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Sample records for infiltrating post-ischemic brain

  1. Erythropoietin: Powerful Protection of Ischemic and Post-Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Q.; Cherry, Brandon H.; Scott, Gary F.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Mallet, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury inflicted by stroke and cardiac arrest ranks among the leading causes of death and long-term disability in the United States. The brain consumes large amounts of metabolic substrates and oxygen to sustain its energy requirements. Consequently, the brain is exquisitely sensitive to interruptions in its blood supply, and suffers irreversible damage after 10–15 minutes of severe ischemia. Effective treatments to protect the brain from stroke and cardiac arrest have proven elusive, due to the complexities of the injury cascades ignited by ischemia and reperfusion. Although recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and therapeutic hypothermia have proven efficacious for stroke and cardiac arrest, respectively, these treatments are constrained by narrow therapeutic windows, potentially detrimental side effects and the limited availability of hypothermia equipment. Mounting evidence demonstrates the cytokine hormone erythropoietin (EPO) to be a powerful neuroprotective agent and a potential adjuvant to established therapies. Classically, EPO originating primarily in the kidneys promotes erythrocyte production by suppressing apoptosis of proerythroid progenitors in bone marrow. However, the brain is capable of producing EPO, and EPO’s membrane receptors and signaling components also are expressed in neurons and astrocytes. EPO activates signaling cascades that increase the brain’s resistance to ischemia-reperfusion stress by stabilizing mitochondrial membranes, limiting formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, and suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration. Collectively, these mechanisms preserve functional brain tissue and, thus, improve neurocognitive recovery from brain ischemia. This article reviews the mechanisms mediating EPO-induced brain protection, critiques the clinical utility of exogenous EPO to preserve brain threatened by ischemic stroke and cardiac arrest, and discusses the

  2. Towards a dynamical network view of brain ischemia and reperfusion. Part II: a post-ischemic neuronal state space

    PubMed Central

    DeGracia, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    The general failure of neuroprotectants in clinical trials of ischemic stroke points to the possibility of a fundamental blind spot in the current conception of ischemic brain injury, the “ischemic cascade”. This is the second in a series of four papers whose purpose is to work towards a revision of the concept of brain ischemia by applying network concepts to develop a bistable model of brain ischemia. We here build the bistable network model of brain ischemia. The central concept is that of a post-ischemic state space. Ischemia, as a quantitative perturbation, is envisioned to push the brain through a series of four phenotypes as a function of the amount of ischemia: the homeostatic, preconditioned, delayed neuronal death and necrotic phenotypes. The phenotypes are meta-stable attractors in the landscape of the post-ischemic state space. The sequence of the phenotypes derives from the mutual antagonism between damage mechanisms and stress responses, each conceived as aggregate ensemble variables. The competition between damage mechanisms and stress responses is posited to have the form of a bistability. Application of bistability to brain ischemia is grounded in the incontrovertible fact that post-ischemic neurons face the mutually exclusive decision to either live or die. PMID:21258657

  3. Biodegradable gelatin microspheres enhance the neuroprotective potency of osteopontin via quick and sustained release in the post-ischemic brain.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yinchuan; Kim, In-Yong; Kim, Il-Doo; Lee, Hye-Kyung; Park, Jin-Young; Han, Pyung-Lim; Kim, Kyekyoon Kevin; Choi, Hyungsoo; Lee, Ja-Kyeong

    2014-07-01

    Gelatin microspheres (GMSs) are widely used as drug carriers owing to their excellent biocompatibilities and toxicologically safe degradation products. The drug release profile is easily tailored by controlling the cross-linking density and surface-to-volume ratio, i.e. size, of the GMS. In this study, we employed GMSs which are 25 μm in diameter and cross-linked with 0.03125% glutaraldehyde, to enable rapid initial and a subsequent sustained release. Therapeutic potency of human recombinant osteopontin (rhOPN) with or without encapsulation into GMSs was investigated after administrating them to rat stroke model (Sprague-Dawley; middle cerebral artery occlusion, MCAO). The administration of rhOPN/GMS (100 ng/100 μg) at 1h post-MCAO reduced the mean infarct volume by 81.8% of that of the untreated MCAO control and extended the therapeutic window at least to 12h post-MCAO, demonstrating a markedly enhanced therapeutic potency for the use of OPN in the post-ischemic brain. Scanning electron microscopy micrographs revealed that GMSs maintained the three-dimensional shape for more than 5 days in normal brain but were degraded rapidly in the post-ischemic brain, presumably due to high levels of gelatinase induction. After encapsulation with GMS, the duration of OPN release was markedly extended; from the period of 2 days to 5 days in normal brain, and from 2 days to 4 days in the post-ischemic brain; these encompass the critical period for recovery processes, such as vascularization, and controlling inflammation. Together, these results indicate that GMS-mediated drug delivery has huge potential when it was used in the hyperacute period in the post-ischemic brain. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The protective effect of M40401, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on post-ischemic brain damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Iannone, Michelangelo; Muscoli, Carolina; Palma, Ernesto; Granato, Teresa; Modesti, Andrea; Nisticò, Robert; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), are unable to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury when given in vivo, an effect mainly due to their difficulty to gain access to brain tissues. Here we studied the effect of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetic (M40401) in brain damage subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion injury in Mongolian gerbils. Results In animals undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuropathological and ultrastructural changes were monitored for 1–7 days either in the presence or in the absence of M40401 after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCO). Administration of M40401 (1–40 mg/kg, given i.p. 1 h after BCCO) protected against post-ischemic, ultrastructural and neuropathological changes occurring within the hippocampal CA1 area. The protective effect of M40401 was associated with a significant reduction of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in ischemic brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrate that M40401 provides protective effects when given early after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion of brain tissues and suggest the possible use of such compounds in the treatment of neurological dysfunction subsequent to cerebral flow disturbances. PMID:12809567

  5. [Effect of a new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids on brain metabolism in post-ischemic period].

    PubMed

    Makarova, L M; Prikhod'ko, M A; Pogorelyĭ, V E; Skachilova, S Ia; Mirzoian, R S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprotective properties of the new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids, ethyl -(3-alpha,16-alpha)-eburnamenin-14-carbopxylate of 2-aminopentadionic acid (LHT 1-02) were studied on a model of acute brain ischemia in cats. LHT 1-02 has proved to be more effective than the reference drugs vinpocetin and glycine in preventing the reperfusive damage, which was manifested by decreased postischemic hyperglycemia, activated utilization of oxygen in the brain, and suppressed postischemic metabolic lactate acidosis. Thus, the results of this comparative study show expediency of further investigations of LHT 1 - 02 as a potential neuroprotective drug.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-ischemic blood-brain barrier damage with PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-Fang; Qian, Cheng; An, Yan-Li; Chang, Di; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during ischemia may induce devastating consequences like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation. This study presents a novel strategy for dynamically imaging of BBB damage with PEGylated supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents. The employment of SPIONs as contrast agents made it possible to dynamically image the BBB permeability alterations and ischemic lesions simultaneously with T2-weighted MRI, and the monitoring could last up to 24 h with a single administration of PEGylated SPIONs in vivo. The ability of the PEGylated SPIONs to highlight BBB damage by MRI was demonstrated by the colocalization of PEGylated SPIONs with Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection of SPION-PEG/Gd-DTPA into a mouse. The immunohistochemical staining also confirmed the leakage of SPION-PEG from cerebral vessels into parenchyma. This study provides a novel and convenient route for imaging BBB alteration in the experimental ischemic stroke model.

  7. Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Activation and Ca(2+) Permeable α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Channels in Post-Ischemic Brain Damage: New Therapeutic Opportunities?

    PubMed

    Gerace, Elisabetta; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Moroni, Flavio; Mannaioni, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of laboratories observed that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, administered a few hours after ischemic or traumatic brain injury, may drastically reduce the subsequent neurological damage. It has also been shown that PARP inhibitors, administered for 24 hours to rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), may reduce the number of dying neurons for a long period after surgery, thus suggesting that these agents could reduce the delayed brain damage and the neurological and cognitive impairment (dementia) frequently observed a few months after a stroke. In organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent able to activate PARP, a selective and delayed degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells which was anatomically similar to that observed after a short period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) has been described. Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches showed that MNNG exposure caused an increased expression and function of the calcium permeable α-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) channels in the CA1 but not in the CA3 hippocampal region. PARP inhibitors prevented this increase and reduced CA1 cell death. The AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6- nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione or the selective Ca(2+) permeable AMPA channel blocker 1-Naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM), also reduced the MNNG-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death. Since activation of PARP-1 facilitate the expression of Ca(2+) permeable channels and the subsequent delayed cell death, PARP inhibitors administered a few hours after a stroke may not only reduce the early post-ischemic brain damage but also the late neuronal death frequently occurring after severe stroke.

  8. Pediatric cerebral stroke: susceptibility-weighted imaging may predict post-ischemic malignant edema.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2013-10-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema.

  9. Pediatric Cerebral Stroke: Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging May Predict Post-Ischemic Malignant Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema. PMID:24199819

  10. Post-ischemic treatment of WIB801C, standardized Cordyceps extract, reduces cerebral ischemic injury via inhibition of inflammatory cell migration.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Sunyoung; Cho, Geum-Sil; Ryu, Sangwoo; Kim, Hoon J; Song, Hwa Young; Yune, Tae Y; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2016-06-20

    Anti-inflammatory therapy has been intensively investigated as a potential strategy for treatment of cerebral stroke. However, despite many positive outcomes reported in animal studies, anti-inflammatory treatments have not proven successful in humans as yet. Although immunomodulatory activity and safety of Cordyceps species (Chinese caterpillar fungi) have been proven in clinical trials and traditional Asian prescriptions for inflammatory diseases, its anti-ischemic effect remains elusive. In the present study, therefore, we investigated the potential therapeutic efficacy of WIB801C, the standardized extract of Cordyceps militaris, for treatment of cerebral ischemic stroke. The anti-chemotactic activity of WIB801C was assayed in cultured rat microglia/macrophages. Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to ischemic stroke via either transient (1.5-h tMCAO and subsequent 24-h reperfusion) or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO for 24-h without reperfusion). WIB801C was orally administered twice at 3- and 8-h (50mg/kg each) after the onset of MCAO. Infarct volume, edema, blood brain barrier and white matter damages, neurological deficits, and long-term survival rates were investigated. The infiltration of inflammatory cells into ischemic lesions was assayed by immunostaining. WIB801C significantly decreased migration of cultured microglia/macrophages. This anti-chemotactic activity of WIB-801C was not mediated via adenosine A3 receptors, although cordycepin, the major ingredient of WIB801C, is known as an adenosine receptor agonist. Post-ischemic treatment with WIB801C significantly reduced the infiltration of ED-1-and MPO-positive inflammatory cells into ischemic lesions in tMCAO rats. WIB801C-treated rats exhibited significantly decreased infarct volume and cerebral edema, less white matter and blood-brain barrier damages, and improved neurological deficits. WIB801C also improved survival rates over 34 days after ischemia onset. A significant reduction in

  11. Nefiracetam attenuates post-ischemic nonconvulsive seizures in rats and protects neuronal cell death induced by veratridine and glutamate.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Dave, Jitendra R; Chen, Zhiyong; Cao, Ying; Liao, Zhilin; Tortella, Frank C

    2013-06-13

    Stroke patients are at a high risk of developing post-ischemic seizures and cognitive impairment. Nefiracetam (NEF), a pyrrolidone derivative, has been shown to possess both anti-epileptic and cognitive-enhancing properties. In this study the anti-seizure effects of NEF were evaluated in a rat model of post-ischemic nonconvulsive seizures (NCSs). Its potential mechanisms were investigated in neuronal cell culture assays of neurotoxicity associated with ischemic brain injury and epileptogenesis. In the in vivo study, rats received 24h permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. NEF was administered intravenously either at 15 min post-injury but prior to the first NCS event (30 mg/kg, pre-NCS treatment) or immediately after the first NCS occurred (30 or 60 mg/kg, post-NCS treatment). In the in vitro study, neuronal cell cultures were exposed to veratridine or glutamate and treated with NEF (1-500 nM). The NEF pre-NCS treatment significantly reduced the NCS frequency and duration, whereas the higher NEF dose (60 mg/kg) was required to achieve similar effects when given after NCS occurred. The NEF treatment also dose-dependently (5-500 nM) protected against neuronal cell death induced by veratridine as measured by MTT cell viability assay, but higher doses (250-500 nM) were required against glutamate toxicity. The anti-seizure property of NEF was demonstrated in a clinically relevant rat model of post-ischemic NCS. The preferential effects of NEF against in vitro veratridine toxicity suggest the involvement of its modulation of sodium channel malfunction. Future studies are warranted to study the mechanisms of NEF against ischemic brain injury and post-ischemic seizures. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C; Heth, Jason A; Maher, Cormac O; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D; Freudiger, Christian W; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A

    2015-10-14

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a nondestructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. We show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ = 0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery.

  13. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C.; Heth, Jason A.; Maher, Cormac O.; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a non-destructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. Here we show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ=0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Importantly, quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26468325

  14. Differential Activation of Infiltrating Monocyte-Derived Cells After Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Trahanas, Diane M; Cuda, Carla M; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells, resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent traumatic brain injury (n = 16) or sham injury (n = 14). Brains were harvested at 24 h after injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis were performed, allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury, and the predominant cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte derived (P = 0.01). In addition, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry-based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations.

  15. Differential activation of infiltrating monocyte-derived cells after mild and severe traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Trahanas, Diane M.; Cuda, Carla M.; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Male C57BL/6 mice underwent TBI (n=16) or sham injury (n=14). Brains were harvested at 24 hours post injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis was performed allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury and the predominate cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte-derived (p=0.01). Additionally, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations. PMID:26091024

  16. The role of endoglin in post-ischemic revascularization.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gómez, Elena; Pericacho, Miguel; Ollauri-Ibáñez, Claudia; Bernabéu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, José M

    2017-02-01

    Following arterial occlusion, blood vessels respond by forming a new network of functional capillaries (angiogenesis), by reorganizing preexisting capillaries through the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to generate new arteries (arteriogenesis) and by growing and remodeling preexisting collateral arterioles into physiologically relevant arteries (collateral development). All these processes result in the recovery of organ perfusion. The importance of endoglin in post-occlusion reperfusion is sustained by several observations: (1) endoglin expression is increased in vessels showing active angiogenesis/remodeling; (2) genetic endoglin haploinsufficiency in humans causes deficient angiogenesis; and (3) the reduction of endoglin expression by gene disruption or the administration of endoglin-neutralizing antibodies reduces angiogenesis and revascularization. However, the precise role of endoglin in the several processes associated with revascularization has not been completely elucidated and, in some cases, the function ascribed to endoglin by different authors is controversial. The purpose of this review is to organize in a critical way the information available for the role of endoglin in several phenomena (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and collateral development) associated with post-ischemic revascularization.

  17. Inflammatory infiltrates and natural killer cell presence in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Klöter, I; Roggendorf, W

    1988-02-15

    Immunohistochemical analysis of subpopulations of inflammatory cells in 81 primary and secondary human brain tumors was done. Natural killer (NK) cells, representing non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted, spontaneous cytotoxicity and monocytic cells are virtually absent in infiltrates of gliomas and account only for a minor percentage of inflammatory cells in brain metastases of carcinoma and in craniopharyngeomas. Infiltrates in gliomas consist almost exclusively of T-cells of the suppressor/cytotoxic type whereas infiltrates in carcinoma metastases and craniopharyngeomas contain considerable numbers of T-helper/inducer cells and B-cells. From this the authors conclude (1) that NK cells do not play a major role in tumor rejection, and (2) that the kind of inflammatory reaction does not depend upon the tumor site but more likely on the tumor type. No correlation between tumor differentiation and infiltrate composition is evident.

  18. T lymphocytes infiltration promotes blood-brain barrier injury after experimental intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuan; Liu, Wei; Yuan, Jichao; Zhu, Haitao; Yang, Yang; Wen, Zexian; Chen, Yaxing; Li, Lan; Lin, Jiangkai; Feng, Hua

    2017-09-01

    T lymphocytes migrate into the brain after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and promote cerebral inflammation, thus exacerbating neuronal injury. However, the relationship between of T lymphocytes infiltration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) injury after ICH has not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the spatial-temporal distribution of infiltrating T lymphocytes after ICH in C57BL/6 mice by immunofluorescence and flow cytometry, and the accompanying change rules of BBB permeability were detected by Evans blue dye leakage and tight junction protein expression. Furthermore, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice and T lymphocyte-decreased C57BL/6 mice treated with fingolimod were used to verify the relationship between T lymphocytes infiltration and BBB leakage after ICH. Here, we reported that brain-infiltrating T lymphocytes in the hemorrhagic hemisphere began to accumulate on the first day and peaked on the fifth day after ICH; BBB leakage also at peaked on the fifth day. Moreover, T lymphocyte-deficient nude mice showed minor BBB leakage after ICH compared with C57BL/6 control mice. Similarly, fingolimod treatment can significantly decrease T lymphocyte infiltration and promote BBB integrity compared with a vehicle control. Overall, our results suggested that suppression of T lymphocyte infiltration may be a novel way to improve BBB integrity after ICH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Morinda citrifolia fruit juice prevents ischemic neuronal damage through suppression of the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Satake, Toshiko; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2010-10-01

    Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) is a well-known health drink and has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We have hitherto found the protective effect of Noni juice on brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. In addition, we also recently reported that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance might be important for good prognosis. Here, we focused on the effect of Noni juice on the development of the post-ischemic glucose intolerance as a cerebral protective mechanism. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 L/4 kg of fruit; 100% ONJ). Male ddY mice were given 10% ONJ in drinking water for 7 days. Then, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ingestion of 10% ONJ suppressed the development of neuronal damage after MCAO. Interestingly, glucose intolerance observed on the 1st day after MCAO completely disappeared after 10% ONJ administration. Furthermore, ONJ treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels much further than the control group on the 1st day, while serum adiponectin levels were not affected at all. These results suggest that ONJ could facilitate insulin secretion after ischemic stress and may attenuate the development of glucose intolerance. These mechanisms may contribute to the neuronal protective effect of ONJ against ischemic stress.

  20. Brain tumour and infiltrations dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy combined with 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sâmia F; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a dosimetric investigation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy for brain tumour control. The study was conducted through computational simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and discrete voxel model of a human head, in which a hypothetical brain tumour was incorporated. A boron concentration ratio of 1:5 for healthy-tissue: tumour was considered. Absorbed and biologically weighted dose rates and neutron fluency in the voxel model were evaluated. The absorbed dose rate results were exported to SISCODES software, which generates the isodose surfaces on the brain. Analyses were performed to clarify the relevance of boron concentrations in occult infiltrations far from the target tumour, with boron concentration ratios of 1:1 up to 1:50 for healthy-tissue:infiltrations and healthy-tissue:tumour. The average biologically weighted dose rates at tumour area exceed up to 40 times the surrounding healthy tissue dose rates. In addition, the biologically weighted dose rates from boron have the main contribution at the infiltrations, especially far from primary tumour. In conclusion, BNCT combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy is an alternative technique for brain tumour treatment because it intensifies dose deposition at the tumour and at infiltrations, sparing healthy brain tissue.

  1. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Monocyte Infiltration in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E. L. A.; Schreibelt, G.; Dopp, E.; van der Pol, S. M. A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Nicolay, K.; Dijkstra, C. D.; de Vries, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive…

  2. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Monocyte Infiltration in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E. L. A.; Schreibelt, G.; Dopp, E.; van der Pol, S. M. A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Nicolay, K.; Dijkstra, C. D.; de Vries, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive…

  3. Metastasis Infiltration: An Investigation of the Postoperative Brain-Tumor Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Raore, Bethwel; Schniederjan, Matthew; Prabhu, Roshan; Brat, Daniel J.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate brain infiltration of metastatic tumor cells past the main tumor resection margin to assess the biological basis for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of the tumor resection cavity and visualized resection edge or clinical target volume. Methods and Materials: Resection margin tissue was obtained after gross total resection of a small group of metastatic lesions from a variety of primary sources. The tissue at the border of the tumor and brain tissue was carefully oriented and processed to evaluate the presence of tumor cells within brain tissue and their distance from the resection margin. Results: Microscopic assessment of the radially oriented tissue samples showed no tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue. Among the positive findings were reactive astrocytosis observed on the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor resection bed margin. Conclusions: The lack of evidence of metastatic tumor cell infiltration into surrounding brain suggests the need to target only a narrow depth of the resection cavity margin to minimize normal tissue injury and prevent treatment size-dependent stereotactic radiosurgery complications.

  4. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

  5. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  6. Patterns of Brain Infiltration And Secondary Structure Formation in Supratentorial Ependymal Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Lehman, Norman L.

    2009-01-01

    Ependymomas are generally considered to be non-infiltrative tumors that have discrete borders with adjacent brain tissue. Most occur in the posterior fossa or spinal cord. Supratentorial ependymal tumors arise near the ventricular system, or more rarely, within the cerebral white matter or cortex. Presented here are six supratentorial ependymal tumors, three that primarily involve the cerebral cortex and three that extend into the cortex from the underlying white matter. By microscopy, all of these tumors locally infiltrate the cortex and/or white matter along small blood vessels and axonal fiber tracts. They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds. The three cortical ependymal tumors show a spectrum of features ranging from conventional and clear cell ependymoma-like patterns to more angiocentric glioma-like histology. Since ependymal tumors generally have a significantly better prognosis than other infiltrating gliomas, recognition of their capacity to infiltrate adjacent cortex and white matter is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, or infiltrating glioma, not otherwise specified. Cortical ependymomas and angiocentric gliomas may comprise a group of locally infiltrative ependymal tumors that are associated with an excellent prognosis following gross total surgical resection. PMID:18716554

  7. Infiltrating monocytes promote brain inflammation and exacerbate neuronal damage after status epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Varvel, Nicholas H.; Neher, Jonas J.; Bosch, Andrea; Wang, Wenyi; Ransohoff, Richard M.; Miller, Richard J.; Dingledine, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    The generalized seizures of status epilepticus (SE) trigger a series of molecular and cellular events that produce cognitive deficits and can culminate in the development of epilepsy. Known early events include opening of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and astrocytosis accompanied by activation of brain microglia. Whereas circulating monocytes do not infiltrate the healthy CNS, monocytes can enter the brain in response to injury and contribute to the immune response. We examined the cellular components of innate immune inflammation in the days following SE by discriminating microglia vs. brain-infiltrating monocytes. Chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2+) monocytes invade the hippocampus between 1 and 3 d after SE. In contrast, only an occasional CD3+ T lymphocyte was encountered 3 d after SE. The initial cellular sources of the chemokine CCL2, a ligand for CCR2, included perivascular macrophages and microglia. The induction of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β was greater in FACS-isolated microglia than in brain-invading monocytes. However, Ccr2 knockout mice displayed greatly reduced monocyte recruitment into brain and reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokine IL-1β in hippocampus after SE, which was explained by higher expression of the cytokine in circulating and brain monocytes in wild-type mice. Importantly, preventing monocyte recruitment accelerated weight regain, reduced BBB degradation, and attenuated neuronal damage. Our findings identify brain-infiltrating monocytes as a myeloid-cell subclass that contributes to neuroinflammation and morbidity after SE. Inhibiting brain invasion of CCR2+ monocytes could represent a viable method for alleviating the deleterious consequences of SE. PMID:27601660

  8. Detection of Human Brain Cancer Infiltration ex vivo and in vivo Using Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography*

    PubMed Central

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M.; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-01-01

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from non-cancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (e.g. speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from non-cancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grades II-IV brain cancer and 5 patients with non-cancer brain pathologies. Based on volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high-grade and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with non-cancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm-1 for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110-215 frames per second, or 1.2-2.4 seconds for an 8-16 mm3 tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus non-cancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from non-cancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  9. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  10. [Protective action of 21-aminosteroids in post-ischemic shock (splanchnic artery occlusion). Experimental model].

    PubMed

    Mangione, S; Spoto, M R; D'Alessandro, N

    1992-10-01

    In anesthetized Wistar female rats a post-ischemic shock have been induced by splanchnic artery occlusion (S.A.O.). In these condition all animals died at 90 min., past release of occlusion and splanchnic reperfusion. 100% of pretreated rats with 21-Aminosteroids (U74389F) at doses of 1.5 mg.kg-1 survive over 3-6 hours, and 50% over 12 hours. Moreover, TNF alpha in these animals decrease significantly (p < 0.05). These results shown that 21-Aminosteroids can cause protective activity on lipoperoxidative damage in post-ischemic shock.

  11. Cerebral endothelial expression of Robo1 affects brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during mouse stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Gangaraju, Sandhya; Sultan, Khadeejah; Whitehead, Shawn N; Nilchi, Ladan; Slinn, Jacqueline; Li, Xuesheng; Hou, Sheng T

    2013-06-01

    Increased brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) occurs early after stroke and is important in eliciting brain inflammatory response during stroke recovery. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of PMN entry, we investigated the expression and requirement for Slit1, a chemorepulsive guidance cue, and its cognate receptor, Robo1, in a long-term recovery mouse model of cerebral ischemia. The expression levels of Robo1 were significantly decreased bilaterally at 24h following reperfusion. Robo1 expression levels remained suppressed in the ipsilateral cortex until 28d post MCAO-reperfusion, while the levels of Robo1 in the contralateral cortex recovered to the level of sham-operated mouse by 7d reperfusion. Circulating PMNs express high levels of Slit1, but not Robo1. Influx of PMNs into the ischemic core area occurred early (24h) after cerebral ischemia, when endothelial Robo1 expression was significantly reduced in the ischemic brain, indicating that Robo1 may form a repulsive barrier to PMN entry into the brain parenchyma. Indeed, blocking Slit1 on PMNs in a transwell migration assay in combination with an antibody blocking of Robo1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) significantly increased PMN transmigration during oxygen glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemia. Collectively, in the normal brain, the presence of Slit1 on PMNs, and Robo1 on cerebral endothelial cells, generated a repulsive force to prevent the infiltration of PMNs into the brain. During stroke recovery, a transient reduction in Robo1 expression on the cerebral endothelial cells allowed the uncontrolled infiltration of Slit1-expressing PMNs into the brain causing inflammatory reactions.

  12. Effect of cyclophosphamide on leukocytic infiltration in the brain of MRL/lpr mice.

    PubMed

    Farrell, M; Sakić, B; Szechtman, H; Denburg, J A

    1997-01-01

    Neuropsychiatric manifestations are a poorly understood and potentially life-threatening complication of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). MRL/lpr mice spontaneously develop a lupus-like syndrome which is similar to the human disease in many respects, including behavioural abnormalities. Our previous findings indicated that the age at which infiltration of immune cells into the choroid plexus is first observed coincides with the appearance of behavioural dysfunction in MRL/lpr mice. This present study quantified leukocyte infiltration in relation to prolonged administration of cyclophosphamide (CY), a treatment effective in preventing some behavioural deficits. Compared to MRL +/+ controls, saline-treated MRL/lpr mice had significantly more CD45-positive cells (leukocytes) and CD45R-positive (B) cells in the choroid plexus and in the brain parenchyma. A six week course of CY (100 mg/kg i.p.) significantly reduced the infiltration of CD45, but not of CD45R-positive cells into the choroid plexus of the MRL/lpr substrain. In addition, the presence of leukocytes correlated positively with measures on one behavioural test (floating in the forced swim test) but not on another test (novel object test). These findings suggest that CY treatment has a differential effect on the infiltration of leukocyte subtypes and strengthen the hypothesis that some abnormal behaviour in MRL/lpr mice may be related to the presence of immunocompetent cells in the brain.

  13. Patterns of brain infiltration and secondary structure formation in supratentorial ependymal tumors.

    PubMed

    Lehman, Norman L

    2008-09-01

    Ependymomas are generally considered to be noninfiltrative tumors that have discrete borders with adjacent brain tissue. Most occur in the posterior fossa or spinal cord. Supratentorial ependymal tumors arise near the ventricular system or, more rarely, within the cerebral white matter or cortex. Presented here are 6 supratentorial ependymal tumors, 3 that primarily involve the cerebral cortex and 3 that extend into the cortex from the underlying white matter. By microscopy, all of these tumors locally infiltrate the cortex and/or white matter along small blood vessels and axonal fiber tracts. They also form other glioma secondary structures including perineuronal tumor cell satellitosis and subpial tumor cell mounds. The 3 cortical ependymal tumors show a spectrum of features ranging from conventional and clear-cell ependymoma-like patterns to more angiocentric glioma-like histology. Because ependymal tumors generally have a significantly better prognosis than other infiltrating gliomas, recognition of their capacity to infiltrate adjacent cortex and white matter is important to prevent the misdiagnosis of oligodendroglioma, astrocytoma, or infiltrating glioma, not otherwise specified. Cortical ependymomas and angiocentric gliomas may comprise a group of locally infiltrative ependymal tumors that are associated with an excellent prognosis after gross total surgical resection.

  14. Histological quantification of brain tissue inflammatory cell infiltration after focal cerebral infarction: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Russek, Natanya S; Jensen, Matthew B

    2014-03-01

    Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, and current treatments to limit tissue injury and improve recovery are limited. Cerebral infarction is accompanied by intense brain tissue inflammation involving many inflammatory cell types that may cause both negative and positive effects on outcomes. Many potential neuroprotective and neurorestorative treatments may affect, and be affected by, this inflammatory cell infiltration, so that accurate quantification of this tissue response is needed. We performed a systematic review of histological methods to quantify brain tissue inflammatory cell infiltration after cerebral infarction. We found reports of multiple techniques to quantify different inflammatory cell types. We found no direct comparison studies and conclude that more research is needed to optimize the assessment of this important stroke outcome.

  15. Energy metabolism of cerebral mitochondria during aging, ischemia and post-ischemic recovery assessed by functional proteomics of enzymes.

    PubMed

    Villa, Roberto Federico; Gorini, Antonella; Ferrari, Federica; Hoyer, Siegfried

    2013-12-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability, but most of the therapeutic approaches failed in clinical trials. The energy metabolism alterations, due to marked ATP decline, are strongly related to stroke and, at present, their physiopathological roles are not fully understood. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of aging on ischemia-induced changes in energy mitochondrial transduction and the consequences on overall brain energy metabolism in an in vivo experimental model of complete cerebral ischemia of 15min duration and during post-ischemic recirculation after 1, 24, 48, 72 and 96h, in 1year "adult" and 2year-old "aged" rats. The maximum rate (Vmax) of citrate synthase, malate dehydrogenase, succinate dehydrogenase for Krebs' cycle; NADH-cytochrome c reductase and cytochrome oxidase for electron transfer chain (ETC) were assayed in non-synaptic "free" mitochondria and in two populations of intra-synaptic mitochondria, i.e., "light" and "heavy" mitochondria. The catalytic activities of enzymes markedly differ according to: (a) mitochondrial type (non-synaptic, intra-synaptic), (b) age, (c) acute effects of ischemia and (d) post-ischemic recirculation at different times. Enzyme activities changes are injury maturation events and strictly reflect the bioenergetic state of the tissue in each specific experimental condition respect to the energy demand, as shown by the comparative evaluation of the energy-linked metabolites and substrates content. Remarkably, recovery of mitochondrial function was more difficult for intra-synaptic mitochondria in "aged" rats, but enzyme activities of energy metabolism tended to normalize in all mitochondrial populations after 96h of recirculation. This observation is relevant for Therapy, indicating that mitochondrial enzymes may be important metabolic factors for the responsiveness of ischemic penumbra towards the restore of cerebral functions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  17. Post-ischemic salubrinal treatment results in a neuroprotective role in global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Anuncibay-Soto, Berta; Pérez-Rodríguez, Diego; Santos-Galdiano, María; Font, Enrique; Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Fernández-López, Arsenio

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the neuroprotective effect of treatment with salubrinal 1 and 24 h following 15 min of ischemia in a two-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if salubrinal, an enhancer of the unfolded protein response, reduces the neural damage modulating the inflammatory response. The study was performed in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas as well as in the cerebral cortex whose different vulnerability to ischemic damage is widely described. Characterization of proteins was made by western blot, immunofluorescence, and ELISA, whereas mRNA levels were measured by Quantitative PCR. The salubrinal treatment decreased the cell demise in CA1 at 7 days as well as the levels of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) in CA1 and cerebral cortex at 48 h and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules. However, increases in tumor necrosis factor α and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inflammatory markers were observed at 24 h. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were not modified by salubrinal treatment in CA1 and cerebral cortex. We describe a neuroprotective effect of the post-ischemic treatment with salubrinal, measured as a decrease both in CA1 cell demise and in the blood-brain barrier impairment. We hypothesize that the ability of salubrinal to counteract the CA1 cell demise is because of a reduced ability of this structure to elicit unfolded protein response which would account for its greater ischemic vulnerability. Data of both treated and non-treated animals suggest that the neurovascular unit present a structure-dependent response to ischemia and a different course time for CA1/cerebral cortex compared with CA3. Finally, our study reveals a high responsiveness of endothelial cells to salubrinal in contrast to the limited responsiveness of astrocytes. The alleviation of ER stress by enhancing UPR with salubrinal treatment reduces the ischemic damage. This effect

  18. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  19. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations.

    PubMed

    Brandão, S F; Campos, T P R

    2015-07-01

    This article proposes a combination of californium-252 ((252)Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: (252)Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0-5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the (252)Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis.

  20. Pattern recognition of MRSI data shows regions of glioma growth that agree with DTI markers of brain tumor infiltration.

    PubMed

    Wright, Alan J; Fellows, G; Byrnes, T J; Opstad, K S; McIntyre, D J O; Griffiths, J R; Bell, B A; Clark, C A; Barrick, T R; Howe, F A

    2009-12-01

    Gliomas are the most common primary brain tumors and the majority are highly malignant, with one of the worst prognoses for patients. Gliomas are characterized by invasive growth into normal brain tissue that makes complete surgical resection and accurate radiotherapy planning extremely difficult. We have performed independent component analysis of magnetic resonance spectroscopy imaging data from human gliomas to segment brain tissue into tumor core, tumor infiltration, and normal brain, with confirmation by diffusion tensor imaging analysis. Our data are consistent with previous studies that compared anomalies in isotropic and anisotropic diffusion images to determine regions of potential glioma infiltration. We show that coefficients of independent components can be used to create colored images for easy visual identification of regions of infiltrative tumor growth. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  1. The Time of Maximum Post-Ischemic Hyperperfusion Indicates Infarct Growth Following Transient Experimental Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Susanne; Artmann, Judith; Luft, Andreas R.; Buxton, Richard B.; Weller, Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF) can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1) maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4) maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function. PMID:23741488

  2. Superior isolation of antigen-specific brain infiltrating T cells using manual homogenization technique.

    PubMed

    Cumba Garcia, Luz M; Huseby Kelcher, April M; Malo, Courtney S; Johnson, Aaron J

    2016-12-01

    Effective recovery of activated brain infiltrating lymphocytes is critical for investigations involving murine neurological disease models. To optimize lymphocyte recovery, we compared two isolation methods using brains harvested from seven-day Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus (TMEV) and TMEV-OVA infected mice. Brains were processed using either a manual dounce based approach or enzymatic digestion using type IV collagenase. The resulting cell suspensions from these two techniques were transferred to a percoll gradient, centrifuged, and lymphocytes were recovered. Flow cytometric analysis of CD45(hi) cells showed greater percentage of CD44(hi)CD62(lo) activated lymphocytes and CD19+ B cells using the dounce method. In addition, we achieved a 3-fold greater recovery of activated virus-specific CD8 T cells specific for the immunodominant D(b):VP2121-130 and engineered K(b):OVA257-264 epitopes through manual dounce homogenization approach as compared to collagenase digest. A greater percentage of viable cells was also achieved through dounce homogenization. Therefore, we conclude that manual homogenization is a superior approach to isolate activated T cells from the mouse brain. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Macrophages are comprised of resident brain microglia not infiltrating peripheral monocytes acutely after neonatal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Sheryl P.; Ji, Shaoquan; Dingman, Andra; Lee, Sarah Y.; Derugin, Nikita; Wendland, Michael F.; Vexler, Zinaida S.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages can be both beneficial and detrimental after CNS injury. We previously showed rapid accumulation of macrophages in injured immature brain acutely after ischemia-reperfusion. To determine whether these macrophages are microglia or invading monocytes, we subjected post-natal day 7 (P7) rats to transient 3 h middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and used flow cytometry at 24 and 48 h post-reperfusion to distinguish invading monocytes (CD45high/CD11b+) from microglia (CD45low/medium/CD11b+). Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined in plasma, injured and contralateral tissue 1–24 h post-reperfusion using ELISA-based cytokine multiplex assays. At 24 h, the number of CD45+/CD11b+ cells increased 3-fold in injured compared to uninjured brain tissue and CD45 expression shifted from low to medium with less than 10% of the population expressing CD45high. MCA occlusion induced rapid and transient asynchronous increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-β and chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant protein 1 (CINC-1) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), first in systemic circulation and then in injured brain. Double immunofluorescence with cell-type specific markers showed that multiple cell types in the injured brain produce MCP-1. Our findings show that despite profound increases in MCP-1 in injured regions, monocyte infiltration is low and the majority of macrophages in acutely injured regions are microglia. PMID:17212701

  4. Multiple sclerosis: Brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cells persist as clonal expansions in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood

    PubMed Central

    Skulina, Christian; Schmidt, Stephan; Dornmair, Klaus; Babbe, Holger; Roers, Axel; Rajewsky, Klaus; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Goebels, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed the T cell receptor repertoire in three separate compartments (brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood) of two multiple sclerosis patients who initially had diagnostic brain biopsies to clarify their unusual clinical presentation but were subsequently confirmed to have typical multiple sclerosis. One of the brain biopsy specimens had been previously investigated by microdissection and single-cell PCR to determine the clonal composition of brain-infiltrating T cells at the single-cell level. Using complementarity-determining region 3 spectratyping, we identified several identical, expanded CD8+ (but not CD4+) T cell clones in all three compartments. Some of the expanded CD8+ T cells also occurred in sorted CD38+ blood cells, suggesting that they were activated. Strikingly, some of the brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cell clones persisted for >5 years in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood and may thus contribute to the progression of the disease. PMID:14983026

  5. Chronic Valproate Treatment Enhances Post-ischemic Angiogenesis and Promotes Functional Recovery in a Rat Model of Ischemic Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifei; Tsai, Li-Kai; Munasinghe, Jeeva; Leng, Yan; Fessler, Emily Bame; Chibane, Fairouz; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Enhanced angiogenesis facilitates neurovascular remodeling processes and promotes brain functional recovery after stroke. Previous studies from our laboratory demonstrated that valproate (VPA), a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor, protects against experimental brain ischemia. The present study investigated whether VPA could enhance angiogenesis and promote long-term functional recovery after ischemic stroke. Methods Male rats underwent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 60 minutes followed by reperfusion for up to 14 days. Assessed parameters were: locomotor function via rotarod test; infarct volume via T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging; microvessel density via immunohistochemistry; relative cerebral blood flow (rCBF) via perfusion-weighted imaging; protein levels of pro-angiogenic factors via Western blotting; and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 activities via gelatin zymography. Results Post-ischemic VPA treatment robustly improved the rotarod performance of MCAO rats on days 7 and 14 after ischemia, and significantly reduced brain infarction on day 14. Concurrently, VPA markedly enhanced microvessel density, facilitated endothelial cell proliferation, and increased rCBF in the ipsilateral cortex. The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and MMP-2/9, were upregulated after MCAO and significantly potentiated by VPA in the ipsilateral cortex. Acetylation of histone-H3 and H4 was robustly increased by chronic VPA treatment. The beneficial effects of VPA on rotarod performance and microvessel density were abolished by HIF-1α inhibition. Conclusions Chronic VPA treatment enhances angiogenesis and promotes functional recovery after brain ischemia. These effects may involve HDAC inhibition and upregulation of HIF-1α and its downstream pro-angiogenic factors VEGF and MMP-2/9. PMID:22811460

  6. Post-ischemic administration of progesterone reduces caspase-3 activation and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Espinosa-García, Claudia; Vigueras-Villaseñor, Rosa María; Rojas-Castañeda, Julio César; Aguilar-Hernández, Alejandra; Monfil, Tomas; Cervantes, Miguel; Moralí, Gabriela

    2013-08-29

    Delayed death of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion may be mediated, in part, by caspase-3 activation resulting in DNA fragmentation. Progesterone (P4) is known to exert neuroprotective effects in several models of brain injury. This study was designed to assess the effect of P4 on caspase-3 levels and activation, and DNA fragmentation in the hippocampus following global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to global ischemia by the four-vessel occlusion model. P4 (8 mg/kg), or its vehicle were administered i.v. at 15 min, 2, 6, 24, 48 and 70 h of reperfusion. Remaining pyramidal neurons were assesed by the Nissl staining technique, caspase-3 levels and activation by immunohistochemistry and an in situ activity assay, and DNA fragmentation by the TUNEL method. Post-ischemic progesterone treatment significantly reduced the ischemia/reperfusion-induced increase in caspase-3 levels and activation at 72 h, and DNA fragmentation and CA1 neuronal loss at 7 days. Present results suggest the reduction of caspase-3 levels/activation, and DNA fragmentation, as a part of the neuroprotective effects of progesterone against global cerebral ischemia/reperfusion injury. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Whole-brain spectroscopic MRI biomarkers identify infiltrating margins in glioblastoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Cordova, James S.; Shu, Hui-Kuo G.; Liang, Zhongxing; Gurbani, Saumya S.; Cooper, Lee A. D.; Holder, Chad A.; Olson, Jeffrey J.; Kairdolf, Brad; Schreibmann, Eduard; Neill, Stewart G.; Hadjipanayis, Constantinos G.; Shim, Hyunsuk

    2016-01-01

    Background The standard of care for glioblastoma (GBM) is maximal safe resection followed by radiation therapy with chemotherapy. Currently, contrast-enhanced MRI is used to define primary treatment volumes for surgery and radiation therapy. However, enhancement does not identify the tumor entirely, resulting in limited local control. Proton spectroscopic MRI (sMRI), a method reporting endogenous metabolism, may better define the tumor margin. Here, we develop a whole-brain sMRI pipeline and validate sMRI metrics with quantitative measures of tumor infiltration. Methods Whole-brain sMRI metabolite maps were coregistered with surgical planning MRI and imported into a neuronavigation system to guide tissue sampling in GBM patients receiving 5-aminolevulinic acid fluorescence-guided surgery. Samples were collected from regions with metabolic abnormalities in a biopsy-like fashion before bulk resection. Tissue fluorescence was measured ex vivo using a hand-held spectrometer. Tissue samples were immunostained for Sox2 and analyzed to quantify the density of staining cells using a novel digital pathology image analysis tool. Correlations among sMRI markers, Sox2 density, and ex vivo fluorescence were evaluated. Results Spectroscopic MRI biomarkers exhibit significant correlations with Sox2-positive cell density and ex vivo fluorescence. The choline to N-acetylaspartate ratio showed significant associations with each quantitative marker (Pearson's ρ = 0.82, P < .001 and ρ = 0.36, P < .0001, respectively). Clinically, sMRI metabolic abnormalities predated contrast enhancement at sites of tumor recurrence and exhibited an inverse relationship with progression-free survival. Conclusions As it identifies tumor infiltration and regions at high risk for recurrence, sMRI could complement conventional MRI to improve local control in GBM patients. PMID:26984746

  8. Over-Expression of DSCR1 Protects against Post-Ischemic Neuronal Injury

    PubMed Central

    Corlett, Alicia; Broughton, Brad R. S.; Kim, Hyun Ah; Thundyil, John; Drummond, Grant R.; Arumugam, Thiruma V.; Pritchard, Melanie A.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose The Down syndrome candidate region 1 (DSCR1) gene is located on human chromosome 21 and its protein is over-expressed in brains of Down syndrome individuals. DSCR1 can modulate the activity of calcineurin, a phosphatase abundant in the brain, but its influence on stroke outcome is not clear. We compared stroke outcome in wildtype (WT) and transgenic (DSCR1-TG) mice which over-express isoform 1 of human DSCR1. Methods Transient cerebral ischemia was produced by occlusion of the middle cerebral artery for 0.5 h. After 23.5 h reperfusion, we assessed neurological impairment, brain infarct and edema volume, leukocyte infiltration and markers of inflammation. Intrinsic resistance to apoptosis following glucose deprivation was also assessed in primary cultures of WT and DSCR1-TG neurons. Results In contrast to WT, DSCR1-TG mice had an improved neurological deficit score, greater grip strength, attenuated infarct volume and brain swelling, and lacked hippocampal lesions after stroke. Expression of mouse DSCR1-1, but not DSCR1-4, mRNA and protein was increased by ischemia in both WT and DSCR1-TG. Brain calcineurin activity was increased to a similar degree after ischemia in each genotype. DSCR1-TG mice had fewer infiltrating neutrophils and activated microglia compared with WT, in association with an attenuated upregulation of several pro-inflammatory genes. Neurons from DSCR1-TG mice were more resistant than WT neurons to apoptotic cell death following 24 h of glucose deprivation. Conclusions Over-expression of DSCR1 in mice improves outcome following stroke. Mechanisms underlying this protection may involve calcineurin-independent, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects mediated by DSCR1 in neurons. PMID:23144708

  9. Direct Evidence that Myocardial Insulin Resistance following Myocardial Ischemia Contributes to Post-Ischemic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Feng; Zhao, Kun; Li, Jia; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Yuan; Liu, Chengfeng; Yang, Weidong; Gao, Chao; Li, Jun; Zhang, Haifeng; Li, Yan; Cui, Qin; Wang, Haichang; Tao, Ling; Wang, Jing; Quon, Michael J; Gao, Feng

    2015-01-01

    A close link between heart failure (HF) and systemic insulin resistance has been well documented, whereas myocardial insulin resistance and its association with HF are inadequately investigated. This study aims to determine the role of myocardial insulin resistance in ischemic HF and its underlying mechanisms. Male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to myocardial infarction (MI) developed progressive left ventricular dilation with dysfunction and HF at 4 wk post-MI. Of note, myocardial insulin sensitivity was decreased as early as 1 wk after MI, which was accompanied by increased production of myocardial TNF-α. Overexpression of TNF-α in heart mimicked impaired insulin signaling and cardiac dysfunction leading to HF observed after MI. Treatment of rats with a specific TNF-α inhibitor improved myocardial insulin signaling post-MI. Insulin treatment given immediately following MI suppressed myocardial TNF-α production and improved cardiac insulin sensitivity and opposed cardiac dysfunction/remodeling. Moreover, tamoxifen-induced cardiomyocyte-specific insulin receptor knockout mice exhibited aggravated post-ischemic ventricular remodeling and dysfunction compared with controls. In conclusion, MI induces myocardial insulin resistance (without systemic insulin resistance) mediated partly by ischemia-induced myocardial TNF-α overproduction and promotes the development of HF. Our findings underscore the direct and essential role of myocardial insulin signaling in protection against post-ischemic HF. PMID:26659007

  10. Influence of age and vitamin E on post-ischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Araujo, Magali; Borges, Sergio Murilo Mello; de Tolosa, Erasmo Magalhães C; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2004-05-01

    The aging process causes progressive deterioration in kidney structure and function. Aberrant generation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in both age-related and ischemia-related tissue injury. Vitamin E (VE), one of the most powerful and effective exogenous antioxidants, prevents lipid peroxidation and protects against the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age and VE on post-ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). Young adult, middle-aged and aged male Wistar rats were maintained on three different 30-day diets: Normal, VE absent and VE supplemented. On day 30, urinary protein and serum cholesterol and VE were measured. On day 31, rats were subjected to 60' clamping of the left renal artery plus right nephrectomy. Inulin clearance (InCl) was performed 48 h after renal ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the cortex of normal and 48-h post-ischemic kidneys. Urinary protein and serum cholesterol were higher in aged rats than in other rats. With aging, InCl decreased progressively. Vitamin E deficiency aggravated ARF. In middle-aged and aged rats, VE supplementation protected against ARF. In the absence of VE, MDA increased with age. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARF becomes more severe with age and that ischemia/reperfusion injury is exacerbated when antioxidant-scavenging ability of the kidney is impaired by VE deficiency. Supplementation with VE is essential for protecting aging kidneys against ischemic ARF.

  11. T cells infiltrate the brain in murine and human transmissible spongiform encephalopathies.

    PubMed

    Lewicki, Hanna; Tishon, Antoinette; Homann, Dirk; Mazarguil, Honoré; Laval, Françoise; Asensio, Valerie C; Campbell, Iain L; DeArmond, Stephen; Coon, Bryan; Teng, Chao; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Oldstone, Michael B A

    2003-03-01

    CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes infiltrate the parenchyma of mouse brains several weeks after intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or oral inoculation with the Chandler strain of mouse scrapie, a pattern not seen with inoculation of prion protein knockout (PrP(-/-)) mice. Associated with this cellular infiltration are expression of MHC class I and II molecules and elevation in levels of the T-cell chemokines, especially macrophage inflammatory protein 1beta, IFN-gamma-inducible protein 10, and RANTES. T cells were also found in the central nervous system (CNS) in five of six patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. T cells harvested from brains and spleens of scrapie-infected mice were analyzed using a newly identified mouse PrP (mPrP) peptide bearing the canonical binding motifs to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I H-2(b) or H-2(d) molecules, appropriate MHC class I tetramers made to include these peptides, and CD4 and CD8 T cells stimulated with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the whole mPrP. Minimal to modest K(b) tetramer binding of mPrP amino acids (aa) 2 to 9, aa 152 to 160, and aa 232 to 241 was observed, but such tetramer-binding lymphocytes as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes incubated with the full repertoire of mPrP peptides failed to synthesize intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-gamma) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) cytokines and were unable to lyse PrP(-/-) embryo fibroblasts or macrophages coated with (51)Cr-labeled mPrP peptide. These results suggest that the expression of PrP(sc) in the CNS is associated with release of chemokines and, as shown previously, cytokines that attract and retain PrP-activated T cells and, quite likely, bystander activated T cells that have migrated from the periphery into the CNS. However, these CD4 and CD8 T cells are defective in such an effector function(s) as IFN-gamma and TNF-alpha expression or release or lytic activity.

  12. T Cells Infiltrate the Brain in Murine and Human Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies†

    PubMed Central

    Lewicki, Hanna; Tishon, Antoinette; Homann, Dirk; Mazarguil, Honoré; Laval, Françoise; Asensio, Valerie C.; Campbell, Iain L.; DeArmond, Stephen; Coon, Bryan; Teng, Chao; Gairin, Jean Edouard; Oldstone, Michael B. A.

    2003-01-01

    CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes infiltrate the parenchyma of mouse brains several weeks after intracerebral, intraperitoneal, or oral inoculation with the Chandler strain of mouse scrapie, a pattern not seen with inoculation of prion protein knockout (PrP−/−) mice. Associated with this cellular infiltration are expression of MHC class I and II molecules and elevation in levels of the T-cell chemokines, especially macrophage inflammatory protein 1β, IFN-γ-inducible protein 10, and RANTES. T cells were also found in the central nervous system (CNS) in five of six patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. T cells harvested from brains and spleens of scrapie-infected mice were analyzed using a newly identified mouse PrP (mPrP) peptide bearing the canonical binding motifs to major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I H-2b or H-2d molecules, appropriate MHC class I tetramers made to include these peptides, and CD4 and CD8 T cells stimulated with 15-mer overlapping peptides covering the whole mPrP. Minimal to modest Kb tetramer binding of mPrP amino acids (aa) 2 to 9, aa 152 to 160, and aa 232 to 241 was observed, but such tetramer-binding lymphocytes as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocytes incubated with the full repertoire of mPrP peptides failed to synthesize intracellular gamma interferon (IFN-γ) or tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) cytokines and were unable to lyse PrP−/− embryo fibroblasts or macrophages coated with 51Cr-labeled mPrP peptide. These results suggest that the expression of PrPsc in the CNS is associated with release of chemokines and, as shown previously, cytokines that attract and retain PrP-activated T cells and, quite likely, bystander activated T cells that have migrated from the periphery into the CNS. However, these CD4 and CD8 T cells are defective in such an effector function(s) as IFN-γ and TNF-α expression or release or lytic activity. PMID:12610154

  13. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

    2014-07-15

    Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-β1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-β1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH.

  14. Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of CD36 improves post-ischemic functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, Jeevan; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra C; Sung, Miranda M; Fung, David; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R B

    2013-10-01

    Although pre-clinical evidence has suggested that partial inhibition of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and subsequent switch to greater glucose oxidation for ATP production can prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury, controversy about this approach persists. For example, mice with germline deletion of the FA transporter CD36, exhibited either impaired or unchanged post-ischemic functional recovery despite a 40-60% reduction in FAO rates. Because there are limitations to cardiac studies utilizing whole body CD36 knockout (totalCD36KO) mice, we have now generated an inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 KO (icCD36KO) mouse to better address the role of cardiomyocyte CD36 and its regulation of FAO and post-ischemic functional recovery. Four to six weeks following CD36 ablation, hearts from icCD36KO mice had significantly decreased FA uptake compared to controls, which was paralleled by significant reductions in intramyocardial triacylglycerol content. Analysis of cardiac energy metabolism using ex vivo working heart perfusions showed that reduced FAO rates were compensated by enhanced glucose oxidation in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. In contrast to the totalCD36KO mice, hearts from icCD36KO mice exhibited significantly improved functional recovery following ischemia/reperfusion (18min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 40min of aerobic reperfusion). This improved recovery was associated with lower calculated proton production prior to and following ischemia compared to controls. Moreover, the amount of ATP generated relative to cardiac work was significantly lower in the hearts from icCD36KO mice compared to controls, indicating significantly increased cardiac efficiency in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. These data provide genetic evidence that reduced FAO as a result of diminished CD36-mediated FA uptake improves post-ischemic cardiac efficiency and functional recovery. As such, targeting cardiomyocyte FA uptake and FAO via inhibition of CD36 in the

  15. Brain Infiltration of Immune Cells in CASPR2–Antibody Associated Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ÜNVERENGİL, Gökçen; VANLI YAVUZ, Ebru Nur; TÜZÜN, Erdem; ERDAĞ, Ece; KABADAYI, Sevil; BİLGİÇ, Bilge; BAYKAN, Betül

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antibodies directed against neuronal surface antigens have recently been identified in patients with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) of unknown cause and mesial TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), thereby emphasizing the role of autoimmunity in TLE. Antibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are prevalent in MTLE-HS patients. We aimed to find out whether anti-neuronal autoimmunity might be involved in CASPR2 antibody-related MTLE-HS. Methods Surgically resected medial temporal lobe specimens of seropositive and seronegative MTLE-HS patients were examined with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining using specific immune cell markers. Results Two of 5 CASPR2 antibody-positive MTLE-HS patients showed polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells infiltrating the subarachnoidal region. One of these patients also showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the parenchyma of the temporal lobe cortex. Subarachnoidal and parenchymal infiltrates contained CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells. None of the 13 seronegative MTLE-HS patients displayed cellular infiltrates in their brain samples, and all MTLE-HS patients showed marked neuronal cell loss but no immune cell infiltration in their hippocampi. Conclusion Our results show that CASPR2 antibody-associated MTLE-HS can present with central nervous system inflammation; thus, this subtype of MTLE-HS might have an autoimmune origin. PMID:28360810

  16. Improving Reconstituted HDL Composition for Efficient Post-Ischemic Reduction of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brulhart-Meynet, Marie-Claude; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Brinck, Jonas; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Aurelien; Galan, Katia; Pelli, Graziano; Pedretti, Sarah; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Lecour, Sandrine; James, Richard W.; Frias, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New evidence shows that high density lipoproteins (HDL) have protective effects beyond their role in reverse cholesterol transport. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) offer an attractive means of clinically exploiting these novel effects including cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). However, basic rHDL composition is limited to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and phospholipids; addition of bioactive compound may enhance its beneficial effects. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rHDL in post-ischemic model, and to analyze the potential impact of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in rHDL formulations. Methods and Results The impact of HDL on IRI was investigated using complementary in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro IRI models. Acute post-ischemic treatment with native HDL significantly reduced infarct size and cell death in the ex vivo, isolated heart (Langendorff) model and the in vivo model (-48%, p<0.01). Treatment with rHDL of basic formulation (apoAI + phospholipids) had a non-significant impact on cell death in vitro and on the infarct size ex vivo and in vivo. In contrast, rHDL containing S1P had a highly significant, protective influence ex vivo, and in vivo (-50%, p<0.01). This impact was comparable with the effects observed with native HDL. Pro-survival signaling proteins, Akt, STAT3 and ERK1/2 were similarly activated by HDL and rHDL containing S1P both in vitro (isolated cardiomyocytes) and in vivo. Conclusion HDL afford protection against IRI in a clinically relevant model (post-ischemia). rHDL is significantly protective if supplemented with S1P. The protective impact of HDL appears to target directly the cardiomyocyte. PMID:25781943

  17. Beneficial effects of quinidine on post-ischemic contractile failure of isolated rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Liu, J X; Tanonaka, K; Sanbe, A; Yamamoto, K; Takeo, S

    1993-10-01

    The present study was undertaken to determine whether quinidine may improve ischemia/reperfusion-induced functional and metabolic injury of isolated rat hearts. Thirty-five-min ischemia and the subsequent 60-min reperfusion resulted in no post-ischemic force generation, an increase in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (about 1500%) and a sustained rise in perfusion pressure (136 +/- 15% of initial). This was associated with an increase in the release of creatine kinase and ATP metabolites from the reperfused heart, a decrease in tissue high-energy phosphates, changes in tissue sodium, calcium, potassium and magnesium contents, and a reduction in the triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC)-stained area, an indicator of infarction. Hearts were treated with 3-100 microM quinidine 3 min before ischemia. Quinidine at concentrations of 10 microM or greater resulted in post-ischemic contractile recovery in a concentration-dependent manner (61 +/- 8 to 95 +/- 8% of initial). Ischemia/reperfusion-induced metabolic and histologic alterations were also suppressed by treatment with quinidine in a concentration-dependent manner. The results suggest that quinidine has a cardioprotective effect in ischemic/reperfused hearts. Because transmembrane fluxes of ions, substrates, and enzymes were suppressed by treatment with quinidine, protection of cardiac cell membrane function and/or integrity against ischemia/reperfusion-induced ionic imbalance, presumably sodium imbalance, across the sarcolemma is a possible mechanism by which quinidine may act. Slightly higher levels of ATP were detected in the treated hearts at 10 and 15 min, but not at 35 min of ischemia. Such preservation of high-energy phosphates might also be beneficial for protecting myocardial cells against ischemic damage.

  18. THE PERIVASCULAR POOL OF AQUAPORIN-4 MEDIATES THE EFFECT OF OSMOTHERAPY IN POST-ISCHEMIC CEREBRAL EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalov, Emil; Chen, Chih-Hung; Froehner, Stanley C.; Adams, Marvin E.; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bhardwaj, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Objective Osmotherapy with hypertonic saline (HS) ameliorates cerebral edema associated with experimental ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that HS exerts its anti-edema effect by promoting an efflux of water from brain via the perivascular aquaporin-4 (AQP4) pool. We utilized mice with targeted disruption of the gene encoding α-syntrophin (α-Syn−/−) that lack the perivascular AQP4 pool but retain the endothelial pool of this protein. Design Prospective laboratory animal study. Setting Research laboratory in a university teaching hospital. Measurements and Main Results Halothane-anesthetized adult male wildtype (WT) C57B/6 and α-Syn−/− mice were subjected to 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and treated with either a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.9% saline (NS) or 3% HS (1.5 mL/Kg/hr) for 48 hr. In the first series of experiments (n = 59), brain water content analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of WT mice was attenuated after HS (79.9 ± 0.5%mean ± SEM) but not after NS (82.3 ± 1.0%) treatment. In contrast in α-Syn−/− mice, HS had no effect on the postischemic edema (HS: 80.3 ± 0.7% NS: 80.3 ± 0.4%). In the second series of experiments (n = 31), treatment with HS attenuated post-ischemic BBB disruption at 48 hr in WT mice but not in α-Syn−/− mice; α-Syn deletion alone had no effect on BBB integrity. In the third series of experiments (n=34), α-Syn−/− mice treated with either HS or NS had smaller infarct volume as compared with their WT counterparts. Conclusions These data demonstrate that: 1) osmotherapy with HS exerts anti-edema effects via the perivascular pool of AQP4 2) HS attenuates BBB disruption depending on the presence of perivascular AQP4, and 3) deletion of the perivascular pool of AQP4 alleviates tissue damage following stroke, in mice subjected to osmotherapy as well as in non-treated mice. PMID:18679106

  19. Transgenic mice expressing the human heat shock protein 70 have improved post-ischemic myocardial recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Plumier, J C; Ross, B M; Currie, R W; Angelidis, C E; Kazlaris, H; Kollias, G; Pagoulatos, G N

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment induces expression of several heat shock proteins and subsequent post-ischemic myocardial protection. Correlations exist between the degree of stress used to induce the heat shock proteins, the amount of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the level of myocardial protection. The inducible HSP70 has also been shown to be protective in transfected myogenic cells. Here we examined the role of human inducible HSP70 in transgenic mouse hearts. Overexpression of the human HSP70 does not appear to affect normal protein synthesis or the stress response in transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic mice. After 30 min of ischemia, upon reperfusion, transgenic hearts versus nontransgenic hearts showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force (0.35 +/- 0.08 versus 0.16 +/- 0.05 g, respectively, P < 0.05), rate of contraction, and rate of relaxation. Creatine kinase, an indicator of cellular injury, was released at a high level (67.7 +/- 23.0 U/ml) upon reperfusion from nontransgenic hearts, but not transgenic hearts (1.6 +/- 0.8 U/ml). We conclude that high level constitutive expression of the human inducible HSP70 plays a direct role in the protection of the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Images PMID:7706492

  20. Targeting acid sphingomyelinase reduces cardiac ceramide accumulation in the post-ischemic heart

    PubMed Central

    Klevstig, M; Ståhlman, M; Lundqvist, A; Scharin Täng, M; Fogelstrand, P; Adiels, M; Andersson, L; Kolesnick, R; Jeppsson, A; Borén, J; Levin, MC

    2016-01-01

    Ceramide accumulation is known to accompany acute myocardial ischemia, but its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic heart disease is unclear. In this study, we aimed to determine how ceramides accumulate in the ischemic heart and to determine if cardiac function following ischemia can be improved by reducing ceramide accumulation. To investigate the association between ceramide accumulation and heart function, we analyzed myocardial left ventricle biopsies from subjects with chronic ischemia and found that ceramide levels were higher in biopsies from subjects with reduced heart function. Ceramides are produced by either de novo synthesis or hydrolysis of sphingomyelin catalyzed by acid and/or neutral sphingomyelinase. We used cultured HL-1 cardiomyocytes to investigate these pathways and showed that acid sphingomyelinase activity rather than neutral sphingomyelinase activity or de novo sphingolipid synthesis was important for hypoxia-induced ceramide accumulation. We also used mice with a partial deficiency in acid sphingomyelinase (Smpd1+/- mice) to investigate if limiting ceramide accumulation under ischemic conditions would have a beneficial effect on heart function and survival. Although we showed that cardiac ceramide accumulation was reduced in Smpd1+/- mice 24 h after an induced myocardial infarction, this reduction was not accompanied by an improvement in heart function or survival. Our findings show that accumulation of cardiac ceramides in the post-ischemic heart is mediated by acid sphingomyelinase. However, targeting ceramide accumulation in the ischemic heart may not be a beneficial treatment strategy. PMID:26930027

  1. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, J.R.; Gobbel, G.T.; Chou, D.

    1995-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal {sup 125}I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of {alpha}-defluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity {sup 125}I sources. Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. {alpha}-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm{sup 2} were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation injury may be possible by manipulating the response of normal cells to injury. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Anti-Inflammation of Natural Components from Medicinal Plants at Low Concentrations in Brain via Inhibiting Neutrophil Infiltration after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiannan; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Rong; Jiao, Honglei; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lan; Cui, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation after stroke consists of activation of microglia/astrocytes in situ and infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes, resulting in brain damage and neurological deficits. Mounting data demonstrated that most natural components from medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory effects after ischemic stroke through inhibiting activation of resident microglia/astrocytes within ischemic area. However, it is speculated that this classical activity cannot account for the anti-inflammatory function of these natural components in the cerebral parenchyma, where they are detected at very low concentrations due to their poor membrane permeability and slight leakage of BBB. Could these drugs exert anti-inflammatory effects peripherally without being delivered across the BBB? Factually, ameliorating blood-borne neutrophil recruitment in peripheral circulatory system has been proved to reduce ischemic damage and improve outcomes. Thus, it is concluded that if drugs could achieve effective concentrations in the cerebral parenchyma, they can function via crippling resident microglia/astrocytes activation and inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, whereas the latter will be dominating when these drugs localize in the brain at a low concentration. In this review, the availability of some natural components crossing the BBB in stroke will be discussed, and how these drugs lead to improvements in stroke through inhibition of neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and transmigration will be illustrated. PMID:27688603

  3. Non-Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists, Hinokiresinols Reduce Infiltration of Microglia/Macrophages into Ischemic Brain Lesions in Rat via Modulating 2-Arachidonolyglycerol-Induced Migration and Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M. A.; Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Prather, Paul L.; Kwon, Jin Sun; Gajulapati, Veeraswamy; Choi, Yongseok; Kim, Chunsook; Pahk, Kisoo; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that therapeutic strategies to modulate the post-ischemic inflammatory responses are promising approaches to improve stroke outcome. Although the endocannabinoid system has been emerged as an endogenous therapeutic target to regulate inflammation after stroke insult, the downstream mechanisms and their potentials for therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Here we identified trans- and cis-hinokiresinols as novel non-selective antagonists for two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2. The Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing and Boyden chamber migration assays using primary microglial cultures revealed that both hinokiresinols significantly inhibited an endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. Hinokiresinols modulated 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced mitochondrial bioenergetics in microglia as evidenced by inhibition of ATP turnover and reduction in respiratory capacity, thereby resulting in impaired migration activity. In rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5-h) followed by 24-h reperfusion, post-ischemic treatment with hinokiresinols (2 and 7-h after the onset of ischemia, 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced cerebral infarct and infiltration of ED1-positive microglial/macrophage cells into cerebral ischemic lesions in vivo. Co-administration of exogenous 2-AG (1 mg/kg, i.v., single dose at 2 h after starting MCAO) abolished the protective effect of trans-hinokiresionol. These results suggest that hinokiresinols may serve as stroke treatment by targeting the endocannabinoid system. Alteration of mitochondrial bioenergetics and consequent inhibition of inflammatory cells migration may be a novel mechanism underlying anti-ischemic effects conferred by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26517721

  4. Infiltration of invariant natural killer T cells occur and accelerate brain infarction in permanent ischemic stroke in mice.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhen-Kui; Xue, Li; Wang, Tao; Wang, Xiu-Jie; Su, Zhi-Qiang

    2016-10-28

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a unique subset of T cells that have been implicated in inflammation, atopy, autoimmunity, infections, and cancer. Although iNKT cells have been extensively studied over the past decade, its role in the pathogenesis of ischemic brain injury is still largely unknown. In our study, we determined whether iNKT cells infiltration occur in a mouse model of permanent cerebral ischemia. C57BL6/J male mice were treated with either alpha-galactosylceramide (α-GalCer) or vehicle control before undergoing permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO). α-GalCer, a glycolipid antigen, specifically activates iNKT cells by a CD1d-restricted mechanism. Using flow cytometry, 10,000 leukocytes (CD45 high cells) from the ischemic hemisphere and peripheral blood respectively were analyzed to determine the number of NK1.1(+)CD3(+) cells at 3, 12, 24 and 48h post-pMCAO. Cerebral infarct size, brain edema and morphological characteristics were measured at the stipulated time points by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, weighing, and H&E staining. The levels of IFN-γ and TNF-α in brain tissue and serum were assessed by immunohistochemistry and ELISA respectively. We found that the number of iNKT cells started increasing from 12h (PB sample) and 24h (ischemic hemisphere sample) respectively in the vehicle treated group. iNKT cells infiltration occurred at an earlier time-point compared in the α-GalCer treated group (T=3H vs T=12H in PB sample; T=12H vs T=24H in ischemic hemisphere sample). Brain water content at 12h and 24h was significantly higher in pMCAO+α-GalCer mice compared to pMCAO+vehicle mice which was in turn higher than mice that underwent sham surgery. Aggravated morphological abnormalities in HE-stained neurons and significantly increased neurons with pyknotic nuclei and cavitation in the ischemic region were observed at 24h in the pMCAO+α-GalCer and pMCAO+vehicle groups. Cerebral infarct volume

  5. Unique Transcriptional Profile of Sustained Ligand-Activated Preconditioning in Pre- and Post-Ischemic Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Ashton, Kevin J.; Tupicoff, Amanda; Williams-Pritchard, Grant; Kiessling, Can J.; See Hoe, Louise E.; Headrick, John P.; Peart, Jason N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Opioidergic SLP (sustained ligand-activated preconditioning) induced by 3–5 days of opioid receptor (OR) agonism induces persistent protection against ischemia-reperfusion (I-R) injury in young and aged hearts, and is mechanistically distinct from conventional preconditioning responses. We thus applied unbiased gene-array interrogation to identify molecular effects of SLP in pre- and post-ischemic myocardium. Methodology/Principal Findings Male C57Bl/6 mice were implanted with 75 mg morphine or placebo pellets for 5 days. Resultant SLP did not modify cardiac function, and markedly reduced dysfunction and injury in perfused hearts subjected to 25 min ischemia/45 min reperfusion. Microarray analysis identified 14 up- and 86 down-regulated genes in normoxic hearts from SLP mice (≥1.3-fold change, FDR≤5%). Induced genes encoded sarcomeric/contractile proteins (Myh7, Mybpc3,Myom2,Des), natriuretic peptides (Nppa,Nppb) and stress-signaling elements (Csda,Ptgds). Highly repressed genes primarily encoded chemokines (Ccl2,Ccl4,Ccl7,Ccl9,Ccl13,Ccl3l3,Cxcl3), cytokines (Il1b,Il6,Tnf) and other proteins involved in inflammation/immunity (C3,Cd74,Cd83, Cd86,Hla-dbq1,Hla-drb1,Saa1,Selp,Serpina3), together with endoplasmic stress proteins (known: Dnajb1,Herpud1,Socs3; putative: Il6, Gadd45g,Rcan1) and transcriptional controllers (Egr2,Egr3, Fos,Hmox1,Nfkbid). Biological themes modified thus related to inflammation/immunity, together with cellular/cardiovascular movement and development. SLP also modified the transcriptional response to I-R (46 genes uniquely altered post-ischemia), which may influence later infarction/remodeling. This included up-regulated determinants of cellular resistance to oxidant (Mgst3,Gstm1,Gstm2) and other forms of stress (Xirp1,Ankrd1,Clu), and repression of stress-response genes (Hspa1a,Hspd1,Hsp90aa,Hsph1,Serpinh1) and Txnip. Conclusions Protection via SLP is associated with transcriptional repression of inflammation/immunity, up

  6. Low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy suppresses inflammasome-mediated brain damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae In; Lee, Sae-Won; Kim, Nam Gyun; Park, Kyoung-Jun; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Yong-Il; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2017-02-06

    Use of photostimulation including low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy has broadened greatly in recent years because it is compact, portable, and easy to use. Here, the effects of photostimulation by LED (610 nm) therapy on ischemic brain damage was investigated in mice in which treatment started after a stroke in a clinically relevant setting. The mice underwent LED therapy (20 min) twice a day for 3 days, commencing at 4 hours post-ischemia. LED therapy group generated a significantly smaller infarct size and improvements in neurological function based on neurologic test score. LED therapy profoundly reduced neuroinflammatory responses including neutrophil infiltration and microglia activation in the ischemic cortex. LED therapy also decreased cell death and attenuated the NLRP3 inflammasome, in accordance with down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the ischemic brain. Moreover, the mice with post-ischemic LED therapy showed suppressed TLR-2 levels, MAPK signaling and NF-kB activation. These findings suggest that by suppressing the inflammasome, LED therapy can attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and tissue damage following ischemic stroke. Therapeutic interventions targeting the inflammasome via photostimulation with LED may be a novel approach to ameliorate brain injury following ischemic stroke. Effect of post-ischemic low-level light emitting diode therapy (LED-T) on infarct reduction was mediated by inflammasome suppression.

  7. Neutrophil infiltration increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the ischemic brain after occlusion/reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Justicia, Carles; Panés, Julián; Solé, Sònia; Cervera, Alvaro; Deulofeu, Ramon; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2003-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity increases in the brain during the first day after focal ischemia and might be involved in the pathogenesis of tissue damage. We previously showed MMP-9 in the extracellular space of brain parenchyma along with neutrophil recruitment after ischemia. In the present study, we tested whether neutrophils were a direct source of enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain. Neutrophil infiltration was prevented either by injecting an antibody against ICAM-1, which abrogates neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial vessel wall, or by inducing neutropenia. One-hour intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion was induced, and studies were performed at 24 hours. Circulating neutrophils expressed 95-kDa MMP-9 and dimers, and infiltrated neutrophils stained positive for MMP-9. The expression of MMP-9 (mainly 95-kDa proform and dimers and, to a lesser extent, 88-kDa form) increased in brain after ischemia/reperfusion. Treatments preventing neutrophil infiltration failed to preclude the ischemia-induced increase in 88-kDa MMP-9 form and gelatinase activity in neurons and blood vessels. However, these treatments prevented the major increase in 95-kDa MMP-9 form and dimers. We conclude that neutrophil infiltration highly contributes to enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain by releasing MMP-9 proform, which might participate in the tissular inflammatory reaction.

  8. Inhibition of junctional adhesion molecule-A/LFA interaction attenuates leukocyte trafficking and inflammation in brain ischemia/reperfusion injury

    PubMed Central

    Sladojevic, Nikola; Stamatovic, Svetlana M.; Keep, Richard F.; Grailer, Jamison J.; Sarma, J. Vidya; Ward, Peter A.; Andjelkovic, Anuska V.

    2014-01-01

    Proinflammatory mediators trigger intensive postischemic inflammatory remodeling of the blood–brain barrier (BBB) including extensive brain endothelial cell surface and junctional complex changes. Junctional adhesion molecule-A (JAM-A) is a component of the brain endothelial junctional complex with dual roles: paracellular route occlusion and regulating leukocyte docking and migration. The current study examined the contribution of JAM-A to the regulation of leukocyte (neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages) infiltration and the postischemic inflammatory response in brain ischemia/reperfusion (I/R injury). Brain I/R injury was induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 30 min in mice followed by reperfusion for 0–5 days, during which time JAM-A antagonist peptide (JAM-Ap) was administered. The peptide, which inhibits JAM-A/leukocyte interaction by blocking the interaction of the C2 domain of JAM-A with LFA on neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages, attenuated I/R-induced neutrophil and monocyte infiltration into brain parenchyma. Consequently, mice treated with JAM-A peptide during reperfusion had reduced expression (~3-fold) of inflammatory mediators in the ischemic penumbra, reduced infarct size (94 ± 39 vs 211 ± 38 mm3) and significantly improved neurological score. BBB hyperpermeability was also reduced. Collectively, these results indicate that JAM-A has a prominent role in regulating leukocyte infiltration after brain I/R injury and could be a new target in limiting post-ischemic inflammation. PMID:24657919

  9. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with multimodal multiscale optical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulon, Fanny; Metais, Camille; Jamme, Frederic; Zanello, Marc; Varlet, Pascale; Devaux, Bertrand; Refregiers, Matthieu; Abi Haidar, Darine

    2017-02-01

    Brain tumor surgeries are facing major challenges to improve patients' quality of life. The extent of resection while preserving surrounding eloquent brain areas is necessary to equilibrate the onco-functional. A tool able to increase the accuracy of tissue analysis and to deliver an immediate diagnostic on tumor, could drastically improve actual surgeries and patient survival rates. To achieve such performances a complete optical study, ranging from ultraviolet to infrared, of biopsies has been started by our group. Four different contrasts were used: 1) spectral analysis covering the DUV to IR range, 2) two photon fluorescence lifetime imaging and one photon time domain measurement, 3) second harmonic generation imaging and 4) fluorescence imaging using DUV to IR, one and two photon excitation. All these measurements were done on the endogenous fluorescence of tissues to avoid any bias and further clinical complication due to the introduction of external markers. The different modalities are then crossed to build a matrix of criteria to discriminate tumorous tissues. The results of multimodal optical analysis on human biopsies were compared to the gold standard histopathology.

  10. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  11. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS).

    PubMed

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J; Barth, Rolf F; Pannullo, Susan C

    2016-03-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry, a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distribution with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p < 0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations have established that there was enhanced influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells. They provide strong support for further investigation of altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels in GBMs as possible therapeutic targets.

  12. T-cell brain infiltration and immature antigen-presenting cells in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease-like cerebral amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, M T; Merlini, M; Späni, C; Gericke, C; Schweizer, N; Enzmann, G; Engelhardt, B; Kulic, L; Suter, T; Nitsch, R M

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral beta-amyloidosis, one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), elicits a well-characterised, microglia-mediated local innate immune response. In contrast, it is not clear whether cells of the adaptive immune system, in particular T-cells, react to cerebral amyloidosis in AD. Even though parenchymal T-cells have been described in post-mortem brains of AD patients, it is not known whether infiltrating T-cells are specifically recruited to the extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid, and whether they are locally activated into proliferating, effector cells upon interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). To address these issues we have analysed by confocal microscopy and flow-cytometry the localisation and activation status of both T-cells and APCs in transgenic (tg) mice models of AD-like cerebral amyloidosis. Increased numbers of infiltrating T-cells were found in amyloid-burdened brain regions of tg mice, with concomitant up-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, compared to non-tg littermates. The infiltrating T-cells in tg brains did not co-localise with amyloid plaques, produced less interferon-gamma than those in controls and did not proliferate locally. Bona-fide dendritic cells were virtually absent from the brain parenchyma of both non-tg and tg mice, and APCs from tg brains showed an immature phenotype, with accumulation of MHC-II in intracellular compartments. These results indicate that cerebral amyloidosis promotes T-cell infiltration but interferes with local antigen presentation and T-cell activation. The inability of the brain immune surveillance to orchestrate a protective immune response to amyloid-beta peptide might contribute to the accumulation of amyloid in the progression of the disease.

  13. In Silico Neuro-Oncology: Brownian Motion-Based Mathematical Treatment as a Potential Platform for Modeling the Infiltration of Glioma Cells into Normal Brain Tissue.

    PubMed

    Antonopoulos, Markos; Stamatakos, Georgios

    2015-01-01

    Intensive glioma tumor infiltration into the surrounding normal brain tissues is one of the most critical causes of glioma treatment failure. To quantitatively understand and mathematically simulate this phenomenon, several diffusion-based mathematical models have appeared in the literature. The majority of them ignore the anisotropic character of diffusion of glioma cells since availability of pertinent truly exploitable tomographic imaging data is limited. Aiming at enriching the anisotropy-enhanced glioma model weaponry so as to increase the potential of exploiting available tomographic imaging data, we propose a Brownian motion-based mathematical analysis that could serve as the basis for a simulation model estimating the infiltration of glioblastoma cells into the surrounding brain tissue. The analysis is based on clinical observations and exploits diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data. Numerical simulations and suggestions for further elaboration are provided.

  14. Platelet aggregation but not activation and degranulation during the acute post-ischemic reperfusion phase in livers with no underlying disease

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Rowan F.; Stevens, Katarzyna M.; Colarusso, Pina; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelets and P-selectin (CD62P) play an unequivocal role in the pathology of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Inhibition or knock-out of P-selectin or immunodepletion of platelets results in amelioration of post-ischemic inflammation, reduced hepatocellular damage, and improved survival. However, P-selectin expression on platelets and endothelial cells, which concurs with platelet activation, has never been clearly demonstrated in I/R-subjected livers. Aims To determine whether platelets become activated and degranulate in the acute phase of liver I/R and whether the platelets interact with neutrophils. Methods Hepatic I/R was induced in male C57BL/6J mice (N = 12) using 37.5-min ischemia time. Platelets, endothelial cells, and neutrophils were fluorescently labeled by systemic administration of non-blocking antibodies. Cell kinetics were monitored by intravital spinning disk confocal microscopy during 90 min of reperfusion. Image analysis and quantification was performed with dedicated software. Results Platelets adhered to sinusoids more extensively in post-ischemic livers compared to livers not subjected to I/R and formed aggregates, which occurred directly after ischemia. Platelets and endothelial cells did not express P-selectin in post-ischemic livers. There was no interaction between platelets and neutrophils. Conclusions Platelets aggregate but do not become activated and do not degranulate in post-ischemic livers. There is no platelet-neutrophil interplay during the early reperfusion phase in a moderate model of hepatic I/R injury. The mechanisms underlying the biological effects of platelets and P-selectin in this setting warrant further investigation. Relevance for patients I/R in surgical liver patients may compromise outcome due to post-ischemic oxidative stress and sterile inflammation. Both processes are mediated in part by platelets. Understanding platelet function during I/R is key to developing effective interventions for I

  15. Influence of selective brain cooling on the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and monocytes/macrophages in rats suffering from global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of selective brain cooling on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi) during global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). Global ischemia of the brain was produced by four-vessel occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 240 min. Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: group I had no ischemia and reperfusion; groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to ischemia for 30 min at 37 degrees C and reperfusion for 240 min at 37, 35, 32, and 28 degrees C, respectively. Cerebral tissue samples were taken for pathological examination of the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi and to detect ICAM-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi increased more markedly in group II than in group I (p < 0.01), suggesting that hypothermia evidently inhibited ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in the damaged cerebral tissue. In addition, significant differences were also found between group III and group II (p < 0.05) and among groups IV, V, and II (p < 0.01). These results suggest that I/R injury induces ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in SD rats and that selective brain cooling, and especially moderate hypothermia (28-32 degrees C), may provide better cerebral protection by markedly inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA while decreasing the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi in the brain.

  16. Modeling early-onset post-ischemic seizures in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiping; Wang, Justin; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the aged population, with post-stroke seizures being a poor prognostic factor. The pathological processes underlying post-stroke seizures are not well understood and studies of these seizures in aging/aged animals remain scarce. Therefore, our primary objective was to model post-stroke seizures in aging mice (C57 black strain, 16-20 months-old), with a focus on early-onset, convulsive seizures that occur within 24-hours of brain ischemia. We utilized a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and examined seizure activity and brain injury using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic monitoring and histological assessments. Aging mice exhibited vigorous convulsive seizures within hours of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. These seizures manifested with jumping, rapid running, barrel-rolling and/or falling all in the absence of hippocampal-cortical electrographic discharges. Seizure development was closely associated with severe brain injury and acute mortality. Anticonvulsive treatments after seizure occurrence offered temporary seizure control but failed to improve animal survival. A separate cohort of adult mice (6-8 months-old) exhibited analogous early-onset convulsive seizures following the middle cerebral artery occlusion but had better survival outcomes following anticonvulsive treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that early-onset convulsive seizures are a result of severe brain ischemia in aging animals.

  17. Gait analysis in a pre- and post-ischemic stroke biomedical pig model.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Kylee Jo; Platt, Simon R; Holmes, Shannon P; Dove, C Robert; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kent, Marc; Stice, Steven L; Hill, William D; Hess, David C; West, Franklin D

    2014-02-10

    Severity of neural injury including stroke in human patients, as well as recovery from injury, can be assessed through changes in gait patterns of affected individuals. Similar quantification of motor function deficits has been measured in rodent animal models of such injuries. However, due to differences in fundamental structure of human and rodent brains, there is a need to develop a large animal model to facilitate treatment development for neurological conditions. Porcine brain structure is similar to that of humans, and therefore the pig may make a more clinically relevant animal model. The current study was undertaken to determine key gait characteristics in normal biomedical miniature pigs and dynamic changes that occur post-neural injury in a porcine middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ischemic stroke model. Yucatan miniature pigs were trained to walk through a semi-circular track and were recorded with high speed cameras to detect changes in key gait parameters. Analysis of normal pigs showed overall symmetry in hindlimb swing and stance times, forelimb stance time, along with step length, step velocity, and maximum hoof height on both fore and hindlimbs. A subset of pigs were again recorded at 7, 5 and 3 days prior to MCA occlusion and then at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days following surgery. MRI analysis showed that MCA occlusion resulted in significant infarction. Gait analysis indicated that stroke resulted in notable asymmetries in both temporal and spatial variables. Pigs exhibited lower maximum front hoof height on the paretic side, as well as shorter swing time and longer stance time on the paretic hindlimb. These results support that gait analysis of stroke injury is a highly sensitive detection method for changes in gait parameters in pig.

  18. The TNFα-Transgenic Rat: Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity, Cognition, Function, and Post-Ischemic Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, L. Creed; Kryscio, Richard J.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), is a key regulator of neuroinflammation linked to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. The present study used transgenic rats that overexpress a murine TNFα gene, under the control of its own promoter, to investigate the impact of chronically elevated TNFα on hippocampal synaptic function. Neuronal viability and cognitive recovery in TNFα Tg rats were also determined following an ischemic insult arising from reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Basal CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, recorded in acute brain slices, was not significantly different between eight-week-old TNFα Tg rats and non-Tg rats. In contrast, slices from TNFα Tg rats showed significantly greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to 100 Hz stimulation, suggesting that synaptic networks may be hyperexcitable in the context of elevated TNFα. Cognitive and motor deficits (assessed on the Morris Water Maze and Rotarod task, respectively) were present in TNFα Tg rats in the absence of significant differences in the loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons. TNF overexpression exacerbated MCAO-dependent deficits on the rotarod, but ameliorated cortical neuron loss in response to MCAO. PMID:27144978

  19. Brain leukocyte infiltration initiated by peripheral inflammation or experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis occurs through pathways connected to the CSF-filled compartments of the forebrain and midbrain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been considered as a preferential pathway of circulation for immune cells during neuroimmune surveillance. In order to evaluate the involvement of CSF-filled spaces in the pathogenesis of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model of multiple sclerosis, we performed a time-course analysis of immune cell association with the CSF-containing ventricles, velae, and cisterns in two active models of this disease. Methods Guinea-pig spinal cord homogenate-induced EAE in rat and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-induced EAE in mouse were used. Leukocyte distribution and phenotypes were investigated by immunohistochemistry in serial sections of brain areas of interest, as well as in CSF withdrawn from rat. Immune cells associated with the choroid plexuses were quantified. Results Freund’s adjuvant-induced peripheral inflammation in the absence of brain antigen led to a subtle but definite increase in the number of myeloid cells in the extraventricular CSF spaces. In both rats and mice, EAE was characterized by a sustained and initial infiltration of lymphocytes and monocytes within forebrain/midbrain fluid-filled compartments such as the velum interpositum and ambient cisterns, and certain basal cisterns. Leukocytes further infiltrated periventricular and pericisternal parenchymal areas, along perivascular spaces or following a downward CSF-to-tissue gradient. Cells quantified in CSF sampled from rats included lymphocytes and neutrophils. The distinctive pattern of cell distribution suggests that both the choroid plexus and the vessels lying in the velae and cisterns are gates for early leukocyte entry in the central nervous system. B-cell infiltration observed in the mouse model was restricted to CSF-filled extraventricular compartments. Conclusion These results identified distinctive velae and cisterns of the forebrain and midbrain as preferential sites of immune cell homing following peripheral and early central

  20. Development of early post-ischemic injury in the liver as evaluated by a double staining method combining an intravital dye exclusion test and alizarin red S.

    PubMed

    Jennische, E

    1985-11-01

    The early development of post-ischemic cell injury was investigated in rat livers. Rats were subjected to 90 minutes of liver ischemia, followed by periods of re-perfusion from 10 minutes to 3 hours. The ischemia-induced injury was quantified by using a double staining method. An intravital dye exclusion test with Evans blue was combined with a histochemical stain for calcium, Alizarin red S (ARS). It was found that the markers identified two populations of injured cells, positive for Evans blue (EBA) and ARS respectively. The number of injured cells increased successively during the re-perfusion period. The overlapping between the two populations was small during the early post-ischemic phase but increased with increasing re-perfusion time. Treatment with ruthenium red, a blocker of mitochondrial calcium uptake, during the re-perfusion period significantly reduced the number of ARS-positive cells, while the number of EBA-positive cells was not affected. It is suggested that the two markers used identify cell populations, which are injured by different mechanisms operating in the post-ischemic phase. These mechanisms may or may not be dependent on calcium.

  1. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury.

  2. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  3. Temporal and spatial discordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression and lymphocyte tumor infiltration between paired primary lesions and brain metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, A. S.; Aubry, M. C.; Moser, J. C.; Harrington, S. M.; Dronca, R. S.; Park, S. S.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases. Experimental design Paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases were identified and assessed for PD-L1 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Lesions with 5% or greater PD-L1 expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics and the χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. Results We analyzed 146 paired lesions from 73 cases. There was disagreement of tumor cell PD-L1 expression in 10 cases (14%, κ = 0.71), and disagreement of TIL PD-L1 expression in 19 cases (26%, κ = 0.38). Most paired lesions with discordant tumor cell expression of PD-L1 were obtained 6 or more months apart. When specimens were categorized using a proposed tumor microenvironment categorization scheme based on PD-L1 expression and TILs, there were significant changes in the classifications because many of the brain metastases lacked either PD-L1 expression, tumor lymphocyte infiltration or both even when they were present in the primary lung cancer specimens (P = 0.009). Conclusions We identified that there are significant differences between the tumor microenvironment of paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases. When physicians decide to treat patients with lung cancer with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, they must do so in the context of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27502709

  4. Probing the infiltrating character of brain tumors: inhibition of RhoA/ROK-mediated CD44 cell surface shedding from glioma cells by the green tea catechin EGCg.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Moumdjian, Robert; Moghrabi, Albert; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Glioma cell-surface binding to hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, is regulated through a complex membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)/CD44/caveolin interaction that takes place at the leading edges of invading cells. In the present study, intracellular transduction pathways required for the HA-mediated recognition by infiltrating glioma cells in brain was investigated. We show that the overexpression of the GTPase RhoA up-regulated MT1-MMP expression and triggered CD44 shedding from the U-87 glioma cell surface. This potential implication in cerebral metastatic processes was also observed in cells overexpressing the full-length recombinant MT1-MMP, while the overexpression of a cytoplasmic domain truncated from of MT1-MMP failed to do so. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP transduces intracellular signaling leading to RhoA-mediated CD44 shedding. Treatment of glioma cells with the Rho-kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y27632, or with EGCg, a green tea catechin with anti-MMP and anti-angiogenesis activities, antagonized both RhoA- and MT1-MMP-induced CD44 shedding. Conversely, overexpression of recombinant ROK stimulated CD44 release. Taken together, our results suggest that RhoA/ROK intracellular signaling regulates MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 recognition of HA. These molecular processes may partly explain the diffuse brain-infiltrating character of glioma cells within the surrounding parenchyma and thus be a target for new approaches to anti-tumor therapy.

  5. Sheng-Mai-San is protective against post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction in rats through its opening of the mitochondrial KATP channels.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ningyuan; Minatoguchi, Shinya; Arai, Masazumi; Uno, Yoshihiro; Nishida, Yoshio; Hashimoto, Kazuaki; Xue-Hai, Chen; Fukuda, Kazunori; Akao, Seigo; Takemura, Genzou; Fujiwara, Hisayoshi

    2002-08-01

    The present study used isolated rat hearts to investigate whether (1) Sheng-Mei-San (SMS), a traditional Chinese formulation comprising Radix Ginseng, Radix Ophiopogonis and Fructus Schisandrae, is protective against post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction, and (2) whether the cardioprotective effect of SMS is related to scavenging of hydroxyl radicals and opening the mitochondrial KATP channels. The excised hearts of male Sprague-Dawley rats were perfused on a Langendorff apparatus with Krebs-Henseleit solution with a gas mixture of 95% O2 and 5% CO2. Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP, mmHg), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP, mmHg), +/-dP/dt (mmHg/s) and coronary flow (ml/min) were continuously monitored. All hearts were perfused for a total of 120 min consisting of a 30-min pre-ischemic period followed by a 30-min global ischemia and 60-min reperfusion. Lactate, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (2,5-DHBA) concentrations in the effluent were measured during reperfusion. Three days' treatment with SMS (1.67 ml/kg per day) inhibited the rise in LVEDP and improved the post-ischemic LVDP and +/-dP/dt significantly better than in the untreated control hearts during reperfusion. SMS increased the coronary flow at baseline, and during reperfusion. Pretreatment with 5-hydroxydecanoic acid (5-HD), a mitochondrial KATP channel blocker, abolished the inhibition of the rise in LVEDP, the increase in coronary flow and the improvement in LVDP and +/-dP/dt induced by SMS. SMS significantly attenuated the concentrations of lactate, LDH and 2,5-DHBA during reperfusion, but the pretreatment with 5-HD restored them; 5-HD alone did not affect the concentrations. SMS improved the post-ischemic myocardial dysfunction through opening the mitochondrial KATP channels.

  6. Inflammation and glial responses in ischemic brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Stoll, G; Jander, S; Schroeter, M

    1998-10-01

    Focal cerebral ischemia elicits a strong inflammatory response involving early recruitment of granulocytes and delayed infiltration of ischemic areas and the boundary zones by T cells and macrophages. Infiltration of hematogenous leukocytes is facilitated by an upregulation of the cellular adhesion molecules P-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and vascular adhesion molecule-1 on endothelial cells. Blocking of the leukocyte/endothelial cell adhesion process significantly reduces stroke volume after transient, but not permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. In the infarct region microglia are activated within hours and within days transform into phagocytes. Astrocytes upregulate intermediate filaments, synthesize neurotrophins and form glial scars. Local microglia and infiltrating macrophages demarcate infarcts and rapidly remove debris. Remote from the lesion no cellular infiltration occurs, but astroglia and microglia are transiently activated. Astrocytic activation is induced by spreading depression. In focal ischemia neurons die acutely by necrosis and in a delayed fashion by programmed cell death, apoptosis. Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-1 beta are upregulated within hours in ischemic brain lesions. Either directly or via induction of neurotoxic mediators such as nitric oxide, cytokines may contribute to infarct progression in the post-ischemic period. On the other hand, inflammation is tightly linked with rapid removal of debris and repair processes. At present it is unclear whether detrimental effects of inflammation outweigh neuroprotective mechanisms or vice versa. In global ischemia inflammatory responses are limited, but micro- and astroglia are also strongly activated. Glial responses significantly differ between brain regions with selective neuronal death and neighbouring areas that are more resistent to ischemic damage.

  7. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes

    PubMed Central

    Laperchia, Claudia; Palomba, Maria; Seke Etet, Paul F.; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Montague, Paul; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Methodology Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses. Principal findings Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion. Conclusion These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging. PMID:28002454

  8. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke.

    PubMed

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2013-05-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging experiments were performed in mice with 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges and sizes were used, and mice received 300 μmol Fe/kg intravenously: either superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), ultrasmall SPIOs, or very small SPIOs. The particles were administered 7 days before MCAO, at the time of reperfusion, or 72 hours after MCAO. Interestingly, there was no observable signal change in the ischemic brains that could be attributed to iron. Furthermore, no Prussian blue-positive cells were found in the brains or blood leukocytes, despite intense staining in the livers and spleens. This implies that the nanoparticles selected for this study are not phagocytosed by blood-borne leukocytes and do not enter the ischemic mouse brain.

  9. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke

    PubMed Central

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2013-01-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging experiments were performed in mice with 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges and sizes were used, and mice received 300 μmol Fe/kg intravenously: either superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), ultrasmall SPIOs, or very small SPIOs. The particles were administered 7 days before MCAO, at the time of reperfusion, or 72 hours after MCAO. Interestingly, there was no observable signal change in the ischemic brains that could be attributed to iron. Furthermore, no Prussian blue-positive cells were found in the brains or blood leukocytes, despite intense staining in the livers and spleens. This implies that the nanoparticles selected for this study are not phagocytosed by blood-borne leukocytes and do not enter the ischemic mouse brain. PMID:23443176

  10. EGFRvIII-Specific Chimeric Antigen Receptor T Cells Migrate to and Kill Tumor Deposits Infiltrating the Brain Parenchyma in an Invasive Xenograft Model of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Hongsheng; Choi, Bryan D.; Suryadevara, Carter M.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Yang, Shicheng; De Leon, Gabriel; Sayour, Elias J.; McLendon, Roger; Herndon, James E.; Healy, Patrick; Archer, Gary E.; Bigner, Darell D.; Johnson, Laura A.; Sampson, John H.

    2014-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common primary malignant brain tumor in adults and is uniformly lethal. T-cell-based immunotherapy offers a promising platform for treatment given its potential to specifically target tumor tissue while sparing the normal brain. However, the diffuse and infiltrative nature of these tumors in the brain parenchyma may pose an exceptional hurdle to successful immunotherapy in patients. Areas of invasive tumor are thought to reside behind an intact blood brain barrier, isolating them from effective immunosurveillance and thereby predisposing the development of "immunologically silent" tumor peninsulas. Therefore, it remains unclear if adoptively transferred T cells can migrate to and mediate regression in areas of invasive GBM. One barrier has been the lack of a preclinical mouse model that accurately recapitulates the growth patterns of human GBM in vivo. Here, we demonstrate that D-270 MG xenografts exhibit the classical features of GBM and produce the diffuse and invasive tumors seen in patients. Using this model, we designed experiments to assess whether T cells expressing third-generation chimeric antigen receptors (CARs) targeting the tumor-specific mutation of the epidermal growth factor receptor, EGFRvIII, would localize to and treat invasive intracerebral GBM. EGFRvIII-targeted CAR (EGFRvIII+ CAR) T cells demonstrated in vitro EGFRvIII antigen-specific recognition and reactivity to the D-270 MG cell line, which naturally expresses EGFRvIII. Moreover, when administered systemically, EGFRvIII+ CAR T cells localized to areas of invasive tumor, suppressed tumor growth, and enhanced survival of mice with established intracranial D-270 MG tumors. Together, these data demonstrate that systemically administered T cells are capable of migrating to the invasive edges of GBM to mediate antitumor efficacy and tumor regression. PMID:24722266

  11. Advanced glycation end-product (AGE)-albumin from activated macrophage is critical in human mesenchymal stem cells survival and post-ischemic reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Son, Myeongjoo; Kang, Woong Chol; Oh, Seyeon; Bayarsaikhan, Delger; Ahn, Hyosang; Lee, Jaesuk; Park, Hyunjin; Lee, Sojung; Choi, Junwon; Lee, Hye Sun; Yang, Phillip C; Byun, Kyunghee; Lee, Bonghee

    2017-09-14

    Post-ischemic reperfusion injury (PIRI) triggers an intense inflammatory response which is essential for repair but is also implicated in pathogenesis of post-ischemic remodeling in several organs in human. Stem cell therapy has recently emerged as a promising method for treatment of PIRI in human. However, satisfactory results have not been reported due to severe loss of injected stem cells in PIRI including critical limb ischemia (CLI). For investigating the advanced glycation end-product-albumin (AGE-albumin) from activated macrophages is critical in both muscle cell and stem cell death, we evaluated the recovery of PIRI-CLI by injection of human bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells (hBD-MSCs) with or without soluble receptor for AGEs (sRAGE). Our results showed that activated M1 macrophages synthesize and secrete AGE-albumin, which induced the skeletal muscle cell death and injected hBD-MSCs in PIRI-CLI through RAGE increase. Combined injection of sRAGE and hBD-MSCs resulted in enhanced survival of hBD-MSCs and angiogenesis in PIRI-CLI mice. Taken together, AGE-albumin from activated macrophages is critical for both skeletal muscle cell and hBD-MSCs death in PIRI-CLI. Therefore, the inhibition of AGE-albumin from activated macrophages could be a successful therapeutic strategy for treatment of PIRI including CLI with or without stem cell therapy.

  12. Ongoing epileptiform activity in the post-ischemic hippocampus is associated with a permanent shift of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic balance in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Epsztein, Jérôme; Milh, Mathieu; Bihi, Rachid Id; Jorquera, Isabel; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Represa, Alfonso; Crépel, Valérie

    2006-06-28

    Ischemic strokes are often associated with late-onset epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the hippocampus, which is one of the regions most sensitive to ischemic challenge, global ischemia induces a complete loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the resistant CA3 pyramidal neurons display a long-term hyperexcitability several months after the insult. The mechanisms of this long-term hyperexcitability remain unknown despite its clinical implication. Using chronic in vivo EEG recordings and in vitro field recordings in slices, we now report spontaneous interictal epileptiform discharges in the CA3 area of the hippocampus from post-ischemic rats several months after the insult. Whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons, revealed a permanent reduction in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic IPSCs and a parallel increase in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. Global ischemia also induced a dramatic loss of GABAergic interneurons and terminals together with an increase in glutamatergic terminals in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Altogether, our results show a morpho-functional reorganization in the CA3 network several months after global ischemia, resulting in a net shift in the excitatory-inhibitory balance toward excitation that may constitute a substrate for the generation of epileptiform discharges in the post-ischemic hippocampus.

  13. Myosin-IIA regulates leukemia engraftment and brain infiltration in a mouse model of acute lymphoblastic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Wigton, Eric J.; Thompson, Scott B.; Long, Robert A.; Jacobelli, Jordan

    2016-01-01

    Leukemia dissemination (the spread of leukemia cells from the bone marrow) and relapse are associated with poor prognosis. Often, relapse occurs in peripheral organs, such as the CNS, which acts as a sanctuary site for leukemia cells to escape anti-cancer treatments. Similar to normal leukocyte migration, leukemia dissemination entails migration of cells from the blood circulation into tissues by extravasation. To extravasate, leukemia cells cross through vascular endothelial walls via a process called transendothelial migration, which requires cytoskeletal remodeling. However, the specific molecular players in leukemia extravasation are not fully known. We examined the role of myosin-IIA a cytoskeletal class II myosin motor protein, in leukemia progression and dissemination into the CNS by use of a mouse model of Bcr-Abl-driven B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Small hairpin RNA-mediated depletion of myosin-IIA did not affect apoptosis or the growth rate of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells. However, in an in vivo leukemia transfer model, myosin-IIA depletion slowed leukemia progression and prolonged survival, in part, by reducing the ability of B cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells to engraft efficiently. Finally, myosin-IIA inhibition, either by small hairpin RNA depletion or chemical inhibition by blebbistatin, drastically reduced CNS infiltration of leukemia cells. The effects on leukemia cell entry into tissues were mostly a result of the requirement for myosin-IIA to enable leukemia cells to complete the transendothelial migration process during extravasation. Overall, our data implicate myosin-IIA as a key mediator of leukemia cell migration, making it a promising target to inhibit leukemia dissemination in vivo and potentially reduce leukemia relapses. PMID:26792819

  14. Enhanced peripheral dopamine impairs post-ischemic healing by suppressing angiotensin receptor type 1 expression in endothelial cells and inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chandrani; Ganju, Ramesh K; Pompili, Vincent J; Chakroborty, Debanjan

    2017-02-01

    Increased circulating catecholamines have been linked with cardiovascular anomalies as well as with peripheral vascular diseases. Although the roles of epinephrine and norepinephrine have received considerable attention, the role of the other catecholamine, dopamine, has been less studied. Since dopamine is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and as angiogenesis is essential for ischemic healing, we therefore studied the role played by dopamine during ischemic healing using dopamine D2 receptor knockout (KOD2) mice. Although concentration of dopamine and its rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was considerably high in the muscle tissues of wild-type and KOD2 mice with unilateral hind limb ischemia (HLI), recovery was significantly faster in the KOD2 mice compared to the wild-type controls, thereby indicating that peripheral dopamine might have a role in this healing process. In addition, we observed significant differences in post-ischemic angiogenesis between these two groups. Our study further revealed that elevated dopamine independently suppressed activation of local tissue-based renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a critical growth factor system stimulating angiogenesis in ischemia. Angiotensin II (ATII) and its receptor, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), are the key players in RAS-mediated angiogenesis. Dopamine acting through its D2 receptors in endothelial cells inhibited ATII-mediated angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of AT1R in these cells. This study thus for the first time demonstrates the role played by dopamine in prolonging post-ischemic recovery. Therefore, pharmacological intervention inhibiting the action of dopamine holds promise as future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HLI and other peripheral arterial diseases.

  15. Study of the biodistribution of fluorescein in glioma-infiltrated mouse brain and histopathological correlation of intraoperative findings in high-grade gliomas resected under fluorescein fluorescence guidance.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Roberto Jose; Dios, Roberto Rey; Hattab, Eyas M; Burrell, Kelly; Rakopoulos, Patricia; Sabha, Nesrin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Zadeh, Gelareh; Rutka, James T; Cohen-Gadol, Aaron A

    2015-06-01

    fluorescence was highly specific (up to 90.9%) while its sensitivity was 82.2%. False negatives occurred due to lack of fluorescence in areas of diffuse, low-density cellular infiltration. Margins of contrast enhancement based on intraoperative MRI-guided StealthStation neuronavigation correlated well with fluorescent tumor margins. GTR of the contrast-enhancing area as guided by the fluorescent signal was achieved in 100% of cases based on postoperative MRI. Fluorescein sodium does not appear to selectively accumulate in astrocytoma cells but in extracellular tumor cell-rich locations, suggesting that fluorescein is a marker for areas of compromised blood-brain barrier within high-grade astrocytoma. Fluorescein fluorescence appears to correlate intraoperatively with the areas of MR enhancement, thus representing a practical tool to help the surgeon achieve GTR of the enhancing tumor regions.

  16. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI.

  17. Impairment of pH Gradient and Membrane Potential Mediates Redox Dysfunction in the Mitochondria of the Post-ischemic Heart

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Patrick T.; Chen, Chwen-Lih; Lin, Paul; Chilian, William M.; Chen, Yeong-Renn

    2017-01-01

    The mitochondrial electrochemical gradient (Δp), which comprises the pH gradient (ΔpH) and the membrane potential (ΔΨ), is crucial in controlling energy transduction. During myocardial ischemia and reperfusion (IR), mitochondrial dysfunction mediates superoxide (•O2−) and H2O2 overproduction leading to oxidative injury. However, the role of ΔpH and ΔΨ in post-ischemic injury is not fully established. Here we studied mitochondria from the risk region of rat hearts subjected to 30 min of coronary ligation and 24 h of reperfusion in vivo. In the presence of glutamate, malate and ADP, normal mitochondria (mitochondria of non-ischemic region, NR) exhibited a heightened state 3 oxygen consumption rate (OCR) and reduced •O2− and H2O2 production when compared to state 2 conditions. Oligomycin (increases ΔpH by inhibiting ATP synthase) increased •O2− and H2O2 production in normal mitochondria, but not significantly in the mitochondria of the risk region (IR mitochondria or post-ischemic mitochondria), indicating that normal mitochondrial •O2− and H2O2 generation is dependent on ΔpH and that IR impaired the ΔpH of normal mitochondria. Conversely, nigericin (dissipates ΔpH) dramatically reduced •O2− and H2O2 generation by normal mitochondria under state 4 conditions, and this nigericin quenching effect was less pronounced in IR mitochondria. Nigericin also increased mitochondrial OCR, and predisposed normal mitochondria to a more oxidized redox status assessed by increased oxidation of cyclic hydroxylamine, CM-H. IR mitochondria, although more oxidized than normal mitochondria, were not responsive to nigericin-induced CM-H oxidation, which is consistent with the result that IR induced ΔpH impairment in normal mitochondria. Valinomycin, a K+ ionophore used to dissipate ΔΨ, drastically diminished •O2− and H2O2 generation by normal mitochondria, but less pronounced effect on IR mitochondria under state 4 conditions, indicating that ΔΨ also

  18. Aggravation of post-ischemic liver injury by overexpression of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Lu; Koh, Hyoung-Won; Bae, Ui-Jin; Park, Byung-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) is known to inhibit reperfusion-induced apoptosis. IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP-3) is the major circulating carrier protein for IGF-1 and induces apoptosis. In this study, we determined if IGFBP-3 was important in the hepatic response to I/R. To deliver IGFBP-3, we used an adenovirus containing IGFBP-3 cDNA (AdIGFBP-3) or an IGFBP-3 mutant devoid of IGF binding affinity but retaining IGFBP-3 receptor binding ability (AdIGFBP-3GGG). Mice subjected to I/R injury showed typical patterns of hepatocellular damage. Protein levels of IGFBP-3 were increased after reperfusion and showed a positive correlation with the extent of liver injury. Prior injection with AdIGFBP-3 aggravated liver injury: serum aminotransferases, prothrombin time, proinflammatory cytokines, hepatocellular necrosis and apoptosis, and neutrophil infiltration were markedly increased compared to control mice. A decrease in antioxidant potential and an upregulation of NADPH oxidase might have caused these aggravating effects of IGFBP-3. Experiments using HepG2 cells and N-acetylcysteine-pretreated mice showed a discernible effect of IGFBP-3 on reactive oxygen species generation. Lastly, AdIGFBP-3 abolished the beneficial effects of ischemic preconditioning and hypothermia. Mice treated with AdIGFBP-3GGG exhibited effects similar to those of AdIGFBP-3, suggesting a ligand-independent effect of IGFBP-3. Our results suggest IGFBP-3 as an aggravating factor during hepatic I/R injury. PMID:26073647

  19. Indomethacin and cyclosporin a inhibit in vitro ischemia-induced expression of ICAM-1 and chemokines in human brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Smith, C; Monette, R; Hutchison, J; Stanimirovic, D B

    2000-01-01

    Brain inflammation has been implicated in the development of brain edema and secondary brain damage in ischemia and trauma. Mechanisms involved in leukocyte infiltration across the blood-brain barrier are still unknown. In this study, we show that human cere-bromicrovascular endothelial cells (HCEC) subjected to a 4 h in vitro ischemia (hypoxia + glucose deprivation) followed by a 4-24 h recovery express elevated levels of ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNAs (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) and secrete increased amounts of the immunoreactive chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 (ELISA). The ischemia-induced expression of ICAM-1 in HCEC, and the expression/release of IL-8 and MCP-1 in HCEC were abolished by the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (100-300 microM). The immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (50 microM) partially reduced the ischemia-stimulated IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion by HCEC. Both indomethacin and cyclosporin A also inhibited the ischemia-induced neutrophil chemotaxis elicited by HCEC media. The study indicates that in vitro ischemia augments the expression of adhesion molecules and leukocyte chemoattractants at the site of the BBB. This ischemic pro-inflammatory activation of HCEC may constitute a key event in initiating post-ischemic inflammation, and it can be suppressed by the anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin and cyclosporin A.

  20. Expression profiling and ontology analysis of long noncoding RNAs in post-ischemic heart and their implied roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youbin; Li, Guangnan; Lu, Huimin; Li, Wei; Li, Xianglu; Liu, Huimin; Li, Xingda; Li, Tianyu; Yu, Bo

    2014-06-10

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles in cellular physiology. The contributions of lncRNAs to ischemic heart disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of myocardial lncRNAs and their potential roles at early stage of reperfusion. lncRNAs and mRNAs were profiled by microarray and the expression of some highly-dysregulated lncRNAs was further validated using polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 64 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 87 down-regulated, while 50 mRNAs were up-regulated and 60 down-regulated in infarct region at all reperfusion sampled. Gene ontology analysis indicated that dysregulated transcripts were associated with immune response, spermine catabolic process, taxis, chemotaxis, polyamine catabolic process, spermine metabolic process, chemokine activity and chemokine receptor binding. Target gene-related pathway analysis showed significant changes in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the chemokine signaling pathway and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathway which have a close relationship with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Besides, a gene co-expression network was constructed to identify correlated targets of 10 highly-dysregulated lncRNAs. These lncRNAs may play their roles by this network in post-ischemic heart. Such results provide a foundation for understanding the roles and mechanisms of myocardial lncRNAs at early stage of reperfusion.

  1. Neuroprotection via strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors during post-ischemic recovery of excitatory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Mitsuo; Nitta, Azusa; Ono, Hideki

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors are located in upper brain regions including the hippocampus. Because of excitatory effects of glycine via facilitation of NMDA-receptor function, however, the net effects of increased extracellular glycine on neuronal excitability in either physiological or pathophysiological conditions are mostly unclear. Here, we addressed the potential neuroprotective effect of either exogenous application of glycine and taurine, which are both strychnine-sensitive glycine-receptor agonists, or an endogenous increase of glycine via blockade of glycine transporter 1 (GlyT1) by assessing their ability to facilitate the functional recovery of field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) after termination of brief oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) in the CA1 region in mouse hippocampal slices. Glycine and taurine promoted restoration of the fEPSPs after reperfusion, but this was never observed in the presence of strychnine. Interestingly, glycine and taurine appeared to generate neuroprotective effects only at their optimum concentration range. By contrast, blockade of GlyT1 by N-[3-(4'-fluorophenyl)-3-(4'-phenylphenoxy)propyl]sarcosine or sarcosine did not elicit significant neuroprotection. These results suggest that activation of strychnine-sensitive glycine receptors potentially produces neuroprotection against metabolic stress such as OGD. However, GlyT1 inhibition is unlikely to elicit a sufficient increase in the extracellular level of glycine to generate neuroprotection.

  2. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  3. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury.

  4. HIF-regulated HO-1 gene transfer improves the post-ischemic limb recovery and diminishes TLR-triggered immune responses - Effects modified by concomitant VEGF overexpression.

    PubMed

    Jazwa, Agnieszka; Stoszko, Mateusz; Tomczyk, Mateusz; Bukowska-Strakova, Karolina; Pichon, Chantal; Jozkowicz, Alicja; Dulak, Jozef

    2015-08-01

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) mitigates cellular injury by antioxidant, anti-apoptotic, anti-inflammatory and proangiogenic effects. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a critical regulator of blood vessel growth. Their coordinated action was analyzed in a model of femoral artery ligation (FAL) in mice lacking HO-1 gene (HO-1 KO). Gastrocnemius skeletal muscles of HO-1 KO mice were preemptively injected with plasmids containing hypoxia-response element (HRE) driving the expression of only HO-1 (pHRE-HO1) or both HO-1 and VEGF (pHRE-HO1-VEGF). At day 14th the pHRE-HO1 vector increased an impaired post-ischemic blood flow recovery in HO-1 KO mice to the level observed in wild-type (WT) mice subjected to FAL and pHRE-HO1-VEGF restored it already at day 7. The pHRE-HO1 gene therapy diminished, when compared to control pHRE-empty-treated HO-1 KO mice, the expression of toll-like receptors (TLR4 and TLR9) and inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα) at day 3, whereas opposite effects were observed following concomitant HO-1 and VEGF gene transfer. Moreover, HO-1 diminished ischemia-induced expression of MyoD involved in satellite cell differentiation in HO-1 KO mice. Our results confirm the therapeutic potential of HO-1 and VEGF against critical limb ischemia although, their concomitant delivery may have contradictory actions on the resolution of inflammation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  6. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-08-21

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment.

  7. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma.

  8. Ameliorating effect of hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor against impaired glucose metabolism after cerebral ischemic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has potent neuroprotective effects against brain injury. We recently reported that glucose intolerance/hyperglycemia could be induced by ischemic stress (i.e., post-ischemic glucose intolerance) following ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of BDNF on the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. On day 1, the expression levels of BDNF were significantly decreased in the cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor, a BDNF receptor, decreased in the hypothalamus and liver and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of BDNF (50 ng/mouse) suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage on day 3 after MCAO. In the liver and skeletal muscle, the expression levels of insulin receptors decreased, while gluconeogenic enzyme levels increased on day 1 after MCAO. These changes completely recovered to normal levels in the presence of BDNF. These results indicate that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance by BDNF may suppress ischemic neuronal damage.

  9. The heterogeneity of meningioma revealed by multiparameter analysis: infiltrative and non-infiltrative clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gay, Emmanuel; Lages, Elodie; Ramus, Claire; Guttin, Audrey; El Atifi, Michèle; Dupré, Isabelle; Bouamrani, Ali; Salon, Caroline; Ratel, David; Wion, Didier; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul

    2011-05-01

    Tumor invasion or infiltration of adjacent tissues is the source of clinical challenges in diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment. Among brain tumors, infiltration of the adjacent tissues with diverse pleiotropic mechanisms is frequently encountered in benign meningiomas. We assessed whether a multiparametric analysis of meningiomas based on data from both clinical observations and molecular analyses could provide a consistent and accurate appraisal of invasive and infiltrative phenotypes and help determine the diagnosis of these tumors. Tissue analyses of 37 meningiomas combined enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) assays of two different protein biomarkers (thrombospondin 1 and a phosphorylated form of vimentin) as well as gene expression analyses with oligonucleotide micro-arrays. Up to four different clinical and molecular parameters were then examined for tumor classification. From this study, we were able to cluster 36 out of the 37 tumors into two different subsets corresponding to infiltrative/invasive and non-infiltrative tumors. In addition, meningiomas that invade brain and those that infiltrate the neighboring skull bone exhibited no distinguishable molecular features. Our multi-parameter analysis that combines clinical data, transcriptomic and molecular assays clearly reveals the heterogeneity of meningiomas and distinguishes the intrinsically infiltrative/invasive tumors from the non-infiltrative meningiomas.

  10. Detrimental role of the EP1 prostanoid receptor in blood-brain barrier damage following experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Jan C; DeMars, Kelly M; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Hawkins, Kimberly E; Yang, Changjun; Leclerc, Jenna L; Doré, Sylvain; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo

    2015-12-09

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is activated in response to ischemia and significantly contributes to the neuroinflammatory process. Accumulation of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) parallels the substantial increase in stroke-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Disruption of the BBB is a serious consequence of ischemic stroke, and is mainly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to investigate the role of PGE2 EP1 receptor in neurovascular injury in stroke. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of EP1 protects against BBB damage and hemorrhagic transformation by decreasing the levels and activity of MMP-3 and MMP-9. We found that post-ischemic treatment with the EP1 antagonist, SC-51089, or EP1 genetic deletion results in a significant reduction in BBB disruption and reduced hemorrhagic transformation in an experimental model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. These neurovascular protective effects of EP1 inactivation are associated with a significant reduction in MMP-9/-3, less peripheral neutrophil infiltration, and a preservation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) composing the BBB. Our study identifies the EP1 signaling pathway as an important link between neuroinflammation and MMP-mediated BBB breakdown in ischemic stroke. Targeting the EP1 receptor could represent a novel approach to diminish the devastating consequences of stroke-induced neurovascular damage.

  11. Detrimental role of the EP1 prostanoid receptor in blood-brain barrier damage following experimental ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Frankowski, Jan C.; DeMars, Kelly M.; Ahmad, Abdullah S.; Hawkins, Kimberly E.; Yang, Changjun; Leclerc, Jenna L.; Doré, Sylvain; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is activated in response to ischemia and significantly contributes to the neuroinflammatory process. Accumulation of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) parallels the substantial increase in stroke-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Disruption of the BBB is a serious consequence of ischemic stroke, and is mainly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to investigate the role of PGE2 EP1 receptor in neurovascular injury in stroke. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of EP1 protects against BBB damage and hemorrhagic transformation by decreasing the levels and activity of MMP-3 and MMP-9. We found that post-ischemic treatment with the EP1 antagonist, SC-51089, or EP1 genetic deletion results in a significant reduction in BBB disruption and reduced hemorrhagic transformation in an experimental model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. These neurovascular protective effects of EP1 inactivation are associated with a significant reduction in MMP-9/-3, less peripheral neutrophil infiltration, and a preservation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) composing the BBB. Our study identifies the EP1 signaling pathway as an important link between neuroinflammation and MMP-mediated BBB breakdown in ischemic stroke. Targeting the EP1 receptor could represent a novel approach to diminish the devastating consequences of stroke-induced neurovascular damage. PMID:26648273

  12. Shared HLA Class I and II Alleles and Clonally Restricted Public and Private Brain-Infiltrating αβ T Cells in a Cohort of Rasmussen Encephalitis Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Sugandha; Wijesuriya, Hemani; Geiger, Tim; Hamm, David; Mathern, Gary W.; Owens, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare pediatric neuroinflammatory disease characterized by intractable seizures and unilateral brain atrophy. T cell infiltrates in affected brain tissue and the presence of circulating autoantibodies in some RE patients have indicated that RE may be an autoimmune disease. The strongest genetic links to autoimmunity reside in the MHC locus, therefore, we determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles carried by a cohort of 24 RE surgery cases by targeted in-depth genomic sequencing. Compared with a reference population the allelic frequency of three alleles, DQA1*04:01:01, DQB1*04:02:01, and HLA-C*07:02:01:01 indicated that they might confer susceptibility to the disease. It has been reported that HLA-C*07:02 is a risk factor for Graves disease. Further, eight patients in the study cohort carried HLA-A*03:01:01:01, which has been linked to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Four patients carried a combination of three HLA class II alleles that has been linked to type 1 diabetes (DQA1*05:01:01:01~DQB1*02:01:01~DRB1*03:01:01:01), and five patients carried a combination of HLA class II alleles that has been linked to the risk of contracting multiple sclerosis (DQA1*01:02:01:01, DQB1*06:02:01, DRB1*15:01:01:01). We also analyzed the diversity of αβ T cells in brain and blood specimens from 14 of these RE surgery cases by sequencing the third complementarity regions (CDR3s) of rearranged T cell receptor β genes. A total of 31 unique CDR3 sequences accounted for the top 5% of all CDR3 sequences in the 14 brain specimens. Thirteen of these sequences were found in sequencing data from healthy blood donors; the remaining 18 sequences were patient specific. These observations provide evidence for the clonal expansion of public and private T cells in the brain, which might be influenced by the RE patient’s HLA haplotype. PMID:28066418

  13. Infiltration in Swelling Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldez, Juan V.; Sposito, Garrison

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration phenomena in swelling soils were investigated theoretically. The approach taken consisted of applying both the approximate analytical techniques developed by J.-Y. Parlange and co-workers and conventional finite difference numerical methods to study the generalized Richards equation for one-dimensional infiltration in a swelling soil. Equations were derived for the ponding time and the post-ponding infiltration rate that are generalizations of the Parlange-Smith model expressions for rigid soils. Ponding times for swelling soils were shown to be shorter than those for nonswelling analogs, and post-ponding infiltration rates in swelling soils were shown to approach zero instead of becoming equal to the hydraulic conductivity, as in rigid soils. These results were confirmed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the numerical model, which also provided instantaneous moisture profiles and surface swelling predictions in agreement with field observations. A three-parameter infiltration equation proposed recently by J.-Y. Parlange et al. (1982) was generalized to describe swelling soils and shown to be in good agreement with published laboratory and field data. It appears that the generalized analytical model equations developed can be employed conveniently in hydrologic applications which do not require high accuracy in predictions.

  14. Polyadenylated mRNA staining reveals distinct neuronal phenotypes following endothelin 1, focal brain ischemia, and global brain ischemia/ reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Jill T.; Lewis, Monique K.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Rafols, Jose A.; DeGracia, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Most work on ischemia-induced neuronal death has revolved around the relative contributions of necrosis and apoptosis, but this work has not accounted for the role of ischemia-induced stress responses. An expanded view recognizes a competition between ischemia-induced damage mechanisms and stress responses in the genesis of ischemia-induced neuronal death. An important marker of post-ischemic stress responses is inhibition of neuronal protein synthesis, a morphological correlate of which is the compartmentalization of mRNA away from ribosomes in the form of cytoplasmic mRNA granules. Methods Here we assessed the generality of this mRNA granule response following either 10 or 15 minutes global brain ischemia and 1 hour reperfusion, 4 hours focal cerebral ischemia alone, and endothelin 1 intraventricular injection. Results Both global and focal ischemia led to prominent neuronal cytoplasmic mRNA granule formation in layer II cortical neurons. In addition, we report here new post-ischemic cellular phenotypes characterized by the loss of nuclear polyadenylated mRNA staining in cortical neurons following endothelin 1 treatment and 15 minutes global ischemia. Both mRNA granulation and loss of nuclear mRNAs occurred in non-shrunken post-ischemic neurons. Discussion Where cytoplasmic mRNA granules generally appear to mark a protective response in surviving cells, loss of nuclear mRNAs may mark cellular damage leading to cell atrophy/death. Hence, staining for total mRNA may reveal facets of the competition between stress responses and damage mechanisms at early stages in post-ischemic neurons. PMID:21499502

  15. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  16. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  17. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID:26539913

  18. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-11-05

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury.

  19. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  20. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  1. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  2. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  3. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  4. Ring Infiltrate in Staphylococcal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Wallang, Batriti S.; Sharma, Savitri; Sahu, Srikant K.; Mittal, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    Smear and culture tests of corneal scrapings from a patient with a ring infiltrate confirmed significant growth of a Staphylococcus species resistant to fluoroquinolones. Because of nonresponse to medical management, the patient underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Staphylococcal infection of the cornea may appear as a ring-like infiltrate that is recalcitrant to medical management. PMID:23100354

  5. [Lung infiltrations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ciurea-Löchel, A; Ciurea, A; Stey, C; Pestalozzi, B

    2001-08-02

    We report the case of a young patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates due to Hodgkin's Disease. Although lung involvement regressed under chemotherapy, we observed new alveolar infiltrates during treatment. Steroid administration after exclusion of an infectious cause was followed by rapid clinical and radiological improvement, indicating the probable presence of pulmonary bleomycine toxicity.

  6. Protective effect of the novel cerebrovascular-selective calcium antagonist (+/-)-(E)-1-(3-fluoro-6, 11-dihydrodibenz[b,e]-oxepine-11-yl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-piperazine dimaleate on ischemic brain damage after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Minato, H; Honda, Y; Masuda, Y; Fujitani, B; Hosoki, K

    1996-06-01

    In this study the effect of post-ischemic treatment of AJ-3941 ((+/-)-(E)-1-(3-fluoro-6,11-dihydrodibenz [b,e]-oxepine-11-yl)-4-(3-phenyl-2-propenyl)-piperazine dimaleate, CAS 143110-70-7) a cerebrovascular-selective calcium antagonist, on brain infarction and edema in a rat model of focal cerebral ischemia with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo) was evaluated. Brain infarct size was determined at 24 h after MCAo by measuring 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride-negative stained area of the serial brain sections. Post-ischemic treatment of AJ-3941 (3 mg/kg p.o.), 10 min and 3 h after the insult, significantly reduced brain infarct size by 44-80%, compared to vehicle control. The reducing effect was observed both in the cortical and subcortical regions. Three days after MCAo, contents of water and Na+ in the ipsilateral hemisphere significantly increased comparing with those in control rats. Post-ischemic treatment with AJ-3941 (3 and 10 mg/kg twice daily p.o. for 2 days) markedly inhibited the increase in water content and suppressed the increase in Na+ content. In the contralateral hemisphere, these contents showed no significant differences between vehicle-treated group and either control (non-operated) or AJ-3941-treated group. AJ-3941 had only minimum effect on body temperature and physiological parameters, such as blood pressure, blood gases and glucose, even when the maximum dose used (10 mg/kg) was repeatedly administered. These results indicate that post-ischemic treatment with AJ-3941 may ameliorate the brain infarction and edema after permanent focal cerebral ischemia, and they also suggest that AJ-3941 has a beneficial effect in the treatment of ischemic cerebral damage.

  7. Inflammatory Infiltrates in Parathyroid Tumors.

    PubMed

    Haglund, Felix; Hallström, Björn; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; HÖÖg, Anders; Juhlin, Christofer C; Larsson, Catharina

    2017-08-30

    Context Inflammatory infiltrates are sometimes present in solid tumors and may be coupled to clinical behavior or etiology. Infectious viruses contribute to tumorigenesis in a significant fraction of human neoplasias. Objective Characterize inflammatory infiltrates and possible viral transcription in primary hyperparathyroidism. Design From the period 2007-2016, a total of 55 parathyroid tumors (51 adenomas and 4 hyperplasias) with prominent inflammatory infiltrates were identified from more than 2000 parathyroid tumors in the pathology archives, and investigated by immunohistochemistry for CD4, CD8, CD20 and CD45 and scored as +0, +1 or +2. Clinicopathological data were compared to 142 parathyroid adenomas without histological evidence of inflammation. Transcriptome sequencing was performed for 13 parathyroid tumors (four inflammatory, nine non-inflammatory) to identify potential viral transcripts. Results and Conclusions Tumors had prominent germinal center-like nodular (+2) lymphocytic infiltrates consisting of T and B lymphocytes (31%) and/or diffuse (+1-2) infiltrates of predominantly CD8+ T lymphocytes (84%). In the majority of cases with adjacent normal parathyroid tissue, the normal rim was unaffected by the inflammatory infiltrates (96%). Presence of inflammatory infiltrates was associated with higher levels of serum-PTH (P=0.007) and oxyphilic differentiation (P=0.002). Co-existent autoimmune disease was observed in 27% of patients with inflammatory infiltrates, which in turn was associated with oxyphilic differentiation (P=0.041). Additionally, prescription of anti-inflammatory drugs was associated with lower serum ionized calcium (P=0.037). No evidence of virus-like sequences in the parathyroid tumors could be found by transcriptome sequencing, suggesting that other factors may contribute to attract the immune system to the parathyroid tumor tissue.

  8. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales.

  9. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  10. Cognition and resective surgery for diffuse infiltrative glioma: an overview.

    PubMed

    Klein, Martin; Duffau, Hugues; De Witt Hamer, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    Compared to classical oncological outcome measures such as time to progression and survival, the importance of cognitive functioning in patients with diffuse infiltrative brain tumors has only recently been recognized. Apart from the relatively low incidence and the invariably fatal outcome of gliomas, the general assumption that cognitive assessment is time-consuming and burdensome contributes to this notion. Our understanding of the effects of brain surgery on cognition, for instance, is largely based on studies in surgical patients with refractory epilepsy, with only a limited number of studies in surgical patients with gliomas. The impact of other factors affecting cognition in glioma patients such as direct tumor effects, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and medical treatment, including anti-epileptic drugs and steroids, have been studied more extensively. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of cognition in patients with diffuse infiltrative gliomas and the impact of resective surgery as well as other tumor and treatment-related factors.

  11. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child.

    PubMed

    Santana-Ramirez, Adrián; Farias-Serratos, Felipe; Sanchez-Corona, José; Castañeda-Cisneros, Gema; Farias-Serratos, Nadia M

    2014-12-01

    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five-month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies.

  12. Hemimegalencephaly with Facial Congenital Infiltrating Lipomatosis in a Child

    PubMed Central

    SANTANA-RAMIREZ, Adrián; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Felipe; SANCHEZ-CORONA, José; CASTAÑEDA-CISNEROS, Gema; FARIAS-SERRATOS, Nadia M.

    2014-01-01

    We report an unusual case of hemimegalencephaly (HMG) associated with ipsilateral congenital-infiltrating lipomatosis of the face in a five–month-old boy. Hemimegalencephaly is a rare but unique malformation characterized by enlargement of all or parts of a cerebral hemisphere. The affected hemisphere may have focal or diffuse neuronal migration defects, with areas of polymicrogyria, pachygyria and heterotopia. Our aim was to investigate morphologic abnormalities occurring on the affected hemisphere by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), but some MRI findings were also noted outside of the affected hemicerebrum. There are a few case reports that have described various other abnormalities accompanying this condition, such as enlargement of ipsilateral brainstem, cerebellum and left lateral ventricle. MRI may be the most useful method demonstrating features of hemimegalencephaly with infiltrating lipomatosis of the face. However, studies using electroencephalogram (EEG) and brain single photon emission computerized tomography (SPECT) can show distinct variants of discharges and brain-perfusion anomalies. PMID:26171364

  13. Similarities and differences of acute nonconvulsive seizures and other epileptic activities following penetrating and ischemic brain injuries in rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Xi-Chun May; Mountney, Andrea; Chen, Zhiyong; Wei, Guo; Cao, Ying; Leung, Lai Yee; Khatri, Vivek; Cunningham, Tracy; Tortella, Frank C

    2013-04-01

    The similarities and differences between acute nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) and other epileptic events, for example, periodic epileptiform discharges (PED) and intermittent rhythmic delta activities (IRDA), were characterized in rat models of penetrating and ischemic brain injuries. The NCS were spontaneously induced by either unilateral frontal penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) or permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO), and were detected by continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) monitoring begun immediately after the injury and continued for 72 h or 24 h, respectively. Analysis of NCS profiles (incidence, frequency, duration, and time distribution) revealed a high NCS incidence in both injury models. The EEG waveform expressions of NCS and PED exhibited intrinsic variations that resembled human electrographic manifestations of post-traumatic and post-ischemic ictal and inter-ictal events, but these waveform variations were not distinguishable between the two types of brain injury. However, the NCS after pMCAO occurred more acutely and intensely (latency=0.6 h, frequency=25 episodes/rat) compared with the PBBI-induced NCS (latency=24 h, frequency=10 episodes/rat), such that the most salient features differentiating post-traumatic and post-ischemic NCS were the intensity and time distribution of the NCS profiles. After pMCAO, nearly 50% of the seizures occurred within the first 2 h of injury, whereas after PBBI, NCS occurred sporadically (0-5%/h) throughout the 72 h recording period. The PED were episodically associated with NCS. By contrast, the IRDA appeared to be independent of other epileptic events. This study provided comprehensive comparisons of post-traumatic and post-ischemic epileptic profiles. The identification of the similarities and differences across a broad spectrum of epileptic events may lead to differential strategies for post-traumatic and post-stroke seizure interventions.

  14. Improving Detection of IV Infiltrates in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, MD, Colleen; Langer, Melissa; Burke, Susan; El Metwally, MD, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Neonates and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit suffer significant morbidity when intravenous (IV) catheters infiltrate. The underreporting of adverse events through hospital voluntary reporting systems, such as ours, can complicate the monitoring of low incidence events, like IV infiltrates. Based on severe cases of IV infiltrates observed in our neonatal intensive care unit, we attempted to improve the detection of all infiltrates and reduce the incidence of Stage 4 infiltrates. We developed, and initiated the use of, an evidence-based guideline for the improved surveillance, prevention, and management of IV infiltrates, with corresponding educational interventions for faculty and staff. We instituted the use of a checklist for compliance with guidelines, and as a mechanism of surveillance. The baseline incidence rate of IV infiltrates, determined by the voluntary reporting system, was 5 per 1000 line days. Following initiation of the guidelines and checklist, the IV infiltrate rate increased to 9 per 1000 line days. In most months, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved by use of the checklist. During the post-intervention period the rate of Stage 4 infiltrates, as measured by usage of nitroglycerin ointment, was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved following our quality improvement interventions. Further, use of an evidence-based guideline for managing infiltrates may reduce the most severe infiltrate injuries. PMID:26734388

  15. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  16. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  17. Protein-energy malnutrition developing after global brain ischemia induces an atypical acute-phase response and hinders expression of GAP-43.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Figley, Sarah A; Schreyer, David J; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery.

  18. Protein-Energy Malnutrition Developing after Global Brain Ischemia Induces an Atypical Acute-Phase Response and Hinders Expression of GAP-43

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Shari E.; Figley, Sarah A.; Schreyer, David J.; Paterson, Phyllis G.

    2014-01-01

    Protein-energy malnutrition (PEM) is a common post-stroke problem. PEM can independently induce a systemic acute-phase response, and pre-existing malnutrition can exacerbate neuroinflammation induced by brain ischemia. In contrast, the effects of PEM developing in the post-ischemic period have not been studied. Since excessive inflammation can impede brain remodeling, we investigated the effects of post-ischemic malnutrition on neuroinflammation, the acute-phase reaction, and neuroplasticity-related proteins. Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to global forebrain ischemia using the 2-vessel occlusion model or sham surgery. The sham rats were assigned to control diet (18% protein) on day 3 after surgery, whereas the rats exposed to global ischemia were assigned to either control diet or a low protein (PEM, 2% protein) diet. Post-ischemic PEM decreased growth associated protein-43, synaptophysin and synaptosomal-associated protein-25 immunofluorescence within the hippocampal CA3 mossy fiber terminals on day 21, whereas the glial response in the hippocampal CA1 and CA3 subregions was unaltered by PEM. No systemic acute-phase reaction attributable to global ischemia was detected in control diet-fed rats, as reflected by serum concentrations of alpha-2-macroglobulin, alpha-1-acid glycoprotein, haptoglobin, and albumin. Acute exposure to the PEM regimen after global brain ischemia caused an atypical acute-phase response. PEM decreased the serum concentrations of albumin and haptoglobin on day 5, with the decreases sustained to day 21. Serum alpha-2-macroglobulin concentrations were significantly higher in malnourished rats on day 21. This provides the first direct evidence that PEM developing after brain ischemia exerts wide-ranging effects on mechanisms important to stroke recovery. PMID:25259609

  19. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  1. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  4. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-12-31

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ``inside out`` deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs.

  5. CFD Simulation of Infiltration Heat Recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Buchanan, C.R.; Sherman, M.H.

    1998-07-01

    Infiltration has traditionally been assumed to affect the energy load of a building by an amount equal to the product of the infiltration flow rate and the sensible enthalpy difference between inside and outside. Results from detailed computational fluid dynamics simulations of five wall geometries over a range of infiltration rates show that heat transfer between the infiltrating air and walls can be substantial, reducing the impact of infiltration. Factors affecting the heat recovery are leakage path length, infiltration flow rate, and wall construction. The classical method for determination of the infiltration energy load was found to over-predict the amount by as much as 95 percent and by at least 10 percent. However, the air flow paths typical of building envelopes give over-predictions at the low end of this range.

  6. [Lymphoid infiltrates in the lung].

    PubMed

    Szalontai, K; Krenács, L; Csanádi, J; Ugocsai, K; Kraszkó, P

    1993-11-07

    The authors reviewed material of 10 year period (1980-1990) of the Department of Pulmonology, Albert Szent-Györgyi University of Medicine, Deszk, Hungary, and selected 14 patients from the files who considered to belong in one of the lymphoproliferative conditions (4 low grade and 4 high grade lymphomas of B-cell type, 1 angiocentric, 1 mediastinal lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 3 Hodgkin's lymphoma cases and 1 pleural pseudolymphoma). Every patient admitted with prominent pulmonary symptoms. The diagnoses were based on histology and immunohistochemistry of tissue samples and autopsy. One high grade B-cell and the angiocentric malignant lymphoma proved to be primary pulmonary process. No specific radiomorphological signs were found, which could be characteristic for the pulmonary lympho-reticular infiltrations and also to distinct the primary and secondary ones. The lung infiltrations in the most of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases with low grade malignancy appeared imitating tuberculosis, while the high grade group and Hodgkin's lymphomas displayed confusion with any primary or multiple tumors.

  7. Gene therapy-mediated reprogramming tumor infiltrating T cells using IL-2 and inhibiting NF-κB signaling improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in a brain cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mineharu, Yohei; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M; Xiong, Weidong; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Levy, Eva; Lugo, Claudia; Kocharian, Adrina; Allison, James P; Curran, Michael A; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2012-10-01

    Immune-mediated gene therapy using adenovirus expressing Flt3 ligand and thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir administration (Flt3/TK) effectively elicits tumor regression in preclinical glioma models. Herein, we assessed new strategies to optimize Flt3L/TK therapeutic efficacy in a refractory RG2 orthotopic glioblastoma model. Specifically, we aimed to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of Flt3L/TK treatment in the RG2 model by overexpressing the following genes within the brain tumor microenvironment: 1) a TK mutant with enhanced cytotoxicity (SR39 mutant TK), 2) Flt3L-IgG fusion protein that has a longer half-life, 3) CD40L to stimulate DC maturation, 4) T helper cell type 1 polarizing dendritic cell cytokines interleukin-12 or C-X-C motif ligand 10 chemokine (CXCL)-10, 5) C-C motif ligand 2 chemokine (CCL2) or C-C motif ligand 3 chemokine (CCL3) to enhance dendritic cell recruitment into the tumor microenvironment, 6) T helper cell type 1 cytokines interferon-γ or interleukin-2 to enhance effector T-cell functions, and 7) IκBα or p65RHD (nuclear factor kappa-B [NF-κB] inhibitors) to suppress the function of Foxp3+ Tregs and enhanced effector T-cell functions. Anti-tumor immunity and tumor specific effector T-cell functions were assessed by cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay and intracellular IFN-γ staining. Our data showed that overexpression of interferon-γ or interleukin-2, or inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B within the tumor microenvironment, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses and successfully extended the median survival of rats bearing intracranial RG2 when combined with Flt3L/TK. These findings indicate that enhancement of T-cell functions constitutes a critical therapeutic target to overcome immune evasion and enhance therapeutic efficacy for brain cancer. In addition, our study provides novel targets to be used in combination with immune-therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, which are currently being tested in the

  8. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Lockington, D. A.; Barry, D. A.; Parlange, M. B.; Haverkamp, R.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2013-05-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  9. Assessing Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocytes in Solid Tumors: A Practical Review for Pathologists and Proposal for a Standardized Method from the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group: Part 2: TILs in Melanoma, Gastrointestinal Tract Carcinomas, Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma and Mesothelioma, Endometrial and Ovarian Carcinomas, Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck, Genitourinary Carcinomas, and Primary Brain Tumors.

    PubMed

    Hendry, Shona; Salgado, Roberto; Gevaert, Thomas; Russell, Prudence A; John, Tom; Thapa, Bibhusal; Christie, Michael; van de Vijver, Koen; Estrada, M V; Gonzalez-Ericsson, Paula I; Sanders, Melinda; Solomon, Benjamin; Solinas, Cinzia; Van den Eynden, Gert G G M; Allory, Yves; Preusser, Matthias; Hainfellner, Johannes; Pruneri, Giancarlo; Vingiani, Andrea; Demaria, Sandra; Symmans, Fraser; Nuciforo, Paolo; Comerma, Laura; Thompson, E A; Lakhani, Sunil; Kim, Seong-Rim; Schnitt, Stuart; Colpaert, Cecile; Sotiriou, Christos; Scherer, Stefan J; Ignatiadis, Michail; Badve, Sunil; Pierce, Robert H; Viale, Giuseppe; Sirtaine, Nicolas; Penault-Llorca, Frederique; Sugie, Tomohagu; Fineberg, Susan; Paik, Soonmyung; Srinivasan, Ashok; Richardson, Andrea; Wang, Yihong; Chmielik, Ewa; Brock, Jane; Johnson, Douglas B; Balko, Justin; Wienert, Stephan; Bossuyt, Veerle; Michiels, Stefan; Ternes, Nils; Burchardi, Nicole; Luen, Stephen J; Savas, Peter; Klauschen, Frederick; Watson, Peter H; Nelson, Brad H; Criscitiello, Carmen; O'Toole, Sandra; Larsimont, Denis; de Wind, Roland; Curigliano, Giuseppe; André, Fabrice; Lacroix-Triki, Magali; van de Vijver, Mark; Rojo, Federico; Floris, Giuseppe; Bedri, Shahinaz; Sparano, Joseph; Rimm, David; Nielsen, Torsten; Kos, Zuzana; Hewitt, Stephen; Singh, Baljit; Farshid, Gelareh; Loibl, Sibylle; Allison, Kimberly H; Tung, Nadine; Adams, Sylvia; Willard-Gallo, Karen; Horlings, Hugo M; Gandhi, Leena; Moreira, Andre; Hirsch, Fred; Dieci, Maria V; Urbanowicz, Maria; Brcic, Iva; Korski, Konstanty; Gaire, Fabien; Koeppen, Hartmut; Lo, Amy; Giltnane, Jennifer; Rebelatto, Marlon C; Steele, Keith E; Zha, Jiping; Emancipator, Kenneth; Juco, Jonathan W; Denkert, Carsten; Reis-Filho, Jorge; Loi, Sherene; Fox, Stephen B

    2017-08-02

    Assessment of the immune response to tumors is growing in importance as the prognostic implications of this response are increasingly recognized, and as immunotherapies are evaluated and implemented in different tumor types. However, many different approaches can be used to assess and describe the immune response, which limits efforts at implementation as a routine clinical biomarker. In part 1 of this review, we have proposed a standardized methodology to assess tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in solid tumors, based on the International Immuno-Oncology Biomarkers Working Group guidelines for invasive breast carcinoma. In part 2 of this review, we discuss the available evidence for the prognostic and predictive value of TILs in common solid tumors, including carcinomas of the lung, gastrointestinal tract, genitourinary system, gynecologic system, and head and neck, as well as primary brain tumors, mesothelioma and melanoma. The particularities and different emphases in TIL assessment in different tumor types are discussed. The standardized methodology we propose can be adapted to different tumor types and may be used as a standard against which other approaches can be compared. Standardization of TIL assessment will help clinicians, researchers and pathologists to conclusively evaluate the utility of this simple biomarker in the current era of immunotherapy.

  10. Fluid infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jingwen; Li, Long; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Dongyan; Huang, Baoling; Li, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    We investigate water infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the entrance energy barrier significantly raises the infiltration pressure, which makes the classic Young-Laplace equation invalid for nanochannels. As the channel surface is tuned from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic, the infiltration pressure is greatly reduced mainly due to the decrease of the capillary pressure (Young-Laplace equation) caused by the contact angle change, while the contribution of the entrance energy barrier to the infiltration pressure, which is termed entrance barrier pressure, increases from 25% to 60%.

  11. Infiltration tests on fractured compacted clay

    SciTech Connect

    McBrayer, M.C.; Mauldon, M.; Drumm, E.C.; Wilson, G.V.

    1997-05-01

    Desiccation and freeze-thaw of compacted clay barriers may result in cracks that serve as preferential flow paths. A series of infiltration tests on compacted kaolin samples was conducted to explore the importance of preferential flow paths during infiltration, and their effect on the infiltration rate. Clod size at the time of compaction was found to have a strong influence on both the rate and depth of infiltration. The authors suggest that flow and infiltration through fractured clay may be described in terms of two stages: an initial dynamic stage in which the infiltration rate is initially high but decreases rapidly due to the clay swelling and closing fractures, and a steady-state stage usually characterized by k{sub sat}, during which the infiltration rate is relatively constant. The study has shown that cracks do not fully heal upon hydration and readily reopen during subsequent dehydration. Infiltration rates during the dynamic stage of infiltration, while cracks are closing, are orders of magnitude higher than the steady-state rate used to estimate k{sub sat}, for barrier evaluation.

  12. Isolation and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glioma-infiltrating Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gregory J.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells are capable of eradicating orthotopically implanted mouse GL26 and rat CNS-1 malignant gliomas soon after intracranial engraftment if the cancer cells are rendered deficient in their expression of the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1 (gal-1). More recent work now shows that a population of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid cells is critical to this effect. To better understand the mechanisms by which NK and myeloid cells cooperate to confer gal-1-deficient tumor rejection we have developed a comprehensive protocol for the isolation and analysis of glioma-infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The method is demonstrated here by comparing PBMC infiltration into the tumor microenvironment of gal-1-expressing GL26 gliomas with those rendered gal-1-deficient via shRNA knockdown. The protocol begins with a description of how to culture and prepare GL26 cells for inoculation into the syngeneic C57BL/6J mouse brain. It then explains the steps involved in the isolation and flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs from the early brain tumor microenvironment. The method is adaptable to a number of in vivo experimental designs in which temporal data on immune infiltration into the brain is required. The method is sensitive and highly reproducible, as glioma-infiltrating PBMCs can be isolated from intracranial tumors as soon as 24 hr post-tumor engraftment with similar cell counts observed from time point matched tumors throughout independent experiments. A single experimentalist can perform the method from brain harvesting to flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs in roughly 4–6 hr depending on the number of samples to be analyzed. Alternative glioma models and/or cell-specific detection antibodies may also be used at the experimentalists’ discretion to assess the infiltration of several other immune cell types of interest without the need for alterations to the

  13. [Transient brain ischemia: NMDA receptor modulation and delayed neuronal death].

    PubMed

    Benquet, Pascal; Gee, Christine E; Gerber, Urs

    2008-02-01

    Transient global ischemia induces delayed neuronal death in certain cell types and brain regions while sparing cells in other areas. A key process through which oxygen-glucose deprivation triggers cell death is the excessive accumulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate leading to over excitation of neurons. In certain neurons this increase in glutamate will potentiate the NMDA type of glutamate receptor, which can then initiate cell death. This review provides an update of the neurophysiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms inducing post-ischemic plasticity of NMDA receptors, focusing on the sensitive CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus as compared to the relatively resistant neighboring CA3 neurons. Both a change in the equilibrium between protein tyrosine kinases/phosphatases and an increased density of surface NMDA receptors in response to ischemia may explain the selective vulnerability of specific cell types. Implications for the treatment of stroke and reasons for the failures of human clinical trials utilizing NMDA receptor antagonists are also discussed.

  14. Effect of Low-Dose Alcohol Consumption on Inflammation Following Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rats.

    PubMed

    McCarter, Kimberly D; Li, Chun; Jiang, Zheng; Lu, Wei; Smith, Hillary C; Xu, Guodong; Mayhan, William G; Sun, Hong

    2017-10-02

    Increasing evidence suggest that low-dose alcohol consumption (LAC) reduces the incidence and improves the functional outcome of ischemic stroke. We determined the influence of LAC on post-ischemic inflammation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups, an ethanol (13.5% alcohol) group, a red wine (Castle Rock Pinot Noir, 13.5% alcohol) group, and a control group. The amount of alcohol given to red wine and ethanol groups was 1.4 g/kg/day. After 8 weeks, the animals were subjected to a 2-hour middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and sacrificed at 24 hours of reperfusion. Cerebral ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, expression of adhesion molecules and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines/chemokines, microglial activation and neutrophil infiltration were evaluated. The total infarct volume and neurological deficits were significantly reduced in red wine- and ethanol-fed rats compared to control rats. Both red wine and ethanol suppressed post-ischemic expression of adhesion molecules and microglial activation. In addition, both red wine and ethanol upregulated expression of tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases 1 (TIMP-1), downregulated expression of proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines, and significantly alleviated post-ischemic expression of inflammatory mediators. Furthermore, red wine significantly reduced post-ischemic neutrophil infiltration. Our findings suggest that LAC may protect the brain against its I/R injury by suppressing post-ischemic inflammation.

  15. Estimation of infiltration and hydraulic resistance in furrow irrigation, with infiltration dependent on flow depth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The estimation of parameters of a flow-depth dependent furrow infiltration model and of hydraulic resistance, using irrigation evaluation data, was investigated. The estimated infiltration parameters are the saturated hydraulic conductivity and the macropore volume per unit area. Infiltration throu...

  16. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  17. Thematic issue on soil water infiltration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Infiltration is the term applied to the process of water entry into the soil, generally by downward flow through all or part of the soil surface. Understanding of infiltration concept and processes has greatly improved, over the past 30 years, and new insights have been given into modeling of non-un...

  18. Infiltration into soils: Conceptual approaches and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assouline, Shmuel

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration is a key process in aspects of hydrology, agricultural and civil engineering, irrigation design, and soil and water conservation. It is complex, depending on soil and rainfall properties and initial and boundary conditions within the flow domain. During the last century, a great deal of effort has been invested to understand the physics of infiltration and to develop quantitative predictors of infiltration dynamics. Jean-Yves Parlange and Wilfried Brutsaert have made seminal contributions, especially in the area of infiltration theory and related analytical solutions to the flow equations. This review retraces the landmark discoveries and the evolution of the conceptual approaches and the mathematical solutions applied to the problem of infiltration into porous media, highlighting the pivotal contributions of Parlange and Brutsaert. A historical retrospective of physical models of infiltration is followed by the presentation of mathematical methods leading to analytical solutions of the flow equations. This review then addresses the time compression approximation developed to estimate infiltration at the transition between preponding and postponding conditions. Finally, the effects of special conditions, such as the presence of air and heterogeneity in soil properties, on infiltration are considered.

  19. ECM hydrogel for the treatment of stroke: Characterization of the host cell infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Harmanvir; Massensini, Andre R; Donnelly, Julia; Kim, Sung-Min; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F; Modo, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Brain tissue loss following stroke is irreversible with current treatment modalities. The use of an acellular extracellular matrix (ECM), formulated to produce a hydrogel in situ within the cavity formed by a stroke, was investigated as a method to replace necrotic debris and promote the infiltration of host brain cells. Based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of lesion location and volume, different concentrations of ECM (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 mg/mL) were injected at a volume equal to that of the cavity (14 days post-stroke). Retention of ECM within the cavity occurred at concentrations >3 mg/mL. A significant cell infiltration into the ECM material in the lesion cavity occurred with an average of ∼36,000 cells in the 8 mg/mL concentration within 24 h. An infiltration of cells with distances of >1500 μm into the ECM hydrogel was observed, but the majority of cells were at the tissue/hydrogel boundary. Cells were typically of a microglia, macrophage, or neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor phenotype. At the 8 mg/mL concentration, ∼60% of infiltrating cells were brain-derived phenotypes and 30% being infiltrating peripheral macrophages, polarizing toward an M2-like anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that an 8 mg/mL ECM concentration promotes a significant acute endogenous repair response that could potentially be exploited to treat stroke.

  20. [Evaluation of infiltrations performed in primary care].

    PubMed

    López-Marina, V; Pizarro-Romero, G; Costa-Bardají, N; Mata-Navarro, A; Vázquez-Blanco, J R

    2005-12-01

    To describe the evolution of the pain and the functional impotence in the articular and periarticular pathology after to infiltrate with local corticosteroid and anaesthetic; to analize the number of discharge certificates that maybe to give in the patients with employment transitory incapacity (ETI) during the first week post-infiltration. Intervention without control group. Semiurban primary care physician's practices (ABS Piera). Men and women elder than 18 years old, with articular and periarticular pathology. Were infiltrated with local triamcinolone acetonid and bupivacain 2% 65 patients. Were gathered socio-demographic factors, diagnostic, response, number of infiltrations for patient, secondary effects, and number of discharge certificates that were given in the patients in ETI situation during the first week post-infiltration. Were infiltrated predominantly men (57%) with 31-65 years old (67.7%), employed (70.7%) in manual works (78.4%). Rotary joint tendinitis (46.2%) and epicondylitis (27.7%) were the most common diagnostics. Mean and CI (95%) obtained in the VAS for pain were: initially, 8.8 (7.4-9.8); week, 1.4 (1-1.8); 3 months, 2.2 (1.3-3.1), and year, 2.3 (1.1-3.5). Mean and CI (95%) found for functional impotence were: initially, 8.2 (6.7-9.7); week, 0.9 (0.7-1.1); 3 months, 1.2 (0.9-1.5), and year, 1.6 (1.4-1.8). The number of infiltrations for patient was 1.6. Hadn't important secondary effects. Were given 19 discharge certificates in 25 patients with ETI in the first week post-infiltration. The patients diminished the pain and the functional impotence in the articular and periarticular pathology after of the infiltration, allowing to give an elevate number of discharge certificates during the first week post-infiltration.

  1. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  2. Melt infiltration of silicon carbide compacts. I - Study of infiltration dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, Rajiv; Rohatgi, Pradeep K.

    1992-01-01

    Countergravity, pressure-assisted infiltration with a 2014 Al alloy of suitably tamped porous compacts of platelet shaped single crystals of alpha (hexagonal) silicon carbide was used to measure particulate wettability and infiltration kinetics under dynamic conditions relevant to pressure casting of composites. A threshold pressure P(th) for ingression of the infiltrant was identified based on the experimental penetration length versus pressure profiles for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, SiC size and SiC surface chemistry. The results showed that P(th) decreased whereas the penetration length increased with increasing SiC size and infiltration time. Cu-coated SiC led to lower P(th) and larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical conditions. These observations have been discussed in the light of theoretical models of infiltration and the kinetics of wetting.

  3. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  4. Monitoring Preferential Flow During Infiltration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, V.; Votrubova, J.; Sanda, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2006-12-01

    Field ponded infiltration experiments monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were conducted at the experimental site Liz, Sumava Mts., Southern Bohemia. Single-ring ponded infiltration experiments were carried out repeatedly using a set of permanently installed plastic infiltration rings and additional ring made of concrete. The preferential flow occurring during the infiltration experiment was monitored by means of invasive and non-invasive visualization of flow paths. For the noninvasive visualization two geophysical methods were tested, namely TDR and ERT. Geophysical measurements were taken before, during and after the infiltration. TDR measurements were conducted using Tektronix 1502C cable tester connected to three steel electrodes 1- m long installed vertically in the centre of the infiltration ring. ERT was done using the ARES device (the multi electrode VES employing the Wenner-Schlumberger method). After the initial period of clean water infiltration 10g/l NaCl solute was used to improve the ERT signal. The electrical resistivity images were reconstructed using RES2DINV (Geotomo software). In ERT images the evolution of infiltration processes is clearly visible however the preferential character of the flow is completely smeared. This is clear from the comparison of ERT images with the images of Brilliant Blue dye distribution taken from the dug out horizons at the end of infiltration. In addition, the ERT results show some inconsistencies, which are most probably related to the design and the scale of the ERT network which is not fully consistent with the assumption of the methods employed. The research has been performed in the frame of research projects VaV/650/5/03 and GACR 103/04/0663.

  5. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  6. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  7. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  8. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  9. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  10. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  11. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  12. Infiltration and instability in dune erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Holman, Robert A.

    2011-10-01

    Forecasting dune erosion prior to a storm or over longer periods requires knowledge of the fluid forces on the dune sediments. To improve our predictive capability for this process, we propose a new model in which dune slumping occurs when water, which infiltrates horizontally into the dune, increases the overburden sufficiently to destabilize the dune. Horizontal infiltration is driven by suction of water from swash into the dune via capillary action and is a surprisingly strong process with rapid time scales. Because the elevated pore water concentrations increase the apparent cohesion of the wetted sediments, we also propose that the entire volume of wetted sand slumps as a unit when the dune becomes unstable and erosion can be modeled based on the force balance on a sliding block. Several versions of this model were tested, including a numerical infiltration model, a simplified infiltration equation, and an equation based on offshore wave forcing, rather than known forcing at the dune. The model was tested using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment with a storm hydrograph to investigate the time dependence of dune erosion. Predicting slope stability using a numerical infiltration model with known forcing explained 72% of the observed variance in erosion rate, while a simplified stability and infiltration model explained 58%. Error statistics suggest that we captured the majority of the physics controlling dune erosion in this laboratory experiment and that the simplified model will be useful as a forecasting tool.

  13. Hippocampal T cell infiltration promotes neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in a mouse model of tauopathy.

    PubMed

    Laurent, Cyril; Dorothée, Guillaume; Hunot, Stéphane; Martin, Elodie; Monnet, Yann; Duchamp, Marie; Dong, Yuan; Légeron, François-Pierre; Leboucher, Antoine; Burnouf, Sylvie; Faivre, Emilie; Carvalho, Kévin; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Zommer, Nadège; Demeyer, Dominique; Jouy, Nathalie; Sazdovitch, Veronique; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Delarasse, Cécile; Buée, Luc; Blum, David

    2017-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the combined presence of amyloid plaques and tau pathology, the latter being correlated with the progression of clinical symptoms. Neuroinflammatory changes are thought to be major contributors to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology, even if their precise role still remains largely debated. Notably, to what extent immune responses contribute to cognitive impairments promoted by tau pathology remains poorly understood. To address this question, we took advantage of the THY-Tau22 mouse model that progressively develops hippocampal tau pathology paralleling cognitive deficits and reappraised the interrelationship between tau pathology and brain immune responses. In addition to conventional astroglial and microglial responses, we identified a CD8-positive T cell infiltration in the hippocampus of tau transgenic mice associated with an early chemokine response, notably involving CCL3. Interestingly, CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration was also observed in the cortex of patients exhibiting frontemporal dementia with P301L tau mutation. To gain insights into the functional involvement of T cell infiltration in the pathophysiological development of tauopathy in THY-Tau22 mice, we chronically depleted T cells using anti-CD3 antibody. Such anti-CD3 treatment prevented hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau transgenic animals and reverted spatial memory deficits, in absence of tau pathology modulation. Altogether, these data support an instrumental role of hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau-driven pathophysiology and cognitive impairments in Alzheimer's disease and other tauopathies. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Guarantors of Brain.

  14. Origins of Brain Tumor Macrophages.

    PubMed

    De Palma, Michele

    2016-12-12

    The ontogeny of brain-tumor-associated macrophages is poorly understood. New findings indicate that both resident microglia and blood-derived monocytes generate the pool of macrophages that infiltrate brain tumors of either primary or metastatic origin. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Periodic 17β-estradiol pretreatment protects rat brain from cerebral ischemic damage via estrogen receptor-β.

    PubMed

    Raval, Ami P; Borges-Garcia, Raquel; Javier Moreno, William; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A; Bramlett, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic 17β-estradiol (E2) has been shown to be a cognition-preserving and neuroprotective agent in animal brain injury models, concern regarding its safety was raised by the failed translation of this phenomenon to the clinic. Previously, we demonstrated that a single bolus of E2 48 hr prior to ischemia protected the hippocampus from damage in ovariectomized rats via phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, which requires activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). The current study tests the hypothesis that long-term periodic E2-treatment improves cognition and reduces post-ischemic hippocampal injury by means of ER-β activation. Ovariectomized rats were given ten injections of E2 at 48 hr intervals for 21 days. Hippocampal-dependent learning, memory and ischemic neuronal loss were monitored. Results demonstrated that periodic E2 treatments improved spatial learning, memory and ischemic neuronal survival in ovariectomized rats. Additionally, periodic ER-β agonist treatments every 48 hr improved post-ischemic cognition. Silencing of hippocampal ER-β attenuated E2-mediated ischemic protection suggesting that ER-β plays a key role in mediating the beneficial effects of periodic E2 treatments. This study emphasizes the need to investigate a periodic estrogen replacement regimen to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women.

  16. Periodic 17β-Estradiol Pretreatment Protects Rat Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Damage via Estrogen Receptor-β

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Ami P.; Borges-Garcia, Raquel; Javier Moreno, William; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.; Bramlett, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic 17β-estradiol (E2) has been shown to be a cognition-preserving and neuroprotective agent in animal brain injury models, concern regarding its safety was raised by the failed translation of this phenomenon to the clinic. Previously, we demonstrated that a single bolus of E2 48 hr prior to ischemia protected the hippocampus from damage in ovariectomized rats via phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, which requires activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). The current study tests the hypothesis that long-term periodic E2-treatment improves cognition and reduces post-ischemic hippocampal injury by means of ER-β activation. Ovariectomized rats were given ten injections of E2 at 48 hr intervals for 21 days. Hippocampal-dependent learning, memory and ischemic neuronal loss were monitored. Results demonstrated that periodic E2 treatments improved spatial learning, memory and ischemic neuronal survival in ovariectomized rats. Additionally, periodic ER-β agonist treatments every 48 hr improved post-ischemic cognition. Silencing of hippocampal ER-β attenuated E2-mediated ischemic protection suggesting that ER-β plays a key role in mediating the beneficial effects of periodic E2 treatments. This study emphasizes the need to investigate a periodic estrogen replacement regimen to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women. PMID:23593292

  17. Infiltrating macrophages are key to the development of seizures following virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Matthew F; Libbey, Jane E; Patel, Dipan C; Doty, Daniel J; Fujinami, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures.

  18. Infiltrating Macrophages Are Key to the Development of Seizures following Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Patel, Dipan C.; Doty, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures. PMID:23236075

  19. Solutions to Overland Flow Incorporating Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyraz, Uǧur; Gülbaz, Sezar; Melek Kazezyılmaz-Alhan, Cevza

    2017-04-01

    Overland flow is represented by flood wave propagation and plays an important role in hydrology and hydraulics. Flood wave propagation concerns many disciplines and thus, scientists such as hydrologists, city planners, irrigation practitioners and hydraulic and environmental engineers are studying on developing accurate solutions for flood wave equations. The dynamic wave equations consist of continuity and momentum equations and describe unsteady and non-uniform flow conditions. Diffusion wave equations can be derived from the dynamic wave equations by neglecting the local and convective acceleration terms in the momentum equation. The kinematic wave model obtained by ignoring both inertial and pressure terms is the simplest routing method which substitutes a steady uniform flow relationship in the momentum equation. In order to calculate the overland flow, these three types of flood wave equations are solved with many different numerical techniques. Nevertheless, the dynamic interaction between surface flow and infiltration is not sufficiently investigated. In this study, the effect of infiltration on overland flow is explored by incorporating the integrated Horton equation into the flood wave equations. Integrated Horton method calculates infiltration under variable rainfall intensity. MacCormack explicit finite difference method is employed in solving the coupled infiltration-overland flow problem. Hydrographs for overland flow with and without infiltration effects are obtained under different rainfall intensities and soil conditions and compared. It is found that infiltration affects both the peak and the shape of hydrographs considerably. Furthermore, the effect of rainfall intensity and soil conditions on overland flow is also observed. Keywords: Overland flow; MacCormack; infiltration; Integrated Horton Method; Kinematic waves, Diffusion waves, Dynamic waves.

  20. Carnosine protects the brain of rats and Mongolian gerbils against ischemic injury: after-stroke-effect.

    PubMed

    Dobrota, Dusan; Fedorova, Tatiana; Stvolinsky, Sergey; Babusikova, Eva; Likavcanova, Katarina; Drgova, Anna; Strapkova, Adriana; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    Carnosine, a specific constituent of excitable tissues of vertebrates, exhibits a significant antioxidant protecting effect on the brain damaged by ischemic-reperfusion injury when it was administered to the animals before ischemic episode. In this study, the therapeutic effect of carnosine was estimated on animals when this drug was administered intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg body weight) after ischemic episode induced by experimental global brain ischemia. Treatment of the animals with carnosine after ischemic episode under long-term (7-14 days) reperfusion demonstrated its pronounced protective effect on neurological symptoms and animal mortality. Carnosine also prevented higher lipid peroxidation of brain membrane structures and increased a resistance of neuronal membranes to the in vitro induced oxidation. Measurements of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in brain homogenates showed its increase in the after brain stroke animals and decreased MDA level in the after brain stroke animals treated with carnosine. We concluded that carnosine compensates deficit in antioxidant defense system of brain damaged by ischemic injury. The data presented demonstrate that carnosine is effective in protecting the brain in the post-ischemic period.

  1. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  2. The inflammatory infiltrate of melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytic nevi are frequently accompanied by inflammatory cells of different types, in varied amounts and distributed in different patterns. In the current report, we review the knowledge on inflammation seen in different types of melanocytic nevi. As an additional contribution, we studied the lymphocytic inflammatory component of Duperrat nevus, as well as the cytotoxic component of Sutton nevus, two contributions that we have not found in the literature. We conclude that: (a) Duperrat nevus has a mixed inflammatory reaction that includes histiocytes, foreign-body multinucleated giant cells, polymorphonuclears, lymphocytes (predominantly CD4+) and plasma cells (commonly abundant); (b) common melanocytic nevi with reactive inflammatory infiltrate usually show a CD4+ predominant population; (c) Meyerson nevus commonly shows an inflammatory infiltrate mainly made up of CD4+ T-cells; (d) Sutton nevus with halo phenomenon is accompanied by a dense inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes in a CD4:CD8 ratio varying from 1:1 to 1:3 and in which most of the CD8+ T-cells do not express cytotoxic markers; (e) Wiesner nevus commonly shows a spare lymphocytic infiltrate but the nature of the infiltrate has not yet been investigated.

  3. Greatly Increased Toughness of Infiltrated Spider Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Gösele, Ulrich; Dresbach, Christian; Qin, Yong; Chandran, C. Vinod; Bräuniger, Thomas; Hause, Gerd; Knez, Mato

    2009-04-01

    In nature, tiny amounts of inorganic impurities, such as metals, are incorporated in the protein structures of some biomaterials and lead to unusual mechanical properties of those materials. A desire to produce these biomimicking new materials has stimulated materials scientists, and diverse approaches have been attempted. In contrast, research to improve the mechanical properties of biomaterials themselves by direct metal incorporation into inner protein structures has rarely been tried because of the difficulty of developing a method that can infiltrate metals into biomaterials, resulting in a metal-incorporated protein matrix. We demonstrated that metals can be intentionally infiltrated into inner protein structures of biomaterials through multiple pulsed vapor-phase infiltration performed with equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). We infiltrated zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), or aluminum (Al), combined with water from corresponding ALD precursors, into spider dragline silks and observed greatly improved toughness of the resulting silks. The presence of the infiltrated metals such as Al or Ti was verified by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra measured inside the treated silks. This result of enhanced toughness of spider silk could potentially serve as a model for a more general approach to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials.

  4. Sorptivity and liquid infiltration into dry soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culligan, Patricia J.; Ivanov, Vladimir; Germaine, John T.

    2005-10-01

    The sorptivity S quantifies the effect of capillarity on liquid movement in a porous material. For liquid infiltration into an initially dry material, S is a parameter that is contingent on both liquid and material properties as well as the maximum liquid content behind the infiltrating front, θm. Scaling analyses are used to derive a dimensionless, intrinsic sorptivity S∗ that is constant for different liquids, Miller-similar materials and different values of θm. The analyses confirm that S is dependent on β1/2, where β = cos ϕ is a measure of the wettability of the liquid. They also indicate a power law relationship between S and Se(av), the average liquid saturation behind the infiltrating front. Seventeen water and eleven Soltrol 220 horizontal infiltration experiments are reported in uniform, dry sand. Test results show that water is partially wetting in the sand. They also confirm that S∝Se(av)d, where d = 3.2 for the experimental conditions. The usefulness of a general, dimensionless Boltzmann variable is demonstrated to normalize infiltration profiles for the different liquids. An approximate method for sorptivity calculation is shown to provide an accurate estimate of S∗.

  5. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  6. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumadar, A. S.; Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2008-06-01

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  7. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  8. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  9. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  10. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  11. Periovulatory leukocyte infiltration in the rat ovary.

    PubMed

    Oakley, Oliver R; Kim, HeyYoung; El-Amouri, Ismail; Lin, Po-Ching Patrick; Cho, Jongki; Bani-Ahmad, Mohammad; Ko, Chemyong

    2010-09-01

    Ovulation is preceded by intraovarian inflammatory reactions that occur in response to the preovulatory gonadotropin surge. As a main inflammatory event, leukocytes infiltrate the ovary and release proteolytic enzymes that degrade the extracellular matrix weakening the follicular wall, a required step for follicle rupture. This study aimed to quantitatively measure the infiltrating leukocytes, determine their cell types, and localize infiltration sites in the periovulatory rat ovary. Cycling adult and gonadotropin-stimulated immature rats were used as animal models. Ovaries were collected at five different stages of estrous cycle in the adult rats (diestrus, 1700 h; proestrus, 1500 h; proestrus, 2400 h; estrus, 0600 h; and metestrus, 1700 h) and at five different time points after superovulation induction in the immature rats (pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 0 h; pregnant mare's serum gonadotrophin, 48 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 6 h; human chorionic gonadotropin, 12 h; and human chorionic gonadotropin, 24 h). The ovaries were either dissociated into a single cell suspension for flow cytometric analysis or fixed for immunohistochemical localization of the leukocytes. Similar numbers of leukocytes were seen throughout the estrous cycle (approximately 500,000/ovary), except proestrus 2400 when 2-fold higher numbers of leukocytes were found (approximately 1.1 million/ovary). A similar trend of periovulatory rise of leukocyte numbers was seen in the superovulation-induced immature rat model, recapitulating a dramatic increase in leukocyte numbers upon gonadotropin stimulation. Both macrophage/granulocytes and lymphocytes were among the infiltrating leukocytes and were localized in the theca and interstitial tissues, where platelet-endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 may play roles in the transmigration of leukocytes, because their expressions correlates spatiotemporally with the infiltrating leukocytes. In addition, a

  12. Sterile infiltrates after cross-linking.

    PubMed

    García de Oteyza, G; Álvarez de Toledo, J

    2017-09-01

    A 20 year-old woman presented with an asymmetric bilateral keratoconus. Cross-linking of the right eye was performed due of its topographic and pachymetric conditions. Three days after the procedure, the patient presented with some corneal infiltrates that where classified as sterile. Cross-linking is known for its efficacy and safety. Nevertheless, there can be complications. Sterile infiltrates have already been described, although their aetiology is still not clear. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Enriched environment influences brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels in rat forebrain after focal stroke.

    PubMed

    Zhao, L R; Risedal, A; Wojcik, A; Hejzlar, J; Johansson, B B; Kokaia, Z

    2001-06-15

    Tissue levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein were studied using enzyme immunoassay in different forebrain regions in the ipsi- and contralateral hemispheres of rats housed under enriched or standard conditions after the middle cerebral artery ligation. BDNF levels in the ipsilateral to ligation side was significantly higher only in the frontal cortex of standard as compared to enriched rats. However, BDNF overall was more abundant in standard than in enriched group. In addition, BDNF levels detected in the hippocampus and frontal cortex on the ischemic side of standard rats was higher as compared to contralateral side. The present study shows that housing conditions after permanent middle cerebral artery ligation leads to differential regulation of BDNF protein levels in forebrain regions which might have important implication for post-ischemic recovery.

  14. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  15. Neuronal Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Limit Brain Infarction and Promote Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yiliu; Gu, Ning; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Ruth, Peter; Sausbier, Matthias; Storm, Johan F.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+ ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK−/−). MCAO was performed in BK−/− and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK−/− mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK−/− vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK−/− mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK−/− than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage. PMID:21209897

  16. Continuous oral administration of atorvastatin ameliorates brain damage after transient focal ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Saito, Tomonari; Nito, Chikako; Ueda, Masayuki; Inaba, Toshiki; Kamiya, Fumio; Muraga, Kanako; Katsura, Ken-Ichiro; Katayama, Yasuo

    2014-01-17

    Pre-treatment with statins is known to ameliorate ischemic brain damage after experimental stroke, and is independent of cholesterol levels. We undertook pre- vs post-ischemic treatment with atorvastatin after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient 90-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Atorvastatin (20mg/kg/day) or vehicle was administered orally. Rats were divided into vehicle-treated, atorvastatin pre-treatment, atorvastatin post-treatment, and atorvastatin continuous-treatment groups. In the pre-treatment, rats were given atorvastatin or vehicle for 7 days before MCAO. In the post-treatment, rats received atorvastatin or vehicle for 7 days after MCAO. Measurement of infarct volume, as well as neurological and immunohistochemical assessments, were done 24h and 7 days after reperfusion. Each atorvastatin-treated group demonstrated significant reductions in infarct and edema volumes compared with the vehicle-treated group 24h after reperfusion. Seven days after reperfusion, infarct volumes in the post-treatment group and continuous-treatment group (but not the pre-treatment group) were significantly smaller than in the vehicle-treated group. Only the continuous-treatment group had significantly improved neurological scores 7 days after reperfusion compared with the vehicle group. Post-treatment and continuous-treatment groups had significantly decreased lipid peroxidation, oxidative DNA damage, microglial activation, expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and neuronal damage in the cortical ischemic boundary area after 7 days of reperfusion. These results suggest that continuous oral administration (avoiding withdrawal) with statins after stroke may reduce the extent of post-ischemic brain damage and improve neurological outcome by inhibiting oxidative stress and inflammatory responses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Obesity, Intrapancreatic Fatty Infiltration, and Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hua; Maitra, Anirban; Wang, Huamin

    2015-08-01

    Obesity and intrapancreatic fatty infiltration are associated with increased risk of pancreatic cancer and its precursor lesions. The interplay among obesity, inflammation, and oncogenic Kras signaling promotes pancreatic tumorigenesis. Targeting the interaction between obesity-associated inflammation and Kras signaling may provide new strategies for prevention and therapy of pancreatic cancer. ©2015 American Association for Cancer Research.

  18. Sewage Effluent Infiltrates Frozen Forest Soil

    Treesearch

    Alfred Ray Harris

    1976-01-01

    Secondarily treated sewage effluent, applied at the rate of 1 and 2 inches per week, infiltrated a frozen Sparta sand soil forested with jack pine and scrub oak. Maximum frost depth in treated plots averaged 60 cm and in check plots averages 35 cm. Nitrogen was mobile with some accumulation. Phosphorus was absorbed.

  19. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  20. Skin infiltration in acute promyelocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Nagao, K; Kikuchi, A; Kawai, Y; Kizaki, M; Ikeda, Y; Nishikawa, T

    1997-01-01

    Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a type of acute leukemia showing unique clinical, morphological and cytogenetic features. A skin infiltration by APL cells is an extremely rare occasion, but there have been several case reports of leukemia cutis in APL, in which all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) may have induced the skin infiltration. However, no immunohistochemical analyses of the APL cells in the skin have been done to date. A 30-year-old woman with APL developed multiple reddish purple nodules on the extremities in her second complete remission. Histological findings revealed a dense infiltration of medium to large atypical cells, which were positive for myeloperoxidase, throughout the dermis. Despite the conventional chemotherapy and ATRA therapy she died from disseminated intravascular coagulation during her third relapse. Leukemic cells in the peripheral blood before the treatment with ATRA revealed CD3-/CD4-/CD5-/CD7-/CD8-/CD10-/CD13++/CD14-/CD19 -/ CD20-/CD33++/CD38++/CD41-/Ia-, but they expressed CD3-/CD4-/CD5-/CD7++/ CD8-/CD10-/CD13++/CD14-/CD19-/CD20-/CD33++ /CD38++/CD41+/Ia+ after the treatment. We suggest that the alternation of the surface molecules on the tumor cells is closely associated with the skin infiltration of APL cells.

  1. A pathology-based substrate for target definition in radiosurgery of brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, Brigitta G. . E-mail: brigitta.baumert@maastro.nl; Rutten, Isabelle; Dehing-Oberije, Cary M.Sc.; Twijnstra, Albert; Dirx, Miranda J.M.; Debougnoux-Huppertz, Ria M.T.L.; Lambin, Philippe; Kubat, Bela

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need of a margin other than for accuracy reasons in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases by means of histopathology. Methods and Materials: Evaluation of 45 patients from two pathology departments having had brain metastases and an autopsy of the brain. Growth patterns were reviewed with a focus on infiltration beyond the metastases boundary and made visible with immunohistochemical staining: the metastasis itself with tumor-specific markers, surrounding normal brain tissue with a glial marker, and a possible capsule with a soft tissue marker. Measurements were corrected by a tissue-shrinkage correction factor taken from literature. Outcomes parameters for infiltration were mean and maximum depths of infiltration and number of measured infiltration sites. Results: In 48 of 76 metastases, an infiltration was present. The largest group of metastases was lung cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma showed a maximum depth of infiltration of {>=}1 mm, and other histologies <1 mm. For non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, and sarcoma, the highest number of infiltrative sites were observed (median, 2; range, 1-8). SCLC showed significantly larger infiltrative growth, compared with other diagnostic groups. In NSCLC, the highest percentage of infiltration was present (70%). Conclusions: Infiltrative growth beyond the border of the brain metastasis was demonstrated in 63% of the cases evaluated. Infiltrative growth, therefore, has an impact in defining the clinical target volume for SRS of brain metastases, and a margin of {approx}1 mm should be added to the visible lesion.

  2. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  3. Assessment of Tumor Cells in a Mouse Model of Diffuse Infiltrative Glioma by Raman Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Tanahashi, Kuniaki; Natsume, Atsushi; Motomura, Kazuya; Watabe, Naoki; Muraishi, Shuichi; Nakahara, Hitoshi; Saito, Yahachi; Takeuchi, Ichiro; Wakabayashi, Toshihiko

    2014-01-01

    Glioma of infiltrative nature is challenging for surgeons to achieve tumor-specific and maximal resection. Raman spectroscopy provides structural information on the targeted materials as vibrational shifts. We utilized Raman spectroscopy to distinguish invasive tumors from normal tissues. Spectra obtained from replication-competent avian sarcoma-(RCAS-) based infiltrative glioma cells and glioma tissues (resembling low-grade human glioma) were compared with those obtained from normal mouse astrocytes and normal tissues. In cell analysis, the spectra at 950–1000, 1030, 1050–1100, 1120–1130, 1120–1200, 1200–1300, 1300–1350, and 1450 cm−1 were significantly higher in infiltrative glioma cells than in normal astrocytes. In brain tissue analysis, the spectra at 1030, 1050–1100, and 1200–1300 cm−1 were significantly higher in infiltrative glioma tissues than in normal brain tissues. These spectra reflect the structures of proteins, lipids, and DNA content. The sensitivity and specificity to predict glioma cells by distinguishing normal cells were 98.3% and 75.0%, respectively. Principal component analysis elucidated the significance of spectral difference between tumor tissues and normal tissues. It is possible to distinguish invasive tumors from normal tissues by using Raman spectroscopy. PMID:25247190

  4. Hippocampal T cell infiltration promotes neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in a mouse model of tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Cyril; Dorothée, Guillaume; Hunot, Stéphane; Martin, Elodie; Monnet, Yann; Duchamp, Marie; Dong, Yuan; Légeron, François-Pierre; Leboucher, Antoine; Burnouf, Sylvie; Faivre, Emilie; Carvalho, Kévin; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Zommer, Nadège; Demeyer, Dominique; Jouy, Nathalie; Sazdovitch, Veronique; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Delarasse, Cécile; Buée, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the combined presence of amyloid plaques and tau pathology, the latter being correlated with the progression of clinical symptoms. Neuroinflammatory changes are thought to be major contributors to Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology, even if their precise role still remains largely debated. Notably, to what extent immune responses contribute to cognitive impairments promoted by tau pathology remains poorly understood. To address this question, we took advantage of the THY-Tau22 mouse model that progressively develops hippocampal tau pathology paralleling cognitive deficits and reappraised the interrelationship between tau pathology and brain immune responses. In addition to conventional astroglial and microglial responses, we identified a CD8-positive T cell infiltration in the hippocampus of tau transgenic mice associated with an early chemokine response, notably involving CCL3. Interestingly, CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration was also observed in the cortex of patients exhibiting frontemporal dementia with P301L tau mutation. To gain insights into the functional involvement of T cell infiltration in the pathophysiological development of tauopathy in THY-Tau22 mice, we chronically depleted T cells using anti-CD3 antibody. Such anti-CD3 treatment prevented hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau transgenic animals and reverted spatial memory deficits, in absence of tau pathology modulation. Altogether, these data support an instrumental role of hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau-driven pathophysiology and cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. PMID:27818384

  5. Inflammatory infiltrates and complete absence of Purkinje cells in anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Verschuuren, J; Chuang, L; Rosenblum, M K; Lieberman, F; Pryor, A; Posner, J B; Dalmau, J

    1996-01-01

    We studied the nervous systems and tumors of two patients with anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). In both patients the underlying tumor was an ovarian adenocarcinoma that expressed Yo antigens and contained extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The major central nervous system findings were a complete loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells with Bergmann astrogliosis. One patient had inflammatory infiltrates in the medulla and pons, and moderate axonal loss and demyelination involving the spinal cord. No inflammatory infiltrates were identified in the cerebrum, cerebellum or brain-stem of the other patient. Using quantitative Western blot analysis, deposits of anti-Yo IgG could not be demonstrated in the nervous system, possibly as a result of the loss of cells expressing Yo antigens. The detection of the anti-Yo antibody as a common marker of PCD in one patient with inflammatory infiltrates and another without infiltrates suggests that some PCD pathologically classified as "non-inflammatory" may represent a final burn-out stage of a cellular immune-mediated disorder. Our findings indicate that Purkinje cells are the main, but not necessarily the exclusive, targets of this disorder.

  6. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  7. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  8. Spectroscopic-guided brain tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Toms, Steven A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    A pilot in vivo study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopy for brain tumor margin detection. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired using a portable clinical spectroscopic system from normal brain tissues, tumors, and tumor margins in 21 brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy. Results form this study show the potential of optical spectroscopy in detecting infiltrating tumor margins of primary brain tumors.

  9. Sequential infiltration synthesis for advanced lithography

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2015-03-17

    A plasma etch resist material modified by an inorganic protective component via sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS) and methods of preparing the modified resist material. The modified resist material is characterized by an improved resistance to a plasma etching or related process relative to the unmodified resist material, thereby allowing formation of patterned features into a substrate material, which may be high-aspect ratio features. The SIS process forms the protective component within the bulk resist material through a plurality of alternating exposures to gas phase precursors which infiltrate the resist material. The plasma etch resist material may be initially patterned using photolithography, electron-beam lithography or a block copolymer self-assembly process.

  10. Tumor-Infiltrating Lymphocyte Therapy and Neoantigens.

    PubMed

    Robbins, Paul F

    The adoptive cell transfer (ACT) of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes has been shown to be effective at mediating tumor regression in more than half of patients with metastatic melanoma and in mediating long-term complete regression in approximately one fourth of all patients with this cancer. The success of this approach in patients with cholangiocarcinoma and colon cancer supports efforts to expand ACT therapies to treatment of patients bearing a wide array of cancer types. Recent improvements in deep sequencing of the patient cancers, combined with extensive immunological testing of autologous tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, indicate that T cells targeting epitopes arising from nonsynonymous somatic mutations, termed neoantigens, play important roles in mediating many of the effective cancer immunotherapies seen in response to ACT.

  11. Canine inflammatory myopathy: analysis of cellular infiltrates.

    PubMed

    Pumarola, Marti; Moore, Peter F; Shelton, G Diane

    2004-06-01

    Inflammatory myopathies (IMs) occur relatively frequently in dogs, and, with the exception of masticatory muscle myositis (MMM), have not been characterized. This study analyzed the distribution and types of cellular infiltrates in 21 cases of generalized IM, 3 cases of focal IM (MMM), and 1 case with features of both generalized and focal IM, using a panel of monoclonal antibodies to cell surface markers. In generalized IM, mononuclear cells showed an endomysial and perimysial distribution with invasion of non-necrotic fibers similar to human IM. T lymphocytes with T-cell receptor (TCR)alphabeta predominated. Distinct differences were seen in MMM including prominent B-cell infiltration, dendritic cells and macrophages in greater numbers than T cells, and numerous T cells with TCRgammadelta. Thus, generalized IM and MMM appear to be distinct diseases with different mechanisms. Canine generalized IM may be an important animal model for human IM.

  12. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  13. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  15. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  16. Hereditary Amyloidosis with Recurrent Lung Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Revelo, Alberto E.; Magaspi, Crischelle; Maguire, George; Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 51 Final Diagnosis: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with lung involvement Symptoms: Cough • dyspnea • lethargy Medication: Diflunisal Clinical Procedure: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsy Specialty: Pulmonary Medicine Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or patholog Background: Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in extracellular tissue. Lung involvement is most commonly caused by secondary AL amyloidosis. The familial autosomal-dominant senile transthyretin (ATTR) disease manifests mainly as polyneuropathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy denoting the name familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Rarely, this form manifests with clinical and radiologically relevant respiratory tract symptoms and lung involvement. Case Report: A 51-year-old male former smoker presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness of several months’ duration. He was ultimately diagnosed with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Subsequently, he was admitted with heart failure symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates and his echocardiogram showed a ‘myocardial speckled pattern’, prompting an endomyocardial biopsy, which showed transthyretin amyloid deposition. He was started on diflunisal. Additionally, serial radiographic imaging of his chest over 3 different admissions for cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and lethargy demonstrated recurrent pulmonary infiltrates. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lung tissue. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms and fleeting infiltrates on imaging in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is not common; when present, it should raise the suspicion of respiratory tract involvement. PMID:27872470

  17. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  18. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  19. Inverse modeling of soil infiltration process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuraz, Michal

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an evaluation of the soil hydraulic parameters (SHP) for a mountainous podzolic soil profile. Due to the tickness of the top-soil layer only the SHPs for the lower layers can be identified using standard approaches - a single ring (SR) infiltration experiment and a Guelph permeameter (GP) measurement. The SHPs for the top soil layer were identified here by inverse modeling of the SR infiltration process, where, especially, the initial unsteady part of the experiment can provide very useful data for evaluating the retention curve parameters and the saturated hydraulic conductivity. This inverse analysis is the main topic of this paper. Since the infiltration process is a typical case of a model that describes the progressive breakthrough of the wetting curve, we made use of adaptive domain decomposition (dd-adaptivity) described by [1, 2, 3] for sequential activation and deactivation of the segments of our computational domain. Finally, we conducted a sensitivity analysis of our objective function on the SHP set.

  20. The effects of C5aR1 on leukocyte infiltration following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Benson, Melissa J; Manzanero, Silvia; Borges, Karin

    2017-02-22

    This study aimed to determine the role C5aR1 plays in mediating immune responses acutely after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), specifically those of brain-infiltrating leukocytes. Three days following pilocarpine SE, we determined by flow cytometry the brain immune cell phenotypes and measured key proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine expression by infiltrating leukocytes and microglia in C5aR1-deficient and wild-type mice. Absence of C5aR1 reduced by 47% the numbers of Ly6G(+) neutrophils in the brains of No-SE mice and decreased neutrophil entry after SE to levels found in wild-type brains that did not undergo SE (No-SE). Moreover, C5aR1-deficient mice showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression in infiltrating leukocytes, but not in microglia. Increases in IL-4 expression in infiltrating leukocytes coupled with decreased neutrophil invasion in C5aR1-deficient mice after SE is likely to contribute to the reduced neuronal loss previously found in these mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Although other SE models need to be investigated to substantiate our findings, this study provides further evidence that C5aR1 is an inflammatory mediator and may play a role in epileptogenesis.

  1. Remediation to improve infiltration into compact soils.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nicholas C; Gulliver, John S; Nieber, John L; Kayhanian, Masoud

    2013-03-15

    Urban development usually involves soil compaction through converting large pervious land into developed land. This change typically increases runoff during runoff events and consequently may add to flooding and additional volume of runoff. The wash off of pollutants may also create numerous water quality and environmental problems for receiving waters. To alleviate this problem many municipalities are considering low impact development. One technique to reduce runoff in an urban area is to improve the soil infiltration. This study is specifically undertaken to investigate tilling and compost addition to improve infiltration rate, and to investigate measurement tools to assess the effectiveness of remediated soil. Soil remediation was performed at three sites in an urban area metropolitan area. Each site was divided into three plots: tilled, tilled with compost addition, and a control plot with no treatment. The infiltration effectiveness within each plot was assessed by measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) using the modified Philip Dunne (MPD) infiltrometer during pre- and post-treatment. In addition, the use of soil bulk density and soil strength as surrogate parameters for K(sat) was investigated. Results showed that deep tillage was effective at reducing the level of soil strength. Soil strength was approximately half that of the control plot in the first six inches of soil. At two of the sites, tilling was also ineffective at improving the infiltration capacity of the soil. The geometric mean of K(sat) was 0.5-2.3 times that of the control plot, indicating little overall improvement. Compost addition was more effective than tilling by reducing the soil strength and compaction and increasing soil infiltration. The geometric mean of K(sat) on the compost plots was 2.7-5.7 times that of the control plot. No strong correlations were observed before remediation between either soil bulk density or soil strength and K(sat). Simulation results showed

  2. Green-ampt infiltration parameters in riparian buffers

    Treesearch

    L.M. Stahr; D.E. Eisenhauer; M.J. Helmers; Mike G. Dosskey; T.G. Franti

    2004-01-01

    Riparian buffers can improve surface water quality by filtering contaminants from runoff before they enter streams. Infiltration is an important process in riparian buffers. Computer models are often used to assess the performance of riparian buffers. Accurate prediction of infiltration by these models is dependent upon accurate estimates of infiltration parameters....

  3. Analysis of Rainfall Infiltration Law in Unsaturated Soil Slope

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θ s - θ r), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process. PMID:24672332

  4. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  5. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4+ T cells were more numerous than CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20+ B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site. PMID:27471624

  6. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD20(+) lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4(+) T cells were more numerous than CD8(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20(+) B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site.

  7. Lymphocyte activation and hepatic cellular infiltration in immunocompetent mice infected by dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuen-Chin; Lai, Show-Yun; Sung, Jui-Min; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Lin, Yu-Chin; Wang, Wei-Kung; Chen, Yee-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2004-07-01

    Activation and expansion of dengue virus-specific T cells and abnormal liver functions in dengue patients have been documented. However, it remains to be determined whether T cells are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of dengue virus infection. In this study, immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were employed to study dengue virus-induced T cell activation. Mice were inoculated with 10(8) PFU dengue virus serotype 2 strain 16681 by the intravenous route. Dengue viral core RNA was detected by RT-PCR in mouse serum, liver, spleen, and brain at different time points after infection. Splenic T cells were activated as evidenced by their expression of CD69 and O-glycosylated CD43 at as early as day 3 after infection. Splenic T cell expression of O-glycosylated CD43 and IFN-gamma production coordinately peaked at day 5. Coincided with the peak of splenic T cell activation was hepatic lymphocyte infiltration and elevation of liver enzymes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the infiltrating CD8(+) T cell to CD4(+) T cell ratio was 5/3. After a second inoculation of dengue virus, hepatic T cell infiltration and liver enzyme levels increased sharply. The infiltrating hepatic CD8(+) T cell to CD4(+) T cell ratio increased to 5.8/1. A strong correlation was found between T cell activation and hepatic cellular infiltration in immunocompetent mice infected with dengue virus. The kinetics of liver enzyme elevation also correlated with that of T cell activation. These data suggest a relationship between T cell infiltration and elevation of liver enzymes.

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  9. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy simulating an infiltrative myocardial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frustaci, A; Loperfido, F; Pennestrì, F

    1985-01-01

    Congestive heart failure developed in a patient with low electrocardiographic QRS voltages, diffuse thickening of the septum and free cardiac wall, and a reduction in left ventricular internal diameter, which suggested an infiltrative heart muscle disease. Histological examination at necropsy showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial disarray of type 1A disorganisation was extensive and equally distributed in the ventricular septum and the left anterior and left posterior ventricular free walls. Severe fibrosis (40%) was also present and may have been a possible cause of the electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as of the lack of ventricular dilatation. Images PMID:4041302

  10. SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) with Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Phtogrphsf tpe and Identifatio % flowt tests teyYiinders U& U6 10 LE~~ 150 1 3= O-4 slurries also contained microsilica . Three different fiber types...Ash Infiltration tests and selected mixes Water Facility 26025 tap water Kirtland A.F. Base well no. 2 All Microsilica EMS 960 (bagged) Elkem...the end instead of the two. When there are the three sets of numbers, the first set indicates the percent of microsilica with respect to the cement in

  11. Hydrogeophysical monitoring of water infiltration processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bevilacqua, Ivan; Cassiani, Giorgio; Deiana, Rita; Canone, Davide; Previati, Maurizio

    2010-05-01

    Non-invasive subsurface monitoring is growing in the last years. Techniques like ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) can be useful in soil water content monitoring (e.g., Vereecken et al., 2006). Some problems remain (e.g. spatial resolution), but the scale is consistent with many applications and hydrological models. The research has to to provide even more quantitative tools, without remaining in the qualitative realm. This is a very crucial step in the way to provide data useful for hydrological modeling. In this work a controlled field infiltration experiment has been done in August 2009 in the experimental site of Grugliasco, close to the Agricultural Faculty of the University of Torino, Italy. The infiltration has been monitored in time lapse by ERT, GPR, and TDR (Time Domain Reflectometry). The sandy soil characteristics of the site has been already described in another experiment [Cassiani et al. 2009a].The ERT was èperformed in dipole-dipole configuration, while the GPR had 100 MHz and 500 MHz antennas in WARR configuration. The TDR gages had different lengths. The amount of water which was sprinkled was also monitored in time.Irrigation intensity has been always smaller than infiltration capacity, in order not toh ave any surface ponding. Spectral induced polarization has been used to infer constitutive parameters from soil samples [Cassiani et al. 2009b]. 2D Richards equation model (Manzini and Ferraris, 2004) has been then calibrated with the measurements. References. Cassiani, G., S. Ferraris, M. Giustiniani, R. Deiana and C.Strobbia, 2009a, Time-lapse surface-to-surface GPR measurements to monitor a controlled infiltration experiment, in press, Bollettino di Geofisica Teorica ed Applicata, Vol. 50, 2 Marzo 2009, pp. 209-226. Cassiani, G., A. Kemna, A.Villa, and E. Zimmermann, 2009b, Spectral induced polarization for the characterization of free-phase hydrocarbon contamination in sediments with low clay content

  12. Exploring variation and predictors of residential fine particulate matter infiltration.

    PubMed

    Clark, Nina A; Allen, Ryan W; Hystad, Perry; Wallace, Lance; Dell, Sharon D; Foty, Richard; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Evans, Greg; Wheeler, Amanda J

    2010-08-01

    Although individuals spend the majority of their time indoors, most epidemiological studies estimate personal air pollution exposures based on outdoor levels. This almost certainly results in exposure misclassification as pollutant infiltration varies between homes. However, it is often not possible to collect detailed measures of infiltration for individual homes in large-scale epidemiological studies and thus there is currently a need to develop models that can be used to predict these values. To address this need, we examined infiltration of fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) and identified determinants of infiltration for 46 residential homes in Toronto, Canada. Infiltration was estimated using the indoor/outdoor sulphur ratio and information on hypothesized predictors of infiltration were collected using questionnaires and publicly available databases. Multiple linear regression was used to develop the models. Mean infiltration was 0.52 ± 0.21 with no significant difference across heating and non-heating seasons. Predictors of infiltration were air exchange, presence of central air conditioning, and forced air heating. These variables accounted for 38% of the variability in infiltration. Without air exchange, the model accounted for 26% of the variability. Effective modelling of infiltration in individual homes remains difficult, although key variables such as use of central air conditioning show potential as an easily attainable indicator of infiltration.

  13. Fortress brain.

    PubMed

    Royall, Donald R

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal inclusions, comprised of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) such lesions are distributed in a hierarchical retrograde transynaptic spatial pattern. This implies a retrograde transynaptic temporal propagation as well. There can be few explanations for this other than infectious agents (prions and viruses). This suggests that AD and LBD (at least) may have infectious origins. Transynaptic infiltration of the CNS along cranial nerve or other major projections, by one or more infectious agents has important implications. The clinical syndrome and natural history of each neurodegenerative disorder will reflect its portal of entry. There may be a different neurodegenerative syndrome for each cranial nerve or other portal of entry, and not all may manifest as "dementia". Each syndrome may be associated with more than one pathological lesion. Each pathology may be associated with several clinical syndromes. Host-parasite interactions are species specific. This may explain the rarity of AD-like pathology in most other older mammals. Over evolutionary timescales, the human brain should be adapted to predation by neurotropic agents. Viewed from this perspective, the prion-like pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of β-amyloid and other proteins may be adaptive, and anti-microbial. Reductions in synaptic density may slow the progress of invading pathogens, while perineuronal nets and other structures may guard the gates. This suggests a defense in depth of a structure, the brain, that is inherently vulnerable to invasion along its neural networks.

  14. Method to measure soil matrix infiltration in forest soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jing; Lei, Tingwu; Qu, Liqin; Chen, Ping; Gao, Xiaofeng; Chen, Chao; Yuan, Lili; Zhang, Manliang; Su, Guangxu

    2017-09-01

    Infiltration of water into forest soil commonly involves infiltration through the matrix body and preferential passages. Determining the matrix infiltration process is important in partitioning water infiltrating into the soil through the soil body and macropores to evaluate the effects of soil and water conservation practices on hillslope hydrology and watershed sedimentation. A new method that employs a double-ring infiltrometer was applied in this study to determine the matrix infiltration process in forest soil. Field experiments were conducted in a forest field on the Loess Plateau at Tianshui Soil and Water Conservation Experimental Station. Nylon cloth was placed on the soil surface in the inner ring and between the inner and outer rings of infiltrometers. A thin layer of fine sands were placed onto the nylon cloth to shelter the macropores and ensure that water infiltrates the soil through the matrix only. Brilliant Blue tracers were applied to examine the exclusion of preferential flow occurrences in the measured soil body. The infiltration process was measured, computed, and recorded through procedures similar to those of conventional methods. Horizontal and vertical soil profiles were excavated to check the success of the experiment and ensure that preferential flow did not occur in the measured soil column and that infiltration was only through the soil matrix. The infiltration processes of the replicates of five plots were roughly the same, thereby indicating the feasibility of the methodology to measure soil matrix infiltration. The measured infiltration curves effectively explained the transient process of soil matrix infiltration. Philip and Kostiakov models fitted the measured data well, and all the coefficients of determination were greater than 0.9. The wetted soil bodies through excavations did not present evidence of preferential flow. Therefore, the proposed method can determine the infiltration process through the forest soil matrix. This

  15. Dermal eosinophilic infiltrate in junctional epidermolysis bullosa.

    PubMed

    Saraiya, Ami; Yang, Catherine S; Kim, Jinah; Bercovitch, Lionel; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie; Telang, Gladys

    2015-08-01

    Junctional epidermolysis bullosa (JEB) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by a split in the lamina lucida usually because of mutations in LAMA3, LAMB3 and LAMC2 resulting in absence or reduction of laminin-332. Rare subtypes of JEB have mutations in COL17A1, ITGB4, ITGA6 and ITGA3 leading to reduction or dysfunction of collagen XVII, integrin α6β4 and integrin α3. The classic finding under light microscopy is a paucicellular, subepidermal split. We describe the unusual presence of an eosinophilic infiltrate in the bullae and subjacent dermis in a neonate with JEB, generalized intermediate (formerly known as non-Herlitz-type JEB), discuss the histologic differential diagnosis for a subepidermal blister in a neonate, review the literature regarding cases of epidermolysis bullosa (EB) presenting with inflammatory infiltrates, and discuss mechanisms to explain these findings. This case highlights that eosinophils can rarely be seen in EB and should not mislead the dermatopathologist into diagnosing an autoimmune blistering disorder. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. PKCδ activated by c-MET enhances infiltration of human glioblastoma cells through NOTCH2 signaling

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Seok-Gu; Kim, Rae-Kwon; Cui, Yan-Hong; Lee, Hae-June; Kim, Min-Jung; Lee, Jae-Seong; Kim, In-Gyu; Suh, Yongjoon; Lee, Su-Jae

    2016-01-01

    Poor prognosis of glioblastoma (GBM) is attributable to the propensity of tumor cells to infiltrate into the brain parenchyma. Protein kinase C (PKC) isozymes are highly expressed or aberrantly activated in GBM. However, how this signaling node translates to GBM cell invasiveness remains unknown. Here, we report that among PKC isoforms, PKCδ is strongly associated with infiltration of GBM cells. Notably, PKCδ enhanced Tyr418 phosphorylation of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase SRC, which in turn activated STAT3 and subsequent NOTCH2 signaling, ultimately leading to GBM cell invasiveness. Furthermore, we showed that PKCδ was aberrantly activated in GBM cells by c-MET, a receptor tyrosine kinase hyperactivated in GBM. In agreement, inhibition either component in the c-MET/PKCδ/SRC/STAT3 signaling axis effectively blocked the NOTCH2 signaling and invasiveness of GBM cells. Taken together, our findings shed a light on the signaling mechanisms behind the constitutive activation of PKCδ signaling in GBM. PMID:26700818

  17. Reactive infiltration in fabricating silicon carbide composites for electronic packaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Liming

    The silicon carbide (SiC) composite is a promising material to improve thermal dissipation and thermal expansion matching for electronic packaging, but its wide application has been greatly hindered by the high fabrication cost. To address this cost issue, two new reactive infiltration methods have been proposed and developed to fabricate SiC composite in a net-shape manner. They are Method 1--locally magnesium-enhanced infiltration and Method 2--globally carbon-enhanced infiltration. In Method 1, a magnesium wetting agent was strategically inserted at the interface between SiC powder and Al-Si alloy. The molten Al-Si alloy was assisted by chemical reaction to infiltrate into the porous SiC powder in an inert atmosphere sealed in a quartz tube or a steel cup. The infiltration kinetics was characterized by measuring the infiltration weight gain with respect to time. It was found that the infiltration kinetics could be divided into three stages: infiltration initiation, rapid infiltration, and slow infiltration, and most of the weight gain occurred in the rapid infiltration stage. The rapid infiltration was due to the magnesium-silicon oxide reaction and the magnesium accumulation at the infiltration front. Modeling of the infiltration kinetics showed the magnesium dilution increased the dynamic contact angle, which in turn decreased the infiltration rate. The SiC oxidation, Mg content and temperature were shown to be important factors affecting the infiltration. In Method 2, a carbon wetting agent is coated globally on every SiC particle. To accomplish this coating, a slip casting, drying, curing and carbonization process was developed. A crucibleless infiltration method was designed to fabricate SiC composites in an open atmosphere protected by nitrogen. The temperature change of SiC preform during infiltration was monitored to determine the infiltration kinetics. The silicon-carbon reaction was found to create a spontaneous infiltration of molten Si or molten Al

  18. KCa3.1 inhibition switches the phenotype of glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; D'Alessandro, G; Golia, M T; Grössinger, E M; Di Angelantonio, S; Ragozzino, D; Santoro, A; Esposito, V; Wulff, H; Catalano, M; Limatola, C

    2016-01-01

    Among the strategies adopted by glioma to successfully invade the brain parenchyma is turning the infiltrating microglia/macrophages (M/MΦ) into allies, by shifting them toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor phenotype. Both glioma and infiltrating M/MΦ cells express the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1), and the inhibition of KCa3.1 activity on glioma cells reduces tumor infiltration in the healthy brain parenchyma. We wondered whether KCa3.1 inhibition could prevent the acquisition of a pro-tumor phenotype by M/MΦ cells, thus contributing to reduce glioma development. With this aim, we studied microglia cultured in glioma-conditioned medium or treated with IL-4, as well as M/MΦ cells acutely isolated from glioma-bearing mice and from human glioma biopsies. Under these different conditions, M/MΦ were always polarized toward an anti-inflammatory state, and preventing KCa3.1 activation by 1-[(2-Chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34), we observed a switch toward a pro-inflammatory, antitumor phenotype. We identified FAK and PI3K/AKT as the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenotype switch, activated in sequence after KCa3.1. Anti-inflammatory M/MΦ have higher expression levels of KCa3.1 mRNA (kcnn4) that are reduced by KCa3.1 inhibition. In line with these findings, TRAM-34 treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the size of tumors in glioma-bearing mice. Our data indicate that KCa3.1 channels are involved in the inhibitory effects exerted by the glioma microenvironment on infiltrating M/MΦ, suggesting a possible role as therapeutic targets in glioma. PMID:27054329

  19. Walking assessment with instrumented insoles in patients with lower limb spasticity after botulinum toxin infiltration.

    PubMed

    Béseler, M R; Grao, C M; Gil, A; Martínez Lozano, M D

    2012-01-01

    Botulinum toxin A (BTA) improves the kinematic parameters of gait in patients with spasticity of lower limbs, but there are no studies in which kinetic parameters are measured with instrumented insoles. We therefore used instrumented insoles to perform a functional assessment of therapeutic results in patients with lower limb spasticity after brain injury or spinal cord infiltration indicating BTA. Ten patients (11 lower limbs) seen in a Neurorehabilitation Unit. The tests carried out included clinical examination, gait assessment (Functional Ambulation Categories (FAC); Hospital de Sagunto Gait Scale), and biomechanical assessment (Biofoot / IBV version 5.0), before and three weeks after infiltration with BTA. t-test for related samples of clinical variables, functional variables and biomechanical variables before and after infiltration. Level of significance P< .05. Qualitative method to assess whether changes in the biomechanical variables tended toward normal values. BTA improves muscle tone, joint arch and frequency of spasms (P<.01). The patient sample showed a high level of satisfaction with the improvement in symptoms. There were no changes in walking ability after injection. There were no statistically significant changes in biomechanical parameters, but there was improved gait cadence. The relatively small statistical significance close to P=.1 of the peak pressure in the heel after injection indicates the need for further studies with instrumented insoles in people with spasticity due to central nervous system injury. With the decrease in muscle tone after infiltration with BTA the clinical symptoms associated with muscle tone improved without any functional changes in gait scales. The changes in the biomechanical parameters show that larger studies using instrumented insoles should be performed in the population with spasticity after a central nervous system injury treated with BTA infiltration. © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by

  20. Paradoxes of subdiffusive infiltration in disordered systems.

    PubMed

    Korabel, Nickolay; Barkai, Eli

    2010-04-30

    Infiltration of diffusing particles from one material to another where the diffusion mechanism is either normal or anomalous is a widely observed phenomena. When the diffusion is anomalous we find interesting behavior: diffusion may lead to an averaged net drift x from one material to another even if all particles eventually flow in the opposite direction. Furthermore, x does not depend on the properties of the medium in which it is situated, indicating nonlocality of the process. Starting with an underlying continuous time random walk model we solve diffusion equations describing this problem. Similar drift against flow is found in the quenched trap model. We argue that such behavior is a general feature of diffusion in disordered systems.

  1. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  2. Infiltrating monocytes in liver injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Brempelis, Katherine J; Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious liver injury causes many acute and chronic liver diseases around the globe, and particularly in developed nations. Bone marrow-derived monocytes infiltrate the damaged liver tissue and are a critical component of the innate immune response that may drive injury resolution or host death in the short term or chronic inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the long term. Monocytes often play dual roles in liver injury—both perpetuating inflammation and promoting resolution of inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we will address the role that monocytes play in different experimental forms of noninfectious liver injury; considering in particular the importance of the transition from inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes to pro-resolution Ly6Clo monocyte-derived macrophages and the consequences of this transition for disease progression and resolution. PMID:27990288

  3. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  4. [Pseudotumorous cardiac infiltration in a patient with acute monoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Orts, M; Ribera, J M; Calatrava, A; Larrouse, E; Catalán, R; Navarro, J T; Millá, F; Feliu, E

    1996-04-13

    Although cardiac infiltration is common in advanced stage of acute leukaemia, it is not usually diagnosed at life and it is extremely rare for it to become pseudotumoral. A 25-years-old patient with an acute monoblastic leukaemia who had a leukaemic infiltration which affected the main part of the left ventricle at the time of diagnosis, is referred. The heart infiltration was detected by a two dimension echocardiography. In spite of a massive infiltration, heart failure was not present and the left ventricle's ejection fraction was 50%. Even though chemotherapy was administered, the patient died four days after diagnosis due to septic shock of respiratory origin. The most relevant autopsy finding was a widespread pseudotumoral infiltration of the left ventricle, the back side of the right ventricle and the interventricular wall. The pseudotumoral infiltration of the heart by acute leukaemia is uncommon and must be differentiated from granulocytic sarcoma. The usefulness of the different diagnostic procedures is discussed.

  5. Explicit infiltration equations and the Lambert W-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, J.-Y.; Barry, D. A.; Haverkamp, R.

    The Green and Ampt infiltration formula, as well as the Talsma and Parlange formula, are two-parameter equations that are both expressible in terms of Lambert W-functions. These representations are used to derive explicit, simple and accurate approximations for each case. The two infiltration formulas are limiting cases that can be deduced from an existing three-parameter infiltration equation, the third parameter allowing for interpolation between the limiting cases. Besides the limiting cases, there is another case for which the three-parameter infiltration equation yields an exact solution. The three-parameter equation can be solved by fixed-point iteration, a scheme which can be exploited to obtain a sequence of increasingly complex explicit infiltration equations. For routine use, a simple, explicit approximation to the three-parameter infiltration equation is derived. This approximation eliminates the need to iterate for most practical circumstances.

  6. Stormwater infiltration and the 'urban karst' - A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonneau, Jeremie; Fletcher, Tim D.; Costelloe, Justin F.; Burns, Matthew J.

    2017-09-01

    The covering of native soils with impervious surfaces (e.g. roofs, roads, and pavement) prevents infiltration of rainfall into the ground, resulting in increased surface runoff and decreased groundwater recharge. When this excess water is managed using stormwater drainage systems, flow and water quality regimes of urban streams are severely altered, leading to the degradation of their ecosystems. Urban streams restoration requires alternative approaches towards stormwater management, which aim to restore the flow regime towards pre-development conditions. The practice of stormwater infiltration-achieved using a range of stormwater source-control measures (SCMs)-is central to restoring baseflow. Despite this, little is known about what happens to the infiltrated water. Current knowledge about the impact of stormwater infiltration on flow regimes was reviewed. Infiltration systems were found to be efficient at attenuating high-flow hydrology (reducing peak magnitudes and frequencies) at a range of scales (parcel, streetscape, catchment). Several modelling studies predict a positive impact of stormwater infiltration on baseflow, and empirical evidence is emerging, but the fate of infiltrated stormwater remains unclear. It is not known how infiltrated water travels along the subsurface pathways that characterise the urban environment, in particular the 'urban karst', which results from networks of human-made subsurface pathways, e.g. stormwater and sanitary sewer pipes and associated high permeability trenches. Seepage of groundwater into and around such pipes is possible, meaning some infiltrated stormwater could travel along artificial pathways. The catchment-scale ability of infiltration systems to restore groundwater recharge and baseflow is thus ambiguous. Further understanding of the fate of infiltrated stormwater is required to ensure infiltration systems deliver optimal outcomes for waterway flow regimes.

  7. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  8. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  9. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  10. Infiltration of demineralized dentin with silica and hydroxyapatite nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Besinis, Alexandros; van Noort, Richard; Martin, Nicolas

    2012-09-01

    The management of demineralized dentin resulting from dental caries or acid erosion remains an oral healthcare clinical challenge. This paper investigates, through a range of studies, the ability of colloidal silica and hydroxyapatite (HA) nanoparticles to infiltrate the collagen structure of demineralized dentin. Dentin samples were completely demineralized in 4 N formic acid. The remaining collagen matrix of the dentin samples was subsequently infiltrated with a range of nano-particulate colloidal silica and HA solutions. The effectiveness and extent of the infiltration was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). Silica nanoparticles have the ability to penetrate dentin and remain embedded within the collagen matrix. It is suggested that particle size plays a major role in the degree of dentin infiltration, with smaller diameter particles demonstrating a greater infiltrative capacity. The infiltration of demineralized dentin with sol-gel HA nanoparticles was limited but was significantly increased when combined with the deflocculating agent sodium hexametaphosphate. The use of acetone as a transport vehicle is reported to enhance the infiltration capacity of sol-gel HA nanoparticles. Collagen infiltrated with HA and silica nanoparticles may provide a suitable scaffold for the remineralization of dentin, whereby the infiltrated particles act as seeds within the collage matrix and given the appropriate remineralizing environment, mineral growth may occur. Copyright © 2012 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  12. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification.

  13. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  14. Mapping the accumulation of co-infiltrating CNS dendritic cells and encephalitogenic T cells during EAE

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that CNS-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for restimulation of coinfiltrating T cells. Here we systematically quantified and visualized the distribution and interaction of CNS DCs and T cells during EAE. We report marked periventricular accumulation of DCs and myelin-specific T cells during EAE disease onset prior to accumulation in the spinal cord, indicating that the choroid plexus-CSF axis is a CNS entry portal. Moreover, despite emphasis on spinal cord inflammation in EAE and in correspondence with MS pathology, inflammatory lesions containing interacting DCs and T cells are present in specific brain regions. PMID:25288303

  15. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  16. Increased Infiltration of CD8(+) T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Funazumi, Masato; Namiki, Takeshi; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-08-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8(+) T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators.

  17. Increased Infiltration of CD8+ T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Funazumi, Masato; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8+ T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8+ T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8+ T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators. PMID:27489432

  18. Progesterone protects endothelial cells after cerebrovascular occlusion by decreasing MCP-1- and CXCL1-mediated macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Remus, Ebony Washington; Sayeed, Iqbal; Won, Soonmi; Lyle, Alicia N; Stein, Donald G

    2015-09-01

    The neuroprotective effects of progesterone after ischemic stroke have been established, but the role of progesterone in promoting cerebrovascular repair remains under-explored. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Progesterone (8 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally at 1h after initial occlusion followed by subcutaneous injections at 6, 24 and 48 h post-occlusion. Rats were euthanized after 72 h and brain endothelial cell density and macrophage infiltration were evaluated within the cerebral cortex. We also assessed progesterone's ability to induce macrophage migration toward hypoxic/reoxygenated cultured endothelial cells. We found that progesterone treatment post-tMCAO protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration. We further demonstrate that infiltration of monocytes/macrophages can be induced by potent chemotactic factors such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), secreted by hypoxic/reoxygenated endothelial cells. Progesterone blunts secretion of MCP-1 and CXCL1 from endothelial cells after hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and decreases leukocyte infiltration. The treatment protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration and thus preserves vascularization after ischemic injury.

  19. Postconditioning by mild hypoxic exposures reduces rat brain injury caused by severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rybnikova, Elena; Vorobyev, Maksim; Pivina, Svetlana; Samoilov, Mikhail

    2012-03-28

    A potent neuroprotective effect of ischemic postconditioning has previously been described using cerebral artery occlusion but this is not a practical therapeutic option. The present study has been performed to determine whether postconditioning by mild episodes of hypobaric hypoxia (hypoxic postconditioning, HP) can reduce post-hypoxic brain injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to severe hypobaric hypoxia (180 Torr, 3 h) followed by HP (360 Torr, 2 h, 3 trials spaced at 24 h) starting either 3h (early HP) or 24 h (delayed HP) after severe hypoxia. The structural and functional brain injury was assessed by a complex of histological techniques, behavioral methods, and by testing the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). It was found that early and delayed HP considerably attenuated post-hypoxic injury, reducing pyknosis, hyperchromatosis, and interstitial brain edema, as well as the rates of neuronal loss in hippocampus and neocortex. Delayed HP produced prominent anxiolytic effect on rat behavior, preventing development of post-hypoxic anxiety. Both modes of HP had beneficial effect on the functioning of HPA, but only delayed HP normalized completely the baseline HPA activity and its reactivity to stress. The results obtained demonstrate that postconditioning by using repetitive episodes of mild hypobaric hypoxia may provide a powerful neuroprotective procedure that can be easily adopted for clinical practice and recommended as a research tool for identification of endogenous mechanisms involved in post-ischemic neuroprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Memory deficit associated with increased brain proinflammatory cytokine levels and neurodegeneration in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno; Sousa, Larissa; Miranda, Aline; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Reis, Helton; Barcelos, Lucíola; Arantes, Rosa; Teixeira, Antonio; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate behavioral changes and neuroinflammatory process following left unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO), a model of cerebral ischemia. Post-ischemic behavioral changes following 15 min UCCAO were recorded 24 hours after reperfusion. The novel object recognition task was used to assess learning and memory. After behavioral test, brains from sham and ischemic mice were removed and processed to evaluate central nervous system pathology by TTC and H&E techniques as well as inflammatory mediators by ELISA. UCCAO promoted long-term memory impairment after reperfusion. Infarct areas were observed in the cerebrum by TTC stain. Moreover, the histopathological analysis revealed cerebral necrotic cavities surrounded by ischemic neurons and hippocampal neurodegeneration. In parallel with memory dysfunction, brain levels of TNF-a, IL-1b and CXCL1 were increased post ischemia compared with sham-operated group. These findings suggest an involvement of central nervous system inflammatory mediators and brain damage in cognitive impairment following unilateral acute ischemia.

  1. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    infiltration without gaining any benefits 15. SUBJECT TERMS Infiltration, Border Security, Denial Operations, Barrier emplacement, Terrorism , Vietnam War...In 1967, the Republic of Vietnam reported communists were waging a clandestine war to conquer South Vietnam. The communists sowed terror by attacking...innocent people, sabotaging the economy and inciting social hatred. North Vietnam, China, and Russia fueled their insidious campaign of terrorism

  2. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  3. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  4. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... of the cost of eliminating the infiltration/inflow conditions. These costs shall be compared with estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... plan shall outline the tasks to be performed in the survey and their estimated costs. ...

  5. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... of the cost of eliminating the infiltration/inflow conditions. These costs shall be compared with estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... plan shall outline the tasks to be performed in the survey and their estimated costs. ...

  6. Errors in infiltration volume calculations in volume balance models

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Volume balance models of surface irrigation calculate the infiltrated volume at a given time as a product of the stream length, upstream infiltration, and shape factors. The best known expression of this type was derived by combining the Lewis-Milne equation with empirical power-law expressions for ...

  7. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  8. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1 Section 35.927-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  9. MEASUREMENTS OF INFILTRATION RATES IN COMPACTED URBAN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  10. Seasonal variation of infiltration capacities of soils in western Oregon.

    Treesearch

    Michael G. Johnson; Robert L. Beschta

    1981-01-01

    Infiltration capacities were 50 percent greater during fall than during summer for forest soils of western Oregon. These results contrast with those measured in other studies. In forested areas, investigators should be aware of potentially large seasonal changes in infiltration capacities. Such seasonal changes may exceed effects due to applied treatments (logging,...

  11. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify the presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b) For... analysis guidelines (Appendix A to this subpart) should be consulted with respect to this determination....

  12. [Characteristics of water infiltration in urban soils of Nanjing City].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yuan, Da-Gang

    2008-02-01

    By using dual-ring method, this paper measured the water infiltration rate in urban soils under representative land use patterns in Nanjing City, and studied the characteristics of water infiltration in the soils with different compaction degree. The results showed that there was a great difference in the infiltration rate among the soils with different compactness. Soil infiltration rate decreased with increasing bulk density and decreasing porosity, and the water-transport-limiting layer existed in heavily compacted soils resulted in a dramatic decrease of final stabilized infiltration rate. There was a significant linear relationship between the initial and final infiltration rates in the same soil though their absolute values had a great difference. The urban soils in Nanjing City had a wide range of final infiltration rate varied from 1 mm X h(-1) to 679 mm X h(-1), which was highly related to the soil compactness, structural status, and skeleton grain contents. The decrease of urban soil infiltration rate could induce the increase of runoff and of the probability and intensity of flooding.

  13. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  14. Modeling of meltwater infiltration in subfreezing snow

    SciTech Connect

    Illangasekare, T.H.; Walter, R.J. Jr.; Meier, M.F.; Pfeffer, W.T. )

    1990-05-01

    A mathematical model which incorporates the processes that influence water flow and heat transfer in subfreezing snow was developed. Among the aspects of snow included are density and grain-size heterogeneities, capillary-pressure gradients, meltwater refreezing, time dependent hydraulic and thermal parameters, and heat conduction. From this conceptual mathematical model a numerical model of two-dimensional meltwater infiltration was developed. Results from various test cases show which data are most important to measure accurately in the field, in order to determine how the snowpack will respond to an introduction of meltwater. These simulations also show the importance of the orientation of the various layers which make up the snowpack and how randomly distributed heterogeneities can produce two-dimensional flow of meltwater under unsaturated conditions. Finally, it is demonstrated that various assumptions related to density and porosity variations, dimensionality of flow, capillary effects, etc., which have been made by past investigators for ideal situations may not be valid under many circumstances, and several suggestions are made for improving predictions of meltwater behavior. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model is most sensitive to changes in bulk density, residual saturation of wet snow and meltwater supply rates, whereas changes in snow temperature and mean grain size had less marked effect.

  15. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  16. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment. PMID:25894333

  17. Diffuse Infiltrative Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Assessment of Presentation, Treatment, and Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Kneuertz, Peter J.; Demirjian, Aram; Firoozmand, Amin; Corona-Villalobos, Celia; Bhagat, Nikhil; Herman, Joseph; Cameron, Andrew; Gurakar, Ahmet; Cosgrove, David; Choti, Michael A.; Geschwind, Jean-Francois H.; Kamel, Ihab R.; Pawlik, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Data on infiltrating hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) are limited. We sought to define treatment and outcome of patients treated with infiltrating HCC compared with patients who had advanced multifocal HCC. Methods Between January 2000 and July 2011, a total of 147 patients with advanced HCC were identified from the Johns Hopkins Hospital database (infiltrative, n = 75; multifocal, n = 72). Clinicopathologic data were compared by HCC subtype. Results Patients with infiltrating HCC had higher alfafetoprotein levels (median infiltrative, 326.5 ng/mL vs. multifocal, 27.0 ng/mL) and larger tumors (median size, infiltrating, 9.2 cm vs. multifocal, 5.5 cm) (P < 0.05). Imaging failed to reveal a discrete lesion in 42.7 % of patients with infiltrating HCC. Most infiltrating HCC lesions presented as hypointense on T1-weighted images (55.7 %) and hyperintense on T2-weighted images (80.3 %). Among patients with infiltrating HCC, most (64.0 %) were treated with intra-arterial therapy (IAT), and periprocedural morality was 2.7 %. Patients treated with IAT had longer survival versus patients receiving best support care (median survival, IAT, 12 months vs. best supportive care, 3 months; P = 0.001). Survival after IAT was similar among patients treated with infiltrating HCC versus multifocal HCC (hazard ratio 1.29, 95 % confidence interval 0.82–2.03; P = 0.27). Among infiltrating HCC patients, pretreatment bilirubin >2 mg/dL and alfa-fetoprotein >400 ng/mL were associated with worse survival after IAT (P < 0.05). Patients with progressive disease after IAT had higher risk of death versus patients who had stable/responsive disease (hazard ratio 3.53, 95 % confidence interval 1.49–8.37; P = 0.004). Conclusions Patients with infiltrative HCC often present without a discrete lesion on imaging. IAT for infiltrative HCC was safe and was associated with survival comparable to IAT outcomes for patients with multifocal HCC. Infiltrative HCC morphology is not a

  18. Infiltration of fibrous preform in the centrifugal force field

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshinori; Shirayanagi, Itaru; Sakai, Yoshibumi; Tozawa, Yasuhisa

    1994-12-31

    The pressure to infiltrate molten aluminum into alumina short fiber preform was generated by centrifugal force, and the start pressure for the infiltration was measured. The fundamental equation of infiltration phenomenon was derived from the equation of the conservation of momentum of fluid flow in the porous media in the centrifugal force field. One-dimensional solution of the equation was obtained to discuss the characteristics of fluid flow in a centrifugal force field. It was made clear that centrifugal force is effective as a motive force to infiltrate molten metal into fibrous preform, the pressure distribution of molten metal in the preform is different from that predicted by D`Arcy`s law and the infiltration is enhanced by centrifugal force.

  19. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  20. Muscle biopsy findings predictive of malignancy in rare infiltrative dermatomyositis.

    PubMed

    Uchino, Makoto; Yamashita, Satoshi; Uchino, Katsuhisa; Mori, Akira; Hara, Akio; Suga, Tomohiro; Hirahara, Tomoo; Koide, Tatsuya; Kimura, En; Yamashita, Taro; Ueda, Akihiko; Kurisaki, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Junko; Honda, Shoji; Maeda, Yasushi; Hirano, Teruyuki; Ando, Yukio

    2013-05-01

    The characteristic pathological muscular findings of polymyositis (PM) and dermatomyositis (DM) have been shown to reflect their different pathogeneses. Here, we characterized the muscle biopsy findings of PM and DM patients with or without malignancy. We evaluated the muscle biopsy findings of 215 consecutive PM and DM patients admitted to our hospital between 1970 and 2009. Pathology of the lesion biopsy sections was classified into 3 types: endomysial infiltration-type, perivascular infiltration-type, and rare-infiltrative-type. There was no difference between the muscle pathology of PM patients with and without malignancy. However, the incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology in DM patients with malignancy was significantly higher than in those without such tumors (p=0.0345). The incidence of rare-infiltrative type muscle pathology may be a predictive marker of DM with malignancy. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of resistivity equipment enables the real time observation of infiltration processes through the vadose zone. In order to study the advantages and limitations of the method infiltration experiments are carried out for different soil types at various locations. All sites are subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. For an improved verification of the resistivity data the most recent experiment is conducted using a colour tracer. Two infiltration experiments are carried out in sandy soil. The location is Fuhrberg, close to Hannover, Germany. The area has been intensively studied for soil research purposes for more than 30 years. During both infiltration experiments water (110 l/80 l) is infiltrated for a period of 4.5 h and 8 h, respectively, and the infiltration process is observed by ERT. The resistivity measurements are conducted using a 3D-dipole-dipole configuration with electrode distances of 20 cm in the centre of the infiltration field. The whole resistivity array consists of 200 and 300 electrodes, respectively. The second experiment uses increased electrode spacing in the border area in order to enable the resolution of the deeper groundwater table (3.5 m during the second experiment compared to about 1.2 m for the first experiment). Immediately after completion of the resistivity measurements TDR and tensiometer measurements are carried out in 5-8 slices of the excavated infiltration area over a period of several days. The colour tracer used during the second experiment clearly outlines the infiltration plume with sharp outer limits. The ERT inversion depicts the shape of the plume successfully. Time lapse ERT interpretation reveals the development of the plume in time. The combination of ERT interpretation and TDR measurements enables the construction of the relationship between water content and resistivity as reconstructed by ERT using an Archie approach. By using this function water content changes can be

  2. Sustained TNF production by central nervous system infiltrating macrophages promotes progressive autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    PubMed

    Valentin-Torres, Alice; Savarin, Carine; Hinton, David R; Phares, Timothy W; Bergmann, Cornelia C; Stohlman, Stephen A

    2016-02-22

    Tumor necrosis factor (TNF) has pleiotropic functions during both the demyelinating autoimmune disease multiple sclerosis (MS) and its murine model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). How TNF regulates disability during progressive disease remains unresolved. Using a progressive EAE model characterized by sustained TNF and increasing morbidity, this study evaluates the role of unregulated TNF in exacerbating central nervous system (CNS) pathology and inflammation. Progressive MS was mimicked by myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) peptide immunization of mice expressing a dominant negative IFN-γ receptor alpha chain under the human glial fibrillary acidic protein promoter (GFAPγR1∆). Diseased GFAPγR1∆ mice were treated with anti-TNF or control monoclonal antibody during acute disease to monitor therapeutic effects on sustained disability, demyelination, CNS inflammation, and blood brain barrier (BBB) permeability. TNF was specifically sustained in infiltrating macrophages. Anti-TNF treatment decreased established clinical disability and mortality rate within 7 days. Control of disease progression was associated with a decline in myelin loss and leukocyte infiltration, as well as macrophage activation. In addition to mitigating CNS inflammation, TNF neutralization restored BBB integrity and enhanced CNS anti-inflammatory responses. Sustained TNF production by infiltrating macrophages associated with progressive EAE exacerbates disease severity by promoting inflammation and disruption of BBB integrity, thereby counteracting establishment of an anti-inflammatory environment required for disease remission.

  3. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff.

  4. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  5. The temperature dependence of ponded infiltration under isothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Murphy, F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple temperature-sensitive modification to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is described; this assumes that the temperature dependence of the hydraulic conductivity is reciprocally equal to the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water, and that both the transmission zone saturation and the wetting front matric potential gradient are independent of temperature. This modified Green and Ampt equation is compared with ponded, isothermal infiltration experiments run on repacked columns of Olympic Sand and Aiken Loam at 5, 25, and 60??C. Experimental results showed increases in infiltration rates of at least 300% between 5 and 60??C for both soil materials, with subsequent increases in cumulative infiltration of even greater magnitudes for the loam. There is good agreement between measured and predicted initial infiltration rates at 25??C for both soil materials, yet at 60??C, the predicted results overestimate initial infiltration rates for the sand and underestimate initial rates for the loam. Measurements of the wetting depth vs. cumulative infiltration indicate that the transmission zone saturation increased with increasing temperature for both soil materials. In spite of this increased saturation with temperature, the final infiltration rates at both 25 and 60??C were predicted accurately using the modified Green and Ampt equation. This suggests that increased saturation occurred primarily in dead-end pore spaces, so that transmission zone hydraulic conductivities were unaffected by these temperature-induced changes in saturation. In conclusion, except for initial infiltration rates at 60??C, the measured influence of temperature on infiltration rates was fully accounted for by the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water. ?? 1991.

  6. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    PubMed

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R(2)  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates.

  7. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  8. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harden, Carol P.; Scruggs, P. Delmas

    2003-09-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at forested sites in the Andes Mountains (Ecuador), the southern Appalachian Mountains (USA), and the Luquillo Mountains (Puerto Rico). Using a portable rainfall simulator-infiltrometer (all three areas), and a single ring infiltrometer (Andes), we determined infiltration rates, even on steep slopes. Based on these results, we examine the spatial variability of infiltration, the relationship of rainfall runoff and infiltration to landscape position, the influence of vegetation on infiltration rates on slopes, and the implications of this research for better understanding erosional processes and landscape change. Infiltration rates ranged from 6 to 206 mm/h on lower slopes of the Andes, 16 to 117 mm/h in the southern Appalachians, and 0 to 106 mm/h in the Luquillo Mountains. These rates exceed those of most natural rain events, confirming that surface runoff is rare in montane forests with deep soil/regolith mantles. On well-drained forested slopes and ridges, apparent steady-state infiltration may be controlled by the near-surface downslope movement of infiltrated water rather than by characteristics of the full vertical soil profile. With only two exceptions, the local variability of infiltration rates at the scale of 10° m overpowered other expected spatial relationships between infiltration, vegetation type, slope position, and soil factors. One exception was the significant difference between infiltration rates on alluvial versus upland soils in the Andean study area. The other exception was the significant difference between infiltration rates in topographic coves compared to other slope positions in the

  9. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest

  10. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  11. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  12. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Zhdanov, M.S.; Watt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in and climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  14. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  15. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  16. Pentoxifylline attenuates TNF-α protein levels and brain edema following temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Abedin; Mojarrad, Somye; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2011-03-04

    Cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological deterioration and mortality during acute ischemic stroke. Despite the clinical importance of cerebral ischemia, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a role for TNF-α in the brain edema formation. To further investigate whether TNF-α would play a role in brain edema formation, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX, an inhibitor of TNF-α synthesis) on the brain edema and TNF-α levels in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats was occluded for 60 min using the intraluminal filament method. The animals received PTX (60 mg/kg) immediately, 1, 3, or 6h post-ischemic induction. Twenty-four hours after induction of ischemic injury, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema were determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evans Blue (EB) and wet-to-dry weight ratio, respectively. TNF-α protein levels in ischemic cortex were also measured at 1, 4, and 24h after the beginning of an ischemic stroke by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The administration of PTX up to 6h after occlusion of the MCA significantly reduced the brain edema. Moreover, PTX significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α in ischemic brain cortex up to 4h post-transient focal stroke (P<0.002). Finally, treatment by PTX led to a significant decrease in EB extravasations (P<0.001). Our data demonstrate that PTX administration up to 6h after ischemia can reduce brain edema in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of PTX may be mediated, at least in part, through a decline in TNF-α production and BBB breakdown.

  17. Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (Δ13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  18. Diversity and divergence of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jennifer S.; Grinshpun, Boris; Feng, Yaping; Ung, Timothy H.; Neira, Justin A.; Samanamud, Jorge L.; Canoll, Peter; Shen, Yufeng; Sims, Peter A.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Although immune signaling has emerged as a defining feature of the glioma microenvironment, how the underlying structure of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell population differs from that of the blood from which it originates has been difficult to measure directly in patients. High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires (TCRseq) provides a population-wide statistical description of how T cells respond to disease. We have defined immunophenotypes of whole repertoires based on TCRseq of the α- and β-chains from glioma tissue, nonneoplastic brain tissue, and peripheral blood from patients. Using information theory, we partitioned the diversity of these TCR repertoires into that from the distribution of VJ cassette combinations and diversity due to VJ-independent factors, such as selection due to antigen binding. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possessed higher VJ-independent diversity than nonneoplastic tissue, stratifying patients according to tumor grade. We found that the VJ-independent components of tumor-associated repertoires diverge more from their corresponding peripheral repertoires than T-cell populations in nonneoplastic brain tissue, particularly for low-grade gliomas. Finally, we identified a “signature” set of TCRs whose use in peripheral blood is associated with patients exhibiting low TIL divergence and is depleted in patients with highly divergent TIL repertoires. This signature is detectable in peripheral blood, and therefore accessible noninvasively. We anticipate that these immunophenotypes will be foundational to monitoring and predicting response to antiglioma vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:27261081

  19. Clinicopathological features of infiltrating lobular carcinomas comparing with infiltrating ductal carcinomas: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of invasive breast cancers and it has been reported to have some unique biologic and epidemiologic characteristics. Methods Clinicopathological features of 95 patients with ILC, their relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively investigated and compared with those of 3,621 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) between January 1984 and December 2005. Results ILC constitutes 2.3% of all invasive breast cancers. There were no difference between the ILC and the IDC-NOS groups regarding age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, and treatment modalities except hormone therapy. The ILC group showed more estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression and higher bilaterality. RFS and OS of the ILC patients were similar to those of the IDC. IDC-NOS metastasized more frequently to the lung and bone, whereas, ILC to the bone and ovary. Conclusions The incidence of ILC was relatively low in Korean breast cancer patients. Comparing to IDC-NOS ILC showed some different features such as higher estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression, higher bilaterality and preferred metastatic sites of bone and ovary. Contralateral cancers and bone and ovary evaluation should be considered when monitoring ILC patients. PMID:20423478

  20. Rational approach to pulmonary infiltrates in leukemia and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    At present, a number of invasive diagnostic techniques can be used to diagnose the cause of lung infiltrates in patients with hematologic malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Bronchoscopy with measurement of biomarkers in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will most likely become the preferred method to diagnose infectious causes of pulmonary infiltrates. However, there is no uniform approach regarding the technical parameters of the lavage procedure in cancer patients. Diagnostic protocols vary by region, center, and the expertise of the staff. This mini review discusses the issues surrounding diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and provides some recommendations to deal with these issues.

  1. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  2. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

  3. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  4. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  5. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke.

  6. Differentiation of infiltrative cardiomyopathy from hypertrophic cardiomyopathy using high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Toru; Baba, Yuichi; Hirota, Takayoshi; Tanioka, Katsutoshi; Yamasaki, Naohito; Yamanaka, Shigeo; Iiyama, Tatsuo; Kumagai, Naoko; Furuno, Takashi; Sugiura, Tetsuro; Kitaoka, Hiroaki

    2015-06-16

    Because infiltrative cardiomyopathy and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) share clinical and hemodynamic features of left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy and abnormal diastolic function, it is often difficult to distinguish these entities. We investigated the potential role of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T (hs-cTnT) for differentiation of infiltrative cardiomyopathy from HCM. The study group consisted of 46 consecutive patients with infiltrative cardiomyopathies or HCM in whom sarcomere protein gene mutations were identified at Kochi Medical School Hospital; of these, there were 11 patients with infiltrative cardiomyopathy (cardiac amyloidosis in 8 patients and Fabry disease in 3 patients) and 35 HCM patients. Serum hs-cTnT level was significantly higher in patients who had infiltrative cardiomyopathy than in those who had HCM (0.083 ± 0.057 ng/ml versus 0.027 ± 0.034 ng/ml, p < 0.001), whereas brain natriuretic peptide levels did not differ between the two groups. In two age-matched the 2 cohorts (patients evaluated at > 40 years at age), hs-cTnT level, maximum LV wall thickness, posterior wall thickness, peak early (E) transmitral filling velocity, peak early diastolic (Ea) velocity of tissue Doppler imaging at the lateral corner and E/Ea ratios at both the septal and lateral corners were significantly different between the two groups. As for diagnostic accuracy to differentiate the two groups by using receiver operating characteristic analysis, hs-cTnT was the highest value of area under the curve (0.939) and E/Ea (lateral) was second highest value (0.914). Serum hs-cTnT is a helpful diagnostic indicator for accurate differentiation between infiltrative cardiomyopathy and HCM.

  7. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.

    PubMed

    Silachev, Denis N; Gulyaev, Mikhail V; Zorova, Ljubava D; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Gubsky, Leonid V; Pirogov, Yury A; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2015-07-25

    Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are one of the main factors in the pathogenesis in different organs including brain. The pathogenesis after brain damage is caused not only by the change in bioenergetics, but also involves impairment of alternative functions of mitochondria, particularly those related to the control of cell death. In this study we evaluated partial metabolic pathways under the simulation of a stroke by using the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. The analysis shows that the induced switch to a non-oxidative energy metabolism (glycolysis) due to the block of tissue oxygen supply does not ensure the adequate supply of the tissue with ATP. Moreover, the well-known acidification of the ischemic tissue is not associated with the so-called traditionally and incorrectly considered "lactic acidosis" (the generation of lactate from glucose by itself does not lead to excessive generation of protons), but occurs because of the consumption of tissue ATP under its reduced resynthesis. Incubation of mitochondria isolated from normal rat brain at neutral and slightly acidic pH, mimicking the intracellular pH of normal and ischemic tissues correspondingly, revealed serious changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, partially reflected in the magnitude of respiratory control and the basal and maximally stimulated respiration rates. Measurement of available metabolites by (1)H MR spectra of normal and ischemia-damaged brains showed a significant increase in lactate and myo-inositol and a moderate decrease in N-acetylaspartate 24h after reperfusion. Remarkably, the administration of lithium chloride in the reperfusion phase normalized the levels of metabolites. Moreover, the introduction of lithium salts (chloride or succinate) in the bloodstream, restored after ischemia, reduced both the size of the ischemia-induced brain damage and the degree of brain swelling. Besides, post-ischemic introduction of lithium salts largely restored the

  8. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  9. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  10. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  11. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  12. Modeling the abnormally slow infiltration rate in mesoporous films.

    PubMed

    Berli, Claudio L A; Mercuri, Magalí; Bellino, Martín G

    2017-01-18

    Mesoporous films have been shown to exhibit striking behaviors in capillary-driven infiltration experiments. The process has been shown to follow classical Lucas-Washburn dynamics, but the effective pore radius has been calculated from hydrodynamic resistance considerations to be orders of magnitude lower than measured pore dimensions. In addition, the infiltration rate has been observed to decrease with increasing pore diameter, in contrast to the expected trend for capillary-like pores. Here, we present a simple model accounting for the mechanism behind these anomalous effects. We found the infiltration rate to be inversely proportional to the cubed ratio of pore to neck size. This physical scaling correctly modeled both the magnitude of the infiltration rate and its variation with pore diameters, for a wide range of experimental data. The model established a connection between capillary filling dynamics and nanoscale pore structure, which is of practical interest for the design and characterization of mesoporous films.

  13. Texture Analysis of Poly-Adenylated mRNA Staining Following Global Brain Ischemia and Reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Szymanski, Jeffrey J.; Jamison, Jill T.; DeGracia, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Texture analysis provides a means to quantify complex changes in microscope images. We previously showed that cytoplasmic poly-adenylated mRNAs form mRNA granules in post-ischemic neurons and that these granules correlated with protein synthesis inhibition and hence cell death. Here we utilized the texture analysis software MaZda to quantify mRNA granules in photomicrographs of the pyramidal cell layer of rat hippocampal region CA3 around 1 hour of reperfusion after 10 min of normothermic global cerebral ischemia. At 1 hour reperfusion, we observed variations in the texture of mRNA granules amongst samples that were readily quantified by texture analysis. Individual sample variation was consistent with the interpretation that animal-to-animal variations in mRNA granules reflected the time-course of mRNA granule formation. We also used texture analysis to quantify the effect of cycloheximide, given either before or after brain ischemia, on mRNA granules. If administered before ischemia, cycloheximide inhibited mRNA granule formation, but if administered after ischemia did not prevent mRNA granulation, indicating mRNA granule formation is dependent on dissociation of polysomes. We conclude that texture analysis is an effective means for quantifying the complex morphological changes induced in neurons by brain ischemia and reperfusion. PMID:21477879

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  15. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, Joseph B.; Dunmead, Stephen D.; Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1991-01-01

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced.

  16. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  17. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  18. Infiltration of Sand Into Gravel Riverbeds With Alternate Bar Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardson, R.; Wydzga, M. A.; Venditti, J. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Stacey, M. T.; Dracup, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The hyporheic zone, which is comprised of the interconnected pore spaces in the bed of gravel rivers, plays a variety of roles in river health. It serves as a nutrient reservoir and refuge for aquatic organisms; supports surface water-groundwater exchange, which can mitigate flooding and improve water supply reliability; and stores organic matter, heavy metals, and other pollutants. When fine sediment (sand and silt) fills the pore spaces of the hyporheic zone, these functions are compromised. A number of one-dimensional laboratory studies have explored infiltration of sand into stable, flat (plane-bed), gravel riverbeds. The depth and volumetric content of sand infiltrated under such conditions are functions of sediment supply and the grain size distributions of the bed (gravel) and the sand in bedload. This study examines whether the relationships established in plane-bed experiments suffice to explain infiltration into a bed with alternate-bar topography. We present results from an infiltration experiment performed on a 2.7m x 55m laboratory flume at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory in Minneapolis. In this experiment, sand (D50 = 0.4mm) was infiltrated into a gravel (D50 = 9.2mm) bed with alternate bars, under low flow (35 lps). After infiltration, the bed was excavated at 3-6 sites in each of 5 cross-sections, chosen to represent a variety of topographic and flow conditions (e.g. head of bar, top of bar and deep channel, cross-channel). Bed samples are analyzed for depth of infiltration, sand content, and grain size distribution. We present the spatial patterns of depth and content of sand infiltrated, in relation to bed surface topography and surface water flow path. Ongoing research will couple the characteristics of this spatial pattern with sediment routing.

  19. Central Nervous System Fibrosis Is Associated with Fibrocyte-Like Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Aldrich, Amy; Kielian, Tammy

    2011-01-01

    Fibrotic wall formation is essential for limiting pathogen dissemination during brain abscess development. However, little is known about the regulation of fibrotic processes in the central nervous system (CNS). Most CNS injury responses are associated with hypertrophy of resident astrocytes, a process termed reactive gliosis. Studies of fibrosis outside the CNS have identified two bone marrow–derived cell types, fibrocytes and alternatively activated M2 macrophages, as key mediators of fibrosis. The current study used bone marrow chimeras generated from green fluorescent protein transgenic mice to evaluate the appearance of these cell types and whether bone marrow–derived cells were capable of acquiring fibrotic characteristics during brain abscess development. Immunofluorescence staining revealed partial overlap between green fluorescent protein, α-smooth muscle actin, and procollagen, suggesting that a population of cells forming the brain abscess capsule originate from a bone marrow precursor. In addition, the influx of fibrocyte-like cells into brain abscesses immediately preceded the onset of fibrotic encapsulation. Fibrotic wall formation was also associated with increased numbers of alternatively activated M2 microglia and macrophages. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that bone marrow–derived infiltrates are capable of expressing fibrotic molecules during CNS inflammation. PMID:22015460

  20. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  1. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  2. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils.

  3. Horizontal Fluid Infiltration: A New Measurement Device and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culligan, P. J.; Ivanov, V. M.; Germiane, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    Fluid infiltration in the vadose zone has been the subject of study since the early 1900s. Understanding infiltration processes is important to numerous problems, including forecasting moisture distribution following soil irrigation, estimating the potential for leachate generation during landfill cover design, and predicting contaminant transport to groundwater following a surface spill. Many models have been developed to describe fluid infiltration, including the well-known models by Jean-Yves Parlange and his co-workers (e.g., Smith and Parlange, Water Resources Research, 14(3), 1978). These models predict the time-rate of infiltration and the cumulative volume of infiltration based on parameters, such as sorptivity, that are often obtained from laboratory experiments. The proper design of these experiments, and appreciation of the factors controlling parameters derived from them, is therefore key to the accuracy of such models. This paper describes a new experimental setup to observe fluid infiltration under one-dimensional capillary dominated flow. Dry soil is packed in a horizontal 700 mm long polycarbonate channel that is 25.5 mm x 25.5 mm in cross-section. The top of the channel is open to the atmosphere. The upstream end of the channel is connected, via a three-valve chamber, to an infiltrant container placed on an electronic balance. Initial flooding and final draining of the three-valve chamber can be controlled without disturbing conditions in the column. The height of the infiltrant container can be adjusted to control the fluid inlet head. The end of the column is capped with a seal that allows the free exit of air. During an experiment, fluid is introduced at the upstream end of the column at a fixed head. The position of the infiltration front and the cumulative mass of fluid flowing into the column are both observed with time. At the end of each experiment, the fluid saturation along the column is obtained by sampling from the top, open surface of

  4. Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Yonchak, T.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Clark, K.; Meyers, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a labial infiltration of either 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Another objective was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 subjects randomly received a labial infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of either 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments. An additional 40 subjects received a lingual infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained. For the 3 infiltrations, success rates for the lateral incisor ranged from 43 to 50%. Adjacent teeth had success rates of 27 to 63%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in success between the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine or the lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when compared with the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily for all solutions over the 60 minutes. In conclusion, the success rate of 43-50% and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over an hour indicates that a labial infiltration of 1.8 mL of either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1: 50,000 epinephrine or a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine over the

  5. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Deletic, Ana; Roldin, Maria; Binning, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration is not widely available, and is important because many municipalities are considering infiltration as an alternative to traditional stormwater systems. This study analyzes groundwater level observations from an urban catchment located in Perth, Western Australia. The groundwater observation data cover approximately a 40-year-long period where land use changes (particularly due to urbanization) occurred; moreover, the monitored area contains both undeveloped and urbanized areas where stormwater infiltration is common practice via soakwells (shallow vertical infiltration wells). The data is analyzed using a distributed and dynamic hydrological model to simulate the groundwater response. The model explicitly couples a soakwell model with a groundwater model so that the performance of the soakwells is reduced by the increase of groundwater levels. The groundwater observation data is used to setup, calibrate and validate a coupled MIKE SHE-MIKE URBAN groundwater model and the model is used to quantify the extent of groundwater rise as a result of the urbanization process. The modeled urbanization processes included the irrigation of new established private and public gardens, the reduction of evapotranspiration due to a decrease in green areas, and the development of artificial stormwater infiltration. The study demonstrates that urbanization with stormwater infiltration affects the whole catchment water balance, increasing recharge and decreasing evapotranspiration. These changes lead to a rise in the groundwater table and an increase in the probability of groundwater seepage above terrain.

  6. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  7. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  8. Solute Breakthrough During Recurrent Ponded Infiltration Into Heterogeneous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  9. Solute breakthrough during recurrent ponded infiltration into heterogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Packed sample of fine quartz sand was used as a reference. Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  10. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction-induced inflammatory signaling in brain pathology and epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Buckwalter, Marion; Soreq, Hermona; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaufer, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The protection of the brain from blood-borne toxins, proteins, and cells is critical to the brain's normal function. Accordingly, a compromise in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function accompanies many neurologic disorders, and is tightly associated with brain inflammatory processes initiated by both infiltrating leukocytes from the blood, and activation of glial cells. Those inflammatory processes contribute to determining the severity and prognosis of numerous neurologic disorders, and can both cause, and result from BBB dysfunction. In this review we examine the role of BBB and inflammatory responses, in particular activation of transforming grown factor β (TGFβ) signaling, in epilepsy, stroke, and Parkinson's disease.

  11. Residential infiltration of fine and ultrafine particles in Edmonton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kearney, Jill; Wallace, Lance; MacNeill, Morgan; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kindzierski, Warren; Wheeler, Amanda

    2014-09-01

    Airborne indoor particles arise from both indoor sources and ambient particles that have infiltrated indoors. The intra-urban variability of infiltration factors (Finf) is a source of measurement error in epidemiological studies estimating exposure from a central site measurement, hence information on the within and between-home variability of Finf is useful to better characterize ambient PM exposure. The objective of this paper was to estimate magnitudes and predictors of daily residential infiltration factors (Finf) and ambient/non-ambient components of indoor ultrafine particle (UFP) and fine particle (FP) concentrations. FPs and UFPs were measured continuously for 7 consecutive days in 74 Edmonton homes in winter and summer 2010 (50 homes in each season). Simultaneous measurements of outdoor (near-home) FP and ambient (at a central site) UFP concentrations were also measured. Daily infiltration factors were estimated for each home; considerable variability was seen within and between homes. For FPs, seasonal-averaged Finf (the average of the 7 daily Finf estimates) ranged from 0.10 to 0.92 in winter (median = 0.30, n = 49) and 0.31 to 0.99 in summer (median = 0.68, n = 48). For UFPs, the seasonal-averaged Finf ranged from 0.08 to 0.47 across homes in winter (median = 0.21, n = 33 houses) and from 0.16 to 0.94 in summer (median = 0.57, n = 48). The higher median Finf in summer was attributed to a high frequency of open windows. Daily infiltration factors were also estimated based on the indoor/outdoor PM1 sulfur ratio. These estimates were poorly correlated with DustTrak-based FP infiltration factor estimates; the difference may be due to losses of volatile components on the PM1 filter samples. Generalized linear mixed models were used to identify variables significantly associated with Finf and the non-ambient component of indoor FP and UFP concentrations. Wind speed was consistently associated with Finf across all seasons for both FPs and UFPs. The use of an

  12. Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brains of pigs with salt poisoning (water deprivation/intoxication).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Williamson, M M

    2010-10-01

    The finding of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, in addition to the pathognomonic combination of laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and eosinophil infiltration, in the brains of pigs is reported for the first time in cases of indirect salt poisoning following water deprivation.

  13. Laboratory testing on infiltration in single synthetic fractures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherubini, Claudia; Pastore, Nicola; Li, Jiawei; Giasi, Concetta I.; Li, Ling

    2017-04-01

    An understanding of infiltration phenomena in unsaturated rock fractures is extremely important in many branches of engineering for numerous reasons. Sectors such as the oil, gas and water industries are regularly interacting with water seepage through rock fractures, yet the understanding of the mechanics and behaviour associated with this sort of flow is still incomplete. An apparatus has been set up to test infiltration in single synthetic fractures in both dry and wet conditions. To simulate the two fracture planes, concrete fractures have been moulded from 3D printed fractures with varying geometrical configurations, in order to analyse the influence of aperture and roughness on infiltration. Water flows through the single fractures by means of a hydraulic system composed by an upstream and a downstream reservoir, the latter being subdivided into five equal sections in order to measure the flow rate in each part to detect zones of preferential flow. The fractures have been set at various angles of inclination to investigate the effect of this parameter on infiltration dynamics. The results obtained identified that altering certain fracture parameters and conditions produces relevant effects on the infiltration process through the fractures. The main variables influencing the formation of preferential flow are: the inclination angle of the fracture, the saturation level of the fracture and the mismatch wavelength of the fracture.

  14. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  15. Infiltration History and Spatial Variability Derived from Chloride Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, J. C.; Jaimes, A.; Woocay, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride mass balance was applied to drill cuttings collected from the unsaturated zone surrounding the Yucca Mountain Project. Samples correspond to four Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program boreholes where air was used as the drilling fluid to preserve sample integrity. Infiltration dates before present and pore velocities were calculated using a range of annual chloride deposition rates obtained from the literature. The lower chloride loading corresponds to contemporary values, and the upper loading corresponds to an attempt to correct for either past greater chloride deposition or a past higher precipitation with chloride concentration remaining constant. In each borehole, pore velocities present two distinct slopes corresponding to different infiltration regimes. The first one, near the surface, presents the slowest infiltration rate. The second pore velocity corresponds to a past wetter period (late Pleistocene to early Holocene) with much faster pore velocities. Results indicate that pore velocities among the boreholes differ at most by a factor of approximately 3.5. Boreholes located in areas of little or gradual slope present faster infiltration rates than those in areas of greater slope. Borehole NC-EWDP-22S, near Fortymile Wash east of Yucca Mountain, exhibits the most rapid pore velocities where as boreholes further from the wash demonstrate lower velocities. These results denote the effects climate change, and runoff and run-on at the surface have over infiltration rates in arid regions.

  16. Lichen Planus With Predominate Plasma Cell Infiltrate: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huyenlan; Seyffert, Jennifer; Lountzis, Nektarios I; Altman, Howard B; Oram, Christian; Purcell, Stephen M

    2017-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory dermatitis of idiopathic origin that can involve the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. LP has an associated set of characteristic histopathologic findings which include hyperkeratosis, vacuolization of the basal layer, Civatte bodies, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, band-like lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermal epidermal junction, eosinophilic colloid bodies in the papillary dermis, and pigment incontinence. The infiltrate is usually composed of lymphocytes with few histiocytes, mast cells, and macrophages. The presence of plasma cell predominant infiltrate in LP has only been reported in four previous cases and 2 other cases of lichen nitidus. The authors report another 2 cases of LP with predominate plasma cell infiltrate in 2 female patients on the legs. The differential includes a drug-induced lichenoid reaction with predominate plasma cell infiltrate. However, there have been no case reports of that type of reaction. Because plasma cells are seen commonly in certain infectious diseases, malignancy, and macroglobulinemia, it is prudent to rule out those entities. Our patients responded well with a class 1 topical steroid, with improvement of their lower leg lesions within 1 month of treatment.

  17. Systemic adalimumab induces peripheral corneal infiltrates: a case report.

    PubMed

    Matet, Alexandre; Daruich, Alejandra; Beydoun, Talal; Cosnes, Jacques; Bourges, Jean-Louis

    2015-06-06

    Tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors are widely used agents in the treatment of immune disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Despite their anti-inflammatory action, paradoxical drug-induced inflammatory events have been occasionally associated with the use of infliximab, etanercept, and in a lesser extent adalimumab. However, eye involvement is uncommon and anterior uveitis is the only reported ocular adverse manifestation. It can be induced by etanercept, but has also been described during adalimumab therapy. We present here the first report of recurrent peripheral corneal infiltrates following subcutaneous injections of adalimumab. A 34 year-old Caucasian woman with Crohn's disease presented to the emergency department with bilateral red eyes and discomfort 36 hours after she received her bimonthly dose of subcutaneous adalimumab. Examination revealed bilateral peripheral corneal infiltrates with characteristic features of immune infiltrates. Symptoms and infiltrates regressed after topical corticosteroid therapy, but recurred after each adalimumab injection over the following weeks. Paradoxical immune reactions associated with tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitors may result either from hypersensitivity mechanisms, or from immune-complex deposition via anti-adalimumab antibodies. Both mechanisms could explain this newly described manifestation. Care should be taken to search for corneal infiltrates in the event of red eye symptoms during adalimumab therapy since they respond to topical corticosteroids and do not necessarily prompt the discontinuation of the immunosuppressive therapy.

  18. Sand infiltration into a gravel bed: A mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Berni, C.

    2016-11-01

    Fine sediment infiltration into a river bed is a physical process affected by different human actions and has several environmental, socioeconomic, and river morphology consequences. A theoretical model is proposed herein aiming to reproduce the fine sediment content depth profile resulting from the infiltration of fine sediment into an initially clean gravel bed. The model is based on the probability of infiltrating particles to be trapped in a pore throat formed by three bed particles. The model is tested against previous experimental results and is found to reproduce adequately the occurrence of the two infiltration mechanisms reported by previous studies: bridging and unimpeded static percolation. Theoretical depth profiles are found to underestimate fine sediment content at the bed subsurface (below 2-3 gravel diameter depth) compared to the laboratory results. This may be due to hyporheic flow that is not taken into account in our model. In flow experiments, the particles previously infiltrated and deposited might be destabilized by pore water flow and their fall down to the bed might be magnified.

  19. Characterization of interstitial infiltrating cells in Berger's disease.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, E; Castiglione, A; Colasanti, G; Ferrario, F; Civardi, R; Fellin, G; D'Amico, G

    1988-10-01

    The role of infiltrating blood-borne cells in the pathogenesis of renal damage in human glomerulonephritis is under active investigation. We have evaluated leukocyte infiltrates (number of cells/mm2) in the renal interstitium of 21 patients with Berger's disease and eight normal kidneys with monoclonal antibodies and a four-layer immunoperoxidase technique. In our population of patients, the number of infiltrating T-lymphocytes (OKT11+ cells) was significantly higher (median, 132) than in the normal kidneys (median, 60). This increase was mainly due to T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes (OKT8+ cells; median, 68), while T-helper/inducer lymphocytes (Leu 3A+ cells) and monocytes were in the normal range. T-lymphocyte infiltration was more marked in ten patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the time of biopsy (median, 167) than in patients with normal GFR (median, 88). In addition, ten patients who showed deterioration of renal function during the subsequent follow-up, whatever their serum creatinine levels at the time of biopsy, had significantly more total T cells (median, 269), OKT8+ cells (median, 143), and Leu 3A+ cells (median, 105) than 11 patients with persistently stable GFR and normal controls. More data are necessary to establish whether this T-lymphocyte infiltration is the consequence of a cell-mediated mechanism acting in the interstitium, concomitant with the immune-complex-mediated mechanism acting in the glomerulus, or is a nonspecific consequence of the tubulointerstitial damage induced by the immunologically mediated glomerular disease.

  20. Investigating Unstable Water Infiltration into Alcohol Contaminated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, H. C.; Smith, J. E.; Henry, E. J.; Brodsky, Y.

    2009-05-01

    A new mechanism causing highly focused, unstable flow exists in soils contaminated with alcohols due to their surface-activity. For example, surface-active compounds can significantly decrease the interfacial tension of the air-water interface and change the pressure-head of the soil water; directly affecting water flow and solute transport in the vadose zone. This study evaluated the fundamental effects of surface-active alcohols on water infiltration into contaminated soils under controlled laboratory conditions. A small scale 3-D glass flow cell and a mini disk tension infiltrometer were used to monitor the rates and physical characteristics of water infiltration from a constant head point source into sands of various textures contaminated with a butanol solution. The results confirmed that water infiltration into these soils is fundamentally and substantially different than the current understanding of infiltration patterns, including previously described mechanisms of wetting front instability. In butanol-contaminated soils, the wetting fronts exhibited highly focused flow with smaller wetted soil volumes, deeper penetration and substantially higher infiltration rates. In addition, the extent of fingered focused flow was confirmed to be texturally dependent, decreasing with grain size and dependent on the constant head boundary. This study characterized a new mechanism of focused, unstable flow with significant implications for groundwater management and solute transport in alcohol contaminated soils.

  1. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly, band heterotopia, and hypertrophy of brainstem and cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Maruyama, Koichi; Okumura, A; Negoro, T; Watanabe, K

    2010-06-01

    The simultaneous appearance of congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face that causes facial hemihypertrophy and ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly is extremely rare. We report a 4-year-old boy with congenital facial asymmetry and infantile-onset epilepsy. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results led to the diagnosis of infiltrating lipomatosis of the face; the diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of the results of pathological examinations. Additionally, brain MRI revealed ipsilateral hemimegalencephaly, associated with band heterotopia and the hemihypertrophy of the ipsilateral brainstem and cerebellum. He had no nevi or other skin abnormalities suggesting neurocutaneous syndrome. His seizures were so intractable that they necessitated functional hemispherectomy. The lipomatous lesion was successfully resected without relapse. Psychomotor delay and left hemiplegia were observed at the last follow-up. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Peripheral immune cells infiltrate into sites of secondary neurodegeneration after ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Jones, K A; Maltby, S; Plank, M W; Kluge, M; Nilsson, M; Foster, P S; Walker, F R

    2017-09-11

    Experimental stroke leads to microglia activation and progressive neuronal loss at sites of secondary neurodegeneration (SND). These lesions are remote from, but synaptically connected to, primary infarction sites. Previous studies have demonstrated that immune cells are present in sites of infarction in the first hours and days after stroke, and are associated with increased neurodegeneration in peri-infarct regions. However, it is not known whether immune cells are also present in more distal sites where SND occurs. Our study aimed to investigate whether immune cells are present in sites of SND and, if so, how these cell populations compare to those in the peri-infarct zone. Cells were isolated from the thalamus, the main site of SND, and remaining brain tissue 14days post-stroke. Analysis was performed using flow cytometry to quantify microglia, myeloid cell and lymphocyte numbers. We identified a substantial infiltration of immune cells in the ipsilateral (stroked) compared to the contralateral (control) thalamus, with a significant increase in the percentage of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells. This result was further quantified using immunofluorescent labelling of fixed tissue. In the remaining ipsilateral hemisphere tissue, there were significant increases in the frequency of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, Ly6G(+) neutrophils and both Ly6G(-)Ly6C(LO) and Ly6G(-)Ly6C(HI) monocytes. Our results indicate that infiltrating immune cells persist in ischemic tissue after the acute ischemic phase, and are increased in sites of SND. Importantly, immune cells have been shown to play pivotal roles in both damage and repair processes after stroke. Our findings indicate that immune cells may also be involved in the pathogenesis of SND and further clinical studies are warranted to characterise the nature of inflammatory cell infiltrates in human disease. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  5. Role of CXCR4-mediated bone marrow colonization in CNS infiltration by T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jost, Tanja Rezzonico; Borga, Chiara; Radaelli, Enrico; Romagnani, Andrea; Perruzza, Lisa; Omodho, Lorna; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Biondi, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Thelen, Marcus; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Infiltration of the central nervous system is a severe trait of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 significantly ameliorates T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in murine models of the disease; however, signaling by CXC chemokine receptor 4 is important in limiting the divagation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells out of the perivascular space into the central nervous system parenchyma. Therefore, Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 potentially may untangle T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from retention outside the brain. Here, we show that leukemic lymphoblasts massively infiltrate cranial bone marrow, with diffusion to the meninges without invasion of the brain parenchyma, in mice that underwent xenotransplantation with human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells or that developed leukemia from transformed hematopoietic progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia neuropathology results from meningeal infiltration through CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated bone marrow colonization. Inhibition of leukemia engraftment in the bone marrow by pharmacologic CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonism significantly ameliorated neuropathologic aspects of the disease. Genetic deletion of CXCR4 in murine hematopoietic progenitors abrogated leukemogenesis induced by constitutively active Notch1, whereas lack of CCR6 and CCR7, which have been shown to be involved in T cell and leukemia extravasation into the central nervous system, respectively, did not influence T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development. We hypothesize that lymphoblastic meningeal infiltration as a result of bone marrow colonization is responsible for the degenerative alterations of the neuroparenchyma as well as the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Therefore, CXC chemokine receptor 4 may constitute a pharmacologic target for T cell acute lymphoblastic

  6. [The differential approach to appendectomy after the appendicular infiltrate].

    PubMed

    Sazhin, V P; Klimov, D E; Sazhin, I V

    2011-01-01

    84 patients with the acute appendicitis, complicated by the appendicular infiltrate were divided in 2 grpups: the first group consisted of 49 (58,3%) patients with periappendicular abscess; the second group included 35 (41,7%) patients, treated conservatively and were recommended the delayed appendectomy. Of all 84 patients, included in the study, the delayed appendectomy could had been performed in 51 (61%) cases, though only 27 (53%) of patients had the procedure. The thorough analysis of the clinical presentation and pathomorphological data of 51 patients with the clinical presentation of the arrested appendicular infiltrate demonstrated, that only 14 (28%) of them had indications to the the delayed appendectomy. The pathogenetic feedback between the appendicolitis and appendicitis recurrence possibility was established. The necessity of differential approach to the delayed appendectomy in patients with appendicular infiltrate was determined. The safety and efficacy of the laparoscopic appendectomy by the disease was demonstrated.

  7. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-08-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

  8. Experimental investigation of infiltration on sediment transport in channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Swati; Misra, Sheelam; Ratna, Sanatan

    2017-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out to study sediment transport in channels which are in unsaturated conditions emphasizing on effect of infiltration using the concept that as water infiltrates, flow rate decreases fairly linearly with distance along the channel thus the capacity of flow to transport the accumulated sediment decreases and net deposition occurs. Data obtained from experiments which were carried out in a laboratory flume was used to calculate sediment transport rate, flow discharge at the outlet of the flume and bed profiles measured with and without sediment injection leads to study the effect of infiltration and aggradation with non-uniform flow conditions. Experiments were also conducted for the saturated sand and comparison of data obtained from experiments which were carried out on unsaturated sand was done and observations and analysis was done.

  9. Mathematical physics of infiltration on flat and sloping topography

    SciTech Connect

    Philip, J.R.

    1996-12-31

    We review the modern mathematical-physical analysis of water movement in unsaturated soils, which is central to understanding of the terrestrial segment of the hydrologic cycle. The relevant flow equation is a strongly nonlinear Fokker-Planck (convection-diffusion) equation. The theory of infiltration (the penetration into a soil mass of water made available at its surface) is described. Solutions are developed for hillslope topographies. We deal primarily with ponded infiltration, but constant-rainfall infiltration is discussed also. The emphasis is on quasi-analytic and analytic solutions. Fully nonlinear solutions are developed, together with linearized solutions of certain problems. The nonlinear solutions involve either usefully convergent series or traveling waves. The linearizations use product solutions.

  10. Fabrication of Short Graphite Fiber Preforms for Liquid Metal Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Tingting; He, Xinbo; Liu, Qian; Zhang, Lin; Wang, Ling; Kang, Qiping; Qu, Xuanhui

    2013-06-01

    Starch-based and paraffin wax (PW)-based binders were used to fabricate short graphite fiber preforms for liquid metal infiltration. The effects of different binder components and debinding process parameters on the properties of short graphite fiber preforms were investigated. The results indicate that the graphite fiber preforms with appropriate porosity of 58-62% and relatively high compressive strength of about 2-3 MPa can be made by starch-based and PW-based binders. The graphite fiber preforms made from the PW-based binder exhibit higher compressive strength than that of the starch-based binder. Graphite fiber reinforced aluminum composites fabricated by utilizing these preforms through vacuum pressure infiltration have relatively high density of 98.5% and thermal conductivity of 186.3 W/m K, proving the applicability of the prepared preforms for liquid metal infiltration.

  11. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  12. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  13. Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites made by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, A.J.; Lowden, R.A.; Stinton, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    A process was developed for the fabrication of ceramic-fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. The ceramic composites were prepared by making fibrous preforms from multiple layers of SiC cloth and forming the silicon-carbide matrix for each component specimen by infiltrating the fibrous preform by a chemical vapor deposition process. A major goal of the work was achieved when infiltration was accomplished in hours instead of weeks by combining the thermal-gradient and forced-gas-flow techniques. Composites that possessed moderate flexural strength and high strain to failure were produced. In addition, the strength of the composites decreased gradually after the maximum strength was obtained, demonstrating that the composites had the desired high toughness and avoided the typical brittle behavior of monolithic ceramics.

  14. Characterizing ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, J.; Wösten, J. H. M.

    1984-02-01

    Ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil was studied in large blocks of soil (upper surface area 1500 cm 2, height 25-40 cm) using physical and morphological methods. Blocks were encased in gypsum. Physical measurements included: (1) infiltration rates into the block and into subsoil below the block during shallow ponding; (2) D- θ relations of soil in the block; and (3) depth and degree of wetting in soil adjacent to the cracks. Cracks in the block were then filled with a gypsum slurry. Morphological measurements included Quantimet ® counts of the surface area ( A) and the peripheral length ( L) of the gypsum-filled cracks, using in situ drawings. Simulation of horizontal infiltration from the cracks, using D( θ)- and L-values, yielded results that agreed well with in situ measurements, demonstrating the mutual compatibility of the morphological and physical methods.

  15. Vegetation on the Soil Infiltration System Treating Livestock Wastewater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakurai, Shinji; Fujikawa, Yoko; Fukui, Masami; Hamasaki, Tastuhide; Sugahara, Masataka

    In the overland flow wastewater treatments and the constructed wetlands, the purification by soil infiltration units is enhanced using vegetation. However, wetland plants (i.e. cattail (Typha latifolia)) and trees, rather than agronomic crops, have been used in conventional systems. We carried out laboratory-scale soil infiltration experiments using two forage crops, tall fescue (Festuca araundinacea) and white clover (Trifolium repens) while using livestock wastewater for irrigation. The purpose of the study was to clarify the amount of accumulation of available phosphorus and exchangeable cations in the soil and its effect on the plant growth. The application of livestock wastewater increased available phosphorus, and exchangeable potassium and sodium in the upper soil. The soil sodification, examined based on exchangeable sodium ratio and plant growth, was not very significant after 10 months of livestock wastewater application. Growing forage crops on the soil infiltration system may be a promising technology to improve crop production and treatment efficacy.

  16. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  17. Explicit infiltration function for boreholes under constant head conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnell, A. C.; Lazarovitch, N.; Warrick, A. W.

    2009-10-01

    Infiltration per unit area of the source region from discs, strips and furrows has previously been shown to be the sum of the one-dimensional infiltration and an edge effect term. Here we apply the same approach to examine infiltration under a constant head from boreholes (both lined and unlined). A critical empirical parameter (γ) in the edge effect term is related to the radius of the borehole, soil hydraulic properties, boundary and initial conditions. For lined boreholes, γ has a narrow range and for the examples investigated, a constant value of 1.06 introduces less than 5% error compared to using the case-specific γ value. For unlined boreholes, γ is larger, ranging between 1.02 and 3.16 for the examples investigated, and should be estimated for specific conditions.

  18. Strain characteristics of selectively infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, WenBing; Wang, Ying; Tian, Jie

    2015-07-01

    To obtain the strain sensing for the high sensitivity PCF (Photonic Crystal Fibers), the high refractive index mixture is infiltrated into the air hole of the PCF. In this paper, we propose to adjust the infiltrated length of the air hole in order to make the loss maximum. The goal is to realize the PCF sensor with high sensitive strain. The experimental results show that the strain sensitivity is about 4.36 pm / μ ɛ when the infiltrated length is 30mm and the refractive index of the liquid is 1.5. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation ones. This kind of device can apply to the ultrasensitive strain sensing.

  19. Hemimegalencephaly associated with congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face: a case report.

    PubMed

    Talamanca, Lorenzo Figà; Verdolotti, Tommaso; Colafati, Giovanna Stefania; Bernardi, Bruno

    2012-12-01

    Hemimegalencephaly (HME) is a rare congenital malformation of the brain, grossly characterized by enlargement and overdevelopment of one cerebral hemisphere. We describe a 16-month-old patient with facial asymmetry caused by congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) associated with ipsilateral HME. Although HME has been described as part of different syndromic diseases, the association of HME with CILF has been rarely reported. Our case and literature review suggest that when the diagnosis of CILF is suspected or established, the possible presence of associated HME has to be considered and a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) must be performed even in absence of neurological features, not always present in early stages. MRI also demonstrates the involvement of intracranial structures outside the affected cerebral hemisphere, such as brain stem, cerebellum, cranial nerves, and blood vessels. In our patient, computed tomography of the brain provided detailed information on osseous hypertrophy and skull-base foramina enlargement. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  20. Intracerebroventricular infusions of TNF-alpha preferentially recruit blood lymphocytes and induce a perivascular leukocyte infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, T J; Hay, J B

    2001-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is important in several central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases, however, its role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and CNS is incompletely understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) and parenchymal infusions of TNF-alpha on the type of leukocyte, the pool and subset of lymphocytes recruited into CSF and brain parenchyma. Parenchymal injections of 500 ng of recombinant human TNF-alpha did not induce inflammation, whereas an icv infusion of TNF-alpha caused CSF leuckocytosis and a perivascular infiltrate. Twenty-four hours after the icv infusion neutrophils predominated, with CD4+ T cells being the major lymphocyte subset in CSF. By 48 h lymphocytes were the dominant cell type with CD8+ cells surpassing CD4+ cells in both the CSF and the perivascular infiltrate. The labeled recirculating lymphocyte pool prevailed in normal CSF, but after the infusion of TNF-alpha, the blood pool of lymphocytes was preferentially recruited. These results have implications for the immune surveillance of the CNS.

  1. Metabolic Profiling of IDH Mutation and Malignant Progression in Infiltrating Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Jalbert, Llewellyn E.; Elkhaled, Adam; Phillips, Joanna J.; Neill, Evan; Williams, Aurelia; Crane, Jason C.; Olson, Marram P.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kurhanewicz, John; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, ex vivo metabolic profiles of image-guided tissue samples obtained from patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent LGG were investigated using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS). Distinct spectral profiles were observed for lesions with IDH-mutated genotypes, between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma histologies, as well as for tumors that had undergone MP. Levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) were correlated with increased mitotic activity, axonal disruption, vascular neoplasia, and with several brain metabolites including the choline species, glutamate, glutathione, and GABA. The information obtained in this study may be used to develop strategies for in vivo characterization of infiltrative glioma, in order to improve disease stratification and to assist in monitoring response to therapy. PMID:28327577

  2. Infiltrative microgliosis: activation and long-distance migration of subependymal microglia following periventricular insults

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, W Shawn; Murase, Shin-Ichi; Horwitz, Alan F; Mandell, James W

    2005-01-01

    Background Subventricular microglia (SVMs) are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. Methods We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis. Results We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein. Conclusions Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues. PMID:15679892

  3. Dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs in context of neuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Maureen H.; Narasipura, Srinivas D.; Kim, Stephanie; Seaton, Melanie S.; Lutgen, Victoria; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis is a multifaceted process involving several players, including resident brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) and infiltrating cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). We evaluated the dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs as it impacts HIV in the CNS. We demonstrate that human primary-derived astrocytes (PDAs) predominantly secrete Wnt 1, 2b, 3, 5b, and 10b. Wnts are small secreted glycoproteins that initiate either β-catenin-dependent or independent signal transduction. The Wnt pathway plays a vital role in the regulation of CNS activities including neurogenesis, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. We show that HIV infection of PDAs altered astrocyte Wnt profile by elevating Wnts 2b and 10b. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) inhibited HIV replication in PBMCs by 50%. Removal of Wnts from ACM abrogated its ability to suppress HIV replication in PBMCs. Inversely, PBMCs supernatant activated PDAs, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in HLA-DR and a 5- fold increase in IFNγ expression, and enhanced astrocyte susceptibility to HIV by 2-fold, which was mediated by IFNγ in a Stat-3-dependent manner. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dynamic interaction between astrocytes and PBMCs, whereby astrocyte-secreted Wnts exert an anti-HIV effect on infected PBMCs and PBMCs, in turn, secrete IFNγ that enhance astrocyte susceptibility to productive HIV infection and mediate their activation. PMID:25331637

  4. Landscape of tumor-infiltrating T cell repertoire of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Li, Taiwen; Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Wang, Binbin; Wang, Jinzeng; Shukla, Sachet; Dou, Ruoxu; Chen, Qianming; Hodi, F. Stephen; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wu, Catherine; Hacohen, Nir; Signoretti, Sabina; Liu, Jun S.; Liu, X. Shirley

    2016-01-01

    We developed a computational method to infer the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences of tumor infiltrating T-cells in 9,142 RNA-seq samples across 29 cancer types. We identified over 600 thousand CDR3 sequences, including 15% with full-length. CDR3 sequence length distribution and amino acid conservation, as well as variable gene usage of infiltrating T-cells in many tumors, except brain and kidney cancers, resembled those in the peripheral blood of healthy donors. We observed a strong association between T-cell diversity and tumor mutation load, and predicted SPAG5 and TSSK6 as putative immunogenic cancer/testis antigens in multiple cancers. Finally, we identified 3 potential immunogenic somatic mutations based on their co-occurrence with CDR3 sequences. One of them, PRAMEF4 F300V, was predicted to bind strongly to both MHC-I and MHC-II, with matched HLA types in its carriers. Our analyses have the potential to simultaneously identify immunogenic neoantigens and the tumor-reactive T-cell clonotypes. PMID:27240091

  5. Dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs in context of neuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Richards, Maureen H; Narasipura, Srinivas D; Kim, Stephanie; Seaton, Melanie S; Lutgen, Victoria; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2015-03-01

    HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis is a multifaceted process involving several players, including resident brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) and infiltrating cells [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)]. We evaluated the dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs as it impacts HIV in the CNS. We demonstrate that human primary-derived astrocytes (PDAs) predominantly secrete Wnt 1, 2b, 3, 5b, and 10b. Wnts are small secreted glycoproteins that initiate either β-catenin-dependent or independent signal transduction. The Wnt pathway plays a vital role in the regulation of CNS activities including neurogenesis, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. We show that HIV infection of PDAs altered astrocyte Wnt profile by elevating Wnts 2b and 10b. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) inhibited HIV replication in PBMCs by 50%. Removal of Wnts from ACM abrogated its ability to suppress HIV replication in PBMCs. Inversely, PBMCs supernatant activated PDAs, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in HLA-DR and a 5-fold increase in IFNγ expression, and enhanced astrocyte susceptibility to HIV by 2-fold, which was mediated by IFNγ in a Stat-3-dependent manner. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dynamic interaction between astrocytes and PBMCs, whereby astrocyte-secreted Wnts exert an anti-HIV effect on infected PBMCs and PBMCs, in turn, secrete IFNγ that enhance astrocyte susceptibility to productive HIV infection and mediate their activation.

  6. Metabolic Profiling of IDH Mutation and Malignant Progression in Infiltrating Glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbert, Llewellyn E.; Elkhaled, Adam; Phillips, Joanna J.; Neill, Evan; Williams, Aurelia; Crane, Jason C.; Olson, Marram P.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kurhanewicz, John; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2017-03-01

    Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, ex vivo metabolic profiles of image-guided tissue samples obtained from patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent LGG were investigated using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS). Distinct spectral profiles were observed for lesions with IDH-mutated genotypes, between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma histologies, as well as for tumors that had undergone MP. Levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) were correlated with increased mitotic activity, axonal disruption, vascular neoplasia, and with several brain metabolites including the choline species, glutamate, glutathione, and GABA. The information obtained in this study may be used to develop strategies for in vivo characterization of infiltrative glioma, in order to improve disease stratification and to assist in monitoring response to therapy.

  7. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... with certain heart disorders, may receive antibiotics before dental or other procedures to help reduce the risk of infection. Alternative Names Abscess - brain; Cerebral abscess; CNS abscess Patient Instructions Brain surgery - discharge Images Amebic brain abscess ...

  8. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  9. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  10. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  11. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is the water content and water potential is not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macro-pores. As flow paths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the subsurface, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be linked to structural properties of the material. However, this relationship cannot be rigorously examined without an upscaling approach that conserves non-equilibrium during averaging of state variables. We achieve this with a novel approach, that is based on flux-weighted averaging of hydraulic potential, and compare its performance to existing averaging approaches by means of infiltration simulations. Further, we set up some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be easily compared to morphological characteristics of the infiltration front. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We generate several realizations of two-dimensional random fields originating from three heterogeneity models with distinct differences in connectivity of high-K areas and conduct infiltration simulations with them. Our results indicate, that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic, macropore-like structures enforce it. We observed a good agreement between front morphology and upscaled non-equilibrium. Our findings encourage to use flux-weighted potentials for upscaling of state variables during transient conditions. We demonstrate, that

  12. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, S.; Vogel, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is the water content and water potential is not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macro-pores. As flowpaths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the subsurface, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be linked to structural properties of the material. However, this relationship cannot be rigorously examined without an upscaling approach that conserves non-equilibrium during averaging of state variables. We achieve this with a novel approach, that is based on flux-weighted averaging of hydraulic potential, and compare its performance to existing averaging approaches by means of infiltration simulations. Further, we set up some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be easily compared to morphological characteristics of the infiltration front. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We generate several realizations of two-dimensional random fields originating from three heterogeneity models with distinct differences in connectivity of high-K areas and conduct infiltration simulations with them. Our results indicate, that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic, macropore-like structures enforce it. We observed a good agreement between front morphology and upscaled non-equilibrium. Our findings encourage to use flux-weighted potentials for upscaling of state variables during transient conditions. We demonstrate, that this

  13. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  14. Local infiltrative anesthesia for transaxillary subpectoral breast implants.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1995-01-01

    Breast augmentations using a transaxillary subpectoral approach are usually performed under general anesthesia. This article describes a technique that uses local infiltrative anesthesia in breast augmentation, adenomastectomies with immediate breast reconstruction, and when placing breast expansors. Large anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictor and long-acting effects are prepared. The axila, the subpectoral space, and a surrounding area of 3 cm outside the demarcation limits are infiltrated. Minimal bleeding, long-lasting effects, and a considerable postoperative analgesic effect are some of the advantages of this procedure.

  15. Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma with areas of infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Martín Gutiérrez, Silvia; Nieto Gallo, María Antonia; Noguero Meseguera, Rosario; Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with areas of infiltration is rare in that it constitutes less than 1% of breast cancers. After initial radiological study, these tumors show lesions with little likelihood of malignancy in a high proportion of cases. Two cases of intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with infiltration were diagnosed at the Breast Unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina. In both cases, the reason for consultation arose after palpation of a nodule and the initial radiographic analyses showed lesions with little likelihood of malignancy. PMID:24893058

  16. The cellular infiltrate in Hashimoto's disease and focal lymphocytic thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Harris, M.

    1969-01-01

    The lymphoid cells infiltrating the thyroid in three examples of Hashimoto's disease and three examples of focal lymphocytic thyroiditis have been studied by light and electron microscopy. The cell types found were small lymphocytes, plasma cells and plasmablasts, immunoblasts, and cells morphologically intermediate between immunoblasts and small lymphocytes. The infiltrate was similar in the two conditions studied and resembled the cell response found in other conditions thought to be due to delayed hypersensitivity. It is considered that these similarities support the views that focal lymphocytic thyroiditis is a focal form of Hashimoto's disease and that delayed hypersensitivity is important in the pathogenesis of these conditions. Images PMID:5819155

  17. Infiltration and permeability testing at geokinetics oil shale site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoylman, E.W.; Quinn, G.W.

    1984-03-01

    Infiltration (double-rint) and pressure permeability (packer) tests were conducted in or near true in-situ oil shale retorts and at adjacent undisturbed locations to obtain comparative data to evaluate the potential for groundwater pollution due to increased fluid migration resulting from this retorting methodology. Tests were performed at the Geokinetics oil shale site located in Section 2, Township 14 South, Range 22 East, Uintah County, Utah. Test results suggest a slight increase in surface infiltration rates and hydraulic conductivity in or near the retort areas. It is expected that this type of true in-situ retorting will pose very little, if any, threat to groundwater resources in the area.

  18. Infiltration, natural ventilation, and HVAC performance in the intelligent workplace

    SciTech Connect

    Mahdavi, A.; Ries, R.J.; Cho, D.

    2000-07-01

    This paper provides some preliminary results toward establishing the initial infiltration and ventilation performance signature for the Intelligent Workplace (IW), a research laboratory on a university campus. The preliminary empirical studies of the Intelligent Workplace involve continuous and/or periodic monitoring of a set of building performance indicators that, in toto, establish the initial building performance signature of the facility. In this paper the authors specifically report on systematic measurements of (a) building infiltration and natural ventilation, including both window and stack ventilation, and (b) HVAC systems performance, particularly user-based task-conditioning systems.

  19. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  20. An experiment of rainfall infiltration under different boundary conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Shuang; Tong, Fuguo; Xue, Song

    2016-04-01

    Rainfall infiltration is a two-phase flow of water and gas, which should be simulated through solving the nonlinear governing equations of gas and water flow. In order to avoid the three main problems, such as convergence, numerical stability and computational efficiency in the solution of the nonlinear governing equations, Richard equation was usually used to simulate rainfall infiltration when the effect of gas phase could be ignored. The purpose of this work is to study the effect of boundary condition on rainfall infiltration, and to know in which cases Richard equation is available for the simulation of rainfall infiltration. The sample of soil has a height of 1200 mm. It is tightly enclosed in a toughened glass sleeve. The gas pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure on the top surface of the model. The gas tight of its bottom can be controlled by a tap to simulate two different gas boundary conditions, permeable boundary and impermeable boundary. When the bottom of the model is not gas tight, the water infiltration rate is entirely bigger than gas tight. There is a big difference over the long time of rainfall that infiltration rate tends to be stable to 0.05cm/min when permeable but it is only 0.002cm/min when impermeable. The dramatic contrast reflects that gas paly a hindered part during rainfall infiltration. In addition, the gas pressure is obviously lower when the model is not gas tight. Although the pore gas pressure rise a little bit when water block gas, it is still same with atmospheric pressure all time. The situation is different when gas tight, the pore gas pressure increases sharply in the early stage and stable to a higher value, such as 10cm gas pressure on 67cm depth. Therefore, people basically negate the correlation between gas pressure and rainfall infiltration rate, but the evidence points out that the effect of gas pressure is in a significant position and Richard equations are not accurate under gas impermeable condition.

  1. Sudden cardiac death in infiltrative cardiomyopathies: sarcoidosis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, hemachromatosis.

    PubMed

    Lubitz, Steven A; Goldbarg, Seth H; Mehta, Davendra

    2008-01-01

    Sarcoidosis, scleroderma, amyloidosis, and hemachromatosis are systemic infiltrative disorders that commonly affect the heart. Owing to their potential for diffuse organ involvement, these diseases may present with myriad clinical manifestations. Conduction system abnormalities are common, and each of these disorders has been associated with sudden cardiac death. In this review, we summarize the epidemiology, clinical features, diagnosis, and treatment of each of these entities. We place special emphasis on existing literature as it pertains to risk stratification and therapy aimed at the prevention of sudden cardiac death in these infiltrative cardiomyopathies.

  2. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma presenting with sudden onset bilateral deafness secondary to metastatic leptomeningeal infiltration.

    PubMed

    Blows, Samuel Joseph; Morgan, Richard; Dhariwal, Umeet; Petts, Gemma; Roncaroli, Frederico

    2012-11-01

    Deafness is a very common problem in older persons. We present a case of metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas with deafness being the patient's only reason for seeking medical attention. The patient had bilateral vestibulocochlear nerve palsies with associated lower motor neurone facial nerve palsies and a bulbar palsy. Magnetic resonance imaging of his brain was unremarkable. It was only on post-mortem histology that tumour infiltrating the leptomeninges was demonstrated. Leptomeningeal metastases are rarely associated with adenocarcinoma of the pancreas. A review of the literature reveals only two other case reports of mestatic pancreatic carcinoma presenting with deafness but both had demonstrable temporal bone lesions on MRI as opposed to the meninges.

  3. Combined adductor canal block with periarticular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both adductor canal block (ACB) and periarticular infiltration (PI) have been shown to reduce pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without the motor blockade. However, the efficacy and safety of combined ACB with PI (ACB + PI) as compared to PI alone for analgesia after TKA remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of ACB + PI with PI alone on pain controll after TKA. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing ACB + PI with PI alone for TKA patients. The primary outcomes included pain score with rest or activity and morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were distance walked, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Results: Three studies involving 337 patients were included. Combined ACB with PI was associated with longer distances walked than PI alone (MD = 7.27, 95% CI: 0.43–14.12, P = 0.04) on postoperative day 1. The outcomes of pain, morphine consumption, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were not statistically different between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that combined ACB with PI may achieve earlier ambulation for patients after TKA without a reduction in analgesia when compared to PI alone in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in morphine consumption, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications between the 2 groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:28033266

  4. Leukocyte infiltration into spinal cord of EAE mice is attenuated by removal of endothelial leptin signaling.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Suidong; Hsuchou, Hung; Kastin, Abba J; Mishra, Pramod K; Wang, Yuping; Pan, Weihong

    2014-08-01

    Leptin, a pleiotropic adipokine, crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) from the periphery and facilitates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). EAE induces dynamic changes of leptin receptors in enriched brain and spinal cord microvessels, leading to further questions about the potential roles of endothelial leptin signaling in EAE progression. In endothelial leptin receptor specific knockout (ELKO) mice, there were lower EAE behavioral scores in the early phase of the disorder, better preserved BSCB function shown by reduced uptake of sodium fluorescein and leukocyte infiltration into the spinal cord. Flow cytometry showed that the ELKO mutation decreased the number of CD3 and CD45 cells in the spinal cord, although immune cell profiles in peripheral organs were unchanged. Not only were CD4(+) and CD8(+) T lymphocytes reduced, there were also lower numbers of CD11b(+)Gr1(+) granulocytes in the spinal cord of ELKO mice. In enriched microvessels from the spinal cord of the ELKO mice, the decreased expression of mRNAs for a few tight junction proteins was less pronounced in ELKO than WT mice, as was the elevation of mRNA for CCL5, CXCL9, IFN-γ, and TNF-α. Altogether, ELKO mice show reduced inflammation at the level of the BSCB, less leukocyte infiltration, and better preserved tight junction protein expression and BBB function than WT mice after EAE. Although leptin concentrations were high in ELKO mice and microvascular leptin receptors show an initial elevation before inhibition during the course of EAE, removal of leptin signaling helped to reduce disease burden. We conclude that endothelial leptin signaling exacerbates BBB dysfunction to worsen EAE. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Paula D; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Nadal, Cristina; Shu, Weiping; Gomis, Roger R; Nguyen, Don X; Minn, Andy J; van de Vijver, Marc J; Gerald, William L; Foekens, John A; Massagué, Joan

    2009-06-18

    The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to take over this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood-brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated cells that preferentially infiltrate the brain from patients with advanced disease. Gene expression analysis of these cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier. EGFR ligands and COX2 were previously linked to breast cancer infiltration of the lungs, but not the bones or liver, suggesting a sharing of these mediators in cerebral and pulmonary metastases. In contrast, ST6GALNAC5 specifically mediates brain metastasis. Normally restricted to the brain, the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in breast cancer cells enhances their adhesion to brain endothelial cells and their passage through the blood-brain barrier. This co-option of a brain sialyltransferase highlights the role of cell-surface glycosylation in organ-specific metastatic interactions.

  6. Novel Regenerative Therapies Based on Regionally Induced Multipotent Stem Cells in Post-Stroke Brains: Their Origin, Characterization, and Perspective.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Toshinori; Yoshimura, Shinichi; Sakuma, Rika; Nakano-Doi, Akiko; Matsuyama, Tomohiro; Nakagomi, Takayuki

    2017-07-25

    Brain injuries such as ischemic stroke cause severe neural loss. Until recently, it was believed that post-ischemic areas mainly contain necrotic tissue and inflammatory cells. However, using a mouse model of cerebral infarction, we demonstrated that stem cells develop within ischemic areas. Ischemia-induced stem cells can function as neural progenitors; thus, we initially named them injury/ischemia-induced neural stem/progenitor cells (iNSPCs). However, because they differentiate into more than neural lineages, we now refer to them as ischemia-induced multipotent stem cells (iSCs). Very recently, we showed that putative iNSPCs/iSCs are present within post-stroke areas in human brains. Because iNSPCs/iSCs isolated from mouse and human ischemic tissues can differentiate into neuronal lineages in vitro, it is possible that a clearer understanding of iNSPC/iSC profiles and the molecules that regulate iNSPC/iSC fate (e.g., proliferation, differentiation, and survival) would make it possible to perform neural regeneration/repair in patients following stroke. In this article, we introduce the origin and traits of iNSPCs/iSCs based on our reports and recent viewpoints. We also discuss their possible contribution to neurogenesis through endogenous and exogenous iNSPC/iSC therapies following ischemic stroke.

  7. Increased generation of cyclopentenone prostaglandins after brain ischemia and their role in aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wenjin; Ahmad, Muzamil; Rose, Marie E.; Miller, Tricia M.; Yu, Mei; Chen, Jie; Pascoe, Jordan L.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Hickey, Robert W.; Graham, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin (CyPG) J2 series, including prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), Δ12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14 -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), are active metabolites of PGD2, exerting multiple effects on neuronal function. However, the physiologic relevance of these effects remains uncertain as brain concentrations of CyPGs have not been precisely determined. In this study, we found that free PGD2 and the J2 series CyPGs (PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2) were increased in post-ischemic rat brain as detected by UPLC-MS/MS with 15d-PGJ2 being the most abundant CyPG. These increases were attenuated by pre-treating with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam. Next, effects of chronic exposure to 15d-PGJ2 were examined by treating primary neurons with 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 (a 15d-PGJ2 analog lacking the cyclopentenone ring structure), or vehicle for 24 h to 96 h. Because we found that the concentration of free 15d-PGJ2 decreased rapidly in cell culture medium, freshly prepared medium containing 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 or vehicle was changed twice daily to maintain steady extracellular concentrations. Incubation with 2.5 μM 15d-PGJ2, but not CAY10410, increased neuronal cell death without induction of caspase-3 or PARP cleavage, consistent with a primarily necrotic mechanism for 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death which was further supported by TUNEL assay results. Ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation was observed after 96 h 15d-PGJ2 incubation, accompanied by compromised 20S proteasome activity. Unlike another proteasome inhibitor, MG132, 15d-PGJ2 treatment did not activate autophagy or induce aggresome formation. Therefore, the cumulative cytotoxic effects of increased generation of CyPGs after stroke may contribute to delayed post-ischemic neuronal injury. PMID:23355003

  8. Intracranial Injection of Dengue Virus Induces Interferon Stimulated Genes and CD8+ T Cell Infiltration by Sphingosine Kinase 1 Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Al-Shujairi, Wisam H; Clarke, Jennifer N; Davies, Lorena T; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Pitson, Stuart M; Carr, Jillian M

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that the absence of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) affects both dengue virus (DENV) infection and innate immune responses in vitro. Here we aimed to define SK1-dependancy of DENV-induced disease and the associated innate responses in vivo. The lack of a reliable mouse model with a fully competent interferon response for DENV infection is a challenge, and here we use an experimental model of DENV infection in the brain of immunocompetent mice. Intracranial injection of DENV-2 into C57BL/6 mice induced body weight loss and neurological symptoms which was associated with a high level of DENV RNA in the brain. Body weight loss and DENV RNA level tended to be greater in SK1-/- compared with wildtype (WT) mice. Brain infection with DENV-2 is associated with the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression including viperin, Ifi27l2a, IRF7, and CXCL10 without any significant differences between WT and SK1-/- mice. The SK2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the brain were unchanged by DENV infection or the lack of SK1. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of a cellular infiltrate in DENV-infected brain with a significant increase in mRNA for CD8 but not CD4 suggesting this infiltrate is likely CD8+ but not CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This increase in T-cell infiltration was not affected by the lack of SK1. Overall, DENV-infection in the brain induces IFN and T-cell responses but does not influence the SK/S1P axis. In contrast to our observations in vitro, SK1 has no major influence on these responses following DENV-infection in the mouse brain.

  9. Intracranial Injection of Dengue Virus Induces Interferon Stimulated Genes and CD8+ T Cell Infiltration by Sphingosine Kinase 1 Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jennifer N.; Davies, Lorena T.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Pitson, Stuart M.; Carr, Jillian M.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that the absence of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) affects both dengue virus (DENV) infection and innate immune responses in vitro. Here we aimed to define SK1-dependancy of DENV-induced disease and the associated innate responses in vivo. The lack of a reliable mouse model with a fully competent interferon response for DENV infection is a challenge, and here we use an experimental model of DENV infection in the brain of immunocompetent mice. Intracranial injection of DENV-2 into C57BL/6 mice induced body weight loss and neurological symptoms which was associated with a high level of DENV RNA in the brain. Body weight loss and DENV RNA level tended to be greater in SK1-/- compared with wildtype (WT) mice. Brain infection with DENV-2 is associated with the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression including viperin, Ifi27l2a, IRF7, and CXCL10 without any significant differences between WT and SK1-/- mice. The SK2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the brain were unchanged by DENV infection or the lack of SK1. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of a cellular infiltrate in DENV-infected brain with a significant increase in mRNA for CD8 but not CD4 suggesting this infiltrate is likely CD8+ but not CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This increase in T-cell infiltration was not affected by the lack of SK1. Overall, DENV-infection in the brain induces IFN and T-cell responses but does not influence the SK/S1P axis. In contrast to our observations in vitro, SK1 has no major influence on these responses following DENV-infection in the mouse brain. PMID:28095439

  10. Aerobic exercises enhance cognitive functions and brain derived neurotrophic factor in ischemic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    El-Tamawy, Mohamed S; Abd-Allah, Foad; Ahmed, Sandra M; Darwish, Moshera H; Khalifa, Heba A

    2014-01-01

    Stroke is a leading cause of functional impairments. High percentage of these patients will experience some degree of cognitive affection, ranging from mild cognitive impairment to dementia. Demonstrate the role of aerobic exercises enhancing cognitive functions and its effect on Brain Derived Neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in post-ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. We included thirty Egyptian ischemic stroke patients in the territory of anterior circulation. They were divided into 2 groups; group 1 (G1) were subjected to physiotherapy program without aerobic exercises and group 2 (G2) were subjected to the same previous program followed by aerobic exercises. Both groups were subjected to pre- and post-treatment Addenbrookes's Cognitive Examination- Revised (ACER) and serum level of BDNF. Our results showed a significant improvement in ACER score in G2 compared to G1 post-treatment (p = 0.017). BDNF serum level significantly increased in G2 post-treatment compared to pre-treatment (p = 0.001) and compared to G1 group (p = 0.0458). ACER improvement was positively correlated to increase in serum level of BDNF (r = 0.53, p = 0.044). Aerobic exercises improve cognitive functions of ischemic stroke patients. This improvement is related to the increase in serum level of BDNF.

  11. Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and Memory Dysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Tsujita, Tsukasa; Ono, Akiko; Miyagi, Kei; Mori, Takaharu; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. Oral administration of chorogi extract or ginkgo extract significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Neither herbal medicine affected locomotor activity. Furthermore, neither significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment. In primary neurons, neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. This hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. Taken together, our findings suggest that chorogi extract as well as ginkgo extract can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism.

  12. Micro-hardness and mineral loss of enamel lesions after infiltration with various resins: influence of infiltrant composition and application frequency in vitro.

    PubMed

    Paris, S; Schwendicke, F; Seddig, S; Müller, W-D; Dörfer, C; Meyer-Lueckel, H

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the influence of infiltrant composition and application frequency on micro-hardness and lesion progression after resin infiltration of artificial enamel lesions. In each of 100 bovine enamel samples, three artificial caries lesions were created (pH=4.95, 50 days). After etching two of the lesions (37% phosphoric acid) specimens were randomly allocated to five infiltrants (four experimental infiltrants with different monomer and solvent compositions and penetration coefficients, and one commercial infiltrant [Icon, DMG]). Lesions were then infiltrated and light-cured, and infiltration repeated afterwards for one of the lesions. Infiltrated samples were cut into halves, with one half being demineralised for further 50 days. Micro-hardness (VHN) and integrated mineral loss (ΔZ) were evaluated at baseline and after second demineralisation. Repeated measures ANOVA and paired t-tests were used to analyse influence of material composition and application frequency on micro-hardness and lesion progression (integrated mineral loss difference ΔΔZ). Resin infiltration significantly increased micro-hardness and reduced lesion progression compared to untreated artificial lesions (p<0.05, t-test). Neither micro-hardness nor lesion progression were significantly influenced by material composition (p>0.05, ANOVA). In contrast, twice application resulted in significantly increased micro-hardness and demineralisation resistance of infiltrated lesions (p<0.05, ANOVA). Resin infiltration significantly improves micro-hardness and demineralisation resistance of enamel lesions; these effects are significantly enhanced if resins are applied twice. Experimental resins did not outperform the commercial infiltrant. This in vitro study demonstrated that resin infiltration significantly increases both micro-hardness and demineralisation resistance of enamel caries lesions. Twice application of the infiltrant seems to increase these effects. In

  13. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  14. Failure mechanism of the polymer infiltration of carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Jakob; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Polymer melt infiltration is one of the feasible methods for manufacturing filter membranes out of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on large scales. Practically, however, its process suffers from low yields, and the mechanism behind this failure is rather poorly understood. Here, we investigate a failure mechanism of polymer melt infiltration of vertical aligned (VA-) CNTs. In penetrating the VA-CNT interstices, polymer melts exert a capillarity-induced attractive force laterally on CNTs at the moving meniscus, leading to locally agglomerated macroscale bunches. Such a large configurational change can deform and distort individual CNTs so much as to cause buckling or breakdown of the alignment. In view of membrane manufacturing, this irreversible distortion of nanotubes is detrimental, as it could block the transport path of the membranes. The failure mechanism of the polymer melt infiltration is largely attributed to steric hindrance and an energy penalty of confined polymer chains. Euler beam theory and scaling analysis affirm that CNTs with low aspect ratio, thick walls and sparse distribution can maintain their vertical alignment. Our results can enrich a mechanistic understanding of the polymer melt infiltration process and offer guidelines to the facile large-scale manufacturing of the CNT-polymer filter membranes.

  15. Immune Cell Infiltrates in Hippocampal Sclerosis: Correlation With Neuronal Loss.

    PubMed

    Lu, Jian-Qiang; Steve, Trevor A; Wheatley, Matt; Gross, Donald W

    2017-03-01

    Immune mechanisms have been increasingly recognized in the pathogenesis of hippocampal sclerosis (HS), but infiltration of cytotoxic T-cells and its pathological significance in patients with HS has not been explored. We examined 30 cases of surgically resected hippocampi, including 16 International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) type 1, 9 ILAE type 2, 1 ILAE type 3 HS, and 4 ILAE No-HS, as well as 6 autopsy No-HS hippocampi. The HS hippocampi showed sparse to scattered CD8-positive T-cells, rare CD4-positive T-cells, and a modest increase in CD68-positive microglia/macrophages, which were significantly more numerous than those in the No-HS controls. The infiltration of CD8-positive T-cells was significantly greater in the CA1 subfield than other subfields of type 1 and type 2 HS. The numbers of CD8-positive T-cells positively correlated with those of CD4-positive T-cells; there was a lower ratio of CD4/CD8-positive T-cells. There were positive correlations between these cells and scores of neuronal loss but no significant correlation between the infiltration of these cells and epilepsy disease duration or age of epilepsy onset. These findings suggest that an autoimmune process may be involved in the pathogenesis of HS and infiltration of immune cells, particularly CD8-positive cytotoxic T-cells, may contribute to neuronal loss in HS. © 2017 American Association of Neuropathologists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The infiltration of aluminum into silicon carbide compacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, P. B.; Martins, G. P.; Olson, D. L.; Edwards, G. R.

    1990-06-01

    Although liquid-metal processing of metal matrix composites offers economic advantages, problems related to the nonwetting nature of the ceramic discontinuous reinforcement create obstacles to its ready implementation. Infiltration can occur only if a threshold pressure is applied to overcome the unfavorable interfacial forces in the system. The research reported in this paper has been devoted primarily to experiments on infiltrating silicon carbide compacts with pure aluminum, aluminum-1 wt pet magnesium, and aluminum-1 wt pet silicon. The major finding has been that an incubation time is necessary before infiltration can proceed, even though the threshold pressure is exceeded. Thus, while the model equations available for predicting the infiltration rate of compacts appear to be adequate, the incubation time can represent the rate-determining step in the process. It is suggested that the mechanism responsible for the incubation phenomenon may be related to a surface modification produced by either reaction of liquid aluminum with an oxide film on the surface of the particles or coverage of the surface by a capillarity-induced aluminum condensate.

  17. Sequential infiltration synthesis for enhancing multiple-patterning lithography

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Tseng, Yu-Chih

    2017-06-20

    Simplified methods of multiple-patterning photolithography using sequential infiltration synthesis to modify the photoresist such that it withstands plasma etching better than unmodified resist and replaces one or more hard masks and/or a freezing step in MPL processes including litho-etch-litho-etch photolithography or litho-freeze-litho-etch photolithography.

  18. Infiltration on mountain slopes: a comparison of three environments.

    Treesearch

    Carol P. Harden*; P. Delmas Scruggs

    2003-01-01

    Water is well established as a major driver of the geomorphic change that eventually reduces mountains to lower relief landscapes. Nonetheless, within the altitudinal limits of continuous vegetation in humid climates, water is also an essential factor in slope stability. In this paper, we present results from field experiments to determine infiltration rates at...

  19. Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

  20. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  1. Unilateral apical infiltrate as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tice, A W

    1981-11-01

    A unilateral, apical, pulmonary infiltrate was seen in an Air Force weapon systems officer stationed in the Philippines as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The most obvious diagnosis for that geographic area is tuberculosis. Diagnosis must be pursued to evaluate all differential possibilities, with resort to open-lung or bronchoscopic biopsy, if necessary.

  2. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  3. Infiltration, erosion, and vegetation recovery following road obliteration

    Treesearch

    R. B. Foltz; H. Rhee; K. A. Yanosek

    2007-01-01

    Forest roads are obliterated to lower the risks of surface erosion and mass failures. One purpose of the road obliteration is to return the compacted forest roads to productive pre-road conditions, i.e., a forest floor with high infiltration capacity, low interrill erodibility, and high vegetation ground cover. It is important to know how these characteristics recover...

  4. Evaluation of pulmonary infiltrates in patients after stem cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Scaglione, Steve; Hofmeister, Craig C; Stiff, Patrick

    2005-12-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation is potentially curative therapy that has become the standard of care for many hematologic malignancies. Pulmonary complications occur in about 50% of stem cell transplant recipients and no other organ dysfunction has a higher mortality. Unfortunately the diagnosis of these infiltrates is hampered by the poor yield from routine studies and this patient population is rarely able to tolerate more risky procedures that will obtain tissue for microscopy and culture. A bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) is usually insufficient to make a diagnosis of invasive fungal, significant bacterial, or pathogenic viral infections in patients that will still benefit from a change in therapy. In this review we discuss the infectious etiologies of pulmonary infiltrates post hematopoietic stem cell transplant, the non-infectious causes of infiltrates such as diffuse alveolar hemorrhage, engraftment syndrome, and idiopathic pneumonia syndrome, and the yield of newer diagnostic procedures ranging from peripheral blood galactomannan to cytomegalovirus antigenemia, and report on new technologies that promise more accurate and timely diagnoses of these infiltrates.

  5. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  6. Concrete grinding residue characterization and influence on infiltration.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, T; Prunty, L; Bell, J

    2011-01-01

    Concrete grinding residue (CGR) is a slurry byproduct created by concrete pavement maintenance operations. Disposal of CGR slurry is presently regulated on the basis of very minimal information. The least immediate expense is incurred by spreading CGR slurry directly on vegetated roadway ditches and embankments. The direct disposal impacts to environmental quality in terms of soil physical or chemical properties are not known. Five CGR materials from widely dispersed sites in the United States were analyzed for particle size distribution and evaluated with a suite of USEPA physical and chemical analyses. Values found for the parameters examined are not considered harmful. An infiltration column study was also conducted in which two CGRs were mixed at 8 and 25% by weight and also surface applied 2.5 mm deep with two contrasting (relatively fine and coarse textured) soils. With the finer soil, statistically (p < 0.05) significant decrease in infiltration time (increased infiltration rate) was associated with the 25% and surface-applied CGR treatments, compared with the untreated control soil. The results indicate that excessive application of CGR may increase water infiltration into soil in the short-term. This should be kept in mind, but does not appear to be generally detrimental.

  7. Manufacturing of three-dimensionally microstructured nanocomposites through microfluidic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-03-12

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors.

  8. Augmented mast cell infiltration and microvessel density in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Tuka, Elżbieta; Danilewicz, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Recent investigations have taken into account the role of mast cells in prostate cancer formation, analyzing their dual functions (as tumour growth promoters and tumour growth inhibitors). The aim of our study was to compare mast cell infiltration and microvessel density in prostate cancer and in benign prostate hyperplasia. We also attempted to find possible relationships among mast cell infiltration and microvessel density, Gleason score, as well as serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Material and methods The investigation was confined to evaluations of material from prostate needle biopsies, carried out in 26 patients with prostate cancer, and of 14 specimens diagnosed as benign hyperplasia. The numbers of tryptase positive mast cells and CD34 positive vessels were determined using a computer image analysis system. In the patients with prostate cancer, both mast cell infiltrates and microvessel density were significantly increased, as compared to the control patients. Results Significant positive correlations were identified between the mean numbers of mast cells and microvessel densities, both in the prostate cancer group and in the control group. Moreover, significant positive correlations were observed between Gleason score on one hand and the number of mast cells and microvessel density on the other. The correlations between PSA serum levels and both mast cell infiltration and microvessel density were positive, but not in a statistically significant way. Conclusions The reported investigations may support the assumption of mast cell promoter function in prostate cancer development, whereas no evidence was found for their opposite PMID:24592126

  9. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  10. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  11. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  12. Spatial distribution of pollution in an urban stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-08-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater drainage. Because stormwater is polluted in highly toxic compounds, assessment of pollution retention by infiltration basins is necessary. Indeed, if basins are not effective in trapping pollution, deep soil and groundwater may be contaminated. This study's objective is to investigate soil pollution in infiltration basins: spatial distribution of soil pollution, optimisation of the number of soil samples and a contamination indicator are presented. It is part of a global project on long-term impact of stormwater infiltration on groundwater. Soil sampling was done on a basin in suburban Lyon (France). Samples were collected at different depths and analysed for nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and grain size. Pollutant concentrations decrease rapidly with depth while pH, mineralisation and grain size increase. Sustainable metal concentrations are reached at a 30-cm depth, even after 14 years of operation; hydrocarbon pollution is deeper. Principal component analysis shows how pollutants affect each level. The topsoil is different from other levels. Three specifically located points are enough to estimate the mass of pollution trapped by the basin with a 26% error. The proposed contamination indicator is calculated using either average level concentrations or maximum level concentrations. In both cases, the topsoil layer appears polluted but evaluation of lower levels is dependent on the choice of input concentrations.

  13. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  14. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  15. Parameter estimation and infiltration tests at the repeat facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, P.; Armstrong, P.; Winn, B.

    1983-11-01

    Work performed in the reconfigurable passive evaluation analysis and test (REPEAT) facility is reviewed. The physical characteristics of the building and the instrumentation are described. Collected data are discussed. Treatment of parameter estimation ensures with example calculations. Infiltration instrumentation and tests are described. Flow visualization studies are discussed.

  16. Areal variation and chemical modification of weathered shale infiltration characteristics

    SciTech Connect

    Luxmoore, R.J.; Spalding, B.P.; Munro, I.M.

    1981-07-01

    Spatial variability of infiltration into a weathered shale subsoil was evaluated at a site proximal to one used for shallow land burial of low-level radioactive waste at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Double-ring infiltometers were installed at 48 locations on a 2- by 2-m grid after the removal of 1 to 2 m of soil (Litz-Sequoia association, Typic Hapludults). Infiltration rates were measured before and during the 0- to 20- and 239- to 259-day periods following treatment with solutions of NaOH, KOH, NaF, NaAlO/sub 2/, and Na/sub 2/SiO/sub 3/ at rates of 151 equivalents/m/sup 2/. None of these chemical treatments significantly altered infiltration rate, indicating that chemical modification of soil exchange properties may be achieved without inducing hydrologic disturbance in these subsoils. A semivariogram analysis of infiltration data showed that areal variability was random; any spatial patterning must therefore occur at a smaller scale than 2 m.

  17. Continuous infiltration of local anaesthetic following total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Ong, Johnny C A; Chin, Pak Lin; Lin, Chin Pak; Fook-Chong, Stephanie M C; Tang, Andrew; Yang, Kuang Ying; Ying, Yang Kuang; Tay, Boon Keng; Keng, Tay Boon

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether continuous infiltration of local anaesthetic can reduce the pain score and morphine use over 48 hours after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). 11 men and 43 women aged 50 to 82 years who underwent unilateral TKA for osteoarthritis were recruited. They were randomised into 3 groups. In group 1, 17 patients who acted as controls received patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) with intravenous morphine for 48 hours. In group 2, 16 patients received continuous infiltration of bupivacaine to the subcutaneous tissue and intra-articular space for 48 hours, in addition to PCA. In group 3, 21 patients received an intra-articular injection of local anaesthetic, followed by continuous infiltration of bupivacaine to the subcutaneous tissue and intraarticular space for 48 hours, in addition to PCA. For each patient, a visual analogue score (VAS) for pain was recorded postoperatively at 2, 4, 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours. The total amount of morphine used was recorded at 24 and 48 hours. Over 48 hours, the VAS for pain and morphine use was significantly higher in controls than patients in groups 2 and 3. Continuous infiltration of local anaesthetic into the intra-articular space and subcutaneous tissues, in addition to PCA with intravenous morphine, provides significantly more pain relief and reduces morphine use.

  18. Cannabinoids and Neuro-Inflammation: Regulation of Brain Immune Response.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, Roberta; Laezza, Chiara; Bifulco, Maurizio; Marasco, Daniela; Malfitano, Anna M

    2016-01-01

    Cannabinoid receptors are involved in the neuro-pathogenic mechanisms of inflammatory conditions of the central nervous system and their expression can be modulated during diseases. In this manuscript we highlight the function of cannabinoid receptors, their signalling and expression at peripheral and central levels in order to understand their implication in neuro-inflammation and review the effects of cannabinoids in neuro-inflammatory disorders. Brain inflammatory processes are characterized by infiltration of numerous types of cells: both peripheral and brain resident immune cells and other neuronal cells. The disruption of the blood brain barrier favours cell infiltration in the central nervous system with consequent neuronal damage, a common event in many neuro-inflammatory diseases. Cannabinoids affect brain adaptive and immune response, regulate inflammatory mediators and can exert a role in blood brain barrier damage prevention. Various patents describe the beneficial properties of cannabinoids in numerous neurodegenerative diseases with inflammatory components and overall effects support the therapeutic application of cannabinoids.

  19. Investigations of infiltration processes from flooded areas by column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrlok, U.; Bethge, E.; Golalipour, A.

    2009-04-01

    In case of inundation of flood plains during flood events there is an increased risk of groundwater contamination due to infiltration of increasingly polluted river water. Specifically in densely populated regions, this groundwater may be used as source for drinking water supply. For the evaluation of this a detailed quantitative understanding of the infiltration processes under such conditions is required. In this context the infiltration related to a flood event can be described by three phases. The first phase is defined by the saturation of the unsaturated soils. Within the second phase infiltration takes place under almost saturated conditions determined by the hydraulic load of the flood water level. The drainage of the soils due to falling groundwater table is characterizing the third phase. Investigations by soil columns gave a detailed insight into the infiltration processes caused by flooding. Inflow at the soil top was established by a fixed water table fed by a Mariotte bottle. Free outflow and a groundwater table were used as lower boundary condition. Inflow and outflow volume were monitored. The evolution of the matrix pressure was observed by micro-tensiometers installed at several depths within the soil column. The flow processes during phase one and two were characterized by a tracer test. Some of the experiments were repeated in order to study the influence of preliminary events. Main results were a difference in infiltration due to the lower boundary condition with regard to inflow rate, outflow dynamics and matrix pressure evolution which is directly related to the water content evolution. Further, the influence of preliminary events was different for the different boundary conditions. A replacement of pre-event water could be observed which was confirmed by volume balances calculated for the infiltration experiments. Although these water balances were almost closed significant dynamics of the matrix pressure remained in soil column in the

  20. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  1. Dentin infiltration ability of different classes of adhesive systems.

    PubMed

    Langer, Alina; Ilie, Nicoleta

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluates the dentin infiltration ability of various types of adhesives and compares four classes of adhesive systems with regard to this property. The infiltration is determined quantitatively, characterized as tag length and ratio of infiltration, and qualitatively, characterized as homogeneity, regularity, and continuity of the resin tags. Flat dentin surfaces from 140 halves of caries-free molars were bonded with four classes of adhesive systems. The adhesives (n = 20) were labeled with rhodamine B isothiocyanate and applied on the occlusal dentin following the manufacturer's recommendations and were subsequently light cured, 20 s. Then a 2-mm thick composite layer was applied and light cured, 20 s. The specimens were stored in distilled water at 37°C, 24 h. Two slices were sectioned mesio-distally from each sample and were investigated with a confocal laser scanning microscope. The measurements were done at 0.5, 1.5, and 2.5 mm from the enamel-dentin junction. The data were analyzed by using analysis of variance and the general linear model. The class of adhesive, the composition, and the dentin position were significant factors affecting the investigated parameters. The use of etch and rinse adhesives in comparison to self-etch adhesives provided the formation of longer, more homogeneous, very regularly distributed but mostly fractured tags. A comparison of adhesives confirmed that etch and rinse systems remain better in bond infiltration. While the importance of tags formation on bonding is still controversially discussed, adhesive systems with a high ratio of infiltration might better protect the tooth against microorganism contamination.

  2. Intramuscular Fat Infiltration Contributes to Impaired Muscle Function in COPD.

    PubMed

    Robles, Priscila Games; Sussman, Marshall S; Naraghi, Ali; Brooks, Dina; Goldstein, Roger S; White, Lawrence M; Mathur, Sunita

    2015-07-01

    Muscle weakness is a prevalent complication in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Atrophy does not fully explain muscle weakness in this population. The recent focus on fat infiltration and its clinical implications in age and diseased muscles are important because it may further explain the extent of declining muscle strength and mobility seen in COPD. The objectives of this study are to quantify fat infiltration (muscle quality) of lower-limb muscles in people with COPD and healthy older adults using magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and to explore its relationship with muscle strength and walking capacity in COPD. T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy were performed in people with COPD (n = 10) and control subjects (n = 10) matched for age, gender, and body mass index. Maximal cross-sectional area (muscle size), isokinetic and isometric muscle peak torques, and 6-min walk distance were also assessed. In addition to muscle atrophy (mean between-group differences of 20% to 25%, P < 0.05), COPD group presented with fatty infiltration in thigh and calf muscles that were significantly greater than what was observed in their healthy counterparts (mean between-group differences of 74% to 89%, P = 0.001). There was a strong inverse correlation between intramuscular fat infiltration, muscle peak torque, and walking distance (r = -0.6 to -0.8, P < 0.001) in this group as opposed to fair-to-moderate correlations between muscle size and the same outcomes (r = 0.4-0.6, P < 0.01). Poor muscle quality accompanies atrophy in people with COPD. Intramuscular fat infiltration not only appears to have a strong correlation with impaired function but also is more profound than muscle atrophy in this group. Monitoring both muscle size and quality may enable a more comprehensive assessment of exercise programs in COPD.

  3. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Descour

    2001-04-30

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment.

  4. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vanderborght, Jan; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2012-08-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is, the water content and pressure head are not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state behind the front. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macropores. Since flow paths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the porous medium, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be directly linked to structural properties of the material. A critical question is how to define averaged state variables at the larger scale. We propose a novel approach based on flux-weighted averaging of pressure head, and compare its performance to alternative methods for averaging. Further, we suggest some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be related to morphological characteristics of infiltration fronts in quantitative terms. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We demonstrate our approach using numerical case studies for infiltration into two-dimensional heterogeneous media using three different structure models with distinct differences in connectivity. Our results indicate that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic structures that are elongated in the direction of flow enforce it. We observe a good agreement between front morphology and effective hydraulic non-equilibrium. A detailed comparison of averaged state variables with results from an upscaled model that includes hydraulic non-equilibrium outlines potential improvements in the description of non-equilibrium dynamics

  5. Infiltration in heterogeneous soil monitored by neutron imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snehota, Michal; Sobotkova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Sacha, Jan; Vontobel, Peter; Cislerova, Milena

    2014-05-01

    The process of infiltration in near-saturated soil and fate of residual air bubbles was studied using neutron imaging. It is the continuation of previous study on flow instability. Ponding infiltration-outflow experiment conducted at NEUTRA beamline of the Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institut aimed at i) characterizing the types of structures susceptible to air trapping, ii) monitoring of entrapped air and water redistribution during steady state flow iii) imaging the process of entrapped air dissolution. Experiments were conducted on series of undisturbed samples of soil from the Cambisol series and on an artificially prepared sample. The latter was composed of coarse sand (representing pathways of fast preferential flow), which surrounded blocks of fine ceramic. Cumulative infiltration and outflow fluxes of water were measured gravimetrically by two precision digital scales thus the full water balance data were obtained. Small samples (30 mm in diameter) were used to achieve good spatial resolution of neutron images. Degassed water was used to dissolve bubbles of entrapped air at the end of infiltration experiments. The neutron radiography and tomography data show quantitatively exchange of water and air between domains of fine and coarse materials during quasi-steady state flow in the sample. The redistribution of the entrapped air directly affected the hydraulic conductivity. On neutron tomography images the gradual dissolving of trapped air bubbles was clearly detected. The effect also led to significant increase of hydraulic conductivity. The obtained data show clearly that air as a non-wetting phase should not be overlooked in case of near-saturated infiltration in soil with preferential flow. The research was supported by the Czech Science Foundation Project No. 14-03691S.

  6. Spectral and lifetime domain measurements of rat brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Haidar, D Abi; Leh, B; Zanello, M; Siebert, R

    2015-04-01

    During glioblastoma surgery, delineation of the brain tumor margins is difficult because the infiltrated and normal tissues have the same visual appearance. We use a fiber-optical fluorescence probe for spectroscopic and time domain measurements to assist surgeon in differentiating the healthy and the infiltrated tissues. First study was performed on rats that were previously injected with tumorous cells. Measurements of endogenous tissue fluorescence were performed on fresh and fixed rat tumor brain slices. Spectral characteristics, fluorescence redox ratios and fluorescence lifetime measurements were analyzed. The study aimed at defining an optical index that can act as an indicator for discriminating healthy from tumorous tissue.

  7. Single Dose Caffeine Protects the Neonatal Mouse Brain against Hypoxia Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Winerdal, Max; Urmaliya, Vijay; Winerdal, Malin E.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2017-01-01

    In this randomized blinded study, we investigated caffeine 5 mg/kg treatment given directly after neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia. Brain morphology, behavior and key brain infiltrating immune populations were examined. Caffeine treatment significantly improves outcome when compared to phosphate buffered saline. Flow cytometric analysis of immune responses revealed no persistent immunological alterations. Given its safety caffeine emerges as a candidate for neuroprotective intervention after neonatal brain injury. PMID:28129361

  8. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  9. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  10. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rates from Sr isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Maher, K.; DePaolo, D. J.; DePaolo, D. J.; Conrad, M.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting infiltration rates and recharge through the vadose zone in arid regions is difficult and hence developing methods for the measurement of infiltration rates is important. We have been investigating the use of Sr isotope measurements for determining infiltration at the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford reservation in central Washington. In this context, infiltration affects the transport of contaminants to the water table as well as recharge of the groundwater system. Using Sr isotopes for this purpose requires drill core and water samples from the vadose zone, although leaches of the cores can substitute for water samples. Complementary information, including some constraints on regional recharge, can also be obtained using water samples from groundwater monitoring wells. The VZ method is based on the fact that the Sr isotope ratio of soil water just below the surface is often set by dissolution of aeolian material including carbonate, and this ratio is different from the average value in the deeper underlying vadose zone rock matrix. As water infiltrates, the Sr isotopic composition of the water changes toward the rock values as a result of Sr released from the rocks by weathering reactions. The rate of change with depth of the Sr isotope ratio of the vadose zone water is a function ultimately of q/R; the ratio of the infiltration flux (q) to the bulk rock weathering rate (R). Where it is possible to evaluate R, q can be estimated. As data accumulate it may be possible to improve the calibration of the method. At Hanford the vadose zone rock material is mostly unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel of broadly granitic composition, which constitute the Hanford and Ringold formations. Annual precipitation is about 160 mm/yr. Drilling and coring of a ca. 70m hole to the water table in 1999 as part of the Hanford groundwater monitoring program, in a relatively undisturbed area of the site, allowed us to generate a unique Sr isotope data set. The Sr isotope

  11. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied. Infiltration was monitored by means of image analysis of two-dimensional array resistivity generated by a Syscal Kid Switch resistivity system (Griffiths et al., 1990). The data was inverted with the computer program RES2DINV (Loke, 2004). The agricultural soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silt loam (BgA). The natural site was located in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The soils there are classified as Schoharie silty clay loam. The electrical images of the three sites were compared against established soil properties, including particle size distribution, available water capacity, and soluble salts (from the literature), as well as against site-specific soil samples and penetrometer data, which were collected along with the geophysical measurements. This research evaluates the potential of acquiring high resolution, non-destructive measurements of infiltration in the uppermost 1.5 meter of the vadose zone. The results demonstrate that resistivity differences can detect infiltration in soils typical of the north-eastern United States. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water content in the upper 1.5 meters (relevant to agriculture) of the subsurface can be monitored successfully and non-destructively with ERI. The sensitivity of the method is higher in subsurface environments that demonstrate high overall apparent resistivity values (e.g. high sand content). Under conditions of increased soil heterogeneity, instead of the formation of a continuous

  12. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  13. Infiltration and soil erosion modelling on Lausatian post mine sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunth, Franziska; Schmidt, Jürgen

    2013-04-01

    Land management of reclaimed lignite mine sites requires long-term and safe structuring of recultivation areas. Erosion by water leads to explicit soil losses, especially on heavily endangered water repellent and non-vegetated soil surfaces. Beyond that, weathering of pyrite-containing lignite burden dumps causes sulfuric acid-formation, and hence the acidification of groundwater, seepage water and surface waters. Pyrite containing sediment is detached by precipitation and transported into worked-out open cuts by draining runoff. In addition to ground water influence, erosion processes are therefore involved in acidification of surface waters. A model-based approach for the conservation of man-made slopes of post mining sites is the objective of this ongoing study. The study shall be completed by modeling of the effectiveness of different mine site recultivation scenarios. Erosion risks on man-made slopes in recultivation areas should be determined by applying the physical, raster- and event based computer model EROSION 2D/3D (Schmidt, 1991, 1992; v. Werner, 1995). The widely used erosion model is able to predict runoff as well as detachment, transport and deposition of sediments. Lignite burden dumps contain hydrophobic substances that cover soil particles. Consequently, these soils show strong water repellency, which influences the processes of infiltration and soil erosion on non-vegetated, coal containing dump soils. The influence of water repellency had to be implemented into EROSION 2D/3D. Required input data for soil erosion modelling (e.g. physical soil parameters, infiltration rates, calibration factors, etc.) were gained by soil sampling and rainfall experiments on non-vegetated as well as recultivated reclaimed mine sites in the Lusatia lignite mining region (southeast of Berlin, Germany). The measured infiltration rates on the non-vegetated water repellent sites were extremely low. Therefore, a newly developed water repellency-factor was applied to

  14. Protein-energy malnutrition alters thermoregulatory homeostasis and the response to brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Colbourne, Frederick; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2011-02-01

    Co-existing protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), characterized by deficits in both protein and energy status, impairs functional outcome following global ischemia and has been associated with increased reactive gliosis. Since temperature is a key determinant of brain damage following an ischemic insult, the objective was to investigate whether alterations in post-ischemic temperature regulation contribute to PEM-induced reactive gliosis following ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (190-280 g) were assigned to either control diet (18% protein) or PEM induced by feeding a low protein diet (2% protein) for 7 days prior to either global ischemia or sham surgery. There was a rapid disruption in thermoregulatory function in rats fed the low protein diet as assessed by continuous recording of core temperature with bio-electrical sensor transmitters. Both daily temperature fluctuation and mean temperature increased within the first 24 hours, and these remained significantly elevated throughout the 7 day pre-ischemic period (p < 0.027). In the immediate post-surgical period, PEM decreased body temperature to a greater extent than that in well-nourished controls (p = 0.003). The increase in daily temperature fluctuation caused by PEM persisted throughout the 7 day post-surgical period (p < 0.001), and this interacted with the effects of global ischemia on days 8 (p = 0.018) and 11 (p = 0.021). The astrocytic and microglial responses induced at 7 days after global ischemia were not influenced by PEM, but this preliminary analysis needs to be confirmed with a more reliable global ischemia model. In conclusion, exposure to a low protein diet rapidly impairs the ability to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis, and the resultant PEM also diminishes the ability to thermoregulate in response to a challenge. Since temperature regulation is a key determinant of brain injury following ischemia, these findings suggest that the pathophysiology of brain injury could be altered in stroke

  15. Relative contributions of transient and steady state infiltration during ephemeral streamflow

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Blasch, K.W.; Ferre, T. P. A.; Hoffmann, J.P.; Fleming, J.B.

    2006-01-01

    Simulations of infiltration during three ephemeral streamflow events in a coarse-grained alluvial channel overlying a less permeable basin-fill layer were conducted to determine the relative contribution of transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow to cumulative infiltration for the event. Water content, temperature, and piezometric measurements from 2.5-m vertical profiles within the alluvial sediments were used to constrain a variably saturated water flow and heat transport model. Simulated and measured transient infiltration rates at the onset of streamflow were about two to three orders of magnitude greater than steady state infiltration rates. The duration of simulated transient infiltration ranged from 1.8 to 20 hours, compared with steady state flow periods of 231 to 307 hours. Cumulative infiltration during the transient period represented 10 to 26% of the total cumulative infiltration, with an average contribution of approximately 18%. Cumulative infiltration error for the simulated streamflow events ranged from 9 to 25%. Cumulative infiltration error for typical streamflow events of about 8 hours in duration in is about 90%. This analysis indicates that when estimating total cumulative infiltration in coarse-grained ephemeral stream channels, consideration of the transient infiltration at the onset of streamflow will improve predictions of the total volume of infiltration that may become groundwater recharge. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.

  17. Gravity-driven infiltration instability in initially dry nonhorizontal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J. ); Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1994-09-01

    Experimental evidence demonstrating gravity-driven wetting front instability in an initially dry natural fracture is presented. An experimental approach is developed using a transparent analog rough-walled fracture to explore gravity-driven instability. Three different boundary conditions were observed to produce unstable fronts in the analog fracture: application of fluid at less than the imbibition capacity, inversion of a density-stratified system, and redistribution of flow at the cessation of stable infiltration. The redistribution boundary condition (analogous to the cessation of ponded infiltration) is considered in a series of systematic experiments. Gravitational gradient and magnitude of the fluid input were varied during experimentation. Qualitative observations imply that finger development is strongly correlated to the structure of the imbibition front at the onset of flow redistribution. Measurements of finger width is compared to theoretical predictions based on linear stability theory. 28 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab.

  18. Ordered nanoscale domains by infiltration of block copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2016-11-08

    A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic/inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic features with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

  19. Anion Absorption by Etiolated Wheat Leaves after Vacuum Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, I. R.; Macklon, A. E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Chloride and phosphate uptake by leaf segments of green and etiolated 7-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Capelle is enhanced by light. In the range from 1.0 to 10 millimolar KCl, maximal rates of uptake were obtained with 1.5-millimeter segments. Above 1.5 millimeters, ion diffusion through the cut edge was the rate-limiting factor, uptake being proportional to the amount of cut edge, but vacuum infiltration of the tissue overcame this limitation, allowing uptake to be independent of segment length. No deleterious effects of vacuum infiltration were observed, and it is suggested that the technique offers a convenient alternative to existing methods in the study of foliar absorption. PMID:16657949

  20. Capillarity in isothermal infiltration of alumina fiber preforms with aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, V.J.; Mortensen, A. . Dept. of Materials Science); Compton, L.M. )

    1994-10-01

    Models derived in petroleum engineering and soil science for flow of two immiscible fluids in a porous medium are extended to the infiltration of ceramic preforms by a liquid metal. SAFFIL alumina fiber preforms are infiltrated with an aluminum matrix in a series of interrupted unidirectional and isothermal experiments at various low applied pressures, to measure profiles of the volume fraction of metal along the length of the preforms. Comparison of experimental data with theory reveals the existence of a pressure-dependent incubation time for wetting of the alumina preforms by molten aluminum at 973 K. If this incubation time is taken into account, experimental curves of metal distribution are well predicted by theory, confirming the validity of the models after initiation of flow.

  1. Influence of spontaneous vegetation in stormwater infiltration system clogging.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Merchan, Carolina; Barraud, Sylvie; Bedell, Jean-Philippe

    2014-04-01

    The paper presents the role of spontaneous vegetation on the hydraulic performance of an infiltration basin. The objective of the research was more particularly to study this role of different types of spontaneous vegetation found in situ in an infiltration basin near Lyon. The saturated hydraulic conductivity of three areas covered by Phalaris arundinacea, Polygonum mite, Rumex crispus and similar non-vegetated zones was compared. Eight field campaigns were carried out from July 2010 to May 2011 in order to compare the performance of each type of vegetation and its evolution over time. The results suggest a positive impact of vegetation on hydraulic performance in particular in summer during the growth of the plants. The hydraulic conductivity in this period was twice to four times higher than in bare areas or in vegetated zones during the plant rest periods. Some species were also found more appropriate to limit clogging (Phalaris arundinacea) likely due to its specific structure and growth process.

  2. Impact of climate variations on Managed Aquifer Recharge infiltration basins.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barquero, Felix; Stefan, Catalin

    2017-04-01

    KEYWORDS: Managed Aquifer Recharge, field scale infiltration unit, climatic conditions, numerical model Managed Aquifer Recharge (MAR) is a technique that is gaining more attention as a sustainable alternative for areas where water scarcity is increasing. Main concept relies on facilitating the vertical infiltration of a source of fresh water (river water, rainwater, reclaimed water, etc). The groundwater acts as storage of water for further use in the future, for example in times of water scarcity. In some MAR types the soil itself can be used even as a filter for the removal of specific organic and inorganic compounds. In order to promote the benefits of MAR in different zones of the globe with variable climate conditions, including the effects of climate change, a numerical model (HYDRUS 2D/3D) is being set up. Coupled with the model a field-scale rapid infiltration unit (4m x 5m x 1.5m) was constructed with the capacity to log different MAR key parameters in the soil (tension, water content, temperature and electrical conductivity) in space and time. These data will feed the model for its calibration using specific hydrogeological characteristics of the packing material and hydraulic characteristics of the infiltrated fluid. The unit is located in the city of Pirna (German), 200 m north from the Elbe River where the groundwater level varies seasonally between 6 and 9 m below the ground surface. Together with the field scale rapid infiltration unit, a set of multi-parametric sensors (measuring in time: water stage, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen and temperature) in six monitoring wells, located on the basin surroundings, were installed. The purpose of these sensors is to estimate, via tracer experiments, the time that the infiltrated water needed to reach the groundwater and the flow speed in which it travelled once it reached the saturated zone. Once calibrated, the model will be able to estimate the flow behaviour under variable climate conditions

  3. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N.

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  4. Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B.; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Kumar, Priya; Arora, Shelly; Aggarwal, Neha; Sultana, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a very rare entity which is characterized by the collection of non-encapsulated mature adipocytes infiltrating local tissues, resulting in craniofacial deformities. Psychomotor development of the patients is normal, esthetics often being the primary concern to seek treatment. The presentation is always unilateral with hypertrophy of hard and soft structures on the affected side of the face. The pathogenesis of the condition is unclear. This condition shows a wide phenotypic range, uncertain prognosis with high rates of recurrence after surgery, and variable post-op cosmetic improvement. The condition shows no gender predilection, with most of the cases presenting in and beyond the second decade of life. Here, we present a series of four cases presenting in varying age groups with history of recurrence in three cases. PMID:23633877

  5. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  6. Integrated modelling for the evaluation of infiltration effects.

    PubMed

    Schulz, N; Baur, R; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study is the estimation of the potential benefits of sewer pipe rehabilitation for the performance of the drainage system and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as well as for the receiving water quality. The relation of sewer system status and the infiltration rate is assessed based on statistical analysis of 470 km of CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) inspected sewers of the city of Dresden. The potential reduction of infiltration rates and the consequent performance improvements of the urban wastewater system are simulated as a function of rehabilitation activities in the network. The integrated model is applied to an artificial system with input from a real sewer network. In this paper, the general design of the integrated model and its data requirements are presented. For an exemplary study, the consequences of the simulations are discussed with respect to the prioritisation of rehabilitation activities in the network.

  7. Immunophenotypic characterization of lymphoid cell infiltrates in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sosa, S; Aguirre-Lombardo, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of vitiligo is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of lymphoid cells infiltrating depigmented areas of skin in vitiligo. Immunochemical procedures were carried out in biopsies from 20 patients with active lesions to search for cells expressing CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD68 and CD79a. Results indicate that early lesions are infiltrated mainly by dendritic cells, whereas older lesions display significantly lower proportions of these cells and increased percentages of mature T cells. This finding might suggest that the autoimmune reactivity towards melanocyte antigens might be T cell-dependent and antigen-driven. It is possible that a non-immune offence of melanocytes is responsible for the exposure of intracellular antigens, while autoreactivity might be a secondary, self-perpetuating mechanism. PMID:23607858

  8. Scale-up and modeling of forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Starr, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    The forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process has been scaled-up from a maximum of 7.6 cm dia. disk to fabrication of 24 cm dia. disks, 1.6 cm in thickness. The components are turbine rotor subelements produced from polar weave Tyranno fibers preforms. The disks were subjected to non-destructive testing and spin-tested to high rpm. The processing conditions were modeled with the GTCVI code to aid in optimization.

  9. Pirfenidone inhibits macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Feng; Ni, Hai-Feng; Pan, Ming-Ming; Liu, Hong; Xu, Min; Zhang, Ming-Hui; Liu, Bi-Cheng

    2013-03-15

    Tubulointerstitial macrophage infiltration is a hallmark of chronic kidney disease involved in the progression of renal fibrosis. Pirfenidone is a newly identified antifibrotic drug, the potential mechanism of which remains unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of pirfenidone on M1/M2 macrophage infiltration in nephrectomized rats. Nephrectomized rats were treated with pirfenidone by gavage for 12 wk. Twenty-four hour urinary protein, N-acetyl-β-D-glycosaminidase (NAG) activity, systolic blood pressure, and C-reactive protein were determined. Paraffin-embedded sections were stained for CD68, CCR7, and CD163 macrophages. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α), as well as M1 and M2 macrophages secretory markers, were evaluated by real-time RT-PCR and Western blotting analysis. Pirfenidone significantly improved the elevated proteinuria and NAG activity from week 2 onward after surgery. Pirfenidone attenuated interstitial fibrosis and decreased expression of fibrotic markers including transforming growth factor-β(1), connective tissue growth factor, α-smooth muscle actin, fibronectin, and fibroblast-specific protein-1. Pirfenidone significantly decreased the infiltrating macrophages. The number of M1 and M2 macrophages was significantly lower after pirfenidone treatment. MCP-1 and MIP-1α were increased in nephrectomized rats at mRNA and protein levels. Pirfenidone treatment significantly inhibited their expression. The TNF-α, IL-6, and nitric oxide synthases-2 expressed by M1 macrophages were increased in nephrectomized rats, and pirfenidone significantly attenuated their expression. Pirfenidone treatment also significantly decreased arginase-1, dectin-1, CD206, and CD86 expressed by M2 macrophages. Thus pirfenidone inhibits M1 and M2 macrophage infiltration in 5/6 nephrectomized rats, which suggests its efficacy in the early and late periods of renal fibrosis.

  10. Scaling relations in the diffusive infiltration in fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent work on fluid infiltration in a Hele-Shaw cell with the pore-block geometry of Sierpinski carpets (SCs), the area filled by the invading fluid was shown to scale as F ˜tn , with n <1 /2 , thus providing a macroscopic realization of anomalous diffusion [Filipovitch et al., Water Resour. Res. 52, 5167 (2016), 10.1002/2016WR018667]. The results agree with simulations of a diffusion equation with constant pressure at one of the borders of those fractals, but the exponent n is very different from the anomalous exponent ν =1 /DW of single-particle diffusion in the same fractals (DW is the random-walk dimension). Here we use a scaling approach to show that those exponents are related as n =ν (DF-DB) , where DF and DB are the fractal dimensions of the bulk and the border from which diffusing particles come, respectively. This relation is supported by accurate numerical estimates in two SCs and in two generalized Menger sponges (MSs), in which we performed simulations of single-particle random walks (RWs) with a rigid impermeable border and of a diffusive infiltration model in which that border is permanently filled with diffusing particles. This study includes one MS whose external border is also fractal. The exponent relation is also consistent with the recent simulational and experimental results on fluid infiltration in SCs, and explains the approximate quadratic dependence of n on DF in these fractals. We also show that the mean-square displacement of single-particle RWs has log-periodic oscillations, whose periods are similar for fractals with the same scaling factor in the generator (even with different embedding dimensions), which is consistent with the discrete scale invariance scenario. The roughness of a diffusion front defined in the infiltration problem also shows this type of oscillation, which is enhanced in fractals with narrow channels between large lacunas.

  11. One Consideration on Infiltration Property of Oxide Particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishii, Katsunori; Kihara, Yoshiyuki; Fujii, Kan-ichi

    2005-04-01

    A vibration-based sphere-pack technology employing large and small particles is discussed on the basis of a simulation of the fabrication of an atomic fuel pin, by employing four types of model particle. The infiltration property is almost free from the material and mass density. From this result, the feasibility of mixing with the heavy metallic uranium as the getter of absorbing oxygen, thereby preventing the oxidization of the fuel pin, is suggested.

  12. [Extreme hypogammaglobulinemia disclosing large granular lymphocytes with hepatosplenorenal infiltration].

    PubMed

    Harlé, J R; Quinsat, D; Durand, J M; Horchowski, N; Nicolino, M; Kaplanski, S; Farnarier, C; Fossat, C; Mongin, M; Weiller, P J

    1989-01-01

    We report a case of large granular lymphocytosis, or chronic "natural killer" lymphocytosis, a newly described entity. We were able to demonstrate the proliferative character of the disease by the finding of karyotype abnormalities. This case was remarkable for the pre-existence, for at least three years, of severe hypogammaglobulinaemia, for the very slow course of the proliferative process and for the progressive and tumoral infiltration of the spleen and liver, then kidney.

  13. Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face with hemimegalencephaly.

    PubMed

    Alkan, O; Yildirim, T; Seyhan, T; Erbay, G; Erol, I

    2009-06-01

    Congenital infiltrating lipomatosis of the face (CILF) is a rare disorder, causing unilateral facial asymmetry characterized by enlargement of the cheek or chin. Hemimegalencephaly is a unique malformation characterized by enlargement of a cerebral hemisphere. The association of CILF and hemimegalencephaly has rarely been reported. We present a case of unilateral facial swelling in a 1.5-year-old boy in whom magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography revealed CILF associated with unilateral megalencephaly.

  14. Invariant natural killer T infiltration in neuroblastoma with favorable outcome.

    PubMed

    Hishiki, Tomoro; Mise, Naoko; Harada, Kazuaki; Ihara, Fumie; Takami, Mariko; Saito, Takeshi; Terui, Keita; Nakata, Mitsuyuki; Komatsu, Shugo; Yoshida, Hideo; Motohashi, Shinichiro

    2017-10-10

    Tumor immunity has been suggested to play a key role in clinical and biological behavior of neuroblastomas. Given that CD1-restricted invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells enhance both innate and acquired tumor immunity, we investigated the expression of the iNKT-cell-specific T-cell receptor Vα24-Jα18 in neuroblastoma tissues and its correlation with clinical and biological characteristics. Using real- time quantitative PCR, we quantified the expression of Vα24-Jα18 in untreated tumor samples from 107 neuroblastoma cases followed in our institution and analyzed the correlation between the presence of infiltrated iNKT cells and clinical characteristics or patients' outcome. Vα24-Jα18 receptor was detected in 62 untreated cases (57.9%). The expression was significantly higher in stages 1, 2, 3, or 4S (P = 0.0099), in tumors with low or intermediate risk (P = 0.0050), with high TrkA expression (P = 0.0229), with favorable histology (P = 0.0026), with aneuploidy (P = 0.0348), and in younger patients (P = 0.0036). The overall survival rate was significantly higher in patients with iNKT-cell infiltration (log-rank; P = 0.0089). Since tumor-infiltrating iNKT cells were predominantly observed in neuroblastomas undergoing spontaneous differentiation and/or regression, we suggest that iNKT cells might play a key role in these processes.

  15. Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe,Lutgard C.

    2004-04-12

    The fabrication and electrochemical performance of co-fired,LSM-SYSZ [i.e., La0.65Sr0.30MnO3 (LSM) - (Sc2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01(ZrO2)0.89] supported thin-film cells were examined using humidified hydrogen as a fuel. Co-firing of bi-layers and tri-layers was successful at 1250 C by optimizing the amount of carbon pore formers. A power density of a factor of 2.5 higher than that recently reported for the same type of cell at 800 C [3] was obtained for a cell with cobalt infiltration into the supporting cathode: the peak power densities were 455, 389, 285, 202, 141mW/cm2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600 C, respectively, and in most cases power densities at 0.7V exceeded more than 90 percent of the peak output. Increasing the cathode porosity from 43 to 53 percent improved peak power densities by as much as 1.3, shifting the diffusion limitation to high current densities. Cobalt infiltration into the support improved those by as much as a factor of 2 due to a significant reduction in non-ohmic resistance. These results demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can be effective and low-cost supporting electrodes for reduced temperature, thin film SOFCs.

  16. Nerve Infiltration by Benign Biliary Glands - A Diagnostic Dilemma.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Ciara; Conlon, Niamh; Bennett, Michael W; Heffron, Cynthia C B B

    2017-08-29

    Perineural and intraneural infiltration is most often considered a diagnostic feature of malignancy but has been demonstrated in benign entities in a variety of organs. This brief report describes benign glands apparently infiltrating nerves around bile ducts in a resected extra-hepatic biliary tree performed on a background of recurrent cholangitis and prior cholecystectomy. To our knowledge, benign glands infiltrating nerves within bile ducts has not been reported outside of the setting of end stage primary sclerosing cholangitis where one example has been described. We identify several features which support the benign nature of this process including bland cytomorphology, identical appearance to adjacent glands and an exuberant neural rather than glandular proliferation supporting the probability of a reactive neural proliferation akin to traumatic neuroma. We propose a pathogenesis that is somewhat analogous to traumatic neuroma of the biliary tree which, despite its rarity, is a documented complication of cholecystectomy, comprising a reactive proliferation of nerve tissue in response to injury. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Shock response of boron carbide based composites infiltrated with magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, Mathan; Dariel, Moshe P.; Frage, Naum; Zaretsky, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    The fully dense composites were obtained by vacuum infiltrating boron carbide compacts (80% green density) with molten AZ91 magnesium alloy (850°C) and with the melt of a 50/50 AZ91- silicon mixture (1050°C). The densities composites were, 2.44 g/cm3 and 2.54 g/cm3, respectively. The impact response of the composites was studied in a series of VISAR -instrumented planar impact experiments with velocities of W and Cu impactors ranging from 100 to 1000 m/s. The velocity history recorded for the composites produced by infiltration with the Mg-Si alloy contains a distinct elastic precursor front followed by a plastic ramp. In contrast, the velocity history of the composite infiltrated with AZ91 does not display any step-like front; the amplitude of the elastic wave grows gradually from zero level and transforms smoothly into the plastic front. The influence of the composites microstructure on their compressive and tensile behavior is discussed.

  18. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Daniel G.; Kwicklis, Edward M.

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  19. Glioblastoma spheroids produce infiltrative gliomas in the rat brainstem.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiping; Luther, Neal; Singh, Ranjodh; Boockvar, John A; Souweidane, Mark M; Greenfield, Jeffrey P

    2017-03-01

    Diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma (DIPG) is universally fatal without proven therapy other than radiation therapy for palliation. Representative animal models will play an essential role in the preclinical stage of future therapy development. To address the shortage of representative models, we created a novel infiltrative brainstem glioma model in rats based on glioblastoma spheroids. Cells dissociated from glioblastoma spheroids grown from surgical specimens were implanted into the brainstem of NIH nude rats. Animals were serially assessed clinically and radiographically with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Tumors were further characterized using histology, immunohistochemistry, and cytogenetics. Tumor generation was successful in all animals receiving glioblastoma spheroid cells. The rats survived 17-25 weeks before severe symptoms developed. The tumors showed as diffuse hyperintense lesions on T2-weighted images. Histologically, they demonstrated cellular heterogeneity, and infiltrative and invasive features, with cells engorging vascular structures. The tumors were shown to comprise immature human origin glial tumor cells, with human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene amplification and gain. This study showed that cells from glioblastoma spheroids produced infiltrative gliomas in rat brainstem. The rat brainstem gliomas are radiographically and histologically accurate compared to DIPG. These tumors develop over several months that would allow sequential clinical and radiographic assessments of therapeutic interventions. This study demonstrated in principle the feasibility of developing patient-specific animal models based on putative cancer stem cells from biopsy or resection samples.

  20. Pulmonary Infiltrates in Immunosuppressed Patients: Analysis of a Diagnostic Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Danés, Cristina; González-Martín, Julián; Pumarola, Tomàs; Rañó, Ana; Benito, Natividad; Torres, Antoni; Moreno, Asunción; Rovira, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic protocol was started to study the etiology of pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients. The diagnostic yields of the different techniques were analyzed, with special emphasis on the importance of the sample quality and the role of rapid techniques in the diagnostic strategy. In total, 241 patients with newly developed pulmonary infiltrates within a period of 19 months were included. Noninvasive or invasive evaluation was performed according to the characteristics of the infiltrates. Diagnosis was achieved in 202 patients (84%); 173 patients (72%) had pneumonia, and specific etiologic agents were found in 114 (66%). Bronchoaspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage showed the highest yields, either on global analysis (23 of 35 specimens [66%] and 70 of 134 specimens [52%], respectively) or on analysis of each type of pneumonia. A tendency toward better results with optimal-quality samples was observed, and a statistically significant difference was found in sputum bacterial culture. Rapid diagnostic tests yielded results in 71 of 114 (62.2%) diagnoses of etiological pneumonia. PMID:12037077

  1. The most painful site of maxillary anterior infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Roohollah; Nazari, Hesamedin; Bolourchi, Peik; Khazaei, Saber; Parirokh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the most painful site of infiltration injection in the anterior part of maxilla. Materials and Methods: This single-blinded clinical trial was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers. The participants received three maxillary infiltrations injected at the region of central and lateral incisors as well as canines at three separated appointments with a 2-week interval. The outcome variable was pain that measured immediately after needle insertion (time = 0) and during injection of anesthetic solution in 5, 30, and 55 s by a visual analog scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using Friedman test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of needle insertion pain and during injection (time = 0, 5, 30, and 55 s) (P = 0.319, P = 0.849, P = 0.627, and P = 0.939, respectively) in the three injection sites. Conclusion: The pain intensity of infiltration was not associated with injection sites in the anterior maxilla. PMID:28182062

  2. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  3. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  4. Detailed analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Väyrynen, J P; Tuomisto, A; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Higher-grade inflammatory infiltrate is a promising marker for better prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the knowledge on the interrelationships between different inflammatory cells and classifications is fragmentary. Methods: We analysed the densities of eight types of inflammatory cells in a prospectively recruited group of 117 CRC patients and determined their interrelationships and contributions to Klintrup–Mäkinen (K–M) score of overall peritumoural inflammation. We characterised the inflammatory infiltrate in relation to stage and recurrences in 24-month follow-up. Results: There were high positive correlations between the inflammatory cell densities, with the exception of mast cells and CD1a+ immature dendritic cells. High K–M score associated with high peri- and intratumoural densities of CD3+, CD8+, CD68+, CD83+, and FoxP3+ cells and neutrophils. Advanced stage associated with low K–M score, as well as low CD3+, CD8+, CD83+, and FoxP3+ cell counts, of which low K–M score, low CD3+ T-cell count, and low FoxP3+ T-cell count were linked to higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: The density of CRC inflammatory infiltrate declines as stage advances. Especially, low K–M score and low T-cell counts predict higher recurrence rate. The high positive correlations between the individual inflammatory markers support the value of overall inflammatory reaction scoring. PMID:24008661

  5. Infiltration and evaporation of small hydrocarbon spills at gas stations.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-12-01

    Small gasoline spills frequently occur at gasoline dispensing stations. We have developed a mathematical model to estimate both the amount of gasoline that infiltrates into the concrete underneath the dispensing stations and the amount of gasoline that evaporates into the typically turbulent atmosphere. Our model shows that the fraction of infiltrated gasoline can exceed the fraction that evaporates from the sessile droplets. Infiltrated gasoline then evaporates and is slowly released to the atmosphere via slow diffusive transport in pores. Tentative experiments show that our theoretical approach captures observed experimental trends. Predictions based on independently estimated model parameters roughly describe the experimental data, except for the very slow vapor release at the end of Stage II evaporation. Our study suggests that, over the lifespan of a gas station, concrete pads underneath gas dispensing stations accumulate significant amounts of gasoline, which could eventually break through into underlying soil and groundwater. Our model also shows that lifetimes of spilled gasoline droplets on concrete surfaces are on the order of minutes or longer. Therefore contamination can be carried away by foot traffic or precipitation runoff. Regulations and guidelines typically do not address subsurface and surface contaminations due to chronic small gasoline spills, even though these spills could result in non-negligible human exposure to toxic and carcinogenic gasoline compounds.

  6. Results of irradiation of infiltrative lipoma in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    McEntee, M C; Page, R L; Mauldin, G N; Thrall, D E

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen dogs with infiltrative lipomas were treated with cobalt 60 radiation. Four of the thirteen dogs also received either whole body (n = 2) or combination local/whole body (n = 2) hyperthermia in conjunction with radiation therapy. Cytoreductive surgery was performed prior to radiation in 10 dogs, although only 3 dogs had microscopic disease at the time of radiation therapy. Dogs received a total dose of 45.6 Gy-63 Gy in 2.5-4 Gy/fraction on either a Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule or on a daily Monday through Friday schedule. Twelve of the 13 dogs had computed tomography (CT) images acquired prior to irradiation. Survival time was determined from the time of completion of radiation therapy. Survival ranged from 6 months to 94 months, with a median (95% confidence interval) of 40 (18.5-77) months and a mean of 46.4 months. Only one dog was euthanized due to persistent signs related to the infiltrative lipoma at 6 months after the end of radiation therapy. There was no apparent difference in response based on whether or not the dogs received hyperthermia in conjunction with irradiation, although the numbers were too small to make any significant conclusions. It appears that dogs with infiltrative lipomas can benefit from external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery to effect long-term local tumor control.

  7. Host cell infiltration into PDT-treated tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Dougherty, Graeme J.; Chaplin, David J.

    1992-06-01

    C3H mice bearing SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) 24 hours after receiving Photofrin (25 mg/kg, i.v.). Single cell suspensions obtained by the enzymatic digestion of tumors excised either 30 minutes or 4 hours after PDT were analyzed for the content of host immune cells and colony forming ability of malignant cells. The results were compared to the data obtained with non-treated tumors. It is shown that there is a marked increase in the content of cells expressing Mac-1 (monocytes/macrophages or granulocytes) in the tumor 30 minutes post PDT, while a high level of other leucocytes are found within the tumors by 4 hours after PDT. As elaborated in Discussion, the infiltration rate of host immune cells, dying of malignant tumor cells, and yet unknown death rate of host cells originally present in PDT treated tumor occurring concomitantly during this time period complicates this analysis. The results of this study suggest a massive infiltration of macrophages and other leucocytes in PDT treated SCCVII tumor, supporting the suggestion that a potent immune reaction is one of the main characteristics of PDT action in solid tumors. It remains to be determined to what extent is the activity of tumor infiltrating immune cells responsible for its eradication by PDT.

  8. Maxillary infiltration anaesthesia by ropivacaine for upper third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Brkovic, B M B; Zlatkovic, M; Jovanovic, D; Stojic, D

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and haemodynamic effects of ropivacaine for infiltration anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgical removal of upper third molars. The safety profile of ropivacaine was also studied by investigating the maximal venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine and the reactivity to ropivacaine of isolated human infraorbital arteries. Ropivacaine in concentrations of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% achieved dose-dependent parameters of maxillary infiltration aneasthesia, clinically relevant in concentrations 0.75 and 1%. Postoperative needs for analgesics were observed in 67-100% of patients. Haemodynamic parameters were stable during surgery with significant changes occuring 10 min after surgery. After maxillary infiltration of 2.0 ml 1% ropivacaine, the maximum venous plasma concentration (Cmax) was 82+/-15 microg/l. On isolated human infraorbital artery, ropivacaine (10(-4)M) induced endothelium-independent contraction. This study suggests that 0.75 and 1% ropivacaine offers adequate and safe intraoperative analgesia but not successful postoperative pain control for the surgical removal of upper third molars.

  9. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using 3H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of 3H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine. PMID:27269664

  10. Characterizing Contact Lens–Related Corneal Infiltrates: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Meredith E.; Situ, Ping; Begley, Carolyn G.; Boree, Danielle; Chalmers, Robin L.; Osborn Lorenz, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To document the time course and resolution of contact lens–related corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) comparing slit-lamp images with anterior segment ocular coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images. Methods: Six silicone hydrogel (SiHy) soft contact lens (SCL) wearers presenting with newly diagnosed symptomatic CIEs were monitored with slit-lamp images, detailed drawings, and AS-OCT until the resolution of the CIE. A final follow-up visit was completed 4 weeks after CIE resolution to determine whether scar formation was present. Positive controls were 2 SiHy SCL wearers with established (inactive) corneal scars, and negative controls were 2 SiHy SCL wearers with clear corneas. High- and low-contrast logMAR visual acuities were measured, and subjective symptom questionnaires were completed at all visits. Results: Clinical signs, vision, and symptoms improved in tandem with the resolution of the CIEs as measured by imaging methods. Calibrated measures of infiltrate width from a slit-lamp biomicroscope appear to be similar to calibrated images from AS-OCT. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed to develop standardized procedures, AS-OCT can be a useful tool to characterize the development, progression, and resolution of corneal infiltrates as an objective measure of resolution and scar formation. PMID:27560033

  11. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 μg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  12. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  13. [Mathematical simulation of point source average infiltration depth under film hole irrigation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Juan; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Ji-Long; Zhan, Guo-Long

    2010-03-01

    By using RETC and SWMS-3D software, the point source infiltration characteristics of several typical soils under film hole irrigation were simulated, with the infiltration characteristics and related affecting factors analyzed. One simplified point source infiltration model with the parameters opening film hole rate, film hole diameter, soil clay particle content, and soil bulk density was established, and tested by infiltration experiments with the typical soils from Loess Plateau. It was shown that the infiltration coefficient under film hole irrigation increased with increasing opening film hole rate and decreased with increasing film hole diameter and soil clay particle content, while the infiltration index decreased with increasing opening film hole rate and soil clay particle content. This model could simply and accurately reflect the point source infiltration characteristics under film hole irrigation, and credibly determine the infiltration coefficient and index.

  14. Systemic Autoimmunity in TAM Triple Knockout Mice Causes Inflammatory Brain Damage and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun; Lu, Huayi; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) triply knockout (TKO) mice exhibit systemic autoimmune diseases, with characteristics of increased proinflammatory cytokine production, autoantibody deposition and autoreactive lymphocyte infiltration into a variety of tissues. Here we show that TKO mice produce high level of serum TNF-α and specific autoantibodies deposited onto brain blood vessels. The brain-blood barrier (BBB) in mutant brains exhibited increased permeability for Evans blue and fluorescent-dextran, suggesting a breakdown of the BBB in the mutant brains. Impaired BBB integrity facilitated autoreactive T cells infiltrating into all regions of the mutant brains. Brain autoimmune disorder caused accumulation of the ubiquitin-reactive aggregates in the mutant hippocampus, and early formation of autofluorescent lipofuscins in the neurons throughout the entire brains. Chronic neuroinflammation caused damage of the hippocampal mossy fibers and neuronal apoptotic death. This study shows that chronic systemic inflammation and autoimmune disorders in the TKO mice cause neuronal damage and death. PMID:23840307

  15. Catch crops impact on soil wate