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Sample records for infiltrating post-ischemic brain

  1. Erythropoietin: Powerful Protection of Ischemic and Post-Ischemic Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Anh Q.; Cherry, Brandon H.; Scott, Gary F.; Ryou, Myoung-Gwi; Mallet, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury inflicted by stroke and cardiac arrest ranks among the leading causes of death and long-term disability in the United States. The brain consumes large amounts of metabolic substrates and oxygen to sustain its energy requirements. Consequently, the brain is exquisitely sensitive to interruptions in its blood supply, and suffers irreversible damage after 10–15 minutes of severe ischemia. Effective treatments to protect the brain from stroke and cardiac arrest have proven elusive, due to the complexities of the injury cascades ignited by ischemia and reperfusion. Although recombinant tissue plasminogen activator and therapeutic hypothermia have proven efficacious for stroke and cardiac arrest, respectively, these treatments are constrained by narrow therapeutic windows, potentially detrimental side effects and the limited availability of hypothermia equipment. Mounting evidence demonstrates the cytokine hormone erythropoietin (EPO) to be a powerful neuroprotective agent and a potential adjuvant to established therapies. Classically, EPO originating primarily in the kidneys promotes erythrocyte production by suppressing apoptosis of proerythroid progenitors in bone marrow. However, the brain is capable of producing EPO, and EPO’s membrane receptors and signaling components also are expressed in neurons and astrocytes. EPO activates signaling cascades that increase the brain’s resistance to ischemia-reperfusion stress by stabilizing mitochondrial membranes, limiting formation of reactive oxygen and nitrogen intermediates, and suppressing pro-inflammatory cytokine production and neutrophil infiltration. Collectively, these mechanisms preserve functional brain tissue and, thus, improve neurocognitive recovery from brain ischemia. This article reviews the mechanisms mediating EPO-induced brain protection, critiques the clinical utility of exogenous EPO to preserve brain threatened by ischemic stroke and cardiac arrest, and discusses the

  2. The protective effect of M40401, a superoxide dismutase mimetic, on post-ischemic brain damage in Mongolian gerbils

    PubMed Central

    Mollace, Vincenzo; Iannone, Michelangelo; Muscoli, Carolina; Palma, Ernesto; Granato, Teresa; Modesti, Andrea; Nisticò, Robert; Rotiroti, Domenicantonio; Salvemini, Daniela

    2003-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radical species has been shown to occur in brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion injury. However, most of free radical scavengers known to antagonize oxidative damage (e.g. superoxide dismutase, catalase), are unable to protect against ischemia-reperfusion brain injury when given in vivo, an effect mainly due to their difficulty to gain access to brain tissues. Here we studied the effect of a low molecular weight superoxide dismutase mimetic (M40401) in brain damage subsequent to ischemia-reperfusion injury in Mongolian gerbils. Results In animals undergoing ischemia-reperfusion injury, neuropathological and ultrastructural changes were monitored for 1–7 days either in the presence or in the absence of M40401 after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCO). Administration of M40401 (1–40 mg/kg, given i.p. 1 h after BCCO) protected against post-ischemic, ultrastructural and neuropathological changes occurring within the hippocampal CA1 area. The protective effect of M40401 was associated with a significant reduction of the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA; a marker of lipid peroxidation) in ischemic brain tissues after ischemia-reperfusion. Conclusion Taken together, these results demonstrate that M40401 provides protective effects when given early after the induction of ischemia-reperfusion of brain tissues and suggest the possible use of such compounds in the treatment of neurological dysfunction subsequent to cerebral flow disturbances. PMID:12809567

  3. [Effect of a new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids on brain metabolism in post-ischemic period].

    PubMed

    Makarova, L M; Prikhod'ko, M A; Pogorelyĭ, V E; Skachilova, S Ia; Mirzoian, R S

    2014-01-01

    Neuroprotective properties of the new derivative of glutamic and apovincaminic acids, ethyl -(3-alpha,16-alpha)-eburnamenin-14-carbopxylate of 2-aminopentadionic acid (LHT 1-02) were studied on a model of acute brain ischemia in cats. LHT 1-02 has proved to be more effective than the reference drugs vinpocetin and glycine in preventing the reperfusive damage, which was manifested by decreased postischemic hyperglycemia, activated utilization of oxygen in the brain, and suppressed postischemic metabolic lactate acidosis. Thus, the results of this comparative study show expediency of further investigations of LHT 1 - 02 as a potential neuroprotective drug.

  4. Magnetic resonance imaging of post-ischemic blood-brain barrier damage with PEGylated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dong-Fang; Qian, Cheng; An, Yan-Li; Chang, Di; Ju, Sheng-Hong; Teng, Gao-Jun

    2014-11-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) damage during ischemia may induce devastating consequences like cerebral edema and hemorrhagic transformation. This study presents a novel strategy for dynamically imaging of BBB damage with PEGylated supermagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) as contrast agents. The employment of SPIONs as contrast agents made it possible to dynamically image the BBB permeability alterations and ischemic lesions simultaneously with T2-weighted MRI, and the monitoring could last up to 24 h with a single administration of PEGylated SPIONs in vivo. The ability of the PEGylated SPIONs to highlight BBB damage by MRI was demonstrated by the colocalization of PEGylated SPIONs with Gd-DTPA after intravenous injection of SPION-PEG/Gd-DTPA into a mouse. The immunohistochemical staining also confirmed the leakage of SPION-PEG from cerebral vessels into parenchyma. This study provides a novel and convenient route for imaging BBB alteration in the experimental ischemic stroke model.

  5. Poly(ADP-Ribose)Polymerase 1 (PARP-1) Activation and Ca(2+) Permeable α-Amino-3-Hydroxy-5-Methyl-4-Isoxazolepropionic Acid (AMPA) Channels in Post-Ischemic Brain Damage: New Therapeutic Opportunities?

    PubMed

    Gerace, Elisabetta; Pellegrini-Giampietro, Domenico E; Moroni, Flavio; Mannaioni, Guido

    2015-01-01

    A significant number of laboratories observed that poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibitors, administered a few hours after ischemic or traumatic brain injury, may drastically reduce the subsequent neurological damage. It has also been shown that PARP inhibitors, administered for 24 hours to rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), may reduce the number of dying neurons for a long period after surgery, thus suggesting that these agents could reduce the delayed brain damage and the neurological and cognitive impairment (dementia) frequently observed a few months after a stroke. In organotypic hippocampal slices exposed to N-methyl-N'-nitro-N'-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG), an alkylating agent able to activate PARP, a selective and delayed degeneration of the CA1 pyramidal cells which was anatomically similar to that observed after a short period of oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) has been described. Biochemical and electrophysiological approaches showed that MNNG exposure caused an increased expression and function of the calcium permeable α-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) channels in the CA1 but not in the CA3 hippocampal region. PARP inhibitors prevented this increase and reduced CA1 cell death. The AMPA receptor antagonist 2,3-dihydroxy-6- nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione or the selective Ca(2+) permeable AMPA channel blocker 1-Naphthyl acetyl spermine (NASPM), also reduced the MNNG-induced CA1 pyramidal cell death. Since activation of PARP-1 facilitate the expression of Ca(2+) permeable channels and the subsequent delayed cell death, PARP inhibitors administered a few hours after a stroke may not only reduce the early post-ischemic brain damage but also the late neuronal death frequently occurring after severe stroke.

  6. Pediatric cerebral stroke: susceptibility-weighted imaging may predict post-ischemic malignant edema.

    PubMed

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A G M

    2013-10-01

    Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema.

  7. Pediatric Cerebral Stroke: Susceptibility-Weighted Imaging May Predict Post-Ischemic Malignant Edema

    PubMed Central

    Bosemani, Thangamadhan; Poretti, Andrea; Orman, Gunes; Meoded, Avner; Huisman, Thierry A.G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) is an advanced MRI technique providing information on the blood oxygenation level. Deoxyhemoglobin is increased in hypoperfused tissue characterized by SWI-hypointensity, while high oxyhemoglobin concentration within hyperperfused tissue results in a SWI iso- or hyperintensity compared to healthy brain tissue. We describe a child with a stroke, where SWI in addition to excluding hemorrhage and delineating the thrombus proved invaluable in determining regions of hyperperfusion or luxury perfusion, which contributed further to the prognosis including an increased risk of developing post-ischemic malignant edema. PMID:24199819

  8. The role of endoglin in post-ischemic revascularization.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Gómez, Elena; Pericacho, Miguel; Ollauri-Ibáñez, Claudia; Bernabéu, Carmelo; López-Novoa, José M

    2017-02-01

    Following arterial occlusion, blood vessels respond by forming a new network of functional capillaries (angiogenesis), by reorganizing preexisting capillaries through the recruitment of smooth muscle cells to generate new arteries (arteriogenesis) and by growing and remodeling preexisting collateral arterioles into physiologically relevant arteries (collateral development). All these processes result in the recovery of organ perfusion. The importance of endoglin in post-occlusion reperfusion is sustained by several observations: (1) endoglin expression is increased in vessels showing active angiogenesis/remodeling; (2) genetic endoglin haploinsufficiency in humans causes deficient angiogenesis; and (3) the reduction of endoglin expression by gene disruption or the administration of endoglin-neutralizing antibodies reduces angiogenesis and revascularization. However, the precise role of endoglin in the several processes associated with revascularization has not been completely elucidated and, in some cases, the function ascribed to endoglin by different authors is controversial. The purpose of this review is to organize in a critical way the information available for the role of endoglin in several phenomena (angiogenesis, arteriogenesis and collateral development) associated with post-ischemic revascularization.

  9. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C; Heth, Jason A; Maher, Cormac O; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D; Freudiger, Christian W; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A

    2015-10-14

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a nondestructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. We show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ = 0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density, and protein/lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery.

  10. Differential Activation of Infiltrating Monocyte-Derived Cells After Mild and Severe Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Trahanas, Diane M; Cuda, Carla M; Perlman, Harris; Schwulst, Steven J

    2015-03-01

    Microglia are the resident innate immune cells of the brain. Although embryologically and functionally distinct, they are morphologically similar to peripheral monocyte-derived cells, resulting in a poor ability to discriminate between the two cell types. The purpose of this study was to develop a rapid and reliable method to simultaneously characterize, quantify, and discriminate between whole populations of myeloid cells from the brain in a murine model of traumatic brain injury. Male C57BL/6 mice underwent traumatic brain injury (n = 16) or sham injury (n = 14). Brains were harvested at 24 h after injury. Multiparameter flow cytometry and sequential gating analysis were performed, allowing for discrimination between microglia and infiltrating leukocytes as well as for the characterization and quantification of individual subtypes within the infiltrating population. The proportion of infiltrating leukocytes within the brain increased with the severity of injury, and the predominant cell types within the infiltrating population were monocyte derived (P = 0.01). In addition, the severity of injury altered the overall makeup of the infiltrating monocyte-derived cells. In conclusion, we describe a flow cytometry-based technique for gross discrimination between infiltrating leukocytes and microglia as well as the ability to simultaneously characterize and quantify individual myeloid subtypes and their maturation states within these populations.

  11. Detection of human brain tumor infiltration with quantitative stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Minbiao; Lewis, Spencer; Camelo-Piragua, Sandra; Ramkissoon, Shakti H.; Snuderl, Matija; Venneti, Sriram; Fisher-Hubbard, Amanda; Garrard, Mia; Fu, Dan; Wang, Anthony C.; Heth, Jason A.; Maher, Cormac O.; Sanai, Nader; Johnson, Timothy D.; Freudiger, Christian W.; Sagher, Oren; Xie, Xiaoliang Sunney; Orringer, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Differentiating tumor from normal brain is a major barrier to achieving optimal outcome in brain tumor surgery. New imaging techniques for visualizing tumor margins during surgery are needed to improve surgical results. We recently demonstrated the ability of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy, a non-destructive, label-free optical method, to reveal glioma infiltration in animal models. Here we show that SRS reveals human brain tumor infiltration in fresh, unprocessed surgical specimens from 22 neurosurgical patients. SRS detects tumor infiltration in near-perfect agreement with standard hematoxylin and eosin light microscopy (κ=0.86). The unique chemical contrast specific to SRS microscopy enables tumor detection by revealing quantifiable alterations in tissue cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in tumor-infiltrated tissues. To ensure that SRS microscopic data can be easily used in brain tumor surgery, without the need for expert interpretation, we created a classifier based on cellularity, axonal density and protein:lipid ratio in SRS images capable of detecting tumor infiltration with 97.5% sensitivity and 98.5% specificity. Importantly, quantitative SRS microscopy detects the spread of tumor cells, even in brain tissue surrounding a tumor that appears grossly normal. By accurately revealing tumor infiltration, quantitative SRS microscopy holds potential for improving the accuracy of brain tumor surgery. PMID:26468325

  12. Morinda citrifolia fruit juice prevents ischemic neuronal damage through suppression of the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Kamiya, Kohei; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki; Satake, Toshiko; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2010-10-01

    Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia (Noni juice) is a well-known health drink and has various pharmacological properties including antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. We have hitherto found the protective effect of Noni juice on brain damage caused by ischemic stress in mice. In addition, we also recently reported that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance might be important for good prognosis. Here, we focused on the effect of Noni juice on the development of the post-ischemic glucose intolerance as a cerebral protective mechanism. Noni juice was obtained from the mature fruit grown in Okinawa (about 1.5 L/4 kg of fruit; 100% ONJ). Male ddY mice were given 10% ONJ in drinking water for 7 days. Then, mice were subjected to 2 h of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Ingestion of 10% ONJ suppressed the development of neuronal damage after MCAO. Interestingly, glucose intolerance observed on the 1st day after MCAO completely disappeared after 10% ONJ administration. Furthermore, ONJ treatment significantly increased serum insulin levels much further than the control group on the 1st day, while serum adiponectin levels were not affected at all. These results suggest that ONJ could facilitate insulin secretion after ischemic stress and may attenuate the development of glucose intolerance. These mechanisms may contribute to the neuronal protective effect of ONJ against ischemic stress.

  13. Inflammatory infiltrates and natural killer cell presence in human brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Stevens, A; Klöter, I; Roggendorf, W

    1988-02-15

    Immunohistochemical analysis of subpopulations of inflammatory cells in 81 primary and secondary human brain tumors was done. Natural killer (NK) cells, representing non-major histocompatibility complex-restricted, spontaneous cytotoxicity and monocytic cells are virtually absent in infiltrates of gliomas and account only for a minor percentage of inflammatory cells in brain metastases of carcinoma and in craniopharyngeomas. Infiltrates in gliomas consist almost exclusively of T-cells of the suppressor/cytotoxic type whereas infiltrates in carcinoma metastases and craniopharyngeomas contain considerable numbers of T-helper/inducer cells and B-cells. From this the authors conclude (1) that NK cells do not play a major role in tumor rejection, and (2) that the kind of inflammatory reaction does not depend upon the tumor site but more likely on the tumor type. No correlation between tumor differentiation and infiltrate composition is evident.

  14. Hepatic branch vagus nerve plays a critical role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A.

  15. Hepatic Branch Vagus Nerve Plays a Critical Role in the Recovery of Post-Ischemic Glucose Intolerance and Mediates a Neuroprotective Effect by Hypothalamic Orexin-A

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Shinichi; Yamazaki, Yui; Koda, Shuichi; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2014-01-01

    Orexin-A (a neuropeptide in the hypothalamus) plays an important role in many physiological functions, including the regulation of glucose metabolism. We have previously found that the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance is one of the triggers of ischemic neuronal damage, which is suppressed by hypothalamic orexin-A. Other reports have shown that the communication system between brain and peripheral tissues through the autonomic nervous system (sympathetic, parasympathetic and vagus nerve) is important for maintaining glucose and energy metabolism. The aim of this study was to determine the involvement of the hepatic vagus nerve on hypothalamic orexin-A-mediated suppression of post-ischemic glucose intolerance development and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. Intrahypothalamic orexin-A (5 pmol/mouse) administration significantly suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and neuronal damage on day 1 and 3, respectively after MCAO. MCAO-induced decrease of hepatic insulin receptors and increase of hepatic gluconeogenic enzymes on day 1 after was reversed to control levels by orexin-A. This effect was reversed by intramedullary administration of the orexin-1 receptor antagonist, SB334867, or hepatic vagotomy. In the medulla oblongata, orexin-A induced the co-localization of cholin acetyltransferase (cholinergic neuronal marker used for the vagus nerve) with orexin-1 receptor and c-Fos (activated neural cells marker). These results suggest that the hepatic branch vagus nerve projecting from the medulla oblongata plays an important role in the recovery of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and mediates a neuroprotective effect by hypothalamic orexin-A. PMID:24759941

  16. Brain tumour and infiltrations dosimetry of boron neutron capture therapy combined with 252Cf brachytherapy.

    PubMed

    Brandão, Sâmia F; Campos, Tarcísio P R

    2012-04-01

    This article presents a dosimetric investigation of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy for brain tumour control. The study was conducted through computational simulation in MCNP5 code, using a precise and discrete voxel model of a human head, in which a hypothetical brain tumour was incorporated. A boron concentration ratio of 1:5 for healthy-tissue: tumour was considered. Absorbed and biologically weighted dose rates and neutron fluency in the voxel model were evaluated. The absorbed dose rate results were exported to SISCODES software, which generates the isodose surfaces on the brain. Analyses were performed to clarify the relevance of boron concentrations in occult infiltrations far from the target tumour, with boron concentration ratios of 1:1 up to 1:50 for healthy-tissue:infiltrations and healthy-tissue:tumour. The average biologically weighted dose rates at tumour area exceed up to 40 times the surrounding healthy tissue dose rates. In addition, the biologically weighted dose rates from boron have the main contribution at the infiltrations, especially far from primary tumour. In conclusion, BNCT combined with (252)Cf brachytherapy is an alternative technique for brain tumour treatment because it intensifies dose deposition at the tumour and at infiltrations, sparing healthy brain tissue.

  17. Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability and Monocyte Infiltration in Experimental Allergic Encephalomyelitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floris, S.; Blezer, E. L. A.; Schreibelt, G.; Dopp, E.; van der Pol, S. M. A.; Schadee-Eestermans, I. L.; Nicolay, K.; Dijkstra, C. D.; de Vries, H. E.

    2004-01-01

    Enhanced cerebrovascular permeability and cellular infiltration mark the onset of early multiple sclerosis lesions. So far, the precise sequence of these events and their role in lesion formation and disease progression remain unknown. Here we provide quantitative evidence that blood-brain barrier leakage is an early event and precedes massive…

  18. Metastasis Infiltration: An Investigation of the Postoperative Brain-Tumor Interface

    SciTech Connect

    Raore, Bethwel; Schniederjan, Matthew; Prabhu, Roshan; Brat, Daniel J.; Shu, Hui-Kuo; Olson, Jeffrey J.

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: This study aims to evaluate brain infiltration of metastatic tumor cells past the main tumor resection margin to assess the biological basis for the use of stereotactic radiosurgery treatment of the tumor resection cavity and visualized resection edge or clinical target volume. Methods and Materials: Resection margin tissue was obtained after gross total resection of a small group of metastatic lesions from a variety of primary sources. The tissue at the border of the tumor and brain tissue was carefully oriented and processed to evaluate the presence of tumor cells within brain tissue and their distance from the resection margin. Results: Microscopic assessment of the radially oriented tissue samples showed no tumor cells infiltrating the surrounding brain tissue. Among the positive findings were reactive astrocytosis observed on the brain tissue immediately adjacent to the tumor resection bed margin. Conclusions: The lack of evidence of metastatic tumor cell infiltration into surrounding brain suggests the need to target only a narrow depth of the resection cavity margin to minimize normal tissue injury and prevent treatment size-dependent stereotactic radiosurgery complications.

  19. Detection of Human Brain Cancer Infiltration ex vivo and in vivo Using Quantitative Optical Coherence Tomography*

    PubMed Central

    Kut, Carmen; Chaichana, Kaisorn L.; Xi, Jiefeng; Raza, Shaan M.; Ye, Xiaobu; McVeigh, Elliot R.; Rodriguez, Fausto J.; Quinones-Hinojosa, Alfredo; Li, Xingde

    2015-01-01

    More complete brain cancer resection can prolong survival and delay recurrence. However, it is challenging to distinguish cancer from non-cancer tissues intraoperatively, especially at the transitional, infiltrative zones. This is especially critical in eloquent regions (e.g. speech and motor areas). This study tested the feasibility of label-free, quantitative optical coherence tomography (OCT) for differentiating cancer from non-cancer in human brain tissues. Fresh ex vivo human brain tissues were obtained from 32 patients with grades II-IV brain cancer and 5 patients with non-cancer brain pathologies. Based on volumetric OCT imaging data, pathologically confirmed brain cancer tissues (both high-grade and low-grade) had significantly lower optical attenuation values at both cancer core and infiltrated zones when compared with non-cancer white matter, and OCT achieved high sensitivity and specificity at an attenuation threshold of 5.5 mm-1 for brain cancer patients. We also used this attenuation threshold to confirm the intraoperative feasibility of performing in vivo OCT-guided surgery using a murine model harboring human brain cancer. Our OCT system was capable of processing and displaying a color-coded optical property map in real time at a rate of 110-215 frames per second, or 1.2-2.4 seconds for an 8-16 mm3 tissue volume, thus providing direct visual cues for cancer versus non-cancer areas. Our study demonstrates the translational and practical potential of OCT in differentiating cancer from non-cancer tissue. Its intraoperative use may facilitate safe and extensive resection of infiltrative brain cancers and consequently lead to improved outcomes when compared with current clinical standards. PMID:26084803

  20. BK K+ channel blockade inhibits radiation-induced migration/brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Klumpp, Lukas; Haehl, Erik; Schilbach, Karin; Lukowski, Robert; Kühnle, Matthias; Bernhardt, Günther; Buschauer, Armin; Zips, Daniel; Ruth, Peter; Huber, Stephan M.

    2016-01-01

    Infiltration of the brain by glioblastoma cells reportedly requires Ca2+ signals and BK K+ channels that program and drive glioblastoma cell migration, respectively. Ionizing radiation (IR) has been shown to induce expression of the chemokine SDF-1, to alter the Ca2+ signaling, and to stimulate cell migration of glioblastoma cells. Here, we quantified fractionated IR-induced migration/brain infiltration of human glioblastoma cells in vitro and in an orthotopic mouse model and analyzed the role of SDF-1/CXCR4 signaling and BK channels. To this end, the radiation-induced migratory phenotypes of human T98G and far-red fluorescent U-87MG-Katushka glioblastoma cells were characterized by mRNA and protein expression, fura-2 Ca2+ imaging, BK patch-clamp recording and transfilter migration assay. In addition, U-87MG-Katushka cells were grown to solid glioblastomas in the right hemispheres of immunocompromised mice, fractionated irradiated (6 MV photons) with 5 × 0 or 5 × 2 Gy, and SDF-1, CXCR4, and BK protein expression by the tumor as well as glioblastoma brain infiltration was analyzed in dependence on BK channel targeting by systemic paxilline application concomitant to IR. As a result, IR stimulated SDF-1 signaling and induced migration of glioblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, paxilline blocked IR-induced migration in vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that fractionated IR of glioblastoma stimulates and BK K+ channel targeting mitigates migration and brain infiltration of glioblastoma cells in vivo. This suggests that BK channel targeting might represent a novel approach to overcome radiation-induced spreading of malignant brain tumors during radiotherapy. PMID:26893360

  1. Cerebral endothelial expression of Robo1 affects brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils during mouse stroke recovery.

    PubMed

    Gangaraju, Sandhya; Sultan, Khadeejah; Whitehead, Shawn N; Nilchi, Ladan; Slinn, Jacqueline; Li, Xuesheng; Hou, Sheng T

    2013-06-01

    Increased brain infiltration of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) occurs early after stroke and is important in eliciting brain inflammatory response during stroke recovery. In order to understand the molecular mechanism of PMN entry, we investigated the expression and requirement for Slit1, a chemorepulsive guidance cue, and its cognate receptor, Robo1, in a long-term recovery mouse model of cerebral ischemia. The expression levels of Robo1 were significantly decreased bilaterally at 24h following reperfusion. Robo1 expression levels remained suppressed in the ipsilateral cortex until 28d post MCAO-reperfusion, while the levels of Robo1 in the contralateral cortex recovered to the level of sham-operated mouse by 7d reperfusion. Circulating PMNs express high levels of Slit1, but not Robo1. Influx of PMNs into the ischemic core area occurred early (24h) after cerebral ischemia, when endothelial Robo1 expression was significantly reduced in the ischemic brain, indicating that Robo1 may form a repulsive barrier to PMN entry into the brain parenchyma. Indeed, blocking Slit1 on PMNs in a transwell migration assay in combination with an antibody blocking of Robo1 on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC) significantly increased PMN transmigration during oxygen glucose deprivation, an in vitro model of ischemia. Collectively, in the normal brain, the presence of Slit1 on PMNs, and Robo1 on cerebral endothelial cells, generated a repulsive force to prevent the infiltration of PMNs into the brain. During stroke recovery, a transient reduction in Robo1 expression on the cerebral endothelial cells allowed the uncontrolled infiltration of Slit1-expressing PMNs into the brain causing inflammatory reactions.

  2. Post-ischemic salubrinal treatment results in a neuroprotective role in global cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Anuncibay-Soto, Berta; Pérez-Rodríguez, Diego; Santos-Galdiano, María; Font, Enrique; Regueiro-Purriños, Marta; Fernández-López, Arsenio

    2016-07-01

    This study describes the neuroprotective effect of treatment with salubrinal 1 and 24 h following 15 min of ischemia in a two-vessel occlusion model of global cerebral ischemia. The purpose of this study was to determine if salubrinal, an enhancer of the unfolded protein response, reduces the neural damage modulating the inflammatory response. The study was performed in CA1 and CA3 hippocampal areas as well as in the cerebral cortex whose different vulnerability to ischemic damage is widely described. Characterization of proteins was made by western blot, immunofluorescence, and ELISA, whereas mRNA levels were measured by Quantitative PCR. The salubrinal treatment decreased the cell demise in CA1 at 7 days as well as the levels of matrix metalloprotease 9 (MMP-9) in CA1 and cerebral cortex at 48 h and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 cell adhesion molecules. However, increases in tumor necrosis factor α and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells (NF-κB) inflammatory markers were observed at 24 h. Glial fibrillary acidic protein levels were not modified by salubrinal treatment in CA1 and cerebral cortex. We describe a neuroprotective effect of the post-ischemic treatment with salubrinal, measured as a decrease both in CA1 cell demise and in the blood-brain barrier impairment. We hypothesize that the ability of salubrinal to counteract the CA1 cell demise is because of a reduced ability of this structure to elicit unfolded protein response which would account for its greater ischemic vulnerability. Data of both treated and non-treated animals suggest that the neurovascular unit present a structure-dependent response to ischemia and a different course time for CA1/cerebral cortex compared with CA3. Finally, our study reveals a high responsiveness of endothelial cells to salubrinal in contrast to the limited responsiveness of astrocytes. The alleviation of ER stress by enhancing UPR with salubrinal treatment reduces the ischemic damage. This effect

  3. The Time of Maximum Post-Ischemic Hyperperfusion Indicates Infarct Growth Following Transient Experimental Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Wegener, Susanne; Artmann, Judith; Luft, Andreas R.; Buxton, Richard B.; Weller, Michael; Wong, Eric C.

    2013-01-01

    After recanalization, cerebral blood flow (CBF) can increase above baseline in cerebral ischemia. However, the significance of post-ischemic hyperperfusion for tissue recovery remains unclear. To analyze the course of post-ischemic hyperperfusion and its impact on vascular function, we used magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with pulsed arterial spin labeling (pASL) and measured CBF quantitatively during and after a 60 minute transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in adult rats. We added a 5% CO2 - challenge to analyze vasoreactivity in the same animals. Results from MRI were compared to histological correlates of angiogenesis. We found that CBF in the ischemic area recovered within one day and reached values significantly above contralateral thereafter. The extent of hyperperfusion changed over time, which was related to final infarct size: early (day 1) maximal hyperperfusion was associated with smaller lesions, whereas a later (day 4) maximum indicated large lesions. Furthermore, after initial vasoparalysis within the ischemic area, vasoreactivity on day 14 was above baseline in a fraction of animals, along with a higher density of blood vessels in the ischemic border zone. These data provide further evidence that late post-ischemic hyperperfusion is a sequel of ischemic damage in regions that are likely to undergo infarction. However, it is transient and its resolution coincides with re-gaining of vascular structure and function. PMID:23741488

  4. Infiltrating cells from host brain restore the microglial population in grafted cortical tissue

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cong; Tao, Sijue; Fang, Yukun; Guo, Jing; Zhu, Lirui; Zhang, Shengxiang

    2016-01-01

    Transplantation of embryonic cortical tissue is considered as a promising therapy for brain injury. Grafted neurons can reestablish neuronal network and improve cortical function of the host brain. Microglia is a key player in regulating neuronal survival and plasticity, but its activation and dynamics in grafted cortical tissue remain unknown. Using two-photon intravital imaging and parabiotic model, here we investigated the proliferation and source of microglia in the donor region by transplanting embryonic cortical tissue into adult cortex. Live imaging showed that the endogenous microglia of the grafted tissue were rapidly lost after transplantation. Instead, host-derived microglia infiltrated and colonized the graft. Parabiotic model suggested that the main source of infiltrating cells is the parenchyma of the host brain. Colonized microglia proliferated and experienced an extensive morphological transition and eventually differentiated into resting ramified morphology. Collectively, these results demonstrated that donor tissue has little contribution to the activated microglia and host brain controls the microglial population in the graft. PMID:27615195

  5. Intracavitary moderator balloon combined with 252Cf brachytherapy and boron neutron capture therapy, improving dosimetry in brain tumour and infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Brandão, S F

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This article proposes a combination of californium-252 (252Cf) brachytherapy, boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) and an intracavitary moderator balloon catheter applied to brain tumour and infiltrations. Methods: Dosimetric evaluations were performed on three protocol set-ups: 252Cf brachytherapy combined with BNCT (Cf-BNCT); Cf-BNCT with a balloon catheter filled with light water (LWB) and the same set-up with heavy water (HWB). Results: Cf-BNCT-HWB has presented dosimetric advantages to Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT in infiltrations at 2.0–5.0 cm from the balloon surface. However, Cf-BNCT-LWB has shown superior dosimetry up to 2.0 cm from the balloon surface. Conclusion: Cf-BNCT-HWB and Cf-BNCT-LWB protocols provide a selective dose distribution for brain tumour and infiltrations, mainly further from the 252Cf source, sparing the normal brain tissue. Advances in knowledge: Malignant brain tumours grow rapidly and often spread to adjacent brain tissues, leading to death. Improvements in brain radiation protocols have been continuously achieved; however, brain tumour recurrence is observed in most cases. Cf-BNCT-LWB and Cf-BNCT-HWB represent new modalities for selectively combating brain tumour infiltrations and metastasis. PMID:25927876

  6. Macrophages are comprised of resident brain microglia not infiltrating peripheral monocytes acutely after neonatal stroke

    PubMed Central

    Denker, Sheryl P.; Ji, Shaoquan; Dingman, Andra; Lee, Sarah Y.; Derugin, Nikita; Wendland, Michael F.; Vexler, Zinaida S.

    2008-01-01

    Macrophages can be both beneficial and detrimental after CNS injury. We previously showed rapid accumulation of macrophages in injured immature brain acutely after ischemia-reperfusion. To determine whether these macrophages are microglia or invading monocytes, we subjected post-natal day 7 (P7) rats to transient 3 h middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion and used flow cytometry at 24 and 48 h post-reperfusion to distinguish invading monocytes (CD45high/CD11b+) from microglia (CD45low/medium/CD11b+). Inflammatory cytokines and chemokines were determined in plasma, injured and contralateral tissue 1–24 h post-reperfusion using ELISA-based cytokine multiplex assays. At 24 h, the number of CD45+/CD11b+ cells increased 3-fold in injured compared to uninjured brain tissue and CD45 expression shifted from low to medium with less than 10% of the population expressing CD45high. MCA occlusion induced rapid and transient asynchronous increases in the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-β and chemokines cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant protein 1 (CINC-1) and monocyte-chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), first in systemic circulation and then in injured brain. Double immunofluorescence with cell-type specific markers showed that multiple cell types in the injured brain produce MCP-1. Our findings show that despite profound increases in MCP-1 in injured regions, monocyte infiltration is low and the majority of macrophages in acutely injured regions are microglia. PMID:17212701

  7. Influence of age and vitamin E on post-ischemic acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Maria Heloisa Massola; Araujo, Magali; Borges, Sergio Murilo Mello; de Tolosa, Erasmo Magalhães C; Seguro, Antonio Carlos

    2004-05-01

    The aging process causes progressive deterioration in kidney structure and function. Aberrant generation of reactive oxygen species has been implicated in both age-related and ischemia-related tissue injury. Vitamin E (VE), one of the most powerful and effective exogenous antioxidants, prevents lipid peroxidation and protects against the effects of oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of age and VE on post-ischemic acute renal failure (ARF). Young adult, middle-aged and aged male Wistar rats were maintained on three different 30-day diets: Normal, VE absent and VE supplemented. On day 30, urinary protein and serum cholesterol and VE were measured. On day 31, rats were subjected to 60' clamping of the left renal artery plus right nephrectomy. Inulin clearance (InCl) was performed 48 h after renal ischemia. Malondialdehyde (MDA) was measured in the cortex of normal and 48-h post-ischemic kidneys. Urinary protein and serum cholesterol were higher in aged rats than in other rats. With aging, InCl decreased progressively. Vitamin E deficiency aggravated ARF. In middle-aged and aged rats, VE supplementation protected against ARF. In the absence of VE, MDA increased with age. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARF becomes more severe with age and that ischemia/reperfusion injury is exacerbated when antioxidant-scavenging ability of the kidney is impaired by VE deficiency. Supplementation with VE is essential for protecting aging kidneys against ischemic ARF.

  8. Multiple sclerosis: Brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cells persist as clonal expansions in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood

    PubMed Central

    Skulina, Christian; Schmidt, Stephan; Dornmair, Klaus; Babbe, Holger; Roers, Axel; Rajewsky, Klaus; Wekerle, Hartmut; Hohlfeld, Reinhard; Goebels, Norbert

    2004-01-01

    We surveyed the T cell receptor repertoire in three separate compartments (brain, cerebrospinal fluid, and blood) of two multiple sclerosis patients who initially had diagnostic brain biopsies to clarify their unusual clinical presentation but were subsequently confirmed to have typical multiple sclerosis. One of the brain biopsy specimens had been previously investigated by microdissection and single-cell PCR to determine the clonal composition of brain-infiltrating T cells at the single-cell level. Using complementarity-determining region 3 spectratyping, we identified several identical, expanded CD8+ (but not CD4+) T cell clones in all three compartments. Some of the expanded CD8+ T cells also occurred in sorted CD38+ blood cells, suggesting that they were activated. Strikingly, some of the brain-infiltrating CD8+ T cell clones persisted for >5 years in the cerebrospinal fluid and/or blood and may thus contribute to the progression of the disease. PMID:14983026

  9. Cardiomyocyte-specific ablation of CD36 improves post-ischemic functional recovery.

    PubMed

    Nagendran, Jeevan; Pulinilkunnil, Thomas; Kienesberger, Petra C; Sung, Miranda M; Fung, David; Febbraio, Maria; Dyck, Jason R B

    2013-10-01

    Although pre-clinical evidence has suggested that partial inhibition of myocardial fatty acid oxidation (FAO) and subsequent switch to greater glucose oxidation for ATP production can prevent ischemia/reperfusion injury, controversy about this approach persists. For example, mice with germline deletion of the FA transporter CD36, exhibited either impaired or unchanged post-ischemic functional recovery despite a 40-60% reduction in FAO rates. Because there are limitations to cardiac studies utilizing whole body CD36 knockout (totalCD36KO) mice, we have now generated an inducible and cardiomyocyte-specific CD36 KO (icCD36KO) mouse to better address the role of cardiomyocyte CD36 and its regulation of FAO and post-ischemic functional recovery. Four to six weeks following CD36 ablation, hearts from icCD36KO mice had significantly decreased FA uptake compared to controls, which was paralleled by significant reductions in intramyocardial triacylglycerol content. Analysis of cardiac energy metabolism using ex vivo working heart perfusions showed that reduced FAO rates were compensated by enhanced glucose oxidation in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. In contrast to the totalCD36KO mice, hearts from icCD36KO mice exhibited significantly improved functional recovery following ischemia/reperfusion (18min of global no-flow ischemia followed by 40min of aerobic reperfusion). This improved recovery was associated with lower calculated proton production prior to and following ischemia compared to controls. Moreover, the amount of ATP generated relative to cardiac work was significantly lower in the hearts from icCD36KO mice compared to controls, indicating significantly increased cardiac efficiency in the hearts from icCD36KO mice. These data provide genetic evidence that reduced FAO as a result of diminished CD36-mediated FA uptake improves post-ischemic cardiac efficiency and functional recovery. As such, targeting cardiomyocyte FA uptake and FAO via inhibition of CD36 in the

  10. Improving Reconstituted HDL Composition for Efficient Post-Ischemic Reduction of Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Brulhart-Meynet, Marie-Claude; Braunersreuther, Vincent; Brinck, Jonas; Montecucco, Fabrizio; Prost, Jean-Christophe; Thomas, Aurelien; Galan, Katia; Pelli, Graziano; Pedretti, Sarah; Vuilleumier, Nicolas; Mach, François; Lecour, Sandrine; James, Richard W.; Frias, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    Background New evidence shows that high density lipoproteins (HDL) have protective effects beyond their role in reverse cholesterol transport. Reconstituted HDL (rHDL) offer an attractive means of clinically exploiting these novel effects including cardioprotection against ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI). However, basic rHDL composition is limited to apolipoprotein AI (apoAI) and phospholipids; addition of bioactive compound may enhance its beneficial effects. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the role of rHDL in post-ischemic model, and to analyze the potential impact of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) in rHDL formulations. Methods and Results The impact of HDL on IRI was investigated using complementary in vivo, ex vivo and in vitro IRI models. Acute post-ischemic treatment with native HDL significantly reduced infarct size and cell death in the ex vivo, isolated heart (Langendorff) model and the in vivo model (-48%, p<0.01). Treatment with rHDL of basic formulation (apoAI + phospholipids) had a non-significant impact on cell death in vitro and on the infarct size ex vivo and in vivo. In contrast, rHDL containing S1P had a highly significant, protective influence ex vivo, and in vivo (-50%, p<0.01). This impact was comparable with the effects observed with native HDL. Pro-survival signaling proteins, Akt, STAT3 and ERK1/2 were similarly activated by HDL and rHDL containing S1P both in vitro (isolated cardiomyocytes) and in vivo. Conclusion HDL afford protection against IRI in a clinically relevant model (post-ischemia). rHDL is significantly protective if supplemented with S1P. The protective impact of HDL appears to target directly the cardiomyocyte. PMID:25781943

  11. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

    2014-07-15

    Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-β1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-β1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH.

  12. THE PERIVASCULAR POOL OF AQUAPORIN-4 MEDIATES THE EFFECT OF OSMOTHERAPY IN POST-ISCHEMIC CEREBRAL EDEMA

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalov, Emil; Chen, Chih-Hung; Froehner, Stanley C.; Adams, Marvin E.; Ottersen, Ole Petter; Amiry-Moghaddam, Mahmood; Bhardwaj, Anish

    2009-01-01

    Objective Osmotherapy with hypertonic saline (HS) ameliorates cerebral edema associated with experimental ischemic stroke. We tested the hypothesis that HS exerts its anti-edema effect by promoting an efflux of water from brain via the perivascular aquaporin-4 (AQP4) pool. We utilized mice with targeted disruption of the gene encoding α-syntrophin (α-Syn−/−) that lack the perivascular AQP4 pool but retain the endothelial pool of this protein. Design Prospective laboratory animal study. Setting Research laboratory in a university teaching hospital. Measurements and Main Results Halothane-anesthetized adult male wildtype (WT) C57B/6 and α-Syn−/− mice were subjected to 90 min of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and treated with either a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.9% saline (NS) or 3% HS (1.5 mL/Kg/hr) for 48 hr. In the first series of experiments (n = 59), brain water content analyzed by wet-to-dry ratios in the ischemic hemisphere of WT mice was attenuated after HS (79.9 ± 0.5%mean ± SEM) but not after NS (82.3 ± 1.0%) treatment. In contrast in α-Syn−/− mice, HS had no effect on the postischemic edema (HS: 80.3 ± 0.7% NS: 80.3 ± 0.4%). In the second series of experiments (n = 31), treatment with HS attenuated post-ischemic BBB disruption at 48 hr in WT mice but not in α-Syn−/− mice; α-Syn deletion alone had no effect on BBB integrity. In the third series of experiments (n=34), α-Syn−/− mice treated with either HS or NS had smaller infarct volume as compared with their WT counterparts. Conclusions These data demonstrate that: 1) osmotherapy with HS exerts anti-edema effects via the perivascular pool of AQP4 2) HS attenuates BBB disruption depending on the presence of perivascular AQP4, and 3) deletion of the perivascular pool of AQP4 alleviates tissue damage following stroke, in mice subjected to osmotherapy as well as in non-treated mice. PMID:18679106

  13. Brain Infiltration of Immune Cells in CASPR2–Antibody Associated Mesial Temporal Lobe Epilepsy with Hippocampal Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    ÜNVERENGİL, Gökçen; VANLI YAVUZ, Ebru Nur; TÜZÜN, Erdem; ERDAĞ, Ece; KABADAYI, Sevil; BİLGİÇ, Bilge; BAYKAN, Betül

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Antibodies directed against neuronal surface antigens have recently been identified in patients with focal temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) of unknown cause and mesial TLE with hippocampal sclerosis (MTLE-HS), thereby emphasizing the role of autoimmunity in TLE. Antibodies to contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) are prevalent in MTLE-HS patients. We aimed to find out whether anti-neuronal autoimmunity might be involved in CASPR2 antibody-related MTLE-HS. Methods Surgically resected medial temporal lobe specimens of seropositive and seronegative MTLE-HS patients were examined with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining using specific immune cell markers. Results Two of 5 CASPR2 antibody-positive MTLE-HS patients showed polymorphonuclear and mononuclear cells infiltrating the subarachnoidal region. One of these patients also showed mononuclear cell infiltration in the parenchyma of the temporal lobe cortex. Subarachnoidal and parenchymal infiltrates contained CD3+, CD8+, and CD68+ cells. None of the 13 seronegative MTLE-HS patients displayed cellular infiltrates in their brain samples, and all MTLE-HS patients showed marked neuronal cell loss but no immune cell infiltration in their hippocampi. Conclusion Our results show that CASPR2 antibody-associated MTLE-HS can present with central nervous system inflammation; thus, this subtype of MTLE-HS might have an autoimmune origin. PMID:28360810

  14. Transgenic mice expressing the human heat shock protein 70 have improved post-ischemic myocardial recovery.

    PubMed Central

    Plumier, J C; Ross, B M; Currie, R W; Angelidis, C E; Kazlaris, H; Kollias, G; Pagoulatos, G N

    1995-01-01

    Heat shock treatment induces expression of several heat shock proteins and subsequent post-ischemic myocardial protection. Correlations exist between the degree of stress used to induce the heat shock proteins, the amount of the inducible heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) and the level of myocardial protection. The inducible HSP70 has also been shown to be protective in transfected myogenic cells. Here we examined the role of human inducible HSP70 in transgenic mouse hearts. Overexpression of the human HSP70 does not appear to affect normal protein synthesis or the stress response in transgenic mice compared with nontransgenic mice. After 30 min of ischemia, upon reperfusion, transgenic hearts versus nontransgenic hearts showed significantly improved recovery of contractile force (0.35 +/- 0.08 versus 0.16 +/- 0.05 g, respectively, P < 0.05), rate of contraction, and rate of relaxation. Creatine kinase, an indicator of cellular injury, was released at a high level (67.7 +/- 23.0 U/ml) upon reperfusion from nontransgenic hearts, but not transgenic hearts (1.6 +/- 0.8 U/ml). We conclude that high level constitutive expression of the human inducible HSP70 plays a direct role in the protection of the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury. Images PMID:7706492

  15. Non-Selective Cannabinoid Receptor Antagonists, Hinokiresinols Reduce Infiltration of Microglia/Macrophages into Ischemic Brain Lesions in Rat via Modulating 2-Arachidonolyglycerol-Induced Migration and Mitochondrial Activity

    PubMed Central

    Anthony Jalin, Angela M. A.; Rajasekaran, Maheswari; Prather, Paul L.; Kwon, Jin Sun; Gajulapati, Veeraswamy; Choi, Yongseok; Kim, Chunsook; Pahk, Kisoo; Ju, Chung; Kim, Won-Ki

    2015-01-01

    Growing evidence suggests that therapeutic strategies to modulate the post-ischemic inflammatory responses are promising approaches to improve stroke outcome. Although the endocannabinoid system has been emerged as an endogenous therapeutic target to regulate inflammation after stroke insult, the downstream mechanisms and their potentials for therapeutic intervention remain controversial. Here we identified trans- and cis-hinokiresinols as novel non-selective antagonists for two G-protein-coupled cannabinoid receptors, cannabinoid receptor type 1 and type 2. The Electric Cell-substrate Impedance Sensing and Boyden chamber migration assays using primary microglial cultures revealed that both hinokiresinols significantly inhibited an endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced migration. Hinokiresinols modulated 2-arachidonoylglycerol-induced mitochondrial bioenergetics in microglia as evidenced by inhibition of ATP turnover and reduction in respiratory capacity, thereby resulting in impaired migration activity. In rats subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (1.5-h) followed by 24-h reperfusion, post-ischemic treatment with hinokiresinols (2 and 7-h after the onset of ischemia, 10 mg/kg) significantly reduced cerebral infarct and infiltration of ED1-positive microglial/macrophage cells into cerebral ischemic lesions in vivo. Co-administration of exogenous 2-AG (1 mg/kg, i.v., single dose at 2 h after starting MCAO) abolished the protective effect of trans-hinokiresionol. These results suggest that hinokiresinols may serve as stroke treatment by targeting the endocannabinoid system. Alteration of mitochondrial bioenergetics and consequent inhibition of inflammatory cells migration may be a novel mechanism underlying anti-ischemic effects conferred by cannabinoid receptor antagonists. PMID:26517721

  16. Anti-Inflammation of Natural Components from Medicinal Plants at Low Concentrations in Brain via Inhibiting Neutrophil Infiltration after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiannan; Zhang, Cong; Chen, Rong; Jiao, Honglei; Li, Linlin; Zhang, Lan; Cui, Lili

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation after stroke consists of activation of microglia/astrocytes in situ and infiltration of blood-borne leukocytes, resulting in brain damage and neurological deficits. Mounting data demonstrated that most natural components from medicinal plants had anti-inflammatory effects after ischemic stroke through inhibiting activation of resident microglia/astrocytes within ischemic area. However, it is speculated that this classical activity cannot account for the anti-inflammatory function of these natural components in the cerebral parenchyma, where they are detected at very low concentrations due to their poor membrane permeability and slight leakage of BBB. Could these drugs exert anti-inflammatory effects peripherally without being delivered across the BBB? Factually, ameliorating blood-borne neutrophil recruitment in peripheral circulatory system has been proved to reduce ischemic damage and improve outcomes. Thus, it is concluded that if drugs could achieve effective concentrations in the cerebral parenchyma, they can function via crippling resident microglia/astrocytes activation and inhibiting neutrophil infiltration, whereas the latter will be dominating when these drugs localize in the brain at a low concentration. In this review, the availability of some natural components crossing the BBB in stroke will be discussed, and how these drugs lead to improvements in stroke through inhibition of neutrophil rolling, adhesion, and transmigration will be illustrated. PMID:27688603

  17. Cellular proliferation and infiltration following interstitial irradiation of normal dog brain is altered by an inhibitor of polyamine synthesis

    SciTech Connect

    Fike, J.R.; Gobbel, G.T.; Chou, D.

    1995-07-15

    The objectives of this study were to quantitatively define proliferative and infiltrative cell responses after focal {sup 125}I irradiation of normal brain, and to determine the effects of an intravenous infusion of {alpha}-defluoromethylornithine (DFMO) on those responses. Adult beagle dogs were irradiated using high activity {sup 125}I sources. Cellular responses were quantified using a histomorphometric analysis. After radiation alone, cellular events included a substantial acute inflammatory response followed by increased BrdU labeling and progressive increases in numbers of capillaries and astrocytes. {alpha}-Difluoromethylornithine treatment significantly affected the measured cell responses. As in controls, an early inflammatory response was measured, but after 2 weeks there were more PMNs/unit area than in controls. The onset of measurable BrdU labeling was delayed in DFMO-treated animals, and the magnitude of labeling was significantly reduced. Increases in astrocyte and vessel numbers/mm{sup 2} were observed after a 2-week delay. At the site of implant, astrocytes from DFMO-treated dogs were significantly smaller than those from controls. There is substantial cell proliferation and infiltration in response to interstitial irradiation of normal brain, and these responses are significantly altered by DFMO treatment. Although the precise mechanisms by which DFMO exerts its effects in this model are not known, the results from this study suggest that modification of radiation injury may be possible by manipulating the response of normal cells to injury. 57 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy suppresses inflammasome-mediated brain damage in experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hae In; Lee, Sae-Won; Kim, Nam Gyun; Park, Kyoung-Jun; Choi, Byung Tae; Shin, Yong-Il; Shin, Hwa Kyoung

    2017-02-06

    Use of photostimulation including low-level light emitting diode (LED) therapy has broadened greatly in recent years because it is compact, portable, and easy to use. Here, the effects of photostimulation by LED (610 nm) therapy on ischemic brain damage was investigated in mice in which treatment started after a stroke in a clinically relevant setting. The mice underwent LED therapy (20 min) twice a day for 3 days, commencing at 4 hours post-ischemia. LED therapy group generated a significantly smaller infarct size and improvements in neurological function based on neurologic test score. LED therapy profoundly reduced neuroinflammatory responses including neutrophil infiltration and microglia activation in the ischemic cortex. LED therapy also decreased cell death and attenuated the NLRP3 inflammasome, in accordance with down-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 in the ischemic brain. Moreover, the mice with post-ischemic LED therapy showed suppressed TLR-2 levels, MAPK signaling and NF-kB activation. These findings suggest that by suppressing the inflammasome, LED therapy can attenuate neuroinflammatory responses and tissue damage following ischemic stroke. Therapeutic interventions targeting the inflammasome via photostimulation with LED may be a novel approach to ameliorate brain injury following ischemic stroke. Effect of post-ischemic low-level light emitting diode therapy (LED-T) on infarct reduction was mediated by inflammasome suppression.

  19. Neutrophil infiltration increases matrix metalloproteinase-9 in the ischemic brain after occlusion/reperfusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats.

    PubMed

    Justicia, Carles; Panés, Julián; Solé, Sònia; Cervera, Alvaro; Deulofeu, Ramon; Chamorro, Angel; Planas, Anna M

    2003-12-01

    Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity increases in the brain during the first day after focal ischemia and might be involved in the pathogenesis of tissue damage. We previously showed MMP-9 in the extracellular space of brain parenchyma along with neutrophil recruitment after ischemia. In the present study, we tested whether neutrophils were a direct source of enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain. Neutrophil infiltration was prevented either by injecting an antibody against ICAM-1, which abrogates neutrophil adhesion to the endothelial vessel wall, or by inducing neutropenia. One-hour intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion with reperfusion was induced, and studies were performed at 24 hours. Circulating neutrophils expressed 95-kDa MMP-9 and dimers, and infiltrated neutrophils stained positive for MMP-9. The expression of MMP-9 (mainly 95-kDa proform and dimers and, to a lesser extent, 88-kDa form) increased in brain after ischemia/reperfusion. Treatments preventing neutrophil infiltration failed to preclude the ischemia-induced increase in 88-kDa MMP-9 form and gelatinase activity in neurons and blood vessels. However, these treatments prevented the major increase in 95-kDa MMP-9 form and dimers. We conclude that neutrophil infiltration highly contributes to enhanced MMP-9 in the ischemic brain by releasing MMP-9 proform, which might participate in the tissular inflammatory reaction.

  20. Quantitative imaging of magnesium distribution at single-cell resolution in brain tumors and infiltrating tumor cells with secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS)

    PubMed Central

    Chandra, Subhash; Parker, Dylan J.; Barth, Rolf F.; Pannullo, Susan C.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is one of the deadliest forms of human brain tumors. The infiltrative pattern of growth of these tumors includes the spread of individual and/or clusters of tumor cells at some distance from the main tumor mass in parts of the brain protected by an intact blood-brain-barrier. Pathophysiological studies of GBM could be greatly enhanced by analytical techniques capable of in situ single-cell resolution measurements of infiltrating tumor cells. Magnesium homeostasis is an area of active investigation in high grade gliomas. In the present study, we have used the F98 rat glioma as a model of human GBM and an elemental/isotopic imaging technique of secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), a CAMECA IMS-3f ion microscope, for studying Mg distributions with single-cell resolution in freeze-dried brain tissue cryosections. Quantitative observations were made on tumor cells in the main tumor mass, contiguous brain tissue, and infiltrating tumor cells in adjacent normal brain. The brain tissue contained a significantly lower total Mg concentration of 4.70 ± 0.93 mmol/Kg wet weight (mean ± SD) in comparison to 11.64 ± 1.96 mmol/Kg wet weight in tumor cells of the main tumor mass and 10.72 ± 1.76 mmol/Kg wet weight in infiltrating tumor cells (p<0.05). The nucleus of individual tumor cells contained elevated levels of bound Mg. These observations demonstrate enhanced Mg-influx and increased binding of Mg in tumor cells and provide strong support for further investigation of GBMs for altered Mg homeostasis and activation of Mg-transporting channels as possible therapeutic targets. PMID:26703785

  1. Platelet aggregation but not activation and degranulation during the acute post-ischemic reperfusion phase in livers with no underlying disease

    PubMed Central

    van Golen, Rowan F.; Stevens, Katarzyna M.; Colarusso, Pina; Jaeschke, Hartmut; Heger, Michal

    2016-01-01

    Background Platelets and P-selectin (CD62P) play an unequivocal role in the pathology of hepatic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Inhibition or knock-out of P-selectin or immunodepletion of platelets results in amelioration of post-ischemic inflammation, reduced hepatocellular damage, and improved survival. However, P-selectin expression on platelets and endothelial cells, which concurs with platelet activation, has never been clearly demonstrated in I/R-subjected livers. Aims To determine whether platelets become activated and degranulate in the acute phase of liver I/R and whether the platelets interact with neutrophils. Methods Hepatic I/R was induced in male C57BL/6J mice (N = 12) using 37.5-min ischemia time. Platelets, endothelial cells, and neutrophils were fluorescently labeled by systemic administration of non-blocking antibodies. Cell kinetics were monitored by intravital spinning disk confocal microscopy during 90 min of reperfusion. Image analysis and quantification was performed with dedicated software. Results Platelets adhered to sinusoids more extensively in post-ischemic livers compared to livers not subjected to I/R and formed aggregates, which occurred directly after ischemia. Platelets and endothelial cells did not express P-selectin in post-ischemic livers. There was no interaction between platelets and neutrophils. Conclusions Platelets aggregate but do not become activated and do not degranulate in post-ischemic livers. There is no platelet-neutrophil interplay during the early reperfusion phase in a moderate model of hepatic I/R injury. The mechanisms underlying the biological effects of platelets and P-selectin in this setting warrant further investigation. Relevance for patients I/R in surgical liver patients may compromise outcome due to post-ischemic oxidative stress and sterile inflammation. Both processes are mediated in part by platelets. Understanding platelet function during I/R is key to developing effective interventions for I

  2. Modeling early-onset post-ischemic seizures in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiping; Wang, Justin; Peng, Jessie; Patel, Nisarg; Huang, Yayi; Gao, Xiaoxing; Aljarallah, Salman; Eubanks, James H; McDonald, Robert; Zhang, Liang

    2015-09-01

    Stroke is the leading cause of seizures and epilepsy in the aged population, with post-stroke seizures being a poor prognostic factor. The pathological processes underlying post-stroke seizures are not well understood and studies of these seizures in aging/aged animals remain scarce. Therefore, our primary objective was to model post-stroke seizures in aging mice (C57 black strain, 16-20 months-old), with a focus on early-onset, convulsive seizures that occur within 24-hours of brain ischemia. We utilized a middle cerebral artery occlusion model and examined seizure activity and brain injury using combined behavioral and electroencephalographic monitoring and histological assessments. Aging mice exhibited vigorous convulsive seizures within hours of the middle cerebral artery occlusion. These seizures manifested with jumping, rapid running, barrel-rolling and/or falling all in the absence of hippocampal-cortical electrographic discharges. Seizure development was closely associated with severe brain injury and acute mortality. Anticonvulsive treatments after seizure occurrence offered temporary seizure control but failed to improve animal survival. A separate cohort of adult mice (6-8 months-old) exhibited analogous early-onset convulsive seizures following the middle cerebral artery occlusion but had better survival outcomes following anticonvulsive treatment. Collectively, our data suggest that early-onset convulsive seizures are a result of severe brain ischemia in aging animals.

  3. T-cell brain infiltration and immature antigen-presenting cells in transgenic models of Alzheimer's disease-like cerebral amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Ferretti, M T; Merlini, M; Späni, C; Gericke, C; Schweizer, N; Enzmann, G; Engelhardt, B; Kulic, L; Suter, T; Nitsch, R M

    2016-05-01

    Cerebral beta-amyloidosis, one of the pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), elicits a well-characterised, microglia-mediated local innate immune response. In contrast, it is not clear whether cells of the adaptive immune system, in particular T-cells, react to cerebral amyloidosis in AD. Even though parenchymal T-cells have been described in post-mortem brains of AD patients, it is not known whether infiltrating T-cells are specifically recruited to the extracellular deposits of beta-amyloid, and whether they are locally activated into proliferating, effector cells upon interaction with antigen-presenting cells (APCs). To address these issues we have analysed by confocal microscopy and flow-cytometry the localisation and activation status of both T-cells and APCs in transgenic (tg) mice models of AD-like cerebral amyloidosis. Increased numbers of infiltrating T-cells were found in amyloid-burdened brain regions of tg mice, with concomitant up-regulation of endothelial adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, compared to non-tg littermates. The infiltrating T-cells in tg brains did not co-localise with amyloid plaques, produced less interferon-gamma than those in controls and did not proliferate locally. Bona-fide dendritic cells were virtually absent from the brain parenchyma of both non-tg and tg mice, and APCs from tg brains showed an immature phenotype, with accumulation of MHC-II in intracellular compartments. These results indicate that cerebral amyloidosis promotes T-cell infiltration but interferes with local antigen presentation and T-cell activation. The inability of the brain immune surveillance to orchestrate a protective immune response to amyloid-beta peptide might contribute to the accumulation of amyloid in the progression of the disease.

  4. Gait analysis in a pre- and post-ischemic stroke biomedical pig model.

    PubMed

    Duberstein, Kylee Jo; Platt, Simon R; Holmes, Shannon P; Dove, C Robert; Howerth, Elizabeth W; Kent, Marc; Stice, Steven L; Hill, William D; Hess, David C; West, Franklin D

    2014-02-10

    Severity of neural injury including stroke in human patients, as well as recovery from injury, can be assessed through changes in gait patterns of affected individuals. Similar quantification of motor function deficits has been measured in rodent animal models of such injuries. However, due to differences in fundamental structure of human and rodent brains, there is a need to develop a large animal model to facilitate treatment development for neurological conditions. Porcine brain structure is similar to that of humans, and therefore the pig may make a more clinically relevant animal model. The current study was undertaken to determine key gait characteristics in normal biomedical miniature pigs and dynamic changes that occur post-neural injury in a porcine middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion ischemic stroke model. Yucatan miniature pigs were trained to walk through a semi-circular track and were recorded with high speed cameras to detect changes in key gait parameters. Analysis of normal pigs showed overall symmetry in hindlimb swing and stance times, forelimb stance time, along with step length, step velocity, and maximum hoof height on both fore and hindlimbs. A subset of pigs were again recorded at 7, 5 and 3 days prior to MCA occlusion and then at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14 and 30 days following surgery. MRI analysis showed that MCA occlusion resulted in significant infarction. Gait analysis indicated that stroke resulted in notable asymmetries in both temporal and spatial variables. Pigs exhibited lower maximum front hoof height on the paretic side, as well as shorter swing time and longer stance time on the paretic hindlimb. These results support that gait analysis of stroke injury is a highly sensitive detection method for changes in gait parameters in pig.

  5. Influence of selective brain cooling on the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and monocytes/macrophages in rats suffering from global brain ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Cao, Jianping; Xu, Jianguo; Li, Weiyan; Liu, Jian

    2008-12-01

    This study sought to evaluate the effects of selective brain cooling on the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) mRNA and infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNLs) and monocytes/macrophages (MPhi) during global cerebral ischemia/ reperfusion (I/R). Global ischemia of the brain was produced by four-vessel occlusion for 30 min followed by reperfusion for 240 min. Thirty-five SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: group I had no ischemia and reperfusion; groups II, III, IV, and V were subjected to ischemia for 30 min at 37 degrees C and reperfusion for 240 min at 37, 35, 32, and 28 degrees C, respectively. Cerebral tissue samples were taken for pathological examination of the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi and to detect ICAM-1 mRNA expression by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The expression of ICAM-1 mRNA and infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi increased more markedly in group II than in group I (p < 0.01), suggesting that hypothermia evidently inhibited ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in the damaged cerebral tissue. In addition, significant differences were also found between group III and group II (p < 0.05) and among groups IV, V, and II (p < 0.01). These results suggest that I/R injury induces ICAM-1 mRNA expression and PMNL and MPhi infiltration in SD rats and that selective brain cooling, and especially moderate hypothermia (28-32 degrees C), may provide better cerebral protection by markedly inhibiting the expression of ICAM-1 mRNA while decreasing the infiltration of PMNLs and MPhi in the brain.

  6. The TNFα-Transgenic Rat: Hippocampal Synaptic Integrity, Cognition, Function, and Post-Ischemic Cell Loss

    PubMed Central

    Pettigrew, L. Creed; Kryscio, Richard J.; Norris, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    The cytokine, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), is a key regulator of neuroinflammation linked to numerous neurodegenerative conditions and diseases. The present study used transgenic rats that overexpress a murine TNFα gene, under the control of its own promoter, to investigate the impact of chronically elevated TNFα on hippocampal synaptic function. Neuronal viability and cognitive recovery in TNFα Tg rats were also determined following an ischemic insult arising from reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Basal CA3-CA1 synaptic strength, recorded in acute brain slices, was not significantly different between eight-week-old TNFα Tg rats and non-Tg rats. In contrast, slices from TNFα Tg rats showed significantly greater levels of long-term potentiation (LTP) in response to 100 Hz stimulation, suggesting that synaptic networks may be hyperexcitable in the context of elevated TNFα. Cognitive and motor deficits (assessed on the Morris Water Maze and Rotarod task, respectively) were present in TNFα Tg rats in the absence of significant differences in the loss of cortical and hippocampal neurons. TNF overexpression exacerbated MCAO-dependent deficits on the rotarod, but ameliorated cortical neuron loss in response to MCAO. PMID:27144978

  7. Association Between Macrominerals Intake and Changes in Internal Carotid Artery-Intima Media Thickness in POST Ischemic Stroke Patients

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudjonarko, Dwi; Tugasworo, Dodik; Silaen, Rumintang

    2017-02-01

    Carotid Intima Media Thickness (C-IMT) has been widely used as marker for atherosclerosis. Previous studies on minerals intake and its association with C-IMT revealed various. Most of the studies showed inconsistent results. The aim of this study is to determine wether macro minerals intake is related to internal carotid-intima media thickness (IC-IMT). This is a longitudinal study, pre test post test design conducted in Neurology clinic, Kariadi hospital, Semarang from June to December 2014. Subjects were 22 post ischemic stroke patients. Minerals intake and IC-IMT was measured using Food Frequency Questionnaire and Duplex Carotid Ultrasonography. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-Square, Fisher Exact and Logistic Regression test. Subjects included in this study were 17 male subjects (77.3%) and 5 female subjects (22.7%). Mean of IC-IMT in female subjects was found to be higher than in male. Mean of total IC-IMT was increased after a period of six months (0.96±0.80 to 0.97±0.21 mm). There were significant association between calcium as well as sodium intakes and IC-IMT. In contrast, there were no association between magnesium as well as potassium intake and IC-IMT. Multivariate analysis suggest that sodium intake (OR=26.828) was the most influencing factor for IC-IMT, followed by calcium intake (OR=0.042). Calcium as well as potassium intake were independently associated with IC-IMT. Magnecium as well as sodium intake were not independently associated with IC-IMT changes. Sodium intake was the most influencing variable to IC-IMT changes, followed by calcium intake.

  8. Mitochondria-targeted ROS scavenger improves post-ischemic recovery of cardiac function and attenuates mitochondrial abnormalities in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Escobales, Nelson; Nuñez, Rebeca E; Jang, Sehwan; Parodi-Rullan, Rebecca; Ayala-Peña, Sylvette; Sacher, Joshua R; Skoda, Erin M; Wipf, Peter; Frontera, Walter; Javadov, Sabzali

    2014-12-01

    Mitochondria-generated reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of aging and age-associated diseases. In this study, we evaluated the effects of XJB-5-131 (XJB), a mitochondria-targeted ROS and electron scavenger, on cardiac resistance to ischemia-reperfusion (IR)-induced oxidative stress in aged rats. Male adult (5-month old, n=17) and aged (29-month old, n=19) Fischer Brown Norway (F344/BN) rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: adult (A), adult+XJB (AX), aged (O), and aged+XJB (OX). XJB was administered 3 times per week (3mg/kg body weight, IP) for four weeks. At the end of the treatment period, cardiac function was continuously monitored in excised hearts using the Langendorff technique for 30 min, followed by 20 min of global ischemia, and 60-min reperfusion. XJB improved post-ischemic recovery of aged hearts, as evidenced by greater left ventricular developed-pressures and rate-pressure products than the untreated, aged-matched group. The state 3 respiration rates at complexes I, II and IV of mitochondria isolated from XJB-treated aged hearts were 57% (P<0.05), 25% (P<0.05) and 28% (P<0.05), respectively, higher than controls. Ca(2+)-induced swelling, an indicator of permeability transition pore opening, was reduced in the mitochondria of XJB-treated aged rats. In addition, XJB significantly attenuated the H2O2-induced depolarization of the mitochondrial inner membrane as well as the total and mitochondrial ROS levels in cultured cardiomyocytes. This study underlines the importance of mitochondrial ROS in aging-induced cardiac dysfunction and suggests that targeting mitochondrial ROS may be an effective therapeutic approach to protect the aged heart against IR injury.

  9. Temporal and spatial discordance of programmed cell death-ligand 1 expression and lymphocyte tumor infiltration between paired primary lesions and brain metastases in lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Mansfield, A. S.; Aubry, M. C.; Moser, J. C.; Harrington, S. M.; Dronca, R. S.; Park, S. S.; Dong, H.

    2016-01-01

    Background The dynamics of PD-L1 expression may limit its use as a tissue-based predictive biomarker. We sought to expand our understanding of the dynamics of PD-L1 expression and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in patients with lung cancer-related brain metastases. Experimental design Paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases were identified and assessed for PD-L1 and CD3 expression by immunohistochemistry. Lesions with 5% or greater PD-L1 expression were considered positive. Agreement statistics and the χ2 or Fisher's exact test were used for analysis. Results We analyzed 146 paired lesions from 73 cases. There was disagreement of tumor cell PD-L1 expression in 10 cases (14%, κ = 0.71), and disagreement of TIL PD-L1 expression in 19 cases (26%, κ = 0.38). Most paired lesions with discordant tumor cell expression of PD-L1 were obtained 6 or more months apart. When specimens were categorized using a proposed tumor microenvironment categorization scheme based on PD-L1 expression and TILs, there were significant changes in the classifications because many of the brain metastases lacked either PD-L1 expression, tumor lymphocyte infiltration or both even when they were present in the primary lung cancer specimens (P = 0.009). Conclusions We identified that there are significant differences between the tumor microenvironment of paired primary lung cancers and brain metastases. When physicians decide to treat patients with lung cancer with a PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor, they must do so in the context of the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27502709

  10. Ongoing epileptiform activity in the post-ischemic hippocampus is associated with a permanent shift of the excitatory-inhibitory synaptic balance in CA3 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Epsztein, Jérôme; Milh, Mathieu; Bihi, Rachid Id; Jorquera, Isabel; Ben-Ari, Yehezkel; Represa, Alfonso; Crépel, Valérie

    2006-06-28

    Ischemic strokes are often associated with late-onset epilepsy, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. In the hippocampus, which is one of the regions most sensitive to ischemic challenge, global ischemia induces a complete loss of CA1 pyramidal neurons, whereas the resistant CA3 pyramidal neurons display a long-term hyperexcitability several months after the insult. The mechanisms of this long-term hyperexcitability remain unknown despite its clinical implication. Using chronic in vivo EEG recordings and in vitro field recordings in slices, we now report spontaneous interictal epileptiform discharges in the CA3 area of the hippocampus from post-ischemic rats several months after the insult. Whole-cell recordings from CA3 pyramidal neurons, revealed a permanent reduction in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature GABAergic IPSCs and a parallel increase in the frequency of spontaneous and miniature glutamatergic postsynaptic currents. Global ischemia also induced a dramatic loss of GABAergic interneurons and terminals together with an increase in glutamatergic terminals in the CA3 area of the hippocampus. Altogether, our results show a morpho-functional reorganization in the CA3 network several months after global ischemia, resulting in a net shift in the excitatory-inhibitory balance toward excitation that may constitute a substrate for the generation of epileptiform discharges in the post-ischemic hippocampus.

  11. Probing the infiltrating character of brain tumors: inhibition of RhoA/ROK-mediated CD44 cell surface shedding from glioma cells by the green tea catechin EGCg.

    PubMed

    Annabi, Borhane; Bouzeghrane, Mounia; Moumdjian, Robert; Moghrabi, Albert; Béliveau, Richard

    2005-08-01

    Glioma cell-surface binding to hyaluronan (HA), a major constituent of the brain extracellular matrix (ECM) environment, is regulated through a complex membrane type-1 matrix metalloproteinase (MT1-MMP)/CD44/caveolin interaction that takes place at the leading edges of invading cells. In the present study, intracellular transduction pathways required for the HA-mediated recognition by infiltrating glioma cells in brain was investigated. We show that the overexpression of the GTPase RhoA up-regulated MT1-MMP expression and triggered CD44 shedding from the U-87 glioma cell surface. This potential implication in cerebral metastatic processes was also observed in cells overexpressing the full-length recombinant MT1-MMP, while the overexpression of a cytoplasmic domain truncated from of MT1-MMP failed to do so. This suggests that the cytoplasmic domain of MT1-MMP transduces intracellular signaling leading to RhoA-mediated CD44 shedding. Treatment of glioma cells with the Rho-kinase (ROK) inhibitor Y27632, or with EGCg, a green tea catechin with anti-MMP and anti-angiogenesis activities, antagonized both RhoA- and MT1-MMP-induced CD44 shedding. Conversely, overexpression of recombinant ROK stimulated CD44 release. Taken together, our results suggest that RhoA/ROK intracellular signaling regulates MT1-MMP-mediated CD44 recognition of HA. These molecular processes may partly explain the diffuse brain-infiltrating character of glioma cells within the surrounding parenchyma and thus be a target for new approaches to anti-tumor therapy.

  12. Trypanosoma brucei Invasion and T-Cell Infiltration of the Brain Parenchyma in Experimental Sleeping Sickness: Timing and Correlation with Functional Changes

    PubMed Central

    Laperchia, Claudia; Palomba, Maria; Seke Etet, Paul F.; Rodgers, Jean; Bradley, Barbara; Montague, Paul; Grassi-Zucconi, Gigliola; Bentivoglio, Marina

    2016-01-01

    Background The timing of Trypanosoma brucei entry into the brain parenchyma to initiate the second, meningoencephalitic stage of human African trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness is currently debated and even parasite invasion of the neuropil has been recently questioned. Furthermore, the relationship between neurological features and disease stage are unclear, despite the important diagnostic and therapeutic implications. Methodology Using a rat model of chronic Trypanosoma brucei brucei infection we determined the timing of parasite and T-cell neuropil infiltration and its correlation with functional changes. Parasite DNA was detected using trypanosome-specific PCR. Body weight and sleep structure alterations represented by sleep-onset rapid eye movement (SOREM) periods, reported in human and experimental African trypanosomiasis, were monitored. The presence of parasites, as well as CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells in the neuropil was assessed over time in the brain of the same animals by immunocytochemistry and quantitative analyses. Principal findings Trypanosome DNA was present in the brain at day 6 post-infection and increased more than 15-fold by day 21. Parasites and T-cells were observed in the parenchyma from day 9 onwards. Parasites traversing blood vessel walls were observed in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Body weight gain was reduced from day 7 onwards. SOREM episodes started in most cases early after infection, with an increase in number and duration after parasite neuroinvasion. Conclusion These findings demonstrate invasion of the neuropil over time, after an initial interval, by parasites and lymphocytes crossing the blood-brain barrier, and show that neurological features can precede this event. The data thus challenge the current clinical and cerebrospinal fluid criteria of disease staging. PMID:28002454

  13. Certain types of iron oxide nanoparticles are not suited to passively target inflammatory cells that infiltrate the brain in response to stroke.

    PubMed

    Harms, Christoph; Datwyler, Anna Lena; Wiekhorst, Frank; Trahms, Lutz; Lindquist, Randall; Schellenberger, Eyk; Mueller, Susanne; Schütz, Gunnar; Roohi, Farnoosh; Ide, Andreas; Füchtemeier, Martina; Gertz, Karen; Kronenberg, Golo; Harms, Ulrike; Endres, Matthias; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Farr, Tracy D

    2013-05-01

    Intravenous administration of iron oxide nanoparticles during the acute stage of experimental stroke can produce signal intensity changes in the ischemic region. This has been attributed, albeit controversially, to the infiltration of iron-laden blood-borne macrophages. The properties of nanoparticles that render them most suitable for phagocytosis is a matter of debate, as is the most relevant timepoint for administration. Both of these questions are examined in the present study. Imaging experiments were performed in mice with 30 minutes of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Iron oxide nanoparticles with different charges and sizes were used, and mice received 300 μmol Fe/kg intravenously: either superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs), ultrasmall SPIOs, or very small SPIOs. The particles were administered 7 days before MCAO, at the time of reperfusion, or 72 hours after MCAO. Interestingly, there was no observable signal change in the ischemic brains that could be attributed to iron. Furthermore, no Prussian blue-positive cells were found in the brains or blood leukocytes, despite intense staining in the livers and spleens. This implies that the nanoparticles selected for this study are not phagocytosed by blood-borne leukocytes and do not enter the ischemic mouse brain.

  14. Enhanced peripheral dopamine impairs post-ischemic healing by suppressing angiotensin receptor type 1 expression in endothelial cells and inhibiting angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Chandrani; Ganju, Ramesh K; Pompili, Vincent J; Chakroborty, Debanjan

    2017-02-01

    Increased circulating catecholamines have been linked with cardiovascular anomalies as well as with peripheral vascular diseases. Although the roles of epinephrine and norepinephrine have received considerable attention, the role of the other catecholamine, dopamine, has been less studied. Since dopamine is a potent endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis and as angiogenesis is essential for ischemic healing, we therefore studied the role played by dopamine during ischemic healing using dopamine D2 receptor knockout (KOD2) mice. Although concentration of dopamine and its rate-limiting enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase, was considerably high in the muscle tissues of wild-type and KOD2 mice with unilateral hind limb ischemia (HLI), recovery was significantly faster in the KOD2 mice compared to the wild-type controls, thereby indicating that peripheral dopamine might have a role in this healing process. In addition, we observed significant differences in post-ischemic angiogenesis between these two groups. Our study further revealed that elevated dopamine independently suppressed activation of local tissue-based renin-angiotensin system (RAS), a critical growth factor system stimulating angiogenesis in ischemia. Angiotensin II (ATII) and its receptor, angiotensin receptor type 1 (AT1R), are the key players in RAS-mediated angiogenesis. Dopamine acting through its D2 receptors in endothelial cells inhibited ATII-mediated angiogenesis by suppressing the expression of AT1R in these cells. This study thus for the first time demonstrates the role played by dopamine in prolonging post-ischemic recovery. Therefore, pharmacological intervention inhibiting the action of dopamine holds promise as future therapeutic strategy for the treatment of HLI and other peripheral arterial diseases.

  15. Adenosine A1 receptors contribute to immune regulation after neonatal hypoxic ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Winerdal, Max; Winerdal, Malin E; Wang, Ying-Qing; Fredholm, Bertil B; Winqvist, Ola; Ådén, Ulrika

    2016-03-01

    Neonatal brain hypoxic ischemia (HI) often results in long-term motor and cognitive impairments. Post-ischemic inflammation greatly effects outcome and adenosine receptor signaling modulates both HI and immune cell function. Here, we investigated the influence of adenosine A1 receptor deficiency (A1R(-/-)) on key immune cell populations in a neonatal brain HI model. Ten-day-old mice were subjected to HI. Functional outcome was assessed by open locomotion and beam walking test and infarction size evaluated. Flow cytometry was performed on brain-infiltrating cells, and semi-automated analysis of flow cytometric data was applied. A1R(-/-) mice displayed larger infarctions (+33%, p < 0.05) and performed worse in beam walking tests (44% more mistakes, p < 0.05) than wild-type (WT) mice. Myeloid cell activation after injury was enhanced in A1R(-/-) versus WT brains. Activated B lymphocytes expressing IL-10 infiltrated the brain after HI in WT, but were less activated and did not increase in relative frequency in A1R(-/-). Also, A1R(-/-) B lymphocytes expressed less IL-10 than their WT counterparts, the A1R antagonist DPCPX decreased IL-10 expression whereas the A1R agonist CPA increased it. CD4(+) T lymphocytes including FoxP3(+) T regulatory cells, were unaffected by genotype, whereas CD8(+) T lymphocyte responses were smaller in A1R(-/-) mice. Using PCA to characterize the immune profile, we could discriminate the A1R(-/-) and WT genotypes as well as sham operated from HI-subjected animals. We conclude that A1R signaling modulates IL-10 expression by immune cells, influences the activation of these cells in vivo, and affects outcome after HI.

  16. Indomethacin and cyclosporin a inhibit in vitro ischemia-induced expression of ICAM-1 and chemokines in human brain endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, W; Smith, C; Monette, R; Hutchison, J; Stanimirovic, D B

    2000-01-01

    Brain inflammation has been implicated in the development of brain edema and secondary brain damage in ischemia and trauma. Mechanisms involved in leukocyte infiltration across the blood-brain barrier are still unknown. In this study, we show that human cere-bromicrovascular endothelial cells (HCEC) subjected to a 4 h in vitro ischemia (hypoxia + glucose deprivation) followed by a 4-24 h recovery express elevated levels of ICAM-1, IL-8, and MCP-1 mRNAs (semi-quantitative RT-PCR) and secrete increased amounts of the immunoreactive chemokines IL-8 and MCP-1 (ELISA). The ischemia-induced expression of ICAM-1 in HCEC, and the expression/release of IL-8 and MCP-1 in HCEC were abolished by the non-steroid anti-inflammatory drug, indomethacin (100-300 microM). The immunosuppressant cyclosporin A (50 microM) partially reduced the ischemia-stimulated IL-8 and MCP-1 secretion by HCEC. Both indomethacin and cyclosporin A also inhibited the ischemia-induced neutrophil chemotaxis elicited by HCEC media. The study indicates that in vitro ischemia augments the expression of adhesion molecules and leukocyte chemoattractants at the site of the BBB. This ischemic pro-inflammatory activation of HCEC may constitute a key event in initiating post-ischemic inflammation, and it can be suppressed by the anti-inflammatory drugs, indomethacin and cyclosporin A.

  17. Expression profiling and ontology analysis of long noncoding RNAs in post-ischemic heart and their implied roles in ischemia/reperfusion injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youbin; Li, Guangnan; Lu, Huimin; Li, Wei; Li, Xianglu; Liu, Huimin; Li, Xingda; Li, Tianyu; Yu, Bo

    2014-06-10

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play important regulatory roles in cellular physiology. The contributions of lncRNAs to ischemic heart disease remain largely unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the profile of myocardial lncRNAs and their potential roles at early stage of reperfusion. lncRNAs and mRNAs were profiled by microarray and the expression of some highly-dysregulated lncRNAs was further validated using polymerase chain reaction. Our results revealed that 64 lncRNAs were up-regulated and 87 down-regulated, while 50 mRNAs were up-regulated and 60 down-regulated in infarct region at all reperfusion sampled. Gene ontology analysis indicated that dysregulated transcripts were associated with immune response, spermine catabolic process, taxis, chemotaxis, polyamine catabolic process, spermine metabolic process, chemokine activity and chemokine receptor binding. Target gene-related pathway analysis showed significant changes in cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction, the chemokine signaling pathway and nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor signaling pathway which have a close relationship with myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury (MI/RI). Besides, a gene co-expression network was constructed to identify correlated targets of 10 highly-dysregulated lncRNAs. These lncRNAs may play their roles by this network in post-ischemic heart. Such results provide a foundation for understanding the roles and mechanisms of myocardial lncRNAs at early stage of reperfusion.

  18. A labdane diterpene exerts ex vivo and in vivo cardioprotection against post-ischemic injury: involvement of AKT-dependent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Berrocal, Irene; Gómez-Gaviro, María V; Benito, Yolanda; Barrio, Alicia; Bermejo, Javier; Fernández-Santos, María Eugenia; Sánchez, Pedro L; Desco, Manuel; Fernández-Avilés, Francisco; Fernández-Velasco, María; Boscá, Lisardo; de Las Heras, Beatriz

    2015-02-15

    Therapeutic approaches to protect the heart from ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury are an area of intense research, as myocardial infarction is a major cause of mortality and morbidity. Diterpenes are bioactive natural products with great therapeutic potential. In the present study, we have investigated the in vivo cardioprotective effects of a labdane diterpene (DT1) against cardiac I/R injury and the molecular mechanisms involved. DT1 attenuates post-ischemic injury via an AKT-dependent activation of HIF-1α, survival pathways and inhibition of NF-κB signaling. Myocardial infarction (MI) was induced in Wistar rats occluding the left coronary artery (LCA) for 30min followed by 72h reperfusion. DT1 (5mg/kg) was intravenously administered at reperfusion. In addition, we investigated the mechanisms of cardioprotection in the Langendorff-perfused model. Cardioprotection was observed when DT1 was administered after myocardial injury. The molecular mechanisms involved the activation of the survival pathway PDK-1, AKT and AMPK, a reduced phosphorylation of PKD1/2 and sustained HIF-1α activity, leading to increased expression of anti-apoptotic proteins and decreased caspase-3 activation. Pharmacological inhibition of AKT following MI and prior to DT1 challenge significantly decreased the cardioprotection afforded by DT1 therapy at reperfusion. Cardiac function after MI was significantly improved after DT1-treatment, as evidenced by hemodynamic recovery and decreased myocardial infarct size. These findings demonstrate an efficient in vivo cardioprotection by diterpene DT1 against I/R when administered at reperfusion, opening new therapeutic strategies as adjunctive therapy for the pharmacological management of I/R injury.

  19. Effects of acute versus post-acute systemic delivery of neural progenitor cells on neurological recovery and brain remodeling after focal cerebral ischemia in mice.

    PubMed

    Doeppner, T R; Kaltwasser, B; Teli, M K; Bretschneider, E; Bähr, M; Hermann, D M

    2014-08-21

    Intravenous transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) induces functional recovery after stroke, albeit grafted cells are not integrated into residing neural networks. However, a systematic analysis of intravenous NPC delivery at acute and post-acute time points and their long-term consequences does not exist. Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and NPCs were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Animals were allowed to survive for up to 84 days. Mice and tissues were used for immunohistochemical analysis, flow cytometry, ELISA and behavioral tests. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. Likewise, transplantation on day 28 yielded enhanced neuronal differentiation rates of grafted cells. Post-ischemic brain injury, however, was only reduced when NPCs were grafted at acute time points. On the contrary, reduced post-ischemic functional deficits due to NPC delivery were independent of transplantation paradigms. NPC-induced neuroprotection after acute cell delivery was due to stabilization of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), reduction in microglial activation and modulation of both peripheral and central immune responses. On the other hand, post-acute NPC transplantation stimulated post-ischemic regeneration via enhanced angioneurogenesis and increased axonal plasticity. Acute NPC delivery yields long-term neuroprotection via enhanced BBB integrity and modulation of post-ischemic immune responses, whereas post-acute NPC delivery increases post-ischemic angioneurogenesis and axonal plasticity. Post-ischemic functional recovery, however, is independent of NPC delivery timing, which offers a broad therapeutic time window for stroke treatment.

  20. Ameliorating effect of hypothalamic brain-derived neurotrophic factor against impaired glucose metabolism after cerebral ischemic stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Fujita-Hamabe, Wakako; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a member of the neurotrophin family, has potent neuroprotective effects against brain injury. We recently reported that glucose intolerance/hyperglycemia could be induced by ischemic stress (i.e., post-ischemic glucose intolerance) following ischemic neuronal damage. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of BDNF on the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance and ischemic neuronal damage. Male ddY mice were subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h. On day 1, the expression levels of BDNF were significantly decreased in the cortex, hypothalamus, liver, skeletal muscle, and pancreas. The expression levels of tyrosine kinase B receptor, a BDNF receptor, decreased in the hypothalamus and liver and increased in the skeletal muscle and pancreas, but remained unchanged in the cortex. Intrahypothalamic administration of BDNF (50 ng/mouse) suppressed the development of post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage on day 3 after MCAO. In the liver and skeletal muscle, the expression levels of insulin receptors decreased, while gluconeogenic enzyme levels increased on day 1 after MCAO. These changes completely recovered to normal levels in the presence of BDNF. These results indicate that regulation of post-ischemic glucose intolerance by BDNF may suppress ischemic neuronal damage.

  1. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  2. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  3. Detrimental role of the EP1 prostanoid receptor in blood-brain barrier damage following experimental ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Frankowski, Jan C; DeMars, Kelly M; Ahmad, Abdullah S; Hawkins, Kimberly E; Yang, Changjun; Leclerc, Jenna L; Doré, Sylvain; Candelario-Jalil, Eduardo

    2015-12-09

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is activated in response to ischemia and significantly contributes to the neuroinflammatory process. Accumulation of COX-2-derived prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) parallels the substantial increase in stroke-mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. Disruption of the BBB is a serious consequence of ischemic stroke, and is mainly mediated by matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs). This study aimed to investigate the role of PGE2 EP1 receptor in neurovascular injury in stroke. We hypothesized that pharmacological blockade or genetic deletion of EP1 protects against BBB damage and hemorrhagic transformation by decreasing the levels and activity of MMP-3 and MMP-9. We found that post-ischemic treatment with the EP1 antagonist, SC-51089, or EP1 genetic deletion results in a significant reduction in BBB disruption and reduced hemorrhagic transformation in an experimental model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. These neurovascular protective effects of EP1 inactivation are associated with a significant reduction in MMP-9/-3, less peripheral neutrophil infiltration, and a preservation of tight junction proteins (ZO-1 and occludin) composing the BBB. Our study identifies the EP1 signaling pathway as an important link between neuroinflammation and MMP-mediated BBB breakdown in ischemic stroke. Targeting the EP1 receptor could represent a novel approach to diminish the devastating consequences of stroke-induced neurovascular damage.

  4. Hereditary Diffuse Infiltrating Retinoblastoma.

    PubMed

    Schedler, Katharina J E; Traine, Peter G; Lohmann, Dietmar R; Haritoglou, Christos; Metz, Klaus A; Rodrigues, Eduardo B

    2016-01-01

    Retinoblastoma is one of the most common childhood cancers. The diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma is a rare subtype of this neoplasm. The majority of cases of diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma are unilateral and occur sporadically. Herein we report on a family with three children affected by retinoblastoma, among them one girl with diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. This girl was diagnosed at the age of 8 years with a unilateral diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma. By contrast, the two brothers became clinically apparent in the first 2 years of life with bilateral retinoblastoma. The parents were clinically unremarkable. Genetic analysis of RB1 gene was performed. The girl with diffuse infiltrating RB was found to be heterozygous for an oncogenic mutation in the RB1 gene that was also carried by both brothers and the father of the family. These results show that diffuse infiltrating retinoblastoma can develop on the background of a hereditary predisposition to retinoblastoma.

  5. The heterogeneity of meningioma revealed by multiparameter analysis: infiltrative and non-infiltrative clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gay, Emmanuel; Lages, Elodie; Ramus, Claire; Guttin, Audrey; El Atifi, Michèle; Dupré, Isabelle; Bouamrani, Ali; Salon, Caroline; Ratel, David; Wion, Didier; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul

    2011-05-01

    Tumor invasion or infiltration of adjacent tissues is the source of clinical challenges in diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment. Among brain tumors, infiltration of the adjacent tissues with diverse pleiotropic mechanisms is frequently encountered in benign meningiomas. We assessed whether a multiparametric analysis of meningiomas based on data from both clinical observations and molecular analyses could provide a consistent and accurate appraisal of invasive and infiltrative phenotypes and help determine the diagnosis of these tumors. Tissue analyses of 37 meningiomas combined enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) assays of two different protein biomarkers (thrombospondin 1 and a phosphorylated form of vimentin) as well as gene expression analyses with oligonucleotide micro-arrays. Up to four different clinical and molecular parameters were then examined for tumor classification. From this study, we were able to cluster 36 out of the 37 tumors into two different subsets corresponding to infiltrative/invasive and non-infiltrative tumors. In addition, meningiomas that invade brain and those that infiltrate the neighboring skull bone exhibited no distinguishable molecular features. Our multi-parameter analysis that combines clinical data, transcriptomic and molecular assays clearly reveals the heterogeneity of meningiomas and distinguishes the intrinsically infiltrative/invasive tumors from the non-infiltrative meningiomas.

  6. Polyadenylated mRNA staining reveals distinct neuronal phenotypes following endothelin 1, focal brain ischemia, and global brain ischemia/ reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Jamison, Jill T.; Lewis, Monique K.; Kreipke, Christian W.; Rafols, Jose A.; DeGracia, Donald J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives Most work on ischemia-induced neuronal death has revolved around the relative contributions of necrosis and apoptosis, but this work has not accounted for the role of ischemia-induced stress responses. An expanded view recognizes a competition between ischemia-induced damage mechanisms and stress responses in the genesis of ischemia-induced neuronal death. An important marker of post-ischemic stress responses is inhibition of neuronal protein synthesis, a morphological correlate of which is the compartmentalization of mRNA away from ribosomes in the form of cytoplasmic mRNA granules. Methods Here we assessed the generality of this mRNA granule response following either 10 or 15 minutes global brain ischemia and 1 hour reperfusion, 4 hours focal cerebral ischemia alone, and endothelin 1 intraventricular injection. Results Both global and focal ischemia led to prominent neuronal cytoplasmic mRNA granule formation in layer II cortical neurons. In addition, we report here new post-ischemic cellular phenotypes characterized by the loss of nuclear polyadenylated mRNA staining in cortical neurons following endothelin 1 treatment and 15 minutes global ischemia. Both mRNA granulation and loss of nuclear mRNAs occurred in non-shrunken post-ischemic neurons. Discussion Where cytoplasmic mRNA granules generally appear to mark a protective response in surviving cells, loss of nuclear mRNAs may mark cellular damage leading to cell atrophy/death. Hence, staining for total mRNA may reveal facets of the competition between stress responses and damage mechanisms at early stages in post-ischemic neurons. PMID:21499502

  7. Shared HLA Class I and II Alleles and Clonally Restricted Public and Private Brain-Infiltrating αβ T Cells in a Cohort of Rasmussen Encephalitis Surgery Patients

    PubMed Central

    Dandekar, Sugandha; Wijesuriya, Hemani; Geiger, Tim; Hamm, David; Mathern, Gary W.; Owens, Geoffrey C.

    2016-01-01

    Rasmussen encephalitis (RE) is a rare pediatric neuroinflammatory disease characterized by intractable seizures and unilateral brain atrophy. T cell infiltrates in affected brain tissue and the presence of circulating autoantibodies in some RE patients have indicated that RE may be an autoimmune disease. The strongest genetic links to autoimmunity reside in the MHC locus, therefore, we determined the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) class I and class II alleles carried by a cohort of 24 RE surgery cases by targeted in-depth genomic sequencing. Compared with a reference population the allelic frequency of three alleles, DQA1*04:01:01, DQB1*04:02:01, and HLA-C*07:02:01:01 indicated that they might confer susceptibility to the disease. It has been reported that HLA-C*07:02 is a risk factor for Graves disease. Further, eight patients in the study cohort carried HLA-A*03:01:01:01, which has been linked to susceptibility to multiple sclerosis. Four patients carried a combination of three HLA class II alleles that has been linked to type 1 diabetes (DQA1*05:01:01:01~DQB1*02:01:01~DRB1*03:01:01:01), and five patients carried a combination of HLA class II alleles that has been linked to the risk of contracting multiple sclerosis (DQA1*01:02:01:01, DQB1*06:02:01, DRB1*15:01:01:01). We also analyzed the diversity of αβ T cells in brain and blood specimens from 14 of these RE surgery cases by sequencing the third complementarity regions (CDR3s) of rearranged T cell receptor β genes. A total of 31 unique CDR3 sequences accounted for the top 5% of all CDR3 sequences in the 14 brain specimens. Thirteen of these sequences were found in sequencing data from healthy blood donors; the remaining 18 sequences were patient specific. These observations provide evidence for the clonal expansion of public and private T cells in the brain, which might be influenced by the RE patient’s HLA haplotype. PMID:28066418

  8. Infiltration in Swelling Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldez, Juan V.; Sposito, Garrison

    1985-01-01

    Infiltration phenomena in swelling soils were investigated theoretically. The approach taken consisted of applying both the approximate analytical techniques developed by J.-Y. Parlange and co-workers and conventional finite difference numerical methods to study the generalized Richards equation for one-dimensional infiltration in a swelling soil. Equations were derived for the ponding time and the post-ponding infiltration rate that are generalizations of the Parlange-Smith model expressions for rigid soils. Ponding times for swelling soils were shown to be shorter than those for nonswelling analogs, and post-ponding infiltration rates in swelling soils were shown to approach zero instead of becoming equal to the hydraulic conductivity, as in rigid soils. These results were confirmed, both qualitatively and quantitatively, with the numerical model, which also provided instantaneous moisture profiles and surface swelling predictions in agreement with field observations. A three-parameter infiltration equation proposed recently by J.-Y. Parlange et al. (1982) was generalized to describe swelling soils and shown to be in good agreement with published laboratory and field data. It appears that the generalized analytical model equations developed can be employed conveniently in hydrologic applications which do not require high accuracy in predictions.

  9. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-11-05

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury.

  10. The point mutation UCH-L1 C152A protects primary neurons against cyclopentenone prostaglandin-induced cytotoxicity: implications for post-ischemic neuronal injury

    PubMed Central

    Liu, H; Li, W; Rose, M E; Hickey, R W; Chen, J; Uechi, G T; Balasubramani, M; Day, B W; Patel, K V; Graham, S H

    2015-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (CyPGs), such as 15-deoxy-Δ12,14-prostaglandin J2 (15dPGJ2), are reactive prostaglandin metabolites exerting a variety of biological effects. CyPGs are produced in ischemic brain and disrupt the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS). Ubiquitin-C-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCH-L1) is a brain-specific deubiquitinating enzyme that has been linked to neurodegenerative diseases. Using tandem mass spectrometry (MS) analyses, we found that the C152 site of UCH-L1 is adducted by CyPGs. Mutation of C152 to alanine (C152A) inhibited CyPG modification and conserved recombinant UCH-L1 protein hydrolase activity after 15dPGJ2 treatment. A knock-in (KI) mouse expressing the UCH-L1 C152A mutation was constructed with the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) technique. Brain expression and distribution of UCH-L1 in the KI mouse was similar to that of wild type (WT) as determined by western blotting. Primary cortical neurons derived from KI mice were resistant to 15dPGJ2 cytotoxicity compared with neurons from WT mice as detected by the WST-1 cell viability assay and caspase-3 and poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. This protective effect was accompanied with significantly less ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation as well as less UCH-L1 aggregation in C152A KI primary neurons after 15dPGJ2 treatment. Additionally, 15dPGJ2-induced axonal injury was also significantly attenuated in KI neurons as compared with WT. Taken together, these studies indicate that UCH-L1 function is important in hypoxic neuronal death, and the C152 site of UCH-L1 has a significant role in neuronal survival after hypoxic/ischemic injury. PMID:26539913

  11. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  12. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  13. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  14. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  15. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  16. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  17. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  18. [Lung infiltrations in Hodgkin lymphoma].

    PubMed

    Ciurea-Löchel, A; Ciurea, A; Stey, C; Pestalozzi, B

    2001-08-02

    We report the case of a young patient presenting with cervical lymphadenopathy and interstitial pulmonary infiltrates due to Hodgkin's Disease. Although lung involvement regressed under chemotherapy, we observed new alveolar infiltrates during treatment. Steroid administration after exclusion of an infectious cause was followed by rapid clinical and radiological improvement, indicating the probable presence of pulmonary bleomycine toxicity.

  19. Ring Infiltrate in Staphylococcal Keratitis

    PubMed Central

    Wallang, Batriti S.; Sharma, Savitri; Sahu, Srikant K.; Mittal, Ruchi

    2013-01-01

    Smear and culture tests of corneal scrapings from a patient with a ring infiltrate confirmed significant growth of a Staphylococcus species resistant to fluoroquinolones. Because of nonresponse to medical management, the patient underwent therapeutic penetrating keratoplasty. Staphylococcal infection of the cornea may appear as a ring-like infiltrate that is recalcitrant to medical management. PMID:23100354

  20. A MODFLOW Infiltration Device Package for Simulating Storm Water Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Jeppesen, Jan; Christensen, Steen

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a MODFLOW Infiltration Device (INFD) Package that can simulate infiltration devices and their two-way interaction with groundwater. The INFD Package relies on a water balance including inflow of storm water, leakage-like seepage through the device faces, overflow, and change in storage. The water balance for the device can be simulated in multiple INFD time steps within a single MODFLOW time step, and infiltration from the device can be routed through the unsaturated zone to the groundwater table. A benchmark test shows that the INFD Package's analytical solution for stage computes exact results for transient behavior. To achieve similar accuracy by the numerical solution of the MODFLOW Surface-Water Routing (SWR1) Process requires many small time steps. Furthermore, the INFD Package includes an improved representation of flow through the INFD sides that results in lower infiltration rates than simulated by SWR1. The INFD Package is also demonstrated in a transient simulation of a hypothetical catchment where two devices interact differently with groundwater. This simulation demonstrates that device and groundwater interaction depends on the thickness of the unsaturated zone because a shallow groundwater table (a likely result from storm water infiltration itself) may occupy retention volume, whereas a thick unsaturated zone may cause a phase shift and a change of amplitude in groundwater table response to a change of infiltration. We thus find that the INFD Package accommodates the simulation of infiltration devices and groundwater in an integrated manner on small as well as large spatial and temporal scales.

  1. Cognition and resective surgery for diffuse infiltrative glioma: an overview.

    PubMed

    Klein, Martin; Duffau, Hugues; De Witt Hamer, Philip C

    2012-06-01

    Compared to classical oncological outcome measures such as time to progression and survival, the importance of cognitive functioning in patients with diffuse infiltrative brain tumors has only recently been recognized. Apart from the relatively low incidence and the invariably fatal outcome of gliomas, the general assumption that cognitive assessment is time-consuming and burdensome contributes to this notion. Our understanding of the effects of brain surgery on cognition, for instance, is largely based on studies in surgical patients with refractory epilepsy, with only a limited number of studies in surgical patients with gliomas. The impact of other factors affecting cognition in glioma patients such as direct tumor effects, radiotherapy and chemotherapy, and medical treatment, including anti-epileptic drugs and steroids, have been studied more extensively. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of cognition in patients with diffuse infiltrative gliomas and the impact of resective surgery as well as other tumor and treatment-related factors.

  2. Improving Detection of IV Infiltrates in Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Driscoll, MD, Colleen; Langer, Melissa; Burke, Susan; El Metwally, MD, Dina

    2015-01-01

    Neonates and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit suffer significant morbidity when intravenous (IV) catheters infiltrate. The underreporting of adverse events through hospital voluntary reporting systems, such as ours, can complicate the monitoring of low incidence events, like IV infiltrates. Based on severe cases of IV infiltrates observed in our neonatal intensive care unit, we attempted to improve the detection of all infiltrates and reduce the incidence of Stage 4 infiltrates. We developed, and initiated the use of, an evidence-based guideline for the improved surveillance, prevention, and management of IV infiltrates, with corresponding educational interventions for faculty and staff. We instituted the use of a checklist for compliance with guidelines, and as a mechanism of surveillance. The baseline incidence rate of IV infiltrates, determined by the voluntary reporting system, was 5 per 1000 line days. Following initiation of the guidelines and checklist, the IV infiltrate rate increased to 9 per 1000 line days. In most months, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved by use of the checklist. During the post-intervention period the rate of Stage 4 infiltrates, as measured by usage of nitroglycerin ointment, was significantly reduced. In conclusion, the detection of IV infiltrates was improved following our quality improvement interventions. Further, use of an evidence-based guideline for managing infiltrates may reduce the most severe infiltrate injuries. PMID:26734388

  3. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  4. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  5. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  6. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  7. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... gain due to infiltration as much as possible without impinging on health and comfort and within...

  8. [Transient brain ischemia: NMDA receptor modulation and delayed neuronal death].

    PubMed

    Benquet, Pascal; Gee, Christine E; Gerber, Urs

    2008-02-01

    Transient global ischemia induces delayed neuronal death in certain cell types and brain regions while sparing cells in other areas. A key process through which oxygen-glucose deprivation triggers cell death is the excessive accumulation of the neurotransmitter glutamate leading to over excitation of neurons. In certain neurons this increase in glutamate will potentiate the NMDA type of glutamate receptor, which can then initiate cell death. This review provides an update of the neurophysiological, cellular and molecular mechanisms inducing post-ischemic plasticity of NMDA receptors, focusing on the sensitive CA1 pyramidal neurons in the hippocampus as compared to the relatively resistant neighboring CA3 neurons. Both a change in the equilibrium between protein tyrosine kinases/phosphatases and an increased density of surface NMDA receptors in response to ischemia may explain the selective vulnerability of specific cell types. Implications for the treatment of stroke and reasons for the failures of human clinical trials utilizing NMDA receptor antagonists are also discussed.

  9. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-12-31

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ``inside out`` deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs.

  10. Gene therapy-mediated reprogramming tumor infiltrating T cells using IL-2 and inhibiting NF-κB signaling improves the efficacy of immunotherapy in a brain cancer model.

    PubMed

    Mineharu, Yohei; Muhammad, A K M Ghulam; Yagiz, Kader; Candolfi, Marianela; Kroeger, Kurt M; Xiong, Weidong; Puntel, Mariana; Liu, Chunyan; Levy, Eva; Lugo, Claudia; Kocharian, Adrina; Allison, James P; Curran, Michael A; Lowenstein, Pedro R; Castro, Maria G

    2012-10-01

    Immune-mediated gene therapy using adenovirus expressing Flt3 ligand and thymidine kinase followed by ganciclovir administration (Flt3/TK) effectively elicits tumor regression in preclinical glioma models. Herein, we assessed new strategies to optimize Flt3L/TK therapeutic efficacy in a refractory RG2 orthotopic glioblastoma model. Specifically, we aimed to optimize the therapeutic efficacy of Flt3L/TK treatment in the RG2 model by overexpressing the following genes within the brain tumor microenvironment: 1) a TK mutant with enhanced cytotoxicity (SR39 mutant TK), 2) Flt3L-IgG fusion protein that has a longer half-life, 3) CD40L to stimulate DC maturation, 4) T helper cell type 1 polarizing dendritic cell cytokines interleukin-12 or C-X-C motif ligand 10 chemokine (CXCL)-10, 5) C-C motif ligand 2 chemokine (CCL2) or C-C motif ligand 3 chemokine (CCL3) to enhance dendritic cell recruitment into the tumor microenvironment, 6) T helper cell type 1 cytokines interferon-γ or interleukin-2 to enhance effector T-cell functions, and 7) IκBα or p65RHD (nuclear factor kappa-B [NF-κB] inhibitors) to suppress the function of Foxp3+ Tregs and enhanced effector T-cell functions. Anti-tumor immunity and tumor specific effector T-cell functions were assessed by cytotoxic T lymphocyte assay and intracellular IFN-γ staining. Our data showed that overexpression of interferon-γ or interleukin-2, or inhibition of the nuclear factor kappa-B within the tumor microenvironment, enhanced cytotoxic T lymphocyte-mediated immune responses and successfully extended the median survival of rats bearing intracranial RG2 when combined with Flt3L/TK. These findings indicate that enhancement of T-cell functions constitutes a critical therapeutic target to overcome immune evasion and enhance therapeutic efficacy for brain cancer. In addition, our study provides novel targets to be used in combination with immune-therapeutic strategies for glioblastoma, which are currently being tested in the

  11. [Lymphoid infiltrates in the lung].

    PubMed

    Szalontai, K; Krenács, L; Csanádi, J; Ugocsai, K; Kraszkó, P

    1993-11-07

    The authors reviewed material of 10 year period (1980-1990) of the Department of Pulmonology, Albert Szent-Györgyi University of Medicine, Deszk, Hungary, and selected 14 patients from the files who considered to belong in one of the lymphoproliferative conditions (4 low grade and 4 high grade lymphomas of B-cell type, 1 angiocentric, 1 mediastinal lymphoblastic non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, 3 Hodgkin's lymphoma cases and 1 pleural pseudolymphoma). Every patient admitted with prominent pulmonary symptoms. The diagnoses were based on histology and immunohistochemistry of tissue samples and autopsy. One high grade B-cell and the angiocentric malignant lymphoma proved to be primary pulmonary process. No specific radiomorphological signs were found, which could be characteristic for the pulmonary lympho-reticular infiltrations and also to distinct the primary and secondary ones. The lung infiltrations in the most of the non-Hodgkin's lymphoma cases with low grade malignancy appeared imitating tuberculosis, while the high grade group and Hodgkin's lymphomas displayed confusion with any primary or multiple tumors.

  12. Isolation and Flow Cytometric Analysis of Glioma-infiltrating Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Gregory J.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2016-01-01

    Our laboratory has recently demonstrated that natural killer (NK) cells are capable of eradicating orthotopically implanted mouse GL26 and rat CNS-1 malignant gliomas soon after intracranial engraftment if the cancer cells are rendered deficient in their expression of the β-galactoside-binding lectin galectin-1 (gal-1). More recent work now shows that a population of Gr-1+/CD11b+ myeloid cells is critical to this effect. To better understand the mechanisms by which NK and myeloid cells cooperate to confer gal-1-deficient tumor rejection we have developed a comprehensive protocol for the isolation and analysis of glioma-infiltrating peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). The method is demonstrated here by comparing PBMC infiltration into the tumor microenvironment of gal-1-expressing GL26 gliomas with those rendered gal-1-deficient via shRNA knockdown. The protocol begins with a description of how to culture and prepare GL26 cells for inoculation into the syngeneic C57BL/6J mouse brain. It then explains the steps involved in the isolation and flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs from the early brain tumor microenvironment. The method is adaptable to a number of in vivo experimental designs in which temporal data on immune infiltration into the brain is required. The method is sensitive and highly reproducible, as glioma-infiltrating PBMCs can be isolated from intracranial tumors as soon as 24 hr post-tumor engraftment with similar cell counts observed from time point matched tumors throughout independent experiments. A single experimentalist can perform the method from brain harvesting to flow cytometric analysis of glioma-infiltrating PBMCs in roughly 4–6 hr depending on the number of samples to be analyzed. Alternative glioma models and/or cell-specific detection antibodies may also be used at the experimentalists’ discretion to assess the infiltration of several other immune cell types of interest without the need for alterations to the

  13. Infiltration tests on fractured compacted clay

    SciTech Connect

    McBrayer, M.C.; Mauldon, M.; Drumm, E.C.; Wilson, G.V.

    1997-05-01

    Desiccation and freeze-thaw of compacted clay barriers may result in cracks that serve as preferential flow paths. A series of infiltration tests on compacted kaolin samples was conducted to explore the importance of preferential flow paths during infiltration, and their effect on the infiltration rate. Clod size at the time of compaction was found to have a strong influence on both the rate and depth of infiltration. The authors suggest that flow and infiltration through fractured clay may be described in terms of two stages: an initial dynamic stage in which the infiltration rate is initially high but decreases rapidly due to the clay swelling and closing fractures, and a steady-state stage usually characterized by k{sub sat}, during which the infiltration rate is relatively constant. The study has shown that cracks do not fully heal upon hydration and readily reopen during subsequent dehydration. Infiltration rates during the dynamic stage of infiltration, while cracks are closing, are orders of magnitude higher than the steady-state rate used to estimate k{sub sat}, for barrier evaluation.

  14. Fluid infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, Jingwen; Li, Long; Zhou, Jianfeng; Xu, Dongyan; Huang, Baoling; Li, Zhigang

    2015-03-01

    We investigate water infiltration pressure for hydrophobic nanochannels through molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that the entrance energy barrier significantly raises the infiltration pressure, which makes the classic Young-Laplace equation invalid for nanochannels. As the channel surface is tuned from superhydrophobic to hydrophobic, the infiltration pressure is greatly reduced mainly due to the decrease of the capillary pressure (Young-Laplace equation) caused by the contact angle change, while the contribution of the entrance energy barrier to the infiltration pressure, which is termed entrance barrier pressure, increases from 25% to 60%.

  15. Periodic 17β-Estradiol Pretreatment Protects Rat Brain from Cerebral Ischemic Damage via Estrogen Receptor-β

    PubMed Central

    Raval, Ami P.; Borges-Garcia, Raquel; Javier Moreno, William; Perez-Pinzon, Miguel A.; Bramlett, Helen

    2013-01-01

    Although chronic 17β-estradiol (E2) has been shown to be a cognition-preserving and neuroprotective agent in animal brain injury models, concern regarding its safety was raised by the failed translation of this phenomenon to the clinic. Previously, we demonstrated that a single bolus of E2 48 hr prior to ischemia protected the hippocampus from damage in ovariectomized rats via phosphorylation of cyclic-AMP response element binding protein, which requires activation of estrogen receptor subtype beta (ER-β). The current study tests the hypothesis that long-term periodic E2-treatment improves cognition and reduces post-ischemic hippocampal injury by means of ER-β activation. Ovariectomized rats were given ten injections of E2 at 48 hr intervals for 21 days. Hippocampal-dependent learning, memory and ischemic neuronal loss were monitored. Results demonstrated that periodic E2 treatments improved spatial learning, memory and ischemic neuronal survival in ovariectomized rats. Additionally, periodic ER-β agonist treatments every 48 hr improved post-ischemic cognition. Silencing of hippocampal ER-β attenuated E2-mediated ischemic protection suggesting that ER-β plays a key role in mediating the beneficial effects of periodic E2 treatments. This study emphasizes the need to investigate a periodic estrogen replacement regimen to reduce cognitive decline and cerebral ischemia incidents/impact in post-menopausal women. PMID:23593292

  16. ECM hydrogel for the treatment of stroke: Characterization of the host cell infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Ghuman, Harmanvir; Massensini, Andre R; Donnelly, Julia; Kim, Sung-Min; Medberry, Christopher J; Badylak, Stephen F; Modo, Michel

    2016-06-01

    Brain tissue loss following stroke is irreversible with current treatment modalities. The use of an acellular extracellular matrix (ECM), formulated to produce a hydrogel in situ within the cavity formed by a stroke, was investigated as a method to replace necrotic debris and promote the infiltration of host brain cells. Based on magnetic resonance imaging measurements of lesion location and volume, different concentrations of ECM (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 8 mg/mL) were injected at a volume equal to that of the cavity (14 days post-stroke). Retention of ECM within the cavity occurred at concentrations >3 mg/mL. A significant cell infiltration into the ECM material in the lesion cavity occurred with an average of ∼36,000 cells in the 8 mg/mL concentration within 24 h. An infiltration of cells with distances of >1500 μm into the ECM hydrogel was observed, but the majority of cells were at the tissue/hydrogel boundary. Cells were typically of a microglia, macrophage, or neural and oligodendrocyte progenitor phenotype. At the 8 mg/mL concentration, ∼60% of infiltrating cells were brain-derived phenotypes and 30% being infiltrating peripheral macrophages, polarizing toward an M2-like anti-inflammatory phenotype. These results suggest that an 8 mg/mL ECM concentration promotes a significant acute endogenous repair response that could potentially be exploited to treat stroke.

  17. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.; Turner, William J.N.; Walker, Iain S.

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  18. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  19. Carnosine protects the brain of rats and Mongolian gerbils against ischemic injury: after-stroke-effect.

    PubMed

    Dobrota, Dusan; Fedorova, Tatiana; Stvolinsky, Sergey; Babusikova, Eva; Likavcanova, Katarina; Drgova, Anna; Strapkova, Adriana; Boldyrev, Alexander

    2005-10-01

    Carnosine, a specific constituent of excitable tissues of vertebrates, exhibits a significant antioxidant protecting effect on the brain damaged by ischemic-reperfusion injury when it was administered to the animals before ischemic episode. In this study, the therapeutic effect of carnosine was estimated on animals when this drug was administered intraperitoneally (100 mg/kg body weight) after ischemic episode induced by experimental global brain ischemia. Treatment of the animals with carnosine after ischemic episode under long-term (7-14 days) reperfusion demonstrated its pronounced protective effect on neurological symptoms and animal mortality. Carnosine also prevented higher lipid peroxidation of brain membrane structures and increased a resistance of neuronal membranes to the in vitro induced oxidation. Measurements of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in brain homogenates showed its increase in the after brain stroke animals and decreased MDA level in the after brain stroke animals treated with carnosine. We concluded that carnosine compensates deficit in antioxidant defense system of brain damaged by ischemic injury. The data presented demonstrate that carnosine is effective in protecting the brain in the post-ischemic period.

  20. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  1. Monitoring Preferential Flow During Infiltration Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelinkova, V.; Votrubova, J.; Sanda, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2006-12-01

    Field ponded infiltration experiments monitored by electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were conducted at the experimental site Liz, Sumava Mts., Southern Bohemia. Single-ring ponded infiltration experiments were carried out repeatedly using a set of permanently installed plastic infiltration rings and additional ring made of concrete. The preferential flow occurring during the infiltration experiment was monitored by means of invasive and non-invasive visualization of flow paths. For the noninvasive visualization two geophysical methods were tested, namely TDR and ERT. Geophysical measurements were taken before, during and after the infiltration. TDR measurements were conducted using Tektronix 1502C cable tester connected to three steel electrodes 1- m long installed vertically in the centre of the infiltration ring. ERT was done using the ARES device (the multi electrode VES employing the Wenner-Schlumberger method). After the initial period of clean water infiltration 10g/l NaCl solute was used to improve the ERT signal. The electrical resistivity images were reconstructed using RES2DINV (Geotomo software). In ERT images the evolution of infiltration processes is clearly visible however the preferential character of the flow is completely smeared. This is clear from the comparison of ERT images with the images of Brilliant Blue dye distribution taken from the dug out horizons at the end of infiltration. In addition, the ERT results show some inconsistencies, which are most probably related to the design and the scale of the ERT network which is not fully consistent with the assumption of the methods employed. The research has been performed in the frame of research projects VaV/650/5/03 and GACR 103/04/0663.

  2. Managing landscape disturbances to increase watershed infiltration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural land undergoing conversion to conventional urban development can drastically increase runoff and degrade water quality. A study of landscape management for improving watershed infiltration was conducted using readily available runoff data from experimental watersheds. This article focus...

  3. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  4. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration...-to-ceiling and wall-to-floor connections shall be caulked or otherwise sealed. When walls...

  5. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  6. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  7. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  8. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  9. Infiltration and instability in dune erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palmsten, Margaret L.; Holman, Robert A.

    2011-10-01

    Forecasting dune erosion prior to a storm or over longer periods requires knowledge of the fluid forces on the dune sediments. To improve our predictive capability for this process, we propose a new model in which dune slumping occurs when water, which infiltrates horizontally into the dune, increases the overburden sufficiently to destabilize the dune. Horizontal infiltration is driven by suction of water from swash into the dune via capillary action and is a surprisingly strong process with rapid time scales. Because the elevated pore water concentrations increase the apparent cohesion of the wetted sediments, we also propose that the entire volume of wetted sand slumps as a unit when the dune becomes unstable and erosion can be modeled based on the force balance on a sliding block. Several versions of this model were tested, including a numerical infiltration model, a simplified infiltration equation, and an equation based on offshore wave forcing, rather than known forcing at the dune. The model was tested using data from a large-scale laboratory experiment with a storm hydrograph to investigate the time dependence of dune erosion. Predicting slope stability using a numerical infiltration model with known forcing explained 72% of the observed variance in erosion rate, while a simplified stability and infiltration model explained 58%. Error statistics suggest that we captured the majority of the physics controlling dune erosion in this laboratory experiment and that the simplified model will be useful as a forecasting tool.

  10. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  11. Neuronal Ca2+-Activated K+ Channels Limit Brain Infarction and Promote Survival

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Yiliu; Gu, Ning; Rundén-Pran, Elise; Ruth, Peter; Sausbier, Matthias; Storm, Johan F.

    2010-01-01

    Neuronal calcium-activated potassium channels of the BK type are activated by membrane depolarization and intracellular Ca2+ ions. It has been suggested that these channels may play a key neuroprotective role during and after brain ischemia, but this hypothesis has so far not been tested by selective BK-channel manipulations in vivo. To elucidate the in vivo contribution of neuronal BK channels in acute focal cerebral ischemia, we performed middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice lacking BK channels (homozygous mice lacking the BK channel alpha subunit, BK−/−). MCAO was performed in BK−/− and WT mice for 90 minutes followed by a 7-hour-reperfusion period. Coronal 1 mm thick sections were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride to reveal the infarction area. We found that transient focal cerebral ischemia by MCAO produced larger infarct volume, more severe neurological deficits, and higher post-ischemic mortality in BK−/− mice compared to WT littermates. However, the regional cerebral blood flow was not significantly different between genotypes as measured by Laser Doppler (LD) flowmetry pre-ischemically, intra-ischemically, and post-ischemically, suggesting that the different impact of MCAO in BK−/− vs. WT was not due to vascular BK channels. Furthermore, when NMDA was injected intracerebrally in non-ischemic mice, NMDA-induced neurotoxicity was found to be larger in BK−/− mice compared to WT. Whole-cell patch clamp recordings from CA1 pyramidal cells in organotypic hippocampal slice cultures revealed that BK channels contribute to rapid action potential repolarization, as previously found in acute slices. When these cultures were exposed to ischemia-like conditions this induced significantly more neuronal death in BK−/− than in WT cultures. These results indicate that neuronal BK channels are important for protection against ischemic brain damage. PMID:21209897

  12. Infiltrating macrophages are key to the development of seizures following virus infection.

    PubMed

    Cusick, Matthew F; Libbey, Jane E; Patel, Dipan C; Doty, Daniel J; Fujinami, Robert S

    2013-02-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures.

  13. Infiltrating Macrophages Are Key to the Development of Seizures following Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Cusick, Matthew F.; Libbey, Jane E.; Patel, Dipan C.; Doty, Daniel J.

    2013-01-01

    Viral infections of the central nervous system (CNS) can trigger an antiviral immune response, which initiates an inflammatory cascade to control viral replication and dissemination. The extent of the proinflammatory response in the CNS and the timing of the release of proinflammatory cytokines can lead to neuronal excitability. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), two proinflammatory cytokines, have been linked to the development of acute seizures in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus-induced encephalitis. It is unclear the extent to which the infiltrating macrophages versus resident CNS cells, such as microglia, contribute to acute seizures, as both cell types produce TNF-α and IL-6. In this study, we show that following infection a significantly higher number of microglia produced TNF-α than did infiltrating macrophages. In contrast, infiltrating macrophages produced significantly more IL-6. Mice treated with minocycline or wogonin, both of which limit infiltration of immune cells into the CNS and their activation, had significantly fewer macrophages infiltrating the brain, and significantly fewer mice had seizures. Therefore, our studies implicate infiltrating macrophages as an important source of IL-6 that contributes to the development of acute seizures. PMID:23236075

  14. CD38 Knockout Mice Show Significant Protection Against Ischemic Brain Damage Despite High Level Poly-ADP-Ribosylation.

    PubMed

    Long, Aaron; Park, Ji H; Klimova, Nina; Fowler, Carol; Loane, David J; Kristian, Tibor

    2017-01-01

    Several enzymes in cellular bioenergetics metabolism require NAD(+) as an essential cofactor for their activity. NAD(+) depletion following ischemic insult can result in cell death and has been associated with over-activation of poly-ADP-ribose polymerase PARP1 as well as an increase in NAD(+) consuming enzyme CD38. CD38 is an NAD(+) glycohydrolase that plays an important role in inflammatory responses. To determine the contribution of CD38 activity to the mechanisms of post-ischemic brain damage we subjected CD38 knockout (CD38KO) mice and wild-type (WT) mice to transient forebrain ischemia. The CD38KO mice showed a significant amelioration in both histological and neurologic outcome following ischemic insult. Decrease of hippocampal NAD(+) levels detected during reperfusion in WT mice was only transient in CD38KO animals, suggesting that CD38 contributes to post-ischemic NAD(+) catabolism. Surprisingly, pre-ischemic poly-ADP-ribose (PAR) levels were dramatically higher in CD38KO animals compared to WT animals and exhibited reduction post-ischemia in contrast to the increased levels in WT animals. The high PAR levels in CD38 mice were due to reduced expression levels of poly-ADP-ribose glycohydrolase (PARG). Thus, the absence of CD38 activity can not only directly affect inflammatory response, but also result in unpredicted alterations in the expression levels of enzymes participating in NAD(+) metabolism. Although the CD38KO mice showed significant protection against ischemic brain injury, the changes in enzyme activity related to NAD(+) metabolism makes the determination of the role of CD38 in mechanisms of ischemic brain damage more complex.

  15. Arginine-Vasopressin Receptor Blocker Conivaptan Reduces Brain Edema and Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption after Experimental Stroke in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zeynalov, Emil; Jones, Susan M.; Seo, Jeong-Woo; Snell, Lawrence D.; Elliott, J. Paul

    2015-01-01

    Background Stroke is a major cause of morbidity and mortality. Stroke is complicated by brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, and is often accompanied by increased release of arginine-vasopressin (AVP). AVP acts through V1a and V2 receptors to trigger hyponatremia, vasospasm, and platelet aggregation which can exacerbate brain edema. The AVP receptor blockers conivaptan (V1a and V2) and tolvaptan (V2) are used to correct hyponatremia, but their effect on post-ischemic brain edema and BBB disruption remains to be elucidated. Therefore, we conducted this study to investigate if these drugs can prevent brain edema and BBB disruption in mice after stroke. Methods Experimental mice underwent the filament model of middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with reperfusion. Mice were treated with conivaptan, tolvaptan, or vehicle. Treatments were initiated immediately at reperfusion and administered IV (conivaptan) or orally (tolvaptan) for 48 hours. Physiological variables, neurological deficit scores (NDS), plasma and urine sodium and osmolality were recorded. Brain water content (BWC) and Evans Blue (EB) extravasation index were evaluated at the end point. Results Both conivaptan and tolvaptan produced aquaresis as indicated by changes in plasma and urine sodium levels. However plasma and urine osmolality was changed only by conivaptan. Unlike tolvaptan, conivaptan improved NDS and reduced BWC in the ipsilateral hemisphere: from 81.66 ± 0.43% (vehicle) to 78.28 ± 0.48% (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05 vs vehicle). Conivaptan also attenuated the EB extravasation from 1.22 ± 0.08 (vehicle) to 1.01 ± 0.02 (conivaptan, 0.2 mg, p < 0.05). Conclusion Continuous IV infusion with conivaptan for 48 hours after experimental stroke reduces brain edema, and BBB disruption. Conivaptan but not tolvaptan may potentially be used in patients to prevent brain edema after stroke. PMID:26275173

  16. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  17. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  18. Sorptivity and liquid infiltration into dry soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culligan, Patricia J.; Ivanov, Vladimir; Germaine, John T.

    2005-10-01

    The sorptivity S quantifies the effect of capillarity on liquid movement in a porous material. For liquid infiltration into an initially dry material, S is a parameter that is contingent on both liquid and material properties as well as the maximum liquid content behind the infiltrating front, θm. Scaling analyses are used to derive a dimensionless, intrinsic sorptivity S∗ that is constant for different liquids, Miller-similar materials and different values of θm. The analyses confirm that S is dependent on β1/2, where β = cos ϕ is a measure of the wettability of the liquid. They also indicate a power law relationship between S and Se(av), the average liquid saturation behind the infiltrating front. Seventeen water and eleven Soltrol 220 horizontal infiltration experiments are reported in uniform, dry sand. Test results show that water is partially wetting in the sand. They also confirm that S∝Se(av)d, where d = 3.2 for the experimental conditions. The usefulness of a general, dimensionless Boltzmann variable is demonstrated to normalize infiltration profiles for the different liquids. An approximate method for sorptivity calculation is shown to provide an accurate estimate of S∗.

  19. Greatly Increased Toughness of Infiltrated Spider Silk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Gösele, Ulrich; Dresbach, Christian; Qin, Yong; Chandran, C. Vinod; Bräuniger, Thomas; Hause, Gerd; Knez, Mato

    2009-04-01

    In nature, tiny amounts of inorganic impurities, such as metals, are incorporated in the protein structures of some biomaterials and lead to unusual mechanical properties of those materials. A desire to produce these biomimicking new materials has stimulated materials scientists, and diverse approaches have been attempted. In contrast, research to improve the mechanical properties of biomaterials themselves by direct metal incorporation into inner protein structures has rarely been tried because of the difficulty of developing a method that can infiltrate metals into biomaterials, resulting in a metal-incorporated protein matrix. We demonstrated that metals can be intentionally infiltrated into inner protein structures of biomaterials through multiple pulsed vapor-phase infiltration performed with equipment conventionally used for atomic layer deposition (ALD). We infiltrated zinc (Zn), titanium (Ti), or aluminum (Al), combined with water from corresponding ALD precursors, into spider dragline silks and observed greatly improved toughness of the resulting silks. The presence of the infiltrated metals such as Al or Ti was verified by energy-dispersive x-ray (EDX) and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra measured inside the treated silks. This result of enhanced toughness of spider silk could potentially serve as a model for a more general approach to enhance the strength and toughness of other biomaterials.

  20. The inflammatory infiltrate of melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytic nevi are frequently accompanied by inflammatory cells of different types, in varied amounts and distributed in different patterns. In the current report, we review the knowledge on inflammation seen in different types of melanocytic nevi. As an additional contribution, we studied the lymphocytic inflammatory component of Duperrat nevus, as well as the cytotoxic component of Sutton nevus, two contributions that we have not found in the literature. We conclude that: (a) Duperrat nevus has a mixed inflammatory reaction that includes histiocytes, foreign-body multinucleated giant cells, polymorphonuclears, lymphocytes (predominantly CD4+) and plasma cells (commonly abundant); (b) common melanocytic nevi with reactive inflammatory infiltrate usually show a CD4+ predominant population; (c) Meyerson nevus commonly shows an inflammatory infiltrate mainly made up of CD4+ T-cells; (d) Sutton nevus with halo phenomenon is accompanied by a dense inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes in a CD4:CD8 ratio varying from 1:1 to 1:3 and in which most of the CD8+ T-cells do not express cytotoxic markers; (e) Wiesner nevus commonly shows a spare lymphocytic infiltrate but the nature of the infiltrate has not yet been investigated.

  1. Incorporating infiltration modelling in urban flood management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jumadar, A. S.; Pathirana, A.; Gersonius, B.; Zevenbergen, C.

    2008-06-01

    Increasing frequency and intensity of flood events in urban areas can be linked to increase in impervious area due to urbanization, exacerbated by climate change. The established approach of conveying storm water by conventional drainage systems has contributed to magnification of runoff volume and peak flows beyond those of undeveloped catchments. Furthermore, the continuous upgrading of such conventional systems is costly and unsustainable in the long term. Sustainable drainage systems aim at addressing the adverse effects associated with conventional systems, by mimicking the natural drainage processes, encouraging infiltration and storage of storm water. In this study we model one of the key components of SuDS, the infiltration basins, in order to assert the benefits of the approach. Infiltration modelling was incorporated in the detention storage unit within the one-dimensional urban storm water management model, EPA-SWMM 5.0. By introduction of infiltration modelling in the storage, the flow attenuation performance of the unit was considerably improved. The study also examines the catchment scale impact of both source and regional control storage/infiltration systems. Based on the findings of two case study areas modelled with the proposed options, it was observed that source control systems have a greater and much more natural impact at a catchment level, with respect to flow attenuation, compared to regional control systems of which capacity is equivalent to the sum of source control capacity at the catchment.

  2. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  3. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  4. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  5. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  6. A pathology-based substrate for target definition in radiosurgery of brain metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Baumert, Brigitta G. . E-mail: brigitta.baumert@maastro.nl; Rutten, Isabelle; Dehing-Oberije, Cary M.Sc.; Twijnstra, Albert; Dirx, Miranda J.M.; Debougnoux-Huppertz, Ria M.T.L.; Lambin, Philippe; Kubat, Bela

    2006-09-01

    Purpose: To investigate the need of a margin other than for accuracy reasons in stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) of brain metastases by means of histopathology. Methods and Materials: Evaluation of 45 patients from two pathology departments having had brain metastases and an autopsy of the brain. Growth patterns were reviewed with a focus on infiltration beyond the metastases boundary and made visible with immunohistochemical staining: the metastasis itself with tumor-specific markers, surrounding normal brain tissue with a glial marker, and a possible capsule with a soft tissue marker. Measurements were corrected by a tissue-shrinkage correction factor taken from literature. Outcomes parameters for infiltration were mean and maximum depths of infiltration and number of measured infiltration sites. Results: In 48 of 76 metastases, an infiltration was present. The largest group of metastases was lung cancer. Small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and melanoma showed a maximum depth of infiltration of {>=}1 mm, and other histologies <1 mm. For non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC), melanoma, and sarcoma, the highest number of infiltrative sites were observed (median, 2; range, 1-8). SCLC showed significantly larger infiltrative growth, compared with other diagnostic groups. In NSCLC, the highest percentage of infiltration was present (70%). Conclusions: Infiltrative growth beyond the border of the brain metastasis was demonstrated in 63% of the cases evaluated. Infiltrative growth, therefore, has an impact in defining the clinical target volume for SRS of brain metastases, and a margin of {approx}1 mm should be added to the visible lesion.

  7. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  8. Spectroscopic-guided brain tumor resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Wei-Chiang; Toms, Steven A.; Jansen, E. Duco; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    A pilot in vivo study was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using optical spectroscopy for brain tumor margin detection. Fluorescence and diffuse reflectance spectra were acquired using a portable clinical spectroscopic system from normal brain tissues, tumors, and tumor margins in 21 brain tumor patients undergoing craniotomy. Results form this study show the potential of optical spectroscopy in detecting infiltrating tumor margins of primary brain tumors.

  9. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  10. Hippocampal T cell infiltration promotes neuroinflammation and cognitive decline in a mouse model of tauopathy

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Cyril; Dorothée, Guillaume; Hunot, Stéphane; Martin, Elodie; Monnet, Yann; Duchamp, Marie; Dong, Yuan; Légeron, François-Pierre; Leboucher, Antoine; Burnouf, Sylvie; Faivre, Emilie; Carvalho, Kévin; Caillierez, Raphaëlle; Zommer, Nadège; Demeyer, Dominique; Jouy, Nathalie; Sazdovitch, Veronique; Schraen-Maschke, Susanna; Delarasse, Cécile; Buée, Luc

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Alzheimer’s disease is characterized by the combined presence of amyloid plaques and tau pathology, the latter being correlated with the progression of clinical symptoms. Neuroinflammatory changes are thought to be major contributors to Alzheimer’s disease pathophysiology, even if their precise role still remains largely debated. Notably, to what extent immune responses contribute to cognitive impairments promoted by tau pathology remains poorly understood. To address this question, we took advantage of the THY-Tau22 mouse model that progressively develops hippocampal tau pathology paralleling cognitive deficits and reappraised the interrelationship between tau pathology and brain immune responses. In addition to conventional astroglial and microglial responses, we identified a CD8-positive T cell infiltration in the hippocampus of tau transgenic mice associated with an early chemokine response, notably involving CCL3. Interestingly, CD8-positive lymphocyte infiltration was also observed in the cortex of patients exhibiting frontemporal dementia with P301L tau mutation. To gain insights into the functional involvement of T cell infiltration in the pathophysiological development of tauopathy in THY-Tau22 mice, we chronically depleted T cells using anti-CD3 antibody. Such anti-CD3 treatment prevented hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau transgenic animals and reverted spatial memory deficits, in absence of tau pathology modulation. Altogether, these data support an instrumental role of hippocampal T cell infiltration in tau-driven pathophysiology and cognitive impairments in Alzheimer’s disease and other tauopathies. PMID:27818384

  11. Inflammatory infiltrates and complete absence of Purkinje cells in anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration.

    PubMed

    Verschuuren, J; Chuang, L; Rosenblum, M K; Lieberman, F; Pryor, A; Posner, J B; Dalmau, J

    1996-01-01

    We studied the nervous systems and tumors of two patients with anti-Yo-associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). In both patients the underlying tumor was an ovarian adenocarcinoma that expressed Yo antigens and contained extensive infiltrates of lymphocytes and plasma cells. The major central nervous system findings were a complete loss of cerebellar Purkinje cells with Bergmann astrogliosis. One patient had inflammatory infiltrates in the medulla and pons, and moderate axonal loss and demyelination involving the spinal cord. No inflammatory infiltrates were identified in the cerebrum, cerebellum or brain-stem of the other patient. Using quantitative Western blot analysis, deposits of anti-Yo IgG could not be demonstrated in the nervous system, possibly as a result of the loss of cells expressing Yo antigens. The detection of the anti-Yo antibody as a common marker of PCD in one patient with inflammatory infiltrates and another without infiltrates suggests that some PCD pathologically classified as "non-inflammatory" may represent a final burn-out stage of a cellular immune-mediated disorder. Our findings indicate that Purkinje cells are the main, but not necessarily the exclusive, targets of this disorder.

  12. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  13. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  14. Nonlinear Dynamic Theory of Acute Cell Injuries and Brain Ischemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Doaa; Anggraini, Fika; Degracia, Donald; Huang, Zhi-Feng

    2015-03-01

    Cerebral ischemia in the form of stroke and cardiac arrest brain damage affect over 1 million people per year in the USA alone. In spite of close to 200 clinical trials and decades of research, there are no treatments to stop post-ischemic neuron death. We have argued that a major weakness of current brain ischemia research is lack of a deductive theoretical framework of acute cell injury to guide empirical studies. A previously published autonomous model based on the concept of nonlinear dynamic network was shown to capture important facets of cell injury, linking the concept of therapeutic to bistable dynamics. Here we present an improved, non-autonomous formulation of the nonlinear dynamic model of cell injury that allows multiple acute injuries over time, thereby allowing simulations of both therapeutic treatment and preconditioning. Our results are connected to the experimental data of gene expression and proteomics of neuron cells. Importantly, this new model may be construed as a novel approach to pharmacodynamics of acute cell injury. The model makes explicit that any pro-survival therapy is always a form of sub-lethal injury. This insight is expected to widely influence treatment of acute injury conditions that have defied successful treatment to date. This work is supported by NIH NINDS (NS081347) and Wayne State University President's Research Enhancement Award.

  15. The effects of C5aR1 on leukocyte infiltration following pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Benson, Melissa J; Manzanero, Silvia; Borges, Karin

    2017-02-22

    This study aimed to determine the role C5aR1 plays in mediating immune responses acutely after pilocarpine-induced status epilepticus (SE), specifically those of brain-infiltrating leukocytes. Three days following pilocarpine SE, we determined by flow cytometry the brain immune cell phenotypes and measured key proinflammatory and antiinflammatory cytokine expression by infiltrating leukocytes and microglia in C5aR1-deficient and wild-type mice. Absence of C5aR1 reduced by 47% the numbers of Ly6G(+) neutrophils in the brains of No-SE mice and decreased neutrophil entry after SE to levels found in wild-type brains that did not undergo SE (No-SE). Moreover, C5aR1-deficient mice showed increased interleukin (IL)-4 expression in infiltrating leukocytes, but not in microglia. Increases in IL-4 expression in infiltrating leukocytes coupled with decreased neutrophil invasion in C5aR1-deficient mice after SE is likely to contribute to the reduced neuronal loss previously found in these mice compared to their wild-type littermates. Although other SE models need to be investigated to substantiate our findings, this study provides further evidence that C5aR1 is an inflammatory mediator and may play a role in epileptogenesis.

  16. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  17. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  18. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  19. Hereditary Amyloidosis with Recurrent Lung Infiltrates

    PubMed Central

    Revelo, Alberto E.; Magaspi, Crischelle; Maguire, George; Aronow, Wilbert S.

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 51 Final Diagnosis: Familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy with lung involvement Symptoms: Cough • dyspnea • lethargy Medication: Diflunisal Clinical Procedure: Fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsy Specialty: Pulmonary Medicine Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or patholog Background: Amyloidosis is a protein conformational disorder characterized by extracellular deposition of amyloid fibrils in extracellular tissue. Lung involvement is most commonly caused by secondary AL amyloidosis. The familial autosomal-dominant senile transthyretin (ATTR) disease manifests mainly as polyneuropathy and restrictive cardiomyopathy denoting the name familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy (FAP). Rarely, this form manifests with clinical and radiologically relevant respiratory tract symptoms and lung involvement. Case Report: A 51-year-old male former smoker presented with progressive lower-extremity weakness of several months’ duration. He was ultimately diagnosed with chronic demyelinating polyneuropathy and treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy. Subsequently, he was admitted with heart failure symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates and his echocardiogram showed a ‘myocardial speckled pattern’, prompting an endomyocardial biopsy, which showed transthyretin amyloid deposition. He was started on diflunisal. Additionally, serial radiographic imaging of his chest over 3 different admissions for cough, dyspnea, hypoxemia, and lethargy demonstrated recurrent pulmonary infiltrates. A fiberoptic bronchoscopy with trans-bronchial biopsies revealed amyloid deposition in the lung tissue. Conclusions: The clinical presentation of recurrent or persistent pulmonary symptoms and fleeting infiltrates on imaging in a patient with familial amyloidotic polyneuropathy is not common; when present, it should raise the suspicion of respiratory tract involvement. PMID:27872470

  20. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  1. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  2. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Remediation to improve infiltration into compact soils.

    PubMed

    Olson, Nicholas C; Gulliver, John S; Nieber, John L; Kayhanian, Masoud

    2013-03-15

    Urban development usually involves soil compaction through converting large pervious land into developed land. This change typically increases runoff during runoff events and consequently may add to flooding and additional volume of runoff. The wash off of pollutants may also create numerous water quality and environmental problems for receiving waters. To alleviate this problem many municipalities are considering low impact development. One technique to reduce runoff in an urban area is to improve the soil infiltration. This study is specifically undertaken to investigate tilling and compost addition to improve infiltration rate, and to investigate measurement tools to assess the effectiveness of remediated soil. Soil remediation was performed at three sites in an urban area metropolitan area. Each site was divided into three plots: tilled, tilled with compost addition, and a control plot with no treatment. The infiltration effectiveness within each plot was assessed by measuring saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(sat)) using the modified Philip Dunne (MPD) infiltrometer during pre- and post-treatment. In addition, the use of soil bulk density and soil strength as surrogate parameters for K(sat) was investigated. Results showed that deep tillage was effective at reducing the level of soil strength. Soil strength was approximately half that of the control plot in the first six inches of soil. At two of the sites, tilling was also ineffective at improving the infiltration capacity of the soil. The geometric mean of K(sat) was 0.5-2.3 times that of the control plot, indicating little overall improvement. Compost addition was more effective than tilling by reducing the soil strength and compaction and increasing soil infiltration. The geometric mean of K(sat) on the compost plots was 2.7-5.7 times that of the control plot. No strong correlations were observed before remediation between either soil bulk density or soil strength and K(sat). Simulation results showed

  4. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases.

    PubMed

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-06-01

    Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4(+), CD8(+) and CD20(+) lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4(+) T cells were more numerous than CD8(+) T cells and CD20(+) B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20(+) B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site.

  5. Similar lymphocytic infiltration pattern in primary breast cancer and their corresponding distant metastases

    PubMed Central

    Sobottka, Bettina; Pestalozzi, Bernhard; Fink, Daniel; Moch, Holger; Varga, Zsuzsanna

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in primary breast cancer (TIL) are acknowledged measures of disease free survival (DFS) in adjuvant and neoadjuvant settings. Little is known about the biology of metastasis infiltrating lymphocytes (mTIL) although the local immunity of the metastatic site may critically influence the infiltrate composite. To address this question, we compared mTIL with their matched TIL in 87 breast cancer patients and their corresponding distant metastasis at four different anatomical locations. Sections of surgical specimen were immunohistochemically analyzed for CD4+, CD8+ and CD20+ lymphocytes in three different tumor compartments: intratumoral lymphocytes (iTIL) defined as lymphocytes in direct contact with breast cancer cells, stromal lymphocytes (sTIL) located within the intratumoral stromal tissue and invasive-margin lymphocytes (imTIL). Overall, we found fewer (p < 0.001) mTIL than TIL. Within the tumor compartments, imTIL were more frequent than sTIL and iTIL both within metastases and the matched primary tumors (PT) (p < 0.001). CD4+ T cells were more numerous than CD8+ T cells and CD20+ B cells (p < 0.001). There was a similar pattern in PT and their corresponding metastasis. Only patients with brain metastases differed from the others displaying less CD20+ B cells at the infiltrative margin of the PT (p < 0.05). In summary, mTIL were significantly reduced within metastases but still mirrored the infiltrate pattern of the PT, interestingly regardless of the metastatic anatomical locations investigated. Our results suggest that the PT assigns the infiltrating lymphocyte pattern resumed at the metastatic site. PMID:27471624

  6. Lymphocyte activation and hepatic cellular infiltration in immunocompetent mice infected by dengue virus.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsuen-Chin; Lai, Show-Yun; Sung, Jui-Min; Lee, Shu-Hwae; Lin, Yu-Chin; Wang, Wei-Kung; Chen, Yee-Chun; Kao, Chuan-Liang; King, Chwan-Chuen; Wu-Hsieh, Betty A

    2004-07-01

    Activation and expansion of dengue virus-specific T cells and abnormal liver functions in dengue patients have been documented. However, it remains to be determined whether T cells are involved in the pathogenic mechanism of dengue virus infection. In this study, immunocompetent C57BL/6 mice were employed to study dengue virus-induced T cell activation. Mice were inoculated with 10(8) PFU dengue virus serotype 2 strain 16681 by the intravenous route. Dengue viral core RNA was detected by RT-PCR in mouse serum, liver, spleen, and brain at different time points after infection. Splenic T cells were activated as evidenced by their expression of CD69 and O-glycosylated CD43 at as early as day 3 after infection. Splenic T cell expression of O-glycosylated CD43 and IFN-gamma production coordinately peaked at day 5. Coincided with the peak of splenic T cell activation was hepatic lymphocyte infiltration and elevation of liver enzymes. Flow cytometric analysis revealed the infiltrating CD8(+) T cell to CD4(+) T cell ratio was 5/3. After a second inoculation of dengue virus, hepatic T cell infiltration and liver enzyme levels increased sharply. The infiltrating hepatic CD8(+) T cell to CD4(+) T cell ratio increased to 5.8/1. A strong correlation was found between T cell activation and hepatic cellular infiltration in immunocompetent mice infected with dengue virus. The kinetics of liver enzyme elevation also correlated with that of T cell activation. These data suggest a relationship between T cell infiltration and elevation of liver enzymes.

  7. Fortress brain.

    PubMed

    Royall, Donald R

    2013-02-01

    Neurodegenerative diseases are associated with neuronal inclusions, comprised of protein aggregates. In Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and Lewy Body Disease (LBD) such lesions are distributed in a hierarchical retrograde transynaptic spatial pattern. This implies a retrograde transynaptic temporal propagation as well. There can be few explanations for this other than infectious agents (prions and viruses). This suggests that AD and LBD (at least) may have infectious origins. Transynaptic infiltration of the CNS along cranial nerve or other major projections, by one or more infectious agents has important implications. The clinical syndrome and natural history of each neurodegenerative disorder will reflect its portal of entry. There may be a different neurodegenerative syndrome for each cranial nerve or other portal of entry, and not all may manifest as "dementia". Each syndrome may be associated with more than one pathological lesion. Each pathology may be associated with several clinical syndromes. Host-parasite interactions are species specific. This may explain the rarity of AD-like pathology in most other older mammals. Over evolutionary timescales, the human brain should be adapted to predation by neurotropic agents. Viewed from this perspective, the prion-like pro-inflammatory and pro-apoptotic properties of β-amyloid and other proteins may be adaptive, and anti-microbial. Reductions in synaptic density may slow the progress of invading pathogens, while perineuronal nets and other structures may guard the gates. This suggests a defense in depth of a structure, the brain, that is inherently vulnerable to invasion along its neural networks.

  8. Analysis of rainfall infiltration law in unsaturated soil slope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Gui-rong; Qian, Ya-jun; Wang, Zhang-chun; Zhao, Bo

    2014-01-01

    In the study of unsaturated soil slope stability under rainfall infiltration, it is worth continuing to explore how much rainfall infiltrates into the slope in a rain process, and the amount of rainfall infiltrating into slope is the important factor influencing the stability. Therefore, rainfall infiltration capacity is an important issue of unsaturated seepage analysis for slope. On the basis of previous studies, rainfall infiltration law of unsaturated soil slope is analyzed. Considering the characteristics of slope and rainfall, the key factors affecting rainfall infiltration of slope, including hydraulic properties, water storage capacity (θs - θr), soil types, rainfall intensities, and antecedent and subsequent infiltration rates on unsaturated soil slope, are discussed by using theory analysis and numerical simulation technology. Based on critical factors changing, this paper presents three calculation models of rainfall infiltrability for unsaturated slope, including (1) infiltration model considering rainfall intensity; (2) effective rainfall model considering antecedent rainfall; (3) infiltration model considering comprehensive factors. Based on the technology of system response, the relationship of rainfall and infiltration is described, and the prototype of regression model of rainfall infiltration is given, in order to determine the amount of rain penetration during a rain process.

  9. SIFCON (Slurry Infiltrated Fiber Concrete) with Sand

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-09-01

    Phtogrphsf tpe and Identifatio % flowt tests teyYiinders U& U6 10 LE~~ 150 1 3= O-4 slurries also contained microsilica . Three different fiber types...Ash Infiltration tests and selected mixes Water Facility 26025 tap water Kirtland A.F. Base well no. 2 All Microsilica EMS 960 (bagged) Elkem...the end instead of the two. When there are the three sets of numbers, the first set indicates the percent of microsilica with respect to the cement in

  10. Wireless application in intravenous infiltration detection system.

    PubMed

    Alley, Matthew S; Naramore, William J; Chou, Nee-Yin; Winchester, Leonard W

    2008-01-01

    The IrDA wireless protocol has been applied to a fiber optics based point-of-care system for the detection of intravenous infiltration. The system is used for monitoring patients under infusion therapy. It is optimized for portability by incorporating a battery source and wireless communication. The IrDA protocol provides secure data communication between the electronic module of the system and the PDAs carried by the nurses. The PDA is used for initiating the actions of the electronic module and for data transfer. Security is provided by specially designed software and hardware.

  11. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy simulating an infiltrative myocardial disease.

    PubMed Central

    Frustaci, A; Loperfido, F; Pennestrì, F

    1985-01-01

    Congestive heart failure developed in a patient with low electrocardiographic QRS voltages, diffuse thickening of the septum and free cardiac wall, and a reduction in left ventricular internal diameter, which suggested an infiltrative heart muscle disease. Histological examination at necropsy showed hypertrophic cardiomyopathy with symmetrical left ventricular hypertrophy. Myocardial disarray of type 1A disorganisation was extensive and equally distributed in the ventricular septum and the left anterior and left posterior ventricular free walls. Severe fibrosis (40%) was also present and may have been a possible cause of the electrocardiographic abnormalities as well as of the lack of ventricular dilatation. Images PMID:4041302

  12. Memory deficit associated with increased brain proinflammatory cytokine levels and neurodegeneration in acute ischemic stroke.

    PubMed

    Silva, Bruno; Sousa, Larissa; Miranda, Aline; Vasconcelos, Anilton; Reis, Helton; Barcelos, Lucíola; Arantes, Rosa; Teixeira, Antonio; Rachid, Milene Alvarenga

    2015-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate behavioral changes and neuroinflammatory process following left unilateral common carotid artery occlusion (UCCAO), a model of cerebral ischemia. Post-ischemic behavioral changes following 15 min UCCAO were recorded 24 hours after reperfusion. The novel object recognition task was used to assess learning and memory. After behavioral test, brains from sham and ischemic mice were removed and processed to evaluate central nervous system pathology by TTC and H&E techniques as well as inflammatory mediators by ELISA. UCCAO promoted long-term memory impairment after reperfusion. Infarct areas were observed in the cerebrum by TTC stain. Moreover, the histopathological analysis revealed cerebral necrotic cavities surrounded by ischemic neurons and hippocampal neurodegeneration. In parallel with memory dysfunction, brain levels of TNF-a, IL-1b and CXCL1 were increased post ischemia compared with sham-operated group. These findings suggest an involvement of central nervous system inflammatory mediators and brain damage in cognitive impairment following unilateral acute ischemia.

  13. KCa3.1 inhibition switches the phenotype of glioma-infiltrating microglia/macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Grimaldi, A; D'Alessandro, G; Golia, M T; Grössinger, E M; Di Angelantonio, S; Ragozzino, D; Santoro, A; Esposito, V; Wulff, H; Catalano, M; Limatola, C

    2016-01-01

    Among the strategies adopted by glioma to successfully invade the brain parenchyma is turning the infiltrating microglia/macrophages (M/MΦ) into allies, by shifting them toward an anti-inflammatory, pro-tumor phenotype. Both glioma and infiltrating M/MΦ cells express the Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCa3.1), and the inhibition of KCa3.1 activity on glioma cells reduces tumor infiltration in the healthy brain parenchyma. We wondered whether KCa3.1 inhibition could prevent the acquisition of a pro-tumor phenotype by M/MΦ cells, thus contributing to reduce glioma development. With this aim, we studied microglia cultured in glioma-conditioned medium or treated with IL-4, as well as M/MΦ cells acutely isolated from glioma-bearing mice and from human glioma biopsies. Under these different conditions, M/MΦ were always polarized toward an anti-inflammatory state, and preventing KCa3.1 activation by 1-[(2-Chlorophenyl)diphenylmethyl]-1H-pyrazole (TRAM-34), we observed a switch toward a pro-inflammatory, antitumor phenotype. We identified FAK and PI3K/AKT as the molecular mechanisms involved in this phenotype switch, activated in sequence after KCa3.1. Anti-inflammatory M/MΦ have higher expression levels of KCa3.1 mRNA (kcnn4) that are reduced by KCa3.1 inhibition. In line with these findings, TRAM-34 treatment, in vivo, significantly reduced the size of tumors in glioma-bearing mice. Our data indicate that KCa3.1 channels are involved in the inhibitory effects exerted by the glioma microenvironment on infiltrating M/MΦ, suggesting a possible role as therapeutic targets in glioma. PMID:27054329

  14. Infiltrating monocytes in liver injury and repair

    PubMed Central

    Brempelis, Katherine J; Crispe, Ian N

    2016-01-01

    Noninfectious liver injury causes many acute and chronic liver diseases around the globe, and particularly in developed nations. Bone marrow-derived monocytes infiltrate the damaged liver tissue and are a critical component of the innate immune response that may drive injury resolution or host death in the short term or chronic inflammation, fibrosis and hepatocellular carcinoma in the long term. Monocytes often play dual roles in liver injury—both perpetuating inflammation and promoting resolution of inflammation and fibrosis. Thus, we will address the role that monocytes play in different experimental forms of noninfectious liver injury; considering in particular the importance of the transition from inflammatory Ly6Chi monocytes to pro-resolution Ly6Clo monocyte-derived macrophages and the consequences of this transition for disease progression and resolution. PMID:27990288

  15. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  16. Explicit infiltration equations and the Lambert W-function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parlange, J.-Y.; Barry, D. A.; Haverkamp, R.

    The Green and Ampt infiltration formula, as well as the Talsma and Parlange formula, are two-parameter equations that are both expressible in terms of Lambert W-functions. These representations are used to derive explicit, simple and accurate approximations for each case. The two infiltration formulas are limiting cases that can be deduced from an existing three-parameter infiltration equation, the third parameter allowing for interpolation between the limiting cases. Besides the limiting cases, there is another case for which the three-parameter infiltration equation yields an exact solution. The three-parameter equation can be solved by fixed-point iteration, a scheme which can be exploited to obtain a sequence of increasingly complex explicit infiltration equations. For routine use, a simple, explicit approximation to the three-parameter infiltration equation is derived. This approximation eliminates the need to iterate for most practical circumstances.

  17. Infiltration modeling guidelines for commercial building energy analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Gowri, Krishnan; Winiarski, David W.; Jarnagin, Ronald E.

    2009-09-30

    This report presents a methodology for modeling air infiltration in EnergyPlus to account for envelope air barrier characteristics. Based on a review of various infiltration modeling options available in EnergyPlus and sensitivity analysis, the linear wind velocity coefficient based on DOE-2 infiltration model is recommended. The methodology described in this report can be used to calculate the EnergyPlus infiltration input for any given building level infiltration rate specified at known pressure difference. The sensitivity analysis shows that EnergyPlus calculates the wind speed based on zone altitude, and the linear wind velocity coefficient represents the variation in infiltration heat loss consistent with building location and weather data.

  18. [Pseudotumorous cardiac infiltration in a patient with acute monoblastic leukemia].

    PubMed

    Orts, M; Ribera, J M; Calatrava, A; Larrouse, E; Catalán, R; Navarro, J T; Millá, F; Feliu, E

    1996-04-13

    Although cardiac infiltration is common in advanced stage of acute leukaemia, it is not usually diagnosed at life and it is extremely rare for it to become pseudotumoral. A 25-years-old patient with an acute monoblastic leukaemia who had a leukaemic infiltration which affected the main part of the left ventricle at the time of diagnosis, is referred. The heart infiltration was detected by a two dimension echocardiography. In spite of a massive infiltration, heart failure was not present and the left ventricle's ejection fraction was 50%. Even though chemotherapy was administered, the patient died four days after diagnosis due to septic shock of respiratory origin. The most relevant autopsy finding was a widespread pseudotumoral infiltration of the left ventricle, the back side of the right ventricle and the interventricular wall. The pseudotumoral infiltration of the heart by acute leukaemia is uncommon and must be differentiated from granulocytic sarcoma. The usefulness of the different diagnostic procedures is discussed.

  19. Reactive Melt Infiltration Of Silicon Into Porous Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Behrendt, Donald R.; Singh, Mrityunjay

    1994-01-01

    Report describes study of synthesis of silicon carbide and related ceramics by reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon/molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms. Reactive melt infiltration has potential for making components in nearly net shape, performed in less time and at lower temperature. Object of study to determine effect of initial pore volume fraction, pore size, and infiltration material on quality of resultant product.

  20. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  1. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-08-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{sup +} fiber preforms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90 %. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  2. Modeling residential fine particulate matter infiltration for exposure assessment.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Perry U; Setton, Eleanor M; Allen, Ryan W; Keller, Peter C; Brauer, Michael

    2009-09-01

    Individuals spend the majority of their time indoors; therefore, estimating infiltration of outdoor-generated fine particulate matter (PM(2.5)) can help reduce exposure misclassification in epidemiological studies. As indoor measurements in individual homes are not feasible in large epidemiological studies, we evaluated the potential of using readily available data to predict infiltration of ambient PM(2.5) into residences. Indoor and outdoor light scattering measurements were collected for 84 homes in Seattle, Washington, USA, and Victoria, British Columbia, Canada, to estimate residential infiltration efficiencies. Meteorological variables and spatial property assessment data (SPAD), containing detailed housing characteristics for individual residences, were compiled for both study areas using a geographic information system. Multiple linear regression was used to construct models of infiltration based on these data. Heating (October to February) and non-heating (March to September) season accounted for 36% of the yearly variation in detached residential infiltration. Two SPAD housing characteristic variables, low building value, and heating with forced air, predicted 37% of the variation found between detached residential infiltration during the heating season. The final model, incorporating temperature and the two SPAD housing characteristic variables, with a seasonal interaction term, explained 54% of detached residential infiltration. Residences with low building values had higher infiltration efficiencies than other residences, which could lead to greater exposure gradients between low and high socioeconomic status individuals than previously identified using only ambient PM(2.5) concentrations. This modeling approach holds promise for incorporating infiltration efficiencies into large epidemiology studies, thereby reducing exposure misclassification.

  3. Approach to Cutaneous Lymphoid Infiltrates: When to Consider Lymphoma?

    PubMed Central

    Charli-Joseph, Yann Vincent; Gatica-Torres, Michelle; Pincus, Laura Beth

    2016-01-01

    Cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates (CLIs) are common in routine dermatopathology. However, differentiating a reactive CLI from a malignant lymphocytic infiltrate is often a significant challenge since many inflammatory dermatoses can clinically and/or histopathologically mimic cutaneous lymphomas, coined pseudolymphomas. We conducted a literature review from 1966 to July 1, 2015, at PubMed.gov using the search terms: Cutaneous lymphoma, cutaneous pseudolymphoma, cutaneous lymphoid hyperplasia, simulants/mimics/imitators of cutaneous lymphomas, and cutaneous lymphoid infiltrates. The diagnostic approach to CLIs and the most common differential imitators of lymphoma is discussed herein based on six predominant morphologic and immunophenotypic, histopathologic patterns: (1) Superficial dermal T-cell infiltrates (2) superficial and deep dermal perivascular and/or nodular natural killer/T-cell infiltrates (3) pan-dermal diffuse T-cell infiltrates (4) panniculitic T-cell infiltrates (5) small cell predominant B-cell infiltrates, and (6) large-cell predominant B-cell infiltrates. Since no single histopathological feature is sufficient to discern between a benign and a malignant CLI, the overall balance of clinical, histopathological, immunophenotypic, and molecular features should be considered carefully to establish a diagnosis. Despite advances in ancillary studies such as immunohistochemistry and molecular clonality, these studies often display specificity and sensitivity limitations. Therefore, proper clinicopathological correlation still remains the gold standard for the precise diagnosis of CLIs. PMID:27512181

  4. Pentoxifylline attenuates TNF-α protein levels and brain edema following temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Abedin; Mojarrad, Somye; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2011-03-04

    Cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological deterioration and mortality during acute ischemic stroke. Despite the clinical importance of cerebral ischemia, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a role for TNF-α in the brain edema formation. To further investigate whether TNF-α would play a role in brain edema formation, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX, an inhibitor of TNF-α synthesis) on the brain edema and TNF-α levels in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats was occluded for 60 min using the intraluminal filament method. The animals received PTX (60 mg/kg) immediately, 1, 3, or 6h post-ischemic induction. Twenty-four hours after induction of ischemic injury, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema were determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evans Blue (EB) and wet-to-dry weight ratio, respectively. TNF-α protein levels in ischemic cortex were also measured at 1, 4, and 24h after the beginning of an ischemic stroke by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The administration of PTX up to 6h after occlusion of the MCA significantly reduced the brain edema. Moreover, PTX significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α in ischemic brain cortex up to 4h post-transient focal stroke (P<0.002). Finally, treatment by PTX led to a significant decrease in EB extravasations (P<0.001). Our data demonstrate that PTX administration up to 6h after ischemia can reduce brain edema in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of PTX may be mediated, at least in part, through a decline in TNF-α production and BBB breakdown.

  5. Mapping the accumulation of co-infiltrating CNS dendritic cells and encephalitogenic T cells during EAE

    PubMed Central

    Clarkson, Benjamin D; Walker, Alec; Harris, Melissa; Rayasam, Aditya; Sandor, Matyas; Fabry, Zsuzsanna

    2014-01-01

    Evidence from experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) suggests that CNS-infiltrating dendritic cells (DCs) are crucial for restimulation of coinfiltrating T cells. Here we systematically quantified and visualized the distribution and interaction of CNS DCs and T cells during EAE. We report marked periventricular accumulation of DCs and myelin-specific T cells during EAE disease onset prior to accumulation in the spinal cord, indicating that the choroid plexus-CSF axis is a CNS entry portal. Moreover, despite emphasis on spinal cord inflammation in EAE and in correspondence with MS pathology, inflammatory lesions containing interacting DCs and T cells are present in specific brain regions. PMID:25288303

  6. Functional up-regulation of endopeptidase neurolysin during post-acute and early recovery phases of experimental stroke in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamoon; Wangler, Naomi J; Yang, Li; Shah, Kaushik; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Abbruscato, Thomas J; Karamyan, Vardan T

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we provide evidence for the first time that membrane-bound endopeptidase neurolysin is up-regulated in different parts of mouse brain affected by focal ischemia-reperfusion in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model of stroke. Radioligand binding, enzymatic and immunoblotting experiments in membrane preparations of frontoparietal cortex, striatum, and hippocampus isolated from the ischemic hemisphere of mouse brain 24 h after reperfusion revealed statistically significant increase (≥ twofold) in quantity and activity of neurolysin compared with sham-operated controls. Cerebellar membranes isolated from the ischemic hemisphere served as negative control supporting the observations that up-regulation of neurolysin occurs in post-ischemic brain regions. This study also documents sustained functional up-regulation of neurolysin in frontoparietal cortical membranes for at least 7 days after stroke, which appears not to be transcriptionally or translationally regulated, but rather depends on translocation of cytosolic neurolysin to the membranes and mitochondria. Considering diversity of endogenous neurolysin substrates (neurotensin, bradykinin, angiotensins I/II, substance P, hemopressin, dynorphin A(1-8), metorphamide, somatostatin) and the well-documented role of these peptidergic systems in pathogenesis of stroke, resistance to ischemic injury and/or post-stroke brain recovery, our findings suggest that neurolysin may play a role in processes modulating the brain's response to stroke and its recovery after stroke.

  7. Increased Infiltration of CD8+ T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab

    PubMed Central

    Funazumi, Masato; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-01-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8+ T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8+ T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8+ T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8+ T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators. PMID:27489432

  8. Increased Infiltration of CD8(+) T Cells by Dacarbazine in a Patient with Mucosal Penile Melanoma Refractory to Nivolumab.

    PubMed

    Funazumi, Masato; Namiki, Takeshi; Arima, Yumi; Kato, Kohei; Nojima, Kohei; Tanaka, Kentaro; Miura, Keiko; Yokozeki, Hiroo

    2016-08-01

    Primary penile melanomas are rare tumors that represent less than 0.1% of all melanomas. We report a case of a 60-year-old Japanese male with a mucosal penile melanoma and describe an increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration in brain after dacarbazine (DTIC) administration. After partial penectomy and left inguinal lymphadenectomy, he developed multiple lung, bone, spleen, brain and skin metastases. He was treated with interferon-β, DTIC and nivolumab. However, the metastases were not reduced in size. Immunohistochemistry showed an increase of CD8(+) T cell infiltration and programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) expression after the administration of DTIC, but the expression of programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) was negative. We speculate that DTIC exerted immunostimulatory effects, but nivolumab was ineffective due to the negative expression of PD-1 and/or an insufficient infiltration of CD8(+) T cells. Although this is only one case, this case report could be the first step to discuss the development of effective therapies against melanoma to take advantage of the increased CD8(+) T cell infiltration elicited by chemotherapeutic agents. It would be beneficial to pay more attention to the relationship between DTIC and immune checkpoint modulators.

  9. Progesterone protects endothelial cells after cerebrovascular occlusion by decreasing MCP-1- and CXCL1-mediated macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Remus, Ebony Washington; Sayeed, Iqbal; Won, Soonmi; Lyle, Alicia N; Stein, Donald G

    2015-09-01

    The neuroprotective effects of progesterone after ischemic stroke have been established, but the role of progesterone in promoting cerebrovascular repair remains under-explored. Male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) for 90 min followed by reperfusion for 3 days. Progesterone (8 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally at 1h after initial occlusion followed by subcutaneous injections at 6, 24 and 48 h post-occlusion. Rats were euthanized after 72 h and brain endothelial cell density and macrophage infiltration were evaluated within the cerebral cortex. We also assessed progesterone's ability to induce macrophage migration toward hypoxic/reoxygenated cultured endothelial cells. We found that progesterone treatment post-tMCAO protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration. We further demonstrate that infiltration of monocytes/macrophages can be induced by potent chemotactic factors such as monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and the chemokine ligand 1 (CXCL1), secreted by hypoxic/reoxygenated endothelial cells. Progesterone blunts secretion of MCP-1 and CXCL1 from endothelial cells after hypoxia/reoxygenation injury and decreases leukocyte infiltration. The treatment protects ischemic endothelial cells from macrophage infiltration and thus preserves vascularization after ischemic injury.

  10. Magnetic resonance spectroscopy of the ischemic brain under lithium treatment. Link to mitochondrial disorders under stroke.

    PubMed

    Silachev, Denis N; Gulyaev, Mikhail V; Zorova, Ljubava D; Khailova, Ljudmila S; Gubsky, Leonid V; Pirogov, Yury A; Plotnikov, Egor Y; Sukhikh, Gennady T; Zorov, Dmitry B

    2015-07-25

    Recent evidence suggests that mitochondria are one of the main factors in the pathogenesis in different organs including brain. The pathogenesis after brain damage is caused not only by the change in bioenergetics, but also involves impairment of alternative functions of mitochondria, particularly those related to the control of cell death. In this study we evaluated partial metabolic pathways under the simulation of a stroke by using the occlusion of the middle cerebral artery in rats. The analysis shows that the induced switch to a non-oxidative energy metabolism (glycolysis) due to the block of tissue oxygen supply does not ensure the adequate supply of the tissue with ATP. Moreover, the well-known acidification of the ischemic tissue is not associated with the so-called traditionally and incorrectly considered "lactic acidosis" (the generation of lactate from glucose by itself does not lead to excessive generation of protons), but occurs because of the consumption of tissue ATP under its reduced resynthesis. Incubation of mitochondria isolated from normal rat brain at neutral and slightly acidic pH, mimicking the intracellular pH of normal and ischemic tissues correspondingly, revealed serious changes in mitochondrial bioenergetics, partially reflected in the magnitude of respiratory control and the basal and maximally stimulated respiration rates. Measurement of available metabolites by (1)H MR spectra of normal and ischemia-damaged brains showed a significant increase in lactate and myo-inositol and a moderate decrease in N-acetylaspartate 24h after reperfusion. Remarkably, the administration of lithium chloride in the reperfusion phase normalized the levels of metabolites. Moreover, the introduction of lithium salts (chloride or succinate) in the bloodstream, restored after ischemia, reduced both the size of the ischemia-induced brain damage and the degree of brain swelling. Besides, post-ischemic introduction of lithium salts largely restored the

  11. Brain herniation

    MedlinePlus

    ... herniation; Uncal herniation; Subfalcine herniation; Tonsillar herniation; Herniation - brain ... Brain herniation occurs when something inside the skull produces pressure that moves brain tissues. This is most ...

  12. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... estimated total costs for transportation and treatment of the infiltration/inflow. Cost-effectiveness... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1 Section 35.927-1 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER...

  13. MEASUREMENTS OF INFILTRATION RATES IN COMPACTED URBAN SOILS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Previous research hs identified significant reductions in infiltration rates in disturbed urban soils, More than 150 prior tests were conducted in predominately sandy and clayey urban soils in the Birmingham and Mobile, AL areas. Infiltration in Clayey soils ws found to be affect...

  14. Characteristics of water infiltration in layered water repellent soils

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrophobic soil can influence soil water infiltration, but information regarding the impacts of different levels of hydrophobicity within a layered soil profile is limited. An infiltration study was conducted to determine the effects of different levels of hydrophobicity and the position of the hyd...

  15. 9 CFR 311.35 - Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. 311.35 Section 311.35 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... PARTS § 311.35 Muscular inflammation, degeneration, or infiltration. (a) If muscular lesions are...

  16. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify the presence, flow rate, and type of infiltration/inflow conditions which exist in the sewer system. (b) For... analysis guidelines (Appendix A to this subpart) should be consulted with respect to this determination....

  17. [Characteristics of water infiltration in urban soils of Nanjing City].

    PubMed

    Yang, Jin-Ling; Zhang, Gan-Lin; Yuan, Da-Gang

    2008-02-01

    By using dual-ring method, this paper measured the water infiltration rate in urban soils under representative land use patterns in Nanjing City, and studied the characteristics of water infiltration in the soils with different compaction degree. The results showed that there was a great difference in the infiltration rate among the soils with different compactness. Soil infiltration rate decreased with increasing bulk density and decreasing porosity, and the water-transport-limiting layer existed in heavily compacted soils resulted in a dramatic decrease of final stabilized infiltration rate. There was a significant linear relationship between the initial and final infiltration rates in the same soil though their absolute values had a great difference. The urban soils in Nanjing City had a wide range of final infiltration rate varied from 1 mm X h(-1) to 679 mm X h(-1), which was highly related to the soil compactness, structural status, and skeleton grain contents. The decrease of urban soil infiltration rate could induce the increase of runoff and of the probability and intensity of flooding.

  18. Approximate furrow infiltration model for time-variable ponding depth

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A methodology is proposed for estimating furrow infiltration under time-variable ponding depth conditions. The methodology approximates the solution to the two-dimensional Richards equation, and is a modification of a procedure that was originally proposed for computing infiltration under constant ...

  19. Tumor infiltrating lymphocytes in ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Santoiemma, Phillip P; Powell, Daniel J

    2015-01-01

    The accumulation of tumor infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) in ovarian cancer is prognostic for increased survival while increases in immunosuppressive regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are associated with poor outcomes. Approaches that bolster tumor-reactive TILs may limit tumor progression. However, identifying tumor-reactive TILs in ovarian cancer has been challenging, though adoptive TIL therapy in patients has been encouraging. Other forms of TIL immunomodulation remain under investigation including Treg depletion, antibody-based checkpoint modification, activation and amplification using dendritic cells, antigen presenting cells or IL-2 cytokine culture, adjuvant cytokine injections, and gene-engineered T-cells. Many approaches to TIL manipulation inhibit ovarian cancer progression in preclinical or clinical studies as monotherapy. Here, we review the impact of TILs in ovarian cancer and attempts to mobilize TILs to halt tumor progression. We conclude that effective TIL therapy for ovarian cancer is at the brink of translation and optimal TIL activity may require combined methodologies to deliver clinically-relevant treatment.

  20. Modeling of meltwater infiltration in subfreezing snow

    SciTech Connect

    Illangasekare, T.H.; Walter, R.J. Jr.; Meier, M.F.; Pfeffer, W.T. )

    1990-05-01

    A mathematical model which incorporates the processes that influence water flow and heat transfer in subfreezing snow was developed. Among the aspects of snow included are density and grain-size heterogeneities, capillary-pressure gradients, meltwater refreezing, time dependent hydraulic and thermal parameters, and heat conduction. From this conceptual mathematical model a numerical model of two-dimensional meltwater infiltration was developed. Results from various test cases show which data are most important to measure accurately in the field, in order to determine how the snowpack will respond to an introduction of meltwater. These simulations also show the importance of the orientation of the various layers which make up the snowpack and how randomly distributed heterogeneities can produce two-dimensional flow of meltwater under unsaturated conditions. Finally, it is demonstrated that various assumptions related to density and porosity variations, dimensionality of flow, capillary effects, etc., which have been made by past investigators for ideal situations may not be valid under many circumstances, and several suggestions are made for improving predictions of meltwater behavior. Sensitivity analysis showed that the model is most sensitive to changes in bulk density, residual saturation of wet snow and meltwater supply rates, whereas changes in snow temperature and mean grain size had less marked effect.

  1. Simplified modeling for infiltration and radon entry

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1992-08-01

    Air leakage in the envelopes of residential buildings is the primary mechanism for provided ventilation to those buildings. For radon the same mechanisms that drive the ventilation, drive the radon entry This paper attempts to provide a simplified physical model that can be used to understand the interactions between the building leakage distribution, the forces that drive infiltration and ventilation, and indoor radon concentrations, Combining both ventilation and entry modeling together allows an estimation of Radon concentration and exposure to be made and demonstrates how changes in the envelope or ventilation system would affect it. This paper will develop simplified modeling approaches for estimating both ventilation rate and radon entry rate based on the air tightness of the envelope and the driving forces. These approaches will use conventional leakage values (i.e. effective leakage area ) to quantify the air tightness and include natural and mechanical driving forces. This paper will introduce a simplified parameter, the Radon Leakage Area, that quantifies the resistance to radon entry. To be practical for dwellings, modeling of the occupant exposures to indoor pollutants must be simple to use and not require unreasonable input data. This paper presents the derivation of the simplified physical model, and applies that model to representative situations to explore the tendencies to be expected under different circumstances.

  2. Infiltration of fibrous preform in the centrifugal force field

    SciTech Connect

    Nishida, Yoshinori; Shirayanagi, Itaru; Sakai, Yoshibumi; Tozawa, Yasuhisa

    1994-12-31

    The pressure to infiltrate molten aluminum into alumina short fiber preform was generated by centrifugal force, and the start pressure for the infiltration was measured. The fundamental equation of infiltration phenomenon was derived from the equation of the conservation of momentum of fluid flow in the porous media in the centrifugal force field. One-dimensional solution of the equation was obtained to discuss the characteristics of fluid flow in a centrifugal force field. It was made clear that centrifugal force is effective as a motive force to infiltrate molten metal into fibrous preform, the pressure distribution of molten metal in the preform is different from that predicted by D`Arcy`s law and the infiltration is enhanced by centrifugal force.

  3. Observation of infiltration experiments with time lapse electrical resistivity tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, Ursula; Ganz, Christina; Altfelder, Sven; Günther, Thomas; Duijnisveld, Wilhelmus; Grissemann, Christoph

    2010-05-01

    Recent progress in the development of resistivity equipment enables the real time observation of infiltration processes through the vadose zone. In order to study the advantages and limitations of the method infiltration experiments are carried out for different soil types at various locations. All sites are subsequently excavated and investigated in detail. For an improved verification of the resistivity data the most recent experiment is conducted using a colour tracer. Two infiltration experiments are carried out in sandy soil. The location is Fuhrberg, close to Hannover, Germany. The area has been intensively studied for soil research purposes for more than 30 years. During both infiltration experiments water (110 l/80 l) is infiltrated for a period of 4.5 h and 8 h, respectively, and the infiltration process is observed by ERT. The resistivity measurements are conducted using a 3D-dipole-dipole configuration with electrode distances of 20 cm in the centre of the infiltration field. The whole resistivity array consists of 200 and 300 electrodes, respectively. The second experiment uses increased electrode spacing in the border area in order to enable the resolution of the deeper groundwater table (3.5 m during the second experiment compared to about 1.2 m for the first experiment). Immediately after completion of the resistivity measurements TDR and tensiometer measurements are carried out in 5-8 slices of the excavated infiltration area over a period of several days. The colour tracer used during the second experiment clearly outlines the infiltration plume with sharp outer limits. The ERT inversion depicts the shape of the plume successfully. Time lapse ERT interpretation reveals the development of the plume in time. The combination of ERT interpretation and TDR measurements enables the construction of the relationship between water content and resistivity as reconstructed by ERT using an Archie approach. By using this function water content changes can be

  4. Reactive Infiltration of Silicon Melt Through Microporous Amorphous Carbon Preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sangsuwan, P.; Tewari, S. N.; Gatica, J. E.; Singh, M.; Dickerson, R.

    1999-01-01

    The kinetics of unidirectional capillary infiltration of silicon melt into microporous carbon preforms have been investigated as a function of the pore morphology and melt temperature. The infiltrated specimens showed alternating bands of dark and bright regions, which corresponded to the unreacted free carbon and free silicon regions, respectively. The decrease in the infiltration front velocity for increasing infiltration distances, is in qualitative agreement with the closed-form solution of capillarity driven fluid flow through constant cross section cylindrical pores. However, drastic changes in the thermal response and infiltration front morphologies were observed for minute differences in the preforms microstructure. This suggests the need for a dynamic percolation model that would account for the exothermic nature of the silicon-carbon chemical reaction and the associated pore closing phenomenon.

  5. Spatial and temporal infiltration dynamics during managed aquifer recharge.

    PubMed

    Racz, Andrew J; Fisher, Andrew T; Schmidt, Calla M; Lockwood, Brian S; Los Huertos, Marc

    2012-01-01

    Natural groundwater recharge is inherently difficult to quantify and predict, largely because it comprises a series of processes that are spatially distributed and temporally variable. Infiltration ponds used for managed aquifer recharge (MAR) provide an opportunity to quantify recharge processes across multiple scales under semi-controlled conditions. We instrumented a 3-ha MAR infiltration pond to measure and compare infiltration patterns determined using whole-pond and point-specific methods. Whole-pond infiltration was determined by closing a transient water budget (accounting for inputs, outputs, and changes in storage), whereas point-specific infiltration rates were determined using heat as a tracer and time series analysis at eight locations in the base of the pond. Whole-pond infiltration, normalized for wetted area, rose rapidly to more than 1.0 m/d at the start of MAR operations (increasing as pond stage rose), was sustained at high rates for the next 40 d, and then decreased to less than 0.1 m/d by the end of the recharge season. Point-specific infiltration rates indicated high spatial and temporal variability, with the mean of measured values generally being lower than rates indicated by whole-pond calculations. Colocated measurements of head gradients within saturated soils below the pond were combined with infiltration rates to calculate soil hydraulic conductivity. Observations indicate a brief period of increasing saturated hydraulic conductivity, followed by a decrease of one to two orders of magnitude during the next 50 to 75 d. Locations indicating the most rapid infiltration shifted laterally during MAR operation, and we suggest that infiltration may function as a "variable source area" processes, conceptually similar to catchment runoff.

  6. The temperature dependence of ponded infiltration under isothermal conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Murphy, F.

    1991-01-01

    A simple temperature-sensitive modification to the Green and Ampt infiltration equation is described; this assumes that the temperature dependence of the hydraulic conductivity is reciprocally equal to the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water, and that both the transmission zone saturation and the wetting front matric potential gradient are independent of temperature. This modified Green and Ampt equation is compared with ponded, isothermal infiltration experiments run on repacked columns of Olympic Sand and Aiken Loam at 5, 25, and 60??C. Experimental results showed increases in infiltration rates of at least 300% between 5 and 60??C for both soil materials, with subsequent increases in cumulative infiltration of even greater magnitudes for the loam. There is good agreement between measured and predicted initial infiltration rates at 25??C for both soil materials, yet at 60??C, the predicted results overestimate initial infiltration rates for the sand and underestimate initial rates for the loam. Measurements of the wetting depth vs. cumulative infiltration indicate that the transmission zone saturation increased with increasing temperature for both soil materials. In spite of this increased saturation with temperature, the final infiltration rates at both 25 and 60??C were predicted accurately using the modified Green and Ampt equation. This suggests that increased saturation occurred primarily in dead-end pore spaces, so that transmission zone hydraulic conductivities were unaffected by these temperature-induced changes in saturation. In conclusion, except for initial infiltration rates at 60??C, the measured influence of temperature on infiltration rates was fully accounted for by the temperature dependence of the viscosity of liquid water. ?? 1991.

  7. Effect of Injection Pressure of Infiltration Anesthesia to the Jawbone

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Kenji; Tanaka, Eri; Kawaai, Hiroyoshi; Yamazaki, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    To obtain effective infiltration anesthesia in the jawbone, high concentrations of local anesthetic are needed. However, to reduce pain experienced by patients during local anesthetic administration, low-pressure injection is recommended for subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia. Currently, there are no studies regarding the effect of injection pressure on infiltration anesthesia, and a standard injection pressure has not been clearly determined. Hence, the effect of injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia on local anesthetic infiltration to the jawbone was considered by directly measuring lidocaine concentration in the jawbone. Japanese white male rabbits were used as test animals. After inducing general anesthesia with oxygen and sevoflurane, cannulation to the femoral artery was performed and arterial pressure was continuously recorded. Subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia was performed by injecting 0.5 mL of 2% lidocaine containing 1/80,000 adrenaline, and injection pressure was monitored by a pressure transducer for 40 seconds. After specified time intervals (10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 minutes), jawbone and blood samples were collected, and the concentration of lidocaine at each time interval was measured. The mean injection pressure was divided into 4 groups (100 ± 50 mm Hg, 200 ± 50 mm Hg, 300 ± 50 mm Hg, and 400 ± 50 mm Hg), and comparison statistical analysis between these 4 groups was performed. No significant change in blood pressure during infiltration anesthesia was observed in any of the 4 groups. Lidocaine concentration in the blood and jawbone were highest 10 minutes after the infiltration anesthesia in all 4 groups and decreased thereafter. Lidocaine concentration in the jawbone increased as injection pressure increased, while serum lidocaine concentration was significantly lower. This suggests that when injection pressure of subperiosteal infiltration anesthesia is low, infiltration of local anesthetic to the jawbone may

  8. Characterizing Heterogeneity in Infiltration Rates During Managed Aquifer Recharge.

    PubMed

    Mawer, Chloe; Parsekian, Andrew; Pidlisecky, Adam; Knight, Rosemary

    2016-11-01

    Infiltration rate is the key parameter that describes how water moves from the surface into a groundwater aquifer during managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Characterization of infiltration rate heterogeneity in space and time is valuable information for MAR system operation. In this study, we utilized fiber optic distributed temperature sensing (FO-DTS) observations and the phase shift of the diurnal temperature signal between two vertically co-located fiber optic cables to characterize infiltration rate spatially and temporally in a MAR basin. The FO-DTS measurements revealed spatial heterogeneity of infiltration rate: approximately 78% of the recharge water infiltrated through 50% of the pond bottom on average. We also introduced a metric for quantifying how the infiltration rate in a recharge pond changes over time, which enables FO-DTS to be used as a method for monitoring MAR and informing maintenance decisions. By monitoring this metric, we found high-spatial variability in how rapidly infiltration rate changed during the test period. We attributed this variability to biological pore clogging and found a relationship between high initial infiltration rate and the most rapid pore clogging. We found a strong relationship (R(2)  = 0.8) between observed maximum infiltration rates and electrical resistivity measurements from electrical resistivity tomography data taken in the same basin when dry. This result shows that the combined acquisition of DTS and ERT data can improve the design and operation of a MAR pond significantly by providing the critical information needed about spatial variability in parameters controlling infiltration rates.

  9. On the impact of entrapped air in infiltration under ponding conditions: Part a: Preferential air flow path effects on infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weisbord, N.; Mizrahi, G.; Furman, A.

    2015-12-01

    Entrapped air effects on infiltration under ponding conditions could be important for massive infiltration of managed aquifer recharge or soil aquifer treatment. Earlier studies found that under ponding conditions air could reduce infiltration by 70-90%. Most studies have dealt with entrapped air effects when soil surface topography is flat. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of: (1) irregular surface topography on preferential air flow path development; (2) preferential air flow path on infiltration; and (3) hydraulic head on infiltration when air is trapped. Column experiments were used to investigate these particular effects. A 140 cm deep and 30 cm wide column packed with silica sand was used under two boundary conditions: in the first, air can only escape vertically upward through the soil surface; in the second, air is free to escape. The surface was flooded with 13 liters of water, with ponding depth decreasing with time. Two soil surface conditions were tested: flat surface and irregular. It was found that in irregular surfaces, stable air flow through preferential paths was developed in the high altitude zones. Flat surface topography caused unstable air flow through random paths. Comparison between irregular and flat surface topography showed that the entrapped air pressure was lower and the infiltration rate was about 40% higher in the irregular surface topography than in the flat surface topography. No difference of infiltration rate between flat and irregular surface topography was observed when air was free to escape along the infiltration path. It was also found that at the first stage of infiltration, higher hydraulic heads caused higher entrapped air pressures and lower infiltration rates. In contrast, higher hydraulic head results in higher infiltration rate, when air was free to escape. Our results suggest that during ponding conditions: (1) preferential air flow paths develop at high surface zones of irregular topography

  10. Pathogenetic Mechanisms of Deep Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Tosti, Claudia; Pinzauti, Serena; Santulli, Pietro; Chapron, Charles; Petraglia, Felice

    2015-09-01

    Endometriosis is a benign gynecologic disease, affecting women of reproductive age associated with chronic pelvic pain, dysmenorrhea, dyspareunia and infertility. Ovarian endometrioma (OMA), superficial peritoneal endometriosis (SPE), and deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) are, till now, recognized as major phenotypes. The discussion is to know whether they share the same pathogenetic mechanisms. Till today, DIE is recognized as the most severe clinical form of endometriosis and has a complex clinical management. The DIE lesions have been considered in the present article, without distinguishing between the anterior (bladder) or the posterior (vagina, uterosacral ligaments, rectum, and ureter) compartment. The present knowledge indicates that hormonal function (estrogen and progesterone receptors) and immunological factors, such as peritoneal macrophages, natural killer cells, and lymphocytes, are critically altered in DIE. The aggressive behavior of DIE may be explained by the highly decreased apoptosis (nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells [NF-kB], B-cell lymphoma 2 [Blc-2], and anti-Mullerian hormone) and by the increased proliferation activity related to oxidative stress (NF-kB, reactive oxygen species, extracellular regulated kinase (ERK), advanced oxidation protein product). Invasive mechanisms are more expressed (matrix metalloproteinases and activins) in DIE in comparison to the OMA and SPE. Correlated with the increased invasiveness are the data on very high expression of neuroangiogenesis (nerve growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and intercellular adhesion molecule) genes in DIE. Therefore, at the present time, several of the DIE pathogenetic features result specific in comparison to other endometriosis phenotypes, pleading for the existence of a specific entity. These evidence of specific pathogenetic features of DIE may explain the more severe symptomatology related to this form of endometriosis and suggest

  11. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  12. Multi-parametric analysis and registration of brain tumors: constructing statistical atlases and diagnostic tools of predictive value.

    PubMed

    Davatzikos, Christos; Zacharaki, Evangelia I; Gooya, Ali; Clark, Vanessa

    2011-01-01

    We discuss computer-based image analysis algorithms of multi-parametric MRI of brain tumors, aiming to assist in early diagnosis of infiltrating brain tumors, and to construct statistical atlases summarizing population-based characteristics of brain tumors. These methods combine machine learning, deformable registration, multi-parametric segmentation, and biophysical modeling of brain tumors.

  13. Stereotactic Radiosurgery in Treating Patients With Brain Tumors

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2012-03-21

    Adult Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Adult Malignant Meningioma; Adult Medulloblastoma; Adult Noninfiltrating Astrocytoma; Adult Oligodendroglioma; Adult Craniopharyngioma; Adult Meningioma; Brain Metastases; Adult Ependymoma; Adult Pineal Parenchymal Tumor; Adult Brain Stem Glioma; Adult Infiltrating Astrocytoma; Mixed Gliomas; Stage IV Peripheral Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor

  14. Diversity and divergence of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell receptor repertoire

    PubMed Central

    Sims, Jennifer S.; Grinshpun, Boris; Feng, Yaping; Ung, Timothy H.; Neira, Justin A.; Samanamud, Jorge L.; Canoll, Peter; Shen, Yufeng; Sims, Peter A.; Bruce, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Although immune signaling has emerged as a defining feature of the glioma microenvironment, how the underlying structure of the glioma-infiltrating T-cell population differs from that of the blood from which it originates has been difficult to measure directly in patients. High-throughput sequencing of T-cell receptor (TCR) repertoires (TCRseq) provides a population-wide statistical description of how T cells respond to disease. We have defined immunophenotypes of whole repertoires based on TCRseq of the α- and β-chains from glioma tissue, nonneoplastic brain tissue, and peripheral blood from patients. Using information theory, we partitioned the diversity of these TCR repertoires into that from the distribution of VJ cassette combinations and diversity due to VJ-independent factors, such as selection due to antigen binding. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) possessed higher VJ-independent diversity than nonneoplastic tissue, stratifying patients according to tumor grade. We found that the VJ-independent components of tumor-associated repertoires diverge more from their corresponding peripheral repertoires than T-cell populations in nonneoplastic brain tissue, particularly for low-grade gliomas. Finally, we identified a “signature” set of TCRs whose use in peripheral blood is associated with patients exhibiting low TIL divergence and is depleted in patients with highly divergent TIL repertoires. This signature is detectable in peripheral blood, and therefore accessible noninvasively. We anticipate that these immunophenotypes will be foundational to monitoring and predicting response to antiglioma vaccines and immunotherapy. PMID:27261081

  15. Sex differences in T-lymphocyte tissue infiltration and development of angiotensin II hypertension.

    PubMed

    Pollow, Dennis P; Uhrlaub, Jennifer; Romero-Aleshire, Melissa J; Sandberg, Kathryn; Nikolich-Zugich, Janko; Brooks, Heddwen L; Hay, Meredith

    2014-08-01

    There is extensive evidence that activation of the immune system is both necessary and required for the development of angiotensin II (Ang II)-induced hypertension in males. The purpose of this study was to determine whether sex differences exist in the ability of the adaptive immune system to induce Ang II-dependent hypertension and whether central and renal T-cell infiltration during Ang II-induced hypertension is sex dependent. Recombinant activating gene-1 (Rag-1)(-/-) mice, lacking both T and B cells, were used. Male and female Rag-1(-/-) mice received adoptive transfer of male CD3(+) T cells 3 weeks before 14-day Ang II infusion (490 ng/kg per minute). Blood pressure was monitored via tail cuff. In the absence of T cells, systolic blood pressure responses to Ang II were similar between sexes (Δ22.1 mm Hg males versus Δ18 mm : Hg females). After adoptive transfer of male T cells, Ang II significantly increased systolic blood pressure in males (Δ37.7 mm : Hg; P<0.05) when compared with females (Δ13.7 mm : Hg). Flow cytometric analysis of total T cells and CD4(+), CD8(+), and regulatory Foxp3(+)-CD4(+) T-cell subsets identified that renal lymphocyte infiltration was significantly increased in males versus females in both control and Ang II-infused animals (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining for CD3(+)-positive T cells in the subfornical organ region of the brain was increased in males when compared with that in females. These results suggest that female Rag-1(-/-) mice are protected from male T-cell-mediated increases in Ang II-induced hypertension when compared with their male counterparts, and this protection may involve sex differences in the magnitude of T-cell infiltration of the kidney and brain.

  16. Controls on the variability of net infiltration to desert sandstone

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; McKinney, T.S.; Zhdanov, M.S.; Watt, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in and climates and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration becomes critically important for accurately inventorying water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. This paper presents a conceptual model of net infiltration to desert sandstone and then develops an empirical equation for its spatial quantification at the watershed scale using linear least squares inversion methods for evaluating controlling parameters (independent variables) based on estimated net infiltration rates (dependent variables). Net infiltration rates used for this regression analysis were calculated from environmental tracers in boreholes and more than 3000 linear meters of vadose zone excavations in an upland basin in southwestern Utah underlain by Navajo sandstone. Soil coarseness, distance to upgradient outcrop, and topographic slope were shown to be the primary physical parameters controlling the spatial variability of net infiltration. Although the method should be transferable to other desert sandstone settings for determining the relative spatial distribution of net infiltration, further study is needed to evaluate the effects of other potential parameters such as slope aspect, outcrop parameters, and climate on absolute net infiltration rates. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  18. Simulation of fluid, heat transport to estimate desert stream infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kulongoski, J.T.; Izbicki, J.A.

    2008-01-01

    In semiarid regions, the contribution of infiltration from intermittent streamflow to ground water recharge may be quantified by comparing simulations of fluid and heat transport beneath stream channels to observed ground temperatures. In addition to quantifying natural recharge, streamflow infiltration estimates provide a means to characterize the physical properties of stream channel sediments and to identify suitable locations for artificial recharge sites. Rates of winter streamflow infiltration along stream channels are estimated based on the cooling effect of infiltrated water on streambed sediments, combined with the simulation of two-dimensional fluid and heat transport using the computer program VS2DH. The cooling effect of ground water is determined by measuring ground temperatures at regular intervals beneath stream channels and nearby channel banks in order to calculate temperature-depth profiles. Additional data inputs included the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of unsaturated alluvium, and monthly ground temperatures measurements over an annual cycle. Observed temperatures and simulation results can provide estimates of the minimum threshold for deep infiltration, the variability of infiltration along stream channels, and also the frequency of infiltration events.

  19. LNAPL Removal from Unsaturated Porous Media using Surfactant Infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Zhong, Lirong; Oostrom, Martinus

    2012-11-19

    A series of unsaturated column experiments was performed to evaluate light non-aqueous phase liquid (LNAPL) fate and removal during surfactant solution infiltration. Surfactant-LNAPL phase behavior tests were conducted to optimize the remedial solutions. Packed sand and site sediment columns were first processed to establish representative LNAPL smear zone under unsaturated conditions. Infiltration of low-concentration surfactant was then applied in a stepwise flush mode, with 0.3 column pore volume (PV) of solution in each flush. The influence of infiltrated surfactant solution volume and pH on LNAPL removal was assessed. A LNAPL bank was observed at the very front of the first surfactant infiltration in each column, indicating that a very low surfactant concentration is needed to reduce the LNAPL-water interfacial tension sufficiently enough to mobilize trapped LNAPL under unsaturated conditions. More LNAPL was recovered as additional steps of surfactant infiltration were applied. Up to 99% LNAPL was removed after six infiltration steps, with less than 2.0 PV of total surfactant solution application, suggesting surfactant infiltration may be an effective method for vadose zone LNAPL remediation. The influence of pH tested in this study (3.99~10.85) was insignificant because the buffering capacity of the sediment kept the pH in the column higher than the zero point charge, pHzpc, of the sediment and therefore the difference between surfactant sorption was negligible.

  20. Clinicopathological features of infiltrating lobular carcinomas comparing with infiltrating ductal carcinomas: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Infiltrating lobular carcinoma (ILC) is the second most common type of invasive breast cancers and it has been reported to have some unique biologic and epidemiologic characteristics. Methods Clinicopathological features of 95 patients with ILC, their relapse free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) were retrospectively investigated and compared with those of 3,621 patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma-not otherwise specified (IDC-NOS) between January 1984 and December 2005. Results ILC constitutes 2.3% of all invasive breast cancers. There were no difference between the ILC and the IDC-NOS groups regarding age at diagnosis, tumor size, nodal status, and treatment modalities except hormone therapy. The ILC group showed more estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression and higher bilaterality. RFS and OS of the ILC patients were similar to those of the IDC. IDC-NOS metastasized more frequently to the lung and bone, whereas, ILC to the bone and ovary. Conclusions The incidence of ILC was relatively low in Korean breast cancer patients. Comparing to IDC-NOS ILC showed some different features such as higher estrogen receptor expression, less HER-2 expression, higher bilaterality and preferred metastatic sites of bone and ovary. Contralateral cancers and bone and ovary evaluation should be considered when monitoring ILC patients. PMID:20423478

  1. On The Valuation of Infiltration towards Meeting Residential Ventilation Needs

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max H.

    2008-09-01

    The purpose of ventilation is dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially existing homes, infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago.

  2. Nutrient infiltrate concentrations from three permeable pavement types.

    PubMed

    Brown, Robert A; Borst, Michael

    2015-12-01

    While permeable pavement is increasingly being used to control stormwater runoff, field-based, side-by-side investigations on the effects different pavement types have on nutrient concentrations present in stormwater runoff are limited. In 2009, the U.S. EPA constructed a 0.4-ha parking lot in Edison, New Jersey, that incorporated permeable interlocking concrete pavement (PICP), pervious concrete (PC), and porous asphalt (PA). Each permeable pavement type has four, 54.9-m(2), lined sections that direct all infiltrate into 5.7-m(3) tanks enabling complete volume collection and sampling. This paper highlights the results from a 12-month period when samples were collected from 13 rainfall/runoff events and analyzed for nitrogen species, orthophosphate, and organic carbon. Differences in infiltrate concentrations among the three permeable pavement types were assessed and compared with concentrations in rainwater samples and impervious asphalt runoff samples, which were collected as controls. Contrary to expectations based on the literature, the PA infiltrate had significantly larger total nitrogen (TN) concentrations than runoff and infiltrate from the other two permeable pavement types, indicating that nitrogen leached from materials in the PA strata. There was no significant difference in TN concentration between runoff and infiltrate from either PICP or PC, but TN in runoff was significantly larger than in the rainwater, suggesting meaningful inter-event dry deposition. Similar to other permeable pavement studies, nitrate was the dominant nitrogen species in the infiltrate. The PA infiltrate had significantly larger nitrite and ammonia concentrations than PICP and PC, and this was presumably linked to unexpectedly high pH in the PA infiltrate that greatly exceeded the optimal pH range for nitrifying bacteria. Contrary to the nitrogen results, the PA infiltrate had significantly smaller orthophosphate concentrations than in rainwater, runoff, and infiltrate from PICP

  3. Rational approach to pulmonary infiltrates in leukemia and transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kontoyiannis, Dimitrios P

    2013-09-01

    At present, a number of invasive diagnostic techniques can be used to diagnose the cause of lung infiltrates in patients with hematologic malignancies or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation recipients. Bronchoscopy with measurement of biomarkers in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) will most likely become the preferred method to diagnose infectious causes of pulmonary infiltrates. However, there is no uniform approach regarding the technical parameters of the lavage procedure in cancer patients. Diagnostic protocols vary by region, center, and the expertise of the staff. This mini review discusses the issues surrounding diffuse pulmonary infiltrates and provides some recommendations to deal with these issues.

  4. On-site infiltration of road runoff using pervious pavements with subjacent infiltration trenches as source control strategy.

    PubMed

    Fach, S; Dierkes, C

    2011-01-01

    The focus in this work was on subsoil infiltration of stormwater from parking lots. With regard to operation, reduced infiltration performance due to clogging and pollutants in seepage, which may contribute to contaminate groundwater, are of interest. The experimental investigation covered a pervious pavement with a subjacent infiltration trench draining an impervious area of 2 ha. In order to consider seasonal effects on the infiltration performance, the hydraulic conductivity was measured tri-monthly during monitoring with a mobile sprinkling unit. To assess natural deposits jointing, road bed, gravel of infiltration trenches and subsoil were analysed prior to commencement of monitoring for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons. Furthermore, from 22 storm events, water samples of rainfall, surface runoff, seepage and ground water were analysed with regard to the above mentioned pollutants. The study showed that the material used for the joints had a major impact on the initial as well as the final infiltration rates. Due to its poor hydraulic conductivity, limestone gravel should not be used as jointing. Furthermore, it is recommended that materials for the infiltration facilities are ensured free of any contaminants prior to construction. Polycyclic aromatic and mineral oil type hydrocarbons were, with the exception of surface runoff, below detection limits. Heavy metal concentrations of groundwater were with the exception of lead (because of high background concentrations), below the permissible limits.

  5. Modeling the abnormally slow infiltration rate in mesoporous films.

    PubMed

    Berli, Claudio L A; Mercuri, Magalí; Bellino, Martín G

    2017-01-18

    Mesoporous films have been shown to exhibit striking behaviors in capillary-driven infiltration experiments. The process has been shown to follow classical Lucas-Washburn dynamics, but the effective pore radius has been calculated from hydrodynamic resistance considerations to be orders of magnitude lower than measured pore dimensions. In addition, the infiltration rate has been observed to decrease with increasing pore diameter, in contrast to the expected trend for capillary-like pores. Here, we present a simple model accounting for the mechanism behind these anomalous effects. We found the infiltration rate to be inversely proportional to the cubed ratio of pore to neck size. This physical scaling correctly modeled both the magnitude of the infiltration rate and its variation with pore diameters, for a wide range of experimental data. The model established a connection between capillary filling dynamics and nanoscale pore structure, which is of practical interest for the design and characterization of mesoporous films.

  6. Simulation of Groundwater Mounding Beneath Hypothetical Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carleton, Glen B.

    2010-01-01

    Groundwater mounding occurs beneath stormwater management structures designed to infiltrate stormwater runoff. Concentrating recharge in a small area can cause groundwater mounding that affects the basements of nearby homes and other structures. Methods for quantitatively predicting the height and extent of groundwater mounding beneath and near stormwater Finite-difference groundwater-flow simulations of infiltration from hypothetical stormwater infiltration structures (which are typically constructed as basins or dry wells) were done for 10-acre and 1-acre developments. Aquifer and stormwater-runoff characteristics in the model were changed to determine which factors are most likely to have the greatest effect on simulating the maximum height and maximum extent of groundwater mounding. Aquifer characteristics that were changed include soil permeability, aquifer thickness, and specific yield. Stormwater-runoff variables that were changed include magnitude of design storm, percentage of impervious area, infiltration-structure depth (maximum depth of standing water), and infiltration-basin shape. Values used for all variables are representative of typical physical conditions and stormwater management designs in New Jersey but do not include all possible values. Results are considered to be a representative, but not all-inclusive, subset of likely results. Maximum heights of simulated groundwater mounds beneath stormwater infiltration structures are the most sensitive to (show the greatest change with changes to) soil permeability. The maximum height of the groundwater mound is higher when values of soil permeability, aquifer thickness, or specific yield are decreased or when basin depth is increased or the basin shape is square (and values of other variables are held constant). Changing soil permeability, aquifer thickness, specific yield, infiltration-structure depth, or infiltration-structure shape does not change the volume of water infiltrated, it changes the

  7. Measuring Spatial Infiltration in Stormwater Control Measures: Results and Implications

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation will provide background information on research conducted by EPA-ORD on the use of soil moisture sensors in bioretention/bioinfiltration technologies to evaluate infiltration mechanisms and compares monitoring results to simplified modeling assumptions. A serie...

  8. Cermet materials prepared by combustion synthesis and metal infiltration

    DOEpatents

    Holt, J.B.; Dunmead, S.D.; Halverson, D.C.; Landingham, R.L.

    1991-01-29

    Ceramic-metal composites (cermets) are made by a combination of self-propagating high temperature combustion synthesis and molten metal infiltration. Solid-gas, solid-solid and solid-liquid reactions of a powder compact produce a porous ceramic body which is infiltrated by molten metal to produce a composite body of higher density. AlN-Al and many other materials can be produced. 6 figures.

  9. Infiltration of Sand Into Gravel Riverbeds With Alternate Bar Topography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardson, R.; Wydzga, M. A.; Venditti, J. G.; Dietrich, W. E.; Stacey, M. T.; Dracup, J. A.

    2006-12-01

    The hyporheic zone, which is comprised of the interconnected pore spaces in the bed of gravel rivers, plays a variety of roles in river health. It serves as a nutrient reservoir and refuge for aquatic organisms; supports surface water-groundwater exchange, which can mitigate flooding and improve water supply reliability; and stores organic matter, heavy metals, and other pollutants. When fine sediment (sand and silt) fills the pore spaces of the hyporheic zone, these functions are compromised. A number of one-dimensional laboratory studies have explored infiltration of sand into stable, flat (plane-bed), gravel riverbeds. The depth and volumetric content of sand infiltrated under such conditions are functions of sediment supply and the grain size distributions of the bed (gravel) and the sand in bedload. This study examines whether the relationships established in plane-bed experiments suffice to explain infiltration into a bed with alternate-bar topography. We present results from an infiltration experiment performed on a 2.7m x 55m laboratory flume at St. Anthony Falls Laboratory in Minneapolis. In this experiment, sand (D50 = 0.4mm) was infiltrated into a gravel (D50 = 9.2mm) bed with alternate bars, under low flow (35 lps). After infiltration, the bed was excavated at 3-6 sites in each of 5 cross-sections, chosen to represent a variety of topographic and flow conditions (e.g. head of bar, top of bar and deep channel, cross-channel). Bed samples are analyzed for depth of infiltration, sand content, and grain size distribution. We present the spatial patterns of depth and content of sand infiltrated, in relation to bed surface topography and surface water flow path. Ongoing research will couple the characteristics of this spatial pattern with sediment routing.

  10. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Matlin, W.M.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-08-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  11. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Liaw, P.K.

    1996-06-01

    Processing equipment for the infiltration of fiber-reinforced composite tubes is being designed that incorporates improvements over the equipment used to infiltrate disks. A computer-controlled machine-man interface is being developed to allow for total control of all processing variables. Additionally, several improvements are being made to the furnace that will reduce the complexity and cost of the process. These improvements include the incorporation of free standing preforms, cast mandrels, and simpler graphite heating elements.

  12. Linking denitrification and infiltration rates during managed groundwater recharge.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Calla M; Fisher, Andrew T; Racz, Andrew J; Lockwood, Brian S; Huertos, Marc Los

    2011-11-15

    We quantify relations between rates of in situ denitrification and saturated infiltration through shallow, sandy soils during managed groundwater recharge. We used thermal methods to determine time series of point-specific flow rates, and chemical and isotopic methods to assess denitrification progress. Zero order denitrification rates between 3 and 300 μmol L(-1) d(-1) were measured during infiltration. Denitrification was not detected at times and locations where the infiltration rate exceeded a threshold of 0.7 ± 0.2 m d(-1). Pore water profiles of oxygen and nitrate concentration indicated a deepening of the redoxocline at high flow rates, which reduced the thickness of the zone favorable for denitrification. Denitrification rates were positively correlated with infiltration rates below the infiltration threshold, suggesting that for a given set of sediment characteristics, there is an optimal infiltration rate for achieving maximum nitrate load reduction and improvements to water supply during managed groundwater recharge. The extent to which results from this study may be extended to other managed and natural hydrologic settings remains to be determined, but the approach taken in this study should be broadly applicable, and provides a quantitative link between shallow hydrologic and biogeochemical processes.

  13. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  14. Modelling of percolation rate of stormwater from underground infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Burszta-Adamiak, Ewa; Lomotowski, Janusz

    2013-01-01

    Underground or surface stormwater storage tank systems that enable the infiltration of water into the ground are basic elements used in Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS). So far, the design methods for such facilities have not taken into account the phenomenon of ground clogging during stormwater infiltration. Top layer sealing of the filter bed influences the infiltration rate of water into the ground. This study presents an original mathematical model describing changes in the infiltration rate variability in the phases of filling and emptying the storage and infiltration tank systems, which enables the determination of the degree of top ground layer clogging. The input data for modelling were obtained from studies conducted on experimental sites on objects constructed on a semi-technological scale. The experiment conducted has proven that the application of the model developed for the phase of water infiltration enables us to estimate the degree of module clogging. However, this method is more suitable for reservoirs embedded in more permeable soils than for those located in cohesive soils.

  15. Blood-brain barrier dysfunction-induced inflammatory signaling in brain pathology and epileptogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Young; Buckwalter, Marion; Soreq, Hermona; Vezzani, Annamaria; Kaufer, Daniela

    2012-11-01

    The protection of the brain from blood-borne toxins, proteins, and cells is critical to the brain's normal function. Accordingly, a compromise in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) function accompanies many neurologic disorders, and is tightly associated with brain inflammatory processes initiated by both infiltrating leukocytes from the blood, and activation of glial cells. Those inflammatory processes contribute to determining the severity and prognosis of numerous neurologic disorders, and can both cause, and result from BBB dysfunction. In this review we examine the role of BBB and inflammatory responses, in particular activation of transforming grown factor β (TGFβ) signaling, in epilepsy, stroke, and Parkinson's disease.

  16. Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    A brain tumor is a growth of abnormal cells in the tissues of the brain. Brain tumors can be benign, with no cancer cells, ... cancer cells that grow quickly. Some are primary brain tumors, which start in the brain. Others are ...

  17. Horizontal Fluid Infiltration: A New Measurement Device and Some Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culligan, P. J.; Ivanov, V. M.; Germiane, J. T.

    2003-12-01

    Fluid infiltration in the vadose zone has been the subject of study since the early 1900s. Understanding infiltration processes is important to numerous problems, including forecasting moisture distribution following soil irrigation, estimating the potential for leachate generation during landfill cover design, and predicting contaminant transport to groundwater following a surface spill. Many models have been developed to describe fluid infiltration, including the well-known models by Jean-Yves Parlange and his co-workers (e.g., Smith and Parlange, Water Resources Research, 14(3), 1978). These models predict the time-rate of infiltration and the cumulative volume of infiltration based on parameters, such as sorptivity, that are often obtained from laboratory experiments. The proper design of these experiments, and appreciation of the factors controlling parameters derived from them, is therefore key to the accuracy of such models. This paper describes a new experimental setup to observe fluid infiltration under one-dimensional capillary dominated flow. Dry soil is packed in a horizontal 700 mm long polycarbonate channel that is 25.5 mm x 25.5 mm in cross-section. The top of the channel is open to the atmosphere. The upstream end of the channel is connected, via a three-valve chamber, to an infiltrant container placed on an electronic balance. Initial flooding and final draining of the three-valve chamber can be controlled without disturbing conditions in the column. The height of the infiltrant container can be adjusted to control the fluid inlet head. The end of the column is capped with a seal that allows the free exit of air. During an experiment, fluid is introduced at the upstream end of the column at a fixed head. The position of the infiltration front and the cumulative mass of fluid flowing into the column are both observed with time. At the end of each experiment, the fluid saturation along the column is obtained by sampling from the top, open surface of

  18. Increased generation of cyclopentenone prostaglandins after brain ischemia and their role in aggregation of ubiquitinated proteins in neurons

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hao; Li, Wenjin; Ahmad, Muzamil; Rose, Marie E.; Miller, Tricia M.; Yu, Mei; Chen, Jie; Pascoe, Jordan L.; Poloyac, Samuel M.; Hickey, Robert W.; Graham, Steven H.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclopentenone prostaglandin (CyPG) J2 series, including prostaglandin J2 (PGJ2), Δ12-PGJ2 and 15-deoxy-Δ12, 14 -prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), are active metabolites of PGD2, exerting multiple effects on neuronal function. However, the physiologic relevance of these effects remains uncertain as brain concentrations of CyPGs have not been precisely determined. In this study, we found that free PGD2 and the J2 series CyPGs (PGJ2, Δ12-PGJ2 and 15d-PGJ2) were increased in post-ischemic rat brain as detected by UPLC-MS/MS with 15d-PGJ2 being the most abundant CyPG. These increases were attenuated by pre-treating with the cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam. Next, effects of chronic exposure to 15d-PGJ2 were examined by treating primary neurons with 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 (a 15d-PGJ2 analog lacking the cyclopentenone ring structure), or vehicle for 24 h to 96 h. Because we found that the concentration of free 15d-PGJ2 decreased rapidly in cell culture medium, freshly prepared medium containing 15d-PGJ2, CAY10410 or vehicle was changed twice daily to maintain steady extracellular concentrations. Incubation with 2.5 μM 15d-PGJ2, but not CAY10410, increased neuronal cell death without induction of caspase-3 or PARP cleavage, consistent with a primarily necrotic mechanism for 15d-PGJ2-induced cell death which was further supported by TUNEL assay results. Ubiquitinated protein accumulation and aggregation was observed after 96 h 15d-PGJ2 incubation, accompanied by compromised 20S proteasome activity. Unlike another proteasome inhibitor, MG132, 15d-PGJ2 treatment did not activate autophagy or induce aggresome formation. Therefore, the cumulative cytotoxic effects of increased generation of CyPGs after stroke may contribute to delayed post-ischemic neuronal injury. PMID:23355003

  19. Alzheimer type II astrocytes in the brains of pigs with salt poisoning (water deprivation/intoxication).

    PubMed

    Finnie, J W; Blumbergs, P C; Williamson, M M

    2010-10-01

    The finding of Alzheimer type II astrocytes, in addition to the pathognomonic combination of laminar cerebrocortical necrosis and eosinophil infiltration, in the brains of pigs is reported for the first time in cases of indirect salt poisoning following water deprivation.

  20. Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae, Chorogi) Protects against Learning and Memory Dysfunction Associated with Ischemic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Harada, Shinichi; Tsujita, Tsukasa; Ono, Akiko; Miyagi, Kei; Mori, Takaharu; Tokuyama, Shogo

    2015-01-01

    Stachys sieboldii (Labiatae; Chinese artichoke, a tuber), "chorogi" in Japanese, has been extensively used in folk medicine, and has a number of pharmacological properties, including antioxidative activity. However, few studies have examined the neuroprotective effects of S. sieboldii tuber extract (chorogi extract), and it remains unknown whether the extract can alleviate learning and memory dysfunction associated with vascular dementia or Alzheimer's disease. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of chorogi extract, and examined its protection against learning and memory dysfunction using Ginkgo biloba leaf extract (ginkgo extract) as a positive control. Mice were subjected to bilateral carotid artery occlusion (BCAO) for 30 min. Oral administration of chorogi extract or ginkgo extract significantly reduced post-ischemic glucose intolerance on day 1 and neuronal damage including memory impairment on day 3 after BCAO, compared with the vehicle-treated group. Neither herbal medicine affected locomotor activity. Furthermore, neither significantly alleviated scopolamine-induced learning and memory impairment. In primary neurons, neuronal survival rate was significantly reduced by hydrogen peroxide treatment. This hydrogen peroxide-induced neurotoxicity was significantly suppressed by chorogi extract and ginkgo extract. Taken together, our findings suggest that chorogi extract as well as ginkgo extract can protect against learning and memory dysfunction associated with ischemic brain injury through an antioxidative mechanism.

  1. Anesthetic efficacy of infiltrations in mandibular anterior teeth.

    PubMed Central

    Yonchak, T.; Reader, A.; Beck, M.; Clark, K.; Meyers, W. J.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this prospective, randomized, double-blind study was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a labial infiltration of either 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 or 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Another objective was to measure the degree of anesthesia obtained with a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine in mandibular anterior teeth. Through use of a repeated-measures design, 40 subjects randomly received a labial infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of either 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine at 2 separate appointments. An additional 40 subjects received a lingual infiltration at the lateral incisor apex of 1.8 mL of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. The mandibular anterior teeth were blindly pulp tested at 4-minute cycles for 60 minutes postinjection. No response from the subject to the maximum output (80 reading) of the pulp tester was used as the criterion for pulpal anesthesia. Anesthesia was considered successful when 2 consecutive 80 readings were obtained. For the 3 infiltrations, success rates for the lateral incisor ranged from 43 to 50%. Adjacent teeth had success rates of 27 to 63%. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in success between the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine and 2% lidocaine with 1:50,000 epinephrine or the lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine when compared with the labial infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine. Duration of pulpal anesthesia declined steadily for all solutions over the 60 minutes. In conclusion, the success rate of 43-50% and declining duration of pulpal anesthesia over an hour indicates that a labial infiltration of 1.8 mL of either 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine or 1: 50,000 epinephrine or a lingual infiltration of 2% lidocaine with 1:100,000 epinephrine over the

  2. Brain surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Craniotomy; Surgery - brain; Neurosurgery; Craniectomy; Stereotactic craniotomy; Stereotactic brain biopsy; Endoscopic craniotomy ... cut depends on where the problem in the brain is located. The surgeon creates a hole in ...

  3. Brain Malformations

    MedlinePlus

    Most brain malformations begin long before a baby is born. Something damages the developing nervous system or causes it ... medicines, infections, or radiation during pregnancy interferes with brain development. Parts of the brain may be missing, ...

  4. Brain components

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    The brain is composed of more than a thousand billion neurons. Specific groups of them, working in concert, provide ... of information. The 3 major components of the brain are the cerebrum, cerebellum, and brain stem. The ...

  5. Hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Deletic, Ana; Roldin, Maria; Binning, Philip John

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a novel modeling analysis of a 40-year-long dataset to examine the impact of urbanization, with widespread stormwater infiltration, on groundwater levels and the water balance of a watershed. A dataset on the hydrologic impact of urbanization with extensive stormwater infiltration is not widely available, and is important because many municipalities are considering infiltration as an alternative to traditional stormwater systems. This study analyzes groundwater level observations from an urban catchment located in Perth, Western Australia. The groundwater observation data cover approximately a 40-year-long period where land use changes (particularly due to urbanization) occurred; moreover, the monitored area contains both undeveloped and urbanized areas where stormwater infiltration is common practice via soakwells (shallow vertical infiltration wells). The data is analyzed using a distributed and dynamic hydrological model to simulate the groundwater response. The model explicitly couples a soakwell model with a groundwater model so that the performance of the soakwells is reduced by the increase of groundwater levels. The groundwater observation data is used to setup, calibrate and validate a coupled MIKE SHE-MIKE URBAN groundwater model and the model is used to quantify the extent of groundwater rise as a result of the urbanization process. The modeled urbanization processes included the irrigation of new established private and public gardens, the reduction of evapotranspiration due to a decrease in green areas, and the development of artificial stormwater infiltration. The study demonstrates that urbanization with stormwater infiltration affects the whole catchment water balance, increasing recharge and decreasing evapotranspiration. These changes lead to a rise in the groundwater table and an increase in the probability of groundwater seepage above terrain.

  6. Solute Breakthrough During Recurrent Ponded Infiltration Into Heterogeneous Soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Cislerova, M.

    2009-12-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  7. Solute breakthrough during recurrent ponded infiltration into heterogeneous soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, Martina; Snehota, Michal; Dohnal, Michal; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    Water flow during recurrent ponded infiltration may be influenced by presence of entrapped air in heterogeneous soils. It is assumed that variations of the entrapped air volume cause changes of the water content and flow patterns, with consequences for the solute transport. The aim of this contribution is to investigate the effect of entrapped air on dispersion by means of experiments in laboratory. Two undisturbed samples of sandy loam soils were collected at the experimental sites in the Šumava Mountains and the Jizera Mountains (Czech Republic). Packed sample of fine quartz sand was used as a reference. Recurrent ponded infiltration, conducted on each soil sample consisted of two or more infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wetter soil. Suction pressure heads in three heights were continuously measured by tensiometers. Water contents were monitored by TDR probes also in three heights. Outflow fluxes were recorded continuously during the experiments as well as the weight of the sample. During each infiltration run the concentration pulse of potassium bromide solution was applied at the top of the soil core during steady state flow and breakthrough curve was acquired by electrochemical in-line analysis of bromide ions in the effluent. Soil hydraulic properties were obtained by fitting the measured flux, water content and pressure data by the dual permeability model. The dispersion coefficients were determined by fitting a one-dimensional advection-dispersion equation to each breakthrough curve. Differences in the shape of the breakthrough curves obtained for individual infiltration runs will be discussed on the poster. This research has been supported by GACR 103/08/1552.

  8. A novel experiment for measuring infiltration into seasonal frozen soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demand, Dominic; Weiler, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Large parts of the northern hemisphere have at least seasonal frozen soils. Depending on the initial soil water content infiltration capacity can be reduced through pore blockage of ice. Many studies dealing with this topic used numerical modelling for estimating the effect of frozen soils on infiltration. Only a few studies investigated the influences of seasonal frozen soils on infiltration and runoff generation in field experiments. Some authors point out that preferential flow can be an important factor under frozen conditions, but only qualitative information are available so far. A missing methodology makes it hard to measure and quantify infiltration into frozen soils, especially the role of preferential flow. Therefore, a novel multi-method approach for measuring the influences of seasonal frozen soil on infiltration is presented. Sprinkling experiments with a rate of 50 mm/h were performed at frozen soil plots under wet and dry initial conditions in a grassland field site in the Black Forest, Germany. Additionally, two different water temperatures were used for the sprinkling experiments (~2°C and ~10°C). Thermal infrared imagery was tested for continuous, in-situ monitoring of the spatiotemporal soil thermal state during infiltration and the possibility to derive information on water flow. A dye tracer (Brilliant Blue FCF) was added to the infiltrating water and analyzed by image analysis for flow patterns and depth distribution. Thermal infrared imagery and dye tracer were used for the first time in field experiments in frozen soils and were tested for their potential to show the effect of preferential flow under frozen conditions. These information were related to observed soil moisture and temperature profiles measured with capacitance probes in five depths. Furthermore timing and amount of surface runoff was examined for all plots. Brilliant Blue flow patterns and surface runoff were compared against unfrozen soils with similar initial conditions

  9. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  10. Characterization of interstitial infiltrating cells in Berger's disease.

    PubMed

    Sabadini, E; Castiglione, A; Colasanti, G; Ferrario, F; Civardi, R; Fellin, G; D'Amico, G

    1988-10-01

    The role of infiltrating blood-borne cells in the pathogenesis of renal damage in human glomerulonephritis is under active investigation. We have evaluated leukocyte infiltrates (number of cells/mm2) in the renal interstitium of 21 patients with Berger's disease and eight normal kidneys with monoclonal antibodies and a four-layer immunoperoxidase technique. In our population of patients, the number of infiltrating T-lymphocytes (OKT11+ cells) was significantly higher (median, 132) than in the normal kidneys (median, 60). This increase was mainly due to T-suppressor/cytotoxic lymphocytes (OKT8+ cells; median, 68), while T-helper/inducer lymphocytes (Leu 3A+ cells) and monocytes were in the normal range. T-lymphocyte infiltration was more marked in ten patients with impaired glomerular filtration rate (GFR) at the time of biopsy (median, 167) than in patients with normal GFR (median, 88). In addition, ten patients who showed deterioration of renal function during the subsequent follow-up, whatever their serum creatinine levels at the time of biopsy, had significantly more total T cells (median, 269), OKT8+ cells (median, 143), and Leu 3A+ cells (median, 105) than 11 patients with persistently stable GFR and normal controls. More data are necessary to establish whether this T-lymphocyte infiltration is the consequence of a cell-mediated mechanism acting in the interstitium, concomitant with the immune-complex-mediated mechanism acting in the glomerulus, or is a nonspecific consequence of the tubulointerstitial damage induced by the immunologically mediated glomerular disease.

  11. Sand infiltration into a gravel bed: A mathematical model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, A.; Berni, C.

    2016-11-01

    Fine sediment infiltration into a river bed is a physical process affected by different human actions and has several environmental, socioeconomic, and river morphology consequences. A theoretical model is proposed herein aiming to reproduce the fine sediment content depth profile resulting from the infiltration of fine sediment into an initially clean gravel bed. The model is based on the probability of infiltrating particles to be trapped in a pore throat formed by three bed particles. The model is tested against previous experimental results and is found to reproduce adequately the occurrence of the two infiltration mechanisms reported by previous studies: bridging and unimpeded static percolation. Theoretical depth profiles are found to underestimate fine sediment content at the bed subsurface (below 2-3 gravel diameter depth) compared to the laboratory results. This may be due to hyporheic flow that is not taken into account in our model. In flow experiments, the particles previously infiltrated and deposited might be destabilized by pore water flow and their fall down to the bed might be magnified.

  12. Investigating Unstable Water Infiltration into Alcohol Contaminated Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McLeod, H. C.; Smith, J. E.; Henry, E. J.; Brodsky, Y.

    2009-05-01

    A new mechanism causing highly focused, unstable flow exists in soils contaminated with alcohols due to their surface-activity. For example, surface-active compounds can significantly decrease the interfacial tension of the air-water interface and change the pressure-head of the soil water; directly affecting water flow and solute transport in the vadose zone. This study evaluated the fundamental effects of surface-active alcohols on water infiltration into contaminated soils under controlled laboratory conditions. A small scale 3-D glass flow cell and a mini disk tension infiltrometer were used to monitor the rates and physical characteristics of water infiltration from a constant head point source into sands of various textures contaminated with a butanol solution. The results confirmed that water infiltration into these soils is fundamentally and substantially different than the current understanding of infiltration patterns, including previously described mechanisms of wetting front instability. In butanol-contaminated soils, the wetting fronts exhibited highly focused flow with smaller wetted soil volumes, deeper penetration and substantially higher infiltration rates. In addition, the extent of fingered focused flow was confirmed to be texturally dependent, decreasing with grain size and dependent on the constant head boundary. This study characterized a new mechanism of focused, unstable flow with significant implications for groundwater management and solute transport in alcohol contaminated soils.

  13. Infiltration History and Spatial Variability Derived from Chloride Mass Balance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walton, J. C.; Jaimes, A.; Woocay, A.

    2007-12-01

    Chloride mass balance was applied to drill cuttings collected from the unsaturated zone surrounding the Yucca Mountain Project. Samples correspond to four Nye County Early Warning Drilling Program boreholes where air was used as the drilling fluid to preserve sample integrity. Infiltration dates before present and pore velocities were calculated using a range of annual chloride deposition rates obtained from the literature. The lower chloride loading corresponds to contemporary values, and the upper loading corresponds to an attempt to correct for either past greater chloride deposition or a past higher precipitation with chloride concentration remaining constant. In each borehole, pore velocities present two distinct slopes corresponding to different infiltration regimes. The first one, near the surface, presents the slowest infiltration rate. The second pore velocity corresponds to a past wetter period (late Pleistocene to early Holocene) with much faster pore velocities. Results indicate that pore velocities among the boreholes differ at most by a factor of approximately 3.5. Boreholes located in areas of little or gradual slope present faster infiltration rates than those in areas of greater slope. Borehole NC-EWDP-22S, near Fortymile Wash east of Yucca Mountain, exhibits the most rapid pore velocities where as boreholes further from the wash demonstrate lower velocities. These results denote the effects climate change, and runoff and run-on at the surface have over infiltration rates in arid regions.

  14. Lichen Planus With Predominate Plasma Cell Infiltrate: Two Case Reports.

    PubMed

    Dinh, Huyenlan; Seyffert, Jennifer; Lountzis, Nektarios I; Altman, Howard B; Oram, Christian; Purcell, Stephen M

    2017-02-01

    Lichen planus (LP) is a mucocutaneous inflammatory dermatitis of idiopathic origin that can involve the skin, mucous membranes, hair, and nails. LP has an associated set of characteristic histopathologic findings which include hyperkeratosis, vacuolization of the basal layer, Civatte bodies, wedge-shaped hypergranulosis, band-like lymphocytic infiltrate at the dermal epidermal junction, eosinophilic colloid bodies in the papillary dermis, and pigment incontinence. The infiltrate is usually composed of lymphocytes with few histiocytes, mast cells, and macrophages. The presence of plasma cell predominant infiltrate in LP has only been reported in four previous cases and 2 other cases of lichen nitidus. The authors report another 2 cases of LP with predominate plasma cell infiltrate in 2 female patients on the legs. The differential includes a drug-induced lichenoid reaction with predominate plasma cell infiltrate. However, there have been no case reports of that type of reaction. Because plasma cells are seen commonly in certain infectious diseases, malignancy, and macroglobulinemia, it is prudent to rule out those entities. Our patients responded well with a class 1 topical steroid, with improvement of their lower leg lesions within 1 month of treatment.

  15. Trench infiltration for managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, V.M.; Watt, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock is increasingly being utilized to enhance resources and maintain sustainable groundwater development practices. One such target is the Navajo Sandstone, an extensive regional aquifer located throughout the Colorado Plateau of the western United States. Spreading-basin and bank-filtration projects along the sandstone outcrop's western edge in southwestern Utah have recently been implemented to meet growth-related water demands. This paper reports on a new cost-effective surface-infiltration technique utilizing trenches for enhancing managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. A 48-day infiltration trench experiment on outcropping Navajo Sandstone was conducted to evaluate this alternative surface-spreading artificial recharge method. Final infiltration rates through the bottom of the trench were about 0.5 m/day. These infiltration rates were an order of magnitude higher than rates from a previous surface-spreading experiment at the same site. The higher rates were likely caused by a combination of factors including the removal of lower permeability soil and surficial caliche deposits, access to open vertical sandstone fractures, a reduction in physical clogging associated with silt and biofilm layers, minimizing viscosity effects by maintaining isothermal conditions, minimizing chemical clogging caused by carbonate mineral precipitation associated with algal photosynthesis, and diminished gas clogging associated with trapped air and biogenic gases. This pilot study illustrates the viability of trench infiltration for enhancing surface spreading of managed aquifer recharge to permeable bedrock. ?? 2010.

  16. CT of chronic infiltrative lung disease: Prevalence of mediastinal lymphadenopathy

    SciTech Connect

    Niimi, Hiroshi; Kang, Eun-Young; Kwong, S.

    1996-03-01

    Our goal was to determine the prevalence of mediastinal lymph node enlargement at CT in patients with diffuse infiltrative lung disease. The study was retrospective and included 175 consecutive patients with diffuse infiltrative lung diseases. Diagnoses included idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 61), usual interstitial pneumonia associated with collagen vascular disease (CVD) (n = 20), idiopathic bronchiolitis obliterans organizing pneumonia (BOOP) (n = 22), extrinsic allergic alveolitis (EAA) (n = 17), and sarcoidosis (n = 55). Fifty-eight age-matched patients with CT of the chest performed for unrelated conditions served as controls. The presence, number, and sites of enlarged nodes (short axis {ge}10 mm in diameter) were recorded. Enlarged mediastinal nodes were present in 118 of 175 patients (67%) with infiltrative lung disease and 3 of 58 controls (5%) (p < 0.001). The prevalence of enlarged nodes was 84% (46 of 55) in sarcoidosis, 67% (41 of 61) in IPF, 70% (14 of 20) in CVD, 53% (9 of 17) in EAA, and 36% (8 of 22) in BOOP. The mean number of enlarged nodes was higher in sarcoidosis (mean 3.2) than in the other infiltrative diseases (mean 1.2) (p < 0.001). Enlarged nodes were most commonly present in station 10R, followed by 7, 4R, and 5. Patients with infiltrative lung disease frequently have enlarged mediastinal lymph nodes. However, in diseases other than sarcoid, usually only one or two nodes are enlarged and their maximal short axis diameter is <15 mm. 11 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Genes that mediate breast cancer metastasis to the brain.

    PubMed

    Bos, Paula D; Zhang, Xiang H-F; Nadal, Cristina; Shu, Weiping; Gomis, Roger R; Nguyen, Don X; Minn, Andy J; van de Vijver, Marc J; Gerald, William L; Foekens, John A; Massagué, Joan

    2009-06-18

    The molecular basis for breast cancer metastasis to the brain is largely unknown. Brain relapse typically occurs years after the removal of a breast tumour, suggesting that disseminated cancer cells must acquire specialized functions to take over this organ. Here we show that breast cancer metastasis to the brain involves mediators of extravasation through non-fenestrated capillaries, complemented by specific enhancers of blood-brain barrier crossing and brain colonization. We isolated cells that preferentially infiltrate the brain from patients with advanced disease. Gene expression analysis of these cells and of clinical samples, coupled with functional analysis, identified the cyclooxygenase COX2 (also known as PTGS2), the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) ligand HBEGF, and the alpha2,6-sialyltransferase ST6GALNAC5 as mediators of cancer cell passage through the blood-brain barrier. EGFR ligands and COX2 were previously linked to breast cancer infiltration of the lungs, but not the bones or liver, suggesting a sharing of these mediators in cerebral and pulmonary metastases. In contrast, ST6GALNAC5 specifically mediates brain metastasis. Normally restricted to the brain, the expression of ST6GALNAC5 in breast cancer cells enhances their adhesion to brain endothelial cells and their passage through the blood-brain barrier. This co-option of a brain sialyltransferase highlights the role of cell-surface glycosylation in organ-specific metastatic interactions.

  18. Role of CXCR4-mediated bone marrow colonization in CNS infiltration by T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Jost, Tanja Rezzonico; Borga, Chiara; Radaelli, Enrico; Romagnani, Andrea; Perruzza, Lisa; Omodho, Lorna; Cazzaniga, Giovanni; Biondi, Andrea; Indraccolo, Stefano; Thelen, Marcus; Te Kronnie, Geertruy; Grassi, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    Infiltration of the central nervous system is a severe trait of T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 significantly ameliorates T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia in murine models of the disease; however, signaling by CXC chemokine receptor 4 is important in limiting the divagation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells out of the perivascular space into the central nervous system parenchyma. Therefore, Inhibition of CXC chemokine receptor 4 potentially may untangle T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells from retention outside the brain. Here, we show that leukemic lymphoblasts massively infiltrate cranial bone marrow, with diffusion to the meninges without invasion of the brain parenchyma, in mice that underwent xenotransplantation with human T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells or that developed leukemia from transformed hematopoietic progenitors. We tested the hypothesis that T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia neuropathology results from meningeal infiltration through CXC chemokine receptor 4-mediated bone marrow colonization. Inhibition of leukemia engraftment in the bone marrow by pharmacologic CXC chemokine receptor 4 antagonism significantly ameliorated neuropathologic aspects of the disease. Genetic deletion of CXCR4 in murine hematopoietic progenitors abrogated leukemogenesis induced by constitutively active Notch1, whereas lack of CCR6 and CCR7, which have been shown to be involved in T cell and leukemia extravasation into the central nervous system, respectively, did not influence T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia development. We hypothesize that lymphoblastic meningeal infiltration as a result of bone marrow colonization is responsible for the degenerative alterations of the neuroparenchyma as well as the alteration of cerebrospinal fluid drainage in T cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia xenografts. Therefore, CXC chemokine receptor 4 may constitute a pharmacologic target for T cell acute lymphoblastic

  19. A hydrologic analysis for the infiltration basins planned on Jeju Island, Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, S.; Kang, T.; Lee, J.; Kang, S.

    2010-12-01

    Urban development is a cause of expansion of impervious area. It reduces infiltration of rain water and may increase runoff volume from storms. Infiltration basins can be a method to receive storm water and to let the water move into the soil. The contents of the study include a hydrologic analysis on a site and an evaluation of the capacity of infiltration basins planned on the site. Most region of Jeju Island, Korea is highly pervious. Three infiltration basins were designed on the area of the Jeju English Education City. To evaluate adequacy of the capacities of the infiltration basins, infiltration rates were measured and storm water runoff was simulated. Infiltration rates on the surface of the reserved land for infiltration basins were measured by a standard double ring infiltrometer or a small infiltrometer. A FORTRAN version of SWMM was modified to incorporate the infiltration basin and the basic equations of the infiltration basin are same as those of the infiltration trench used in MIDUSS. The code modified was used to simulate storm runoff from watersheds, infiltration from the infiltration basins, and reservoir routing of the infiltration basins. The saturated hydraulic conductivities on the reserved sites were measured by 0.0068, 0.0038, and 0.00017 cm/sec. The return period of the design rainfall is fifty years. The following results were obtained from a hydrologic analysis on the watersheds and the infiltration basins to be built. The two infiltration basins with higher infiltration rates have adequate capacities to infiltrate the total water inflow to the basins. Some water, however releases from the other infiltration basin and the capacity of the basin is not sufficient to infiltrate the total runoff after the land use change. A channel is needed in which the water released from the less pervious basin flows. The hydrologic analysis method of the study can be used for capacity evaluation of future infiltration basins on highly pervious areas in

  20. Intracerebroventricular infusions of TNF-alpha preferentially recruit blood lymphocytes and induce a perivascular leukocyte infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Seabrook, T J; Hay, J B

    2001-02-01

    Tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha is important in several central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory diseases, however, its role in the recruitment of leukocytes into the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) and CNS is incompletely understood. Therefore, we examined the effect of intracerebroventricular (icv) and parenchymal infusions of TNF-alpha on the type of leukocyte, the pool and subset of lymphocytes recruited into CSF and brain parenchyma. Parenchymal injections of 500 ng of recombinant human TNF-alpha did not induce inflammation, whereas an icv infusion of TNF-alpha caused CSF leuckocytosis and a perivascular infiltrate. Twenty-four hours after the icv infusion neutrophils predominated, with CD4+ T cells being the major lymphocyte subset in CSF. By 48 h lymphocytes were the dominant cell type with CD8+ cells surpassing CD4+ cells in both the CSF and the perivascular infiltrate. The labeled recirculating lymphocyte pool prevailed in normal CSF, but after the infusion of TNF-alpha, the blood pool of lymphocytes was preferentially recruited. These results have implications for the immune surveillance of the CNS.

  1. Metabolic Profiling of IDH Mutation and Malignant Progression in Infiltrating Glioma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalbert, Llewellyn E.; Elkhaled, Adam; Phillips, Joanna J.; Neill, Evan; Williams, Aurelia; Crane, Jason C.; Olson, Marram P.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kurhanewicz, John; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2017-03-01

    Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, ex vivo metabolic profiles of image-guided tissue samples obtained from patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent LGG were investigated using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS). Distinct spectral profiles were observed for lesions with IDH-mutated genotypes, between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma histologies, as well as for tumors that had undergone MP. Levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) were correlated with increased mitotic activity, axonal disruption, vascular neoplasia, and with several brain metabolites including the choline species, glutamate, glutathione, and GABA. The information obtained in this study may be used to develop strategies for in vivo characterization of infiltrative glioma, in order to improve disease stratification and to assist in monitoring response to therapy.

  2. Dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs in context of neuroAIDS

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Maureen H.; Narasipura, Srinivas D.; Kim, Stephanie; Seaton, Melanie S.; Lutgen, Victoria; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2014-01-01

    HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis is a multifaceted process involving several players, including resident brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) and infiltrating cells (peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)). We evaluated the dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs as it impacts HIV in the CNS. We demonstrate that human primary-derived astrocytes (PDAs) predominantly secrete Wnt 1, 2b, 3, 5b, and 10b. Wnts are small secreted glycoproteins that initiate either β-catenin-dependent or independent signal transduction. The Wnt pathway plays a vital role in the regulation of CNS activities including neurogenesis, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. We show that HIV infection of PDAs altered astrocyte Wnt profile by elevating Wnts 2b and 10b. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) inhibited HIV replication in PBMCs by 50%. Removal of Wnts from ACM abrogated its ability to suppress HIV replication in PBMCs. Inversely, PBMCs supernatant activated PDAs, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in HLA-DR and a 5- fold increase in IFNγ expression, and enhanced astrocyte susceptibility to HIV by 2-fold, which was mediated by IFNγ in a Stat-3-dependent manner. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dynamic interaction between astrocytes and PBMCs, whereby astrocyte-secreted Wnts exert an anti-HIV effect on infected PBMCs and PBMCs, in turn, secrete IFNγ that enhance astrocyte susceptibility to productive HIV infection and mediate their activation. PMID:25331637

  3. Metabolic Profiling of IDH Mutation and Malignant Progression in Infiltrating Glioma

    PubMed Central

    Jalbert, Llewellyn E.; Elkhaled, Adam; Phillips, Joanna J.; Neill, Evan; Williams, Aurelia; Crane, Jason C.; Olson, Marram P.; Molinaro, Annette M.; Berger, Mitchel S.; Kurhanewicz, John; Ronen, Sabrina M.; Chang, Susan M.; Nelson, Sarah J.

    2017-01-01

    Infiltrating low grade gliomas (LGGs) are heterogeneous in their behavior and the strategies used for clinical management are highly variable. A key factor in clinical decision-making is that patients with mutations in the isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 and 2 (IDH1/2) oncogenes are more likely to have a favorable outcome and be sensitive to treatment. Because of their relatively long overall median survival, more aggressive treatments are typically reserved for patients that have undergone malignant progression (MP) to an anaplastic glioma or secondary glioblastoma (GBM). In the current study, ex vivo metabolic profiles of image-guided tissue samples obtained from patients with newly diagnosed and recurrent LGG were investigated using proton high-resolution magic angle spinning spectroscopy (1H HR-MAS). Distinct spectral profiles were observed for lesions with IDH-mutated genotypes, between astrocytoma and oligodendroglioma histologies, as well as for tumors that had undergone MP. Levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate (2HG) were correlated with increased mitotic activity, axonal disruption, vascular neoplasia, and with several brain metabolites including the choline species, glutamate, glutathione, and GABA. The information obtained in this study may be used to develop strategies for in vivo characterization of infiltrative glioma, in order to improve disease stratification and to assist in monitoring response to therapy. PMID:28327577

  4. Dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs in context of neuroAIDS.

    PubMed

    Richards, Maureen H; Narasipura, Srinivas D; Kim, Stephanie; Seaton, Melanie S; Lutgen, Victoria; Al-Harthi, Lena

    2015-03-01

    HIV-mediated neuropathogenesis is a multifaceted process involving several players, including resident brain cells (neurons, astrocytes, and microglia) and infiltrating cells [peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs)]. We evaluated the dynamic interaction between astrocytes and infiltrating PBMCs as it impacts HIV in the CNS. We demonstrate that human primary-derived astrocytes (PDAs) predominantly secrete Wnt 1, 2b, 3, 5b, and 10b. Wnts are small secreted glycoproteins that initiate either β-catenin-dependent or independent signal transduction. The Wnt pathway plays a vital role in the regulation of CNS activities including neurogenesis, neurotransmitter release, synaptic plasticity, and memory consolidation. We show that HIV infection of PDAs altered astrocyte Wnt profile by elevating Wnts 2b and 10b. Astrocyte conditioned media (ACM) inhibited HIV replication in PBMCs by 50%. Removal of Wnts from ACM abrogated its ability to suppress HIV replication in PBMCs. Inversely, PBMCs supernatant activated PDAs, as demonstrated by a 10-fold increase in HLA-DR and a 5-fold increase in IFNγ expression, and enhanced astrocyte susceptibility to HIV by 2-fold, which was mediated by IFNγ in a Stat-3-dependent manner. Collectively, these data demonstrate a dynamic interaction between astrocytes and PBMCs, whereby astrocyte-secreted Wnts exert an anti-HIV effect on infected PBMCs and PBMCs, in turn, secrete IFNγ that enhance astrocyte susceptibility to productive HIV infection and mediate their activation.

  5. Infiltrative microgliosis: activation and long-distance migration of subependymal microglia following periventricular insults.

    PubMed

    Carbonell, W Shawn; Murase, Shin-Ichi; Horwitz, Alan F; Mandell, James W

    2005-01-28

    BACKGROUND: Subventricular microglia (SVMs) are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. METHODS: We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis. RESULTS: We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein. CONCLUSIONS: Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues.

  6. Landscape of tumor-infiltrating T cell repertoire of human cancers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bo; Li, Taiwen; Pignon, Jean-Christophe; Wang, Binbin; Wang, Jinzeng; Shukla, Sachet; Dou, Ruoxu; Chen, Qianming; Hodi, F. Stephen; Choueiri, Toni K.; Wu, Catherine; Hacohen, Nir; Signoretti, Sabina; Liu, Jun S.; Liu, X. Shirley

    2016-01-01

    We developed a computational method to infer the complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3) sequences of tumor infiltrating T-cells in 9,142 RNA-seq samples across 29 cancer types. We identified over 600 thousand CDR3 sequences, including 15% with full-length. CDR3 sequence length distribution and amino acid conservation, as well as variable gene usage of infiltrating T-cells in many tumors, except brain and kidney cancers, resembled those in the peripheral blood of healthy donors. We observed a strong association between T-cell diversity and tumor mutation load, and predicted SPAG5 and TSSK6 as putative immunogenic cancer/testis antigens in multiple cancers. Finally, we identified 3 potential immunogenic somatic mutations based on their co-occurrence with CDR3 sequences. One of them, PRAMEF4 F300V, was predicted to bind strongly to both MHC-I and MHC-II, with matched HLA types in its carriers. Our analyses have the potential to simultaneously identify immunogenic neoantigens and the tumor-reactive T-cell clonotypes. PMID:27240091

  7. Infiltrative microgliosis: activation and long-distance migration of subependymal microglia following periventricular insults

    PubMed Central

    Carbonell, W Shawn; Murase, Shin-Ichi; Horwitz, Alan F; Mandell, James W

    2005-01-01

    Background Subventricular microglia (SVMs) are positioned at the interface of the cerebrospinal fluid and brain parenchyma and may play a role in periventricular inflammatory reactions. However, SVMs have not been previously investigated in detail due to the lack of a specific methodology for their study exclusive of deeper parenchymal microglia. Methods We have developed and characterized a novel model for the investigation of subventricular microglial reactions in mice using intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of high-dose rhodamine dyes. Dynamic studies using timelapse confocal microscopy in situ complemented the histopathological analysis. Results We demonstrate that high-dose ICV rhodamine dye injection resulted in selective uptake by the ependyma and ependymal death within hours. Phagocytosis of ependymal debris by activated SVMs was evident by 1d as demonstrated by the appearance of rhodamine-positive SVMs. In the absence of further manipulation, labelled SVMs remained in the subventricular space. However, these cells exhibited the ability to migrate several hundred microns into the parenchyma towards a deafferentation injury of the hippocampus. This "infiltrative microgliosis" was verified in situ using timelapse confocal microscopy. Finally, supporting the disease relevance of this event, the triad of ependymal cell death, SVM activation, and infiltrative microgliosis was recapitulated by a single ICV injection of HIV-1 tat protein. Conclusions Subependymal microglia exhibit robust activation and migration in periventricular inflammatory responses. Further study of this population of microglia may provide insight into neurological diseases with tendencies to involve the ventricular system and periventricular tissues. PMID:15679892

  8. Fiber-reinforced ceramic composites made by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Caputo, A.J.; Lowden, R.A.; Stinton, D.P.

    1985-01-01

    A process was developed for the fabrication of ceramic-fiber-reinforced ceramic-matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. The ceramic composites were prepared by making fibrous preforms from multiple layers of SiC cloth and forming the silicon-carbide matrix for each component specimen by infiltrating the fibrous preform by a chemical vapor deposition process. A major goal of the work was achieved when infiltration was accomplished in hours instead of weeks by combining the thermal-gradient and forced-gas-flow techniques. Composites that possessed moderate flexural strength and high strain to failure were produced. In addition, the strength of the composites decreased gradually after the maximum strength was obtained, demonstrating that the composites had the desired high toughness and avoided the typical brittle behavior of monolithic ceramics.

  9. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  10. Characterizing ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouma, J.; Wösten, J. H. M.

    1984-02-01

    Ponded infiltration in a dry cracked clay soil was studied in large blocks of soil (upper surface area 1500 cm 2, height 25-40 cm) using physical and morphological methods. Blocks were encased in gypsum. Physical measurements included: (1) infiltration rates into the block and into subsoil below the block during shallow ponding; (2) D- θ relations of soil in the block; and (3) depth and degree of wetting in soil adjacent to the cracks. Cracks in the block were then filled with a gypsum slurry. Morphological measurements included Quantimet ® counts of the surface area ( A) and the peripheral length ( L) of the gypsum-filled cracks, using in situ drawings. Simulation of horizontal infiltration from the cracks, using D( θ)- and L-values, yielded results that agreed well with in situ measurements, demonstrating the mutual compatibility of the morphological and physical methods.

  11. Infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma of the face.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Rajni V; Duncan, Lyn M; Austen, William G; Nielsen, G Petur

    2009-10-01

    Spindle cell lipoma is a benign lipomatous tumor, which usually arises on the back of the neck, shoulder or upper back of males in the third to seventh decade of life. We report herein an unusual infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising in the nose of a 53-year-old man. The patient presented with a 0.5-cm 'cyst' of the nose, just above the right alar crease, which was removed. Four years later, the lesion recurred and was re-excised. Histologically, a proliferation of mature adipocytes, ropey collagen fibers and spindle cells within a myxoid stroma was present in the subcutaneous tissue and infiltrated between skeletal muscle fibers. Nine cases of intramuscular spindle cell lipoma with histological examination have previously been reported and have involved the oral cavity and muscles of the extremities. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an infiltrating intramuscular spindle cell lipoma arising on the face.

  12. CT appearance of focal fatty infiltration of the liver

    SciTech Connect

    Halvorsen, R.A.; Korobkin, M.; Ram, P.C.; Thompson, W.M.

    1982-08-01

    Focal fatty infiltration of the liver is an entity that may be confused with liver metastasis on computed tomography (CT). The imaging results and medical records of 16 patients with CT appearance suggestive of focal fatty liver were reviewed, three of whom had the simultaneous presence of metastitic liver disease. Focal fatty liver often has a distinctive appearance with CT, usually with a nonspherical shape, absence of mass effect, and density close to water. Liver metastases are usually round or oval, and unless cystic or necrotic, they have CT attenuation values closer to normal liver parenchyma than water. A radionuclide liver scan almost always resolves any confusion about the differential diagnosis of focal fatty liver: a well defined focus of photon deficiency is due to neoplasm rather than focal fatty infiltration. Sonography sometimes helps to confirm the CT impression, but may be misleading if the diagnosis of focal or diffuse fatty infiltration is not suspected before the examination.

  13. Runoff production on a slope with randomly distributed infiltrabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouche, E.; Harel, M.

    2013-12-01

    Runoff generated on one- and two-dimensional slopes with randomly distributed infiltrability is studied in the queuing theory and connectivity frameworks. The equivalence between the runoff-runon equation and the customers waiting time in a single server queue provides a theoretical link between the statistical descriptions of infiltrability and that of runoff flow rate. Different distributions of infiltrability, representing soil heterogeneities at different scales, are considered. Numerical simulations validate these results and improve our understanding of runoff-runon process. All of the quantities describing the generation of runoff (runoff one-point statistics) and its organization into patterns (patterns statistics and connectivity) are studied as functions of rainfall rate and runoff dimensionality.

  14. Explicit infiltration function for boreholes under constant head conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnell, A. C.; Lazarovitch, N.; Warrick, A. W.

    2009-10-01

    Infiltration per unit area of the source region from discs, strips and furrows has previously been shown to be the sum of the one-dimensional infiltration and an edge effect term. Here we apply the same approach to examine infiltration under a constant head from boreholes (both lined and unlined). A critical empirical parameter (γ) in the edge effect term is related to the radius of the borehole, soil hydraulic properties, boundary and initial conditions. For lined boreholes, γ has a narrow range and for the examples investigated, a constant value of 1.06 introduces less than 5% error compared to using the case-specific γ value. For unlined boreholes, γ is larger, ranging between 1.02 and 3.16 for the examples investigated, and should be estimated for specific conditions.

  15. Strain characteristics of selectively infiltrated photonic crystal fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, WenBing; Wang, Ying; Tian, Jie

    2015-07-01

    To obtain the strain sensing for the high sensitivity PCF (Photonic Crystal Fibers), the high refractive index mixture is infiltrated into the air hole of the PCF. In this paper, we propose to adjust the infiltrated length of the air hole in order to make the loss maximum. The goal is to realize the PCF sensor with high sensitive strain. The experimental results show that the strain sensitivity is about 4.36 pm / μ ɛ when the infiltrated length is 30mm and the refractive index of the liquid is 1.5. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation ones. This kind of device can apply to the ultrasensitive strain sensing.

  16. Streamflow, Infiltration, and Recharge in Arroyo Hondo, New Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moore, Stephanie J.

    2007-01-01

    Infiltration events in channels that flow only sporadically produce focused recharge to the Tesuque aquifer in the Espa?ola Basin. The current study examined the quantity and timing of streamflow and associated infiltration in Arroyo Hondo, an unregulated mountain-front stream that enters the basin from the western slope of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains. Traditional methods of stream gaging were combined with environmental-tracer based methods to provide the estimates. The study was conducted during a three-year period, October 1999?October 2002. The period was characterized by generally low precipitation and runoff. Summer monsoonal rains produced four brief periods of streamflow in water year 2000, only three of which extended beyond the mountain front, and negligible runoff in subsequent years. The largest peak flow during summer monsoon events was 0.59 cubic meters per second. Snowmelt was the main contributor to annual streamflow. Snowmelt produced more cumulative flow downstream from the mountain front during the study period than summer monsoonal rains. The presence or absence of streamflow downstream of the mountain front was determined by interpretation of streambed thermographs. Infiltration rates were estimated by numerical modeling of transient vertical streambed temperature profiles. Snowmelt extended throughout the instrumented reach during the spring of 2001. Flow was recorded at a station two kilometers downstream from the mountain front for six consecutive days in March. Inverse modeling of this event indicated an average infiltration rate of 1.4 meters per day at this location. For the entire study reach, the estimated total annual volume of infiltration ranged from 17,100 to 246,000 m3 during water years 2000 and 2001. During water year 2002, due to severe drought, streamflow and streambed infiltration in the study reach were both zero.

  17. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, S.; Vanderborght, J.; Vogel, H.-J.

    2012-04-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is the water content and water potential is not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macro-pores. As flow paths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the subsurface, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be linked to structural properties of the material. However, this relationship cannot be rigorously examined without an upscaling approach that conserves non-equilibrium during averaging of state variables. We achieve this with a novel approach, that is based on flux-weighted averaging of hydraulic potential, and compare its performance to existing averaging approaches by means of infiltration simulations. Further, we set up some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be easily compared to morphological characteristics of the infiltration front. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We generate several realizations of two-dimensional random fields originating from three heterogeneity models with distinct differences in connectivity of high-K areas and conduct infiltration simulations with them. Our results indicate, that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic, macropore-like structures enforce it. We observed a good agreement between front morphology and upscaled non-equilibrium. Our findings encourage to use flux-weighted potentials for upscaling of state variables during transient conditions. We demonstrate, that

  18. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, S.; Vogel, H.

    2011-12-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is the water content and water potential is not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macro-pores. As flowpaths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the subsurface, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be linked to structural properties of the material. However, this relationship cannot be rigorously examined without an upscaling approach that conserves non-equilibrium during averaging of state variables. We achieve this with a novel approach, that is based on flux-weighted averaging of hydraulic potential, and compare its performance to existing averaging approaches by means of infiltration simulations. Further, we set up some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be easily compared to morphological characteristics of the infiltration front. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We generate several realizations of two-dimensional random fields originating from three heterogeneity models with distinct differences in connectivity of high-K areas and conduct infiltration simulations with them. Our results indicate, that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic, macropore-like structures enforce it. We observed a good agreement between front morphology and upscaled non-equilibrium. Our findings encourage to use flux-weighted potentials for upscaling of state variables during transient conditions. We demonstrate, that this

  19. Protein-energy malnutrition alters thermoregulatory homeostasis and the response to brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Smith, Shari E; Prosser-Loose, Erin J; Colbourne, Frederick; Paterson, Phyllis G

    2011-02-01

    Co-existing protein-energy malnutrition (PEM), characterized by deficits in both protein and energy status, impairs functional outcome following global ischemia and has been associated with increased reactive gliosis. Since temperature is a key determinant of brain damage following an ischemic insult, the objective was to investigate whether alterations in post-ischemic temperature regulation contribute to PEM-induced reactive gliosis following ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (190-280 g) were assigned to either control diet (18% protein) or PEM induced by feeding a low protein diet (2% protein) for 7 days prior to either global ischemia or sham surgery. There was a rapid disruption in thermoregulatory function in rats fed the low protein diet as assessed by continuous recording of core temperature with bio-electrical sensor transmitters. Both daily temperature fluctuation and mean temperature increased within the first 24 hours, and these remained significantly elevated throughout the 7 day pre-ischemic period (p < 0.027). In the immediate post-surgical period, PEM decreased body temperature to a greater extent than that in well-nourished controls (p = 0.003). The increase in daily temperature fluctuation caused by PEM persisted throughout the 7 day post-surgical period (p < 0.001), and this interacted with the effects of global ischemia on days 8 (p = 0.018) and 11 (p = 0.021). The astrocytic and microglial responses induced at 7 days after global ischemia were not influenced by PEM, but this preliminary analysis needs to be confirmed with a more reliable global ischemia model. In conclusion, exposure to a low protein diet rapidly impairs the ability to maintain thermoregulatory homeostasis, and the resultant PEM also diminishes the ability to thermoregulate in response to a challenge. Since temperature regulation is a key determinant of brain injury following ischemia, these findings suggest that the pathophysiology of brain injury could be altered in stroke

  20. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  1. Infiltration and permeability testing at geokinetics oil shale site

    SciTech Connect

    Hoylman, E.W.; Quinn, G.W.

    1984-03-01

    Infiltration (double-rint) and pressure permeability (packer) tests were conducted in or near true in-situ oil shale retorts and at adjacent undisturbed locations to obtain comparative data to evaluate the potential for groundwater pollution due to increased fluid migration resulting from this retorting methodology. Tests were performed at the Geokinetics oil shale site located in Section 2, Township 14 South, Range 22 East, Uintah County, Utah. Test results suggest a slight increase in surface infiltration rates and hydraulic conductivity in or near the retort areas. It is expected that this type of true in-situ retorting will pose very little, if any, threat to groundwater resources in the area.

  2. Intracystic papillary breast carcinoma with areas of infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Martín Gutiérrez, Silvia; Nieto Gallo, María Antonia; Noguero Meseguera, Rosario; Rodríguez Prieto, Ignacio

    2012-01-01

    Intracystic papillary carcinoma of the breast associated with areas of infiltration is rare in that it constitutes less than 1% of breast cancers. After initial radiological study, these tumors show lesions with little likelihood of malignancy in a high proportion of cases. Two cases of intracystic papillary carcinoma associated with infiltration were diagnosed at the Breast Unit of Hospital Infanta Cristina. In both cases, the reason for consultation arose after palpation of a nodule and the initial radiographic analyses showed lesions with little likelihood of malignancy. PMID:24893058

  3. Local infiltrative anesthesia for transaxillary subpectoral breast implants.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A A

    1995-01-01

    Breast augmentations using a transaxillary subpectoral approach are usually performed under general anesthesia. This article describes a technique that uses local infiltrative anesthesia in breast augmentation, adenomastectomies with immediate breast reconstruction, and when placing breast expansors. Large anesthetic solutions with vasoconstrictor and long-acting effects are prepared. The axila, the subpectoral space, and a surrounding area of 3 cm outside the demarcation limits are infiltrated. Minimal bleeding, long-lasting effects, and a considerable postoperative analgesic effect are some of the advantages of this procedure.

  4. Intracranial Injection of Dengue Virus Induces Interferon Stimulated Genes and CD8+ T Cell Infiltration by Sphingosine Kinase 1 Independent Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Clarke, Jennifer N.; Davies, Lorena T.; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Pitson, Stuart M.; Carr, Jillian M.

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that the absence of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) affects both dengue virus (DENV) infection and innate immune responses in vitro. Here we aimed to define SK1-dependancy of DENV-induced disease and the associated innate responses in vivo. The lack of a reliable mouse model with a fully competent interferon response for DENV infection is a challenge, and here we use an experimental model of DENV infection in the brain of immunocompetent mice. Intracranial injection of DENV-2 into C57BL/6 mice induced body weight loss and neurological symptoms which was associated with a high level of DENV RNA in the brain. Body weight loss and DENV RNA level tended to be greater in SK1-/- compared with wildtype (WT) mice. Brain infection with DENV-2 is associated with the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression including viperin, Ifi27l2a, IRF7, and CXCL10 without any significant differences between WT and SK1-/- mice. The SK2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the brain were unchanged by DENV infection or the lack of SK1. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of a cellular infiltrate in DENV-infected brain with a significant increase in mRNA for CD8 but not CD4 suggesting this infiltrate is likely CD8+ but not CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This increase in T-cell infiltration was not affected by the lack of SK1. Overall, DENV-infection in the brain induces IFN and T-cell responses but does not influence the SK/S1P axis. In contrast to our observations in vitro, SK1 has no major influence on these responses following DENV-infection in the mouse brain. PMID:28095439

  5. Intracranial Injection of Dengue Virus Induces Interferon Stimulated Genes and CD8+ T Cell Infiltration by Sphingosine Kinase 1 Independent Pathways.

    PubMed

    Al-Shujairi, Wisam H; Clarke, Jennifer N; Davies, Lorena T; Alsharifi, Mohammed; Pitson, Stuart M; Carr, Jillian M

    2017-01-01

    We have previously reported that the absence of sphingosine kinase 1 (SK1) affects both dengue virus (DENV) infection and innate immune responses in vitro. Here we aimed to define SK1-dependancy of DENV-induced disease and the associated innate responses in vivo. The lack of a reliable mouse model with a fully competent interferon response for DENV infection is a challenge, and here we use an experimental model of DENV infection in the brain of immunocompetent mice. Intracranial injection of DENV-2 into C57BL/6 mice induced body weight loss and neurological symptoms which was associated with a high level of DENV RNA in the brain. Body weight loss and DENV RNA level tended to be greater in SK1-/- compared with wildtype (WT) mice. Brain infection with DENV-2 is associated with the induction of interferon-β (IFN-β) and IFN-stimulated gene (ISG) expression including viperin, Ifi27l2a, IRF7, and CXCL10 without any significant differences between WT and SK1-/- mice. The SK2 and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) levels in the brain were unchanged by DENV infection or the lack of SK1. Histological analysis demonstrated the presence of a cellular infiltrate in DENV-infected brain with a significant increase in mRNA for CD8 but not CD4 suggesting this infiltrate is likely CD8+ but not CD4+ T-lymphocytes. This increase in T-cell infiltration was not affected by the lack of SK1. Overall, DENV-infection in the brain induces IFN and T-cell responses but does not influence the SK/S1P axis. In contrast to our observations in vitro, SK1 has no major influence on these responses following DENV-infection in the mouse brain.

  6. Combined adductor canal block with periarticular infiltration versus periarticular infiltration for analgesia after total knee arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Jinhui; Gao, Fuqiang; Sun, Wei; Guo, Wanshou; Li, Zirong; Wang, Weiguo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Both adductor canal block (ACB) and periarticular infiltration (PI) have been shown to reduce pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) without the motor blockade. However, the efficacy and safety of combined ACB with PI (ACB + PI) as compared to PI alone for analgesia after TKA remains controversial. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to compare the effects of ACB + PI with PI alone on pain controll after TKA. Methods: PubMed, Medline, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library were searched to identify studies comparing ACB + PI with PI alone for TKA patients. The primary outcomes included pain score with rest or activity and morphine consumption. Secondary outcomes were distance walked, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications. Relevant data were analyzed using RevMan v5.3. Results: Three studies involving 337 patients were included. Combined ACB with PI was associated with longer distances walked than PI alone (MD = 7.27, 95% CI: 0.43–14.12, P = 0.04) on postoperative day 1. The outcomes of pain, morphine consumption, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications were not statistically different between the 2 groups (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Our meta-analysis suggests that combined ACB with PI may achieve earlier ambulation for patients after TKA without a reduction in analgesia when compared to PI alone in the early postoperative period. There were no significant differences in morphine consumption, length of hospital stay, and postoperative complications between the 2 groups. However, owing to the variation of included studies, no firm conclusions can be drawn. PMID:28033266

  7. Single Dose Caffeine Protects the Neonatal Mouse Brain against Hypoxia Ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Winerdal, Max; Urmaliya, Vijay; Winerdal, Malin E.; Fredholm, Bertil B.

    2017-01-01

    In this randomized blinded study, we investigated caffeine 5 mg/kg treatment given directly after neonatal brain hypoxia ischemia. Brain morphology, behavior and key brain infiltrating immune populations were examined. Caffeine treatment significantly improves outcome when compared to phosphate buffered saline. Flow cytometric analysis of immune responses revealed no persistent immunological alterations. Given its safety caffeine emerges as a candidate for neuroprotective intervention after neonatal brain injury. PMID:28129361

  8. Infiltrating to Win: The Conduct of Border Denial Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-04

    initiative from bases in adjacent safe haven countries. Covert cross-border infiltration allows states such as Russia to pursue aggressive geopolitical...such as Russia to pursue aggressive geopolitical policies while maintaining plausible deniability to the international...military’s proper role combating North Vietnamese aggression during the Vietnam War. This discussion leads to the examination pre-Vietnam War US Army

  9. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L. Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  10. Shallow infiltration processes in arid watersheds at Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Flint, L.E.; Flint, A.L.; Hevesi, J.A.

    1994-12-31

    A conceptual model of shallow infiltration processes at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, was developed for use in hydrologic flow models to characterize net infiltration (the penetration of the wetting front below the zone influenced by evapotranspiration). The model categorizes the surface of the site into four infiltration zones. These zones were identified as ridgetops, sideslopes, terraces, and active channels on the basis of water-content changes with depth and time. The maximum depth of measured water-content change at a specific site is a function of surface storage capacity, the timing and magnitude of precipitation, evapotranspiration, and the degree of saturation of surficial materials overlying fractured bedrock. Measured water-content profiles for the four zones indicated that the potential for net infiltration is higher when evapotranspiration is low (i.e. winter, cloudy periods), where surface concentration of water is likely to occur (i.e. depressions, channels), where surface storage capacity is low, and where fractured bedrock is close to the surface.

  11. Augmented mast cell infiltration and microvessel density in prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wagrowska-Danilewicz, Małgorzata; Stasikowska-Kanicka, Olga; Tuka, Elżbieta; Danilewicz, Marian

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the study Recent investigations have taken into account the role of mast cells in prostate cancer formation, analyzing their dual functions (as tumour growth promoters and tumour growth inhibitors). The aim of our study was to compare mast cell infiltration and microvessel density in prostate cancer and in benign prostate hyperplasia. We also attempted to find possible relationships among mast cell infiltration and microvessel density, Gleason score, as well as serum levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). Material and methods The investigation was confined to evaluations of material from prostate needle biopsies, carried out in 26 patients with prostate cancer, and of 14 specimens diagnosed as benign hyperplasia. The numbers of tryptase positive mast cells and CD34 positive vessels were determined using a computer image analysis system. In the patients with prostate cancer, both mast cell infiltrates and microvessel density were significantly increased, as compared to the control patients. Results Significant positive correlations were identified between the mean numbers of mast cells and microvessel densities, both in the prostate cancer group and in the control group. Moreover, significant positive correlations were observed between Gleason score on one hand and the number of mast cells and microvessel density on the other. The correlations between PSA serum levels and both mast cell infiltration and microvessel density were positive, but not in a statistically significant way. Conclusions The reported investigations may support the assumption of mast cell promoter function in prostate cancer development, whereas no evidence was found for their opposite PMID:24592126

  12. Use of thermal data to estimate infiltration, Yucca Mountain, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    LeCain, Gary D.; Kurzmack, Mark

    2001-04-29

    Temperature and pressure monitoring in a vertical borehole in Pagany Wash, Yucca Mountain, Nevada, measured disruptions of the natural gradients associated with the February, 1998, El Nino precipitation events. The temperature and pressure disruptions indicated infiltration and percolation through the 12.1 m of Pagany Wash alluvium and deep percolation to greater than 35.2 m into the Yucca Mountain Tuff.

  13. Manufacturing of three-dimensionally microstructured nanocomposites through microfluidic infiltration.

    PubMed

    Dermanaki-Farahani, Rouhollah; Lebel, Louis Laberge; Therriault, Daniel

    2014-03-12

    Microstructured composite beams reinforced with complex three-dimensionally (3D) patterned nanocomposite microfilaments are fabricated via nanocomposite infiltration of 3D interconnected microfluidic networks. The manufacturing of the reinforced beams begins with the fabrication of microfluidic networks, which involves layer-by-layer deposition of fugitive ink filaments using a dispensing robot, filling the empty space between filaments using a low viscosity resin, curing the resin and finally removing the ink. Self-supported 3D structures with other geometries and many layers (e.g. a few hundreds layers) could be built using this method. The resulting tubular microfluidic networks are then infiltrated with thermosetting nanocomposite suspensions containing nanofillers (e.g. single-walled carbon nanotubes), and subsequently cured. The infiltration is done by applying a pressure gradient between two ends of the empty network (either by applying a vacuum or vacuum-assisted microinjection). Prior to the infiltration, the nanocomposite suspensions are prepared by dispersing nanofillers into polymer matrices using ultrasonication and three-roll mixing methods. The nanocomposites (i.e. materials infiltrated) are then solidified under UV exposure/heat cure, resulting in a 3D-reinforced composite structure. The technique presented here enables the design of functional nanocomposite macroscopic products for microengineering applications such as actuators and sensors.

  14. Falling head ponded infiltration in the nonlinear limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Triadis, D.

    2014-12-01

    The Green and Ampt infiltration solution represents only an extreme example of behavior within a larger class of very nonlinear, delta function diffusivity soils. The mathematical analysis of these soils is greatly simplified by the existence of a sharp wetting front below the soil surface. Solutions for more realistic delta function soil models have recently been presented for infiltration under surface saturation without ponding. After general formulation of the problem, solutions for a full suite of delta function soils are derived for ponded surface water depleted by infiltration. Exact expressions for the cumulative infiltration as a function of time, or the drainage time as a function of the initial ponded depth may take implicit or parametric forms, and are supplemented by simple asymptotic expressions valid for small times, and small and large initial ponded depths. As with surface saturation without ponding, the Green-Ampt model overestimates the effect of the soil hydraulic conductivity. At the opposing extreme, a low-conductivity model is identified that also takes a very simple mathematical form and appears to be more accurate than the Green-Ampt model for larger ponded depths. Between these two, the nonlinear limit of Gardner's soil is recommended as a physically valid first approximation. Relative discrepancies between different soil models are observed to reach a maximum for intermediate values of the dimensionless initial ponded depth, and in general are smaller than for surface saturation without ponding.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  16. Unilateral apical infiltrate as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis.

    PubMed

    Tice, A W

    1981-11-01

    A unilateral, apical, pulmonary infiltrate was seen in an Air Force weapon systems officer stationed in the Philippines as an initial presentation of pulmonary sarcoidosis. The most obvious diagnosis for that geographic area is tuberculosis. Diagnosis must be pursued to evaluate all differential possibilities, with resort to open-lung or bronchoscopic biopsy, if necessary.

  17. Liquid Metal Infiltration Processing of Metallic Composites: A Critical Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sree Manu, K. M.; Ajay Raag, L.; Rajan, T. P. D.; Gupta, Manoj; Pai, B. C.

    2016-10-01

    Metal matrix composites (MMC) are one of the advanced materials widely used for aerospace, automotive, defense, and general engineering applications. MMC can be tailored to have superior properties such as enhanced high-temperature performance, high specific strength and stiffness, increased wear resistance, better thermal and mechanical fatigue, and creep resistance than those of unreinforced alloys. To fabricate such composites with ideal properties, the processing technique has to ensure high volume fraction of reinforcement incorporation, uniform distribution of the reinforcement, and acceptable adhesion between the matrix and the reinforcing phase without unwanted interfacial reactions which degrades the mechanical properties. A number of processing techniques such as stir casting/vortex method, powder metallurgy, infiltration, casting etc. have been developed to synthesize MMC employing a variety of alloy and the reinforcement's combinations. Among these, infiltration process is widely used for making MMC with high volume fraction of reinforcements and offers many more advantages compared to other conventional manufacturing processes. The present paper critically reviews the various infiltration techniques used for making the MMC, their process parameters, characteristics, and selected studies carried out worldwide and by authors on the development of metal ceramic composites by squeeze infiltration process.

  18. Concrete grinding residue characterization and influence on infiltration.

    PubMed

    DeSutter, T; Prunty, L; Bell, J

    2011-01-01

    Concrete grinding residue (CGR) is a slurry byproduct created by concrete pavement maintenance operations. Disposal of CGR slurry is presently regulated on the basis of very minimal information. The least immediate expense is incurred by spreading CGR slurry directly on vegetated roadway ditches and embankments. The direct disposal impacts to environmental quality in terms of soil physical or chemical properties are not known. Five CGR materials from widely dispersed sites in the United States were analyzed for particle size distribution and evaluated with a suite of USEPA physical and chemical analyses. Values found for the parameters examined are not considered harmful. An infiltration column study was also conducted in which two CGRs were mixed at 8 and 25% by weight and also surface applied 2.5 mm deep with two contrasting (relatively fine and coarse textured) soils. With the finer soil, statistically (p < 0.05) significant decrease in infiltration time (increased infiltration rate) was associated with the 25% and surface-applied CGR treatments, compared with the untreated control soil. The results indicate that excessive application of CGR may increase water infiltration into soil in the short-term. This should be kept in mind, but does not appear to be generally detrimental.

  19. Perfluorocarbon tracer method for air-infiltration measurements

    DOEpatents

    Dietz, R.N.

    1982-09-23

    A method of measuring air infiltration rates suitable for use in rooms of homes and buildings comprises the steps of emitting perfluorocarbons in the room to be measured, sampling the air containing the emitted perfluorocarbons over a period of time, and analyzing the samples at a laboratory or other facility.

  20. Failure mechanism of the polymer infiltration of carbon nanotube forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchheim, Jakob; Park, Hyung Gyu

    2016-11-01

    Polymer melt infiltration is one of the feasible methods for manufacturing filter membranes out of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on large scales. Practically, however, its process suffers from low yields, and the mechanism behind this failure is rather poorly understood. Here, we investigate a failure mechanism of polymer melt infiltration of vertical aligned (VA-) CNTs. In penetrating the VA-CNT interstices, polymer melts exert a capillarity-induced attractive force laterally on CNTs at the moving meniscus, leading to locally agglomerated macroscale bunches. Such a large configurational change can deform and distort individual CNTs so much as to cause buckling or breakdown of the alignment. In view of membrane manufacturing, this irreversible distortion of nanotubes is detrimental, as it could block the transport path of the membranes. The failure mechanism of the polymer melt infiltration is largely attributed to steric hindrance and an energy penalty of confined polymer chains. Euler beam theory and scaling analysis affirm that CNTs with low aspect ratio, thick walls and sparse distribution can maintain their vertical alignment. Our results can enrich a mechanistic understanding of the polymer melt infiltration process and offer guidelines to the facile large-scale manufacturing of the CNT-polymer filter membranes.

  1. Weed management using goats: Effects on water infiltration rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Goats are used increasingly for weed control, fire fuel reduction and ecological restoration. The high stocking rates typical of these applications have been reported to decrease the rate of water infiltration in goat pastures. The hypothesis that annual goat browsing for weed control decreases infi...

  2. Spatial distribution of pollution in an urban stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-08-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater drainage. Because stormwater is polluted in highly toxic compounds, assessment of pollution retention by infiltration basins is necessary. Indeed, if basins are not effective in trapping pollution, deep soil and groundwater may be contaminated. This study's objective is to investigate soil pollution in infiltration basins: spatial distribution of soil pollution, optimisation of the number of soil samples and a contamination indicator are presented. It is part of a global project on long-term impact of stormwater infiltration on groundwater. Soil sampling was done on a basin in suburban Lyon (France). Samples were collected at different depths and analysed for nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and grain size. Pollutant concentrations decrease rapidly with depth while pH, mineralisation and grain size increase. Sustainable metal concentrations are reached at a 30-cm depth, even after 14 years of operation; hydrocarbon pollution is deeper. Principal component analysis shows how pollutants affect each level. The topsoil is different from other levels. Three specifically located points are enough to estimate the mass of pollution trapped by the basin with a 26% error. The proposed contamination indicator is calculated using either average level concentrations or maximum level concentrations. In both cases, the topsoil layer appears polluted but evaluation of lower levels is dependent on the choice of input concentrations.

  3. Parameter estimation and infiltration tests at the repeat facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burns, P.; Armstrong, P.; Winn, B.

    1983-11-01

    Work performed in the reconfigurable passive evaluation analysis and test (REPEAT) facility is reviewed. The physical characteristics of the building and the instrumentation are described. Collected data are discussed. Treatment of parameter estimation ensures with example calculations. Infiltration instrumentation and tests are described. Flow visualization studies are discussed.

  4. Effects of white grubs on soil water infiltration.

    PubMed

    Romero-López, A A; Rodríguez-Palacios, E; Alarcón-Gutiérrez, E; Geissert, D; Barois, I

    2015-04-01

    Water infiltration rates k were measured in mesocosms with soil and "white grubs" of Ancognatha falsa (Arrow) (Coleoptera: Melolonthidae). Three third instars of A. falsa and three adult earthworms Pontoscolex corethrurus were selected, weighted, and introduced into the mesocosms setting three treatments: soil + A. falsa, soil + P. corethrurus, and control (soil without any macroorganism). The experiment had a completely random design with four replicates per treatment (n = 4). The infiltration rates of soil matrix were assessed in each mesocosms with a minidisk tension infiltrometer. Six measurements were made along the experiment. Results showed that larvae of A. falsa promoted a higher water infiltration in the soil, compared to the control. On day 7, k values were similar among treatments, but k values after 28 days and up to 100 days were much higher in the A. falsa treatment (k = 0.00025 cm s(-1)) if compared to control (k = 0.00011 cm s(-1)) and P. corethrurus (k = 0.00008 cm s(-1)) treatments. The k values were significantly higher in the presence of larvae of A. falsa compared to the control and P. corethrurus treatments. The larvae of A. falsa are potential candidates for new assays on soil water infiltration with different tensions to evaluate the role of pores and holes created by the larvae on soils.

  5. Investigations of infiltration processes from flooded areas by column experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohrlok, U.; Bethge, E.; Golalipour, A.

    2009-04-01

    In case of inundation of flood plains during flood events there is an increased risk of groundwater contamination due to infiltration of increasingly polluted river water. Specifically in densely populated regions, this groundwater may be used as source for drinking water supply. For the evaluation of this a detailed quantitative understanding of the infiltration processes under such conditions is required. In this context the infiltration related to a flood event can be described by three phases. The first phase is defined by the saturation of the unsaturated soils. Within the second phase infiltration takes place under almost saturated conditions determined by the hydraulic load of the flood water level. The drainage of the soils due to falling groundwater table is characterizing the third phase. Investigations by soil columns gave a detailed insight into the infiltration processes caused by flooding. Inflow at the soil top was established by a fixed water table fed by a Mariotte bottle. Free outflow and a groundwater table were used as lower boundary condition. Inflow and outflow volume were monitored. The evolution of the matrix pressure was observed by micro-tensiometers installed at several depths within the soil column. The flow processes during phase one and two were characterized by a tracer test. Some of the experiments were repeated in order to study the influence of preliminary events. Main results were a difference in infiltration due to the lower boundary condition with regard to inflow rate, outflow dynamics and matrix pressure evolution which is directly related to the water content evolution. Further, the influence of preliminary events was different for the different boundary conditions. A replacement of pre-event water could be observed which was confirmed by volume balances calculated for the infiltration experiments. Although these water balances were almost closed significant dynamics of the matrix pressure remained in soil column in the

  6. Seismic tomography Technology for the Water Infiltration Experiment

    SciTech Connect

    J. Descour

    2001-04-30

    NSA Engineering, Inc., conducted seismic tomography surveys in Niche No.3 in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), Yucca Mountain, Nevada, and Alcove No.8 in the Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) cross drift as part of the Infiltration Experiment being conducted in Niche No.3. NSA Engineering is a direct support contractor to the Yucca Mountain Project. This report documents the work performed from August 14 through 30, 2000, prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment. The objective of the seismic tomography survey was to investigate the flow path of water between access drifts and more specifically to (Kramer 2000): (1) Conduct a baseline seismic tomography survey prior to the infiltration experiment; (2) Produce 2-D and 3-D tomographic images of the rock volume between Alcove No.8 and Niche No.3; (3) Correlate tomography results with published structural and lithological features, and with other geophysical data such as ground penetrating radar (GPR); and (4) Results of this survey will form a baseline with which to compare subsequent changes to the rock mass. These changes may be as a result of the water infiltration tests that could be conducted in Alcove No.8 in 2001. The scope of this reported work is to use the velocity tomograms to: (a) assess the structures and lithologic features within the surveyed area and/or volume between the two access drifts; and (b) provide information on the structural state of the rock mass as inferred by the velocity signatures of the rock prior to the beginning of the infiltration experiment.

  7. Hydraulic non-equilibrium during infiltration induced by structural connectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlüter, Steffen; Vanderborght, Jan; Vogel, Hans-Jörg

    2012-08-01

    Water infiltration into heterogeneous, structured soil leads to hydraulic non-equilibrium across the infiltration front. That is, the water content and pressure head are not in equilibrium according to some static water retention curve. The water content increases more rapidly in more conductive regions followed by a slow relaxation towards an equilibrium state behind the front. An extreme case is preferential infiltration into macropores. Since flow paths adapt to the structural heterogeneity of the porous medium, there is a direct link between structure and non-equilibrium. The aim of our study is to develop an upscaled description of water dynamics which conserves the macroscopic effects of non-equilibrium and which can be directly linked to structural properties of the material. A critical question is how to define averaged state variables at the larger scale. We propose a novel approach based on flux-weighted averaging of pressure head, and compare its performance to alternative methods for averaging. Further, we suggest some meaningful indicators of hydraulic non-equilibrium that can be related to morphological characteristics of infiltration fronts in quantitative terms. These methods provide a sound basis to assess the impact of structural connectivity on hydraulic non-equilibrium. We demonstrate our approach using numerical case studies for infiltration into two-dimensional heterogeneous media using three different structure models with distinct differences in connectivity. Our results indicate that an increased isotropic, short-range connectivity reduces non-equilibrium, whereas anisotropic structures that are elongated in the direction of flow enforce it. We observe a good agreement between front morphology and effective hydraulic non-equilibrium. A detailed comparison of averaged state variables with results from an upscaled model that includes hydraulic non-equilibrium outlines potential improvements in the description of non-equilibrium dynamics

  8. Brain Diseases

    MedlinePlus

    The brain is the control center of the body. It controls thoughts, memory, speech, and movement. It regulates the function of many organs. When the brain is healthy, it works quickly and automatically. However, ...

  9. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests don't provide enough information. Screening for brain aneurysms The use of imaging tests to screen ... and occupational therapy to relearn skills. Treating unruptured brain aneurysms Surgical clipping or endovascular coiling can be ...

  10. Brain Development

    MedlinePlus

    ... developed the f… Series Healthy Minds: Nurturing Your Child's Development Each of these age-based handouts are based ... report from the National Academy of Sciences on child and brain development. Podcast Nurturing Brain Development From Birth to Three ...

  11. Brain Fog

    MedlinePlus

    ... friendships and relationships. • Take your body to the gym and don’t forget to visit the “BRAIN SPA” – both will improve brain function. • Recent scientific data show that longevity ...

  12. Brain Power.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albrecht, Karl

    2002-01-01

    Reviews significant findings of recent brain research, including the concept of five minds: automatic, subconscious, practical, creative, and spiritual. Suggests approaches to training the brain that are related to this hierarchy of thinking. (JOW)

  13. Observations on infiltration of silicon carbide compacts with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    The melt infiltration of ceramic particulates permits an opportunity to observe such fundamental materials phenomena as nucleation, dynamic wetting and growth in constrained environments. Experimental observations are presented on the infiltration behavior and matrix microstructures that form when porous compacts of platelet-shaped single crystals of alpha- (hexagonal) silicon carbide are infiltrated with a liquid 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration process involved counter gravity infiltration of suitably tamped and preheated compacts of silicon carbide platelets under an external pressure in a special pressure chamber for a set period, then by solidification of the infiltrant metal in the interstices of the bed at atmospheric pressure.

  14. Infiltration/cure modeling of resin transfer molded composite materials using advanced fiber architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loos, Alfred C.; Weideman, Mark H.; Long, Edward R., Jr.; Kranbuehl, David E.; Kinsley, Philip J.; Hart, Sean M.

    1991-01-01

    A model was developed which can be used to simulate infiltration and cure of textile composites by resin transfer molding. Fabric preforms were resin infiltrated and cured using model generated optimized one-step infiltration/cure protocols. Frequency dependent electromagnetic sensing (FDEMS) was used to monitor in situ resin infiltration and cure during processing. FDEMS measurements of infiltration time, resin viscosity, and resin degree of cure agreed well with values predicted by the simulation model. Textile composites fabricated using a one-step infiltration/cure procedure were uniformly resin impregnated and void free. Fiber volume fraction measurements by the resin digestion method compared well with values predicted using the model.

  15. Systemic Autoimmunity in TAM Triple Knockout Mice Causes Inflammatory Brain Damage and Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qiutang; Lu, Qingjun; Lu, Huayi; Tian, Shifu; Lu, Qingxian

    2013-01-01

    The Tyro3, Axl and Mertk (TAM) triply knockout (TKO) mice exhibit systemic autoimmune diseases, with characteristics of increased proinflammatory cytokine production, autoantibody deposition and autoreactive lymphocyte infiltration into a variety of tissues. Here we show that TKO mice produce high level of serum TNF-α and specific autoantibodies deposited onto brain blood vessels. The brain-blood barrier (BBB) in mutant brains exhibited increased permeability for Evans blue and fluorescent-dextran, suggesting a breakdown of the BBB in the mutant brains. Impaired BBB integrity facilitated autoreactive T cells infiltrating into all regions of the mutant brains. Brain autoimmune disorder caused accumulation of the ubiquitin-reactive aggregates in the mutant hippocampus, and early formation of autofluorescent lipofuscins in the neurons throughout the entire brains. Chronic neuroinflammation caused damage of the hippocampal mossy fibers and neuronal apoptotic death. This study shows that chronic systemic inflammation and autoimmune disorders in the TKO mice cause neuronal damage and death. PMID:23840307

  16. Nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sumner, D.M.; Rolston, D.E.; Bradner, L.A.

    1998-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10 times that of the applied treated wastewater, following basin 'rest' periods of several weeks, which allowed time for mineralization and nitrification. Approximately 90% of the phosphorus in treated wastewater was removed within the upper 4.6 m of the subsurface, primarily by adsorption reactions, with abundant iron and aluminum oxyhydroxides occurring as soil coatings. A reduction in the flow rate of infiltrating water arriving at the water table may explain the accumulation of relatively coarse (>0.45 ??m), organic forms of nitrogen and phosphorus slightly below the water table. Mineralization and nitrification reactions at this second location of organic nitrogen accumulation contributed to concentrations of nitrate as much as three times that of the applied treated wastewater. Phosphorus, which accumulated below the water table, was immobilized by adsorption or precipitation reactions during basin rest periods.Field experiments were conducted to examine nutrient transport and transformation beneath an infiltration basin used for the disposal of treated wastewater. Removal of nitrogen from infiltrating water by denitrification was negligible beneath the basin, probably because of subsurface aeration as a result of daily interruptions in basin loading. Retention of organic nitrogen in the upper 4.6 m of the unsaturated zone (water table depth of approximately 11 m) during basin loading resulted in concentrations of nitrate as much as 10

  17. Vadose Zone Infiltration Rates from Sr isotope Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maher, K.; Maher, K.; DePaolo, D. J.; DePaolo, D. J.; Conrad, M.

    2001-12-01

    Predicting infiltration rates and recharge through the vadose zone in arid regions is difficult and hence developing methods for the measurement of infiltration rates is important. We have been investigating the use of Sr isotope measurements for determining infiltration at the 200 Area plateau on the Hanford reservation in central Washington. In this context, infiltration affects the transport of contaminants to the water table as well as recharge of the groundwater system. Using Sr isotopes for this purpose requires drill core and water samples from the vadose zone, although leaches of the cores can substitute for water samples. Complementary information, including some constraints on regional recharge, can also be obtained using water samples from groundwater monitoring wells. The VZ method is based on the fact that the Sr isotope ratio of soil water just below the surface is often set by dissolution of aeolian material including carbonate, and this ratio is different from the average value in the deeper underlying vadose zone rock matrix. As water infiltrates, the Sr isotopic composition of the water changes toward the rock values as a result of Sr released from the rocks by weathering reactions. The rate of change with depth of the Sr isotope ratio of the vadose zone water is a function ultimately of q/R; the ratio of the infiltration flux (q) to the bulk rock weathering rate (R). Where it is possible to evaluate R, q can be estimated. As data accumulate it may be possible to improve the calibration of the method. At Hanford the vadose zone rock material is mostly unconsolidated sand, silt, and gravel of broadly granitic composition, which constitute the Hanford and Ringold formations. Annual precipitation is about 160 mm/yr. Drilling and coring of a ca. 70m hole to the water table in 1999 as part of the Hanford groundwater monitoring program, in a relatively undisturbed area of the site, allowed us to generate a unique Sr isotope data set. The Sr isotope

  18. Brain Aneurysm

    MedlinePlus

    A brain aneurysm is an abnormal bulge or "ballooning" in the wall of an artery in the brain. They are sometimes called berry aneurysms because they ... often the size of a small berry. Most brain aneurysms produce no symptoms until they become large, ...

  19. Brain Lesions

    MedlinePlus

    ... MRI scans, brain lesions appear as dark or light spots that don't look like normal brain tissue. Usually, a brain lesion is an incidental finding unrelated to the condition or symptom that led to the imaging test in the first place. ...

  20. The Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubel, David H.

    1979-01-01

    This article on the brain is part of an entire issue about neurobiology and the question of how the human brain works. The brain as an intricate tissue composed of cells is discussed based on the current knowledge and understanding of its composition and structure. (SA)

  1. Left Brain. Right Brain. Whole Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Lesley S. J.

    2004-01-01

    As the United States student population is becoming more diverse, library media specialists need to find ways to address these distinctive needs. However, some of these differences transcend culture, touching on variations in the brain itself. Most people have a dominant side of the brain, which can affect their personality and learning style.…

  2. SUMO-specific protease 1 protects neurons from apoptotic death during transient brain ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Huijun; Wang, Yan; Zhu, Aoxue; Huang, Dehua; Deng, Shining; Cheng, Jinke; Zhu, Michael X; Li, Yong

    2016-01-01

    SUMO-specific protease 1 (SENP1) deconjugates SUMO from modified proteins. Although post-ischemic activation of SUMO conjugation was suggested to be neuroprotective against ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury, the function of SENP1 in this process remained unclear. Here we show that transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice followed by 6, 12 and 24 h reperfusion significantly enhanced SENP1 levels in the affected brain area, independent of transcription. Consistent with the increase in SENP1, the levels of SUMO1-conjugated proteins were decreased by I/R in cortical neurons of control littermate mice, but unchanged in that of animals with conditional ablation of SENP1 gene from adult principal neurons, the SENP1flox/flox:CamKIIα-Cre (SENP1 cKO) mice. The SENP1 cKO mice exhibited a significant increase in infarct volume in the cerebral cortex and more severe motor impairment in response to I/R as compared with the control littermates. Cortical neurons from I/R-injured SENP1 cKO mice became more apoptotic than that from control littermates, as indicated by both TUNEL staining and caspase-3 activation. Overexpression of SENP1 in somatosensory cortices of adult wild-type (WT) mice suppressed I/R-induced neuronal apoptosis. We conclude that SENP1 plays a neuroprotective role in I/R injury by inhibiting apoptosis through decreasing SUMO1 conjugation. These findings reveal a novel mechanism of neuroprotection by protein desumoylation, which may help develop new therapies for mitigating brain injury associated with ischemic stroke. PMID:27882949

  3. Immunophenotypic characterization of lymphoid cell infiltrates in vitiligo

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Sosa, S; Aguirre-Lombardo, M; Jimenez-Brito, G; Ruiz-Argüelles, A

    2013-01-01

    The pathogenesis of vitiligo is still controversial. The purpose of this study was to gain insight into the nature of lymphoid cells infiltrating depigmented areas of skin in vitiligo. Immunochemical procedures were carried out in biopsies from 20 patients with active lesions to search for cells expressing CD1a, CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD8, CD20, CD25, CD30, CD56, CD68 and CD79a. Results indicate that early lesions are infiltrated mainly by dendritic cells, whereas older lesions display significantly lower proportions of these cells and increased percentages of mature T cells. This finding might suggest that the autoimmune reactivity towards melanocyte antigens might be T cell-dependent and antigen-driven. It is possible that a non-immune offence of melanocytes is responsible for the exposure of intracellular antigens, while autoreactivity might be a secondary, self-perpetuating mechanism. PMID:23607858

  4. Integrated modelling for the evaluation of infiltration effects.

    PubMed

    Schulz, N; Baur, R; Krebs, P

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the present study is the estimation of the potential benefits of sewer pipe rehabilitation for the performance of the drainage system and the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) as well as for the receiving water quality. The relation of sewer system status and the infiltration rate is assessed based on statistical analysis of 470 km of CCTV (Closed Circuit Television) inspected sewers of the city of Dresden. The potential reduction of infiltration rates and the consequent performance improvements of the urban wastewater system are simulated as a function of rehabilitation activities in the network. The integrated model is applied to an artificial system with input from a real sewer network. In this paper, the general design of the integrated model and its data requirements are presented. For an exemplary study, the consequences of the simulations are discussed with respect to the prioritisation of rehabilitation activities in the network.

  5. Post-granulite facies fluid infiltration in the Adirondack Mountains

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, J.; Valley, J.W.

    1988-06-01

    Granulite facies lithologies from the Adirondack Mountains of New York contain alteration assemblages composed dominantly of calcite +/- chlorite +/- sericite. These assemblages document fluid infiltration at middle to upper crustal levels. Cathodoluminescence of samples from the Marcy anorthosite massif indicates that the late fluid infiltration is more widespread than initially indicated by transmitted-light petrography alone. Samples that appear unaltered in transmitted light show extensive anastomosing veins of calcite (< 0.05 mm wide) along grain boundaries, in crosscutting fractures, and along mineral cleavages. The presence of the retrograde calcite documents paleopermeability in crystalline rocks and is related to the formation of high-density CO/sub 2/-rich fluid inclusions. Recognition of this process has important implications for studies of granulite genesis and the geophysical properties of the crust.

  6. Real Time Electrical Monittoring of the Soil Infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Losinno, B.; Sainato, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration into the soil plays a key role in the agricultural field. Standard methodologies to determine basic infiltration rate are altered by the presence of preferential flow pathways in the soil. At intensive livestock farms, previous studies showed that in areas with high stocking rates and consequently high levels of trampling, both the basic infiltration rate measured in the field as a field such as saturated hydraulic conductivity (Ks) measured in laboratory had values significantly lower than those obtained in the areas without animals. Therefore, the evaluation of the infiltration process as an entry of pollutants into the profile is of importance in determining indicators of vulnerability to groundwater contamination. Geoelectrical methodology was used in combination with tracers to study the movement of water flow. A salty solution was used as tracer as it progresses along the profile. It is assumed that the water flow rate is similar to that of the applied solution. Geolelctric surveys can measure the apparent electrical resistivity inverse of the ECa, apparent electrical conductivity) in real time and thus determine the direction and speed of water flow through the profile. The aim of this study was to detect and characterize potential preferential flow pathways, comparing sectors where the high trampling by animals has generated high compaction, with areas without animals. We chose two sites: one located under high trampling at path between the pens of a feedlot placed at a lower position which receives runoff from feedlots. The background site was chosen at a pasture plot, with sporadic presence of animals. The soil is silty-loamy. In each of the sites sprinkler irrigation was performed in a square of 4 m x 4 m with saline solution of potassium bromide (concentration 5 g / l). After the irrigation, dipole - dipole survey was done with a line of stainless steel electrodes spaced 20 cm. while the flow is penetrating into the ground. Two dimension

  7. Ordered nanoscale domains by infiltration of block copolymers

    DOEpatents

    Darling, Seth B.; Elam, Jeffrey; Tseng, Yu-Chih; Peng, Qing

    2016-11-08

    A method of preparing tunable inorganic patterned nanofeatures by infiltration of a block copolymer scaffold having a plurality of self-assembled periodic polymer microdomains. The method may be used sequential infiltration synthesis (SIS), related to atomic layer deposition (ALD). The method includes selecting a metal precursor that is configured to selectively react with the copolymer unit defining the microdomain but is substantially non-reactive with another polymer unit of the copolymer. A tunable inorganic features is selectively formed on the microdomain to form a hybrid organic/inorganic composite material of the metal precursor and a co-reactant. The organic component may be optionally removed to obtain an inorganic features with patterned nanostructures defined by the configuration of the microdomain.

  8. Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face: A case series

    PubMed Central

    Urs, Aadithya B.; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Kumar, Priya; Arora, Shelly; Aggarwal, Neha; Sultana, Neha

    2013-01-01

    Infiltrating lipomatosis of the face is a very rare entity which is characterized by the collection of non-encapsulated mature adipocytes infiltrating local tissues, resulting in craniofacial deformities. Psychomotor development of the patients is normal, esthetics often being the primary concern to seek treatment. The presentation is always unilateral with hypertrophy of hard and soft structures on the affected side of the face. The pathogenesis of the condition is unclear. This condition shows a wide phenotypic range, uncertain prognosis with high rates of recurrence after surgery, and variable post-op cosmetic improvement. The condition shows no gender predilection, with most of the cases presenting in and beyond the second decade of life. Here, we present a series of four cases presenting in varying age groups with history of recurrence in three cases. PMID:23633877

  9. Dupuytren Disease Infiltrating a Full-Thickness Skin Graft.

    PubMed

    Wade, Ryckie George; Igali, Laszlo; Figus, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Although the role of the skin in the development and propagation of Dupuytren disease remains unclear, dermofasciectomy and full-thickness skin grafting (FTSG) appears to delay recurrence. In 2011, a 71-year-old, left-handed man presented with recurrent Dupuytren disease in the dominant hand. In 1991, he originally underwent a primary dermofasciectomy and FTSG for Dupuytren disease involving the palmar skin. Twenty years later, the left middle finger was drawn into flexion by a recurrent cord, and the old graft and adjacent palmar skin were clinically involved by fibromatosis. We performed a revision dermofasciectomy and FTSG. Microscopic analysis of the excised graft demonstrated dense infiltration of the entire skin graft by Dupuytren disease, with areas of active and burnt-out fibromatosis distinct from hypertrophic scarring. This report of Dupuytren fibromatosis infiltrating a skin graft raises questions about the pathophysiology of Dupuytren disease.

  10. Measurement of gas transport properties for chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Hablutzel, N.

    1996-12-01

    In the chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process for fabricating ceramic matrix composites (CMCs), transport of gas phase reactant into the fiber preform is a critical step. The transport can be driven by pressure or by concentration. This report describes methods for measuring this for CVI preforms and partially infiltrated composites. Results are presented for Nicalon fiber cloth layup preforms and composites, Nextel fiber braid preforms and composites, and a Nicalon fiber 3-D weave composite. The results are consistent with a percolating network model for gas transport in CVI preforms and composites. This model predicts inherent variability in local pore characteristics and transport properties, and therefore, in local densification during processing; this may lead to production of gastight composites.

  11. Capillarity in isothermal infiltration of alumina fiber preforms with aluminum

    SciTech Connect

    Michaud, V.J.; Mortensen, A. . Dept. of Materials Science); Compton, L.M. )

    1994-10-01

    Models derived in petroleum engineering and soil science for flow of two immiscible fluids in a porous medium are extended to the infiltration of ceramic preforms by a liquid metal. SAFFIL alumina fiber preforms are infiltrated with an aluminum matrix in a series of interrupted unidirectional and isothermal experiments at various low applied pressures, to measure profiles of the volume fraction of metal along the length of the preforms. Comparison of experimental data with theory reveals the existence of a pressure-dependent incubation time for wetting of the alumina preforms by molten aluminum at 973 K. If this incubation time is taken into account, experimental curves of metal distribution are well predicted by theory, confirming the validity of the models after initiation of flow.

  12. Gravity-driven infiltration instability in initially dry nonhorizontal fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J. ); Wheatcraft, S.W. )

    1994-09-01

    Experimental evidence demonstrating gravity-driven wetting front instability in an initially dry natural fracture is presented. An experimental approach is developed using a transparent analog rough-walled fracture to explore gravity-driven instability. Three different boundary conditions were observed to produce unstable fronts in the analog fracture: application of fluid at less than the imbibition capacity, inversion of a density-stratified system, and redistribution of flow at the cessation of stable infiltration. The redistribution boundary condition (analogous to the cessation of ponded infiltration) is considered in a series of systematic experiments. Gravitational gradient and magnitude of the fluid input were varied during experimentation. Qualitative observations imply that finger development is strongly correlated to the structure of the imbibition front at the onset of flow redistribution. Measurements of finger width is compared to theoretical predictions based on linear stability theory. 28 refs., 11 fig., 1 tab.

  13. Anion Absorption by Etiolated Wheat Leaves after Vacuum Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    MacDonald, I. R.; Macklon, A. E. S.

    1972-01-01

    Chloride and phosphate uptake by leaf segments of green and etiolated 7-day-old seedlings of Triticum aestivum L. cultivar Capelle is enhanced by light. In the range from 1.0 to 10 millimolar KCl, maximal rates of uptake were obtained with 1.5-millimeter segments. Above 1.5 millimeters, ion diffusion through the cut edge was the rate-limiting factor, uptake being proportional to the amount of cut edge, but vacuum infiltration of the tissue overcame this limitation, allowing uptake to be independent of segment length. No deleterious effects of vacuum infiltration were observed, and it is suggested that the technique offers a convenient alternative to existing methods in the study of foliar absorption. PMID:16657949

  14. CD47 deficiency improves neurological outcomes of traumatic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Song; Yu, Zhanyang; Liu, Yu; Bai, Yang; Jiang, Yinghua; van Leyen, Klaus; Yang, Yong-Guang; Lok, Josephine M; Whalen, Michael J; Lo, Eng H; Wang, Xiaoying

    2017-03-16

    CD47 is a receptor for signal-regulatory protein alpha (SIRPα) in self-recognition by the innate immune system, and a receptor of thrombospondin-1 (TSP-1) contributing to vascular impairment in response to stress. However, the roles of CD47 in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have not been investigated. In this study we aimed to test our hypothesis that CD47 mediates early neutrophil brain infiltration and late brain vascular remodeling after TBI. Mice were subjected to TBI using a controlled cortical impact (CCI) device. We examined early phase neutrophil infiltration, and late phase brain vessel density, pro-angiogenic markers VEGF and Ang-1 protein expression, neurological function deficits and lesion volumes for up to three weeks after TBI. Our results show that mice deficient in CD47 (CD47 Knockout) had significantly less brain neutrophil infiltration at 24h, upregulated VEGF expression in peri-lesion cortex at 7 and 14days, and increased blood vessel density at 21days after TBI, compared to wild type (WT) mice. CD47 knockout also significantly decreased sensorimotor function deficits and reduced brain lesion volume at 21days after TBI. We conclude that CD47 may play pathological roles in brain neutrophil infiltration, progression of brain tissue damage, impairment of cerebrovascular remodeling and functional recovery after TBI.

  15. Scaling relations in the diffusive infiltration in fractals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aarão Reis, F. D. A.

    2016-11-01

    In a recent work on fluid infiltration in a Hele-Shaw cell with the pore-block geometry of Sierpinski carpets (SCs), the area filled by the invading fluid was shown to scale as F ˜tn , with n <1 /2 , thus providing a macroscopic realization of anomalous diffusion [Filipovitch et al., Water Resour. Res. 52, 5167 (2016), 10.1002/2016WR018667]. The results agree with simulations of a diffusion equation with constant pressure at one of the borders of those fractals, but the exponent n is very different from the anomalous exponent ν =1 /DW of single-particle diffusion in the same fractals (DW is the random-walk dimension). Here we use a scaling approach to show that those exponents are related as n =ν (DF-DB) , where DF and DB are the fractal dimensions of the bulk and the border from which diffusing particles come, respectively. This relation is supported by accurate numerical estimates in two SCs and in two generalized Menger sponges (MSs), in which we performed simulations of single-particle random walks (RWs) with a rigid impermeable border and of a diffusive infiltration model in which that border is permanently filled with diffusing particles. This study includes one MS whose external border is also fractal. The exponent relation is also consistent with the recent simulational and experimental results on fluid infiltration in SCs, and explains the approximate quadratic dependence of n on DF in these fractals. We also show that the mean-square displacement of single-particle RWs has log-periodic oscillations, whose periods are similar for fractals with the same scaling factor in the generator (even with different embedding dimensions), which is consistent with the discrete scale invariance scenario. The roughness of a diffusion front defined in the infiltration problem also shows this type of oscillation, which is enhanced in fractals with narrow channels between large lacunas.

  16. Scale-up and modeling of forced chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Starr, T.L.

    1994-09-01

    The forced flow-thermal gradient chemical vapor infiltration (FCVI) process has been scaled-up from a maximum of 7.6 cm dia. disk to fabrication of 24 cm dia. disks, 1.6 cm in thickness. The components are turbine rotor subelements produced from polar weave Tyranno fibers preforms. The disks were subjected to non-destructive testing and spin-tested to high rpm. The processing conditions were modeled with the GTCVI code to aid in optimization.

  17. Brain to music to brain!

    PubMed

    Azizi, S Ausim

    2009-07-31

    It has been implicitly understood that culture and music as collective products of human brain in turn influence the brain itself. Now, imaging and anatomical data add substance to this notion. The impact of playing piano on the brain of musicians and its possible effects on cultural and neurological evolution are briefly discussed.

  18. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    O'Leary, David R.; Izbicki, John A.; Moran, Jean E.; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 μg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  19. Reducing chemical vapour infiltration time for ceramic matrix composites.

    PubMed

    Timms, L. A.; Westby, W.; Prentice, C.; Jaglin, D.; Shatwell, R. A.; Binner, J. G. P.

    2001-02-01

    Conventional routes to producing ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) require the use of high temperatures to sinter the individual ceramic particles of the matrix together. Sintering temperatures are typically much higher than the upper temperature limits of the fibres. This paper details preliminary work carried out on producing a CMC via chemical vapour infiltration (CVI), a process that involves lower processing temperatures, thus avoiding fibre degradation. The CVI process has been modified and supplemented in an attempt to reduce the CVI process time and to lower the cost of this typically expensive process. To this end microwave-enhanced CVI (MECVI) has been chosen, along with two alternative pre-infiltration steps: electrophoretic infiltration and vacuum bagging. The system under investigation is based on silicon carbide fibres within a silicon carbide matrix (SiCf/SiC). The results demonstrate that both approaches result in an enhanced initial density and a consequent significant reduction in the time required for the MECVI processing step. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was used as a non-destructive, density evaluation technique. Initial results indicate that the presence of the SiC powder in the pre-form changes the deposition profile during the MECVI process.

  20. Pulmonary Infiltrates in Immunosuppressed Patients: Analysis of a Diagnostic Protocol

    PubMed Central

    Danés, Cristina; González-Martín, Julián; Pumarola, Tomàs; Rañó, Ana; Benito, Natividad; Torres, Antoni; Moreno, Asunción; Rovira, Montserrat; Puig de la Bellacasa, Jorge

    2002-01-01

    A diagnostic protocol was started to study the etiology of pulmonary infiltrates in immunosuppressed patients. The diagnostic yields of the different techniques were analyzed, with special emphasis on the importance of the sample quality and the role of rapid techniques in the diagnostic strategy. In total, 241 patients with newly developed pulmonary infiltrates within a period of 19 months were included. Noninvasive or invasive evaluation was performed according to the characteristics of the infiltrates. Diagnosis was achieved in 202 patients (84%); 173 patients (72%) had pneumonia, and specific etiologic agents were found in 114 (66%). Bronchoaspirate and bronchoalveolar lavage showed the highest yields, either on global analysis (23 of 35 specimens [66%] and 70 of 134 specimens [52%], respectively) or on analysis of each type of pneumonia. A tendency toward better results with optimal-quality samples was observed, and a statistically significant difference was found in sputum bacterial culture. Rapid diagnostic tests yielded results in 71 of 114 (62.2%) diagnoses of etiological pneumonia. PMID:12037077

  1. Movement of water infiltrated from a recharge basin to wells.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, David R; Izbicki, John A; Moran, Jean E; Meeth, Tanya; Nakagawa, Brandon; Metzger, Loren; Bonds, Chris; Singleton, Michael J

    2012-01-01

    Local surface water and stormflow were infiltrated intermittently from a 40-ha basin between September 2003 and September 2007 to determine the feasibility of recharging alluvial aquifers pumped for public supply, near Stockton, California. Infiltration of water produced a pressure response that propagated through unconsolidated alluvial-fan deposits to 125 m below land surface (bls) in 5 d and through deeper, more consolidated alluvial deposits to 194 m bls in 25 d, resulting in increased water levels in nearby monitoring wells. The top of the saturated zone near the basin fluctuates seasonally from depths of about 15 to 20 m. Since the start of recharge, water infiltrated from the basin has reached depths as great as 165 m bls. On the basis of sulfur hexafluoride tracer test data, basin water moved downward through the saturated alluvial deposits until reaching more permeable zones about 110 m bls. Once reaching these permeable zones, water moved rapidly to nearby pumping wells at rates as high as 13 m/d. Flow to wells through highly permeable material was confirmed on the basis of flowmeter logging, and simulated numerically using a two-dimensional radial groundwater flow model. Arsenic concentrations increased slightly as a result of recharge from 2 to 6 µg/L immediately below the basin. Although few water-quality issues were identified during sample collection, high groundwater velocities and short travel times to nearby wells may have implications for groundwater management at this and at other sites in heterogeneous alluvial aquifers.

  2. Detailed analysis of inflammatory cell infiltration in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Väyrynen, J P; Tuomisto, A; Klintrup, K; Mäkelä, J; Karttunen, T J; Mäkinen, M J

    2013-01-01

    Background: Higher-grade inflammatory infiltrate is a promising marker for better prognosis in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the knowledge on the interrelationships between different inflammatory cells and classifications is fragmentary. Methods: We analysed the densities of eight types of inflammatory cells in a prospectively recruited group of 117 CRC patients and determined their interrelationships and contributions to Klintrup–Mäkinen (K–M) score of overall peritumoural inflammation. We characterised the inflammatory infiltrate in relation to stage and recurrences in 24-month follow-up. Results: There were high positive correlations between the inflammatory cell densities, with the exception of mast cells and CD1a+ immature dendritic cells. High K–M score associated with high peri- and intratumoural densities of CD3+, CD8+, CD68+, CD83+, and FoxP3+ cells and neutrophils. Advanced stage associated with low K–M score, as well as low CD3+, CD8+, CD83+, and FoxP3+ cell counts, of which low K–M score, low CD3+ T-cell count, and low FoxP3+ T-cell count were linked to higher recurrence rate. Conclusion: The density of CRC inflammatory infiltrate declines as stage advances. Especially, low K–M score and low T-cell counts predict higher recurrence rate. The high positive correlations between the individual inflammatory markers support the value of overall inflammatory reaction scoring. PMID:24008661

  3. The most painful site of maxillary anterior infiltrations

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Roohollah; Nazari, Hesamedin; Bolourchi, Peik; Khazaei, Saber; Parirokh, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the most painful site of infiltration injection in the anterior part of maxilla. Materials and Methods: This single-blinded clinical trial was conducted on thirty healthy volunteers. The participants received three maxillary infiltrations injected at the region of central and lateral incisors as well as canines at three separated appointments with a 2-week interval. The outcome variable was pain that measured immediately after needle insertion (time = 0) and during injection of anesthetic solution in 5, 30, and 55 s by a visual analog scale. Data were analyzed by SPSS software version 16 using Friedman test. Results: There was no statistically significant difference in terms of needle insertion pain and during injection (time = 0, 5, 30, and 55 s) (P = 0.319, P = 0.849, P = 0.627, and P = 0.939, respectively) in the three injection sites. Conclusion: The pain intensity of infiltration was not associated with injection sites in the anterior maxilla. PMID:28182062

  4. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate.

    PubMed

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using (3)H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of (3)H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine.

  5. Rainier Mesa CAU Infiltration Model using INFILv3

    SciTech Connect

    Levitt, Daniel G.; Kwicklis, Edward M.

    2012-07-13

    The outline of this presentation are: (1) Model Inputs - DEM, Precipitation, Air temp, Soil props, Surface geology, Vegetation; (2) Model Pre-processing - Runoff Routing and sinks, Slope and Azimuth, Soil Ksat reduction with slope (to mitigate bathtub ring), Soil-Bedrock Interface permeabilities; (3) Model Calibration - ET using PEST, Chloride mass balance data, Streamflow using PEST; (4) Model Validation - Streamflow data not used for calibration; (5) Uncertainty Analysis; and (6) Results. Conclusions are: (1) Average annual infiltration rates =11 to 18 mm/year for RM domain; (2) Average annual infiltration rates = 7 to 11 mm/year for SM domain; (3) ET = 70% of precipitation for both domains; (4) Runoff = 8-9% for RM; and 22-24% for SM - Apparently high average runoff is caused by the truncation of the lowerelevation portions of watersheds where much of the infiltration of runoff waters would otherwise occur; (5) Model results are calibrated to measured ET, CMB data, and streamflow observations; (6) Model results are validated using streamflow observations discovered after model calibration was complete; (7) Use of soil Ksat reduction with slope to mitigate bathtub ring was successful (based on calibration results); and (8) Soil-bedrock K{_}interface is innovative approach.

  6. Host cell infiltration into PDT-treated tumor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korbelik, Mladen; Krosl, Gorazd; Dougherty, Graeme J.; Chaplin, David J.

    1992-06-01

    C3H mice bearing SCCVII squamous cell carcinoma were treated with photodynamic therapy (PDT) 24 hours after receiving Photofrin (25 mg/kg, i.v.). Single cell suspensions obtained by the enzymatic digestion of tumors excised either 30 minutes or 4 hours after PDT were analyzed for the content of host immune cells and colony forming ability of malignant cells. The results were compared to the data obtained with non-treated tumors. It is shown that there is a marked increase in the content of cells expressing Mac-1 (monocytes/macrophages or granulocytes) in the tumor 30 minutes post PDT, while a high level of other leucocytes are found within the tumors by 4 hours after PDT. As elaborated in Discussion, the infiltration rate of host immune cells, dying of malignant tumor cells, and yet unknown death rate of host cells originally present in PDT treated tumor occurring concomitantly during this time period complicates this analysis. The results of this study suggest a massive infiltration of macrophages and other leucocytes in PDT treated SCCVII tumor, supporting the suggestion that a potent immune reaction is one of the main characteristics of PDT action in solid tumors. It remains to be determined to what extent is the activity of tumor infiltrating immune cells responsible for its eradication by PDT.

  7. Shock response of boron carbide based composites infiltrated with magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kafri, Mathan; Dariel, Moshe P.; Frage, Naum; Zaretsky, Eugene

    2012-03-01

    The fully dense composites were obtained by vacuum infiltrating boron carbide compacts (80% green density) with molten AZ91 magnesium alloy (850°C) and with the melt of a 50/50 AZ91- silicon mixture (1050°C). The densities composites were, 2.44 g/cm3 and 2.54 g/cm3, respectively. The impact response of the composites was studied in a series of VISAR -instrumented planar impact experiments with velocities of W and Cu impactors ranging from 100 to 1000 m/s. The velocity history recorded for the composites produced by infiltration with the Mg-Si alloy contains a distinct elastic precursor front followed by a plastic ramp. In contrast, the velocity history of the composite infiltrated with AZ91 does not display any step-like front; the amplitude of the elastic wave grows gradually from zero level and transforms smoothly into the plastic front. The influence of the composites microstructure on their compressive and tensile behavior is discussed.

  8. Results of irradiation of infiltrative lipoma in 13 dogs.

    PubMed

    McEntee, M C; Page, R L; Mauldin, G N; Thrall, D E

    2000-01-01

    Thirteen dogs with infiltrative lipomas were treated with cobalt 60 radiation. Four of the thirteen dogs also received either whole body (n = 2) or combination local/whole body (n = 2) hyperthermia in conjunction with radiation therapy. Cytoreductive surgery was performed prior to radiation in 10 dogs, although only 3 dogs had microscopic disease at the time of radiation therapy. Dogs received a total dose of 45.6 Gy-63 Gy in 2.5-4 Gy/fraction on either a Monday/Wednesday/Friday schedule or on a daily Monday through Friday schedule. Twelve of the 13 dogs had computed tomography (CT) images acquired prior to irradiation. Survival time was determined from the time of completion of radiation therapy. Survival ranged from 6 months to 94 months, with a median (95% confidence interval) of 40 (18.5-77) months and a mean of 46.4 months. Only one dog was euthanized due to persistent signs related to the infiltrative lipoma at 6 months after the end of radiation therapy. There was no apparent difference in response based on whether or not the dogs received hyperthermia in conjunction with irradiation, although the numbers were too small to make any significant conclusions. It appears that dogs with infiltrative lipomas can benefit from external beam irradiation alone or in combination with surgery to effect long-term local tumor control.

  9. Infiltration and evaporation of small hydrocarbon spills at gas stations.

    PubMed

    Hilpert, Markus; Breysse, Patrick N

    2014-12-01

    Small gasoline spills frequently occur at gasoline dispensing stations. We have developed a mathematical model to estimate both the amount of gasoline that infiltrates into the concrete underneath the dispensing stations and the amount of gasoline that evaporates into the typically turbulent atmosphere. Our model shows that the fraction of infiltrated gasoline can exceed the fraction that evaporates from the sessile droplets. Infiltrated gasoline then evaporates and is slowly released to the atmosphere via slow diffusive transport in pores. Tentative experiments show that our theoretical approach captures observed experimental trends. Predictions based on independently estimated model parameters roughly describe the experimental data, except for the very slow vapor release at the end of Stage II evaporation. Our study suggests that, over the lifespan of a gas station, concrete pads underneath gas dispensing stations accumulate significant amounts of gasoline, which could eventually break through into underlying soil and groundwater. Our model also shows that lifetimes of spilled gasoline droplets on concrete surfaces are on the order of minutes or longer. Therefore contamination can be carried away by foot traffic or precipitation runoff. Regulations and guidelines typically do not address subsurface and surface contaminations due to chronic small gasoline spills, even though these spills could result in non-negligible human exposure to toxic and carcinogenic gasoline compounds.

  10. Catalyst-infiltrated supporting cathode for thin-film SOFCs

    SciTech Connect

    Yamahara, Keiji; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, Steven J.; De Jonghe,Lutgard C.

    2004-04-12

    The fabrication and electrochemical performance of co-fired,LSM-SYSZ [i.e., La0.65Sr0.30MnO3 (LSM) - (Sc2O3)0.1(Y2O3)0.01(ZrO2)0.89] supported thin-film cells were examined using humidified hydrogen as a fuel. Co-firing of bi-layers and tri-layers was successful at 1250 C by optimizing the amount of carbon pore formers. A power density of a factor of 2.5 higher than that recently reported for the same type of cell at 800 C [3] was obtained for a cell with cobalt infiltration into the supporting cathode: the peak power densities were 455, 389, 285, 202, 141mW/cm2 at 800, 750, 700, 650, 600 C, respectively, and in most cases power densities at 0.7V exceeded more than 90 percent of the peak output. Increasing the cathode porosity from 43 to 53 percent improved peak power densities by as much as 1.3, shifting the diffusion limitation to high current densities. Cobalt infiltration into the support improved those by as much as a factor of 2 due to a significant reduction in non-ohmic resistance. These results demonstrate that cobalt catalyst-infiltrated LSM can be effective and low-cost supporting electrodes for reduced temperature, thin film SOFCs.

  11. Maxillary infiltration anaesthesia by ropivacaine for upper third molar surgery.

    PubMed

    Brkovic, B M B; Zlatkovic, M; Jovanovic, D; Stojic, D

    2010-01-01

    The main purpose of this study was to assess the clinical efficacy and haemodynamic effects of ropivacaine for infiltration anaesthesia in patients undergoing surgical removal of upper third molars. The safety profile of ropivacaine was also studied by investigating the maximal venous plasma concentration of ropivacaine and the reactivity to ropivacaine of isolated human infraorbital arteries. Ropivacaine in concentrations of 0.5, 0.75 and 1% achieved dose-dependent parameters of maxillary infiltration aneasthesia, clinically relevant in concentrations 0.75 and 1%. Postoperative needs for analgesics were observed in 67-100% of patients. Haemodynamic parameters were stable during surgery with significant changes occuring 10 min after surgery. After maxillary infiltration of 2.0 ml 1% ropivacaine, the maximum venous plasma concentration (Cmax) was 82+/-15 microg/l. On isolated human infraorbital artery, ropivacaine (10(-4)M) induced endothelium-independent contraction. This study suggests that 0.75 and 1% ropivacaine offers adequate and safe intraoperative analgesia but not successful postoperative pain control for the surgical removal of upper third molars.

  12. Epinephrine Affects Pharmacokinetics of Ropivacaine Infiltrated Into Palate

    PubMed Central

    Yamashiro, Mikiko; Hashimoto, Shuichi; Yasuda, Asako; Sunada, Katsuhisa

    2016-01-01

    Pulpal anesthesia success rates for ropivacaine following maxillary infiltration anesthesia seem to be low. We investigated the hypothesis that the addition of epinephrine would affect the pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine by retaining ropivacaine in the mucosa of the injected area through the time-dependent distribution of ropivacaine in the rat maxilla and serum following maxillary infiltration anesthesia using 3H-labeled ropivacaine. We then examined the vasoactivity of ropivacaine with or without epinephrine on local peripheral blood flow. The addition of epinephrine to ropivacaine increased ropivacaine concentrations in the palatal mucosa and adjacent maxilla by more than 3 times that of plain ropivacaine at 20 minutes. By observing the autoradiogram of 3H-ropivacaine, plain ropivacaine in the maxilla was remarkably reduced 20 minutes after injection. However, it was definitely retained in the palatal mucosa, hard palate, adjacent maxilla, and maxillary nerve after the administration with epinephrine. Ropivacaine with epinephrine significantly decreased labial blood flow. This study suggests that 10 μg/mL epinephrine added to 0.5% ropivacaine could improve anesthetic efficacy and duration for maxillary infiltration anesthesia over plain ropivacaine. PMID:27269664

  13. Characterizing Contact Lens–Related Corneal Infiltrates: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Meredith E.; Situ, Ping; Begley, Carolyn G.; Boree, Danielle; Chalmers, Robin L.; Osborn Lorenz, Kathrine

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To document the time course and resolution of contact lens–related corneal infiltrative events (CIEs) comparing slit-lamp images with anterior segment ocular coherence tomography (AS-OCT) images. Methods: Six silicone hydrogel (SiHy) soft contact lens (SCL) wearers presenting with newly diagnosed symptomatic CIEs were monitored with slit-lamp images, detailed drawings, and AS-OCT until the resolution of the CIE. A final follow-up visit was completed 4 weeks after CIE resolution to determine whether scar formation was present. Positive controls were 2 SiHy SCL wearers with established (inactive) corneal scars, and negative controls were 2 SiHy SCL wearers with clear corneas. High- and low-contrast logMAR visual acuities were measured, and subjective symptom questionnaires were completed at all visits. Results: Clinical signs, vision, and symptoms improved in tandem with the resolution of the CIEs as measured by imaging methods. Calibrated measures of infiltrate width from a slit-lamp biomicroscope appear to be similar to calibrated images from AS-OCT. Conclusions: Although further studies are needed to develop standardized procedures, AS-OCT can be a useful tool to characterize the development, progression, and resolution of corneal infiltrates as an objective measure of resolution and scar formation. PMID:27560033

  14. Difficulties in the evaluation and measuring of soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso

    2013-04-01

    Soil water infiltration is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the evaluation and measurement of water infiltration rates has become indispensable for the evaluation and modeling of the previously mentioned processes. Infiltration is one of the most difficult hydrological parameters to evaluate or measure accurately. Although the theoretical aspects of the process of soil water infiltration are well known since the middle of the past century, when several methods and models were already proposed for the evaluation of infiltration, still nowadays such evaluation is not frequently enough accurate for the purposes being used. This is partially due to deficiencies in the methodology being used for measuring infiltration, including some newly proposed methods and equipments, and in the use of non appropriate empirical models and approaches. In this contribution we present an analysis and discussion about the main difficulties found in the evaluation and measurement of soil water infiltration rates, and the more commonly committed errors, based on the past experiences of the author in the evaluation of soil water infiltration in many different soils and land conditions, and in their use for deducing soil water balances under variable and changing climates. It is concluded that there are not models or methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil

  15. Viral Immunotherapy to Eradicate Subclinical Brain Metastases

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    cells - of which most were Thy1.2+CD8+ (i.e., FITC (green) and PE (red/purple) double-positive and therefore appearing orange ) were seen after E...Dense infiltration of D2F2/E2 brain metastases at 4 days after intrathecal injection of VSV-HER2. CD8=green, CD4= orange , NKp46 = purple. Please...release from the brain and meninges occurs via CSF drainage into nasal lymphatics and into the dural venous sinuses . Lymphatic drainage into

  16. [Mathematical simulation of point source average infiltration depth under film hole irrigation].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiu-Juan; Ma, Xiao-Yi; Liu, Ji-Long; Zhan, Guo-Long

    2010-03-01

    By using RETC and SWMS-3D software, the point source infiltration characteristics of several typical soils under film hole irrigation were simulated, with the infiltration characteristics and related affecting factors analyzed. One simplified point source infiltration model with the parameters opening film hole rate, film hole diameter, soil clay particle content, and soil bulk density was established, and tested by infiltration experiments with the typical soils from Loess Plateau. It was shown that the infiltration coefficient under film hole irrigation increased with increasing opening film hole rate and decreased with increasing film hole diameter and soil clay particle content, while the infiltration index decreased with increasing opening film hole rate and soil clay particle content. This model could simply and accurately reflect the point source infiltration characteristics under film hole irrigation, and credibly determine the infiltration coefficient and index.

  17. Functional kinomics establishes a critical node of volume-sensitive cation-Cl− cotransporter regulation in the mammalian brain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinwei; Gao, Geng; Begum, Gulnaz; Wang, Jinhua; Khanna, Arjun R.; Shmukler, Boris E.; Daubner, Gerrit M.; de los Heros, Paola; Davies, Paul; Varghese, Joby; Bhuiyan, Mohammad Iqbal H.; Duan, Jinjing; Zhang, Jin; Duran, Daniel; Alper, Seth L.; Sun, Dandan; Elledge, Stephen J.; Alessi, Dario R.; Kahle, Kristopher T.

    2016-01-01

    Cell volume homeostasis requires the dynamically regulated transport of ions across the plasmalemma. While the ensemble of ion transport proteins involved in cell volume regulation is well established, the molecular coordinators of their activities remain poorly characterized. We utilized a functional kinomics approach including a kinome-wide siRNA-phosphoproteomic screen, a high-content kinase inhibitor screen, and a kinase trapping-Orbitrap mass spectroscopy screen to systematically identify essential kinase regulators of KCC3 Thr991/Thr1048 phosphorylation – a key signaling event in cell swelling-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVD). In the mammalian brain, we found the Cl−-sensitive WNK3-SPAK kinase complex, required for cell shrinkage-induced regulatory volume decrease (RVI) via the stimulatory phosphorylation of NKCC1 (Thr203/Thr207/Thr212), is also essential for the inhibitory phosphorylation of KCC3 (Thr991/Thr1048). This is mediated in vivo by an interaction between the CCT domain in SPAK and RFXV/I domains in WNK3 and NKCC1/KCC3. Accordingly, genetic or pharmacologic WNK3-SPAK inhibition prevents cell swelling in response to osmotic stress and ameliorates post-ischemic brain swelling through a simultaneous inhibition of NKCC1-mediated Cl− uptake and stimulation of KCC3-mediated Cl− extrusion. We conclude that WNK3-SPAK is an integral component of the long-sought “Cl−/volume-sensitive kinase” of the cation-Cl− cotransporters, and functions as a molecular rheostat of cell volume in the mammalian brain. PMID:27782176

  18. Role of osteopontin in hepatic neutrophil infiltration during alcoholic steatohepatitis

    SciTech Connect

    Apte, Udayan M.; Banerjee, Atrayee; McRee, Rachel; Wellberg, Elizabeth; Ramaiah, Shashi K. . E-mail: sramaiah@cvm.tamu.edu

    2005-08-22

    Alcoholic liver disease (ALD) is a major complication of heavy alcohol (EtOH) drinking and is characterized by three progressive stages of pathology: steatosis, steatohepatitis, and fibrosis/cirrhosis. Alcoholic steatosis (AS) is the initial stage of ALD and consists of fat accumulation in the liver accompanied by minimal liver injury. AS is known to render the hepatocytes increasingly sensitive to toxicants such as bacterial endotoxin (LPS). Alcoholic steatohepatitis (ASH), the second and rate-limiting step in the progression of ALD, is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation, neutrophil infiltration, and neutrophil-mediated parenchymal injury. However, the pathogenesis of ASH is poorly defined. It has been theorized that the pathogenesis of ASH involves interaction of increased circulating levels of LPS with hepatocytes being rendered highly sensitive to LPS due to heavy EtOH consumption. We hypothesize that osteopontin (OPN), a matricellular protein (MCP), plays an important role in the hepatic neutrophil recruitment due to its enhanced expression during the early phase of ALD (AS and ASH). To study the role of OPN in the pathogenesis of ASH, we induced AS in male Sprague-Dawley rats by feeding EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks. AS rats experienced extensive fat accumulation and minimal liver injury. Moderate induction in OPN was observed in AS group. ASH was induced by feeding male Sprague-Dawley rats EtOH-containing Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet for 6 weeks followed by LPS injection. The ASH rats had substantial neutrophil infiltration, coagulative oncotic necrosis, and developed higher liver injury. Significant increases in the hepatic and circulating levels of OPN was observed in the ASH rats. Higher levels of the active, thrombin-cleaved form of OPN in the liver in ASH group correlated remarkably with hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Finally, correlative studies between OPN and hepatic neutrophil infiltration was corroborated in a simple

  19. Brain Pericytes As Mediators of Neuroinflammation.

    PubMed

    Rustenhoven, Justin; Jansson, Deidre; Smyth, Leon C; Dragunow, Mike

    2017-03-01

    Brain pericytes are perivascular cells that regulate capillary function, and this localization puts them in a pivotal position for the regulation of central nervous system (CNS) inflammatory responses at the neurovascular unit. Neuroinflammation, driven by microglia and astrocytes or resulting from peripheral leukocyte infiltration, has both homeostatic and detrimental consequences for brain function and is present in nearly every neurological disorder. More recently, brain pericytes have been shown to have many properties of immune regulating cells, including responding to and expressing a plethora of inflammatory molecules, presenting antigen, and displaying phagocytic ability. In this review we highlight the emerging role of pericytes in neuroinflammation and discuss pericyte-mediated neuroinflammation as a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of a range of devastating brain disorders.

  20. Brain surgery - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... to take these medicines. If you had a brain aneurysm , you may also have other symptoms or problems. ... chap 28. Read More Acoustic neuroma Brain abscess Brain aneurysm repair Brain surgery Brain tumor - children Brain tumor - ...

  1. Infiltration of outdoor ultrafine particles into a test house.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Wallace, Lance; Persily, Andrew

    2010-08-01

    Ultrafine particles (UFP) (<100 nm) have been related to adverse human health effects such as oxidative stress and cardiovascular mortality. However, human exposure to particles of outdoor origin is heavily dependent on their infiltration into homes. The infiltration factor (Finf) and its variation as a function of several factors becomes of enormous importance in epidemiological studies. The objective of this study is to investigate the transport of UFP into a residential building and to determine the functional dependence of infiltration on particle size and air change rate. A secondary objective was to estimate the values of the penetration coefficient P and composite deposition rate kcomp that enter into the definition of Finf. Using continuous measurements of indoor and outdoor concentrations of size-resolved particles ranging from 5 to 100 nm in a manufactured test house, particle penetration through the building, composite deposition, and the resulting value of Finf were calculated for two cases: closed windows and one window open 7.5 cm. Finf ranged from close to 0 (particles<10 nm) to 0.3 (particles>80 nm) with windows closed and from 0 to 0.6 with one window open. The penetration coefficient (closed windows) increased from about 0.2 for 10-nm particles to an asymptote near 0.6 for particles from 30-100 nm. Open window penetration coefficients were higher, ranging from 0.6 to 0.8. Closed-window composite deposition rates, which included losses to the furnace filter and to the ductwork as well as to interior surfaces, monotonically decreased from levels of about 1.5 h(-1) for 10-nm particles to 0.3 h(-1) for 100-nm particles. For the open-window case, composite deposition rates were higher for particles<20 nm, reaching values of 3.5 h(-1). Mean standard errors associated with estimates of P, kcomp, and Finf for two series of measurements ranged from 1.0% to 4.4%.

  2. High-temperature-pressure Polymerized Resin-infiltrated Ceramic Networks

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, J.F.; Ruse, D.; Phan, A.C.; Sadoun, M.J.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce composite blocks (CB) for CAD/CAM applications by high-temperature-pressure (HT/HP) polymerization of resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic networks. The effect of network sintering and the absence/presence of initiator was investigated. Mechanical properties were determined and compared with those of Paradigm MZ100 (3M ESPE) blocks and HT/HP polymerized experimental “classic” CB, in which the filler had been incorporated by conventional mixing. The networks were made   from glass-ceramic powder (VITA Zahnfabrik) formed by slip casting and were either sintered or not. They were silanized, infiltrated by urethane dimethacrylate, with or without initiator, and polymerized under HT/HP (300 MPa, 180°C) to obtain resin-infiltrated glass-ceramic network (RIGCN) CB. HT/HP polymerized CB were also made from an experimental “classic” composite. Flexural strength (σf), fracture toughness (KIC), and Vickers hardness were determined and analyzed by one- or two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), Scheffé multiple-means comparisons (α = 0.05), and Weibull statistics (for σf). Fractured surfaces were characterized with scanning electron microscopy. The mechanical properties of RIGCN CB were significantly higher. Sintering induced significant increases in σf and hardness, while the initiator significantly decreased hardness. The results suggested that RIGCN and HT/HP polymerization could be used to obtain CB with superior mechanical properties, suitable for CAD/CAM applications. PMID:24186559

  3. Fluid infiltration of the Tudor Gabbro during regional metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, S.R.; Valley, J.W.

    1985-01-01

    The Tudor Gabbro (TG), an ovate body (4 x 9 km) 40 km SE of Bancroft. Ontario, was metamorphosed to upper greenschist facies along with surrounding sediments and volcanics. Allen (1976) delineated concentric isograds around the gabbro, including +sphene, +tremolite (to 1.5 km), +tremolite + clinozoisite, +diopside (approx. 120 m), and +garnet (approx. 80 m). Metamorphic conditions are inferred to be 490+/-50/sup 0/C, 5 kb with no thermal gradient. Allen suggested that H/sub 2/O infiltration of the marble and calc-schist accounts for the isograds. The gabbro mineralogy of titanaugite, andesine to labradorite, and minor hornblende is extensively recrystallized to albite and/or oligoclase + actinolite + epidote + ilmenite + calcite (up to 4 wt%) +/- biotite +/- chlorite +/- sphene +/- scapolite. Isotopic analyses of calcite from 39 TG samples show delta/sup 18/O = 9.4 to 16.6 and delta/sup 13/C = -1.9 to 3.4. Bulk silicate delta/sup 18/O of TG range from 7.1 to 10.2. Calcites in metasediment have delta/sup 18/O = 18.1 to 25.3 and delta/sup 13/C = 1.3 to 5.6. Two whole rock silicate analyses of a skarn developed locally at the contact show intermediate delta/sup 18/O of 16.2 and 17.3. The stability of Czo component in epidote requires H/sub 2/O-rich fluids. The delta/sup 13/C of TG calcites average +0.7 nearly identical to the average of 178 carbonates from Grenville marbles (+1.0), showing that metasediment-derived CO/sub 2/ pervasively infiltrated the TG. The infiltration of H/sub 2/O into both the TG and the metasediment suggests that H/sub 2/O-rich fluids migrated upward along the contact.

  4. Infiltrated composite electrodes for solid oxide fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyukaksoy, Aligul

    Solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) are electrochemical devices which can convert chemical energy to electrical energy with efficiencies up to 60%. In order for SOFCs to be favorable energy conversion devices, the power obtained from a unit volume should be improved. This corresponds to minimized resistances from SOFC components (composite electrodes and electrolyte). Stability of the generated power is another important issue. Degradation of SOFCs with time due to microstructural processes or chemical reactions that occur at operating conditions; and due to reduction/oxidation cycles caused by the changes in the anode has been an important obstacle that has prevented the widespread commercial use of SOFCs. In this dissertation, the electrochemical properties of SOFC electrodes prepared by an infiltration technique were investigated. The long-term behavior and redox stability of the electrodes were evaluated individually and in the form of complete SOFCs. Interpretation of impedance spectra was used extensively to gain some fundamental understanding of the electrochemical properties of the electrodes along with voltammetry. Microstructural characterization was performed by electron microscopy techniques. LSM-YSZ cathodes prepared by polymeric LSM precursor infiltration resulted in cathode polarization resistance of 0.022 Ohm.cm2 at 800 °C, which then increased to 0.035 Ohm.cm2 and remained stable at this value for 100 hours. SOFCs with Ni-YSZ anodes and LSM-YSZ cathodes prepared by infiltration yielded total electrode polarizations of 0.080 Ohm.cm 2 at 800 °C. The electrode polarization resistances showed no degradation with time or upon redox cycling

  5. A15 multifilamentary superconductors by the infiltration process

    SciTech Connect

    Pickus, M.R.; Holthuis, J.T.; Rosen, M.

    1980-05-01

    The inherent brittleness of the A15 compounds, and the requirement for a filamentary morphology, led to a heavy reliance on a powder approach for the preparation of superconducting tapes and wires. The quench-age technique, a non-powder process, was employed for the niobium-aluminum system, following the special features of the equilibrium phase diagram. The powder approach proved particularly effective for binaries, such as Nb-Sn, and for the ternaries Nb(Al,Ge) and Nb(Al,Si). Two variations of the powder process were assessed. One involved the use of precompounded powder of the desired stoichiometry but required simultaneous application of heat and pressure. The second variation was the infiltration process. This process involves the preparation of a ductile niobium matrix containing a controlled network of interconnected pores which are subsequently infiltrated with liquid metals (Sn) or low melting-point eutectics (e.g., Al-Ge, Al-Si). The composite is then subjected to a thermomechanical treatment to form a multiply connected array of A15 filaments in a niobium matrix. Multifilamentary conductors, based on Nb/sub 3/Sn, Nb/sub 3/Al, Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Ge) and Nb/sub 3/ (Al,Si), were readily obtained. Nb/sub 3/Sn conductors made by the infiltration process exhibit a critical temperature (Tc) of 18.1 K and a critical current carrying capacity (I/sub c/) of 8 x 10/sup 4/ amp.cm/sup -2/ at 12 Tesla.

  6. Improved Analytical Model for Infiltration Towards the Water Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avina, J. L.; Mishra, P. K.

    2015-12-01

    We present mathematical model which describes one dimensional flow of water from the land surface to the water table. Following Mishra and Neuman (2010), we consider four-parameter exponential model to describe soil-water characteristics curves. A system with initial flux into soil from above and boundary conditions at the water table and soil surface is considered. Analytical solutions to two cases (homogeneous and layered soils) of water infiltration towards the water table and the prescribed initial and boundary conditions are presented. We conclude by comparing the developed model with existing analytical and numerical models.

  7. Infiltration of Supermicron Aerosols into a Simulated Space Telescope

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-02-10

    AEROSPACE REPORT NO. TR-2011(8550)-1 Infiltration of Supermicron Aerosols into a Simulated Space Telescope February 10,2011 De-Ling Liu and... Telescope 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8802-09-C-0001 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) De-Ling Liu and Kenneth T. Luey 5d. PROJECT...system, such as a space telescope , during a purge outage. This study presents experi- mental work performed to measure time-dependent aerosol

  8. Scaling relations in the diffusive infiltration in fractals.

    PubMed

    Aarão Reis, F D A

    2016-11-01

    In a recent work on fluid infiltration in a Hele-Shaw cell with the pore-block geometry of Sierpinski carpets (SCs), the area filled by the invading fluid was shown to scale as F∼t^{n}, with n<1/2, thus providing a macroscopic realization of anomalous diffusion [Filipovitch et al., Water Resour. Res. 52, 5167 (2016)WRERAQ0043-139710.1002/2016WR018667]. The results agree with simulations of a diffusion equation with constant pressure at one of the borders of those fractals, but the exponent n is very different from the anomalous exponent ν=1/D_{W} of single-particle diffusion in the same fractals (D_{W} is the random-walk dimension). Here we use a scaling approach to show that those exponents are related as n=ν(D_{F}-D_{B}), where D_{F} and D_{B} are the fractal dimensions of the bulk and the border from which diffusing particles come, respectively. This relation is supported by accurate numerical estimates in two SCs and in two generalized Menger sponges (MSs), in which we performed simulations of single-particle random walks (RWs) with a rigid impermeable border and of a diffusive infiltration model in which that border is permanently filled with diffusing particles. This study includes one MS whose external border is also fractal. The exponent relation is also consistent with the recent simulational and experimental results on fluid infiltration in SCs, and explains the approximate quadratic dependence of n on D_{F} in these fractals. We also show that the mean-square displacement of single-particle RWs has log-periodic oscillations, whose periods are similar for fractals with the same scaling factor in the generator (even with different embedding dimensions), which is consistent with the discrete scale invariance scenario. The roughness of a diffusion front defined in the infiltration problem also shows this type of oscillation, which is enhanced in fractals with narrow channels between large lacunas.

  9. Optical coherence tomography findings of bilateral foveal leukemic infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Le, John Q; Braich, Puneet S; Brar, Vikram S

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 59-year-old man with a history of atypical chronic myelogenous leukemia who presented with a several-week history of decreased vision in both eyes. His clinical examination revealed bilateral foveal infiltration, which was also demonstrated on optical coherence tomography. After a failed induction with imatinib (Gleevec®), he was treated with omacetaxine (Synribo®) with an appropriate hematologic response. As his leukemia improved with chemotherapy, his retinal lesions regressed as demonstrated by serial optical coherence tomography and fundus photographs, with near complete restoration of foveal architecture. PMID:27540313

  10. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J.; Starr, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  11. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  12. Ablation of Ventricular Tachycardia in Congenital and Infiltrative Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Wijnmaalen, Adrianus P; Zeppenfeld, Katja

    2017-03-01

    Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) is an important treatment modality to prevent ventricular tachycardia (VT) recurrence in patients with repaired congenital heart disease. Identification and ablation of anatomic isthmuses has improved acute ablation outcome with excellent VT-free survival in those with preserved biventricular function. Reports on RFCA for VT in patients with infiltrative disease are sparse and cardiac sarcoidosis seems to be the most prevalent cause for ventricular arrhythmia. Patients with active and ongoing inflammation are at high risk for VT recurrence. RFCA reduces the number of VT but often multiple procedures are required and long-term VT-free survival is unfavorable in those with left ventricular dysfunction.

  13. Cellular infiltrative angiolipoma of cheek in an infant

    PubMed Central

    Shahi, Ajoy Kumar; Ash, Hiralal; Chatterji, Kabita; Singh, Revati

    2014-01-01

    Lipomas represent about 1 to 5% of all neoplasms of the oral cavity most commonly presenting as painless, mobile, soft, round mass. Angiolipoma, spindle cell lipoma, mylelolipoma, chondrolipoma and myxolipoma are histological variants of lipoma arising from fat tissues. Although the angiolipoma is the most common tumour in the trunk and the extrimities of young people, it occurs infrequently in the head and neck region. In this article we present clinical, radiological and histological features of a cellular infiltrative angiolipoma exicised from the buccal mucosa of a 9 months old female child. PMID:25937736

  14. CLIMATIC FORECASTING OF NET INFILTRATION AT YUCCA MOUNTAIN, USING ANALOGUE METEOROLOGICAL DATA

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2005-09-07

    Net infiltration is a key hydrologic parameter that controls the rate of deep percolation through the unsaturated zone, the groundwater recharge, radionuclide transport, and seepage into the underground tunnels. Because net infiltration is largely affected by climatic conditions, future changes in climatic conditions will potentially alter net infiltration. The objectives of this presentation are to: (1) Present a conceptual model and a semi-empirical approach for regional, climatic forecasting of net infiltration, based on the precipitation and temperature data from analogue meteorological stations, and (2) Demonstrate the results of forecasting net infiltration for future climates--interglacial, monsoon and glacial--over the Yucca Mountain region for the period of 500,000 years. Calculations of the net infiltration were performed using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, for which potential evapotranspiration was evaluated from the temperature-based Thornthwaite formula. (Both Budyko's and Thornthwaite's formulae have been used broadly in hydrological studies.) The results of calculations were used for ranking net infiltration, along with the aridity and precipitation-effectiveness (P-E) indexes, for future climatic scenarios. Using this approach, we determined a general trend of increasing net infiltration from the present-day (interglacial) climate to monsoon, intermediate (glacial transition), and then to the glacial climate. Ranking of the aridity and P-E indexes is practically the same as that of net infiltration. The validation of the computed net infiltration rates yielded a good match with other field and modeling study results of groundwater recharge and net infiltration evaluation.

  15. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  16. Tubastatin A, an HDAC6 inhibitor, alleviates stroke-induced brain infarction and functional deficits: potential roles of α-tubulin acetylation and FGF-21 up-regulation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhifei; Leng, Yan; Wang, Junyu; Liao, Hsiao-Mei; Bergman, Joel; Leeds, Peter; Kozikowski, Alan; Chuang, De-Maw

    2016-01-01

    Histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 exists exclusively in cytoplasm and deacetylates cytoplasmic proteins such as α-tubulin. HDAC6 dysfunction is associated with several pathological conditions in the central nervous system. This study investigated the beneficial effects of tubastatin A (TubA), a novel specific HDAC6 inhibitor, in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) and an in vitro model of excitotoxicity. Post-ischemic TubA treatment robustly improved functional outcomes, reduced brain infarction, and ameliorated neuronal cell death in MCAO rats. These beneficial effects lasted at least three days after MCAO. Notably, when given at 24 hours after MCAO, TubA still exhibited significant protection. Levels of acetylated α-tubulin were decreased in the ischemic hemisphere on Days 1 and 3 after MCAO, and were significantly restored by TubA. MCAO markedly downregulated fibroblast growth factor-21 (FGF-21) and TubA significantly reversed this downregulation. TubA also mitigated impaired FGF-21 signaling in the ischemic hemisphere, including up-regulating β-Klotho, and activating ERK and Akt/GSK-3β signaling pathways. In addition, both TubA and exogenous FGF-21 conferred neuroprotection and restored mitochondrial trafficking in rat cortical neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Our findings suggest that the neuroprotective effects of TubA likely involve HDAC6 inhibition and the subsequent up-regulation of acetylated α-tubulin and FGF-21. PMID:26790818

  17. Interleukin-10 in the brain.

    PubMed

    Strle, K; Zhou, J H; Shen, W H; Broussard, S R; Johnson, R W; Freund, G G; Dantzer, R; Kelley, K W

    2001-01-01

    Interleukin (IL)-10 is synthesized in the central nervous system (CNS) and acts to limit clinical symptoms of stroke, multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, meningitis, and the behavioral changes that occur during bacterial infections. Expression of IL-10 is elevated during the course of most major diseases in the CNS and promotes survival of neurons and all glial cells in the brain by blocking the effects of proapoptotic cytokines and by promoting expression of cell survival signals. Stimulation of IL-10 receptors regulates numerous life- or death-signaling pathways--including Jak1/Stat3, PI 3-kinase, MAPK, SOCS, and NF-kappaB--ultimately promoting cell survival by inhibiting both ligand- and mitochondrial-induced apoptotic pathways. IL-10 also limits inflammation in the brain; it does so by three major pathways: (1) reducing synthesis of proinflammatory cytokines, (2) suppressing cytokine receptor expression, and (3) inhibiting receptor activation. Finally, IL-10 induces anergy in brain-infiltrating T cells by inhibiting cell signaling through the costimulatory CD28-CD80/86 pathway. The multiple functions of IL-10 in the brain will create new and intriguing vistas that will promote a better understanding of neurodegenerative diseases. These discoveries could lead to development of innovative approaches for the use of antiinflammatory cytokines in major debilitating diseases of the CNS.

  18. Animal models of post-ischemic forced use rehabilitation: methods, considerations, and limitations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Many survivors of stroke experience arm impairments, which can severely impact their quality of life. Forcing use of the impaired arm appears to improve functional recovery in post-stroke hemiplegic patients, however the mechanisms underlying improved recovery remain unclear. Animal models of post-stroke rehabilitation could prove critical to investigating such mechanisms, however modeling forced use in animals has proven challenging. Potential problems associated with reported experimental models include variability between stroke methods, rehabilitation paradigms, and reported outcome measures. Herein, we provide an overview of commonly used stroke models, including advantages and disadvantages of each with respect to studying rehabilitation. We then review various forced use rehabilitation paradigms, and highlight potential difficulties and translational problems. Lastly, we discuss the variety of functional outcome measures described by experimental researchers. To conclude, we outline ongoing challenges faced by researchers, and the importance of translational communication. Many stroke patients rely critically on rehabilitation of post-stroke impairments, and continued effort toward progression of rehabilitative techniques is warranted to ensure best possible treatment of the devastating effects of stroke. PMID:23343500

  19. Obesity and hyperglycemia lead to impaired post-ischemic recovery after permanent ischemia in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tulsulkar, Jatin; Nada, Shadia E.; Slotterbeck, Brandon D.; McInerney, Marcia F.; Shah, Zahoor A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Obesity-induced diabetes has increased over the years and has become one of the risk factors for stroke. We investigated the influence of diet-induced obesity and hyperglycemia on permanent distal middle cerebral artery occlusion (pMCAO) induced ischemic stroke in mice. Methods Male C57/Bl6 mice were treated with a high fat/ high carbohydrate diet [HFCD/obese and hyperglycemia (O/H)] or a normal diet (control) for 3.5 months, subjected to pMCAO and sacrificed after 7 days. Results Infarct volume analysis showed no differences between the O/H and control group, whereas neurological deficits were significantly higher in the O/H group compared to the control group. Sirtuin (Sirt1) was overexpressed and NADPH oxidase was reduced in the O/H group. O/H mice had significantly lower expression of Wnt and glycogen synthase kinase 3 α and β, a key component in the Wnt signaling pathway. Translocation of apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) to the nucleus was observed in both the O/H and control groups, but O/H mice showed a higher expression of AIF in the nucleus. Conclusions Our data suggest that impaired Wnt signaling and active apoptosis results in reduced post-stroke recovery in obese and hyperglycemic mice. PMID:26694743

  20. Growth factor- and cytokine-stimulated endothelial progenitor cells in post-ischemic cerebral neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    Peplow, Philip V.

    2014-01-01

    Endothelial progenitor cells are resident in the bone marrow blood sinusoids and circulate in the peripheral circulation. They mobilize from the bone marrow after vascular injury and home to the site of injury where they differentiate into endothelial cells. Activation and mobilization of endothelial progenitor cells from the bone marrow is induced via the production and release of endothelial progenitor cell-activating factors and includes specific growth factors and cytokines in response to peripheral tissue hypoxia such as after acute ischemic stroke or trauma. Endothelial progenitor cells migrate and home to specific sites following ischemic stroke via growth factor/cytokine gradients. Some growth factors are less stable under acidic conditions of tissue ischemia, and synthetic analogues that are stable at low pH may provide a more effective therapeutic approach for inducing endothelial progenitor cell mobilization and promoting cerebral neovascularization following ischemic stroke. PMID:25317152

  1. Determining the extent of groundwater interference on the performance of infiltration trenches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Locatelli, Luca; Mark, Ole; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Karsten; Wong, Tony; Binning, Philip John

    2015-10-01

    Infiltration trenches are widely used in stormwater management, but their capacity decreases when installed in areas with shallow groundwater where infiltration is limited by groundwater drainage. Here the hydrological performance of single infiltration trenches in areas with shallow water tables is quantified in terms of their capability to reduce peak flow, peak volume and annual stormwater runoff volume. To simulate the long term hydrological performance of infiltration trenches two different models are employed. The models continuously simulate infiltration rates from infiltration trenches using a 19 year rainfall time series from Copenhagen as input. The annual and single event stormwater runoff reduction from infiltration trenches was determined for 9 different scenarios that covered different soil conditions and infiltration trench dimensions. Monte Carlo simulations were used in order to quantify the impact of parameter variability for each scenario. Statistical analysis of the continuous long term model simulations was used to quantify the hydrological performance of infiltration trenches. Results show that infiltration trenches are affected by groundwater when there is an unsaturated depth of less than 1.5-3 m in sandy loam, 6.5-8 m in silt loam and 11-12 m in silty clay loam. A correction factor that can be applied for infiltration trench design when there is a shallow groundwater table is presented. The analyses showed that below a certain value of unsaturated depth the dissipation capacity of the mound/groundwater becomes the dominant process determining the infiltration capacity from infiltration trenches. In these cases it is essential to consider the local groundwater conditions in the infiltration trench design process.

  2. Clonal dominance among T-lymphocyte infiltrates in arthritis

    SciTech Connect

    Stamenkovic, I.; Stegagno, M.; Wright, K.A.; Krane, S.M.; Amento, E.P.; Colvin, R.B.; Duquesnoy, R.J.; Kurnick, J.T.

    1988-02-01

    Synovial membranes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis as well as other types of chronic destructive inflammatory arthritis contain infiltrates of activated T lymphocytes that probably contribute to the pathogenesis of the disease. In an effort to elucidate the nature of these infiltrates, interleukin 2 (IL-2)-responsive T lymphocytes were grown out of synovial fragments from 14 patients undergoing surgery for advanced destructive inflammatory joint disease. Eleven of the samples examined were from patients with classical rheumatoid arthritis, while three others were obtained from individuals with clinical osteoarthritis. Southern blot analysis of T-cell receptor (TCR) ..beta..-chain genes in 13 of 14 cultures showed distinct rearrangements, indicating that each culture was characterized by the predominance of a limited number of clones. T-cell populations from peripheral blood stimulated with a variety of activators and expanded with IL-2 did not demonstrate evidence of similar clonality in long-term culture. These results suggest that a limited number of activated T-cell clones predominate at the site of tissue injury in rheumatoid synovial membranes as well as in other types of destructive inflammatory joint disease. Further characterization of these T-cell clones may aid our understanding of the pathogenesis of these rheumatic disorders.

  3. Infiltration of Autologous Growth Factors in Chronic Tendinopathies

    PubMed Central

    Crescibene, Antonio; Napolitano, Marcello; Sbano, Raffaella; Costabile, Enrico; Almolla, Hesham

    2015-01-01

    Achilles tendinopathy and patellar tendinopathy are among the most frequent diagnoses in sports medicine. Therapeutic treatment of the disease is difficult, particularly in chronic cases. In literature, several studies suggest the employment of Platelet-Rich Plasma as a therapeutic alternative in tendinopathies. The choice of employing this method is based on the activity of growth factors contained in platelets which activate, amplify, and optimize the healing process. We selected 14 patients affected by Achilles tendinopathy and 7 patients affected by patellar tendinopathy, with a two-year final follow-up. These patients underwent a cycle of three tendinous infiltrations, after clinical and instrumental evaluation carried out by means of specific questionnaires and repeated ultrasound scans. Ultrasound scans of 18 patients showed signs of reduction in insertional irregularities. The result is confirmed by complete functional recovery of the patients, with painful symptomatology disappearing. The patients showed a clear pain reduction, along with an enhanced VISA score after the 24-month follow-up, equal to 84.2 points on a scale of 0 to 100. In conclusion, the present study provides evidence to suggest that PRP infiltration is a valid option to patients with chronic tendinopathy who did not benefit from other treatments. PMID:26171277

  4. Small early gastric cancer with special reference to macrophage infiltration.

    PubMed

    Caruso, R A; Vitullo, P; Modesti, A; Inferrera, C

    1999-04-01

    The authors investigate the tumor-infiltrating cells in small early gastric cancer (EGC) (<10 mm) and describe the ultrastructural features and interactions of macrophages with tumor cells and other inflammatory cells. Sections from 20 small EGCs were stained by immunohistochemical methods for CD20, UCHL1, CD4, CD8, and CD68 (electron microscopic examination was used in 6 of the 20). In all of the tumors, CD68-positive macrophages accounted for most tumor-infiltrating cells, with UCHL1-positive T lymphocytes, eosinophils, and neutrophils being the next most frequent. We found only a few CD20-positive B lymphocytes. Electron microscopic analysis revealed macrophages with many phagocytic vesicles, cellular debris, and apoptotic bodies. These morphologic data show that macrophages are actively phagocytic. The tumor cells in contact with macrophages showed no cytopathic changes. These data do not support a macrophage-mediated cancer lysis like the ones reported in some systems in vitro. Contacts among macrophages and other inflammatory cells formed a recurrent ultrastructural hallmark and suggest a communication among varying inflammatory cell types during the precocious host response to gastric neoplasia.

  5. Increased Infiltrated Macrophages in Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaohai; Lin, Wen-Jye; Izumi, Kouji; Jiang, Qi; Lai, Kuo-Pao; Xu, Defeng; Fang, Lei-Ya; Lu, Tianjing; Li, Lei; Xia, Shujie; Chang, Chawnshang

    2012-01-01

    Infiltrated macrophages may play important roles in the development and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. We found increased macrophages infiltration in human and mouse BPH tissues. By establishing a co-culture transwell system, we found increased migration of macrophages and proliferation of prostate stromal cells during co-culture. Importantly, stromal androgen receptor (AR) could enhance the migration of macrophages and macrophage-mediated stromal cell proliferation. We identified CCL3 as an AR downstream player, and found CCL3 levels were notably increased in human and mouse BPH prostates. Ablation of prostate stromal AR in a mouse BPH model significantly reduced CCL3 expression levels in prostates. Consistently, targeting AR via an AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9§, or neutralization of CCL3 with an antibody, resulted in suppression of macrophage migration and prostate stromal cell growth. Our study provides mechanistic insights on the regulation of prostate stromal cells by macrophages via stromal AR/CCL3 signaling pathways, which could potentially allow the development of therapeutic approaches for battling BPH with persistent inflammation. PMID:22474290

  6. Explicit Formula for the Three-Parameter Infiltration Equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barry, D. A.; Parlange, J.; Haverkamp, R.

    2002-05-01

    The two-parameter (i.e., sorptivity and maximum hydraulic conductivity) Green-Ampt (GA) and Talsma-Parlange (TP) infiltration equations bracket the range of possible responses for cumulative water inflow into initially dry or uniformly moist soil profiles. We show that these implicit equations can be represented in explicit form (infiltration as a function of time) using the Lambert W function. Of these formulas, TP has been shown to be closest to measured data. The three-parameter equation was introduced to interpolate between these limits, with α as the interpolating parameter. The GA case corresponds to α = 0 whereas TP results for α = 1. Besides the limiting cases, another exact explicit solution is available for α = 1/2. Guided by the behaviour of the Lambert W function, an analytical iteration scheme is presented for solution of the three-parameter equation. However, by constructing an accurate explicit approximation (maximum relative error less than 0.05%), we show that iteration is not needed in most circumstances. An exception is the one-dimensional intercept, for which one iteration of the analytical approximation might be needed.

  7. Infiltrated Embolization of Meningioma with Dilute Cyanoacrylate Glue

    PubMed Central

    OHNISHI, Hiroyuki; MIYACHI, Shigeru; MURAO, Kenichi; HIRAMATSU, Ryo; TAKAHASHI, Kenkichi; OHNISHI, Hideyuki; KUROIWA, Toshihiko

    2017-01-01

    We describe the efficacy and technical aspects of infiltrated preoperative embolization of meningioma by penetration of very dilute glue. In this method, a 13% n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA)-lipiodol mixture is injected extremely slowly from the middle meningeal artery (MMA) in a similar manner to plug and push injection of ethylene vinyl alcohol copolymer mixed with tantalum and dimethyl sulfoxide (Onyx®) after the tortuous side feeders are proximally embolized. The glue is infiltrated into small tumor arteries and extends to inaccessible feeders from deep meningeal arteries. Since 2011, we have used this technique in the embolization of 32 cases preoperatively diagnosed with meningioma. Intratumoral embolization was possible in 30 cases (94%), and a greater than 50% reduction in contrast area of contrast-enhanced T1-weighted MR imaging (T1-WI) was achieved in 18 cases (56%). Two cases achieved complete devascularization, showing a remarkable shrinkage in tumor size after embolization. If excessive reflux of embolization and the resulting migration of glue into normal arteries is achieved, this method provides extremely effective devascularization on surgical extirpation. It might also be applicable to surgically untreatable meningiomas as a semi-radical treatment option. PMID:27646010

  8. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A.; Starr, T.L.

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  9. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. ); Starr, T.L. )

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  10. Telltale Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes (TIL) in Oral, Head & Neck Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lei, Yu; Xie, Yuying; Tan, Yee Sun; Prince, Mark E.; Moyer, Jeffrey S.; Nör, Jacques; Wolf, Gregory T.

    2017-01-01

    Evidence gleaned from recent studies on the role of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) suggests that cancer is not only a genetic disease but also an immunologic disease. Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma (HNSCC) has been a significant model to study cancer cell-immune cell interactions. First, immune cell infiltration is an important feature of these tumors. Second, HNSCC frequently develops resistance to immunogenic cytotoxicity, which provides a window to decipher how tumors engage the immune system to establish immune tolerance. Finally, chemoradiation therapy, as a central modality for HNSCC treatment, has been shown to elicit immune activation. The presence of effector immune cells in the tumor microenvironment is often associated with superior clinical response to adjuvant therapy. On the other hand, an activated immune system, in addition to limiting tumor initiation and progression, could also exert selective pressure to promote the growth of less immunogenic tumors, as a pivotal immunoediting process. But it remains unclear how cancer cell signaling regulates tumor immunogenicity and how to mitigate HNSCC-potentiated TIL suppression. In this review, we will revisit the prognostic role of TILs in HNSCC, and collectively discuss how cancer cell machinery impacts upon the plasticity of TILs. PMID:27553942

  11. An investigation of infiltration and indoor air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-01

    A multitask study was performed in the State of New York to provide information for guiding home energy conservation programs while maintaining acceptable indoor air quality. During this study, the statistical distribution of radon concentrations inside 2400 homes was determined. The relationships among radon levels, house characteristics, and sources were also investigated. The direct impact that two specific air infiltration reduction measures -- caulking and weatherstripping of windows and doors, and installation of storm windows and storm doors -- have on house air leakage was investigated in 60 homes. The effect of house age on the impact of weatherization was also evaluated. Indoor and outdoor measurements of NO{sub 2}, CO, SO{sub 2}, and respirable suspended particulates (RSP) were made for 400 homes to determine the effect of combustion sources on indoor air quality and to characterize the statistical distribution of the concentrations. Finally, the combustion source data were combined with the information on air infiltration reduction measures to estimate the potential impact of these measures on indoor air quality. 87 tabs.

  12. Modeling contamination of shallow unconfined aquifers through infiltration beds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ostendorf, D.W.

    1986-01-01

    We model the transport of a simply reactive contaminant through an infiltration bed and underlying shallow, one-dimensional, unconfined aquifer with a plane, steeply sloping bottom in the assumed absence of dispersion and downgradient dilution. The effluent discharge and ambient groundwater flow under the infiltration beds are presumed to form a vertically mixed plume marked by an appreciable radial velocity component in the near field flow region. The near field analysis routes effluent contamination as a single linear reservoir whose output forms a source plane for the one-dimensional, far field flow region downgradient of the facility; the location and width of the source plane reflect the relative strengths of ambient flow and effluent discharge. We model far field contaminant transport, using an existing method of characteristics solution with frame speeds modified by recharge, bottom slope, and linear adsorption, and concentrations reflecting first-order reaction kinetics. The near and far field models simulate transport of synthetic detergents, chloride, total nitrogen, and boron in a contaminant plume at the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment plant in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, with reasonable accuracy.

  13. Characterization of inflammatory cell infiltration in feline allergic skin disease.

    PubMed

    Taglinger, K; Day, M J; Foster, A P

    2007-11-01

    Sixteen cats with allergic dermatitis and six control cats with no skin disease were examined. Lymphoid and histiocytic cells in skin sections were examined immunohistochemically and mast cells were identified by toluidine blue staining. The 16 allergic cats showed one or more of several features (alopecia, eosinophilic plaques or granulomas, papulocrusting lesions), and histopathological findings were diverse. In control cats there were no cells that expressed IgM or MAC387, a few that were immunolabelled for IgG, IgA or CD3, and moderate numbers of mast cells. In allergic cats, positively labelled inflammatory cells were generally more numerous in lesional than in non-lesional skin sections, and were particularly associated with the superficial dermis and perifollicular areas. There were low numbers of plasma cells expressing cytoplasmic immunoglobulin; moderate numbers of MHC II-, MAC387- and CD3-positive cells; and moderate to numerous mast cells. MHC class II expression was associated with inflammatory cells morphologically consistent with dermal dendritic cells and macrophages, and epidermal Langerhans cells. Dendritic cells expressing MHC class II were usually associated with an infiltrate of CD3 lymphocytes, suggesting that these cells participate in maintenance of the local immune response by presenting antigen to T lymphocytes. These findings confirm that feline allergic skin disease is characterized by infiltration of activated antigen-presenting cells and T lymphocytes in addition to increased numbers of dermal mast cells. This pattern mimics the dermal inflammation that occurs in the chronic phase of both canine and human atopic dermatitis.

  14. Modeling Contamination of Shallow Unconfined Aquifers Through Infiltration Beds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostendorf, D. W.

    1986-03-01

    We model the transport of a simply reactive contaminant through an infiltration bed and underlying shallow, one-dimensional, unconfined aquifer with a plane, steeply sloping bottom in the assumed absence of dispersion and downgradient dilution. The effluent discharge and ambient groundwater flow under the infiltration beds are presumed to form a vertically mixed plume marked by an appreciable radial velocity component in the near field flow region. The near field analysis routes effluent contamination as a single linear reservoir whose output forms a source plane for the one-dimensional, far field flow region downgradient of the facility; the location and width of the source plane reflect the relative strengths of ambient flow and effluent discharge. We model far field contaminant transport, using an existing method of characteristics solution with frame speeds modified by recharge, bottom slope, and linear adsorption, and concentrations reflecting first-order reaction kinetics. The near and far field models simulate transport of synthetic detergents, chloride, total nitrogen, and boron in a contaminant plume at the Otis Air Force Base sewage treatment plant in Barnstable County, Massachusetts, with reasonable accuracy.

  15. Boosting antitumor responses of T lymphocytes infiltrating human prostate cancers.

    PubMed

    Bronte, Vincenzo; Kasic, Tihana; Gri, Giorgia; Gallana, Keti; Borsellino, Giovanna; Marigo, Ilaria; Battistini, Luca; Iafrate, Massimo; Prayer-Galetti, Tommaso; Pagano, Francesco; Viola, Antonella

    2005-04-18

    Immunotherapy may provide valid alternative therapy for patients with hormone-refractory metastatic prostate cancer. However, if the tumor environment exerts a suppressive action on antigen-specific tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL), immunotherapy will achieve little, if any, success. In this study, we analyzed the modulation of TIL responses by the tumor environment using collagen gel matrix-supported organ cultures of human prostate carcinomas. Our results indicate that human prostatic adenocarcinomas are infiltrated by terminally differentiated cytotoxic T lymphocytes that are, however, in an unresponsive status. We demonstrate the presence of high levels of nitrotyrosines in prostatic TIL, suggesting a local production of peroxynitrites. By inhibiting the activity of arginase and nitric oxide synthase, key enzymes of L-arginine metabolism that are highly expressed in malignant but not in normal prostates, reduced tyrosine nitration and restoration of TIL responsiveness to tumor were achieved. The metabolic control exerted by the tumor on TIL function was confirmed in a transgenic mouse prostate model, which exhibits similarities with human prostate cancer. These results identify a novel and dominant mechanism by which cancers induce immunosuppression in situ and suggest novel strategies for tumor immunotherapy.

  16. Transient leakance and infiltration characteristics during lake bank filtration.

    PubMed

    Wiese, B; Nützmann, G

    2009-01-01

    Infiltration capacity of bank filtration systems depends on water extraction and hydraulic resistance of the bed sediments. Lakebed hydraulics may be especially affected by clogging, which is dependent on settlement of fine particles, redox potential, and other factors. In the field, most of these processes are difficult to quantify, and thus, when calculating response to pumping the water flux across the sediment surface is assumed to be linearly dependent on the hydraulic gradient. However, this assumption was not adequate to describe conditions at a bank filtration site located at Lake Tegel, Berlin, Germany. Hence, we first assumed the leakage coefficient (or leakance) is spatially distributed and also temporally variant. Furthermore, observations show that the leakance is considerably higher in shallow than in deeper areas; hence, leakance was assumed to be dependent on the existence and thickness of an unsaturated zone below the lake. The proposed explanation of spatial and temporal variability in leakance involves a hypothesis for redox dependent and reversible biogeochemical clogging, supported by geochemical observations in surface water and ground water. Four leakance approaches are implemented in the ground water flow code MODFLOW2000 and calibrated by inverse modeling using the parameter estimation software PEST. These concepts are evaluated by examining the fit to the hydraulic heads, to infiltration measurements, transport modeling results, and considering the degrees of freedom due to the number of calibration parameters. The leakage concept based on the assumption of the influence of an unsaturated zone on clogging processes best explains the field data.

  17. Brain investigation and brain conceptualization

    PubMed Central

    Redolfi, Alberto; Bosco, Paolo; Manset, David; Frisoni, Giovanni B.

    Summary The brain of a patient with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) undergoes changes starting many years before the development of the first clinical symptoms. The recent availability of large prospective datasets makes it possible to create sophisticated brain models of healthy subjects and patients with AD, showing pathophysiological changes occurring over time. However, these models are still inadequate; representations are mainly single-scale and they do not account for the complexity and interdependence of brain changes. Brain changes in AD patients occur at different levels and for different reasons: at the molecular level, changes are due to amyloid deposition; at cellular level, to loss of neuron synapses, and at tissue level, to connectivity disruption. All cause extensive atrophy of the whole brain organ. Initiatives aiming to model the whole human brain have been launched in Europe and the US with the goal of reducing the burden of brain diseases. In this work, we describe a new approach to earlier diagnosis based on a multimodal and multiscale brain concept, built upon existing and well-characterized single modalities. PMID:24139654

  18. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots.

  19. Increased cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin levels and its involvement in macrophage infiltration in neuromyelitis optica

    PubMed Central

    Kariya, Yoshinobu; Kariya, Yukiko; Saito, Toshie; Nishiyama, Shuhei; Honda, Takashi; Tanaka, Keiko; Yoshida, Mari; Fujihara, Kazuo; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    Background Neuromyelitis optica (NMO) is an inflammatory disease of the central nervous system that predominantly affects the optic nerves and spinal cord. Although NMO has long been considered a subtype of multiple sclerosis (MS), the effects of interferon-β treatment are different between NMO and MS. Recent findings of NMO-IgG suggest that NMO could be a distinct disease rather than a subtype of MS. However, the underlying molecular mechanism of NMO pathology remains poorly understood. Methods OPN in the cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with NMO and with MS, as well as of patients with other neurologic disease/idiopathic other neurologic disease was examined using Western blotting, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and Boyden chamber. Results Here we show that osteopontin is significantly increased in the cerebrospinal fluid of NMO patients compared with MS patients. Immunohistochemical analyses revealed that osteopontin was markedly elevated in the cerebral white matter of NMO patients and produced by astrocytes, neurons, and oligodendroglia as well as infiltrating macrophages. We also demonstrate that the interaction of the cerebrospinal fluid osteopontin in NMO patients with integrin αvβ3 promoted macrophage chemotaxis by activating phosphoinositide 3-kinase and MEK1/2 signaling pathways. Conclusion These results indicate that osteopontin is involved in NMO pathology. General significance Thus therapeutic strategies that target osteopontin signaling may be useful to treat NMO. PMID:26673877

  20. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype.

    PubMed

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M; Maiti, Sourindra N; Thomas, Ginu; Zhou, Shouhao; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D; Yaghi, Nasser K; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Prabhu, Sujit S; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A; Bruner, Janet M; Fuller, Gregory N; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R; Curran, Michael A; Bhat, Krishna P; Antel, Jack P; Cooper, Laurence J; Sulman, Erik P; Heimberger, Amy B

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b(+) cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages.

  1. Glioblastoma-infiltrated innate immune cells resemble M0 macrophage phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gabrusiewicz, Konrad; Rodriguez, Benjamin; Wei, Jun; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Healy, Luke M.; Maiti, Sourindra N.; Wang, Qianghu; Elakkad, Ahmed; Liebelt, Brandon D.; Yaghi, Nasser K.; Ezhilarasan, Ravesanker; Huang, Neal; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Prabhu, Sujit S.; Rao, Ganesh; Sawaya, Raymond; Langford, Lauren A.; Bruner, Janet M.; Fuller, Gregory N.; Bar-Or, Amit; Li, Wei; Colen, Rivka R.; Curran, Michael A.; Bhat, Krishna P.; Antel, Jack P.; Cooper, Laurence J.; Sulman, Erik P.; Heimberger, Amy B.

    2016-01-01

    Glioblastomas are highly infiltrated by diverse immune cells, including microglia, macrophages, and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs). Understanding the mechanisms by which glioblastoma-associated myeloid cells (GAMs) undergo metamorphosis into tumor-supportive cells, characterizing the heterogeneity of immune cell phenotypes within glioblastoma subtypes, and discovering new targets can help the design of new efficient immunotherapies. In this study, we performed a comprehensive battery of immune phenotyping, whole-genome microarray analysis, and microRNA expression profiling of GAMs with matched blood monocytes, healthy donor monocytes, normal brain microglia, nonpolarized M0 macrophages, and polarized M1, M2a, M2c macrophages. Glioblastoma patients had an elevated number of monocytes relative to healthy donors. Among CD11b+ cells, microglia and MDSCs constituted a higher percentage of GAMs than did macrophages. GAM profiling using flow cytometry studies revealed a continuum between the M1- and M2-like phenotype. Contrary to current dogma, GAMs exhibited distinct immunological functions, with the former aligned close to nonpolarized M0 macrophages. PMID:26973881

  2. [Brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Pälvimäki, Esa-Pekka; Siironen, Jari; Pohjola, Juha; Hernesniemi, Juha

    2011-01-01

    Brain concussion is a common disturbance caused by external forces or acceleration affecting the head. It may be accompanied by transient loss of consciousness and amnesia. Typical symptoms include headache, nausea and dizziness; these may remain for a week or two. Some patients may experience transient loss of inability to create new memories or other brief impairment of mental functioning. Treatment is symptomatic. Some patients may suffer from prolonged symptoms, the connection of which with brain concession is difficult to show. Almost invariably the prognosis of brain concussion is good.

  3. Bypassing the blood-brain barrier: delivery of therapeutic agents by macrophages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirschberg, Henry; Baek, Seung-Kuk; Kwon, Young Jik; Sun, Chung-Ho; Madsen, Steen J.

    2010-02-01

    Introduction: Failure to eradicate infiltrating glioma cells using conventional treatment regimens results in tumor recurrence and is responsible for the dismal prognosis of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). This is due to the fact that these migratory cells are protected by the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and the blood brain tumor barrier (BBTB) which prevents the delivery of most anti-cancer agents. We have evaluated the ability of monocytes/macrophages (Mo/Ma) to cross the BBB in rats. This will permit access of anti-cancer agents such as nanoparticles to effectively target the infiltrating tumor cells, and potentially improve the treatment effectiveness for malignant gliomas. Materials and Methods: The infiltration of Mo/Ma into brain tumor spheroids in vitro was determined using fluorescent stained Mo/Ma. Tumors were also established in the brains of inbred rats and ALA-PDT was given 18 days following tumor induction. The degredation of the BBTB and quantification of the number of infiltrating Mo/Ma was examined on histological sections from removed brains. Results & Conclusion: PDT was highly effective in locally opening the BBTB and inducing macrophage migration into the irradiated portions of brain tumors.

  4. Tongue Fat Infiltration in Obese Versus Lean Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Brennick, Michael J.; Delikatny, James; Pack, Allan I.; Pickup, Stephen; Shinde, Sarika; Zhu, Jing-Xu; Roscoe, Ivana; Kim, David Y.; Buxbaum, Laurence U.; Cater, Jacqueline R.; Schwab, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Obesity is the most important risk factor for obstructive sleep apnea (OSA), and the effects of obesity may be mediated by tongue fat. Our objective was to examine the effects of obesity on upper airway structures in obese (OBZ) and non-obese (NBZ) Zucker rats. Design: Animal study. Setting: Academic Medical Center. Participants: OBZ (638.2 ± 39 g; 14.9 ± 1.1 w) and age-matched NBZ Zucker (442.6 ± 37 g, 15.1 ± 1.5 w) rats. Interventions: Tongue fat and volume and were assessed using: in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), magnetic resonance imaging including Dixon imaging for tongue fat volume, ex vivo biochemistry (fat quantification; triglyceride (mg)/tissue (g), and histology (Oil Red O stain). Measurements and Results: MRS: overall OBZ tongue fat/water ratio was 2.9 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002) with the anterior OBZ tongue up to 3.3 times greater than NBZ (P < 0.002). Biochemistry: Triglyceride (TG) in the tongue was 4.4 times greater in OBZ versus NBZ (P < 0.0006). TG was greater in OBZ tongue (3.57 ± 1.7 mg/g) than OBZ masseter muscle (0.28 ± 0.1; P < 0.0001) but tongue and masseter TG were not different in NBZ rats (0.82 ± 0.3 versus 0.28 ± 0.1 mg/g, P = 0.67). Dixon fat volume was significantly increased in OBZ (56 ± 15 mm3) versus NBZ (34 ± 5 mm3, P < 0.004). Histology demonstrated a greater degree of intracellular muscle fat and extramuscular fat infiltration in OBZ versus NBZ rats. Conclusions: Genetically obese rats had a large degree of fat infiltration in the tongue compared to both skeletal muscle and tongue tissues of the non-obese age-matched littermates. The significant fat increase and sequestration in the obese tongue may play a role in altered tongue neuromuscular function, tongue stiffness or metabolic function. Citation: Brennick MJ, Delikatny J, Pack AI, Pickup S, Shinde S, Zhu JX, Roscoe I, Kim DY, Buxbaum LU, Cater JR, Schwab RJ. Tongue fat infiltration in obese versus lean Zucker rats. SLEEP 2014

  5. Infiltration and runoff generation processes in fire-affected soils

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2014-01-01

    Post-wildfire runoff was investigated by combining field measurements and modelling of infiltration into fire-affected soils to predict time-to-start of runoff and peak runoff rate at the plot scale (1 m2). Time series of soil-water content, rainfall and runoff were measured on a hillslope burned by the 2010 Fourmile Canyon Fire west of Boulder, Colorado during cyclonic and convective rainstorms in the spring and summer of 2011. Some of the field measurements and measured soil physical properties were used to calibrate a one-dimensional post-wildfire numerical model, which was then used as a ‘virtual instrument’ to provide estimates of the saturated hydraulic conductivity and high-resolution (1 mm) estimates of the soil-water profile and water fluxes within the unsaturated zone.Field and model estimates of the wetting-front depth indicated that post-wildfire infiltration was on average confined to shallow depths less than 30 mm. Model estimates of the effective saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks, near the soil surface ranged from 0.1 to 5.2 mm h−1. Because of the relatively small values of Ks, the time-to-start of runoff (measured from the start of rainfall),  tp, was found to depend only on the initial soil-water saturation deficit (predicted by the model) and a measured characteristic of the rainfall profile (referred to as the average rainfall acceleration, equal to the initial rate of change in rainfall intensity). An analytical model was developed from the combined results and explained 92–97% of the variance of  tp, and the numerical infiltration model explained 74–91% of the variance of the peak runoff rates. These results are from one burned site, but they strongly suggest that  tp in fire-affected soils (which often have low values of Ks) is probably controlled more by the storm profile and the initial soil-water saturation deficit than by soil hydraulic properties.

  6. Brain radiation - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    Radiation - brain - discharge; Cancer-brain radiation; Lymphoma - brain radiation; Leukemia - brain radiation ... Decadron) while you are getting radiation to the brain. It may make you hungrier, cause leg swelling ...

  7. Brain Stimulation Therapies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Magnetic Seizure Therapy Deep Brain Stimulation Additional Resources Brain Stimulation Therapies Overview Brain stimulation therapies can play ... for a shorter recovery time than ECT Deep Brain Stimulation Deep brain stimulation (DBS) was first developed ...

  8. Brain tumor - primary - adults

    MedlinePlus

    ... Vestibular schwannoma (acoustic neuroma) - adults; Meningioma - adults; Cancer - brain tumor (adults) ... Primary brain tumors include any tumor that starts in the brain. Primary brain tumors can start from brain cells, ...

  9. Right Hemisphere Brain Damage

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language and Swallowing / Disorders and Diseases Right Hemisphere Brain Damage [ en Español ] What is right hemisphere brain ... right hemisphere brain damage ? What is right hemisphere brain damage? Right hemisphere brain damage (RHD) is damage ...

  10. Anatomy of the Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... Young Adult Guidelines For brain tumor information and support Call: 800-886-ABTA (2282) or Complete our contact form Brain Tumor Information Brain Anatomy Brain Structure Neuron Anatomy Brain Tumor Symptoms Diagnosis Types of ...

  11. Fragile Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Eric

    2001-01-01

    Describes three types of brain disorders: the sluggish, the oppositional, and the depressed. Explains how to identify these disorders and offers educators strategies for dealing with each. (Contains 11 references.) (PKP)

  12. Brain abscess

    MedlinePlus

    ... small abscess (less than 2 cm) An abscess deep in the brain An abscess and meningitis Several ... or MRI scan may be needed for a deep abscess. During this procedure, medicines may be injected ...

  13. Brain Basics

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... genes and epigenetics may one day lead to genetic testing for people at risk for mental disorders. ... brain. DNA —The "recipe of life," containing inherited genetic information that helps to define physical and some ...

  14. Brain Autopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... Monthly Donation Named Funds Planned Giving Gifts of Stock Business Partnerships Host an Event AFTD-Team Races ... family members to reach a closure after a long struggle. Brain autopsy is often done in conjunction ...

  15. Progesterone Induces the Growth and Infiltration of Human Astrocytoma Cells Implanted in the Cerebral Cortex of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Germán-Castelán, Liliana; Manjarrez-Marmolejo, Joaquín; González-Arenas, Aliesha; González-Morán, María Genoveva; Camacho-Arroyo, Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Progesterone (P4) promotes cell proliferation in several types of cancer, including brain tumors such as astrocytomas, the most common and aggressive primary intracerebral neoplasm in humans. In this work, we studied the effects of P4 and its intracellular receptor antagonist, RU486, on growth and infiltration of U373 cells derived from a human astrocytoma grade III, implanted in the motor cortex of adult male rats, using two treatment schemes. In the first one, fifteen days after cells implantation, rats were daily subcutaneously treated with vehicle (propylene glycol, 160 μL), P4 (1 mg), RU486 (5 mg), or P4 + RU486 (1 mg and 5 mg, resp.) for 21 days. In the second one, treatments started 8 weeks after cells implantation and lasted for 14 days. In both schemes we found that P4 significantly increased the tumor area as compared with the rest of the treatments, whereas RU486 blocked P4 effects. All rats treated with P4 showed tumor infiltration, while 28.6% and 42.9% of the animals treated with RU486 and P4 + RU486, respectively, presented it. Our data suggest that P4 promotes growth and migration of human astrocytoma cells implanted in the motor cortex of the rat through the interaction with its intracellular receptor. PMID:24982875

  16. Computerized image analysis as a tool to quantify infiltrating leukocytes: a comparison between high- and low-magnification images.

    PubMed

    Johansson, A C; Visse, E; Widegren, B; Sjögren, H O; Siesjö, P

    2001-09-01

    The purpose of the present study was to establish a rapid and reproducible method for quantification of tissue-infiltrating leukocytes using computerized image analysis. To achieve this, the staining procedure, the image acquisition, and the image analysis method were optimized. Because of the adaptive features of the human eye, computerized image analysis is more sensitive to variations in staining compared with manual image analysis. To minimize variations in staining, an automated immunostainer was used. With a digital scanner camera, low-magnification images could be sampled at high resolution, thus making it possible to analyze larger tissue sections. Image analysis was performed by color thresholding of the digital images based on values of hue, saturation, and intensity color mode, which we consider superior to the red, green, and blue color mode for analysis of most histological stains. To evaluate the method, we compared computerized analysis of images with a x100 or a x12.5 magnification to assess leukocytes infiltrating rat brain tumors after peripheral immunizations with tumor cells genetically modified to express rat interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) or medium controls. The results generated by both methods correlated well and did not show any significant differences. The method allows efficient and reproducible processing of large tissue sections that is less time-consuming than conventional methods and can be performed with standard equipment and software.(J Histochem Cytochem 49:1073-1079, 2001)

  17. Infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, traced by {sup 36}Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S.K.; Bentley, H.W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-04-01

    Measurements of chloride and {sup 36}Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the {sup 36}Cl fallout from nuclear weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 0.5m below the surface. The structure of the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and quantity of {sup 36}Cl in the bomb pulse was <1% of the 6 x 10{sup 12} atoms {sup 36}Cl/m{sup 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location. 11 refs.

  18. Infiltration at yucca mountain, nevada, traced by 36Cl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norris, A. E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S. K.; Bentley, H. W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-11-01

    Measurements of chloride and 36Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the 36Cl fallout from nuclear-weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum 36Cl/Cl ratio 0.5 m below the surface. The structure of the 36Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and the quantity of 36Cl in the bomb pulse was < 1% of the 6 × 10 12 atoms {36Cl }/{m 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the 36Cl bomb-pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location.

  19. Infiltration of central nervous system in adult acute myeloid leukaemia.

    PubMed Central

    Pippard, M J; Callender, S T; Sheldon, P W

    1979-01-01

    Out of 64 consecutive unselected patients with acute myeloid leukaemia studied during 1973-6, five developed clinical evidence of spread to the central nervous system (CNS). Neuroradiological examination showed cerebral deposits in three, in whom rapid symptomatic relief was obtained with radiotherapy. In two of these patients who developed solid intracranial deposits haematological remission could be reinduced or maintained; they were still alive 86 and 134 weeks later. When patients presented with spread to the CNS complicating generalised uncontrolled leukaemia they had short survivals. CNS infiltration may respond dramatically to appropriate treatment provided that it is not associated with generalised uncontrolled leukaemia, which has a poor prognosis. In view of this, routine "prophylaxis" of the CNS in adult acute myeloid leukaemia does not seem justified at present. Images FIG 1 FIG 2 FIG 3 PMID:283873

  20. Laser Machining of Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, D. C.; Ojard, G.; Brewer, D.

    2012-01-01

    As interest grows in considering the use of ceramic matrix composites for critical components, the effects of different machining techniques, and the resulting machined surfaces, on strength need to be understood. This work presents the characterization of a Melt Infiltrated SiC/SiC composite material system machined by different methods. While a range of machining approaches were initially considered, only diamond grinding and laser machining were investigated on a series of tensile coupons. The coupons were tested for residual tensile strength, after a stressed steam exposure cycle. The data clearly differentiated the laser machined coupons as having better capability for the samples tested. These results, along with micro-structural characterization, will be presented.

  1. A multilevel multiscale mimetic method for an anisotropic infiltration problem

    SciTech Connect

    Lipnikov, Konstantin; Moulton, David; Svyatskiy, Daniil

    2009-01-01

    Modeling of multiphase flow and transport in highly heterogeneous porous media must capture a broad range of coupled spatial and temporal scales. Recently, a hierarchical approach dubbed the Multilevel Multiscale Mimetic (M3) method, was developed to simulate two-phase flow in porous media. The M{sup 3} method is locally mass conserving at all levels in its hierarchy, it supports unstructured polygonal grids and full tensor permeabilities, and it can achieve large coarsening factors. In this work we consider infiltration of water into a two-dimensional layered medium. The grid is aligned with the layers but not the coordinate axes. We demonstrate that with an efficient temporal updating strategy for the coarsening parameters, fine-scale accuracy of prominent features in the flow is maintained by the M{sup 3} method.

  2. Gas transport model for chemical vapor infiltration. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.

    1995-05-01

    A node-bond percolation model is presented for the gas permeability and pore surface area of the coarse porosity in woven fiber structures during densification by chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). Model parameters include the number of nodes per unit volume and their spatial distribution, and the node and bond radii and their variability. These parameters relate directly to structural features of the weave. Some uncertainty exists in the proper partition of the porosity between {open_quotes}node{close_quotes} and{open_quote}bond{close_quotes} and between intra-tow and inter-tow, although the total is constrained by the known fiber loading in the structure. Applied to cloth layup preforms the model gives good agreement with the limited number of available measurements.

  3. Wear and Reactivity Studies of Melt infiltrated Ceramic Matrix Composite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jarmon, David C.; Ojard, Greg; Brewer, David N.

    2013-01-01

    As interest grows in the use of ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) for critical gas turbine engine components, the effects of the CMCs interaction with the adjoining structure needs to be understood. A series of CMC/material couples were wear tested in a custom elevated temperature test rig and tested as diffusion couples, to identify interactions. Specifically, melt infiltrated silicon carbide/silicon carbide (MI SiC/SiC) CMC was tested in combination with a nickel-based super alloy, Waspaloy, a thermal barrier coating, Yttria Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), and a monolithic ceramic, silicon nitride (Si3N4). To make the tests more representative of actual hardware, the surface of the CMC was kept in the as-received state (not machined) with the full surface features/roughness present. Test results include: scanning electron microscope characterization of the surfaces, micro-structural characterization, and microprobe analysis.

  4. Melt-infiltrated Sic Composites for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.; Pujar, Vijay V.

    2004-01-01

    SiC-SiC ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) manufactured by the slurry -cast melt-infiltration (MI) process are leading candidates for many hot-section turbine engine components. A collaborative program between Goodrich Corporation and NASA-Glenn Research Center is aimed at determining and optimizing woven SiC/SiC CMC performance and reliability. A variety of composites with different fiber types, interphases and matrix compositions have been fabricated and evaluated. Particular focus of this program is on the development of interphase systems that will result in improved intermediate temperature stressed-oxidation properties of this composite system. The effect of the different composite variations on composite properties is discussed and, where appropriate, comparisons made to properties that have been generated under NASA's Ultra Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Program.

  5. Water infiltration and intermittent flow in rough-walled fractures

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Grace

    1995-05-01

    Flow visualization experiments were conducted in transparent replicas of natural rough-walled fractures. The fracture was inclined to observe the interplay between capillary and gravity forces. Water was introduced into the fracture by a capillary siphon. Preferential flow paths were observed, where intermittent flow frequently occurred. The water infiltration experiments suggest that intermittent flow in fractures appears to be the rule rather than the exception. In order to investigate the mechanism causing intermittent flow in fractures, parallel plates with different apertures were assembled using lucite and glass. A medium-coarse-fine pore structure is believed to cause the intermittency in flow. Intermittent flow was successfully produced in the parallel plate experiments using the lucite plates. After several trials, intermittent flow was also produced in the glass plates.

  6. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.

    1995-05-01

    This program is designed to develop a Hall-Heroult aluminum smelting cathode with substantially improved properties. The carbon cathodes in current use require significant anode-to-cathode spacing in order to prevent shorting, causing significant electrical inefficiencies. This is due to the non-wettability of carbon by aluminum which causes instability in the cathodic aluminum pad. It is suggested that a fiber reinforced-TiB{sub 2} matrix composite would have the requisite wettability, strength, strain-to-failure, cost, and lifetime to solve this problem. The approach selected to fabricate such a cathode material is chemical vapor infiltration (CVI). This program is designed to evaluate potential fiber reinforcements, fabricate test specimens, and test the materials in a static bath and lab-scale Hall cell.

  8. Left upper lobe mass and diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate.

    PubMed

    Jackson, H D; Carney, K J; Knautz, M A; Tenholder, M F

    1994-06-01

    We encountered a clinical problem in a young man who presented with a left upper lobe mass and a diffuse reticular-nodular infiltrate. We thought we had appropriately applied Murphy's Law (the famed bank robber who "went where the money is"), and Ockham's Razor (the philosopher William of Ockham [1285 to 1349]-"Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity") as we rapidly diagnosed the lung mass with computed tomography, scintigraphy, and fine-needle aspiration. However, when his invaluable previous chest radiographs arrived, bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, bronchoalveolar lavage, brushings, and postbronchoscopy sputum revealed the more ominous diagnosis in this patient. This case illustrates the complementary nature of current imaging and bronchoscopy techniques; but, even more importantly, it demonstrates the value of the history coupled with the previous radiograph. Even an unusual case can provide lessons in cost containment.

  9. Mass transport measurements and modeling for chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Starr, T.L.; Chiang, D.Y.; Fiadzo, O.G.; Hablutzel, N.

    1997-12-01

    This project involves experimental and modeling investigation of densification behavior and mass transport in fiber preforms and partially densified composites, and application of these results to chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) process modeling. This supports work on-going at ORNL in process development for fabrication of ceramic matrix composite (CMC) tubes. Tube-shaped composite preforms are fabricated at ORNL with Nextel{trademark} 312 fiber (3M Corporation, St. Paul, MN) by placing and compressing several layers of braided sleeve on a tubular mandrel. In terms of fiber architecture these preforms are significantly different than those made previously with Nicalon{trademark} fiber (Nippon Carbon Corp., Tokyo, Japan) square weave cloth. The authors have made microstructure and permeability measurements on several of these preforms and a few partially densified composites so as to better understand their densification behavior during CVI.

  10. Evaluation of different field methods for measuring soil water infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pla-Sentís, Ildefonso; Fonseca, Francisco

    2010-05-01

    Soil infiltrability, together with rainfall characteristics, is the most important hydrological parameter for the evaluation and diagnosis of the soil water balance and soil moisture regime. Those balances and regimes are the main regulating factors of the on site water supply to plants and other soil organisms and of other important processes like runoff, surface and mass erosion, drainage, etc, affecting sedimentation, flooding, soil and water pollution, water supply for different purposes (population, agriculture, industries, hydroelectricity), etc. Therefore the direct measurement of water infiltration rates or its indirect deduction from other soil characteristics or properties has become indispensable for the evaluation and modelling of the previously mentioned processes. Indirect deductions from other soil characteristics measured under laboratory conditions in the same soils, or in other soils, through the so called "pedo-transfer" functions, have demonstrated to be of limited value in most of the cases. Direct "in situ" field evaluations have to be preferred in any case. In this contribution we present the results of past experiences in the measurement of soil water infiltration rates in many different soils and land conditions, and their use for deducing soil water balances under variable climates. There are also presented and discussed recent results obtained in comparing different methods, using double and single ring infiltrometers, rainfall simulators, and disc permeameters, of different sizes, in soils with very contrasting surface and profile characteristics and conditions, including stony soils and very sloping lands. It is concluded that there are not methods universally applicable to any soil and land condition, and that in many cases the results are significantly influenced by the way we use a particular method or instrument, and by the alterations in the soil conditions by the land management, but also due to the manipulation of the surface

  11. Endothelial cell regulation of leukocyte infiltration in inflammatory tissues

    PubMed Central

    Mantovani, A.; Introna, M.; Dejana, E.

    1995-01-01

    Endothelial cells play an important, active role in the onset and regulation of inflammatory and immune reactions. Through the production of chemokines they attract leukocytes and activate their adhesive receptors. This leads to the anchorage of leukocytes to the adhesive molecules expressed on the endothelial surface. Leukocyte adhesion to endothelial cells is frequently followed by their extravasation. The mechanisms which regulate the passage of leukocytes through endothelial clefts remain to be clarified. Many indirect data suggest that leukocytes might transfer signals to endothelial cells both through the release of active agents and adhesion to the endothelial cell surface. Adhesive molecules (such as PECAM) on the endothelial cell surface might also ‘direct’ leukocytes through the intercellular junction by haptotaxis. The information available on the molecular structure and functional properties of endothelial chemokines, adhesive molecules or junction organization is still fragmentary. Further work is needed to clarify how they interplay in regulating leukocyte infiltration into tissues. PMID:18475659

  12. Chronic Left Lower Lobe Pulmonary Infiltrates During Military Deployment.

    PubMed

    Hunninghake, John C; Skabelund, Andrew J; Morris, Michael J

    2016-08-01

    Deployment to Southwest Asia is associated with increased airborne hazards such as geologic dusts, burn pit smoke, vehicle exhaust, or air pollution. There are numerous ongoing studies to evaluate the potential effects of inhaled particulate matter on reported increases in acute and chronic respiratory symptoms. Providers need to be aware of potential causes of pulmonary disease such as acute eosinophilic pneumonia, asthma, and vocal cord dysfunction that have been associated with deployment. Other pulmonary disorders such as interstitial lung disease are infrequently reported. Not all deployment-related respiratory complaints may result from deployment airborne hazards and a broad differential should be considered. We present the case of a military member with a prolonged deployment found to have lobar infiltrates secondary to pulmonary vein stenosis from treatment for atrial fibrillation.

  13. LSM-YSZ Cathodes with Reaction-Infiltrated Nanoparticles

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Chun; Sholklapper, Tal Z.; Jacobson, Craig P.; Visco, StevenJ.; De Jonghe, Lutgard C.

    2006-01-31

    To improve the LSM-YSZ cathode performance of intermediate temperature solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs), Sm0.6Sr0.4CoO3-sigma (SSC) perovskite nanoparticles are incorporated into the cathodes by a reaction-infiltration process. The SSC particles are {approx}20 to 80nm in diameter, and intimately adhere to the pore walls of the preformed LSM-YSZ cathodes. The SSC particles dramatically enhance single-cell performance with a 97 percent H2+3 percent H2O fuel, between 600 C and 800 C. Consideration of a simplified TPB (triple phase boundary) reaction geometry indicates that the enhancement may be attributed to the high electrocatalytic activity of SSC for electrochemical reduction of oxygen in a region that can be located a small distance away from the strict triple phase boundaries. The implication of this work for developing high-performance electrodes is also discussed.

  14. Infiltration of a copper roof runoff through artificial barriers.

    PubMed

    Athanasiadis, K; Helmreich, B; Wilderer, P A

    2006-01-01

    On-site infiltration of a copper roof runoff may contribute to deterioration of the ground and ground water. To avoid such a negative effect the performance of two different technical systems, equipped with four different barrier materials, regarding copper elimination was examined in a field study. During the period March 2004 to January 2005, 16 rain events were examined. Copper concentrations between 200 and 11,000 microg/L in the roof runoff during a rain event were observed. The cover material of the roof and the drainage system were responsible for the high concentrations of copper in the roof runoff. It was evident that roof aspects facing towards the wind direction were receiving higher rainfall, thus were establishing higher copper runoff rates. The retention facilities have reached a performance of up to 97% regarding copper elimination.

  15. Infiltration at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, traced by {sup 36}Cl

    SciTech Connect

    Norris, A.E.; Wolfsberg, K.; Gifford, S.K.; Bentley, H.W.; Elmore, D.

    1987-12-31

    Measurements of chloride and {sup 36}Cl in soils from two locations near Yucca Mountain, Nevada, have been used to trace the infiltration of precipitation in this arid region. The results show that the {sup 36}Cl fallout from nuclear-weapons testing formed a well-defined peak at one location, with a maximum {sup 36}Cl/Cl ratio 0.5 m below the surface. The structure of the {sup 36}Cl bomb pulse at the other location was much more complex, and the quantity of {sup 36}Cl in the bomb pulse was < 1% of the 6 x 10{sup 12} atoms {sup 36}Cl/m{sup 2} in the bomb pulse at the first location. The data indicate hydrologic activity subsequent to the {sup 36}Cl bomb-pulse fallout at one location, but none at the other location.

  16. Temperature sensitivity of photonic crystal fibers infiltrated with ethanol solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu Van, Lanh; Stefaniuk, Tomasz; Kasztelanic, Rafał; Cao Long, Van; Klimczak, Mariusz; Le Van, Hieu; Trippenbach, Marek; Buczyński, Ryszard

    2015-12-01

    In this paper we present a numerical study on the optimization of dispersion of a photonic crystal fiber infiltrated with water-ethanol mixtures. The advantage of such an approach stems from the fact that the dependence of the refractive index on temperature is larger in liquids than in solid materials. Here, we examine photonic crystal fibers with a regular, hexagonal lattice and with various geometrical and material parameters, such as different number of rings of holes, various lattice constants and the size of core and air-holes. Additionally, for the optimized structure with flat dispersion characteristics, we analyze the influence of temperature and concentration of the ethanol solution on the dispersion characteristic and the zero dispersion wavelength shift of the fundamental mode.

  17. In situ reinforced aluminum composites by reactive infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanabe, Muralidhar R.

    The first part of this work (chapters 3 and 4) describes the development of a new technique to process aluminum (Al) matrix composites. The technique is based on the reactive infiltration of liquid into porous ceramic oxide preforms, resulting in in-situ development of reinforcements, which are micro-composite aluminum oxide (Alsb2Osb3/Al) particles. This work was extended further to investigate the effect of the composition of the preform on the microstructure of the reinforcements. Aluminum matrix composites reinforced with micro-composite, Alsb2Osb3/Al particles were synthesized by reactive infiltration of molten Al into preforms of particulate silica (SiOsb2) or magnesium (Mg) + SiOsb2 mixtures at 1075sp° C. Displacement reactions between silica and magnesium containing oxides lead to in-situ formation of the reinforcements and also aid the infiltration of the melt. In the presence of Mg, it was found that the consistency of infiltration was better and that the transformation of silica to alumina involved intermediate displacement reactions unlike the single step reaction without Mg in the preform. It was observed that the morphology and size scale of the micro-composite Alsb2O/Al particles were affected by the presence of Mg. Without Mg a finer scale Alsb2Osb3/Al microstructure with a tendency to be elongated in the growth direction formed, while a coarser morphology with interconnectivity in both the phases developed from Mg + SiOsb2 preforms. Synthesis of engineered multiphase and functionally gradient Al composites are also presented. The second part (chapter 5) of this research was undertaken to study crack propagation and deformation behavior of the newly developed Al matrix composites. Failure mechanisms were characterized as a function of reinforcement microstructure. It was found in composites (C50), without Mg in the preform, particle cracking was the dominant damage nucleation mechanism. In composites processed from Mg treated preforms (CMg50 and

  18. Fatty infiltration of the thymus in response to illness in the pediatric population.

    PubMed

    Taweevisit, Mana; Anekpuritanang, Tauangtham; Thorner, Paul Scott

    2015-04-01

    Under physiologic stress, glucocorticoids contribute to thymic involution. While steroids enhance fatty infiltration, this change has not been well studied in the pediatric thymus during illness. Evaluation of 130 thymuses from fetuses, infants and children determined the frequency of thymic fatty infiltration to be low (25%), particularly in fetal thymus (4%). In most cases, fatty infiltration was focal. There was a significant correlation with duration of illness, but not with patient age, gestational age, or underlying disease. There was significantly less fatty infiltration in fetal thymus compared to post-natal thymus, for the same degree of thymic involution. Only seven cases showed diffuse thymic fatty infiltration; all were post-natal associated with an infectious etiology. In contrast, fetal cases of chorioamnionitis seldom showed fatty infiltration and only focally, implying the stress response of fetal thymus differs post-natal, possibly related to the timing of adipose tissue development and fetal glucocorticoid response to stress.

  19. [Characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil in Northeast China under different tillage patterns].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Feng; Zhang, Xiao-Ping; Liang, Ai-Zhen; Shen, Yan; Shi, Xiu-Huan; Luo, Jin-Ming; Yang, Xue-Ming

    2008-07-01

    By using dye tracer and double-ring infiltrometer techniques, the characters of infiltration and preferential flow of black soil under no-tillage (NT) and fall moldboard plow (MP) were compared after six years continuous management. The results showed that the infiltration rate was higher under NT than under MP. When the infiltration reached steady, the infiltration rate and accumulative infiltration capacity under NT were 1.35 and 1.44 times as high as those under MP, respectively. The penetration depth of methylene blue reached a depth of 43 cm in NT soil, being 16 cm deeper than that in MP soil. Comparing with MP soil, NT soil had better development of pore structure and more biological pores, and presented better preferential flow character, which were of importance for water infiltration and soil and water conservation.

  20. Brain imaging and brain function

    SciTech Connect

    Sokoloff, L.

    1985-01-01

    This book is a survey of the applications of imaging studies of regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism to the investigation of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Contributors review imaging techniques and strategies for measuring regional cerebral blood flow and metabolism, for mapping functional neural systems, and for imaging normal brain functions. They then examine the applications of brain imaging techniques to the study of such neurological and psychiatric disorders as: cerebral ischemia; convulsive disorders; cerebral tumors; Huntington's disease; Alzheimer's disease; depression and other mood disorders. A state-of-the-art report on magnetic resonance imaging of the brain and central nervous system rounds out the book's coverage.

  1. Single-zone stack-dominated infiltration modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, M.H.

    1991-09-01

    Simplified, physical models for calculating infiltration in a single zone, usually calculate the air flows from the natural driving forces separately and then combine them. For most purposes -- especially minimum ventilation or energy considerations -- the stack effect dominates and total ventilation can be calculated by treating other effects (i.e., wind and small fans) as perturbations, using superposition techniques. The stack effect is caused by differences in density between indoor and outdoor air, normally attributable to the indoor-outdoor temperature difference. This report derives an exact, but practical, expression for calculating the stack effect from the air densities and leakage distribution using the power law formulation of envelope leakage. The neutral height -- the height at which there is no stack-related indoor-outdoor pressure difference -- is a key intermediate in stack modeling. This report defines a computable parameter called stack height, which contains all of the leakage distribution information necessary for estimating stack flows, thus freeing the model from specific assumptions (e.g., that the leakage is separable into evenly distributed floor, wall, and ceiling components). Example calculations including comparisons with other models, as well as validations using measured data from dwellings, are also presented. The dimensionless neutral level, which is related to the neutral height, is often used as an indicator of leakage distribution and in superposition. Its definition and role in these regards are discussed in detail. The more exact formulation is then used to analyze the simple box cases normally assumed in infiltration modeling and other approximations. Measured ventilation data will be used to infer leakage distributions and neutral levels as well as for example calculations.

  2. Peripheral nerve catheters and local anesthetic infiltration in perioperative analgesia.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Christopher K; Mariano, Edward R; Kaye, Alan David; Lissauer, Jonathan; Mancuso, Kenneth; Prabhakar, Amit; Urman, Richard D

    2014-03-01

    Peripheral nerve catheters (PNCs) and local infiltration analgesia (LIA) represent valuable options for controlling perioperative pain. PNCs have been increasingly utilized to provide both surgical anesthesia and prolonged postoperative analgesia for a wide variety of procedures. PNCs can be more technically challenging to place than typical single-injection nerve blocks (SINB), and familiarity with the indications, contraindications, relevant anatomy, and appropriate technical skills is a prerequisite for the placement of any PNC. PNCs include risks of peripheral nerve injury, damage to adjacent anatomic structures, local anesthetic toxicity, intravascular injection, risks associated with motor block, risks of unnoticed injury to the insensate limb, and risks of sedation associated with PNC placement. In addition to these common risks, there are specific risks unique to each PNC insertion site. LIA strategies have emerged that seek to provide the benefit of targeted local anesthesia while minimizing collateral motor block and increasing the applicability of durable local anesthesia beyond the extremities. LIA involves the injection and/or infusion of a local anesthetic near the site of surgical incision to provide targeted analgesia. A wide variety of techniques have been described, including single-injection intraoperative wound infiltration, indwelling wound infusion catheters, and the recent high-volume LIA technique associated with joint replacement surgery. The efficacy of these techniques varies depending on specific procedures and anatomic locations. The recent incorporation of ultra-long-acting liposomal bupivacaine preparations has the potential to dramatically increase the utility of single-injection LIA. LIA represents a promising yet under-investigated method of postoperative pain control.

  3. Reactions during infiltration of graphite fibers by molten Al-Ti alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Jarfors, A.E.W.; Wallinder, M.; Fredriksson, H. . Dept. of Materials Processing)

    1993-11-01

    The infiltration sequence of graphite fibers with liquid aluminum alloyed with titanium was studied. The titanium concentration was chosen such that a severe reaction occurred between the fibers and the melt. Aluminum carbide and titanium carbide, as well as an aluminide phase were formed. The phenomenon occurring during the infiltration sequence was explained with the aid of the ternary-phase diagram Al-Ti-C. The effect of the reaction on the infiltration height is discussed.

  4. Bochdalek hernia presenting with initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity in a leukemic child.

    PubMed

    Kang, Zhen; Min, Xiangde; Wang, Liang

    2017-03-01

    Local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity is a rare initial presentation of Bochdalek hernia. We report a case of Bochdalek hernia in a child with leukemia that demonstrated initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan and progressed to an obvious diaphragmatic hernia on subsequent follow-up. We suggest that initial local fat infiltration of the thoracic cavity on computed tomography scan may indicate a potential diaphragmatic hernia.

  5. Talcosis presenting as pulmonary infiltrates in an HIV-positive heroin addict.

    PubMed

    Ben-Haim, S A; Ben-Ami, H; Edoute, Y; Goldstien, N; Barzilai, D

    1988-09-01

    A case of an HIV-positive young drug addict presenting with fever, respiratory distress, and pulmonary infiltrates is reported. Pulmonary talcosis was diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy. The differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates in HIV-positive patients is reviewed and the predisposition of drug addicts to develop both HIV infection, as well as pulmonary talcosis, is discussed. Pulmonary talcosis must be considered in the differential diagnosis of pulmonary infiltrates of HIV-positive drug addicts.

  6. Variably-saturated groundwater modeling for optimizing managed aquifer recharge using trench infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; Benoit, Jerome; Healy, Richard W.

    2015-01-01

    Spreading-basin methods have resulted in more than 130 million cubic meters of recharge to the unconfined Navajo Sandstone of southern Utah in the past decade, but infiltration rates have slowed in recent years because of reduced hydraulic gradients and clogging. Trench infiltration is a promising alternative technique for increasing recharge and minimizing evaporation. This paper uses a variably saturated flow model to further investigate the relative importance of the following variables on rates of trench infiltration to unconfined aquifers: saturated hydraulic conductivity, trench spacing and dimensions, initial water-table depth, alternate wet/dry periods, and number of parallel trenches. Modeling results showed (1) increased infiltration with higher hydraulic conductivity, deeper initial water tables, and larger spacing between parallel trenches, (2) deeper or wider trenches do not substantially increase infiltration, (3) alternating wet/dry periods result in less overall infiltration than keeping the trenches continuously full, and (4) larger numbers of parallel trenches within a fixed area increases infiltration but with a diminishing effect as trench spacing becomes tighter. An empirical equation for estimating expected trench infiltration rates as a function of hydraulic conductivity and initial water-table depth was derived and can be used for evaluating feasibility of trench infiltration in other hydrogeologic settings

  7. Development of a two-step, forced chemical vapor infiltration process

    SciTech Connect

    Matlin, W.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Besmann, T.M.

    1995-12-01

    A two-step forced chemical vapor infiltration process was developed that reduced infiltration times for 4.45 cm dia. by 1.27 cm thick Nicalon{trademark} fiber pre-forms by two thirds while maintaining final densities near 90%. In the first stage of the process, micro-voids within fiber bundles in the cloth were uniformly infiltrated throughout the preform. In the second stage, the deposition rate was increased to more rapidly fill the macro-voids between bundles within the cloth and between layers of cloth. By varying the thermal gradient across the preform uniform infiltration rates were maintained and high final densities achieved.

  8. Net-Infiltration map of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop area in western Washington County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying groundwater resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area.Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map.Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm/yr are

  9. Infiltration processing of boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal cermets

    DOEpatents

    Halverson, Danny C.; Landingham, Richard L.

    1988-01-01

    A chemical pretreatment method is used to produce boron carbide-, boron-, and boride-reactive metal composites by an infiltration process. The boron carbide or other starting constituents, in powder form, are immersed in various alcohols, or other chemical agents, to change the surface chemistry of the starting constituents. The chemically treated starting constituents are consolidated into a porous ceramic precursor which is then infiltrated by molten aluminum or other metal by heating to wetting conditions. Chemical treatment of the starting constituents allows infiltration to full density. The infiltrated precursor is further heat treated to produce a tailorable microstructure. The process at low cost produces composites with improved characteristics, including increased toughness, strength.

  10. Paralysis caused by acute myelitis in Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus strain GD VII infection is induced by CD4+ lymphocytes infiltrating the spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Kohanawa, M; Asano, M; Min, Y; Minagawa, T; Nakane, A

    1995-09-01

    Intravenous infection by Theiler's murine encephalomyelitis virus strain GD VII causes acute encephalomyelitis and paralysis in infected mice. However, nude mice and cyclophosphamide-treated ddY mice did not show paralysis when they were able to survive until day 20 post-infection (p.i.). Of ddY mice infected with 5 x 10(7) p.f.u./mouse, 70-80% showed symptoms of paralysis on day 20 p.i. The viral titres in the brain and spinal cord in infected mice were not significantly different between paralytic and non-paralytic mice. In all of the mice infected with the virus, CD4+ lymphocytes and CD8+ lymphocytes had infiltrated the brain on days 10, 12, 14 and 20 p.i. as demonstrated by flow cytometric analysis. In contrast, few T lymphocytes infiltrated the spinal cord in the non-paralytic mice. Administration of an anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody (MAb) or anti-T cell receptor-alpha beta MAb on day 6 p.i. inhibited paralysis until day 20 p.i., though 20% of the MAb-treated mice and 80% of the control mice showed paralysis. Administration of anti-CD8 MAb was not effective in the suppression of paralysis. The MAb treatment did not significantly augment viral replication in the spinal cord, although the viral titres in the brain of the MAb-treated mice increased significantly. After the transfer of spleen cells from infected C3H mice, the recipient mice infected with a small amount of the virus showed paralysis, though uninfected mice did not. This transfer could be blocked by CD4+ lymphocyte depletion of the donor mice. These results indicate that paralysis caused by acute myelitis in Theiler's virus strain GD VII infection is induced by CD4+ lymphocytes infiltrating the spinal cord.

  11. Brain death.

    PubMed

    Wijdicks, Eelco F M

    2013-01-01

    The diagnosis of brain death should be based on a simple premise. If every possible confounder has been excluded and all possible treatments have been tried or considered, irreversible loss of brain function is clinically recognized as the absence of brainstem reflexes, verified apnea, loss of vascular tone, invariant heart rate, and, eventually, cardiac standstill. This condition cannot be reversed - not even partly - by medical or surgical intervention, and thus is final. Many countries in the world have introduced laws that acknowledge that a patient can be declared brain-dead by neurologic standards. The U.S. law differs substantially from all other brain death legislation in the world because the U.S. law does not spell out details of the neurologic examination. Evidence-based practice guidelines serve as a standard. In this chapter, I discuss the history of development of the criteria, the current clinical examination, and some of the ethical and legal issues that have emerged. Generally, the concept of brain death has been accepted by all major religions. But patients' families may have different ideas and are mostly influenced by cultural attitudes, traditional customs, and personal beliefs. Suggestions are offered to support these families.

  12. Unstable infiltration fronts in porous media on laboratory scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuetz, Cindi; Neuweiler, Insa

    2014-05-01

    Water flow and transport of substances in the unsaturated zone are important processes for the quality and quantity of water in the hydrologic cycle. The water movement through preferential paths is often much faster than standard models (e. g. Richards equation in homogeneous porous media) predict. One type/phenomenon of preferential flow can occur during water infiltration into coarse and/or dry porous media: the so-called gravity-driven fingering flow. To upscale the water content and to describe the averaged water fluxes in order to couple models of different spheres it is necessary to understand and to quantify the behavior of flow instabilities. We present different experiments of unstable infiltration in homogeneous and heterogeneous structures to analyze development and morphology of gravity-driven fingering flow on the laboratory scale. Experiments were carried out in two-dimensional and three-dimensional sand tanks as well as in larger two-dimensional sand tanks with homogeneous and heterogeneous filling of sand and glass beads. In the small systems, water content in the medium was measured at different times. We compare the experiments to prediction of theoretical approaches (e.g. Saffman and Taylor, 1958; Chuoke et al., 1959; Philip 1975a; White et al., 1976; Parlange and Hill, 1976a; Glass et al., 1989a; Glass et al., 1991; Wang et al., 1998c) that quantify properties of the gravity-driven fingers. We use hydraulic parameters needed for the theoretical predictions (the water-entry value (hwe), van Genuchten parameter (Wang et al., 1997, Wang et al., 2000) and saturated conductivity (Ks), van Genuchten parameter (Guarracino, 2007) to simplify the prediction of the finger properties and if necessary to identify a constant correction factor. We find in general that the finger properties correspond well to theoretical predictions. In heterogeneous settings, where fine inclusions are embedded into a coarse material, the finger properties do not change much

  13. Surgical treatment of brain metastasis: a review.

    PubMed

    Mut, Melike

    2012-01-01

    Brain metastasis is the most common intracranial tumor in adults. Currently, treatment of brain metastasis requires multidisciplinary approach tailored for each individual patient. Surgery has an indispensible role in relieving intracranial mass effect, improving neurological status and survival while providing or confirming neuropathological diagnosis with low mortality and morbidity rates. Besides the resection of a single brain metastasis in patients with accessible lesions, good functional status, and absent/controlled extracranial disease; surgery is proven to play a role in management of multiple metastases. Surgical technique has an impact on the outcome since piecemeal resection rather than en bloc resection and leaving infiltrative zone behind around resection cavity may have a negative influence on local control. Best local control of brain metastasis can be accomplished with optimal surgical resection involving current armamentarium of preoperative structural and functional imaging, intraoperative neuromonitoring, and advanced microneurosurgical techniques; followed by adjunct therapies like stereotactic radiosurgery, whole brain radiotherapy, or intracavitary therapies. Here, treatment options for brain metastasis are discussed with controversies about surgery.

  14. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.

    2002-04-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  15. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Montain Using Analogue Meteororological Data

    SciTech Connect

    B. Faybishenko

    2006-09-11

    At Yucca Mountain, Nevada, future changes in climatic conditions will most likely alter net infiltration, or the drainage below the bottom of the evapotranspiration zone within the soil profile or flow across the interface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva Canyon Tuff. The objectives of this paper are to: (a) develop a semi-empirical model and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limited meteorological data from analogue meteorological stations, for interglacial (present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacial climates over the Yucca Mountain region, and (b) corroborate the computed net-infiltration rates by comparing them with the empirically and numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation rates through the unsaturated zone from published data. In this paper, the author presents an approach for calculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitation-effectiveness indices, using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, with reference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from the radiation-based Penman (1948) formula. Results of calculations show that net infiltration rates are expected to generally increase from the present-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate, and then to the glacial climate. The forecasting results indicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for different climates. For example, the mean glacial net-infiltration rate corresponds to the upper-bound glacial transition net infiltration, and the lower-bound glacial net infiltration corresponds to the glacial transition mean net infiltration. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states is subject to numerous uncertainties-associated with selecting climate analogue sites, using relatively short analogue meteorological records, neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and runon on a local scale, as well as possible anthropogenic climate changes.

  16. Blood-brain barrier transport machineries and targeted therapy of brain diseases

    PubMed Central

    Barar, Jaleh; Rafi, Mohammad A.; Pourseif, Mohammad M.; Omidi, Yadollah

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Desired clinical outcome of pharmacotherapy of brain diseases largely depends upon the safe drug delivery into the brain parenchyma. However, due to the robust blockade function of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), drug transport into the brain is selectively controlled by the BBB formed by brain capillary endothelial cells and supported by astrocytes and pericytes. Methods: In the current study, we have reviewed the most recent literature on the subject to provide an insight upon the role and impacts of BBB on brain drug delivery and targeting. Results: All drugs, either small molecules or macromolecules, designated to treat brain diseases must adequately cross the BBB to provide their therapeutic properties on biological targets within the central nervous system (CNS). However, most of these pharmaceuticals do not sufficiently penetrate into CNS, failing to meet the intended therapeutic outcomes. Most lipophilic drugs capable of penetrating BBB are prone to the efflux functionality of BBB. In contrast, all hydrophilic drugs are facing severe infiltration blockage imposed by the tight cellular junctions of the BBB. Hence, a number of strategies have been devised to improve the efficiency of brain drug delivery and targeted therapy of CNS disorders using multimodal nanosystems (NSs). Conclusions: In order to improve the therapeutic outcomes of CNS drug transfer and targeted delivery, the discriminatory permeability of BBB needs to be taken under control. The carrier-mediated transport machineries of brain capillary endothelial cells (BCECs) can be exploited for the discovery, development and delivery of small molecules into the brain. Further, the receptor-mediated transport systems can be recruited for the delivery of macromolecular biologics and multimodal NSs into the brain. PMID:28265539

  17. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was markedly higher than fibroadenoma, and associated with expression of ARHI, p53 and ER in infiltrating duct carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Xu; Li, Jia; Luo, Cheng-Liang; Zhang, Ming-Chang; Li, Hui; Li, Li-Liang; Xu, Hong-Fei; Shen, Yi-Wen; Xue, Ai-Min; Zhao, Zi-Qin

    2013-03-01

    Jumonji Domain Containing 2A (JMJD2A) may be a cancer-associated gene involved in human breast cancer. With a view to investigating expression of JMJD2A in human breast cancer and benign lesion tissues as well as relationship between JMJD2A and tumor related proteins, histological and immunohistochemical analysis, Western blot and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma and fibroadenoma for JMJD2A and immunohistochemical analysis and quantitative real-time PCR in infiltrating duct carcinoma for tumor related proteins (ARHI, p53, ER, PR and CerbB-2) were performed. Histological examination validated the clinical diagnosis. The JMJD2A positive rate of infiltrating duct carcinoma was significantly higher than fibroadenoma by immunohistochemical analysis. The mean optical density of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by western blot. JMJD2A mRNA level in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher than fibroadenoma by quantitative real-time PCR. Spearman correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from immunohistochemical results respectively. Pearson correlation analysis revealed that the expression of JMJD2A was associated with ARHI, p53 and ER from quantitative real-time PCR results respectively. Expression of JMJD2A in infiltrating duct carcinoma was higher, and associated with ARHI, p53 and ER. The results may take JMJD2A as a potential diagnostic and therapeutic target in human breast cancer.

  18. Brain heterotopia.

    PubMed

    Modarresifar, Homayoun; Ho, Linh

    2009-03-01

    We present a case with intractable partial complex seizures in a 14-year-old girl who was found to have brain heterotopia on MRI and PET-CT. The patient presented with intractable partial complex seizures and a normal electroencephalogram. Her brain magnetic resonance imaging showed heterotopic gray matter lining the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Subsequent PET-CT demonstrated moderate tracer localization in the heterotopic gray matter surrounding the ventricular margin of the right occipital horn. Heterotopia may demonstrate normal or increased FDG uptake on PET, therefore its appearance may be deceiving when other pathologies are being considered.

  19. Non-isothermal preform infiltration during the vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grujicic, M.; Chittajallu, K. M.; Walsh, Shawn

    2005-05-01

    A control-volume finite-element model is developed to analyze the infiltration of a fiber preform with resin under non-isothermal conditions within a high-permeability resin-distribution medium based vacuum-assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) process. Due to the exposure to high temperatures during preform infiltration, the resin first undergoes thermal-thinning which decreases its viscosity. Subsequently however, the resin begins to gel and its viscosity increases as the degree of polymerization increases. Therefore, the analysis of preform infiltration with the resin entails the simultaneous solution of a continuity equation, an energy conservation equation and an evolution equation for the degree of polymerization. The model is applied to simulate the infiltration of a rectangular carbon fiber based preform with the NBV-800 epoxy resin and to optimize the VARTM process with respect to minimizing the preform infiltration time. The results obtained suggest that by proper selection of the ramp/hold thermal history of the tool plate, one can reduce the preform infiltration time relative to the room-temperature infiltration time. This infiltration time reduction is the result of the thermal-thinning induced decrease in viscosity of the ungelled resin.

  20. Evolution of transversus abdominis plane infiltration techniques for postsurgical analgesia following abdominal surgeries

    PubMed Central

    Gadsden, Jeffrey; Ayad, Sabry; Gonzales, Jeffrey J; Mehta, Jaideep; Boublik, Jan; Hutchins, Jacob

    2015-01-01

    Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) infiltration is a regional anesthesia technique that has been demonstrated to be effective for management of postsurgical pain after abdominal surgery. There are several different clinical variations in the approaches used for achieving analgesia via TAP infiltration, and methods for identification of the TAP have evolved considerably since the landmark-guided technique was first described in 2001. There are many factors that impact the analgesic outcomes following TAP infiltration, and the various nuances of this technique have led to debate regarding procedural classification of TAP infiltration. Based on our current understanding of fascial and neuronal anatomy of the anterior abdominal wall, as well as available evidence from studies assessing local anesthetic spread and cutaneous sensory block following TAP infiltration, it is clear that TAP infiltration techniques are appropriately classified as field blocks. While the objective of peripheral nerve block and TAP infiltration are similar in that both approaches block sensory response in order to achieve analgesia, the technical components of the two procedures are different. Unlike peripheral nerve block, which involves identification or stimulation of a specific nerve or nerve plexus, followed by administration of a local anesthetic in close proximity, TAP infiltration involves administration and spread of local anesthetic within an anatomical plane of the surgical site. PMID:26677342

  1. Biochar impact on water infiltration and water quality through a compacted subsoil layer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Soils in the SE USA Coastal Plain region frequently have a compacted subsoil layer (E horizon), which is a barrier for water infiltration. Four different biochars were evaluated to increase water infiltration through a compacted horizon from a Norfolk soil (fine-loamy, kaolinitic...

  2. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  3. A surface and subsurface model for the simulation of rainfall infiltration in slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, H.; Zhang, F.; Shen, K.; Yuan, M.

    2015-09-01

    Rainfall infiltration is one of the major triggering factors leading to slope failures in geotechnical engineering. Numerical investigation on rainfall infiltration is often based on Richards’ equation, which ignores the surface water effects and simplifies the boundary conditions. In reality, rainfall, infiltration, and surface runoff are interacted simultaneously. In this paper a new conjunctive one-dimensional surface flow and two-dimensional subsurface flow model for geotechnical slope is developed. The interaction between surface and subsurface flow is the interface infiltration rate, which is obtained by iterations. The results of comparisons between coupled and uncoupled models show that the surface water depth rises up as runoff increases and it tends to a dynamic balance state with a steady surface water depth. Interaction between surface and subsurface flow has remarkable effects on infiltration process. According to the results of coupled model, more rainwaters infiltrate into the slope. Therefore, pore water pressure changes faster and the wetting front moves deeper into the soil. Under initial drier condition, the capacity of infiltration is higher and more rainfall can be absorbed into slope, thus the differences of infiltration rate and pore water pressure between the coupled and uncoupled model are more significant.

  4. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0.017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0.15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0.38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0.38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  5. Lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltration within skeletal muscle in young girls

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fat infiltration within skeletal muscle is strongly associated with obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome. Lower physical activity may be a risk factor for greater fat infiltration within skeletal muscle, although whether lower physical activity is associated with fat infiltrati...

  6. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  7. Monitoring infiltration and recharge of playa lakes in the Texas Southern High Plains

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Preliminary results from playa lakes monitored by the Texas Water Development Board (TWDB) suggest that a small volume of deep infiltration and recharge to the Ogallala aquifer occurs along the margins of the lake beds, while the majority of infiltration associated with a typical inundation remains ...

  8. Bone Marrow Derived Hematopoietic Stem and Progenitor Cells Infiltrate Allogeneic and Syngeneic Transplants

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Z.; Enjoji, K.; Tigges, J. C.; Toxavidis, V.; Tchipashivili, V.; Gong, W.; Strom, T. B.; Koulmanda, M.

    2015-01-01

    Lineage (CD3e, CD11b, GR1, B220 and Ly-76) negative hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) infiltrate islet allografts within 24 h posttransplantation. In fact, lineagenegative Sca-1+cKit+ (“LSK”) cells, a classic signature for HSCs, were also detected among these graft infiltrating cells. Lineage negative graft infiltrating cells are functionally multi-potential as determined by a standard competitive bone marrow transplant (BMT) assay. By 3 months post-BMT, both CD45.1 congenic, lineage negative HSCs/HPCs and classic “LSK” HSCs purified from islet allograft infiltrating cells, differentiate and repopulate multiple mature blood cell phenotypes in peripheral blood, lymph nodes, spleen, bone marrow and thymus of CD45.2 hosts. Interestingly, “LSK” HSCs also rapidly infiltrate syngeneic islet transplants as well as allogeneic cardiac transplants and sham surgery sites. It seems likely that an inflammatory response, not an adaptive immune response to allo-antigen, is responsible for the rapid infiltration of islet and cardiac transplants by biologically active HSCs/HPCs. The pattern of hematopoietic differentiation obtained from graft infiltrating HSCs/HPCs, cells that are recovered from inflammatory sites, as noted in the competitive BMT assay, is not precisely the same as that of intra-medullary HSCs. This does not refute the obvious multi-lineage potential of graft infiltrating HSCs/HPCs. PMID:25387427

  9. [Infiltration characteristics of soil water on loess slope land under intermittent and repetitive rainfall conditions].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming-An

    2008-07-01

    Based on the experiments of controlled intermittent and repetitive rainfall on slope land, the infiltration and distribution characteristics of soil water on loess slope land were studied. The results showed that under the condition of intermittent rainfall, the cumulative runoff during two rainfall events increased linearly with time, and the wetting front also increased with time. In the interval of the two rainfall events, the wetting front increased slowly, and the infiltration rate was smaller on steeper slope than on flat surface. During the second rainfall event, there was an obvious decreasing trend of infiltration rate with time. The cumulative infiltration on 15 degrees slope land was larger than that of 25 degrees slope land, being 178 mm and 88 mm, respectively. Under the condition of repetitive rainfall, the initial infiltration rate during each rainfall event was relatively large, and during the first rainfall, both the infiltration rate and the cumulative infiltration at various stages were larger than those during the other three rainfall events. However, after the first rainfall, there were no obvious differences in the infiltration rate among the next three rainfall events. The more the rainfall event, the deeper the wetting front advanced.

  10. Immunocytochemical analysis of cellular infiltrates in human appendicitis.

    PubMed

    Kuga, T; Taniguchi, S; Inoue, T; Zempo, N; Esato, K

    2000-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine the immunologic cellular composition in human appendicitis and its association with the development of perforated appendicitis. Appendiceal specimens from 27 patients with acute appendicitis were immunostained to detect lymphocyte surface markers. Moreover, the lymphocyte surface markers of peripheral blood were analyzed by laser flow cytometry in 12 patients. Helper T lymphocytes (CD4) were present in all the patients, while B lymphocytes (CD19), natural killer (NK) cells (CD56), and cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CD8) were present in 7 (70%), 10 (100%), and 9 patients (90%) with perforated appendicitis, and in 12 (63.2%), 10 (58.8%), and 6 (54.5%) patients without perforation, respectively. There were significant differences between the patients with a perforated appendix and those without perforation, in the positivity rate for CD8 and CD56 cells (P < 0.05). The number of cells positive for CD56, being NK cells, in the blood from the patients with perforation was significantly lower than that in the blood from those without perforation (P < 0.05). The infiltration of a greater number of cytotoxic T lymphocytes and NK cells was observed in the appendices from patients with perforated appendicitis than in those from patients with nonperforated appendicitis.

  11. Study of water infiltration in a lightweight green roof substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomankova, Klara; Holeckova, Martina; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Snehota, Michal

    2015-04-01

    Green roofs have a positive impact on the environment (e.g. improving microclimate and air quality in cities, reducing solar absorbance and storm water). A laboratory infiltration experiment was conducted on the narrow flume serving as 2D vertical model of a green roof. The lightweight Optigreen substrate Type M was used (depth of 20 cm). The front wall of the flume was transparent and inspected by digital camera. The experiment was designed to measure pressure head, volumetric water content and calculate water retention in the substrate. Experiment comprised three artificial rainfall intensities with different values of initial water content of the substrate. The experimental results confirmed that green roofs have the ability to retain rainwater and thus have a beneficial effect on reducing runoff. In the experiment with the artificial 10 minutes rainfall event (total precipitation of 29 mm), the air dry substrate retained 95.9 % of precipitation. On the other hand for moist initial condition 4.2 % of precipitations amount was captured in the substrate. Additionally, the analysis of images taken during the experiment confirmed preferential flow and uneven advancement of the wetting front. The research was realized as a part of the University Centre for Energy Efficient Buildings supported by the EU and with financial support from the Czech Science Foundation under project number 14-10455P.

  12. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  13. [No Hodgkin Linfoma diagnosis with intra-atrial infiltration].

    PubMed

    Alcocer Gamba, Marco Antonio; León González, Salvador; Castro Montes, Eliodoro; Loarca Piña, Luis Martín; Lugo Gavidia, Leslie Marisol; García Hernández, Enrique; González Galindo, Ulises; Paredes Serrano, Miguel Isaías

    2012-09-01

    Cardiac tumors are rare entities in clinical practice, with an incidence of 0.05%. Approximately 75% are benign and 25% malignant. Among these, Lymphomas are uncommon, representing about 0.25%. The non-Hodgkin lymphomas can occur in extranodal tissues in 20% of the cases and 80% of these non-Hodgkin lymphomas are composed of diffuse B cells. The extranodal presentation is most frequent in young adults, with a high degree of malignancy and rapid growth. It can present with primary infiltration of various organs; cardiac involvement occurs in 20 to 28% of cases, usually located in the right chambers and with nonspecific symptoms, depending on the location and extent of the tumor. The diagnostic test in these cases is undoubtedly the biopsy of the lymph node or the affected tissue. We present the case of non-Hodgkin disease of diffuse large cells, with right intra-atrial involvement in a 23-year-old-female patient, who presented with progressive dyspnea. A transesophageal echocardiography was performed and an intra-atrial tumor mass was detected. A biopsy was performed, by femoral venous catheterization, allowing the establishment of the histopathological diagnosis and treatment. At a one year follow up, the patient shows complete remission.

  14. Detecting infiltration and impacts of introduced water using strontium isotopes.

    PubMed

    Brinck, Elizabeth L; Frost, Carol D

    2007-01-01

    Water introduced to surface drainages, such as agricultural and roadway runoff, mine drainage, or coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water, potentially can be of environmental concern. In order to mitigate potential environmental effects, it may be important to be able to trace water discharged to the surface as it infiltrates and interacts with near-surface aquifers. We have chosen to study water withdrawn during CBNG production for isotope tracing in the hyporheic zone because it poses a variety of economic, environmental, and policy issues in the Rocky Mountain states. Ground water quality must be protected as CBNG water is added to semiarid ecosystems. Strontium (Sr) isotopes are effective fingerprints of the aquifer from which water originates. In this study, CBNG water was found to have a higher (87)Sr/(86)Sr ratio than the local alluvial aquifer water. This measurable difference allows the strontium isotope ratio and concentration to be used as tracers of CBNG water following its discharge to the surface. The dissolution and mobilization of salts from soil are an important contributor to ground water quality degradation. In the Powder River basin of Wyoming, the soils are calcium carbonate-buffered systems. The chemical similarity of strontium to calcium allows it to substitute into calcium minerals and enabled us to use strontium isotopes to identify calcium salts mobilized from the soil. Strontium isotopes are an effective monitor of the source of ions and the volume and direction of introduced water flow in the hyporheic zone.

  15. Detecting infiltration and impacts of introduced water using strontium isotopes

    SciTech Connect

    Brinck, E.L.; Frost, C.D.

    2007-09-15

    Water introduced to surface drainages, such as agricultural and roadway runoff, mine drainage, or coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced water, potentially can be of environmental concern. In order to mitigate potential environmental effects, it may be important to be able to trace water discharged to the surface as it infiltrates and interacts with near-surface aquifers. We have chosen to study water withdrawn during CBNG production for isotope tracing in the hyporheic zone because it poses a variety of economic, environmental, and policy issues in the Rocky Mountain states. Ground water quality must be protected as CBNG water is added to semiarid ecosystems. Strontium (Sr) isotopes are effective fingerprints of the aquifer from which water originates. In this study, CBNG water was found to have a higher Sr-87/Sr-86 ratio than the local alluvial aquifer water. This measurable difference allows the strontium isotope ratio and concentration to be used as tracers of CBNG water following its discharge to the surface. The dissolution and mobilization of salts from soil are an important contributor to ground water quality degradation. In the Powder River basin of Wyoming, the soils are calcium carbonate-buffered systems. The chemical similarity of strontium to calcium allows it to substitute into calcium minerals and enabled us to use strontium isotopes to identify calcium salts mobilized from the soil. Strontium isotopes are an effective monitor of the source of ions and the volume and direction of introduced water flow in the hyporheic zone.

  16. Adsorptive infiltration of metals in urban drainage--media characteristics

    PubMed

    Sansalone

    1999-09-01

    Urban pavement drainage often contains significant quantities of anthropogenic metal elements, including Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn that exceed surface water discharge standards. In many urban areas low rainfall pH, results in predominately dissolved metal element mass. Such partitioning has critical implications for the selection of in-situ treatment. One such category of treatment is engineered infiltration systems. To be effective, such systems must adsorb dissolved metal elements to their fixed media while also acting as filters for particulate-bound fractions. One such strategy is called a partial exfiltration trench (PET). The PET contains oxide-coated sand (OCS); an amphoteric media of high surface area (5-15 m2/g) as compared to uncoated silica sand (0.01-0.05 m2/g). OCS was generated through heating a mixture of silica sand and ferric nitrate solution to dryness. This paper presents results of both media characterization and bench scale PET simulations. Media tested were OCS and plain silica sand. Media testing was carried out until capacity was exhausted, using both synthetic and actual stormwater loadings. Testing was conducted for pH levels of 6.5 and 8.0. Results indicated that OCS had greater capacity than silica sand for all dissolved fractions. As the pH was raised from 6.5 to 8.0, OCS capacity was improved. A PET configuration with porous pavement resulted in the highest in-situ treatment capacity for metal element bearing storm water.

  17. Melt Infiltrated Ceramic Composites (Hipercomp) for Gas Turbine Engine Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory Corman; Krishan Luthra

    2005-09-30

    This report covers work performed under the Continuous Fiber Ceramic Composites (CFCC) program by GE Global Research and its partners from 1994 through 2005. The processing of prepreg-derived, melt infiltrated (MI) composite systems based on monofilament and multifilament tow SiC fibers is described. Extensive mechanical and environmental exposure characterizations were performed on these systems, as well as on competing Ceramic Matrix Composite (CMC) systems. Although current monofilament SiC fibers have inherent oxidative stability limitations due to their carbon surface coatings, the MI CMC system based on multifilament tow (Hi-Nicalon ) proved to have excellent mechanical, thermal and time-dependent properties. The materials database generated from the material testing was used to design turbine hot gas path components, namely the shroud and combustor liner, utilizing the CMC materials. The feasibility of using such MI CMC materials in gas turbine engines was demonstrated via combustion rig testing of turbine shrouds and combustor liners, and through field engine tests of shrouds in a 2MW engine for >1000 hours. A unique combustion test facility was also developed that allowed coupons of the CMC materials to be exposed to high-pressure, high-velocity combustion gas environments for times up to {approx}4000 hours.

  18. Human Tumor-Infiltrating Myeloid Cells: Phenotypic and Functional Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Louise A.; Doherty, Glen A.; Sheahan, Kieran; Ryan, Elizabeth J.

    2017-01-01

    Our current understanding of human tumor-resident myeloid cells is, for the most part, based on a large body of work in murine models or studies enumerating myeloid cells in patient tumor samples using immunohistochemistry (IHC). This has led to the establishment of the theory that, by and large, tumor-resident myeloid cells are either “protumor” M2 macrophages or myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSC). This concept has accelerated our understanding of myeloid cells in tumor progression and enabled the elucidation of many key regulatory mechanisms involved in cell recruitment, polarization, and activation. On the other hand, this paradigm does not embrace the complexity of the tumor-resident myeloid cell phenotype (IHC can only measure 1 or 2 markers per sample) and their possible divergent function in the hostile tumor microenvironment. Here, we examine the criteria that define human tumor-infiltrating myeloid cell subsets and provide a comprehensive and critical review of human myeloid cell nomenclature in cancer. We also highlight new evidence characterizing their contribution to cancer pathogenesis based on evidence derived from clinical studies drawing comparisons with murine studies where necessary. We then review the mechanisms in which myeloid cells are regulated by tumors in humans and how these are being targeted therapeutically. PMID:28220123

  19. An Infiltrative Angioarchitectural Variant of Arteriovenous Malformation of Temporalis

    PubMed Central

    Byatnal, Aditi Amit; Rakheja, Mahima; Byatnal, Amit Raghavendra; Narayanaswamy, Venkadasalapathy

    2014-01-01

    Vascular anomalies of the head and neck region pose a certain diagnostic and therapeutic paradox. Management of arteriovenous malformations (AVM) is a challenge owing to the presence of abnormal vascular communications and high recurrence. We report a case of a 19-year-old male patient, who presented with diffuse swelling in the right temporal region. Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) suggested it to be an AVM in the temporalis muscle, having afferents in the ascending pharyngeal artery, with cavernous angioma. Surgical excision of the lesion was carried out under carotid control. Histopathology of the excised specimen utilizing special stains confirmed the presence of AVM. An absence of distinct nidus concomitant along with the exuberant proliferation of capillaries between the muscle fibres suggested it be an infiltrative angioarchitectural variant. The present case highlights significance of diagnosing AVM in temporalis muscle which is a rare occurrence in head and neck region. Also, the importance of ruling out other closely resembling vascular diathesis, both non neoplastic and malignant is discussed. PMID:25386534

  20. Visualization of microvascular proliferation as a tumor infiltration structure in rat glioma specimens using the diffraction-enhanced imaging in-plane CT technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Seung-Jun; Sunaguchi, Naoki; Yuasa, Tetsuya; Huo, Qingkai; Ando, Masami; Choi, Gi-Hwan; Kim, Hong-Tae; Kim, Ki-Hong; Jeong, Eun-Ju; Chang, Won-Seok; Kim, Jong-Ki

    2012-03-01

    In order to study potent microenvironments of malignant gliomas with a high- resolution x-ray imaging technique, an injection orthotopic glioma model was made using the Sprague-Dawley rat. Total brain tissue, taken out as an ex vivo model, was examined with diffraction-enhanced imaging (DEI) computed tomography (CT) acquired with a 35 keV monochromatic x-ray. In the convolution-reconstructed 2D/3D images with a spatial resolution of 12.5 × 12.5 × 25 µm, distinction among necrosis, typical ring-shaped viable tumors, edemas and healthy tissues was clearly observed near the frontal lobe in front of the rat's caudate nucleus. Multiple microvascular proliferations (MVPs) were observed surrounding peritumoral edemas as a tumor infiltration structure. Typical dimensions of tubular MVPs were 130 (diameter) ×250 (length) µm with a partial sprout structure revealed in the 3D reconstructed image. Hyperplasia of cells around vessel walls was revealed with tumor cell infiltration along the perivascular space in microscopic observations of mild MVP during histological analysis. In conclusion, DEI-CT is capable of imaging potent tumor-infiltrating MVP structures surrounding high-grade gliomas.

  1. Smart Brains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Rebecca

    1995-01-01

    New techniques have opened windows to the brain. Although the biochemistry of learning remains largely a mystery, the following findings seem to have clear implications for education: (1) the importance of early-learning opportunities for the very young; (2) the connection between music and abstract reasoning; and (3) the importance of good…

  2. Animating Brains.

    PubMed

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-07-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title 'Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience'. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of 'soul catching', the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain's electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains?

  3. Sodium nitrite protects against kidney injury induced by brain death and improves post-transplant function.

    PubMed

    Kelpke, Stacey S; Chen, Bo; Bradley, Kelley M; Teng, Xinjun; Chumley, Phillip; Brandon, Angela; Yancey, Brett; Moore, Brandon; Head, Hughston; Viera, Liliana; Thompson, John A; Crossman, David K; Bray, Molly S; Eckhoff, Devin E; Agarwal, Anupam; Patel, Rakesh P

    2012-08-01

    Renal injury induced by brain death is characterized by ischemia and inflammation, and limiting it is a therapeutic goal that could improve outcomes in kidney transplantation. Brain death resulted in decreased circulating nitrite levels and increased infiltrating inflammatory cell infiltration into the kidney. Since nitrite stimulates nitric oxide signaling in ischemic tissues, we tested whether nitrite therapy was beneficial in a rat model of brain death followed by kidney transplantation. Nitrite, administered over 2 h of brain death, blunted the increased inflammation without affecting brain death-induced alterations in hemodynamics. Kidneys were transplanted after 2 h of brain death and renal function followed over 7 days. Allografts collected from nitrite-treated brain-dead rats showed significant improvement in function over the first 2 to 4 days after transplantation compared with untreated brain-dead animals. Gene microarray analysis after 2 h of brain death without or with nitrite therapy showed that the latter significantly altered the expression of about 400 genes. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis indicated that multiple signaling pathways were affected by nitrite, including those related to hypoxia, transcription, and genes related to humoral immune responses. Thus, nitrite therapy attenuates brain death-induced renal injury by regulating responses to ischemia and inflammation, ultimately leading to better post-transplant kidney function.

  4. Impingement of a drop train enhance the liquid infiltration into a closed end hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanada, Toshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Eri; Muraki, Shunsuke

    2016-11-01

    Liquid infiltration is an important process for cleaning inside fine holes. However, it is difficult to infiltrate liquid into closed end holes having small diameter. Because the surface tension prevents the deformation of gas-liquid interface for entering them. In this study we observed the liquid infiltration process into a closed end hole by applying external pressure under two ways, i.e. gradual pressurization with a hand pump and impingement of a droplet train. As a result, it is found that the amount of dissolved air into liquid by applying pressure is small, and it has small effect for the liquid infiltration. In addition, it is also found that the high liquid infiltration rate can be achieved by applying a droplet train impact. It is observed that the trapped bubbles inside the holes were ejected by repetition of droplet impingement.

  5. Computer simulation of inorganic membrane morphology: 2 -- Effect of infiltration at the membrane support interface

    SciTech Connect

    Randon, J.; Julbe, A.; David, P.; Jaafari, K. . Lab. de Physicochimie des Materiaux); Elmaleh, S. . Groupe de Genie des Procedes)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate, through computer modeling of a ceramic membrane filtration element, that infiltration of a membrane into the ceramic support can have a drastic effect on the porosity at the interface and hence on the hydraulic resistance of the filtration element. A computer model using round spheres has been developed, allowing a realistic picture of the support (infiltrated or not) and of the membrane on top of it. This model allows a determination of the porosity in the support and at the membrane/support interface; it shows the effect of infiltration on the porosity. Experimentally, infiltrated and noninfiltrated TiO[sub 2] membranes have been prepared on tubular ceramic supports and their filtration performances have been compared. The results reveal that in order to increase the permeability of filtration elements, their preparation must limit the size of infiltrated zones.

  6. Highly porous electrospun nanofibers enhanced by ultrasonication for improved cellular infiltration.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jung Bok; Jeong, Sung In; Bae, Min Soo; Yang, Dae Hyeok; Heo, Dong Nyoung; Kim, Chun Ho; Alsberg, Eben; Kwon, Il Keun

    2011-11-01

    A significant problem that affects tissue-engineered electrospun nanofibrous scaffolds is poor infiltration of cells into the three-dimensional (3D) structure. Physical manipulation can enhance cellular infiltration into electrospun scaffolds. The porosity of electrospun nanofibers was highly enlarged by ultrasonication in an aqueous solution. The porosity and related property changes on a series of nanofibers were observed to be dependent on ultrasonication time and energy. To evaluate cell infiltration into the scaffold, fibroblasts were seeded onto these nanofibers and cultured for different lengths of time. The penetration levels of these cells into the scaffold were monitored using confocal lazer scanning microscopy. The cell infiltration potential was greatly increased with regard to an increase in pore size and porosity. These 3D nanofibrous scaffolds fabricated by an ultrasonication process allowed cells to infiltrate easily into the scaffold. This approach shows great promise for design of cell permeable nanofibrous scaffolds for tissue-engineering applications.

  7. Reactive melt infiltration of silicon-molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at.% molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms have been carried out by modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the pore volume fraction of the carbon preform is a very important parameter in determining the final composition of the reaction-formed silicon carbide and the secondary phases. Various undesirable melt infiltration results, e.g. choking-off, specimen cracking, silicon veins, and lake formation, and their correlation with inadequate preform properties are presented. The liquid silicon-carbon reaction exotherm temperatures are influenced by the pore and carbon particle size of the preform and the compositions of infiltrants. Room temperature flexural strength and fracture toughness of materials made by the silicon-3.2 at.% molybdenum alloy infiltration of medium pore size preforms are also discussed.

  8. How Direct Flux Measurements Can Improve Infiltration Estimates in Ephemeral Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batlle-Aguilar, J.; Xie, Y.; Cook, P. G.

    2015-12-01

    In arid and semi-arid areas replenishment of groundwater resources is strongly dependent on surface water infiltration from ephemeral streams and creeks. An accurate estimation of water infiltration and aquifer recharge from these surface water features is paramount, but this task is subject to physical (streambed heterogeneity) and transient (flow variability) challenges of these watercourses. Although several methods are available to estimate stream infiltration, only a handful of them are suitable for ephemeral streams, all of which are indirect methods. In this study we performed an infiltration experiment at the transect scale in an ephemeral stream at the time it was dry, thereby obtaining direct estimates of stream infiltration. Groundwater heads measured in a transect of piezometers orthogonal to the stream identified the development of a groundwater mound laterally displaced several meters into the streambank. The experiment was modelled using the two-dimensional integrated surface-subsurface model HydroGeosphere® and calibrated with PEST using different combinations of groundwater heads and infiltration volume data. Although the model can be calibrated to produce a good match to measured groundwater heads, accurate predictions of stream infiltration can be made only if the heads used for model calibration capture the groundwater mound. The use of infiltration flux or volume during model calibration, instead, provides the best calibration results, and does not require knowledge of the position of the groundwater mound. Given that heterogeneity of streambed and streambank sediments leads to the possibility that the groundwater mound developed during flow events will be poorly characterised or perhaps missed altogether, we demonstrate that incorporating infiltration flux or volume data into the model calibration increases the ability of a model to simulate accurate estimates of stream infiltration during natural flow events.

  9. Therapeutic implications of CD1d expression and tumor-infiltrating macrophages in pediatric medulloblastomas.

    PubMed

    Teo, Wan-Yee; Elghetany, M Tarek; Shen, Jianhe; Man, Tsz-Kwong; Li, Xiaonan; Chintagumpala, Murali; Su, Jack Meng Fen; Dauser, Robert; Whitehead, William; Adesina, Adekunle M; Lau, Ching C

    2014-11-01

    Immunobiology of medulloblastoma (MB), the most common malignant brain tumor in children, is poorly understood. Although tumor cells in some MBs were recently shown to express CD1d and be susceptible to Vα24-invariant natural killer T (NKT)-cell cytotoxicity, the clinical relevance of CD1d expression in MB patients remains unknown. We investigated the expression of CD1d in pediatric MBs and correlated with molecular and clinical characteristics. Specifically, we explored if NKT cell therapy can be targeted at a subset of pediatric MBs with poorer prognosis. Particularly, infantile MBs have a worse outcome because radiotherapy is delayed to avoid neurocognitive sequelae. Immunohistochemistry for CD1d was performed on a screening set of 38 primary pediatric MBs. Gene expression of the membrane form of M2 macrophage marker, CD163, was studied in an expanded cohort of 60 tumors. Outcome data was collected prospectively. Thirteen of 38 MBs (34.2 %) expressed CD1d on immunohistochemistry. CD1d was expressed mainly on MB tumor cells, and on some tumor-associated macrophages. Majority (18/22, 82 %) of non sonic-hedgehog/Wingless-activated MBs (group 3 and 4) were CD1d-negative (p = 0.05). A subset of infantile MBs (4/9, 44.4 %) expressed CD1d. Macrophages infiltrating MB expressed CD163 apart from CD1d. Molecular subtypes demonstrated statistical differences in CD163 expression, SHH-tumors were the most enriched (p = 0.006). Molecular and clinical subtypes of pediatric MB exhibit distinct differences in CD1d expression, which have important therapeutic implications. High CD1d expression in infantile MBs offers potential new immunotherapeutic treatment with NKT cell therapy in infants, where treatment is suboptimal due delayed radiotherapy.

  10. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors Print A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  11. Understanding Brain Tumors

    MedlinePlus

    ... to Know About Brain Tumors . What is a Brain Tumor? A brain tumor is an abnormal growth
 ... Tumors” from Frankly Speaking Frankly Speaking About Cancer: Brain Tumors Download the full book Questions to ask ...

  12. Brain tumor - children

    MedlinePlus

    ... children; Neuroglioma - children; Oligodendroglioma - children; Meningioma - children; Cancer - brain tumor (children) ... The cause of primary brain tumors is unknown. Primary brain tumors may ... (spread to nearby areas) Cancerous (malignant) Brain tumors ...

  13. Brain Tumors (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Brain Tumors KidsHealth > For Parents > Brain Tumors A A ... radiation therapy or chemotherapy, or both. Types of Brain Tumors There are many different types of brain ...

  14. Brain Tumor Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ... Types of Brain Scans X-rays Laboratory Tests DNA Profiling Biopsy Procedure Malignant and Benign Brain Tumors Tumor ...

  15. Reduced Leukocyte Infiltration in Absence of Eosinophils Correlates with Decreased Tissue Damage and Disease Susceptibility in ΔdblGATA Mice during Murine Neurocysticercosis

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pramod K.; Li, Qun; Munoz, Luis E.; Mares, Chris A.; Morris, Elizabeth G.; Teale, Judy M.; Cardona, Astrid E.

    2016-01-01

    Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the most common helminth parasitic diseases of the central nervous system (CNS) and the leading cause of acquired epilepsy worldwide. NCC is caused by the presence of the metacestode larvae of the tapeworm Taenia solium within brain tissues. NCC patients exhibit a long asymptomatic phase followed by a phase of symptoms including increased intra-cranial pressure and seizures. While the asymptomatic phase is attributed to the immunosuppressive capabilities of viable T. solium parasites, release of antigens by dying organisms induce strong immune responses and associated symptoms. Previous studies in T. solium-infected pigs have shown that the inflammatory response consists of various leukocyte populations including eosinophils, macrophages, and T cells among others. Because the role of eosinophils within the brain has not been investigated during NCC, we examined parasite burden, disease susceptibility and the composition of the inflammatory reaction in the brains of infected wild type (WT) and eosinophil-deficient mice (ΔdblGATA) using a murine model of NCC in which mice were infected intracranially with Mesocestoides corti, a cestode parasite related to T. solium. In WT mice, we observed a time-dependent induction of eosinophil recruitment in infected mice, contrasting with an overall reduced leukocyte infiltration in ΔdblGATA brains. Although, ΔdblGATA mice exhibited an increased parasite burden, reduced tissue damage and less disease susceptibility was observed when compared to infected WT mice. Cellular infiltrates in infected ΔdblGATA mice were comprised of more mast cells, and αβ T cells, which correlated with an abundant CD8+ T cell response and reduced CD4+ Th1 and Th2 responses. Thus, our data suggest that enhanced inflammatory response in WT mice appears detrimental and associates with increased disease susceptibility, despite the reduced parasite burden in the CNS. Overall reduced leukocyte infiltration due to

  16. Characterization of distinct immunophenotypes across pediatric brain tumor types.

    PubMed

    Griesinger, Andrea M; Birks, Diane K; Donson, Andrew M; Amani, Vladimir; Hoffman, Lindsey M; Waziri, Allen; Wang, Michael; Handler, Michael H; Foreman, Nicholas K

    2013-11-01

    Despite increasing evidence that antitumor immune control exists in the pediatric brain, these findings have yet to be exploited successfully in the clinic. A barrier to development of immunotherapeutic strategies in pediatric brain tumors is that the immunophenotype of these tumors' microenvironment has not been defined. To address this, the current study used multicolor FACS of disaggregated tumor to systematically characterize the frequency and phenotype of infiltrating immune cells in the most common pediatric brain tumor types. The initial study cohort consisted of 7 pilocytic astrocytoma (PA), 19 ependymoma (EPN), 5 glioblastoma (GBM), 6 medulloblastoma (MED), and 5 nontumor brain (NT) control samples obtained from epilepsy surgery. Immune cell types analyzed included both myeloid and T cell lineages and respective markers of activated or suppressed functional phenotypes. Immune parameters that distinguished each of the tumor types were identified. PA and EPN demonstrated significantly higher infiltrating myeloid and lymphoid cells compared with GBM, MED, or NT. Additionally, PA and EPN conveyed a comparatively activated/classically activated myeloid cell-skewed functional phenotype denoted in particular by HLA-DR and CD64 expression. In contrast, GBM and MED contained progressively fewer infiltrating leukocytes and more muted functional phenotypes similar to that of NT. These findings were recapitulated using whole tumor expression of corresponding immune marker genes in a large gene expression microarray cohort of pediatric brain tumors. The results of this cross-tumor comparative analysis demonstrate that different pediatric brain tumor types exhibit distinct immunophenotypes, implying that specific immunotherapeutic approaches may be most effective for each tumor type.

  17. The Creative Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herrmann, Ned

    1982-01-01

    Outlines the differences between left-brain and right-brain functioning and between left-brain and right-brain dominant individuals, and concludes that creativity uses both halves of the brain. Discusses how both students and curriculum can become more "whole-brained." (Author/JM)

  18. Influence of the initial soil water content on Beerkan water infiltration experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lassabatere, L.; Loizeau, S.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Winiarski, T.; Rossier, Y.; Delolme, C.; Gaudet, J. P.

    2012-04-01

    Understanding and modeling of water flow in the vadose zone are important with regards water management and infiltration devices design. Water infiltration process clearly depends on initial soil water content, in particular for sandy soils with high organic matter content. This study investigates the influence of initial water content on water infiltration in a hydrophobic sandy soil and on the related derivation of hydraulic parameters using the BEST algorithm (Lassabatere et al., 2006). The studied sandy soil has a high total organic content decreasing from 3.5% (w/w) at the surface to 0.5% (w/w) below 1cm depth. The highest TOC at surface was due to the presence of a dense biofilm and resulted in a high surface hydrophobicity under dry conditions (low initial water contents). The water infiltration experiments consisted in infiltrating known volumes of water through a simple ring at null pressure head (Beerkan method). The infiltrations were performed during three successive days after a dry period with a storm event between the first and the second day (5 mm) and another between the second and the third day (35 mm). These events resulted in an increase in initial water contents, from less than 5% for the first day to around 10% for the last day. Experiments were performed for appropriate conditions for Beerkan experiments: initial water contents below 1/4 of the saturated water content and uniform water profile resulting from water redistribution after each rainfall event. The analysis of the infiltration data clearly highlights the strong effect of hydrophobicity. For the driest initial conditions (first day), infiltration rates increased with time, whereas they decreased with time for wetter conditions. Such a decrease agreed with the principles of water infiltration without hydrophobicity. In addition, total cumulative infiltrations were far higher for the wettest conditions. Regarding hydraulic characterization, only the data obtained during the last

  19. Comparison of Infiltrability Measurements in the Thornbush Savanna, Namibia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Classen, Nikolaus; Gröngröft, Alexander; Eschenbach, Annette

    2010-05-01

    Large proportions of Namibian Savannas are affected by strong bush encroachment leading to a reduction in grazing capacity. Especially woody plant encroachment is expected to have an impact on hydrology by increasing plant transpiration, bare soil evaporation and reducing soil water availability (HUXMAN et al. 2005). Although the processes are not fully understood, the role of soil water balance is highlighted by many studies. Especially the small-scale interactions of vegetation and soil are of high relevance. To characterize the water balance of different sites in the Namibian thornbush savanna long-term studies were conducted. In addition we applied three methods to quantify the infiltration rate (IR) at four central Namibian thornbush savanna sites differing in soil texture and vegetation type: a single ring (own construction, 14 cm inner diameter), a disc-infiltrometer (Eijkelkamp Agrisearch Equipment BV) and a hood infiltrometer (UGT Umwelt-Geräte-Technik GmbH). At each site, the measurements we conducted along short transect lines (15 m) in positions with differing plant influence (canopy of Acacia trees and shrubs, grass and dwarf-shrub tussocks, bare soil, termitaria). All three methods resulted in different mean IR as well as spatial distribution patterns. Using statistical analysis by ANOVA, dominant controlling variables were elaborated. The poster will demonstrate which of the methods is defensible with respect to the research question. References : HUXMAN, T. E., B. P. WILCOX, et al. (2005): Ecohydrological implications of woody plant encroachment. Ecology 86(2): 308-319. Acknowledgment: The work was founded by BMBF within the Project Biota South (support code 01LC 0624 A2).

  20. Photoluminescence of sequential infiltration synthesized ZnO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocola, Leonidas E.; Gosztola, David J.; Yanguas-Gil, Angel; Suh, Hyo-Seon; Connolly, Aine

    2016-02-01

    For the past several years there have been ongoing efforts to incorporate zinc oxide (ZnO) inside polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), in the form of nanoparticles or quantum dots, to combine their optical properties for multiple applications. We have investigated a variation of atomic layer deposition (ALD), called sequential infiltration synthesis (SiS), as an alternate method to incorporate ZnO and other oxides inside the polymer. PMMA is a well-known ebeam resist. We can expose and develop patterns useful for photonics or sensing applications first, and then convert them afterwards into a hybrid oxide material with enhanced photonic, or sensing, properties. This is much easier than micromachining films of ZnO or other similar oxides because they are difficult to etch. The amount of ZnO formed inside the polymer film is magnitudes higher than equivalent amount deposited on a flat 2D surface, and the intensity of the photoemission suggests there is an enhancement created by the polymer-ZnO interaction. Photoemission from thin films exhibit photoemission similar to intrinsic ZnO with oxygen vacancies. These vacancies can be removed by annealing the sample at 500°C in an oxygen rich environment. SiS ZnO exhibits unusual photoemission properties for thick polymer films, emitting at excitations wavelengths not found in bulk or standard ZnO. Finally we have shown that patterning the polymer and then doing SiS ZnO treatment afterwards allows modifying or manipulating the photoemission spectra. This opens the doors to novel photonic applications.

  1. Infiltration Through Desert Pavements, Mojave Desert, CA, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, M. H.; McDonald, E. V.; Caldwell, T. C.; Benner, S. G.

    2003-04-01

    Desert pavements consist of a surface layer of closely packed gravel that overlies thin, gravel-poor vesicular A (Av) soil horizon. Pavements are prominent features in arid and semi-arid environments and can be found on a variety of landforms of significantly diverse ages ranging from Holocene to Tertiary. Well-developed Av profiles form distinct and highly structured prismatic peds. These fine-grained, structured soils can exhibit drastically reduced infiltration rates, rendering some localized areas nearly impermeable and greatly impacting soil development, plant and biota diversity, and groundwater recharge. We sought to study how desert pavement development can impact the hydraulic conductivity characteristics in localized areas (order of 10s of cm). Field sites were chosen at the Mojave Natural Preserve, near Kelso Dunes, CA, USA, which has been the location of considerable prior research by the second author. The sites vary by parent material, clay and silt content, surface age, and variable degree of surface clast cover. Transects were chosen that traversed pavement surfaces of variable development (well developed to poorly developed). Hydraulic conductivity was determined with a tension infiltrometer conducted at different tensions and initial water contents (to better estimate the potential for preferential flow). Sites with dry initial conditions were first analyzed at zero tensions to promote inter-ped flow. After allowing soil peds to hydrate and expand, the tests were run again at a range of soil tensions to promote matrix flow. Differences in saturated conductivities (measured and fitted) were attributed to preferential flow around desiccated peds. Soil texture and structure were measured and described, respectively, allowing for the correlation of conductivity functions to soil surface age and physical characteristics.

  2. RAGE Regulates Immune Cell Infiltration and Angiogenesis in Choroidal Neovascularization

    PubMed Central

    McVicar, Carmel; Ward, Michael; Colhoun, Liza; Quinn, Michael; Bierhaus, Angelika; Xu, Heping; Stitt, Alan W.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose RAGE regulates pro-inflammatory responses in diverse cells and tissues. This study has investigated if RAGE plays a role in immune cell mobilization and choroidal neovascular pathology that is associated with the neovascular form of age-related macular degeneration (nvAMD). Methods RAGE null (RAGE−/−) mice and age-matched wild type (WT) control mice underwent laser photocoagulation to generate choroidal neovascularization (CNV) lesions which were then analyzed for morphology, S100B immunoreactivity and inflammatory cell infiltration. The chemotactic ability of bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDMs) towards S100B was investigated. Results RAGE expression was significantly increased in the retina during CNV of WT mice (p<0.001). RAGE−/− mice exhibited significantly reduced CNV lesion size when compared to WT controls (p<0.05). S100B mRNA was upregulated in the lasered WT retina but not RAGE−/− retina and S100B immunoreactivity was present within CNV lesions although levels were less when RAGE−/− mice were compared to WT controls. Activated microglia in lesions were considerably less abundant in RAGE−/− mice when compared to WT counterparts (p<0.001). A dose dependent chemotactic migration was observed in BMDMs from WT mice (p<0.05–0.01) but this was not apparent in cells isolated from RAGE−/− mice. Conclusions RAGE-S100B interactions appear to play an important role in CNV lesion formation by regulating pro-inflammatory and angiogenic responses. This study highlights the role of RAGE in inflammation-mediated outer retinal pathology. PMID:24586862

  3. Mathematical modelling of microtumour infiltration based on in vitro experiments.

    PubMed

    Luján, Emmanuel; Guerra, Liliana N; Soba, Alejandro; Visacovsky, Nicolás; Gandía, Daniel; Calvo, Juan C; Suárez, Cecilia

    2016-08-08

    The present mathematical models of microtumours consider, in general, volumetric growth and spherical tumour invasion shapes. Nevertheless in many cases, such as in gliomas, a need for more accurate delineation of tumour infiltration areas in a patient-specific manner has arisen. The objective of this study was to build a mathematical model able to describe in a case-specific way as well as to predict in a probabilistic way the growth and the real invasion pattern of multicellular tumour spheroids (in vitro model of an avascular microtumour) immersed in a collagen matrix. The two-dimensional theoretical model was represented by a reaction-convection-diffusion equation that considers logistic proliferation, volumetric growth, a rim with proliferative cells at the tumour surface and invasion with diffusive and convective components. Population parameter values of the model were extracted from the experimental dataset and a shape function that describes the invasion area was derived from each experimental case by image processing. New possible and aleatory shape functions were generated by data mining and Monte Carlo tools by means of a satellite EGARCH model, which were fed with all the shape functions of the dataset. Then the main model is used in two different ways: to reproduce the growth and invasion of a given experimental tumour in a case-specific manner when fed with the corresponding shape function (descriptive simulations) or to generate new possible tumour cases that respond to the general population pattern when fed with an aleatory-generated shape function (predictive simulations). Both types of simulations are in good agreement with empirical data, as it was revealed by area quantification and Bland-Altman analysis. This kind of experimental-numerical interaction has wide application potential in designing new strategies able to predict as much as possible the invasive behaviour of a tumour based on its particular characteristics and microenvironment.

  4. Martian 'Brain'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    5 May 2004 Most middle-latitude craters on Mars have strange landforms on their floors. Often, the floors have pitted and convoluted features that lack simple explanation. In this case, the central part of the crater floor shown in this 2004 Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image bears some resemblance to the folded nature of a brain. Or not. It depends upon the 'eye of the beholder,' perhaps. The light-toned 'ring' around the 'brain' feature is more easily explained--windblown ripples and dunes. The crater occurs near 33.1oS, 91.2oW, and is illuminated from the upper left. The picture covers an area about 3 km (1.9 mi) across.

  5. Silicon Brains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoefflinger, Bernd

    Beyond the digital neural networks of Chap. 16, the more radical mapping of brain-like structures and processes into VLSI substrates has been pioneered by Carver Mead more than 30 years ago [1]. The basic idea was to exploit the massive parallelism of such circuits and to create low-power and fault-tolerant information-processing systems. Neuromorphic engineering has recently seen a revival with the availability of deep-submicron CMOS technology, which allows for the construction of very-large-scale mixed-signal systems combining local analog processing in neuronal cells with binary signalling via action potentials. Modern implementations are able to reach the complexity-scale of large functional units of the human brain, and they feature the ability to learn by plasticity mechanisms found in neuroscience. Combined with high-performance programmable logic and elaborate software tools, such systems are currently evolving into user-configurable non-von-Neumann computing systems, which can be used to implement and test novel computational paradigms. The chapter introduces basic properties of biological brains with up to 200 Billion neurons and their 1014 synapses, where action on a synapse takes ˜10 ms and involves an energy of ˜10 fJ. We outline 10x programs on neuromorphic electronic systems in Europe and the USA, which are intended to integrate 108 neurons and 1012 synapses, the level of a cat's brain, in a volume of 1 L and with a power dissipation <1 kW. For a balanced view on intelligence, we references Hawkins' view to first perceive the task and then design an intelligent technical response.

  6. Brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Bradshaw, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    This book presents a survey of the various imaging tools with examples of the different diseases shown best with each modality. It includes 100 case presentations covering the gamut of brain diseases. These examples are grouped according to the clinical presentation of the patient: headache, acute headache, sudden unilateral weakness, unilateral weakness of gradual onset, speech disorders, seizures, pituitary and parasellar lesions, sensory disorders, posterior fossa and cranial nerve disorders, dementia, and congenital lesions.

  7. Animating Brains

    PubMed Central

    Borck, Cornelius

    2016-01-01

    A recent paper famously accused the rising field of social neuroscience of using faulty statistics under the catchy title ‘Voodoo Correlations in Social Neuroscience’. This Special Issue invites us to take this claim as the starting point for a cross-cultural analysis: in which meaningful ways can recent research in the burgeoning field of functional imaging be described as, contrasted with, or simply compared to animistic practices? And what light does such a reading shed on the dynamics and effectiveness of a century of brain research into higher mental functions? Reviewing the heated debate from 2009 around recent trends in neuroimaging as a possible candidate for current instances of ‘soul catching’, the paper will then compare these forms of primarily image-based brain research with older regimes, revolving around the deciphering of the brain’s electrical activity. How has the move from a decoding paradigm to a representational regime affected the conceptualisation of self, psyche, mind and soul (if there still is such an entity)? And in what ways does modern technoscience provide new tools for animating brains? PMID:27292322

  8. Infiltration and Evaporation of Diesel and Gasoline Droplets Spilled onto Concrete Pavement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilpert, M.; Adria-Mora, B.

    2015-12-01

    Pollution at gas stations due to small spills that occur during refueling of customer vehicles has received little attention. We have performed laboratory experiments in order to assess the processes of evaporation and infiltration of fuel spilled onto concrete samples. Changes in mass of both spilled diesel and gasoline droplets as a function of time have been analyzed. The infiltrated mass is affected by variations in humidity, among other parameters, which influence the amount of water condensed onto the concrete. Therefore, we used a humidity data logger and statistical tools to predict the evolution of the real mass of infiltrated fuel. The infiltrated mass roughly decreases exponentially, but the difference in behavior between both fuel types is important. The percentage of evaporated mass is much larger for gasoline, while infiltration is more significant for diesel. Also, the percentage of infiltrated liquid depends on the initial droplet mass. We also developed a multiphysics model, which couples pore-scale infiltration to turbulent atmospheric transport, to explain the experimental data. In conclusion, a substantial amount of fuel could both seep into the ground to contaminate groundwater and be released to the atmosphere. More studies are needed to quantify the public health implications of the released pollutants.

  9. Climatic Forecasting of Net Infiltration at Yucca Mountain UsingAnalogue Meteorological Data

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, Boris

    2005-12-22

    At Yucca Mountain, NV, future changes in climatic conditionswill probably alter net infiltration, drainage below the bottom of theevapotranspiration zone within the soil profile, or flow across theinterface between soil and the densely welded part of the Tiva CanyonTuff. The objectives of this study were to: (i) develop a semiempiricalmodel and forecast average net infiltration rates, using the limitedmeteorological data from analog meteorological stations, for interglacial(present day), and future monsoon, glacial transition, and glacialclimates over the Yucca Mountain region; and (ii) corroborate thecomputed net infiltration ratesby comparing them with the empiricallyand numerically determined groundwater recharge and percolation ratesthrough the unsaturated zone from published data. This study approachedcalculations of net infiltration, aridity, and precipitationeffectiveness indices using a modified Budyko's water-balance model, withreference-surface potential evapotranspiration determined from theradiation-based Penman formula. Results of calculations show that netinfiltration rates are expected to generally increase from thepresent-day climate to monsoon climate, to glacial transition climate,and then to the glacial climate, following a power law relationshipbetween net infiltration and precipitation. The forecasting resultsindicate the overlap between the ranges of net infiltration for differentclimates. Forecasting of net infiltration for different climate states issubject to numerous uncertainties associated with selecting climateanalog sites, using relatively short analog meteorological records,neglecting the effects of vegetation and surface runoff and run-on on alocal scale, as well as possible anthropogenically induced climatechanges.

  10. Mechanically infiltrated clays: recognition and influence in fluvial reservoirs of Reconcavo basin, Brazil

    SciTech Connect

    Moraes, M.A.S.; De Ros, L.F.

    1989-03-01

    Fluvial sandstones and conglomerates of the Sergi Formation (Jurassic) are the main reservoirs of the Reconcavo basin in northeastern Brazil. These reservoirs contain significant amounts of interstitial detrital clays resulting from early diagenetic mechanical infiltration. The infiltration developed under arid/semiarid conditions, where the lowered water table allowed muddy waters of episodic runoff to infiltrate through the coarse alluvium. The main clay concentrations occurred in the upper phreatic zone and in proximity to sources of influent seepage. It is difficult to identify infiltrated clays in ancient sedimentary rocks due to a lack of well-established petrographic criteria. In this work, a series of petrographic criteria is proposed to recognize these clays in clastic reservoirs. These criteria include the anisophachous coatings of tangentially accreted lamellae and the geometric patterns developed due to shrinkage. The infiltrated clays are among the main controls of reservoir properties, and the horizons of maximum clay concentration are the main internal barriers in most Sergi reservoirs. In general, infiltrated clays damage reservoir quality by creating macroheterogeneities and microheterogeneities, by decreasing recovery efficiency and permeability, and by increasing water saturation. Also, they can cause formation damage either by their swelling properties or through the migration of loose particles left by shrinkage. As demonstrated in the Sergi Formation, infiltrated clays must be adequately identified for the definition of proper procedures for drilling, completion, reservoir development, and EOR programs.

  11. Decreasing IV Infiltrates in the Pediatric Patient--System-Based Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Major, Tracie Wilt; Huey, Tricia K

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous infiltrates pose tremendous risk for the hospitalized pediatric patient. Infiltrate events increase hospital-acquired harm, the number of painful procedures, use of supplies, length of stay, and nursing time; it threatens relationships essential in patient- and family-centered care. The goal of this quality improvement project was to achieve a 10% decrease in the baseline infiltrate rate on two inpatient units and in the overall infiltrate rate across all of the pediatric units. A Lean Six Sigma methodology was used to guide project activities. Improvement strategies focused on evidence-based education, intravenous (IV) catheter securement, and family engagement. A comparative purposive sample was used to evaluate the pre- and post-implementation period to determine if desired project success measures were achieved. Data analysis revealed positive results across all units, with the number of events (n = 51 pre; n = 19 post) and the infiltration rates (13.5 pre; 7.1 post) decreasing over a three-month period. A decrease was also noted in the overall percent of IVs that infiltrated in the first 24 hours (45% pre; 42% post). A statistically significant increase (t = 15.16; p < 0.001) was noted in nurses' education pre- and post-assessment survey scores. The family engagement strategy revealed overall parental responses to be 88% positive. By decreasing infiltrates, quality of care improved, resulting in the delivery of safe, effective, and patient-centered IV therapy.

  12. Inhibition of PDGFR signaling prevents muscular fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear in mice.

    PubMed

    Shirasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Noboru; Shimoda, Masayuki; Oki, Satoshi; Yoda, Masaki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2017-01-31

    Fatty infiltration in muscle is often observed in patients with sizable rotator cuff tear (RCT) and is thought to be an irreversible event that significantly compromises muscle plasticity and contraction strength. These changes in the mechanical properties of the affected muscle render surgical repair of RCT highly formidable. Therefore, it is important to learn more about the pathology of fatty infiltration to prevent this undesired condition. In the present study, we aimed to generate a mouse model that can reliably recapitulate some of the important characteristics of muscular fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. We found that fatty infiltration can be efficiently induced by a combination of the following procedures: denervation of the suprascapular nerve, transection of the rotator cuff tendon, and resection of the humeral head. Using this model, we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal stem cells are induced after this intervention and that inhibition of PDGFR signaling by imatinib treatment can significantly suppress fatty infiltration. Taken together, the present study presents a reliable fatty infiltration mouse model and suggests a key role for PDGFRα-positive mesenchymal stem cells in the process of fatty infiltration after RCT in humans.

  13. Identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in esophageal cancer by multiphoton microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jian; Jiang, Liwei; Kang, Deyong; Wu, Xuejing; Xu, Meifang; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Zhu, Xiaoqin; Lin, Jiangbo; Chen, Jianxin

    2016-10-01

    Esophageal cancer is one of the most common malignancies of the gastrointestinal cancers and carries poorer prognosis than other gastrointestinal cancers. In general practice, the depth of tumor infiltration in esophageal wall is crucial to establishing appropriate treatment plan which is established by detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Connective tissue is one of the main structures that form the esophageal wall. So, identification of tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue is helping for detecting the tumor infiltration depth. Our aim is to evaluate whether multiphoton microscopy (MPM) can be used to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. MPM is well-suited for real-time detecting morphologic and cellular changes in fresh tissues since many endogenous fluorophores of fresh tissues are excited through two-photon excited fluorescence (TPEF) and second harmonic generation (SHG). In this work, microstructure of tumor cells and connective tissue are first studied. Then, morphological changes of collagen fibers after the infiltration of tumor cells are shown. These results show that MPM has the ability to detect tumor cells infiltrating into connective tissue in the esophageal cancer. In the future, MPM may be a promising imaging technique for detecting tumor cells in esophageal cancer.

  14. Inhibition of PDGFR signaling prevents muscular fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear in mice

    PubMed Central

    Shirasawa, Hideyuki; Matsumura, Noboru; Shimoda, Masayuki; Oki, Satoshi; Yoda, Masaki; Tohmonda, Takahide; Kanai, Yae; Matsumoto, Morio; Nakamura, Masaya; Horiuchi, Keisuke

    2017-01-01

    Fatty infiltration in muscle is often observed in patients with sizable rotator cuff tear (RCT) and is thought to be an irreversible event that significantly compromises muscle plasticity and contraction strength. These changes in the mechanical properties of the affected muscle render surgical repair of RCT highly formidable. Therefore, it is important to learn more about the pathology of fatty infiltration to prevent this undesired condition. In the present study, we aimed to generate a mouse model that can reliably recapitulate some of the important characteristics of muscular fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. We found that fatty infiltration can be efficiently induced by a combination of the following procedures: denervation of the suprascapular nerve, transection of the rotator cuff tendon, and resection of the humeral head. Using this model, we found that platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (PDGFRα)-positive mesenchymal stem cells are induced after this intervention and that inhibition of PDGFR signaling by imatinib treatment can significantly suppress fatty infiltration. Taken together, the present study presents a reliable fatty infiltration mouse model and suggests a key role for PDGFRα-positive mesenchymal stem cells in the process of fatty infiltration after RCT in humans. PMID:28139720

  15. Numerical Simulation of Infiltration and Solidification Processes for Squeeze Cast Al Composites with Parametric Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, C. K.; Jang, J. H.; Han, K. S.

    2008-11-01

    An axisymmetric finite element (FE) model is developed for the process of squeeze casting the metal-matrix composites (MMCs). The flow in the mold, the infiltration into the porous preform, and the solidification of the molten metal are studied numerically. The saturated porous flow model is adopted to simulate metal infiltration into the fibrous preform. To track the fluid front during the mold filling and infiltration, the level-set method is used. The enthalpy method is used to deal with transient heat transfer, including phase changes. Also, a simple preform deformation model is used to predict the permeability change caused by preform compression during infiltration. A numerical model representing the experiment setup is proposed. The infiltration and cooling behaviors during a process were calculated using pure aluminum as the matrix and a Saffil fiber preform. To validate the assumptions used in the numerical model, a series of infiltration experiments was carried out. The infiltration kinetics and the preform deformation were studied at different inlet pressures and at different preheat temperatures of the aluminum and the mold. A comparison with the experimental data shows that the developed FE program successfully predicts the actual squeeze casting process.

  16. Synthesis of active carbon-based catalysts by chemical vapor infiltration for nitrogen oxide conversion.

    PubMed

    Busch, Martin; Bergmann, Ulf; Sager, Uta; Schmidt, Wolfgang; Schmidt, Frank; Notthoff, Christian; Atakan, Burak; Winterer, Markus

    2011-09-01

    Direct reduction of nitrogen oxides is still a challenge. Strong efforts have been made in developing noble and transition metal catalysts on microporous support materials such as active carbons or zeolites. However, the required activation energy and low conversion rates still limit its breakthrough. Furthermore, infiltration of such microporous matrix materials is commonly performed by wet chemistry routes. Deep infiltration and homogeneous precursor distribution are often challenging due to precursor viscosity or electrostatic shielding and may be inhibited by pore clogging. Gas phase infiltration, as an alternative, can resolve viscosity issues and may contribute to homogeneous infiltration of precursors. In the present work new catalysts based on active carbon substrates were synthesized via chemical vapor infiltration. Iron oxide nano clusters were deposited in the microporous matrix material. Detailed investigation of produced catalysts included nitrogen oxide adsorption, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Catalytic activity was studied in a recycle flow reactor by time-resolved mass spectrometry at a temperature of 423 K. The infiltrated active carbons showed very homogeneous deposition of iron oxide nano clusters in the range of below 12 to 19 nm, depending on the amount of infiltrated precursor. The specific surface area was not excessively reduced, nor was the pore size distribution changed compared to the original substrate. Catalytic nitrogen oxides conversion was detected at temperatures as low as 423 K.

  17. System dynamics modeling of nitrogen removal in a stormwater infiltration basin with biosorption-activated media.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhemin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P; Williams, Evan Shane

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater infiltration basins, one of the typical stormwater best management practices, are commonly constructed for surface water pollution control, flood mitigation, and groundwater restoration in rural or residential areas. These basins have soils with better infiltration capacity than the native soil; however, the ever-increasing contribution of nutrients to groundwater from stormwater due to urban expansion makes existing infiltration basins unable to meet groundwater quality criteria related to environmental sustainability and public health. This issue requires retrofitting current infiltration basins for flood control as well as nutrient control before the stormwater enters the groundwater. An existing stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida was selected, retrofitted, and monitored to identify subsurface physiochemical and biological processes during 2007-2010 to investigate nutrient control processes. This implementation in the nexus of contaminant hydrology and ecological engineering adopted amended soil layers packed with biosorption activated media (BAM; tire crumb, silt, clay, and sand) to perform nutrient removal in a partitioned forebay using a berm. This study presents an infiltration basin-nitrogen removal (IBNR) model, a system dynamics model that simulates nitrogen cycling in this BAM-based stormwater infiltration basin with respect to changing hydrologic conditions and varying dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Modeling outputs of IBNR indicate that denitrification is the biogeochemical indicator in the BAM layer that accounted for a loss of about one third of the total dissolved nitrogen mass input.

  18. [Soil infiltration capacity under different vegetations in southern Ningxia Loess hilly region].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yong-Hui; Zhao, Shi-Wei; Lei, Ting-Wu; Liu, Han

    2008-05-01

    A new apparatus for measuring the run off-on-out under simulated rainfall conditions was used to study the soil infiltration capacity under different rainfall intensities and vegetations in loess hilly region of southern Ningxia, with the relationships between soil water-stable aggregate content and soil stable infiltration rate under different vegetations analyzed. The results showed that the regression equations between rainfall duration and soil infiltration rate under different vegetations all followed y = a + be(-cx), with R2 ranged from 0.9678 to 0.9969. With the increase of rainfall intensity, the soil stable infiltration rate on slope cropland decreased, while that on Medicago lupulina land, natural grassland, and Caragana korshinskii land increased. Under the rainfall intensity of 20 mm h(-1), the rainfall infiltration translation rate (RITR) was decreased in the order of M. lupulina land > slope cropland > natural grassland > C. korshinskii land; while under the rainfall intensity of 40 mm h(-1) and 56 mm h(-1), the RITR was in the sequence of M. lupulina land > natural grassland > slope cropland > C. korshinskii land, and decreased with increasing rainfall intensity. After the reversion of cropland to grassland and forest land, and with the increase of re-vegetation, the amount of >0.25 mm soil aggregates increased, and soil infiltration capacity improved. The revegetation in study area effectively improved soil structure and soil infiltration capacity, and enhanced the utilization potential of rainfall on slope.

  19. [Effects of rainfall intensity on rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on Loess slope land].

    PubMed

    Li, Yi; Shao, Ming'an

    2006-12-01

    With simulation test, this paper studied the patterns of rainfall infiltration and redistribution in soil on typical Loess slope land, and analyzed the quantitative relations between the infiltration and redistribution and the movement of soil water and mass, with rainfall intensity as the main affecting factor. The results showed that rainfall intensity had significant effects on the rainfall infiltration and water redistribution in soil, and the microcosmic movement of soil water. The larger the rainfall intensity, the deeper the wetting front of rainfall infiltration and redistribution was, and the wetting front of soil water redistribution had a slower increase velocity than that of rainfall infiltration. The power function of the wetting front with time, and also with rainfall intensity, was fitted well. There was also a quantitative relation between the wetting front of rainfall redistribution and the duration of rainfall. The larger the rainfall intensity, the higher the initial and steady infiltration rates were, and the cumulative infiltration increased faster with time. Moreover, the larger the rainfall intensity, the smaller the wetting front difference was at the top and the end of the slope. With the larger rainfall intensity, both the difference of soil water content and its descending trend between soil layers became more obvious during the redistribution process on slope land.

  20. Magnetic nanoparticles: an emerging technology for malignant brain tumor imaging and therapy.

    PubMed

    Wankhede, Mamta; Bouras, Alexandros; Kaluzova, Milota; Hadjipanayis, Costas G

    2012-03-01

    Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) represent a promising nanomaterial for the targeted therapy and imaging of malignant brain tumors. Conjugation of peptides or antibodies to the surface of MNPs allows direct targeting of the tumor cell surface and potential disruption of active signaling pathways present in tumor cells. Delivery of nanoparticles to malignant brain tumors represents a formidable challenge due to the presence of the blood-brain barrier and infiltrating cancer cells in the normal brain. Newer strategies permit better delivery of MNPs systemically and by direct convection-enhanced delivery to the brain. Completion of a human clinical trial involving direct injection of MNPs into recurrent malignant brain tumors for the