attention has been paid to parietal and occipital lobe epilepsies. Methods Here we report the clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of 46 patients with medically refractory lesional parietal lobe epilepsy who have been followed up for 1–10 years. Results In this study auras were reported in 78.3% of the patients and included sensory symptoms (72.2%), headache (36.1%), nausea and vomiting (36.1%), psychic symptoms (36.1%) and visual symptoms (16.6%). The most common ictal behavioral changes were paresthesia (69.6%) and focal clonic activity (39.1%). Tonic posture, various automatisms, head deviation, staring, sensation of pain and speech disturbances occurred to a lesser extent. Simple partial seizures were present in 69.6%. Complex partial seizures occurred in 43.5% and secondary generalized tonic clonic seizures were reported in 58.7% of the patients. Interictal routine EEG disclosed abnormal background activity in 1/3 of the patients. Nonlocalising epileptiform abnormalities were found in 34.8% of the patients. EEG findings were normal in 34.8% of the patients. The most common presumed etiologic factors were as follows: posttraumatic encephalomalacia, stroke, tumor, malformation of cortical development, atrophy, and arteriovenous malformation. Conclusion Clinical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging features of the lesional symptomatic partial epilepsy patients may help us to localize the seizure focus in some patients with cryptogenic partial epilepsy. So that, the timing decision of the parietal lobe sampling with more invasive techniques like intracranial electrodes prior to epilepsy surgery would be easier. PMID:28373797

  9. Refractory Lesional Parietal Lobe Epilepsy: Clinical, Electroencephalographic and Neurodiagnostic Findings.

    PubMed

    Kurşun, Oğuzhan; Karataş, Hülya; Dericioğlu, Neşe; Saygi, Serap

    2016-09-01

    Specialized centers, in the management and surgical treatment of medically refractory epilepsy, emphasize the importance of differentiating the varieties of localization related epilepsies. There has been considerable recent interest in temporal and frontal lobe epileptic syndromes and less attention has been paid to parietal and occipital lobe epilepsies. Here we report the clinical, electroencephalographic and neuroimaging characteristics of 46 patients with medically refractory lesional parietal lobe epilepsy who have been followed up for 1-10 years. In this study auras were reported in 78.3% of the patients and included sensory symptoms (72.2%), headache (36.1%), nausea and vomiting (36.1%), psychic symptoms (36.1%) and visual symptoms (16.6%). The most common ictal behavioral changes were paresthesia (69.6%) and focal clonic activity (39.1%). Tonic posture, various automatisms, head deviation, staring, sensation of pain and speech disturbances occurred to a lesser extent. Simple partial seizures were present in 69.6%. Complex partial seizures occurred in 43.5% and secondary generalized tonic clonic seizures were reported in 58.7% of the patients. Interictal routine EEG disclosed abnormal background activity in 1/3 of the patients. Nonlocalising epileptiform abnormalities were found in 34.8% of the patients. EEG findings were normal in 34.8% of the patients. The most common presumed etiologic factors were as follows: posttraumatic encephalomalacia, stroke, tumor, malformation of cortical development, atrophy, and arteriovenous malformation. Clinical, electrophysiological and neuroimaging features of the lesional symptomatic partial epilepsy patients may help us to localize the seizure focus in some patients with cryptogenic partial epilepsy. So that, the timing decision of the parietal lobe sampling with more invasive techniques like intracranial electrodes prior to epilepsy surgery would be easier.

  10. Leiomyosarcoma arising from the inferior mesenteric vein

    PubMed Central

    Clemente, Gennaro; Sarno, Gerardo; Barbaro, Brunella; Nuzzo, Gennaro

    2009-01-01

    Leyomiosarcomas arising from the portal/mesenteric venous system are very rare tumours, and only a few cases have been reported in the global literature. As the other leyomiosarcomas of vascular origin, they are associated with a poor prognosis. The present report describes the case of a 66-year-old woman with a leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein, unexpectedly found during a CT scan performed for another indication. A brief review of the literature is also given. The patient underwent radical surgical excision and enjoys a good health, without radiological signs of recurrence, 24 months after surgery. In this case, an early incidental diagnosis determined an early treatment and, probably, a favourable prognosis. This is the second case of leyomiosarcoma of the inferior mesenteric vein reported in the literature. PMID:21686492

  11. Parietal transcranial direct current stimulation modulates primary motor cortex excitability.

    PubMed

    Rivera-Urbina, Guadalupe Nathzidy; Batsikadze, Giorgi; Molero-Chamizo, Andrés; Paulus, Walter; Kuo, Min-Fang; Nitsche, Michael A

    2015-03-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is part of the cortical network involved in motor learning and is structurally and functionally connected with the primary motor cortex (M1). Neuroplastic alterations of neuronal connectivity might be an important basis for learning processes. These have however not been explored for parieto-motor connections in humans by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Exploring tDCS effects on parieto-motor cortical connectivity might be functionally relevant, because tDCS has been shown to improve motor learning. We aimed to explore plastic alterations of parieto-motor cortical connections by tDCS in healthy humans. We measured neuroplastic changes of corticospinal excitability via motor evoked potentials (MEP) elicited by single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) before and after tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex (P3), and 3 cm posterior or lateral to P3, to explore the spatial specificity of the effects. Furthermore, short-interval intracortical inhibition/intracortical facilitation (SICI/ICF) over M1, and parieto-motor cortical connectivity were obtained before and after P3 tDCS. The results show polarity-dependent M1 excitability alterations primarily after P3 tDCS. Single-pulse TMS-elicited MEPs, M1 SICI/ICF at 5 and 7 ms and 10 and 15 ms interstimulus intervals (ISIs), and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were all enhanced by anodal stimulation. Single pulse-TMS-elicited MEPs, and parieto-motor connectivity at 10 and 15 ms ISIs were reduced by cathodal tDCS. The respective corticospinal excitability alterations lasted for at least 120 min after stimulation. These results show an effect of remote stimulation of parietal areas on M1 excitability. The spatial specificity of the effects and the impact on parietal cortex-motor cortex connections suggest a relevant connectivity-driven effect.

  12. Neural activity in the parietal eye of a lizard.

    PubMed

    MILLER, W H; WOLBARSHT, M L

    1962-01-26

    Electrical signs of activity in response to illumination of the parietal eye of the American chameleon, Anolis carolinensis, have been investigated. The responses were of two types. Under conditions of direct-coupled amplification, with glass pipette electrodes recording extracellularly from the retinal surface, the response consisted of an increase in negativity maintained throughout prolonged illumination. With capacitance-coupled amplification and metal electrodes, brisk mass discharges of nerve impulses were detected at the onset and cessation of illumination. During illumination a less vigorous maintained discharge was observed.

  13. A Giant Parietal Wall Hematoma: Unusual Complication of Laparoscopic Appendectomy

    PubMed Central

    Agrawal, Sanjay; Shetty, Sadanand V.

    2000-01-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is an established procedure in the treatment of appendicitis. Complications of the procedure are related to the Veress needle and trocar insertions or pertain to actual operative procedures. Trocar-related major bleeding is rare, and, if it occurs, is detected on the table or during the immediate postoperative period. Delay in recognition may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. We report a case of giant parietal wall hematoma in a 34-year-old female, presenting one week after discharge from the hospital. The hematoma was completely evacuated by exploration through paramedian incision, followed by an uneventful recovery. PMID:10987406

  14. Posterior Parietal Cortex: An Interface between Attention and Learning?

    PubMed Central

    Bucci, David J.

    2009-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of rats has most recently been defined based on patterns of thalamic and cortical connectivity. The anatomical characteristics of this area suggest that it may be homologous to the PPC of primates and contribute to similar functions. This review summarizes evidence for and against a role for the rat PPC in attention and working memory and evaluates how the function of the rat PPC compares to that of primates on these dimensions. Theories of how the rat PPC contributes to behavior are presented, including the notion that PPC may serve as an interface between attention and learning. Finally, several avenues for future research are considered. PMID:18675370

  15. Environmental reduplication associated with right frontal and parietal lobe injury.

    PubMed

    Ruff, R L; Volpe, B T

    1981-05-01

    Four patients with environmental reduplication, a specific form of spatial disorientation and confabulation are described. The patients maintained that their hospital rooms were located in their homes. Each patients had evidence of right frontal or right parietal injury based upon computed tomography, neurosurgery, and neuropsychological testing. The factors associated with environmental reduplication were: impaired spatial perception and visual memory, inability of the patients to recognise the inconsistency between their believed location and their actual location, confusion soon after admission to hospital, and a strong desire to be at home.

  16. Leiomyosarcoma of the Inferior Vena Cava

    PubMed Central

    Sadri, Ben Abid; Amine, Attaoui Mohamed; Zeineb, Mzoughi; Nizar, Miloudi; Lassad, Gharbi; Khalfallah, Mohamed Tahar

    2013-01-01

    Vascular leiomyosarcoma (LMS) are unique. The inferior vena cava (IVC) is the most affected organ (about 38% cases). We report the observation of a 50-year old woman who consulted for right upper quadrant pain. Imaging studies revealed a retroperitoneal mass that mimic a LMS of the IVC. The patient was operated. A resection of the IVC along with the tumor was performed without reconstruction. The management of LMS is surgical and depends upon the location and tumor characteristics. PMID:24765501

  17. Sylvian Fissure and Parietal Anatomy in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Knaus, Tracey A.; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Foundas, Anne L.

    2012-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is characterized by deficits in social functioning and language and communication, with restricted interests or stereotyped behaviors. Anatomical differences have been found in the parietal cortex in children with ASD, but parietal subregions and associations between Sylvian fissure (SF) and parietal anatomy have not been explored. In this study, SF length and anterior and posterior parietal volumes were measured on MRI in 30 right-handed boys with ASD and 30 right-handed typically developing boys (7–14 years), matched on age and non-verbal IQ. There was leftward SF and anterior parietal asymmetry, and rightward posterior parietal asymmetry, across groups. There were associations between SF and parietal asymmetries, with slight group differences. Typical SF asymmetry was associated with typical anterior and posterior parietal asymmetry, in both groups. In the atypical SF asymmetry group, controls had atypical parietal asymmetry, whereas in ASD there were more equal numbers of individuals with typical as atypical anterior parietal asymmetry. We did not find significant anatomical-behavioral associations. Our findings of more individuals in the ASD group having a dissociation between cortical asymmetries warrants further investigation of these subgroups and emphasizes the importance of investigating anatomical relationships in addition to group differences in individual regions. PMID:22713374

  18. Over-expression of GFP-FEZ1 causes generation of multi-lobulated nuclei mediated by microtubules in HEK293 cells

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza, Daniel C.F.; Trindade, Daniel M.; Assmann, Eliana M.; Kobarg, Joerg

    2008-06-10

    FEZ1 (Fasciculation and elongation protein zeta 1) is an ortholog of the Caenorhabditis elegans protein UNC-76, involved in neuronal development and axon outgrowth, in that worm. Mammalian FEZ1 has already been reported to cooperate with PKC-zeta in the differentiation and polarization of PC12 neuronal cells. Furthermore, FEZ1 is associated with kinesin 1 and JIP1 to form a cargo-complex responsible for microtubule based transport of mitochondria along axons. FEZ1 can also be classified as a hub protein, since it was reported to interact with over 40 different proteins in yeast two-hybrid screens, including at least nine nuclear proteins. Here, we transiently over-expressed GFP-FEZ1full in human HEK293 and HeLa cells in order to study the sub-cellular localization of GFP-FEZ1. We observed that over 40% of transiently transfected cells at 3 days post-transfection develop multi-lobulated nuclei, which are also called flower-like nuclei. We further demonstrated that GFP-FEZ1 localizes either to the cytoplasm or the nuclear fraction, and that the appearance of the flower-like nuclei depends on intact microtubule function. Finally, we show that FEZ1 co-localizes with both, {alpha}- and especially with {gamma}-tubulin, which localizes as a centrosome like structure at the center of the multiple lobules. In summary, our data suggest that FEZ1 has an important centrosomal function and supply new mechanistic insights to the formation of flower-like nuclei, which are a phenotypical hallmark of human leukemia cells.

  19. Non-inferiority trials: are they inferior? A systematic review of reporting in major medical journals

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Tim P; Fielding, Katherine; Carpenter, James R; Phillips, Patrick P J

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of reporting of non-inferiority trials alongside the consistency and utility of current recommended analyses and guidelines. Design Review of randomised clinical trials that used a non-inferiority design published between January 2010 and May 2015 in medical journals that had an impact factor >10 (JAMA Internal Medicine, Archives Internal Medicine, PLOS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, BMJ, JAMA, Lancet and New England Journal of Medicine). Data sources Ovid (MEDLINE). Methods We searched for non-inferiority trials and assessed the following: choice of non-inferiority margin and justification of margin; power and significance level for sample size; patient population used and how this was defined; any missing data methods used and assumptions declared and any sensitivity analyses used. Results A total of 168 trial publications were included. Most trials concluded non-inferiority (132; 79%). The non-inferiority margin was reported for 98% (164), but less than half reported any justification for the margin (77; 46%). While most chose two different analyses (91; 54%) the most common being intention-to-treat (ITT) or modified ITT and per-protocol, a large number of articles only chose to conduct and report one analysis (65; 39%), most commonly the ITT analysis. There was lack of clarity or inconsistency between the type I error rate and corresponding CIs for 73 (43%) articles. Missing data were rarely considered with (99; 59%) not declaring whether imputation techniques were used. Conclusions Reporting and conduct of non-inferiority trials is inconsistent and does not follow the recommendations in available statistical guidelines, which are not wholly consistent themselves. Authors should clearly describe the methods used and provide clear descriptions of and justifications for their design and primary analysis. Failure to do this risks misleading conclusions being drawn, with consequent effects on clinical practice. PMID:27855102

  20. Sign language and pantomime production differentially engage frontal and parietal cortices

    PubMed Central

    Emmorey, Karen; McCullough, Stephen; Mehta, Sonya; Ponto, Laura L. B.; Grabowski, Thomas J.

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the functional organization of neural systems supporting language production when the primary language articulators are also used for meaningful, but non-linguistic, expression such as pantomime. Fourteen hearing non-signers and 10 deaf native users of American Sign Language (ASL) participated in an H2 15O-PET study in which they generated action pantomimes or ASL verbs in response to pictures of tools and manipulable objects. For pantomime generation, participants were instructed to “show how you would use the object.” For verb generation, signers were asked to “generate a verb related to the object.” The objects for this condition were selected to elicit handling verbs that resemble pantomime (e.g., TO-HAMMER (hand configuration and movement mimic the act of hammering) and non-handling verbs that do not (e.g., POUR-SYRUP, produced with a “Y” handshape). For the baseline task, participants viewed pictures of manipulable objects and an occasional non-manipulable object and decided whether the objects could be handled, gesturing “yes” (thumbs up) or “no” (hand wave). Relative to baseline, generation of ASL verbs engaged left inferior frontal cortex, but when non-signers produced pantomimes for the same objects, no frontal activation was observed. Both groups recruited left parietal cortex during pantomime production. However, for deaf signers the activation was more extensive and bilateral, which may reflect a more complex and integrated neural representation of hand actions. We conclude that the production of pantomime versus ASL verbs (even those that resemble pantomime) engage partially segregated neural systems that support praxic versus linguistic functions. PMID:21909174

  1. Filtering through the data on retrievable inferior vena cava filters.

    PubMed

    Weinberg, Ido; Drachman, Douglas E

    2015-10-01

    Technical success rates with implantation and retrieval of retrievable inferior vena cava filters are high Inferior vena cava filters are being used for a wide range of indications Systems should be put in place to ensure prompt and effective retrieval of inferior vena cava filters once these are no longer needed. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Right parietal cortex mediates recognition memory for melodies.

    PubMed

    Schaal, Nora K; Javadi, Amir-Homayoun; Halpern, Andrea R; Pollok, Bettina; Banissy, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    Functional brain imaging studies have highlighted the significance of right-lateralized temporal, frontal and parietal brain areas for memory for melodies. The present study investigated the involvement of bilateral posterior parietal cortices (PPCs) for the recognition memory of melodies using transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS). Participants performed a recognition task before and after tDCS. The task included an encoding phase (12 melodies), a retention period, as well as a recognition phase (24 melodies). Experiment 1 revealed that anodal tDCS over the right PPC led to a deterioration of overall memory performance compared with sham. Experiment 2 confirmed the results of Experiment 1 and further showed that anodal tDCS over the left PPC did not show a modulatory effect on memory task performance, indicating a right lateralization for musical memory. Furthermore, both experiments revealed that the decline in memory for melodies can be traced back to an interference of anodal stimulation on the recollection process (remember judgements) rather than to familiarity judgements. Taken together, this study revealed a causal involvement of the right PPC for memory for melodies and demonstrated a key role for this brain region in the recollection process of the memory task. © 2015 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Mirror agnosia and mirror ataxia constitute different parietal lobe disorders.

    PubMed

    Binkofski, F; Buccino, G; Dohle, C; Seitz, R J; Freund, H J

    1999-07-01

    We describe two new clinical syndromes, mirror agnosia and mirror ataxia, both characterized by the deficit of reaching for an object through a mirror in association with a lesion of either parietal lobe. Clinical investigation of 13 patients demonstrated that the impairments affected both sides of the body. In mirror agnosia, the patients always reached toward the virtual object in the mirror and they were not capable of changing their behavior even after presentation of the position of the object in real visual space. In mirror ataxia (resembling optic ataxia) although some patients initially tended to reach for the virtual object in the mirror, they soon learned to guide their arms toward the real object, all of them producing many directional errors. Both patient groups performed poorly on mental rotation, but only the patients with mirror agnosia were impaired in line orientation. Only 1 of the patients suffered from neglect and 3 from apraxia. Magnetic resonance imaging showed that in mirror agnosia the common zone of lesion overlap was scattered around the posterior angular gyrus/superior temporal gyrus and in mirror ataxia around the postcentral sulcus. We propose that both these clinical syndromes may represent different types of dissociation of retinotopic space and body scheme, or likewise, of allocentric and egocentric space normally adjusted in the parietal lobe.

  4. Parietal cortex mediates conscious perception of illusory gestalt.

    PubMed

    Zaretskaya, Natalia; Anstis, Stuart; Bartels, Andreas

    2013-01-09

    Grouping local elements into a holistic percept, also known as spatial binding, is crucial for meaningful perception. Previous studies have shown that neurons in early visual areas V1 and V2 can signal complex grouping-related information, such as illusory contours or object-border ownerships. However, relatively little is known about higher-level processes contributing to these signals and mediating global Gestalt perception. We used a novel bistable motion illusion that induced alternating and mutually exclusive vivid conscious experiences of either dynamic illusory contours forming a global Gestalt or moving ungrouped local elements while the visual stimulation remained the same. fMRI in healthy human volunteers revealed that activity fluctuations in two sites of the parietal cortex, the superior parietal lobe and the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), correlated specifically with the perception of the grouped illusory Gestalt as opposed to perception of ungrouped local elements. We then disturbed activity at these two sites in the same participants using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). TMS over aIPS led to a selective shortening of the duration of the global Gestalt percept, with no effect on that of local elements. The results suggest that aIPS activity is directly involved in the process of spatial binding during effortless viewing in the healthy brain. Conscious perception of global Gestalt is therefore associated with aIPS function, similar to attention and perceptual selection.

  5. Increased parietal activity after training of interference control.

    PubMed

    Oelhafen, Stephan; Nikolaidis, Aki; Padovani, Tullia; Blaser, Daniela; Koenig, Thomas; Perrig, Walter J

    2013-11-01

    Recent studies suggest that computerized cognitive training leads to improved performance in related but untrained tasks (i.e. transfer effects). However, most study designs prevent disentangling which of the task components are necessary for transfer. In the current study, we examined whether training on two variants of the adaptive dual n-back task would affect untrained task performance and the corresponding electrophysiological event-related potentials (ERPs). Forty three healthy young adults were trained for three weeks with a high or low interference training variant of the dual n-back task, or they were assigned to a passive control group. While n-back training with high interference led to partial improvements in the Attention Network Test (ANT), we did not find transfer to measures of working memory and fluid intelligence. ERP analysis in the n-back task and the ANT indicated overlapping processes in the P3 time range. Moreover, in the ANT, we detected increased parietal activity for the interference training group alone. In contrast, we did not find electrophysiological differences between the low interference training and the control group. These findings suggest that training on an interference control task leads to higher electrophysiological activity in the parietal cortex, which may be related to improvements in processing speed, attentional control, or both. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. 'How many' and 'how much' dissociate in the parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Lecce, Francesca; Walsh, Vincent; Didino, Daniele; Cappelletti, Marinella

    2015-12-01

    We investigated whether two features that are fundamental for quantity processing, namely numerosity and continuous quantity - or 'how many' versus 'how much' - may dissociate in the parietal lobe. Fourteen mathematically-normal participants performed a well-established numerosity discrimination task after receiving continuous theta burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) over the left or right intraparietal sulcus (IPS) or the Vertex. We performed a detailed analysis of accuracy (based on the Weber Fraction, wf), which distinguished between trials in which numerosity was anti-correlated or 'incongruent' to other continuous measures of quantity, and trials in which numerosity and other continuous features were 'congruent'. Congruent trials can be processed by integrating numerosity or continuous quantity features like cumulative area since they correlate. Instead incongruent trials can only be processed based on numerosity and requires inhibiting cumulative area or other continuous quantity features like dot size and would lead to incorrect judgment if these features are used as a proxy for numerosity. We found an increase of wf, i.e., weakened numerosity processing in incongruent but not congruent trials following left IPS-TBS, which suggests that numerosity processing was impaired while continuous quantity processing remained unchanged. Moreover, wf increased in congruent but not in incongruent trials following right IPS stimulation. We concluded that left and right parietal are respectively critical for numerosity discrimination, i.e., 'how many' or alternatively for response selection, and for integrating numerosity and continuous quantity features. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Frontal monitoring and parietal evidence: mechanisms of error correction

    PubMed Central

    Cebrian, Ana Navarro; Knight, Robert T.; Kayser, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    When we respond to a stimulus, our decisions are based not only on external stimuli but also on our ongoing performance. If the response deviates from our goals, monitoring and decision-making brain areas interact so that future behavior may change. By taking advantage of natural variation in error salience, as measured by the reaction time taken to correct an error (RTEC), here we argue that an evidence accumulation framework provides a potential underlying mechanism for this variable process of error identification and correction, as evidenced by covariation of frontal monitoring and parietal decision-making processes. We study two early EEG signals linked to monitoring within medial prefrontal cortex – the error-related negativity (ERN) and fronto-central theta activity – and a third EEG signal, the error positivity (Pe), that is thought to share the same parietal substrates as a signal (the P3b) proposed to reflect evidence accumulation. As predicted, our data show that on slow RTEC trials, frontal monitoring resources are less strongly employed, and the latency of the Pe is longer. Critically, the speed of the RTEC also covaries with the magnitude of subsequent neural (inter-trial alpha power) and behavioral (post-error slowing) adjustments following the correction. These results are synthesized to describe a timing diagram for adaptive decision-making after errors, and support a potential evidence accumulation mechanism in which error signaling is followed by rapid behavioral adjustments. PMID:27027420

  8. The visual parietal areas in the macaque monkey: current structural knowledge and ignorance.

    PubMed

    Cavada, C

    2001-07-01

    Classic and current parcellations of the posterior parietal cortex are reviewed. Whereas earlier studies relied on subjective observation of cortical cytoarchitecture, present parcellations are mostly based on connectional and physiological criteria. These criteria have led to the identification of five areas in the intraparietal sulcus with alleged visual function: VIP, MIP, PIP, AIP, and LIP. Other visual parietal areas are 7a, in the lateral parietal surface, and, in the medial parietal wall, 7m, and V6A. Present knowledge of the dimensions, boundaries, and connections of the various visual parietal areas is uneven: whereas LIP, 7a, and 7m have been extensively explored in anatomical and physiological studies, only scant information is available for most of the intraparietal areas. It is suggested that future studies address the anatomical and functional parcellation of the posterior parietal cortex using manifold objective means of study that allow comparison by independent researchers.

  9. Modeling Murine Gastric Metaplasia Through Tamoxifen-Induced Acute Parietal Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Saenz, Jose B.; Burclaff, Joseph; Mills, Jason C.

    2016-01-01

    Parietal cell loss represents the initial step in the sequential progression toward gastric adenocarcinoma. In the setting of chronic inflammation, the expansion of the mucosal response to parietal cell loss characterizes a crucial transition en route to gastric dysplasia. Here, we detail methods for using the selective estrogen receptor modulator tamoxifen as a novel tool to rapidly and reversibly induce parietal cell loss in mice in order to study the mechanisms that underlie these pre-neoplastic events. PMID:27246044

  10. Within-limb somatotopic organization in human SI and parietal operculum for the leg: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Bao, Ruixue; Wei, Pengxu; Li, Kuncheng; Lu, Jie; Zhao, Cheng; Wang, Yuping; Zhang, Tong

    2012-03-22

    Somatotopic organizations in human somatosensory cortex (SI and SII) for scattered portions of the leg have not been systematically observed with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). In this research we compared functional representations in the contralateral SI and bilateral parietal operculum (that contained subregions OP1, 3-4 of SII and OP2) of four acupoints in right leg in proximal-distal and medial-lateral arrangement. The results were: (1) somatotopy of SI demonstrated a lateral-to-medial and inferior-to-superior pattern when acupoints were shifting from proximal to distal or from medial to lateral; (2) the contralateral OP1 also showed a clear somatotopic organization for the four separated leg portions, and the ipsilateral OP1 showed a similar pattern to the contralateral OP1, thus arrangements of responses in the two areas were mirror-symmetric against y-axis; (3) the contralateral OP2 showed a somatotopic organization when acupoints shifting from proximal to distal, while the contralateral OP3 presented a trend of somatotopy opposite to that of the contralateral OP1. These results first show definite within-leg somatotopy of human SI for scattered leg portions in medial-lateral arrangement using fMRI. Within-limb somatotopic organization of OP1 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal as well as from medial to lateral, and somatotopy of OP2 for leg portions arranging from proximal to distal, are also shown for the first time. Our results also reinforce the proposal of a somatotopic map existing in human OP3, and indicating a fourth somatotopic map in OP2 in human parietal operculum, which suggests that OP 2 is not just a vestibular area. In addition, separable activations in somatosensory cortex induced by adjacent acupoints should play a fundamental role in acupoint-specific effects in the brain.

  11. The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence.

    PubMed

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Azuma, Miyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Ashizuka, Aoi; Mima, Tastuya; Osaka, Mariko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-down attentional control) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions (stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST, distractor words in the RST, and novel words. atDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, atDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the other hand, ctDCS brought less recognition of non-focused target words in comparison to sham. The results indicate that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. In contrast, ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from episodic memory, which may require top-down attentional processing.

  12. The anodal tDCS over the left posterior parietal cortex enhances attention toward a focus word in a sentence

    PubMed Central

    Minamoto, Takehiro; Azuma, Miyuki; Yaoi, Ken; Ashizuka, Aoi; Mima, Tastuya; Osaka, Mariko; Fukuyama, Hidenao; Osaka, Naoyuki

    2014-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) has two attentional functions: top-down attentional control and stimulus-driven attentional processing. Using the focused version of the reading span test (RST), in which the target word to be remembered is the critical word for comprehending a sentence (focused word) or a non-focused word, we examined the effect of tDCS on resolution of distractor interference by the focused word in the non-focus condition (top-down attentional control) and on augmented/shrunk attentional capture by the focused word in both the focus and non-focus conditions (stimulus-driven attentional processing). Participants were divided into two groups: anodal tDCS (atDCS) and cathodal tDCS (ctDCS). Online stimulation was given while participants performed the RST. A post-hoc recognition task was also administered in which three kinds of words were presented: target words in the RST, distractor words in the RST, and novel words. atDCS augmented the effect of the focused word by increasing differences in performance between the focus and non-focus conditions. Such an effect was not observed in the ctDCS group. As for the recognition task, atDCS again produced the augmented effect of the focused words in the distractor recognition. On the other hand, ctDCS brought less recognition of non-focused target words in comparison to sham. The results indicate that atDCS promotes stimulus-driven attentional processing, possibly by affecting neural firing in the inferior parietal regions. In contrast, ctDCS appears to prevent retrieval of less important information from episodic memory, which may require top-down attentional processing. PMID:25538609

  13. Structural and functional correlates of motor imagery BCI performance: Insights from the patterns of fronto-parietal attention network.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Liu, Tiejun; Li, Fali; Li, Mengchen; Liu, Dongbo; Zhang, Rui; He, Hui; Li, Peiyang; Gong, Jinnan; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2016-07-01

    Motor imagery (MI)-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) have been widely used for rehabilitation of motor abilities and prosthesis control for patients with motor impairments. However, MI-BCI performance exhibits a wide variability across subjects, and the underlying neural mechanism remains unclear. Several studies have demonstrated that both the fronto-parietal attention network (FPAN) and MI are involved in high-level cognitive processes that are crucial for the control of BCIs. Therefore, we hypothesized that the FPAN may play an important role in MI-BCI performance. In our study, we recorded multi-modal datasets consisting of MI electroencephalography (EEG) signals, T1-weighted structural and resting-state functional MRI data for each subject. MI-BCI performance was evaluated using the common spatial pattern to extract the MI features from EEG signals. One cortical structural feature (cortical thickness (CT)) and two measurements (degree centrality (DC) and eigenvector centrality (EC)) of node centrality were derived from the structural and functional MRI data, respectively. Based on the information extracted from the EEG and MRI, a correlation analysis was used to elucidate the relationships between the FPAN and MI-BCI performance. Our results show that the DC of the right ventral intraparietal sulcus, the EC and CT of the left inferior parietal lobe, and the CT of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were significantly associated with MI-BCI performance. Moreover, the receiver operating characteristic analysis and machine learning classification revealed that the EC and CT of the left IPL could effectively predict the low-aptitude BCI users from the high-aptitude BCI users with 83.3% accuracy. Those findings consistently reveal that the individuals who have efficient FPAN would perform better on MI-BCI. Our findings may deepen the understanding of individual variability in MI-BCI performance, and also may provide a new biomarker to predict individual

  14. Functional connectivity changes between parietal and prefrontal cortices in primary insomnia patients: evidence from resting-state fMRI

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Primary insomnia can severely impair daytime function by disrupting attention and working memory and imposes a danger to self and others by increasing the risk of accidents. We speculated that the neurobiological changes impeding working memory in primary insomnia patients would be revealed by resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI), which estimates the strength of cortical pathways by measuring local and regional correlations in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signs independent of specific task demands. Methods We compared the R-fMRI activity patterns of 15 healthy controls to 15 primary insomnia patients (all 30 participants were right-handed) using a 3.0 T MRI scanner. The SPM8 and REST1.7 software packages were used for preprocessing and analysis. Activity was expressed relative to the superior parietal lobe (SPL, the seed region) to reveal differences in functional connectivity to other cortical regions implicated in spatial working memory. Result In healthy controls, bilateral SPL activity was associated with activity in the posterior cingulate gyrus, precuneus, ventromedial prefrontal cortex, and superior frontal gyrus, indicating functional connectivity between these regions. Strong functional connectivity between the SPL and bilateral pre-motor cortex, bilateral supplementary motor cortex, and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was observed in both the control group and the primary insomnia group. However, the strength of several other functional connectivity pathways to the SPL exhibited significant group differences. Compared to healthy controls, connectivity in the primary insomnia group was stronger between the bilateral SPL and the right ventral anterior cingulate cortex, left ventral posterior cingulate cortex, right splenium of the corpus callosum, right pars triangularis (right inferior frontal gyrus/Broca’s area), and right insular lobe, while connectivity was weaker between the SPL and right superior frontal gyrus (dorsolateral

  15. Parietal cell surface reactive autoantibody in pernicious anaemia demonstrated by indirect membrane immunofluorescence.

    PubMed Central

    de Aizpurua, H J; Toh, B H; Ungar, B

    1983-01-01

    We examined, in a 'double blind' study, 60 sera from patients with pernicious anaemia for immunofluorescence reactivity with the surface membranes of viable parietal cells isolated from dog stomachs. Fifty-three sera (88%) gave an IgG autoantibody reaction with the surface membranes of parietal cells. Surface staining was also seen with parietal cells from monkey, pig, rat and mouse. The parietal cell surface reactive autoantibody was not found in any of 14 sera from patients with chronic active hepatitis, 10 from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and 50 from healthy persons. The surface reactivity autoantibody was present in 13 of 14 sera without parietal cell microsomal antibody, 28 of 31 sera without intrinsic factor antibody and in four of four sera without microsomal and intrinsic factor antibodies. Absorption with parietal cell enriched gastric mucosal cells neutralized the activity of the surface reactive but not the microsomal antibody and cross absorption with gastric microsomes neutralized the activity of the microsomal but not the surface reactive antibody. Surface staining of parietal cells was not abolished by absorption with dog or rat hepatocytes, dog or rat kidney cells, human fibroblasts or human AB red blood cells. The results suggest that the parietal cell surface reactive antibody is probably different from the microsomal antibody. Immune reactions of the cell surface reactive antibody with parietal cell surface antigens may play a role in the pathogenesis of the gastric lesion in pernicious anaemia. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6345039

  16. THE ROLE OF THE RIGHT AND LEFT PARIETAL LOBES IN THE CONCEPTUAL PROCESSING OF NUMBERS

    PubMed Central

    Cappelletti, M; Lee, HL; Freeman, ED; Price, CJ

    2009-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including the intraparietal sulcus, IPS). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention and response-selection processes. To dissociate parietal activation that is number-selective from parietal activation related to other stimulus or response-selection processes, we used fMRI to compare numbers and object names during exactly the same conceptual and perceptual tasks while factoring out activations correlating with response times. We found that right parietal activation was higher for conceptual decisions on numbers relative to the same tasks on object names, even when response time effects were fully factored out. In contrast, left parietal activation for numbers was equally involved in conceptual processing of object names. We suggest that left parietal activation for numbers reflects a range of processes, including the retrieval of learnt facts that are also involved in conceptual decisions on object names. In contrast, number-selectivity in the right parietal cortex reflects processes that are more involved in conceptual decisions on numbers than object names. Our results generate a new set of hypotheses that have implications for the design of future behavioral and functional imaging studies of patients with left and right parietal damage. PMID:19400672

  17. [Experimental subendocardial postero-inferior infarctions].

    PubMed

    Medrano, G A; de Micheli, A

    1990-01-01

    In 30 mongrel dog hearts, epicardial and thoracic unipolar records were obtained after myocardial damage was produced by infiltration of 96% alcohol in the postero-inferior free left ventricular wall. Necrosis was transmural in 5 cases, subendocardial in 11 and intramural in 10. In 4 dogs, intramural unipolar and bipolar leads were recorded in order to determine the electrical subendocardium and its relation to potentials of Purkinje's fibres. At the end of each experiment, left posterior subdivision block (LPSB) was provoked. In 90% of the cases, direct epicardial records were QS in transmural infarction, qrS or less frequently QRS in subendocardial ones, and rS or qRS in the presence of intramural necrosis. In several cases myocardial necrosis was located in the middle third instead of the inferior third, but the direct registries were similar. Nevertheless the surface leads (II, III and aVF) did not show abnormal Q waves or greater voltage of Q and S, but there were RS complexes in V1 and V2. In 80% of the cases, transmural necrosis of inferior third was manifested by QS complexes and subendocardial necrosis by rS or qRS complexes with increased Q and S waves and reduced R waves. LPSB masked the signs of necrosis. There is no justification for speaking of myocardial infarction with or without abnormal Q waves, because it does not add more precision. Moreover these expressions can create confusion in cases of middle or high posterior myocardial necrosis, revealed by RS complexes in V1 and V2.

  18. Design of Phase II Non-inferiority Trials.

    PubMed

    Jung, Sin-Ho

    2017-09-01

    With the development of inexpensive treatment regimens and less invasive surgical procedures, we are confronted with non-inferiority study objectives. A non-inferiority phase III trial requires a roughly four times larger sample size than that of a similar standard superiority trial. Because of the large required sample size, we often face feasibility issues to open a non-inferiority trial. Furthermore, due to lack of phase II non-inferiority trial design methods, we do not have an opportunity to investigate the efficacy of the experimental therapy through a phase II trial. As a result, we often fail to open a non-inferiority phase III trial and a large number of non-inferiority clinical questions still remain unanswered. In this paper, we want to develop some designs for non-inferiority randomized phase II trials with feasible sample sizes. At first, we review a design method for non-inferiority phase III trials. Subsequently, we propose three different designs for non-inferiority phase II trials that can be used under different settings. Each method is demonstrated with examples. Each of the proposed design methods is shown to require a reasonable sample size for non-inferiority phase II trials. The three different non-inferiority phase II trial designs are used under different settings, but require similar sample sizes that are typical for phase II trials.

  19. A longitudinal study of the relationship between personality traits and the annual rate of volume changes in regional gray matter in healthy adults.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Thyreau, Benjamin; Kinomura, Shigeo; Sato, Kazunori; Goto, Ryoi; Wu, Kai; Kawashima, Ryuta; Fukuda, Hiroshi

    2013-12-01

    To investigate whether personality traits affect the rate of decline of gray matter volume, we analyzed the relationships between personality traits and the annual rate of changes of gray matter volume in 274 healthy community dwelling subjects with a large age range by applying a longitudinal design over 6 years, using brain magnetic resonance images (MRI) and the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) at baseline. Brain MRI data were processed using voxel-based morphometry with a custom template by applying the DARTEL diffeomorphic registration tool. For each subject, we used NEO-PI-R to evaluate the five major personality traits, including neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness. The results show that the annual rate of change in regional gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule was correlated significantly and negatively with a personality of openness, which is known to be related to intellect, intellectual curiosity, and creativity adjusting for age, gender, and intracranial volume. This result indicates that subjects with a personality trait of less openness have an accelerated loss of gray matter volume in the right inferior parietal lobule, compared with subjects with a personality trait of more openness. Because the right inferior parietal lobule is involved in higher cognitive function such as working memory and creativity, a personality trait of openness is thought to be important for preserving gray matter volume and cognitive function of the right inferior parietal lobule in healthy adults. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Holding Biological Motion in Working Memory: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiqian; Huang, Jian; Yi, Yuji; Shen, Mowei; Weng, Xuchu; Gao, Zaifeng

    2016-01-01

    Holding biological motion (BM), the movements of animate entities, in working memory (WM) is important to our daily life activities. However, the neural substrates underlying the WM processing of BM remain largely unknown. Employing the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, the current study directly investigated this issue. We used point-light BM animations as the tested stimuli, and explored the neural substrates involved in encoding and retaining BM information in WM. Participants were required to remember two or four BM stimuli in a change-detection task. We first defined a set of potential brain regions devoted to the BM processing in WM in one experiment. We then conducted the second fMRI experiment, and performed time-course analysis over the pre-defined regions, which allowed us to differentiate the encoding and maintenance phases of WM. The results showed that a set of brain regions were involved in encoding BM into WM, including the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, inferior parietal lobule, superior temporal sulcus, fusiform gyrus, and middle occipital gyrus. However, only the middle frontal gyrus, inferior frontal gyrus, superior parietal lobule, and inferior parietal lobule were involved in retaining BM into WM. These results suggest that an overlapped network exists between the WM encoding and maintenance for BM; however, retaining BM in WM predominately relies on the mirror neuron system. PMID:27313520

  1. The Brain Adapts to Orthography with Experience: Evidence from English and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the process of language specialization in the brain by comparing developmental changes in two contrastive orthographies: Chinese and English. In a visual word rhyming judgment task, we found a significant interaction between age and language in left inferior parietal lobule and left…

  2. The Brain Adapts to Orthography with Experience: Evidence from English and Chinese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Fan; Brennan, Christine; Booth, James R.

    2015-01-01

    Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the process of language specialization in the brain by comparing developmental changes in two contrastive orthographies: Chinese and English. In a visual word rhyming judgment task, we found a significant interaction between age and language in left inferior parietal lobule and left…

  3. Decompression of inferior alveolar nerve: case report.

    PubMed

    Marques, Tiago Miguel Santos; Gomes, Joana Marques

    2011-01-01

    Paresthesia as a result of mechanical trauma is one of the most frequent sensory disturbances of the inferior alveolar nerve. This case report describes surgical treatment for paresthesia caused by a compressive phenomenon within the mandibular canal. The cause of the compression, a broken instrument left in the patient's mouth during previous endodontic therapy, was identified during routine radiography and computed tomography. Once the foreign object was removed by surgery, the paresthesia resolved quickly. This case highlights the potential for an iatrogenic mechanical cause of paresthesia.

  4. Transient contribution of left posterior parietal cortex to cognitive restructuring

    PubMed Central

    Sutoh, Chihiro; Matsuzawa, Daisuke; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Makiko; Nagaoka, Sawako; Chakraborty, Sudesna; Ishii, Daisuke; Matsuda, Shingo; Tomizawa, Haruna; Ito, Hiroshi; Tsuji, Hiroshi; Obata, Takayuki; Shimizu, Eiji

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive restructuring is a fundamental method within cognitive behavioural therapy of changing dysfunctional beliefs into flexible beliefs and learning to react appropriately to the reality of an anxiety-causing situation. To clarify the neural mechanisms of cognitive restructuring, we designed a unique task that replicated psychotherapy during a brain scan. The brain activities of healthy male participants were analysed using functional magnetic resonance imaging. During the brain scan, participants underwent Socratic questioning aimed at cognitive restructuring regarding the necessity of handwashing after using the restroom. The behavioural result indicated that the Socratic questioning effectively decreased the participants' degree of belief (DOB) that they must wash their hands. Alterations in the DOB showed a positive correlation with activity in the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) while the subject thought about and rated own belief. The involvement of the left PPC not only in planning and decision-making but also in conceptualization may play a pivotal role in cognitive restructuring. PMID:25775998

  5. A Nexus Model of the Temporal-Parietal Junction

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. McKell; Huettel, Scott A.

    2013-01-01

    The temporal-parietal junction (TPJ) has been proposed to support either specifically social functions or non-specific processes of cognition like memory and attention. To account for diverse prior findings, we propose a Nexus Model for TPJ function: overlap of basic processes produces novel secondary functions at their convergence. We present meta-analytic evidence that is consistent with the anatomical convergence of attention, memory, language, and social processing in the TPJ – leading to a higher-order role in the creation of a social context for behavior. The Nexus Model accounts for recent examples of TPJ contributions specifically to decision making in a social context, and it provides a potential reconciliation for competing claims about TPJ function. PMID:23790322

  6. Scalp Medical Tattooing Technique to Camouflage Bifid Parietal Whorls

    PubMed Central

    You, Seung Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Background: To the best of the authors’ knowledge, no reports have described cosmetic problems arising from the hair direction around the parietal whorl (PW). This study was performed to evaluate the efficacy of scalp medical tattooing technique for camouflaging bifid PWs. Methods: We retrospectively examined the outcomes of scalp medical tattooing in 38 patients who were admitted for camouflage of a bifid PW. Results: All patients’ cosmetic appearance was judged, by both the patients and the surgeon, to be markedly improved. No specific complications occurred, such as infection, hair loss in the operative field, or other problems. Conclusion: Scalp medical tattooing appears to be an effective method that helps to camouflage the see-through appearance of bifid PWs. PMID:27200232

  7. [Balint syndrome and spatial functions of the parietal lobe].

    PubMed

    Biotti, D; Pisella, L; Vighetto, A

    2012-10-01

    Balint's syndrome corresponds to the combination of optic ataxia, simultanagnosia and gaze apraxia. It generally results from a bilateral dysfunction of the posterior parietal cortex. Since its early descriptions the syndrome has been subject to many interpretations and controversies. In this article we will reconsider the current concept of Balint's syndrome. A first part will develop the clinical aspects, causes, description of symptoms, examination techniques and neuroanatomical correlations. In a second part, we will discuss how this syndrome can be included in the background of visual neurosciences, particularly through a visual attentional aspect. We will discuss the phenomenon of remapping and some recent data that may contribute to explain the pathophysiology of manifestations as optic ataxia, simultanagnosia or gaze apraxia.

  8. Diverse spatial reference frames of vestibular signals in parietal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaodong; DeAngelis, Gregory C; Angelaki, Dora E

    2013-01-01

    Summary Reference frames are important for understanding how sensory cues from different modalities are coordinated to guide behavior, and the parietal cortex is critical to these functions. We compare reference frames of vestibular self-motion signals in the ventral intraparietal area (VIP), parietoinsular vestibular cortex (PIVC), and dorsal medial superior temporal area (MSTd). Vestibular heading tuning in VIP is invariant to changes in both eye and head positions, indicating a body (or world)-centered reference frame. Vestibular signals in PIVC have reference frames that are intermediate between head- and body-centered. In contrast, MSTd neurons show reference frames between head- and eye-centered, but not body-centered. Eye and head position gain fields were strongest in MSTd and weakest in PIVC. Our findings reveal distinct spatial reference frames for representing vestibular signals, and pose new challenges for understanding the respective roles of these areas in potentially diverse vestibular functions. PMID:24239126

  9. A parietal memory network revealed by multiple MRI methods.

    PubMed

    Gilmore, Adrian W; Nelson, Steven M; McDermott, Kathleen B

    2015-09-01

    The manner by which the human brain learns and recognizes stimuli is a matter of ongoing investigation. Through examination of meta-analyses of task-based functional MRI and resting state functional connectivity MRI, we identified a novel network strongly related to learning and memory. Activity within this network at encoding predicts subsequent item memory, and at retrieval differs for recognized and unrecognized items. The direction of activity flips as a function of recent history: from deactivation for novel stimuli to activation for stimuli that are familiar due to recent exposure. We term this network the 'parietal memory network' (PMN) to reflect its broad involvement in human memory processing. We provide a preliminary framework for understanding the key functional properties of the network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dynamic Reorganization of Neuronal Activity Patterns in Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Driscoll, Laura N; Pettit, Noah L; Minderer, Matthias; Chettih, Selmaan N; Harvey, Christopher D

    2017-08-24

    Neuronal representations change as associations are learned between sensory stimuli and behavioral actions. However, it is poorly understood whether representations for learned associations stabilize in cortical association areas or continue to change following learning. We tracked the activity of posterior parietal cortex neurons for a month as mice stably performed a virtual-navigation task. The relationship between cells' activity and task features was mostly stable on single days but underwent major reorganization over weeks. The neurons informative about task features (trial type and maze locations) changed across days. Despite changes in individual cells, the population activity had statistically similar properties each day and stable information for over a week. As mice learned additional associations, new activity patterns emerged in the neurons used for existing representations without greatly affecting the rate of change of these representations. We propose that dynamic neuronal activity patterns could balance plasticity for learning and stability for memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Herpes Simplex Encephalitis of the Parietal Lobe: A Rare Presentation.

    PubMed

    Fisahn, Christian; Tkachenko, Lara; Moisi, Marc; Rostad, Steven; Umeh, Randle; Zwillman, Michael E; Tubbs, R Shane; Page, Jeni; Newell, David W; Delashaw, Johnny B

    2016-09-16

    A 69-year-old female with a history of breast cancer and hypertension presented with a rare case of herpes simplex encephalitis (HSE) isolated to her left parietal lobe. The patient's first biopsy was negative for herpes simplex virus (HSV) I/II antigens, but less than two weeks later, the patient tested positive on repeat biopsy. This initial failure to detect the virus and the similarities between HSE and symptoms of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) suggests repeat testing for HSV in the presence of ICH. Due to the frequency of patients with extra temporal HSE, a diagnosis of HSE should be more readily considered, particularly when a patient may not be improving and a concrete diagnosis has not been solidified.

  12. Possible role of an error detection mechanism in brain processing of deception: PET-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Kireev, Maxim; Korotkov, Alexander; Medvedeva, Natalia; Medvedev, Svyatoslav

    2013-12-01

    To investigate brain maintenance of deliberate deception the positron emission tomography and the event related functional MRI studies were performed. We used an experimental paradigm that presupposed free choices between equally beneficial deceptive or honest actions. Experimental task simulated the "Cheat" card game which aims to defeat an opponent by sequential deceptive and honest claims. Results of both the PET and the fMRI studies revealed that execution of both deliberately deceptive and honest claims is associated with fronto-parietal brain network comprised of inferior and middle frontal gyri, precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nucleus, and inferior parietal lobule. Direct comparison between those claims, balanced in terms of decision making and action outcome (gain and losses), revealed activation of areas specifically associated with deception execution: precentral gyrus (BA 6), caudate nuclei, thalamus and inferior parietal lobule (BA 39/40). The obtained experimental data were discussed in relation to a possible role of an error detection system in processing deliberate deception.

  13. Hemispatial PCA dissociates temporal from parietal ERP generator patterns

    PubMed Central

    Tenke, Craig E.; Kayser, Jürgen; Shankman, Stewart A.; Griggs, Carlye B.; Leite, Paul; Stewart, Jonathan W.; Bruder, Gerard E.

    2008-01-01

    Event-related potentials (31-channel ERPs) were recorded from 38 depressed, unmedicated outpatients and 26 healthy adults (all right-handed) in tonal and phonetic oddball tasks developed to exploit the perceptual challenge of a dichotic stimulation. Tonal nontargets were pairs of complex tones (corresponding to musical notes G and B above middle C) presented simultaneously to each ear (L/R) in an alternating series (G/B or B/G; 2-s fixed SOA). A target tone (note A) replaced one of the pair on 20% of the trials (A/B, G/A, B/A, A/G). Phonetic nontargets were L/R pairs of syllables (/ba/, /da/) with a short voice onset time (VOT), and targets contained a syllable (/ta/) with a long VOT. Subjects responded with a left or right button press to targets (counterbalanced across blocks). Target detection was poorer in patients than controls and for tones than syllables. Reference-free current source densities (CSDs; spherical spline Laplacian) derived from ERP waveforms were simplified and measured using temporal, covariance-based PCA followed by unrestricted Varimax rotation. Target-related N2 sinks and mid-parietal P3 sources were represented by CSD factors peaking at 245 and 440 ms. The P3 source topography included a secondary, left-lateralized temporal lobe maximum for both targets and nontargets. However, a subsequent hemispheric spatiotemporal PCA disentangled temporal lobe N1 and P3 sources as distinct factors. P3 sources were reduced in patients compared with controls, even after using performance as a covariate. Results are consistent with prior reports of P3 reduction in depression and implicate distinct parietal and temporal generators of P3 when using a dichotic oddball paradigm. PMID:17963912

  14. Subcortical mapping of calculation processing in the right parietal lobe.

    PubMed

    Della Puppa, Alessandro; De Pellegrin, Serena; Lazzarini, Anna; Gioffrè, Giorgio; Rustemi, Oriela; Cagnin, Annachiara; Scienza, Renato; Semenza, Carlo

    2015-05-01

    Preservation of calculation processing in brain surgery is crucial for patients' quality of life. Over the last decade, surgical electrostimulation was used to identify and preserve the cortical areas involved in such processing. Conversely, subcortical connectivity among different areas implicated in this function remains unclear, and the role of surgery in this domain has not been explored so far. The authors present the first 2 cases in which the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation were identified during right parietal lobe surgery. Two patients affected by a glioma located in the right parietal lobe underwent surgery with the aid of MRI neuronavigation. No calculation deficits were detected during preoperative assessment. Cortical and subcortical mapping were performed using a bipolar stimulator. The current intensity was determined by progressively increasing the amplitude by 0.5-mA increments (from a baseline of 1 mA) until a sensorimotor response was elicited. Then, addition and multiplication calculation tasks were administered. Corticectomy was performed according to both the MRI neuronavigation data and the functional findings obtained through cortical mapping. Direct subcortical electrostimulation was repeatedly performed during tumor resection. Subcortical functional sites for multiplication and addition were detected in both patients. Electrostimulation interfered with calculation processing during cortical mapping as well. Functional sites were spared during tumor removal. The postoperative course was uneventful, and calculation processing was preserved. Postoperative MRI showed complete resection of the tumor. The present preliminary study shows for the first time how functional mapping can be a promising method to intraoperatively identify the subcortical functional sites involved in calculation processing. This report therefore supports direct electrical stimulation as a promising tool to improve the current knowledge on

  15. Regulatory Scientific Advice on Non-Inferiority Drug Trials

    PubMed Central

    Knol, Mirjam J.; Klungel, Olaf H.; Gispen-De Wied, Christine C.; de Boer, Antonius; Hoes, Arno W.; Leufkens, Hubert G.; Mantel-Teeuwisse, Aukje K.

    2013-01-01

    The active-controlled trial with a non-inferiority design has gained popularity in recent years. However, non-inferiority trials present some methodological challenges, especially in determining the non-inferiority margin. Regulatory guidelines provide some general statements on how a non-inferiority trial should be conducted. Moreover, in a scientific advice procedure, regulators give companies the opportunity to discuss critical trial issues prior to the start of the trial. The aim of this study was to identify potential issues that may benefit from more explicit guidance by regulators. To achieve this, we collected and analyzed questions about non-inferiority trials posed by applicants for scientific advice in Europe in 2008 and 2009, as well as the responses given by the European Medicines Agency (EMA). In our analysis we included 156 final letters of advice from 2008 and 2009, addressed to 94 different applicants (manufacturers). Our analysis yielded two major findings: (1) applicants frequently asked questions ‘whether’ and ‘how’ to conduct a non-inferiority trial, 26% and 74%, respectively, and (2) the EMA regulators seem mainly concerned about the choice of the non-inferiority margin in non-inferiority trials (36% of total regulatory answers). In 40% of the answers, the EMA recommended using a stricter margin, and in 10% of the answers regarding non-inferiority margins, the EMA questioned the justification of the proposed non-inferiority margin. We conclude that there are still difficulties in selecting the appropriate methodology for non-inferiority trials. Straightforward and harmonized guidance regarding non-inferiority trials is required, for example on whether it is necessary to conduct such a trial and how the non-inferiority margin is determined. It is unlikely that regulatory guidelines can cover all therapeutic areas; therefore, in some cases regulatory scientific advice may be used as an opportunity for tailored advice. PMID:24040346

  16. Differences in biomechanical properties and thickness among frontal and parietal bones in a Japanese sample.

    PubMed

    Torimitsu, Suguru; Nishida, Yoshifumi; Takano, Tachio; Yajima, Daisuke; Inokuchi, Go; Makino, Yohsuke; Motomura, Ayumi; Chiba, Fumiko; Yamaguchi, Rutsuko; Hashimoto, Mari; Hoshioka, Yumi; Iwase, Hirotaro

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical properties and thickness of adult frontal and parietal bones. The heads of 114 Japanese cadavers (78 male cadavers and 36 female cadavers) of known age and sex were used. A total of 912 cranial samples, 8 from each skull, were collected. Samples were imaged using multidetector computed tomography to measure sample thickness. The fracture load of each sample was measured using a bending test with calculation of flexural strength. Statistical analyses demonstrated no significant bilateral difference in either the mechanical properties or thickness of frontal or parietal bones. The mechanical properties and thicknesses of frontal bones were significantly greater than those of parietal bones regardless of sex. Therefore, the skull may have a great ability to resist frontal impacts compared with parietal impacts. In female samples, parietal bones were found to have a more uniform structure when compared with male samples. Male parietal bones were found to be thicker at medial sites than at lateral sites. This study also revealed parietal bones at lateral sites in female samples were thicker than in male samples. No strong association was observed between age and flexural strength of frontal or parietal bones. However, the fracture load was negatively correlated with age most likely due to the reduction of thickness.

  17. The Role of Right and Left Parietal Lobes in the Conceptual Processing of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention,…

  18. The Role of Right and Left Parietal Lobes in the Conceptual Processing of Numbers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cappelletti, Marinella; Lee, Hwee Ling; Freeman, Elliot D.; Price, Cathy J.

    2010-01-01

    Neuropsychological and functional imaging studies have associated the conceptual processing of numbers with bilateral parietal regions (including intraparietal sulcus). However, the processes driving these effects remain unclear because both left and right posterior parietal regions are activated by many other conceptual, perceptual, attention,…

  19. An uncommon and insidious presentation of renal cell carcinoma with tumor extending into the inferior vena cava and right atrium: a case report.

    PubMed

    Lu, Hou Tee; Chong, Jen Lim; Othman, Norliza; Vendargon, Simon; Omar, Shamsuddin

    2016-05-03

    Renal cell carcinoma is a potentially lethal cancer with aggressive behavior and it tends to metastasize. Renal cell carcinoma involves the inferior vena cava in approximately 15% of cases and it rarely extends into the right atrium. A majority of renal cell carcinoma are detected as incidental findings on imaging studies obtained for unrelated reasons. At presentation, nearly 25% of patients either have distant metastases or significant local-regional disease with no symptoms that can be attributed to renal cell carcinoma. A 64-year-old Indian male with a past history of coronary artery bypass graft surgery, congestive heart failure, and diabetes mellitus complained of worsening shortness of breath for 2 weeks. Incidentally, a transthoracic echocardiography showed a "thumb-like" mass in his right atrium extending into his right ventricle through the tricuspid valve with each systole. Abdomen magnetic resonance imaging revealed a heterogenous lobulated mass in the upper and mid-pole of his right kidney with a tumor extending into his inferior vena cava and right atrium, consistent with our diagnosis of advanced renal cell carcinoma which was later confirmed by surgical excision and histology. Radical right nephrectomy, lymph nodes clearance, inferior vena cava cavatomy, and complete tumor thrombectomy were performed successfully. Perioperatively, he did not require cardiopulmonary bypass or deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. He had no recurrence during the follow-up period for more than 2 years after surgery. Advanced extension of renal cell carcinoma can occur with no apparent symptoms and be detected incidentally. In rare circumstances, atypical presentation of renal cell carcinoma should be considered in a patient presenting with right atrial mass detected by echocardiography. Renal cell carcinoma with inferior vena cava and right atrium extension is a complex surgical challenge, but excellent results can be obtained with proper patient selection, meticulous

  20. Mossy and climbing fiber collateral inputs in monkey cerebellar paraflocculus lobulus petrosus and hemispheric lobule VII and their relevance to oculomotor functions.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Guoxiang; Nagao, Soichi; Kitazawa, Hiromasa

    2010-01-14

    Recent lesion studies on monkeys suggest that the cerebellar lobulus petrosus of the paraflocculus (LP) and crura I and II of hemispheric lobule VII (H-7) are involved in smooth pursuit eye movement control. To reveal the relationship between the LP and H-7, we studied mossy and climbing fiber collateral inputs to these areas in four cynamolgus monkeys. After unilateral injections of retrograde tracers into the LP, labeled mossy fibers were seen ipsilaterally in the crura I and II of H-7. A very small number of labeled mossy fiber collaterals were also seen in the dorsal paraflocculus (DP). Labeled climbing fibers were seen exclusively in the ipsilateral crus I. No labeled mossy/climbing fibers were seen in the flocculus, ventral paraflocculus and other cortical areas. Combined injections of fast blue in the LP and cholera toxin subunit B in the posterior crus I and crus II of H-7 resulted in a small number of the double-labeled pontine and principal olivary neurons. Combined injections in the LP and DP induced only a few double-labeled neurons in the pontine nuclei, and no double-labeled neurons in the olivary nuclei. These results suggest that the LP and crura I and II of H-7 may share some of their mossy and climbing fiber inputs and mediate similar functional roles involving smooth pursuit eye movement control. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of short- and long-term alcohol feeding in rats on pancreatic enzyme content and enzyme secretion in isolated pancreatic lobules in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bode, C; Dürr, H K; Bode, J C

    1986-07-01

    The effect of short- and long-term ethanol intake on digestive enzyme secretion was determined in isolated pancreatic lobules of rats. Groups of male Wistar rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli diet containing either 5% (w/v) of ethanol, isocaloric amounts of a liquid diet in which ethanol was substituted by starch, or solid rat chow; for 3 days, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Basal and caerulein-stimulated secretion of lipase, amylase, chymotrypsin and trypsin and the enzyme content in the tissue were studied. Feeding the liquid control diet decreased the tissue content of the four enzymes as compared with the values obtained in the group receiving solid rat chow. While basal and stimulated amylase secretion was markedly reduced in the former group, the secretion pattern of the other enzymes exhibited only transient changes. Caerulein-stimulated secretion of lipase and the proteases was increased by ethanol, the effect being more pronounced during the initial phase of the experiment. Alcohol feeding stimulated the basal secretion of these enzymes only in weeks 1-4. In contrast to the other enzymes, basal and stimulated amylase secretion was not enhanced by ethanol feeding. The results suggest that the enzyme secretion of the rat pancreas is distinctly altered by chronic ethanol feeding. However, the response of the pancreatic enzymes is non-parallel, and changes with the duration of alcohol intake.

  2. Massive acinar cell apoptosis with secondary necrosis, origin of ducts in atrophic lobules and failure to regenerate in cyanohydroxybutene pancreatopathy in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, Lyndell; Reid, Lynne; Walker, Neal I

    1999-01-01

    Cyanohydroxybutene (CHB), a glycosinolate breakdown product, causes pancreatic injury when given to animals in large amounts. To determine the course of CHB-induced pancreatopathy, rats were given a single subcutaneous dose of CHB and the pancreas weighed and examined by light and electron microscopy and immunohistochemistry at intervals from 2 h to 28 days. The pancreatic lesion was unusual in that there was marked early oedema with limited inflammatory cell infiltration, rapid synchronous onset of acinar cell apoptosis and early advanced atrophy engendering only a limited regenerative response. Acinar cell apoptosis was atypical in that cell fragmentation was limited and phagocytosis delayed, resulting in extensive secondary necrosis. As ducts were unaffected by CHB, the crowded ducts making up the epithelial component of atrophic lobules could be clearly shown to derive from their condensation and proliferation, not the redifferentiation of pre-existing acinar cells, widely held to produce this lesion. Although the basis of CHB selectivity and toxicity for pancreatic acinar cells remains unknown, the potential therapeutic benefit of such an agent in patients with pancreatitis or pancreatic tumours warrants further investigation. PMID:10583631

  3. Frontal and parietal EEG asymmetries interact to predict attentional bias to threat.

    PubMed

    Grimshaw, Gina M; Foster, Joshua J; Corballis, Paul M

    2014-10-01

    Frontal and parietal electroencephalographic (EEG) asymmetries mark vulnerability to depression and anxiety. Drawing on cognitive theories of vulnerability, we hypothesise that cortical asymmetries predict attention to threat. Participants completed a dot-probe task in which bilateral face displays were followed by lateralised targets at either short (300ms) or long (1050ms) SOA. We also measured N2pc to face onset as an index of early attentional capture. At long SOA only, frontal and parietal asymmetry interacted to predict attentional bias to angry faces. Those with leftward frontal asymmetry showed no attentional bias. Among those with rightward frontal asymmetry those with low right parietal activity showed vigilance for threat, and those with high right parietal activity showed avoidance. Asymmetry was not related to the N2pc or to attentional bias at the short SOA. Findings suggest that trait asymmetries reflect function in a fronto-parietal network that controls attention to threat.

  4. Role of parietal regions in episodic memory retrieval: the dual attentional processes hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Cabeza, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Although parietal cortex is frequently activated during episodic memory retrieval, damage to this region does not markedly impair episodic memory. To account for these and other findings, a new dual attentional processes (DAP) hypothesis is proposed. According to this hypothesis, dorsal parietal cortex (DPC) contributes top-down attentional processes guided by retrieval goals, whereas ventral parietal cortex (VPC) contributes bottom-up attentional processes captured by the retrieval output. Consistent with this hypothesis, DPC activity increases with retrieval effort whereas VPC activity increases with confidence in old and new responses. The DAP hypothesis can also account for the overlap of parietal activations across different cognitive domains and for opposing effects of parietal activity on encoding vs. retrieval. Finally, the DAP hypothesis explains why VPC lesions yield a memory neglect syndrome: a deficit in spontaneously reporting relevant memory details but not in accessing the same details when guided by specific questions.

  5. Anatomic Variant of Liver, Gall Bladder and Inferior Vena Cava.

    PubMed

    Sontakke, Yogesh Ashok; Gladwin, V; Chand, Parkash

    2016-07-01

    The morphology and relations of liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava are cardinal. Their anatomical variations may be a reason for the adverse surgical outcome. During routine anatomy dissection of an abdomen, we noticed a variant liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava in a 63-year-old male cadaver. In the specimen, a retrohepatic segment of inferior vena cava was found to be intrahepatic. On dissection, it was observed that inferior vena cava was covered entirely by a liver tissue on its dorsal aspect. In the same specimen, the gall bladder had undulated inferior surface. On dissection of the gall bladder, numerous mucosal folds were present in the interior. A band of fibrous tissue was found, which was extending from the right side of the gall bladder to the falciform ligament. Hence, preoperative scanning of congenital variations of the liver, gall bladder and inferior vena cava may be compassionate in planning safe surgeries and interventional abdominal procedures.

  6. Dissociable Temporo-Parietal Memory Networks Revealed by Functional Connectivity during Episodic Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Hirose, Satoshi; Kimura, Hiroko M.; Jimura, Koji; Kunimatsu, Akira; Abe, Osamu; Ohtomo, Kuni; Miyashita, Yasushi; Konishi, Seiki

    2013-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval most often recruits multiple separate processes that are thought to involve different temporal regions. Previous studies suggest dissociable regions in the left lateral parietal cortex that are associated with the retrieval processes. Moreover, studies using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) have provided evidence for the temporo-parietal memory networks that may support the retrieval processes. In this functional MRI study, we tested functional significance of the memory networks by examining functional connectivity of brain activity during episodic retrieval in the temporal and parietal regions of the memory networks. Recency judgments, judgments of the temporal order of past events, can be achieved by at least two retrieval processes, relational and item-based. Neuroimaging results revealed several temporal and parietal activations associated with relational/item-based recency judgments. Significant RSFC was observed between one parahippocampal region and one left lateral parietal region associated with relational recency judgments, and between four lateral temporal regions and another left lateral parietal region associated with item-based recency judgments. Functional connectivity during task was found to be significant between the parahippocampal region and the parietal region in the RSFC network associated with relational recency judgments. However, out of the four tempo-parietal RSFC networks associated with item-based recency judgments, only one of them (between the left posterior lateral temporal region and the left lateral parietal region) showed significant functional connectivity during task. These results highlight the contrasting roles of the parahippocampal and the lateral temporal regions in recency judgments, and suggest that only a part of the tempo-parietal RSFC networks are recruited to support particular retrieval processes. PMID:24009657

  7. Bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin

    PubMed Central

    Kotwal, Narendra; Kumar, Yogesh; Upreti, Vimal; Singh, Amandeep; Garg, M. K.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Anatomical localization of pituitary adenoma can be challenging in adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent Cushing's syndrome, and bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling (BIPSS) is considered gold standard in this regard. Stimulation using corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) improves the sensitivity of BIPSS, however, same is not easily available in India. Therefore, we undertook this study of BIPPS using vasopressin as agent for stimulation owing to its ability to stimulate V3 receptors present on corticotrophs. Aims: To study the tumor localization and lateralization in difficult to localize cases of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome by bilateral inferior petrosal sinus sampling using vasopressin for corticotroph stimulation. Settings and Design: Prospective observational study. Subjects and Methods: Six patients (5 females) meeting inclusion criteria underwent BIPSS using vasopressin for stimulation. Results: All six patients had nonsuppressible overnight and low dose dexamethasone suppression test with elevated plasma ACTH levels suggestive of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome. High dose dexamethasone suppression test showed suppressible cortisol in two cases, and microadenoma was seen in two patients on magnetic resonance imaging pituitary. Contrast enhanced computed tomography of the abdomen showed left adrenal hyperplasia in one case and anterior mediastinal mass with bilateral adrenal hyperplasia another. Using BIPSS four patients were classified as having Cushing's disease that was confirmed histopathologically following surgery. Of the remaining two, one had primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease, and another had thymic carcinoid with ectopic ACTH production as the cause of Cushing's syndrome. No serious adverse events were noted. Conclusions: Vasopressin may be used instead of CRH and desmopressin for stimulation in BIPSS. PMID:27186561

  8. Altered Structural and Functional Connectivity in Late Preterm Preadolescence: An Anatomic Seed-Based Study of Resting State Networks Related to the Posteromedial and Lateral Parietal Cortex.

    PubMed

    Degnan, Andrew J; Wisnowski, Jessica L; Choi, SoYoung; Ceschin, Rafael; Bhushan, Chitresh; Leahy, Richard M; Corby, Patricia; Schmithorst, Vincent J; Panigrahy, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Late preterm birth confers increased risk of developmental delay, academic difficulties and social deficits. The late third trimester may represent a critical period of development of neural networks including the default mode network (DMN), which is essential to normal cognition. Our objective is to identify functional and structural connectivity differences in the posteromedial cortex related to late preterm birth. Thirty-eight preadolescents (ages 9-13; 19 born in the late preterm period (≥32 weeks gestational age) and 19 at term) without access to advanced neonatal care were recruited from a low socioeconomic status community in Brazil. Participants underwent neurocognitive testing, 3-dimensional T1-weighted imaging, diffusion-weighted imaging and resting state functional MRI (RS-fMRI). Seed-based probabilistic diffusion tractography and RS-fMRI analyses were performed using unilateral seeds within the posterior DMN (posterior cingulate cortex, precuneus) and lateral parietal DMN (superior marginal and angular gyri). Late preterm children demonstrated increased functional connectivity within the posterior default mode networks and increased anti-correlation with the central-executive network when seeded from the posteromedial cortex (PMC). Key differences were demonstrated between PMC components with increased anti-correlation with the salience network seen only with posterior cingulate cortex seeding but not with precuneus seeding. Probabilistic tractography showed increased streamlines within the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus within late preterm children while decreased intrahemispheric streamlines were also observed. No significant differences in neurocognitive testing were demonstrated between groups. Late preterm preadolescence is associated with altered functional connectivity from the PMC and lateral parietal cortex to known distributed functional cortical networks despite no significant executive

  9. Decreased resting state metabolic activity in frontopolar and parietal brain regions is associated with suicide plans in depressed individuals.

    PubMed

    van Heeringen, Kees; Wu, Guo-Rong; Vervaet, Myriam; Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Baeken, Chris

    2017-01-01

    Suicide plans are a major risk factor for suicide, which is a devastating outcome of depression. While structural and functional brain changes have been demonstrated in relation to suicidal thoughts and behaviour, brain mechanisms underlying suicide plans have not yet been studied. Here, we studied changes in regional cerebral metabolic activity in association with suicide plans in depressed individuals. Using (18)FDG-PET, a comparative study of regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) was carried out in depressed individuals with suicidal thoughts and suicide plans, depressed individuals with only suicidal thoughts, depressed individuals without suicide thoughts and plans, and healthy controls. When compared to the other groups, depressed individuals with suicide plans showed relative hypometabolism in the right middle frontal gyrus and the right inferior parietal lobe (Brodmann areas 10 and 39). Suicide plans in depressed individuals appear to be associated with reduced activity in brain areas that are involved in decision-making and choice, more particularly in exploratory behaviour. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Neural Responses in Parietal and Occipital Areas in Response to Visual Events Are Modulated by Prior Multisensory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Innes-Brown, Hamish; Barutchu, Ayla; Crewther, David P.

    2013-01-01

    The effect of multi-modal vs uni-modal prior stimuli on the subsequent processing of a simple flash stimulus was studied in the context of the audio-visual ‘flash-beep’ illusion, in which the number of flashes a person sees is influenced by accompanying beep stimuli. EEG recordings were made while combinations of simple visual and audio-visual stimuli were presented. The experiments found that the electric field strength related to a flash stimulus was stronger when it was preceded by a multi-modal flash/beep stimulus, compared to when it was preceded by another uni-modal flash stimulus. This difference was found to be significant in two distinct timeframes – an early timeframe, from 130–160 ms, and a late timeframe, from 300–320 ms. Source localisation analysis found that the increased activity in the early interval was localised to an area centred on the inferior and superior parietal lobes, whereas the later increase was associated with stronger activity in an area centred on primary and secondary visual cortex, in the occipital lobe. The results suggest that processing of a visual stimulus can be affected by the presence of an immediately prior multisensory event. Relatively long-lasting interactions generated by the initial auditory and visual stimuli altered the processing of a subsequent visual stimulus. PMID:24391939

  11. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    PubMed Central

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N.; Christensen, Mark S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC) is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA). We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects' SoA during self-controlled movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-controlled movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition), over the vertex (CZ) (sham condition) or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-controlled movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P = 0.002) and the stimulation-free control (P = 0.042). The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements. PMID:25009489

  12. Gray matter increases in fronto-parietal regions of depression patients with aripiprazole monotherapy: An exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Chen, Cheng-Yu; Hou, Yi-Cheng

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the treatment effects of aripiprazole monotherapy in first-episode medication-naïve patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). The accompanying changes in the gray matter volume (GMV) were also explored.Fifteen patients completed the trial and received structural scans by 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and partially responding state (sixth week). To account for the test-retest bias, 27 healthy controls were scanned twice within 6 weeks. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry with different comparisons between groups.The partially responding patients with MDD had greater GMV in left middle frontal gyrus and left superior parietal gyrus when compared with baseline. However, they had decreases in the GMV of right orbitofrontal gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus after response. The partially responding patients with MDD still had residual GMV deficits in right superior frontal gyrus when compared with controls. However, the lack of second patient group without aripiprazole intervention would be a significant limitation to interpret the aripiprazole-specific effects on GMV.The changes in the GMV of fronto-parieto-temporal regions and residual GMV deficits in the superior frontal gyrus might represent "state-dependent brain changes" and "residual-deficit brain regions," respectively, for aripiprzole monotherapy in MDD.

  13. Across-study and within-subject functional connectivity of a right temporo-parietal junction subregion involved in stimulus-context integration.

    PubMed

    Jakobs, Oliver; Langner, Robert; Caspers, Svenja; Roski, Christian; Cieslik, Edna C; Zilles, Karl; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Peter T; Eickhoff, Simon B

    2012-05-01

    Bidirectional integration between sensory stimuli and contextual framing is fundamental to action control. Stimuli may entail context-dependent actions, while temporal or spatial characteristics of a stimulus train may establish a contextual framework for upcoming stimuli. Here we aimed at identifying core areas for stimulus-context integration and delineated their functional connectivity (FC) using meta-analytic connectivity modeling (MACM) and analysis of resting-state networks. In a multi-study conjunction, consistently increased activity under higher demands on stimulus-context integration was predominantly found in the right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), which represented the largest cluster of overlap and was thus used as the seed for the FC analyses. The conjunction between task-dependent (MACM) and task-free (resting state) FC of the right TPJ revealed a shared network comprising bilaterally inferior parietal and frontal cortices, anterior insula, premotor cortex, putamen and cerebellum, i.e., a 'ventral' action/attention network. Stronger task-dependent (vs. task-free) connectivity was observed with the pre-SMA, dorsal premotor cortex, intraparietal sulcus, basal ganglia and primary sensori motor cortex, while stronger resting-state (vs. task-dependent) connectivity was found with the dorsolateral prefrontal and medial parietal cortex. Our data provide strong evidence that the right TPJ may represent a key region for the integration of sensory stimuli and contextual frames in action control. Task-dependent associations with regions related to stimulus processing and motor responses indicate that the right TPJ may integrate 'collaterals' of sensory processing and apply (ensuing) contextual frames, most likely via modulation of preparatory loops. Given the pattern of resting-state connectivity, internal states and goal representations may provide the substrates for the contextual integration within the TPJ in the absence of a specific task.

  14. Increased prefrontal and parietal cortical thickness does not correlate with anhedonia in patients with untreated first-episode major depressive disorders.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xin-hua; Wang, Yi; Huang, Jia; Zhu, Cui-ying; Liu, Xiao-qun; Cheung, Eric F C; Xie, Guang-rong; Chan, Raymond C K

    2015-10-30

    Cerebral morphological abnormalities in major depressive disorder (MDD) may be modulated by antidepressant treatment and course of illness in chronic medicated patients. The present study examined cortical thickness in patients with untreated first-episode MDD to elucidate the early pathophysiology of this illness. Here, we examined cortical thickness in patients with first-episode MDD (N=27) and healthy controls (N=27) using an automated surface-based method (in FreeSurfer). By assessing the correlation between caudate volume and cortical thickness at each vertex on the cortical surface, a caudate-cortical network was obtained for each group. Subsequent analysis was performed to assess the effect of anhedonia by the Temporal Experience of Pleasure Scale. We observed increased cortical thickness at the right orbital frontal cortex and the left inferior parietal gyrus in MDD patients compared with healthy controls. Furthermore, morphometric correlational analysis using cortical thickness measurement revealed increased caudate-cortical connectivity in the bilateral superior parietal gyrus in MDD patients. All changes were not related to anhedonia. These preliminary findings may reflect disorder manifestation close to illness onset and may provide insight into the early neurobiology of MDD.

  15. Tactile priming modulates the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit during tactile angle match and non-match processing: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jiajia; Yu, Yinghua; Kunita, Akinori; Huang, Qiang; Wu, Jinglong; Sawamoto, Nobukatsu; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2014-01-01

    The repetition of a stimulus task reduces the neural activity within certain cortical regions responsible for working memory (WM) processing. Although previous evidence has shown that repeated vibrotactile stimuli reduce the activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, whether the repeated tactile spatial stimuli triggered the priming effect correlated with the same cortical region remains unclear. Therefore, we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and a delayed match-to-sample task to investigate the contributions of the priming effect to tactile spatial WM processing. Fourteen healthy volunteers were asked to encode three tactile angle stimuli during the encoding phase and one tactile angle stimulus during the recognition phase. Then, they answered whether the last angle stimulus was presented during the encoding phase. As expected, both the Match and Non-Match tasks activated a similar cerebral network. The critical new finding was decreased brain activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), the right posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and bilateral medial frontal gyri (mFG) for the match task compared to the Non-Match task. Therefore, we suggest that the tactile priming engaged repetition suppression mechanisms during tactile angle matching, and this process decreased the activation of the fronto-parietal circuit, including IFG, mFG and PPC. PMID:25566010

  16. Visuo-motor integration and control in the human posterior parietal cortex: evidence from TMS and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Iacoboni, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The posterior parietal cortex is a fundamental structure for visuo-motor integration and control. Here I discuss recent transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies that I interpret as suggesting four concepts. The evolutionary process has enlarged the human posterior parietal cortex while still preserving the internal structure of the posterior parietal cortex of other primates. Visuo-motor control in the posterior parietal cortex may be implemented by coding primarily action goals. The lateralization of visuo-motor functions in the posterior parietal cortex suggests that the left posterior parietal cortex is more concerned with tool use and the right posterior parietal cortex is more concerned with imitation of the actions of others. Finally, visuo-motor inter-hemispheric transfer through parietal callosal fibers occurs at the level of 'motor intention'.

  17. Partial breast reconstruction with mini superficial inferior epigastric artery and mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Aldona J; Eldor, Liron

    2010-08-01

    In this study, partial breast reconstruction was undertaken after breast conservation therapy using mini abdominal free flaps on both an immediate and delayed basis.Patient demographics, oncologic status, reconstructive data, and complications were collected from medical records.Twelve patients (age range 39-60) were included in this study with a mean follow-up time of 5 years. Ten mini superficial inferior epigastric artery flaps and 2 mini deep inferior epigastric perforator flaps were used (7 immediate and 5 delayed reconstructions). No flap lost, 1 minor abdominal wound dehiscence, and no local or distant recurrences were noted. Good to excellent results were reported by 91% of the women.In properly selected patients with high motivation toward breast conservation, tailored abdominal mini-free flaps can safely and satisfactorily be implemented for the reconstruction of partial mastectomy defects. Patients should be comprehensively educated on the potential future implications of using the abdominal donor site for partial breast reconstruction.

  18. TMS of posterior parietal cortex disrupts visual tactile multisensory integration.

    PubMed

    Pasalar, Siavash; Ro, Tony; Beauchamp, Michael S

    2010-05-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have implicated a number of brain regions, especially the posterior parietal cortex (PPC), as being potentially important for visual-tactile multisensory integration. However, neuroimaging studies are correlational and do not prove the necessity of a region for the behavioral improvements that are the hallmark of multisensory integration. To remedy this knowledge gap, we interrupted activity in the PPC, near the junction of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the postcentral sulcus, using MRI-guided transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while subjects localized touches delivered to different fingers. As the touches were delivered, subjects viewed a congruent touch video, an incongruent touch video, or no video. Without TMS, a strong effect of multisensory integration was observed, with significantly better behavioral performance for discrimination of congruent multisensory touch than for unisensory touch alone. Incongruent multisensory touch produced a smaller improvement in behavioral performance. TMS of the PPC eliminated the behavioral advantage of both congruent and incongruent multisensory stimuli, reducing performance to unisensory levels. These results demonstrate a causal role for the PPC in visual-tactile multisensory integration. Taken together with converging evidence from other studies, these results support a model in which the PPC contains a map of space around the hand that receives input from both the visual and somatosensory modalities. Activity in this map is likely to be the neural substrate for visual-tactile multisensory integration.

  19. True and false memories, parietal cortex, and confidence judgments.

    PubMed

    Urgolites, Zhisen J; Smith, Christine N; Squire, Larry R

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have asked whether activity in the medial temporal lobe (MTL) and the neocortex can distinguish true memory from false memory. A frequent complication has been that the confidence associated with correct memory judgments (true memory) is typically higher than the confidence associated with incorrect memory judgments (false memory). Accordingly, it has often been difficult to know whether a finding is related to memory confidence or memory accuracy. In the current study, participants made recognition memory judgments with confidence ratings in response to previously studied scenes and novel scenes. The left hippocampus and 16 other brain regions distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were different for the two conditions. Only three regions (all in the parietal cortex) distinguished true and false memories when confidence ratings were equated. These findings illustrate the utility of taking confidence ratings into account when identifying brain regions associated with true and false memories. Neural correlates of true and false memories are most easily interpreted when confidence ratings are similar for the two kinds of memories. Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  20. Angiogenesis after sintered bone implantation in rat parietal bone.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, S; Matsuda, M; Takekawa, M

    2003-01-01

    We studied the effect of bone substitutes on revascularization and the restart of blood supply after sintered bone implantation in comparison with synthetic hydroxyapatite implantation and fresh autogenous bone transplantation (control) in rat parietal bones. Methods for the study included the microvascular corrosion cast method and immunohistochemical techniques were also used. The revascularization of the control group was the same as that for usual wound healing in the observations of the microvascular corrosion casts. The sintered bone implantation group was quite similar to that of the control group. In the synthetic hydroxyapatite group, immature newly-formed blood vessels existed even on the 21st day after implantation and the physiological process of angiogenesis was interrupted. Immunohistochemically, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), which activates angiogenesis, appeared at the early stages of both the control group and the sintered bone implantation group. VEGF reduced parallel with the appearance of the transforming growth factor factor-beta-1 (TGF-beta-1), which obstructs angiogenesis, and the angiogenesis passed gradually into the mature stage. In the hydroxyapatite implantation group, TGF-beta-1 appeared at the early stage of the implants. The appearance of VEGF lagged and it existed around the pores of hydroxyapatite even on the 21st day of the implantation. Proliferation and wandering of endothelial cells continued without any maturing of the vessels.