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Sample records for infiltration system sizing

  1. Integrated loading rate determination for wastewater infiltration system sizing

    SciTech Connect

    Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research); Siegrist, R.L. )

    1991-01-01

    One of the principal parameters used in wastewater system design is the hydraulic loading rate. Historically the determination of the loading rate has been a straight forward process involving selection of a rate based on soil texture or water percolation rate. Research and experience over the past decade has provided additional insight into the complex processes occurring within wastewater-amended soil systems and has suggested the fallacy of this approach. A mean grain size vs. sorting (MESO) diagram constitutes a new basis for soil classification for wastewater infiltration system design. Crude characterization of the soil hydraulic properties is possible according to the MESO Diagram and loading rate as well as certain purification aspects can be assessed from the diagram. In this paper, an approach is described based on the MESO Diagram that integrates soil properties and wastewater pretreatment to yield a loading rate. 53 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Multizone infiltration monitoring system

    SciTech Connect

    Wortman, D.N.; Burch, J.; Judkoff, R.

    1982-06-01

    A multizone infiltration monitoring system (MIMS) using a single tracer gas has been developed. MIMS measures zonal infiltration and exfiltration as well as interzonal air movement rates. The system has been used at the 4-zone test house at the SERI interim field site, and this paper presents preliminary results. The present system can determine zonal infiltration rates, and the results show significant differences in infiltration rates for the various zones.

  3. Effect of various binning methods and ROI sizes on the accuracy of the automatic classification system for differentiation between diffuse infiltrative lung diseases on the basis of texture features at HRCT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namkug; Seo, Joon Beom; Sung, Yu Sub; Park, Bum-Woo; Lee, Youngjoo; Park, Seong Hoon; Lee, Young Kyung; Kang, Suk-Ho

    2008-03-01

    To find optimal binning, variable binning size linear binning (LB) and non-linear binning (NLB) methods were tested. In case of small binning size (Q <= 10), NLB shows significant better accuracy than the LB. K-means NLB (Q = 26) is statistically significant better than every LB. To find optimal binning method and ROI size of the automatic classification system for differentiation between diffuse infiltrative lung diseases on the basis of textural analysis at HRCT Six-hundred circular regions of interest (ROI) with 10, 20, and 30 pixel diameter, comprising of each 100 ROIs representing six regional disease patterns (normal, NL; ground-glass opacity, GGO; reticular opacity, RO; honeycombing, HC; emphysema, EMPH; and consolidation, CONS) were marked by an experienced radiologist from HRCT images. Histogram (mean) and co-occurrence matrix (mean and SD of angular second moment, contrast, correlation, entropy, and inverse difference momentum) features were employed to test binning and ROI effects. To find optimal binning, variable binning size LB (bin size Q: 4~30, 32, 64, 128, 144, 196, 256, 384) and NLB (Q: 4~30) methods (K-means, and Fuzzy C-means clustering) were tested. For automated classification, a SVM classifier was implemented. To assess cross-validation of the system, a five-folding method was used. Each test was repeatedly performed twenty times. Overall accuracies with every combination of variable ROIs, and binning sizes were statistically compared. In case of small binning size (Q <= 10), NLB shows significant better accuracy than the LB. K-means NLB (Q = 26) is statistically significant better than every LB. In case of 30x30 ROI size and most of binning size, the K-means method showed better than other NLB and LB methods. When optimal binning and other parameters were set, overall sensitivity of the classifier was 92.85%. The sensitivity and specificity of the system for each class were as follows: NL, 95%, 97.9%; GGO, 80%, 98.9%; RO 85%, 96.9%; HC, 94

  4. Wireless Application in Intravenous Infiltration Detection System

    PubMed Central

    Alley, Matthew S.; Naramore, William J.; Chou, Nee-Yin; Winchester, Leonard W.

    2008-01-01

    The IrDA wireless protocol has been applied to a fiber optics based point-of-care system for the detection of intravenous infiltration. The system is used for monitoring patients under infusion therapy. It is optimized for portability by incorporating a battery source and wireless communication. The IrDA protocol provides secure data communication between the electronic module of the system and the PDAs carried by the nurses. The PDA is used for initiating the actions of the electronic module and for data transfer. Security is provided by specially designed software and hardware. PMID:19162821

  5. Wireless application in intravenous infiltration detection system.

    PubMed

    Alley, Matthew S; Naramore, William J; Chou, Nee-Yin; Winchester, Leonard W

    2008-01-01

    The IrDA wireless protocol has been applied to a fiber optics based point-of-care system for the detection of intravenous infiltration. The system is used for monitoring patients under infusion therapy. It is optimized for portability by incorporating a battery source and wireless communication. The IrDA protocol provides secure data communication between the electronic module of the system and the PDAs carried by the nurses. The PDA is used for initiating the actions of the electronic module and for data transfer. Security is provided by specially designed software and hardware.

  6. Performance comparison between infiltration and non-infiltration type of structural stormwater treatment systems.

    PubMed

    Maniquiz, Marla C; Choi, Jiyeon; Lee, Soyoung; Kim, Lee-Hyung

    2012-01-01

    The study was constructed to monitor representative inflow and outflow from infiltration and non-infiltration type best management practice (BMP) sites developed at a university campus, allowing the determination of overall performance efficiency in terms of runoff reduction and pollutant removal. Based on the monitored storm events, the runoff and discharged volume and flow rates exhibited high positive correlations with total rainfall depth (p<0.001). Findings revealed that as the total rainfall increases, the amount of volume reduction and pollutant removal decreases for both types of BMP. Infiltration BMP showed a higher ability in treatment performance especially during small storm events than non-infiltration type; however, the differences were not significant. Pollutant removal rates of infiltration type were in the range of 70-90% while between 35 and 80% for the non-infiltration type for storm events with less than 10 mm rainfall depth. Average volume reductions were 71 ± 33% and 32 ± 32% for the infiltration and non-infiltration type, respectively. The ratio of the discharge volume was significantly greater than the ratio of discharge pollutant load indicating a high potential for water quality improvement. Design recommendations were provided considering sizing and cost for on-site application of similar BMP designs in the future.

  7. Feedbacks Between Bioclogging and Infiltration in Losing River Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, M. E.; Hubbard, S. S.; Fleckenstein, J. H.; Schmidt, C.; Maier, U.; Thullner, M.; Ulrich, C.; Rubin, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a well-recognized yet poorly understood process associated with losing connected and disconnected rivers. Although several studies have focused on riverbed bioclogging processes at the pore-scale, few studies have quantified bioclogging feedback cycles at the scale relevant for water resources management, or at the meander-scale. At this scale, often competing hydrological-biological processes influence biomass dynamics and infiltration. Disconnection begins when declines in the water table form an unsaturated zone beneath the river maximizing seepage. Simultaneously, bioclogging reduces the point-scale infiltration flux and can either limit the nutrient flux and reduce bioclogging, or preferentially focus infiltration elsewhere and enhance bioclogging. These feedbacks are highly dependent on geomorphology and seasonal patterns of discharge and water temperature. To assess the mutual influences of disconnection, biomass growth, and temperature changes on infiltration in a geomorphologically complex river system, we built a 3D numerical model, conditioned on field data, using the reactive-transport simulator MIN3P. Results show that in disconnected regions of the river, biomass growth reduced vertical seepage downward and extended the unsaturated zone length; however these changes were contingent upon disconnection. Mid-way through the seasonal cycle, biomass declined in these same regions due to limited nutrient flux. Seepage and biomass continued to oscillate with a lag correlation of 1 month. Connected regions, however, showed the largest infiltration rates, nutrient fluxes, and concentrations of biomass. Despite the reduction in conductivity from biomass, flow remains high in connected regions because the feedback between bioclogging and infiltration is not as pronounced due to the sharpening hydraulic gradient. Bioclogging ultimately shapes the pattern of flow, however geomorphology dominates the

  8. Formation of nanometer-size wires using infiltration into latent nuclear tracks

    DOEpatents

    Musket, Ronald G.; Felter, Thomas E.

    2002-01-01

    Nanometer-size wires having a cross-sectional dimension of less than 8 nm with controllable lengths and diameters are produced by infiltrating latent nuclear or ion tracks formed in trackable materials with atomic species. The trackable materials and atomic species are essentially insoluble in each other, thus the wires are formed by thermally driven, self-assembly of the atomic species during annealing, or re-crystallization, of the damage in the latent tracks. Unlike conventional ion track lithography, the inventive method does not require etching of the latent tracks.

  9. The effect of fiber size and pore size on cell proliferation and infiltration in PLLA scaffolds on bone tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xuejun; Lou, Tao; Zhao, Wenhua; Song, Guojun; Li, Chunyao; Cui, Guangpeng

    2016-05-01

    The scaffold microstructure has a great impact on cell functions in tissue engineering. Herein, the PLLA scaffolds with hierarchical fiber size and pore size were successfully fabricated by thermal-induced phase separation or combined thermal-induced phase separation and salt leaching methods. The PLLA scaffolds were fabricated as microfibrous scaffolds, microfibrous scaffolds with macropores (50-350 µm), nanofibrous scaffolds with micropores (100 nm to 10 µm), and nanofibrous scaffolds with both macropores and micropores by tailoring selective solvents for forming different fiber size and pre-sieved salts for creating controlled pore size. Among the four kinds of PLLA scaffolds, the nanofibrous scaffolds with both macropores and micropores provided a favorable microenvironment for protein adsorption, cell proliferation, and cell infiltration. The results further confirmed the significance of fiber size and pore size on the biological properties, and a scaffold with both micropores and macropores, and a nanofibrous matrix might have promising applications in bone tissue engineering.

  10. [Advances in the research of infiltration wetland wastewater treatment systems].

    PubMed

    Cui, Lihua; Zhu, Xizhen; Luo, Shiming

    2003-04-01

    As their high purification efficiency and relatively low capital investment and treatment cost, infiltration wetland wastewater treatment systems have been popular, and are being increasingly applied in many countries. In this paper, the bed structure and filtering media, nitrogen and phosphorus removal processes and purification mechanisms, performance, current design criteria, operation and regulation mechanisms, soil clogging problem and solutions, and combination of vertical-horizontal flow wetlands treatment system and its use in different types of wastewater treatment were introduced and summarized. Finally, the future research directions of this technique were also discussed.

  11. Infiltration measurements and modeling in a soil-vertical drain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammecker, Claude; Siltecho, Siwaporn; Angulo-Jaramillo, Rafael; Lassabatere, Laurent; Robain, Henri; Winiarski, Thierry; Trelo-ges, Vidaya; Suvannang, Nopmanee

    2016-04-01

    Severe water logging problems occur in rubber tree plantations in NE Thailand during the rainy season and create adverse conditions for the development of the trees. Moreover this situation contributes to a waste of scarce rainfall and reduce it's efficiency, as 50% is lost by hypodermic water flow and superficial runoff. The presence of a clayey layer at 1m depth with low permeability, hindering the water infiltration that led to the occurrence of a perched water table. In order to drawdown the water level of the perched water table and to increase the efficiency of the rainfall by storing water in the underlying bedrock a vertical drainage system was developed. In order to test the feasibility of this solution we chose to use the numerical modelling of water flow in soil and to test different set-ups (size and spacing between the drains). The objective of this study was to characterise the hydraulic properties and of the soil-drain system in a rubber tree plantation. Therefore an experiment was set up in rubber tree plantation at Ban Non Tun, Khon Kaen Province (Northeast of Thailand). Infiltration experiments around the vertical drains with single ring of 1m diameter, were conducted in three different locations to measure infiltration rate. The infiltration experiments were also monitored with two complementary geophysical methods (ERT and GPR) to asses the progression ans at the geometry of the wetting front. The model Hydrus2D was used to adjust the computed infiltration curves and water level in the drain to the experimental data, by fitting effective unsaturated hydrodynamic parameters for the drain. These parameters were used to calibrate the model and to perform further predictive numerical simulations.

  12. Sulfur infiltrated activated carbon cathodes for lithium sulfur cells: The combined effects of pore size distribution and electrolyte molarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jung Tae; Zhao, Youyang; Kim, Hyea; Cho, Won Il; Yushin, Gleb

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we adopted three different commercial activated carbon samples (ACs) having different particle size, specific surface area and pore size to make sulfur-carbon (S-AC) nanocomposites for rechargeable lithium sulfur batteries. The effect of the physical parameters of ACs and the combined effect of electrolyte molarity were investigated. The performance of the cells at two different temperatures of 25 and 70 °C were compared. For room temperature operation of the cells, the capacities of S infiltrated into microporous AC having smaller pore size and stronger interactions with sulfur and sulfides were lower than those of the S infiltrated into micro- and mesoporous ACs containing larger pores. In contrast, the microporous AC demonstrated higher capacity at the elevated temperature due to the improved ion transport rate. The effect of electrolyte molarity on the performance of Li/S cells was found to depend on the AC pore size and particle size distributions. Increasing electrolyte molarity from 1 to 3 M demonstrated improved cell performance and reduced polysulfide dissolution in all the studied S-AC samples. However, further increasing electrolyte salt concentration resulted in a high polarization and reduced cell performance in S-ACs having large particle size or smaller pores.

  13. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T.; Andres, A. Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO3 removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO3 removal.

  14. Model evaluation of denitrification under rapid infiltration basin systems.

    PubMed

    Akhavan, Maryam; Imhoff, Paul T; Andres, A Scott; Finsterle, Stefan

    2013-09-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) are used for disposing reclaimed wastewater into soil to achieve additional treatment before it recharges groundwater. Effluent from most new sequenced batch reactor wastewater treatment plants is completely nitrified, and denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction for N removal. To characterize effects of complex surface and subsurface flow patterns caused by non-uniform flooding on DNF, a coupled overland flow-vadose zone model is implemented in the multiphase flow and reactive transport simulator TOUGHREACT. DNF is simulated in two representative soils varying the application cycle, hydraulic loading rate, wastewater quality, water table depth, and subsurface heterogeneity. Simulations using the conventional specified flux boundary condition under-predict DNF by as much as 450% in sand and 230% in loamy sand compared to predictions from the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model, indicating that simulating coupled flow is critical for predicting DNF in cases where hydraulic loading rates are not sufficient to spread the wastewater over the whole basin. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time and larger hydraulic loading rates result in greater water saturations, more anoxic conditions, and faster water transport in the vadose zone, leading to greater DNF. These results in combination with those from different water table depths explain why reported DNF varied with soil type and water table depth in previous field investigations. Across all simulations, cumulative percent DNF varies between 2 and 49%, indicating that NO₃ removal in RIBS may vary widely depending on operational procedures and subsurface conditions. These modeling results improve understanding of DNF in RIBS and suggest operational procedures that may improve NO₃ removal.

  15. Evaluation of Surface Infiltration Testing Procedures in Permeable Pavement Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete provides limited guidance on how to select testing locations, so research is needed to evaluate how testing sites should be selected and how results should be interpreted to assess surface ...

  16. Effect of resin infiltration on the thermal and mechanical properties of nano-sized silica-based thermal insulation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jae Chun; Kim, Yun-Il; Lee, Dong-Hun; Kim, Won-Jun; Park, Sung; Lee, Dong Bok

    2011-08-01

    Several kinds of nano-sized silica-based thermal insulation were prepared by dry processing of mixtures consisting of fumed silica, ceramic fiber, and a SiC opacifier. Infiltration of phenolic resin solution into the insulation, followed by hot-pressing, was attempted to improve the mechanical strength of the insulation. More than 22% resin content was necessary to increase the strength of the insulation by a factor of two or more. The structural integrity of the resin-infiltrated samples could be maintained, even after resin burn-out, presumably due to reinforcement from ceramic fibers. For all temperature ranges and similar sample bulk density values, the thermal conductivities of the samples after resin burn-out were consistently higher than those of the samples obtained from the dry process. Mercury intrusion curves indicated that the median size of the nanopores formed by primary silica aggregates in the samples after resin burn-out is consistently larger than that of the sample without resin infiltration.

  17. Methods to Use Surface Infiltration Tests in Permeable Pavement Systems to Determine Maintenance Frequency

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, there is limited guidance on selecting test sites to measure surface infiltration rates in permeable pavement systems to determine maintenance frequency. The ASTM method (ASTM C1701) for measuring infiltration rate of in-place pervious concrete suggest to either (1) p...

  18. Soil water infiltration affected by biofuel and grain crop production systems in claypan landscape

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effect of soil management systems on water infiltration is very crucial within claypan landscapes to maximize production as well as minimize environmental risks. The objective of this study was to assess the effect of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and biofuel...

  19. Comparative assessment of water infiltration of soils under different tillage systems in eastern Botswana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moroke, T. S.; Dikinya, O.; Patrick, C.

    Water infiltration is an important component of water balance for improving crop production potential in dryland soil tillage systems in Botswana, particularly in the eastern region. Hardsetting soils common in arable lands of Botswana, often require some kind of tillage such as mouldboard ploughing, chiselling and ripping to improve waterharvesting and crop growth conditions. The objective of this study was to compare ponded cumulative infiltration, steady state infiltration rate and sorptivity of soils cultivated using deep ripping, single and double mouldboard ploughing. This study was conducted on Chromic Luvisols (sandy loam), Haplic Luvisols (sandy clay loam), Ferric Luvisols (clay loam), and Ferric Arenosols (sand). Infiltration was measured using double ring infiltrometer method for 4 h. Although infiltration was smaller on traffic line of deep ripping system at all sites, it was only significantly ( P < 0.05) different on Ferric Luvisols and Ferric Arenosols. Compared with conventional ploughing, steady state infiltration was greater but not significantly ( P > 0.05) different under deep ripped. Cumulative and steady state infiltration rate was greater under sandy than loamy soils, smaller under double ploughing compared with single ploughed and deep ripped soils. Sorptivity was not significantly ( P > 0.05) different among tillage systems but was greater under sandy than sandy loam soils. Information on tillage and infiltration can improve implementation of waterharvesting technologies and crop production in Botswana.

  20. Stormwater sediment and bioturbation influences on hydraulic functioning, biogeochemical processes, and pollutant dynamics in laboratory infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Nogaro, Geraldine; Mermillod-Blondin, Florian

    2009-05-15

    Stormwater sediments that accumulate at the surface of infiltration basins reduce infiltration efficiencies by physical clogging and produce anoxification in the subsurface. The present study aimed to quantify the influence of stormwater sediment origin (urban vs industrial catchments) and the occurrence of bioturbators (tubificid worms) on the hydraulic functioning, aerobic/anaerobic processes, and pollutant dynamics in stormwater infiltration systems. In laboratory sediment columns, effects of stormwater sediments and tubificids were examined on hydraulic conductivity, microbial processes, and pollutant releases. Significant differences in physical (particle size distribution) and chemical characteristics betoveen the two stormwater sediments led to distinct effects of these sediments on hydraulic and biogeochemical processes. Bioturbation by tubificid worms could increase the hydraulic conductivity in stormwater infiltration columns, but this effect depended on the characteristics of the stormwater sediments. Bioturbation-driven increases in hydraulic conductivity stimulated aerobic microbial processes and enhanced vertical fluxes of pollutants in the sediment layer. Our results showed that control of hydraulic functioning by stormwater sediment characteristics and/ or biological activities (such as bioturbation) determined the dynamics of organic matter and pollutants in stormwater infiltration devices.

  1. Escherichia coli removal in biochar-augmented biofilter: effect of infiltration rate, initial bacterial concentration, biochar particle size, and presence of compost.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Sanjay K; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2014-10-01

    Bioretention systems and biofilters are used in low impact development to passively treat urban stormwater. However, these engineered natural systems are not efficient at removing fecal indicator bacteria, the contaminants responsible for a majority of surface water impairments. The present study investigates the efficacy of biochar-augmented model sand biofilters for Escherichia coli removal under a variety of stormwater bacterial concentrations and infiltration rates. Additionally, we test the role of biochar particle size and "presence of compost on model" biofilter performance. Our results show that E. coli removal in a biochar-augmented sand biofilter is ∼ 96% and is not greatly affected by increases in stormwater infiltration rates and influent bacterial concentrations, particularly within the ranges expected in field. Removal of fine (<125 μm) biochar particles from the biochar-sand biofilter decreased the removal capacity from 95% to 62%, indicating biochar size is important. Addition of compost to biochar-sand biofilters not only lowered E. coli removal capacity but also increased the mobilization of deposited bacteria during intermittent infiltration. This result is attributed to exhaustion of attachment sites on biochar by the dissolved organic carbon leached from compost. Overall, our study indicates that biochar has potential to remove bacteria from stormwater under a wide range of field conditions, but for biochar to be effective, the size should be small and biochar should be applied without compost. Although the results aid in the optimization of biofilter design, further studies are needed to examine biochar potential in the field over an entire rainy season.

  2. System dynamics modeling of nitrogen removal in a stormwater infiltration basin with biosorption-activated media.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhemin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P; Williams, Evan Shane

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater infiltration basins, one of the typical stormwater best management practices, are commonly constructed for surface water pollution control, flood mitigation, and groundwater restoration in rural or residential areas. These basins have soils with better infiltration capacity than the native soil; however, the ever-increasing contribution of nutrients to groundwater from stormwater due to urban expansion makes existing infiltration basins unable to meet groundwater quality criteria related to environmental sustainability and public health. This issue requires retrofitting current infiltration basins for flood control as well as nutrient control before the stormwater enters the groundwater. An existing stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida was selected, retrofitted, and monitored to identify subsurface physiochemical and biological processes during 2007-2010 to investigate nutrient control processes. This implementation in the nexus of contaminant hydrology and ecological engineering adopted amended soil layers packed with biosorption activated media (BAM; tire crumb, silt, clay, and sand) to perform nutrient removal in a partitioned forebay using a berm. This study presents an infiltration basin-nitrogen removal (IBNR) model, a system dynamics model that simulates nitrogen cycling in this BAM-based stormwater infiltration basin with respect to changing hydrologic conditions and varying dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Modeling outputs of IBNR indicate that denitrification is the biogeochemical indicator in the BAM layer that accounted for a loss of about one third of the total dissolved nitrogen mass input.

  3. System dynamics modeling of nitrogen removal in a stormwater infiltration basin with biosorption-activated media.

    PubMed

    Xuan, Zhemin; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin P; Williams, Evan Shane

    2013-07-01

    Stormwater infiltration basins, one of the typical stormwater best management practices, are commonly constructed for surface water pollution control, flood mitigation, and groundwater restoration in rural or residential areas. These basins have soils with better infiltration capacity than the native soil; however, the ever-increasing contribution of nutrients to groundwater from stormwater due to urban expansion makes existing infiltration basins unable to meet groundwater quality criteria related to environmental sustainability and public health. This issue requires retrofitting current infiltration basins for flood control as well as nutrient control before the stormwater enters the groundwater. An existing stormwater infiltration basin in north-central Florida was selected, retrofitted, and monitored to identify subsurface physiochemical and biological processes during 2007-2010 to investigate nutrient control processes. This implementation in the nexus of contaminant hydrology and ecological engineering adopted amended soil layers packed with biosorption activated media (BAM; tire crumb, silt, clay, and sand) to perform nutrient removal in a partitioned forebay using a berm. This study presents an infiltration basin-nitrogen removal (IBNR) model, a system dynamics model that simulates nitrogen cycling in this BAM-based stormwater infiltration basin with respect to changing hydrologic conditions and varying dissolved nitrogen concentrations. Modeling outputs of IBNR indicate that denitrification is the biogeochemical indicator in the BAM layer that accounted for a loss of about one third of the total dissolved nitrogen mass input. PMID:24216360

  4. Posterior Deep Infiltrating Endometriotic Nodules: Operative Considerations according to Lesion Size, Location, and Geometry, during One's Learning Curve

    PubMed Central

    Giannoulis, Georgios; Chatzipapas, Ioannis; Athanasiou, Stavros; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to standardize our laparoscopic technique of excision of posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) nodules, according to their size, location, and geometry, including 36 patients who were grouped, according to principal pelvic expansion of the nodule, into groups with central (group 1) and lateral (group 2) lesions, and according to nodule size, into ≤2 cm (group A) and >2 cm (group B) lesions, respectively. In cases of group 1 the following operative steps were more frequently performed compared to those of group 2: suspension of the rectosigmoid, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. The opposite was true regarding suspension of the adnexa, systematic ureteric dissection, and removal of the diseased pelvic peritoneum. When grouping patients according to nodule size, almost all of the examined parameters were more frequently applied to patients of group B: adnexal suspension, suspension of the rectosigmoid, systematic ureteric dissection, division of uterine vein, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. Nodule size was the single most important determinant of duration of surgery. In conclusion, during the building-up of one's learning curve of laparoscopic excision of posterior DIE nodules, technique standardization is very important to avoid complications. PMID:24579050

  5. Posterior Deep Infiltrating Endometriotic Nodules: Operative Considerations according to Lesion Size, Location, and Geometry, during One's Learning Curve.

    PubMed

    Protopapas, Athanasios; Giannoulis, Georgios; Chatzipapas, Ioannis; Athanasiou, Stavros; Grigoriadis, Themistoklis; Haidopoulos, Dimitrios; Loutradis, Dimitrios; Antsaklis, Aris

    2014-01-01

    We conducted this prospective cohort study to standardize our laparoscopic technique of excision of posterior deep infiltrating endometriosis (DIE) nodules, according to their size, location, and geometry, including 36 patients who were grouped, according to principal pelvic expansion of the nodule, into groups with central (group 1) and lateral (group 2) lesions, and according to nodule size, into ≤2 cm (group A) and >2 cm (group B) lesions, respectively. In cases of group 1 the following operative steps were more frequently performed compared to those of group 2: suspension of the rectosigmoid, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. The opposite was true regarding suspension of the adnexa, systematic ureteric dissection, and removal of the diseased pelvic peritoneum. When grouping patients according to nodule size, almost all of the examined parameters were more frequently applied to patients of group B: adnexal suspension, suspension of the rectosigmoid, systematic ureteric dissection, division of uterine vein, colpectomy, and placement of bowel wall reinforcement sutures. Nodule size was the single most important determinant of duration of surgery. In conclusion, during the building-up of one's learning curve of laparoscopic excision of posterior DIE nodules, technique standardization is very important to avoid complications. PMID:24579050

  6. Soil water infiltration affected by topsoil thickness in row crop and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Conversion of annual grain crop systems to biofuel production systems can restore soil hydrologic function; however, information on these effects is limited. Hence, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of topsoil thickness on water infiltration in claypan soils for grain and swi...

  7. Groundwater infiltration, surface water inflow and sewerage exfiltration considering hydrodynamic conditions in sewer systems.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Christian; Hoeft, Stefan; Scheffer, Claudia; Fuchs, Lothar; Krebs, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sewer systems are closely interlinked with groundwater and surface water. Due to leaks and regular openings in the sewer system (e.g. combined sewer overflow structures with sometimes reverse pressure conditions), groundwater infiltration and surface water inflow as well as exfiltration of sewage take place and cannot be avoided. In the paper a new hydrodynamic sewer network modelling approach will be presented, which includes--besides precipitation--hydrographs of groundwater and surface water as essential boundary conditions. The concept of the modelling approach and the models to describe the infiltration, inflow and exfiltration fluxes are described. The model application to the sewerage system of the City of Dresden during a flood event with complex conditions shows that the processes of infiltration, exfiltration and surface water inflows can be described with a higher reliability and accuracy, showing that surface water inflow causes a pronounced system reaction. Further, according to the simulation results, a high sensitivity of exfiltration rates on the in-sewer water levels and a relatively low influence of the dynamic conditions on the infiltration rates were found.

  8. The flavonoid fisetin attenuates postischemic immune cell infiltration, activation and infarct size after transient cerebral middle artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Gelderblom, Mathias; Leypoldt, Frank; Lewerenz, Jan; Birkenmayer, Gabriel; Orozco, Denise; Ludewig, Peter; Thundyil, John; Arumugam, Thiruma V; Gerloff, Christian; Tolosa, Eva; Maher, Pamela; Magnus, Tim

    2012-05-01

    The development of the brain tissue damage in ischemic stroke is composed of an immediate component followed by an inflammatory response with secondary tissue damage after reperfusion. Fisetin, a flavonoid, has multiple biological effects, including neuroprotective and antiinflammatory properties. We analyzed the effects of fisetin on infarct size and the inflammatory response in a mouse model of stroke, temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion, and on the activation of immune cells, murine primary and N9 microglial and Raw264.7 macrophage cells and human macrophages, in an in vitro model of inflammatory immune cell activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Fisetin not only protected brain tissue against ischemic reperfusion injury when given before ischemia but also when applied 3 hours after ischemia. Fisetin also prominently inhibited the infiltration of macrophages and dendritic cells into the ischemic hemisphere and suppressed the intracerebral immune cell activation as measured by intracellular tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) production. Fisetin also inhibited LPS-induced TNFα production and neurotoxicity of macrophages and microglia in vitro by suppressing nuclear factor κB activation and JNK/Jun phosphorylation. Our findings strongly suggest that the fisetin-mediated inhibition of the inflammatory response after stroke is part of the mechanism through which fisetin is neuroprotective in cerebral ischemia.

  9. Influence of packing media on nitrogen removal in a subsurface infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Huang, Xia; Shao, Chang-fei; Liu, Chao-xiang; Shi, Han-chang; Hu, Hong-ying; Liu, Zhi-qiang

    2004-01-01

    Influence of packing media on nitrogen removal in a subsurface infiltration system was studied. System A was filled with loamy soil and system B was filled with mixed soil of 75% red clay with 25% cinder. Both systems were fed with sewage at the same hydraulic loading of 2 cm/d at continuous operation mode. The same excellent removal performances of COD and T-P could be achieved in both infiltration systems with removal rates about 85% and 98%, respectively. In system A, NH4+ -N removal rate was as high as 96.5% and T-N removal rate was relatively much lower as 55.7%. And in system B, NH4+ -N removal rate was as low as 75.4% and T-N removal rate was relatively much higher as 75.5% . The difference was attributed to different soil oxidation-reduction condition that was greatly influenced by soil texture in subsurface infiltration system. Loamy soil led to oxidative condition that was favorable to nitrification and disadvantageous to denitrification. The results were just adverse to the system filled with clay. Intermittent operation was adopted to improve nitrogen removal in system B. NH4+ -N removal rate could be increased to about 95% and T-N removal rate could be increased to about 90% at intermittent operation mode in system B. Analysis of nitrogen removal mechanisms indicated that nitrification-denitrification was the primary nitrogen removal path in subsurface infiltration system and crop uptake was another important nitrogen removal way. It was the key to improve the total N removal performance that a suitable packing soil was available to present favorable oxidation-reduction condition for simultaneous nitrification and denitrification.

  10. Multicriteria decision-aid method to evaluate the performance of stormwater infiltration systems over the time.

    PubMed

    Moura, P; Barraud, S; Baptista, M B; Malard, F

    2011-01-01

    Nowadays, stormwater infiltration systems are frequently used because of their ability to reduce flows and volumes in downstream sewers, decrease overflows in surface waters and make it possible to recharge groundwater. Moreover, they come in various forms with different uses. Despite these advantages the long term sustainability of these systems is questionable and their real performances have to be assessed taking into account various and sometimes conflicting aspects. To address this problem a decision support system is proposed. It is based on a multicriteria method built to help managers to evaluate the performance of an existing infiltration system at different stages of its lifespan and identify whether it performs correctly or not, according to environmental, socio-economic, technical and sanitary aspects. The paper presents successively: the performance indicators and the way they were built, the multicriteria method to identify if the system works properly and a case study. PMID:22105120

  11. Biochar and activated carbon for enhanced trace organic contaminant retention in stormwater infiltration systems.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Bridget A; Im, Eugenia A; Werner, David; Higgins, Christopher P

    2015-05-19

    To assess the effectiveness of biochar and activated carbon (AC) for enhanced trace organic contaminant (TOrC) retention in stormwater infiltration systems, an approach combining forward-prediction modeling and laboratory verification experiments was employed. Batch and column tests were conducted using representative TOrCs and synthetic stormwater. Based on batch screening tests, two commercially available biochars (BN-biochar and MCG-biochar) and an AC were investigated. The AC exhibited the strongest sorption, followed by MCG-biochar and BN-biochar. Langmuir isotherms provided better fits to equilibrium data than Freundlich isotherms. Due to superior sorption kinetics, 0.2 wt % MCG-biochar in saturated sand columns retained TOrCs more effectively than 1.0 wt % BN-biochar. A forward-prediction intraparticle diffusion model based on the Langmuir isotherm adequately predicted column results when calibrated using only batch parameters, as indicated by a Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis. Case study simulations estimated that an infiltration basin amended with F300-AC or MCG-biochar could obtain sorption-retarded breakthrough times for atrazine of 54 or 5.8 years, respectively, at a 1 in./h infiltration rate. These results indicate that biochars or ACs with superior sorption capacity and kinetics can enhance TOrC retention in infiltration systems, and performance under various conditions can be predicted using results from batch tests.

  12. Infiltrated carbon foam composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lucas, Rick D. (Inventor); Danford, Harry E. (Inventor); Plucinski, Janusz W. (Inventor); Merriman, Douglas J. (Inventor); Blacker, Jesse M. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    An infiltrated carbon foam composite and method for making the composite is described. The infiltrated carbon foam composite may include a carbonized carbon aerogel in cells of a carbon foam body and a resin is infiltrated into the carbon foam body filling the cells of the carbon foam body and spaces around the carbonized carbon aerogel. The infiltrated carbon foam composites may be useful for mid-density ablative thermal protection systems.

  13. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse Presenting With Central Nervous System Blast Crisis and Bilateral Optic Nerve Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Mbekeani, Joyce N; Abdel Fattah, Maaly; Al Nounou, Randa M; Chebbo, Wahiba; Dogar, Mohammed Asif

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral, simultaneous optic nerve sheath infiltration as a manifestation of leukemia relapse is very rare. A 45-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia was successfully treated to cytogenetic bone marrow remission 1 year previously and maintained on imatinib. She developed total bilateral blindness with marked, bilateral optic disc edema and evidence of bilateral optic nerve infiltration on magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology confirmed central nervous system (CNS) blast crisis. She recovered visual acuity of 20/20 in the right eye, and 20/25 in the left eye with salvage systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy before radiation therapy. Our report underscores the importance of timely and aggressive intervention of blast crisis of the CNS and the need for CNS penetrating induction and maintenance therapy. PMID:26628337

  14. Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia Relapse Presenting With Central Nervous System Blast Crisis and Bilateral Optic Nerve Infiltration.

    PubMed

    Mbekeani, Joyce N; Abdel Fattah, Maaly; Al Nounou, Randa M; Chebbo, Wahiba; Dogar, Mohammed Asif

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral, simultaneous optic nerve sheath infiltration as a manifestation of leukemia relapse is very rare. A 45-year-old woman with chronic myelogenous leukemia was successfully treated to cytogenetic bone marrow remission 1 year previously and maintained on imatinib. She developed total bilateral blindness with marked, bilateral optic disc edema and evidence of bilateral optic nerve infiltration on magnetic resonance imaging. Cerebrospinal fluid cytology confirmed central nervous system (CNS) blast crisis. She recovered visual acuity of 20/20 in the right eye, and 20/25 in the left eye with salvage systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy before radiation therapy. Our report underscores the importance of timely and aggressive intervention of blast crisis of the CNS and the need for CNS penetrating induction and maintenance therapy.

  15. Changes of pore systems and infiltration analysis in two degraded soils after rock fragment addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gargiulo, Laura; Coppola, Antonio; De Mascellis, Roberto; Basile, Angelo; Mele, Giacomo; Terribile, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Many soils in arid and semi-arid environments contain high amounts of rock fragments as a result of both natural soil forming processes and human activities. The amount, dimension and shape of rock fragment strongly influence soil structure development and therefore many soil processes (e.g. infiltration, water storage, solute transport, etc.). The aim of this work was to test the effects on both infiltration process and soil pore formation following an addition of rock fragments. The test was performed on two different soils: a clayey soil (Alfisol) and a clay loamy soil (Entisol) showing both a natural compact structure and water stagnation problems in field. Three concentrations of 4-8mm rock fragments (15%, 25% and 35%) were added to air-dried soils and the repacked samples have been subject to nine wet/dry cycles in order to induce soil structure formation and its stabilization. The process of infiltration was monitored at -12 cm of pressure heads imposed at the soil surface and kept constant for a certain time by a tension infiltrometer. Moreover, k(h) was determined imposing -9, -6,-3 and -1 cm at soil surface and applying a steady-state solution. After the hydrological measurements the soil samples were resin-impregnated and images of vertical sections of the samples, acquired at 20µm resolution, were analyzed in order to quantify the pore size distribution. This latter was calculated using the "successive opening" approach. The Entisol samples showed similar infiltration curves I(t) among the 4 treatments, with higher percentage of stones (i.e. 25 and 35%) showing a faster rising in the early-time (< 2 min) infiltration; the Alfisol samples are spread, showing a higher variability: limiting the analysis to the first three, despite they show a similar shape, the higher the stones content the lower the cumulated infiltration. The behavior of the 35% sample diverges from the others: it shows a fast rising step at the very early time (< 2 min) followed by a

  16. Local infiltration of rabies immunoglobulins without systemic intramuscular administration: An alternative cost effective approach for passive immunization against rabies

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Omesh Kumar; Madhusudana, Shampur Narayan; Gaunta, Pyare Lal; Belludi, Ashwin Yajaman

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Presently the dose of rabies immunoglobulin (RIG) which is an integral part of rabies post exposure prophylaxis (PEP) is calculated based on body weight though the recommendation is to infiltrate the wound(s). This practice demands large quantities of RIG which may be unaffordable to many patients. In this background, we conducted this study to know if the quantity and cost of RIG can be reduced by restricting passive immunization to local infiltration alone and avoiding systemic intramuscular administration based on the available scientific evidence. Two hundred and sixty nine category III patients bitten by suspect or confirmed rabid dogs/animals were infiltrated with equine rabies immunoglobulin (ERIGs) in and around the wound. The quantity of ERIG used was proportionate to the size and number of wounds irrespective of their body weight. They were followed with a regular course of rabies vaccination by intra-dermal route. As against 363 vials of RIGs required for all these cases as per current recommendation based on body weight, they required only 42 vials of 5ml RIG. Minimum dose of RIGs given was 0.25 ml and maximum dose given was 8 ml. On an average 1.26 ml of RIGs was required per patient that costs Rs. 150 ($3). All the patients were followed for 9 months and they were healthy and normal at the end of observation period. With local infiltration, that required small quantities of RIG, the RIGs could be made available to all patients in times of short supply in the market. A total of 30 (11%) serum samples of patients were tested for rabies virus neutralizing antibodies by the rapid fluorescent focus inhibition test (RFFIT) and all showed antibody titers >0.5 IU/mL by day 14. In no case the dose was higher than that required based on body weight and no immunosuppression resulted. To conclude, this pilot study shows that local infiltration of RIG need to be considered in times of non-availability in the market or unaffordability by poor patients

  17. Application of Modular Modeling System to Predict Evaporation, Infiltration, Air Temperature, and Soil Moisture

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boggs, Johnny; Birgan, Latricia J.; Tsegaye, Teferi; Coleman, Tommy; Soman, Vishwas

    1997-01-01

    Models are used for numerous application including hydrology. The Modular Modeling System (MMS) is one of the few that can simulate a hydrology process. MMS was tested and used to compare infiltration, soil moisture, daily temperature, and potential and actual evaporation for the Elinsboro sandy loam soil and the Mattapex silty loam soil in the Microwave Radiometer Experiment of Soil Moisture Sensing at Beltsville Agriculture Research Test Site in Maryland. An input file for each location was created to nut the model. Graphs were plotted, and it was observed that the model gave a good representation for evaporation for both plots. In comparing the two plots, it was noted that infiltration and soil moisture tend to peak around the same time, temperature peaks in July and August and the peak evaporation was observed on September 15 and July 4 for the Elinsboro Mattapex plot respectively. MMS can be used successfully to predict hydrological processes as long as the proper input parameters are available.

  18. Implementation of a monitoring system to measure impact of stormwater runoff infiltration.

    PubMed

    Barraud, S; Gibert, J; Winiarski, T; Bertrand Krajewski, J L

    2002-01-01

    Stormwater infiltration is a drainage mode, which is more and more used in urban areas in France. Given the characteristics of urban surfaces, and especially the loads of various pollutants contained in stormwater, it is important to assess the impact of stormwater infiltration systems on soil and groundwater by carrying out field experiments. The main difficulty is due to the complexity of the system observed and the need of multidisciplinary approaches. Another difficulty is that measurements are carried out in situ, in an uncontrolled environment submitted to quantitatively and qualitatively highly variable interferences. Very long term monitoring is needed to get representative results. In order to contribute to solve these problems, the OTHU project has recently been launched in Lyon (France). One of its key action concerns a long-term (10 years) experiment on an infiltration basin specifically rehabilitated for measurements and operational drainage issues. This paper presents the experimental site, the objectives of the project and the way the monitoring process has been built according to the various disciplines involved (biology, ecology, hydrology, chemistry and soil sciences) and to the will of assessing all the uncertainties in the measurement process.

  19. Nanoparticle infiltration to prepare solvent-free controlled drug delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Cruz, Isabel M; Domínguez-Delgado, Clara L; Escobar-Chávez, Jose J; Leyva-Gómez, Gerardo; Ganem-Quintanar, Adriana; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2009-04-17

    The purpose of this work was to propose a drug delivery system based on a biodegradable porous membrane, whose surface is covered by a nanoparticle film, thus achieving a controlled drug release rate. Furthermore, due to the fact that the assembly of the system is performed in aqueous medium, contact with organic solvents is avoided. The method is performed in two steps: (i) preparation of biodegradable porous membranes (by a solvent casting and particulate leaching technique) and biodegradable nanoparticles (by the emulsification-diffusion method), extensively eliminating the solvent in both of them; (ii) infiltration into membranes of an aqueous solution of a model drug (carbamazepine) and a nanoparticle dispersion. In both cases, poly(DL-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA 50:50) was used as a biodegradable polymer. Carbamazepine adsorbed onto biodegradable porous membranes shows an immediate release behavior (95% released in <15 min). Infiltration of different amounts of nanoparticles (50, 100, 400 and 600 mg of nanoparticles/0.625 g of membrane) into biodegradable porous membranes shows a Fickian diffusion according to Peppas model, and fits Higuchi's model. This behavior was attributed to the diffusional barrier constituted by the nanoparticle film. As expected, the carbamazepine release rate was dependent on the amount of infiltrated/adsorbed nanoparticles into biodegradable porous membrane. DSC studies show molecular dispersion of the drug throughout the membrane.

  20. Removal of nitrogen by a layered soil infiltration system during intermittent storm events.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang Woo; Song, Kyung Guen; Cho, Jin Woo; Kim, Tae Gyun; Ahn, Kyu Hong

    2009-07-01

    The fates of various nitrogen species were investigated in a layered biological infiltration system under an intermittently wetting regime. The layered system consisted of a mulch layer, coarse soil layer (CSL), and fine soil layer (FSL). The effects of soil texture were assessed focusing on the infiltration rate and the removal of inorganic nitrogen species. The infiltration rate drastically decreased when the uniformity coefficient was larger than four. The ammonium in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed via adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days. Stable ammonium adsorption was observed when the silt and clay content of CSL was greater than 3%. This study revealed that the nitrate leaching was caused by nitrification during dry days. Various patterns of nitrate flushing were observed depending on the soil configuration. The washout of nitrate was more severe as the silt/clay content of the CSL was greater. However, proper layering of soil proved to enhance the nitrate removal. Consequently, a strictly sandy CSL over FSL with a silt and clay content of 10% was the best configuration for the removal of ammonium and nitrate. PMID:19473686

  1. Isolated optic nerve infiltration in systemic lymphoma--a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Kim, Usha R; Shah, Akash D; Arora, Vipul; Solanki, Urvashi

    2010-01-01

    Ocular involvement in non-Hodgkin lymphoma occurs either as primary ocular, central nervous system lymphoma or isolated intraocular lymphoma. Recurrence of systemic non-Hodgkin lymphoma in the form of CNS lymphoma has been reported. However, recurrence as an isolated optic nerve lesion without involving CNS has never been reported in the pediatric age group. We report a case of systemic diffuse large B-cell lymphoma in a 2-year-old female, which primarily occurred as suprapubic mass and later recurred in the form of isolated optic nerve infiltration, after remission of the primary disease. Early detection and prompt treatment resulted in complete reversal of the disease. PMID:20523257

  2. Effect of particle size on droplet infiltration into hydrophobic porous media as a model of water repellent soil.

    PubMed

    Hamlett, Christopher A E; Shirtcliffe, Neil J; McHale, Glen; Ahn, Sujung; Bryant, Robert; Doerr, Stefan H; Newton, Michael I

    2011-11-15

    The wettability of soil is of great importance for plants and soil biota, and in determining the risk for preferential flow, surface runoff, flooding,and soil erosion. The molarity of ethanol droplet (MED) test is widely used for quantifying the severity of water repellency in soils that show reduced wettability and is assumed to be independent of soil particle size. The minimum ethanol concentration at which droplet penetration occurs within a short time (≤ 10 s) provides an estimate of the initial advancing contact angle at which spontaneous wetting is expected. In this study, we test the assumption of particle size independence using a simple model of soil, represented by layers of small (~0.2-2 mm) diameter beads that predict the effect of changing bead radius in the top layer on capillary driven imbibition. Experimental results using a three-layer bead system show broad agreement with the model and demonstrate a dependence of the MED test on particle size. The results show that the critical initial advancing contact angle for penetration can be considerably less than 90° and varies with particle size, demonstrating that a key assumption currently used in the MED testing of soil is not necessarily valid. PMID:22011323

  3. Estimating biozone hydraulic conductivity in wastewater soil-infiltration systems using inverse numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R; McCray, John E

    2007-06-01

    During operation of an onsite wastewater treatment system, a low-permeability biozone develops at the infiltrative surface (IS) during application of wastewater to soil. Inverse numerical-model simulations were used to estimate the biozone saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(biozone)) under variably saturated conditions for 29 wastewater infiltration test cells installed in a sandy loam field soil. Test cells employed two loading rates (4 and 8cm/day) and 3 IS designs: open chamber, gravel, and synthetic bundles. The ratio of K(biozone) to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the natural soil (K(s)) was used to quantify the reductions in the IS hydraulic conductivity. A smaller value of K(biozone)/K(s,) reflects a greater reduction in hydraulic conductivity. The IS hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude. The reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity was primarily influenced by wastewater loading rate and IS type and not by the K(s) of the native soil. The higher loading rate yielded greater reductions in IS hydraulic conductivity than the lower loading rate for bundle and gravel cells, but the difference was not statistically significant for chamber cells. Bundle and gravel cells exhibited a greater reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity than chamber cells at the higher loading rates, while the difference between gravel and bundle systems was not statistically significant. At the lower rate, bundle cells exhibited generally lower K(biozone)/K(s) values, but not at a statistically significant level, while gravel and chamber cells were statistically similar. Gravel cells exhibited the greatest variability in measured values, which may complicate design efforts based on K(biozone) evaluations for these systems. These results suggest that chamber systems may provide for a more robust design, particularly for high or variable wastewater infiltration rates.

  4. Estimating biozone hydraulic conductivity in wastewater soil-infiltration systems using inverse numerical modeling.

    PubMed

    Bumgarner, Johnathan R; McCray, John E

    2007-06-01

    During operation of an onsite wastewater treatment system, a low-permeability biozone develops at the infiltrative surface (IS) during application of wastewater to soil. Inverse numerical-model simulations were used to estimate the biozone saturated hydraulic conductivity (K(biozone)) under variably saturated conditions for 29 wastewater infiltration test cells installed in a sandy loam field soil. Test cells employed two loading rates (4 and 8cm/day) and 3 IS designs: open chamber, gravel, and synthetic bundles. The ratio of K(biozone) to the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the natural soil (K(s)) was used to quantify the reductions in the IS hydraulic conductivity. A smaller value of K(biozone)/K(s,) reflects a greater reduction in hydraulic conductivity. The IS hydraulic conductivity was reduced by 1-3 orders of magnitude. The reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity was primarily influenced by wastewater loading rate and IS type and not by the K(s) of the native soil. The higher loading rate yielded greater reductions in IS hydraulic conductivity than the lower loading rate for bundle and gravel cells, but the difference was not statistically significant for chamber cells. Bundle and gravel cells exhibited a greater reduction in IS hydraulic conductivity than chamber cells at the higher loading rates, while the difference between gravel and bundle systems was not statistically significant. At the lower rate, bundle cells exhibited generally lower K(biozone)/K(s) values, but not at a statistically significant level, while gravel and chamber cells were statistically similar. Gravel cells exhibited the greatest variability in measured values, which may complicate design efforts based on K(biozone) evaluations for these systems. These results suggest that chamber systems may provide for a more robust design, particularly for high or variable wastewater infiltration rates. PMID:17449084

  5. Spatial variability of steady-state infiltration into a two-layer soil system on burned hillslopes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinner, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2010-01-01

    Rainfall-runoff simulations were conducted to estimate the characteristics of the steady-state infiltration rate into 1-m2 north- and south-facing hillslope plots burned by a wildfire in October 2003. Soil profiles in the plots consisted of a two-layer system composed of an ash on top of sandy mineral soil. Multiple rainfall rates (18.4-51.2 mm h-1) were used during 14 short-duration (30 min) and 2 long-duration simulations (2-4 h). Steady state was reached in 7-26 min. Observed spatially-averaged steady-state infiltration rates ranged from 18.2 to 23.8 mm h-1 for north-facing and from 17.9 to 36.0 mm h-1 for south-facing plots. Three different theoretical spatial distribution models of steady-state infiltration rate were fit to the measurements of rainfall rate and steady-state discharge to provided estimates of the spatial average (19.2-22.2 mm h-1) and the coefficient of variation (0.11-0.40) of infiltration rates, overland flow contributing area (74-90% of the plot area), and infiltration threshold (19.0-26 mm h-1). Tensiometer measurements indicated a downward moving pressure wave and suggest that infiltration-excess overland flow is the runoff process on these burned hillslope with a two-layer system. Moreover, the results indicate that the ash layer is wettable, may restrict water flow into the underlying layer, and increase the infiltration threshold; whereas, the underlying mineral soil, though coarser, limits the infiltration rate. These results of the spatial variability of steady-state infiltration can be used to develop physically-based rainfall-runoff models for burned areas with a two-layer soil system. ?? 2010 Elsevier B.V.

  6. Mobilization of bacteria in a bioinfilitration system during intermittent infiltration of stormwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehm, A.; Mohanty, S. K.; Torkelson, A. A.; Nelson, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    Green infrastructure, like bioinfintration systems in rain gardens, is increasingly being used in urban centers to harvest stormwater for reuse or groundwater replenishment, but the fate of stormwater contaminants in these systems is not well understood. The present study compared the ability of a bioinfiltration system packed with sand and a geomaterial (iron oxide coated sand, IOCS) to remove model bacterial pathogens (Escherichia coli and Enterococcus faecalis) under intermittent flow conditions. Experiments were carried out in two phases: (1) saturated columns packed with either sand or IOCS were contaminated by injecting synthetic stormwater with bacteria followed by injection of uncontaminated stormwater and (2) the mobilization of sequestered bacteria by intermittent infiltration of stormwater was examined by pausing infiltration and allowing columns to drained under gravity, and then reapplying uncontaminated stormwater; results were compared to a column subjected to the same intermittent flow conditions but not allowed to drain. Intermittent flow mobilized a greater fraction of sequestered bacteria when the column was allowed to drain suggesting mobilizing by scouring by the air-water interface. A smaller fraction of sequestered bacteria were mobilized from IOCS than sand indicating that irreversible attachment on the IOCS surface reduced mobilization of bacteria during rewetting. Presence of NOM in stormwater increase the amount of bacteria mobilized from IOCS during intermittent flow. The result of the study indicates that use of geomedia such as IOCS that promotes irreversible attachment of bacteria and maintaining saturated condition could minimize the mobilization of bacteria from bioinfiltration systems.

  7. Residuejams and their effect on Infiltration, Runoff and Dissolved Organic Carbon (DOC) in Furrow Irrigation Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mailapalli, D. R.; Wallender, W. W.; Horwath, W.; Ma, S.; Lazicki, P.

    2007-12-01

    Crop residue, which consists of small debris of different sizes, is an important resource in agricultural ecosystems. It plays a vital role in conservation tillage as a best management practice (BMP) for reducing runoff, sediment, nutrient and pesticide transport from irrigated fields. In furrow irrigation, the predominant irrigation method in the world, as irrigation or winter runoff water moves along a furrow, it lifts the unanchored residue and transports across the field. The complex interaction of multiple residue pieces (debris) with itself, the soil matrix, and the fluid cause jams to form along the furrow. The residuejams can be thought of logjams in fluvial rivers or channels which help in increasing channel roughness to reduce flow velocities and shear stress along eroding banks. The logjams also create a hydraulic shadow, a low-velocity zone for some distance upstream that allows sediment to settle out and stabilize. Similarly, the residuejams help in formation of catchments, which promote increased infiltration and settlement of sediments along the furrow. The infiltration and residue interaction with the soil-water influence the runoff, sediment, nutrient and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) export. The reduction of DOC export is critical to enhancing drinking water resources by reducing reactive sources of DOC that form carcinogenic by-products in the disinfection process. Hence, investigation of geomorphology of the residuejams is essential to understand their impact on infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration. This study focuses on the formation of residuejams and their effect on the infiltration, runoff and DOC concentration from 122 m long furrow plots with cover crop (CC), no-till (NT) and standard tillage (ST). These treatments (CC, NT and ST) were replicated three times using randomized complete block design and the plots initially, had 10, 32 and 42% of residue cover (sunflower residue on ST and NT; sunflower and wheat residue on CC plot

  8. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis.

    PubMed

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2 x 10(6) plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P < 0.05) and "Ly6C hi" inflammatory monocytes (P < 0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P < 0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of "Ly6C low" patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P < 0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our

  9. Infiltration Pattern of Blood Monocytes into the Central Nervous System during Experimental Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Menasria, Rafik; Canivet, Coraline; Piret, Jocelyne; Boivin, Guy

    2015-01-01

    The kinetics and distribution of infiltrating blood monocytes into the central nervous system and their involvement in the cerebral immune response together with resident macrophages, namely microglia, were evaluated in experimental herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) encephalitis (HSE). To distinguish microglia from blood monocyte-derived macrophages, chimeras were generated by conditioning C57BL/6 recipient mice with chemotherapy regimen followed by transplantation of bone morrow-derived cells that expressed the green fluorescent protein. Mice were infected intranasally with a sub-lethal dose of HSV-1 (1.2x106 plaque forming units). Brains were harvested prior to and on days 4, 6, 8 and 10 post-infection for flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. The amounts of neutrophils (P<0.05) and «Ly6Chi» inflammatory monocytes (P<0.001) significantly increased in the CNS compared to non-infected controls on day 6 post-infection, which corresponded to more severe clinical signs of HSE. Levels decreased on day 8 for both leukocytes subpopulations (P<0.05 for inflammatory monocytes compared to non-infected controls) to reach baseline levels on day 10 following infection. The percentage of «Ly6Clow» patrolling monocytes significantly increased (P<0.01) at a later time point (day 8), which correlated with the resolution phase of HSE. Histological analysis demonstrated that blood leukocytes colonized mostly the olfactory bulb and the brainstem, which corresponded to regions where HSV-1 particles were detected. Furthermore, infiltrating cells from the monocytic lineage could differentiate into activated local tissue macrophages that express the microglia marker, ionized calcium-binding adaptor molecule 1. The lack of albumin detection in the brain parenchyma of infected mice showed that the infiltration of blood leukocytes was not necessarily related to a breakdown of the blood-brain barrier but could be the result of a functional recruitment. Thus, our findings suggest

  10. Surface growth for molten silicon infiltration into carbon millimeter-sized channels: Lattice-Boltzmann simulations, experiments and models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sergi, Danilo; Camarano, Antonio; Molina, José Miguel; Ortona, Alberto; Narciso, Javier

    2016-01-01

    The process of liquid silicon (Si) infiltration is investigated for channels with radii from 0.25[mm] to 0.75[mm] drilled in compact carbon (C) preforms. The advantage of this setup is that the study of the phenomenon results can be simplified. For comparison purposes, attempts are made in order to work out a framework for evaluating the accuracy of simulations. The approach relies on dimensionless numbers involving the properties of the surface reaction. It turns out that complex hydrodynamic behavior derived from second Newton law can be made consistent with Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) simulations. The experiments give clear evidence that the growth of silicon carbide (SiC) proceeds in two different stages and basic mechanisms are highlighted. LB simulations prove to be an effective tool for the description of the growing phase. Namely, essential experimental constraints can be implemented. As a result, the existing models are useful to gain more insight on the process of reactive infiltration into porous media in the first stage of penetration, i.e. up to pore closure because of surface growth. A way allowing one to implement the resistance from chemical reaction in Darcy law is also proposed.

  11. Stable isotopes of water as a natural tracer for infiltration into urban sewer systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kracht, O.; Gresch, M.; de Bénédittis, J.; Prigiobbe, V.; Gujer, W.

    2003-04-01

    An adequate understanding of the hydraulic interaction between leaky sewers and groundwater is essential for the sustainable management of both sewer systems and aquifers in urbanized areas. Undesirable infiltration of groundwater into sewers can contribute over 50% of the total discharge and is detrimental to treatment plant efficiency. On the other hand, in many European cities groundwater surface levels seem to be particularly controlled by the drainage effect of permeable sewer systems. However, nowadays methods for the quantification of these exchange processes are still subject to considerable uncertainties due to their underlying assumptions. The frequently used assumption that the night time minimum in the diurnal wastewater hydrograph is equal to the "parasitic discharge" has to be reconsidered to today's patterns of human life as well as to the long residence time of wastewater in the sewer networks of modern cities. The suitability of stable water isotopes as a natural tracer to differentiate the origin of water in the sewer ("real" wastewater or infiltrating groundwater) is currently investigated in three different catchment areas. The studies are carried out within the framework of the European research project APUSS (Assessing Infiltration and Exfiltration on the Performance of Urban Sewer Systems): 1) The village of Rümlang (Zürich, Switzerland) is predominantly served with drinking water from the Lake Zürich. A large fraction of the lakes water is derived from precipitation in the Alps. This drinking water represents the intrinsic provenience of the wastewater with an δ18O value around -11,5 per mill and δ^2H value around -82 per mill vs. SMOW. In contrast, the local groundwater is originating from precipitation in a moderate altitude of about 450 m above sea level and shows comparatively enriched mean δ18O values of -9,7 per mill and δ^2H values of -70 per mill with only small natural variations. The isotopic separation between these

  12. Performance evaluation of subsurface wastewater infiltration system in treating domestic sewage.

    PubMed

    Li, Ying-Hua; Li, Hai-Bo; Pan, Jing; Wang, Xin; Sun, Tie-Heng

    2012-01-01

    This study was to investigate domestic treatment efficiency of a subsurface wastewater infiltration (SWI) system over time. The performances of a young SWI system (in Shenyang University, China, fully operated for one year) and a mature SWI system (in Shenyang Normal University, China, fully operated for seven years) under the same operation mode were contrasted through field-scale experiments for one year. The performance assessment for these systems is based on physical and chemical parameters collected. The removal efficiencies within the young system were relatively high if compared with the mature one: for biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), suspended solids (SS), ammonia nitrogen (NH(3)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) were 95.0, 89.1, 98.1, 87.6 and 98.4%, respectively. However, the removal efficiencies decreased over time. The mean removal efficiencies for the mature SWI system were as follows: BOD (89.6%), COD (87.2%), SS (82.6%), NH(3)-N (69.1%) and TP (74.4%). The results indicate that the mature SWI system successfully removed traditional pollutants such as BOD from domestic wastewater. However, the nutrient reduction efficiencies (including NH(3)-N and TP) decreased after seven years of operation of the mature SWI system. Meanwhile, the SWI system did not decrease the receiving surface water quality.

  13. Effects of intermittent aeration on pollutants removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Fei, Hexin; Song, Siyu; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long

    2015-09-01

    In this study, the pollutant removal performances in two pilot-scale subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) with and without intermittent aeration were investigated. Matrix oxidation reduction potential (ORP) results showed that intermittent aeration well developed aerobic conditions in upper matrix and anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the subsequent sections, which resulted in high NH4(+)-N and TN removal. Moreover, intermittent aeration increased removal rates of COD and TP. Microbial populations and enzyme activities analysis proved that intermittent aeration not only obviously boosted the growth and reproduction of bacteria, fungus, actinomyces, nitrifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria, but also successfully increased nitrate reductase (NR) and nitrite reductase (NIR) in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The results suggest that the intermittent aeration could be a widespread research and application strategy for achieving the high removal performance in SWISs.

  14. A study of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems for distributed rural sewage treatment.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Dou, Junfeng; Ding, Aizhong; Xie, En; Zheng, Lei

    2014-08-01

    Three types of subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWIS) were developed to study the efficiency of organic pollutant removal from distributed rural sewage under various conditions. Of the three different layered substrate systems, the one with the greatest amount of decomposed cow dung (5%) and soil (DCDS) showed the highest removal efficiency with respect to total nitrogen (TN), where the others showed no significant difference. The TN removal efficiency was increased with an increasing filling height of DCDS. Compared with the TN removal efficiency of 25% in the system without DCDS, the removal efficiency of the systems in which DCDS filled half and one fourth of the height was increased by 72% and 31%, respectively. Based on seasonal variations in the discharge of the typical rural family, the SWIS were run at three different hydraulic loads of 6.5, 13 and 20 cm/d. These results illustrated that SWIS could perform well at any of the given hydraulic loads. The results of trials using different inlet configurations showed that the effluent concentration of the contaminants in the system operating a multiple-inlet mode was much lower compared with the system operated under single-inlet conditions. The effluent concentration ofa pilot-scale plant achieved the level III criteria specified by the Surface Water Quality Standard at the initial stage. PMID:24956806

  15. Absence, Legitimacy and System Size.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson, R. Oliver

    As school systems grow both vertically and horizontally, they face forces tending both to unify (centripetal) and to disunify (centrifugal). A viable system growth involves a blend of both forces on both vertical and horizontal dimensions. It is often assumed that the disunifying impact of centrifugal forces is of such proportion that the…

  16. APSAS; an Automated Particle Size Analysis System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Poppe, Lawrence J.; Eliason, A.H.; Fredericks, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The Automated Particle Size Analysis System integrates a settling tube and an electroresistance multichannel particle-size analyzer (Coulter Counter) with a Pro-Comp/gg microcomputer and a Hewlett Packard 2100 MX(HP 2100 MX) minicomputer. This system and its associated software digitize the raw sediment grain-size data, combine the coarse- and fine-fraction data into complete grain-size distributions, perform method of moments and inclusive graphics statistics, verbally classify the sediment, generate histogram and cumulative frequency plots, and transfer the results into a data-retrieval system. This system saves time and labor and affords greater reliability, resolution, and reproducibility than conventional methods do.

  17. Photovoltaic systems sizing for Algeria

    SciTech Connect

    Arab, A.H.; Driss, B.A.; Amimeur, R.; Lorenzo, E.

    1995-02-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop an optimization method applicable to stand-alone photovoltaic systems as a function of its reliability. For a given loss-of-load probability (LLP), there are many combinations of battery capacity and photovoltaic array peak power. The problem consists in determining the couple which corresponds to a minimum total system cost. The method has been applied to various areas all over Algeria taking into account various climatic zones. The parameter used to define the different climatic zones is the clearness index KT for all the considered sites. The period of the simulation system is 10 years. 5 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  18. Decreasing IV Infiltrates in the Pediatric Patient--System-Based Improvement Project.

    PubMed

    Major, Tracie Wilt; Huey, Tricia K

    2016-01-01

    Intravenous infiltrates pose tremendous risk for the hospitalized pediatric patient. Infiltrate events increase hospital-acquired harm, the number of painful procedures, use of supplies, length of stay, and nursing time; it threatens relationships essential in patient- and family-centered care. The goal of this quality improvement project was to achieve a 10% decrease in the baseline infiltrate rate on two inpatient units and in the overall infiltrate rate across all of the pediatric units. A Lean Six Sigma methodology was used to guide project activities. Improvement strategies focused on evidence-based education, intravenous (IV) catheter securement, and family engagement. A comparative purposive sample was used to evaluate the pre- and post-implementation period to determine if desired project success measures were achieved. Data analysis revealed positive results across all units, with the number of events (n = 51 pre; n = 19 post) and the infiltration rates (13.5 pre; 7.1 post) decreasing over a three-month period. A decrease was also noted in the overall percent of IVs that infiltrated in the first 24 hours (45% pre; 42% post). A statistically significant increase (t = 15.16; p < 0.001) was noted in nurses' education pre- and post-assessment survey scores. The family engagement strategy revealed overall parental responses to be 88% positive. By decreasing infiltrates, quality of care improved, resulting in the delivery of safe, effective, and patient-centered IV therapy.

  19. [Infiltrate of a gallbladder].

    PubMed

    Dolimov, K S; Il'khamov, F A; Abdumazhidov, A sh; Tukhtamuradov, Z Z

    2014-03-01

    Infiltrate of a gallbladder, as a complication of an acute cholecystitis constitute a separate form of the disease. In this case a destructive changes in gallbladder are restricted from surrounding tissues. While presence of infiltrate of a small size and favorable course under the influence of conservative therapy it is necessary to follow an expectant tactics up to complete dissolving of the infiltrate with a consequent obligate operative treatment in a "cold" period of the disease. Not rarely the infiltrate is transformed into a gallbladder oedema, what demands performance of a deferred operation. In a deep destructive process a gallbladder empyema may occur or paravesical abscess formated, what demands performance of urgent operative intervention.

  20. [A case of diffuse infiltrating carcinoma of large intestine with liver metastases effectively treated with systemic chemotherapy].

    PubMed

    Murahashi, Kuniyasu; Takagaki, Keiichi; Kishimoto, Keeko; Mino, Aya; Nishino, Kouichi; Aoki, Toyoaki; Sowa, Michio

    2011-04-01

    We report a case of diffuse infiltrating carcinoma of the large intestine effectively treated by operation and chemotherapy. A 79-year-old woman with bone and liver metastases due to descending colon carcinoma underwent left hemicolectomy and colostomy. Pathological resected specimen findings showed a diffuse infiltrating carcinoma(lymphangiosis type). She re- ceived chemotherapy with 7 courses of mFOLFOX6, 8 courses of mFOLFOX6/bevacizumab(BV), and 5 courses of FOLFIRI/BV after surgical resection. The liver metastases reduced markedly as observed by abdominal CT scan. Twelve months later, DIC caused the death of the patient. Resection with lymphadenectomy and systemic chemotherapy may be effective for treatment of diffuse infiltrating carcinoma of the large intestine.

  1. Sizing up the Solar System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiebke, Heidi; Rogers, Meredith Park; Nargund-Joshi, Vanashri

    2011-01-01

    The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS 1993) states that by the end of fifth grade, students should understand that a model, such as those depicting the solar system, is a smaller version of the real product, making it easier to physically work with and therefore learn from. However, for students and even adults,…

  2. Effect of topsoil thickness on soil water infiltration in corn-soybean rotation and switchgrass production systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Switchgrass and corn are sometimes used as a resource for biofuel production. The effect of production management systems on water infiltration is very critical in claypan landscape to increase production as well as minimize economic and environmental risks. The objective of this study was to evalua...

  3. Spacesuit Soft Upper Torso Sizing Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graziosi, David; Splawn, Keith

    2011-01-01

    The passive sizing system consists of a series of low-profile pulleys attached to the front and back of the shoulder bearings on a spacesuit soft upper torso (SUT), textile cord or stainless steel cable, and a modified commercial ratchet mechanism. The cord/cable is routed through the pulleys and attached to the ratchet mechanism mounted on the front of the spacesuit within reach of the suited subject. Upon actuating the ratchet mechanism, the shoulder bearing breadth is changed, providing variable upper torso sizing. The active system consists of a series of pressurizable nastic cells embedded into the fabric layers of a spacesuit SUT. These cells are integrated to the front and back of the SUT and are connected to an air source with a variable regulator. When inflated, the nastic cells provide a change in the overall shoulder bearing breadth of the spacesuit and thus, torso sizing. The research focused on the development of a high-performance sizing and actuation system. This technology has application as a suit-sizing mechanism to allow easier suit entry and more accurate suit fit with fewer torso sizes than the existing EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) suit system. This advanced SUT will support NASA s Advanced EMU Evolutionary Concept of a two-sizes-fit-all upper torso for replacement of the current EMU hard upper torso (HUT). Both the passive and nastic sizing system approaches provide astronauts with real-time upper torso sizing, which translates into a more comfortable suit, providing enhanced fit resulting in improved crewmember performance during extravehicular activity. These systems will also benefit NASA by reducing flight logistics as well as overall suit system cost. The nastic sizing system approach provides additional structural redundancy over existing SUT designs by embedding additional coated fabric and uncoated fabric layers. Two sizing systems were selected to build into a prototype SUT: one active and one passive. From manned testing, it

  4. Ammonia Oxidizers in a Pilot-Scale Multilayer Rapid Infiltration System for Domestic Wastewater Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lian, Yingli; Xu, Meiying; Zhong, Yuming; Yang, Yongqiang; Chen, Fanrong; Guo, Jun

    2014-01-01

    A pilot-scale multilayer rapid infiltration system (MRIS) for domestic wastewater treatment was established and efficient removal of ammonia and chemical oxygen demand (COD) was achieved in this study. The microbial community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers were investigated. Efficient biofilms of ammonia oxidizers in the stationary phase (packing material) was formed successfully in the MRIS without special inoculation. DGGE and phylogenetic analyses revealed that proteobacteria dominated in the MRIS. Relative abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) showed contrary tendency. In the flowing phase (water effluent), AOA diversity was significantly correlated with the concentration of dissolve oxygen (DO), NO3-N and NH3-N. AOB abundance was significantly correlated with the concentration of DO and chemical oxygen demand (COD). NH3-N and COD were identified as the key factors to shape AOB community structure, while no variable significantly correlated with that of AOA. AOA might play an important role in the MRIS. This study could reveal key environmental factors affecting the community composition and abundance of ammonia oxidizers in the MRIS. PMID:25479611

  5. Comparison of drop size distributions from two droplet sizing systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oldenburg, John R.; Ide, Robert F.

    1990-01-01

    A comparison between the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and the combined measurements from Particle Measuring Systems' Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe and the Optical Array Probe was conducted in an icing wind tunnel using NASA Icing Research Tunnel spray nozzles to produce the supercooled water droplet cloud. Clouds having a range of volume median diameters from 10 to greater than 50 microns were used for the instrument comparisons. A volume median diameter was calculated from combining the droplet distributions of the Optical Array Probe and the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe. A comparison of the combined volume median diameters and the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer volume median diameters showed agreement from 10 microns up to 30 microns. Typical drop size distributions from the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer, the Forward Scattering Spectrometer Probe, and Optical Array Probe are presented for several median volume diameters. A comparison of the distributions illustrates regions of the distributions where there is good agreement and other regions where there are discrepancies between the Phase Doppler Particle Analyzer and the Particle Measuring Systems' droplet size instruments.

  6. Assessing clogging development in infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment by electrical resistivity and induced polarisation methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tapias, Josefina C.; Himi, Mahjoub; Lovera, Raúl; de la Rocha, Angelica; Foch, Montserrat; Salvadó, Humbert; Casas, Albert

    2013-04-01

    Infiltration-percolation is a low technology process used to treat primary and secondary effluents. It consists in the intermittent application of sewage on buried sand filters where the infiltrated water percolates through unsaturated porous medium. The advantages over conventional mechanical sanitation systems are: low energy requirements, operation and maintenance that may be conducted by unskilled staff, and low sludge production because their simplicity and low operation costs. Nevertheless, clogging is a major operational and maintenance issue associated with the use of infiltration-percolation systems for wastewater treatment, and can ultimately limit the lifetime of the system. The clogging development causes decrease of hydraulic conductivity, reduced oxygen supply and further leads to a rapid decrease of the treatment performance. For this reason it is essential to assess in advance the evolution of clogging process and detect potential failures in the system. The preliminary results of this research conducted at the Hostalets de Pierola wastewater treatment plant (near Barcelona, Spain) show that electrical resistivity and induced polarisation geophysical methods can be very useful for delineating the clogging expansion. Then, this non-destructive metodology can help take the preventive measures for enlarge the lifetime of the treatment system.

  7. Cluster size diversity, percolation, and complex systems.

    PubMed

    Tsang, I R; Tsang, I J

    1999-09-01

    Diversity of cluster size has been used as a measurement of complexity in several systems that generate a statistical distribution of clusters. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we present a statistical analysis of the cluster size diversity and the number of clusters generated on randomly occupied lattices for the Euclidean dimensions 1 to 6. A tuning effect for diversity of cluster size and critical probabilities associated with the maximum diversity and the maximum number of clusters are reported. The probability of maximum diversity is related to the percolation threshold and several scaling relations between the variables measured are reported. The statistics of cluster size diversity has important consequences in the statistical description of the Universe as a complex system. PMID:11970070

  8. Removal of chemical oxygen demand and dissolved nutrients by a sunken lawn infiltration system during intermittent storm events.

    PubMed

    Hou, Lizhu; Yang, Huan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Urban surface water runoff typically contains high but varying amounts of organic matter and nutrients that require removal before reuse. Infiltration systems such as sunken lawns can improve water quality. However, there is currently insufficient information describing the treatment efficiency of lawn-based infiltration systems. In this study, novel sunken lawn infiltration systems (SLISs) were designed and their pollutant removal effectiveness was assessed. The results revealed that SLISs with Poa pratensis and Lolium perenne effectively removed most chemical oxygen demand (CODCr) and dissolved nutrients. Average CODCr, total nitrogen (TN), ammonium-nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations were reduced by 78.93, 66.64, 71.86 and 75.83%, respectively, and the corresponding effluent concentrations met the standard for urban miscellaneous water consumption in China. The NH4(+)-N in the synthetic runoff was shown to be removed by adsorption during the stormwater dosing and nitrification during subsequent dry days, as well as through uptake by plants. Phosphorus was mainly removed by adsorption and chemical precipitation. The NH4(+)-N and phosphorus Langmuir isotherm model fitted the clay loam soil adsorption process better than the Freundlich model. Overall, these results indicate that an SLIS provides an alternative means of removing runoff pollutants owing to its efficiency, easy operation and maintenance. PMID:24473312

  9. Control of pore size in epoxy systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Sawyer, Patricia Sue; Lenhart, Joseph Ludlow; Lee, Elizabeth; Kallam, Alekhya; Majumdar, Partha; Dirk, Shawn M.; Gubbins, Nathan; Chisholm, Bret J.; Celina, Mathias Christopher; Bahr, James; Klein, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Both conventional and combinatorial approaches were used to study the pore formation process in epoxy based polymer systems. Sandia National Laboratories conducted the initial work and collaborated with North Dakota State University (NDSU) using a combinatorial research approach to produce a library of novel monomers and crosslinkers capable of forming porous polymers. The library was screened to determine the physical factors that control porosity, such as porogen loading, polymer-porogen interactions, and polymer crosslink density. We have identified the physical and chemical factors that control the average porosity, pore size, and pore size distribution within epoxy based systems.

  10. Robotic system for glovebox size reduction

    SciTech Connect

    KWOK,KWAN S.; MCDONALD,MICHAEL J.

    2000-03-02

    The Intelligent Systems and Robotics Center (ISRC) at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is developing technologies for glovebox size reduction in the DOE nuclear complex. A study was performed for Kaiser-Hill (KH) at the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS) on the available technologies for size reducing the glovebox lines that require size reduction in place. Currently, the baseline approach to these glovebox lines is manual operations using conventional mechanical cutting methods. The study has been completed and resulted in a concept of the robotic system for in-situ size reduction. The concept makes use of commercially available robots that are used in the automotive industry. The commercially available industrial robots provide high reliability and availability that are required for environmental remediation in the DOE complex. Additionally, the costs of commercial robots are about one-fourth that of the custom made robots for environmental remediation. The reason for the lower costs and the higher reliability is that there are thousands of commercial robots made annually, whereas there are only a few custom robots made for environmental remediation every year. This paper will describe the engineering analysis approach used in the design of the robotic system for glovebox size reduction.

  11. A method for evaluating the evolution of clogging: application to the Pampulha Campus infiltration system (Brazil).

    PubMed

    Barraud, S; Gonzalez-Merchan, C; Nascimento, N; Moura, P; Silva, A

    2014-01-01

    In order to evaluate the hydraulic performance of stormwater infiltration trenches, a study was undertaken to assess clogging and its distribution between the bottom and the sides. The method used was based on the calibration of the hydraulic resistance event by event according to Bouwer's model and applied to a demonstration trench in Belo-Horizonte monitored in the framework of the European Project Switch. The calibration was performed by minimizing the distance between measured and modeled infiltration flow rates and by using continuous measurements of rainfall, inflow, water temperature and depth in the trench. The study showed that the methodology and particularly Bouwer's model was able to produce satisfactory results. It revealed a significant clogging evolution within a year, with global resistance increasing by a factor of 9. A significant difference between the bottom and the sides was observed; the bottom being more rapidly prone to clogging. Sudden fluctuations of the hydraulic resistance of the bottom were found that could be explained by very high concentrations of total suspended solids from inflows (about 2,000 mg/L). Clogging of the sides evolves over the time but with a very low rate. PMID:24647190

  12. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0–40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front’s downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  13. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world. PMID:25893832

  14. Soil Infiltration Characteristics in Agroforestry Systems and Their Relationships with the Temporal Distribution of Rainfall on the Loess Plateau in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lai; Zhong, Chonggao; Gao, Pengxiang; Xi, Weimin; Zhang, Shuoxin

    2015-01-01

    Many previous studies have shown that land use patterns are the main factors influencing soil infiltration. Thus, increasing soil infiltration and reducing runoff are crucial for soil and water conservation, especially in semi-arid environments. To explore the effects of agroforestry systems on soil infiltration and associated properties in a semi-arid area of the Loess Plateau in China, we compared three plant systems: a walnut (Juglans regia) monoculture system (JRMS), a wheat (Triticum aestivum) monoculture system (TAMS), and a walnut-wheat alley cropping system (JTACS) over a period of 11 years. Our results showed that the JTACS facilitated infiltration, and its infiltration rate temporal distribution showed a stronger relationship coupled with the rainfall temporal distribution compared with the two monoculture systems during the growing season. However, the effect of JTACS on the infiltration capacity was only significant in shallow soil layer, i.e., the 0-40 cm soil depth. Within JTACS, the speed of the wetting front's downward movement was significantly faster than that in the two monoculture systems when the amount of rainfall and its intensity were higher. The soil infiltration rate was improved, and the two peaks of soil infiltration rate temporal distribution and the rainfall temporal distribution coupled in rainy season in the alley cropping system, which has an important significance in soil and water conservation. The results of this empirical study provide new insights into the sustainability of agroforestry, which may help farmers select rational planting patterns in this region, as well as other regions with similar climatic and environmental characteristics throughout the world.

  15. Dynamically variable spot size laser system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gradl, Paul R. (Inventor); Hurst, John F. (Inventor); Middleton, James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A Dynamically Variable Spot Size (DVSS) laser system for bonding metal components includes an elongated housing containing a light entry aperture coupled to a laser beam transmission cable and a light exit aperture. A plurality of lenses contained within the housing focus a laser beam from the light entry aperture through the light exit aperture. The lenses may be dynamically adjusted to vary the spot size of the laser. A plurality of interoperable safety devices, including a manually depressible interlock switch, an internal proximity sensor, a remotely operated potentiometer, a remotely activated toggle and a power supply interlock, prevent activation of the laser and DVSS laser system if each safety device does not provide a closed circuit. The remotely operated potentiometer also provides continuous variability in laser energy output.

  16. Using artificial sweeteners to identify contamination sources and infiltration zones in a coupled river-aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bichler, Andrea; Muellegger, Christian; Hofmann, Thilo

    2014-05-01

    In shallow or unconfined aquifers the infiltration of contaminated river water might be a major threat to groundwater quality. Thus, the identification of possible contamination sources in coupled surface- and groundwater systems is of paramount importance to ensure water quality. Micropollutants like artificial sweeteners are promising markers for domestic waste water in natural water bodies. Compounds, such as artificial sweeteners, might enter the aquatic environment via discharge of waste water treatment plants, leaky sewer systems or septic tanks and are ubiquitously found in waste water receiving waters. The hereby presented field study aims at the (1) identification of contamination sources and (2) delineation of infiltration zones in a connected river-aquifer system. River bank filtrate in the groundwater body was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using a combined approach of hydrochemical analysis and artificial sweeteners (acesulfame ACE) as waste water markers. The investigated aquifer lies within a mesoscale alpine head water catchment and is used for drinking water production. It is hypothesized that a large proportion of the groundwater flux originates from bank filtrate of a nearby losing stream. Water sampling campaigns in March and July 2012 confirmed the occurrence of artificial sweeteners at the investigated site. The municipal waste water treatment plant was identified as point-source for ACE in the river network. In the aquifer ACE was present in more than 80% of the monitoring wells. In addition, water samples were classified according to their hydrochemical composition, identifying two predominant types of water in the aquifer: (1) groundwater influenced by bank filtrate and (2) groundwater originating from local recharge. In combination with ACE concentrations a third type of water could be discriminated: (3) groundwater influence by bank filtrate but infiltrated prior to the waste water treatment plant. Moreover, the presence of ACE

  17. Analysis of Infiltration Uncertainty

    SciTech Connect

    R. McCurley

    2003-10-27

    The primary objectives of this uncertainty analysis are: (1) to develop and justify a set of uncertain parameters along with associated distributions; and (2) to use the developed uncertain parameter distributions and the results from selected analog site calculations done in ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]) to obtain the net infiltration weighting factors for the glacial transition climate. These weighting factors are applied to unsaturated zone (UZ) flow fields in Total System Performance Assessment (TSPA), as outlined in the ''Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Methods and Approach'' (BSC 2002 [160146], Section 3.1) as a method for the treatment of uncertainty. This report is a scientific analysis because no new and mathematical physical models are developed herein, and it is based on the use of the models developed in or for ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). Any use of the term model refers to those developed in the infiltration numerical model report. TSPA License Application (LA) has included three distinct climate regimes in the comprehensive repository performance analysis for Yucca Mountain: present-day, monsoon, and glacial transition. Each climate regime was characterized using three infiltration-rate maps, including a lower- and upper-bound and a mean value (equal to the average of the two boundary values). For each of these maps, which were obtained based on analog site climate data, a spatially averaged value was also calculated by the USGS. For a more detailed discussion of these infiltration-rate maps, see ''Simulation of Net Infiltration for Modern and Potential Future Climates'' (USGS 2001 [160355]). For this Scientific Analysis Report, spatially averaged values were calculated for the lower-bound, mean, and upper-bound climate analogs only for the glacial transition climate regime, within the

  18. Size and complexity in model financial systems.

    PubMed

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M

    2012-11-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in "confidence" in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases.

  19. Size and complexity in model financial systems

    PubMed Central

    Arinaminpathy, Nimalan; Kapadia, Sujit; May, Robert M.

    2012-01-01

    The global financial crisis has precipitated an increasing appreciation of the need for a systemic perspective toward financial stability. For example: What role do large banks play in systemic risk? How should capital adequacy standards recognize this role? How is stability shaped by concentration and diversification in the financial system? We explore these questions using a deliberately simplified, dynamic model of a banking system that combines three different channels for direct transmission of contagion from one bank to another: liquidity hoarding, asset price contagion, and the propagation of defaults via counterparty credit risk. Importantly, we also introduce a mechanism for capturing how swings in “confidence” in the system may contribute to instability. Our results highlight that the importance of relatively large, well-connected banks in system stability scales more than proportionately with their size: the impact of their collapse arises not only from their connectivity, but also from their effect on confidence in the system. Imposing tougher capital requirements on larger banks than smaller ones can thus enhance the resilience of the system. Moreover, these effects are more pronounced in more concentrated systems, and continue to apply, even when allowing for potential diversification benefits that may be realized by larger banks. We discuss some tentative implications for policy, as well as conceptual analogies in ecosystem stability and in the control of infectious diseases. PMID:23091020

  20. Stormwater quality of spring-summer-fall effluent from three partial-infiltration permeable pavement systems and conventional asphalt pavement.

    PubMed

    Drake, Jennifer; Bradford, Andrea; Van Seters, Tim

    2014-06-15

    This study examined the spring, summer and fall water quality performance of three partial-infiltration permeable pavement (PP) systems and a conventional asphalt pavement in Ontario. The study, conducted between 2010 and 2012, compared the water quality of effluent from two Interlocking Permeable Concrete Pavements (AquaPave(®) and Eco-Optiloc(®)) and a Hydromedia(®) Pervious Concrete pavement with runoff from an Asphalt control pavement. The usage of permeable pavements can mitigate the impact of urbanization on receiving surface water systems through quantity control and stormwater treatment. The PP systems provided excellent stormwater treatment for petroleum hydrocarbons, total suspended solids, metals (copper, iron, manganese and zinc) and nutrients (total-nitrogen and total-phosphorus) by reducing event mean concentrations (EMC) as well as total pollutant loadings. The PPs significantly reduced the concentration and loading of ammonia (NH4(+)+NH3), nitrite (NO2(-)) and organic-nitrogen (Org-N) but increased the concentration and loading of nitrate (NO3(-)). The PP systems had mixed performances for the treatment of phosphate (PO4(3-)). The PP systems increased the concentration of sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) but EMCs remained well below recommended levels for drinking water quality. Relative to the observed runoff, winter road salt was released more slowly from the PP systems resulting in elevated spring and early-summer Cl and Na concentrations in effluent. PP materials were found to introduce dissolved solids into the infiltrating stormwater. The release of these pollutants was verified by additional laboratory scale testing of the individual pavement and aggregate materials at the University of Guelph. Pollutant concentrations were greatest during the first few months after construction and declined rapidly over the course of the study.

  1. Netting neutrophils induce endothelial damage, infiltrate tissues, and expose immunostimulatory molecules in systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Villanueva, Eneida; Yalavarthi, Srilakshmi; Berthier, Celine C; Hodgin, Jeffrey B; Khandpur, Ritika; Lin, Andrew M; Rubin, Cory J; Zhao, Wenpu; Olsen, Stephen H; Klinker, Matthew; Shealy, David; Denny, Michael F; Plumas, Joel; Chaperot, Laurence; Kretzler, Matthias; Bruce, Allen T; Kaplan, Mariana J

    2011-07-01

    An abnormal neutrophil subset has been identified in the PBMC fractions from lupus patients. We have proposed that these low-density granulocytes (LDGs) play an important role in lupus pathogenesis by damaging endothelial cells and synthesizing increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines and type I IFNs. To directly establish LDGs as a distinct neutrophil subset, their gene array profiles were compared with those of autologous normal-density neutrophils and control neutrophils. LDGs significantly overexpress mRNA of various immunostimulatory bactericidal proteins and alarmins, relative to lupus and control neutrophils. In contrast, gene profiles of lupus normal-density neutrophils do not differ from those of controls. LDGs have heightened capacity to synthesize neutrophils extracellular traps (NETs), which display increased externalization of bactericidal, immunostimulatory proteins, and autoantigens, including LL-37, IL-17, and dsDNA. Through NETosis, LDGs have increased capacity to kill endothelial cells and to stimulate IFN-α synthesis by plasmacytoid dendritic cells. Affected skin and kidneys from lupus patients are infiltrated by netting neutrophils, which expose LL-37 and dsDNA. Tissue NETosis is associated with increased anti-dsDNA in sera. These results expand the potential pathogenic roles of aberrant lupus neutrophils and suggest that dysregulation of NET formation and its subsequent responses may play a prominent deleterious role.

  2. Inhibition of PI3Kδ reduces kidney infiltration by macrophages and ameliorates systemic lupus in the mouse.

    PubMed

    Suárez-Fueyo, Abel; Rojas, José M; Cariaga, Ariel E; García, Esther; Steiner, Bart H; Barber, Domingo F; Puri, Kamal D; Carrera, Ana C

    2014-07-15

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a human chronic inflammatory disease generated and maintained throughout life by autoreactive T and B cells. Class I phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3K) are heterodimers composed of a regulatory and a catalytic subunit that catalyze phosphoinositide-3,4,5-P3 formation and regulate cell survival, migration, and division. Activity of the PI3Kδ isoform is enhanced in human SLE patient PBLs. In this study, we analyzed the effect of inhibiting PI3Kδ in MRL/lpr mice, a model of human SLE. We found that PI3Kδ inhibition ameliorated lupus progression. Treatment of these mice with a PI3Kδ inhibitor reduced the excessive numbers of CD4(+) effector/memory cells and B cells. In addition, this treatment reduced serum TNF-α levels and the number of macrophages infiltrating the kidney. Expression of inactive PI3Kδ, but not deletion of the other hematopoietic isoform PI3Kγ, reduced the ability of macrophages to cross the basement membrane, a process required to infiltrate the kidney, explaining MRL/lpr mice improvement by pharmacologic inhibition of PI3Kδ. The observations that p110δ inhibitor prolonged mouse life span, reduced disease symptoms, and showed no obvious secondary effects indicates that PI3Kδ is a promising target for SLE.

  3. Groundwater from infiltration galleries used for small public water supply systems: contamination with pesticides and endocrine disruptors.

    PubMed

    Mansilha, C; Melo, A; Ferreira, I M P L V O; Pinho, O; Domingues, V; Pinho, C; Gameiro, P

    2011-09-01

    Infiltration galleries are among the oldest known means used for small public water fountains. Owing to its ancestral origin they are usually associated with high quality water. Thirty-one compounds, including pesticides and estrogens from different chemical families, were analysed in waters from infiltration galleries collected in Alto Douro Demarcated Wine region (North of Portugal). A total of twelve compounds were detected in the water samples. Nine of these compounds are described as presenting evidence or potential evidence of interfering with the hormone system of humans and wildlife. Although concentrations of the target analytes were relatively low, many of them below their limit of quantification, four compounds were above quantification limit and two of them even above the legal limit of 0.1 μg/L: dimethoate (30.38 ng/L), folpet (64.35 ng/L), terbuthylazine-desethyl (22.28 to 292.36 ng/L) and terbuthylazine (22.49 to 369.33 ng/L).

  4. Burkitt Lymphoma with Initial Clinical Presentation due to Infiltration of the Central Nervous System and Eye Orbits

    PubMed Central

    Camilo, Gustavo Bittencourt; Machado, Dequitier Carvalho; de Oliveira, Celso Estevão; Lacerda, Letícia da Silva; de Oliveira, Romulo Varella; de França Silva, Monique; Lopes, Agnaldo José

    2014-01-01

    Patient: Male, 17 Final Diagnosis: Burkitt lymphoma Symptoms: Anisocoria, ipsilateral ptosis, opthalmoparesis, paresis Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Oncology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Burkitt lymphoma rarely affects the central nervous system and ocular region. Under these conditions, computed tomography and (particularly) magnetic resonance imaging of the skull increase the diagnostic accuracy, as they objectively show the topography of lesions and the effect of neoplasia on structures. Case Report: We report here the case of a 17-year-old male whose initial clinical manifestations were related to neurological impairment and to the ocular musculature and ocular innervation. The diagnosis of Burkitt lymphoma with leukemization and infiltration of the central nervous system was confirmed. Conclusions: In this case, it is important to recognize that the neuroimaging findings were fundamentally important in indicating the initial form of the disease and in directing the appropriate clinical management. PMID:25243420

  5. Analytical Detection of Immunoglobulin Heavy Chain Gene Rearrangements in Gastric Lymphoid Infiltrates by Peak Area Analysis of the Melting Curve in the LightCycler System

    PubMed Central

    Retamales, Eduardo; Rodriguez, Luis; Guzman, Leda; Aguayo, Francisco; Palma, Mariana; Backhouse, Claudia; Argandona, Jorge; Riquelme, Erick; Corvalan, Alejandro

    2007-01-01

    Because it is difficult to differentiate gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma from chronic gastritis in gastric lymphoid infiltrates, molecular detection of monoclonality through immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) gene rearrangements is commonly performed. However, heterogeneity in the performance and results obtained from IgH gene rearrangements has been reported. To improve the accuracy in the diagnosis of gastric lymphoid infiltrates, we developed an analytical approach based on one-peak area analysis of the melting curve in the LightCycler System. Using a training-testing approach, the likelihood ratio method was selected to find a discriminative function of 4.64 in the training set (10 gastric MALT lymphomas and 10 chronic gastritis cases). This discriminative function was validated in the testing set (five gastric MALT lymphomas, six abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates with subsequently demonstrated gastric MALT lymphomas, and six cases of chronic gastritis). All but one case of gastric MALT lymphoma, as well as abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates, clustered under 4.64, and all chronic gastritis cases clustered above 4.64. These results were validated by conventional electrophoreses confirming one or two sharp bands in cases of gastric MALT lymphomas and a smear of multiple bands in cases of chronic gastritis. Analytical detection of IgH gene rearrangement in gastric lymphoid infiltrates by one-peak area analysis correctly distinguishes gastric MALT lymphomas from chronic gastritis, even in cases with diagnosis of abnormal lymphocytic infiltrates. PMID:17591935

  6. Performance of organics and nitrogen removal in subsurface wastewater infiltration systems by intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Yu, Long; Huang, Linli; Fei, Hexin; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Qi

    2016-07-01

    Organics and nitrogen removal in four subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs), named SWIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SWIS B (with intermittent aeration), SWIS C (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SWIS D (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) was investigated. High average removal rates of 92.3% for COD, 90.2% for NH4-N and 88.1% for TN were achieved simultaneously in SWIS D compared with SWIS A, B and C. The excellent TN removal of SWIS D was due to intermittent aeration provided sufficient oxygen for nitrification in upper matrix and the favorable anoxic or anaerobic environment for denitrification in subsequent matrix, and moreover, shunt distributing wastewater provided sufficient carbon source for denitrification process. The results indicated that intermittent artificial aeration combined with shunt distributing wastewater could achieve high organics and nitrogen removal in SWISs.

  7. System size expansion for systems with an absorbing state.

    PubMed

    Di Patti, Francesca; Azaele, Sandro; Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos

    2011-01-01

    The well-known van Kampen system size expansion, while of rather general applicability, is shown to fail to reproduce some qualitative features of the time evolution for systems with an absorbing state, apart from a transient initial time interval. We generalize the van Kampen ansatz by introducing a new prescription leading to non-Gaussian fluctuations around the absorbing state. The two expansion predictions are explicitly compared for the infinite range voter model with speciation as a paradigmatic model with an absorbing state. The new expansion, both for a finite size system in the large time limit and at finite time in the large size limit, converges to the exact solution as obtained in a numerical implementation using the Gillespie algorithm. Furthermore, the predicted lifetime distribution is shown to have the correct asymptotic behavior. PMID:21405654

  8. System size expansion for systems with an absorbing state.

    PubMed

    Di Patti, Francesca; Azaele, Sandro; Banavar, Jayanth R; Maritan, Amos

    2011-01-01

    The well-known van Kampen system size expansion, while of rather general applicability, is shown to fail to reproduce some qualitative features of the time evolution for systems with an absorbing state, apart from a transient initial time interval. We generalize the van Kampen ansatz by introducing a new prescription leading to non-Gaussian fluctuations around the absorbing state. The two expansion predictions are explicitly compared for the infinite range voter model with speciation as a paradigmatic model with an absorbing state. The new expansion, both for a finite size system in the large time limit and at finite time in the large size limit, converges to the exact solution as obtained in a numerical implementation using the Gillespie algorithm. Furthermore, the predicted lifetime distribution is shown to have the correct asymptotic behavior.

  9. Wetted-perimeter dependent furrow infiltration and its implication for the hydraulic analysis of furrow irrigation systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article discusses a methodology, derived from the two-dimensional Richards equation, for estimating furrow infiltration. The method was originally derived assuming a constant pressure head at the infiltrating surface. Application of the methodology to cases where the pressure head is variable ...

  10. Systemic leukopenia, evaluation of laminar leukocyte infiltration and laminar lesions in horses with naturally occurring colic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Deconto, Ivan; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcala; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying laminar lesions and leukocyte infiltration in hoof laminar tissue of horses with colic syndrome and its correlation with the total leukocyte count before death. Six healthy horses were used as control group (CG), and eighteen horses with lethal gastrointestinal disease were divided into two groups: leukopenic group (LG) with seven leukopenic horses, and non-leukopenic group (NLG) with 11 horses with total leukocyte count within reference range for the species. Leukocyte infiltration was examined by immunohistochemistry. Laminar lesions were observed in both LG and NLG, with no differences in severity between them. LG showed increase of the leukocyte infiltration in the hoof laminar tissue, when compared to CG and NLG. Horses with severe colic syndrome (LG and NLG) developed intense laminar lesions without clinical signs of laminitis, with increased leukocyte infiltration. However, the LG demonstrated an even higher increase of leukocyte infiltration compared to both CG and NLG.

  11. Systemic leukopenia, evaluation of laminar leukocyte infiltration and laminar lesions in horses with naturally occurring colic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laskoski, Luciane Maria; Locatelli-Dittrich, Rosangela; Valadão, Carlos Augusto Araújo; Deconto, Ivan; Gonçalves, Kamila Alcala; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Brum, Juliana Sperotto; de Brito, Harald Fernando Vicente; de Sousa, Renato Silva

    2015-08-01

    The present study was aimed at identifying laminar lesions and leukocyte infiltration in hoof laminar tissue of horses with colic syndrome and its correlation with the total leukocyte count before death. Six healthy horses were used as control group (CG), and eighteen horses with lethal gastrointestinal disease were divided into two groups: leukopenic group (LG) with seven leukopenic horses, and non-leukopenic group (NLG) with 11 horses with total leukocyte count within reference range for the species. Leukocyte infiltration was examined by immunohistochemistry. Laminar lesions were observed in both LG and NLG, with no differences in severity between them. LG showed increase of the leukocyte infiltration in the hoof laminar tissue, when compared to CG and NLG. Horses with severe colic syndrome (LG and NLG) developed intense laminar lesions without clinical signs of laminitis, with increased leukocyte infiltration. However, the LG demonstrated an even higher increase of leukocyte infiltration compared to both CG and NLG. PMID:26267083

  12. Infiltration Flow Path Distributions in Unsaturated Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, T. K.; Olson, K. R.; Wan, J.

    2004-12-01

    Spatial distributions of infiltration flow paths through rock formations are complex networks that determine flow velocities, control rates of natural geochemical reactions in the subsurface, as well as rates of contaminant transport to underlying groundwater. Despite these important consequences, distributions of infiltration paths and locally fast seepage rates through rocks are not well understood. Laboratory-based studies on fractured rocks cannot easily be conducted on systems large enough to include sufficient fracture network complexity, so that inferences of field-scale flux distributions cannot be reliably made. Field-based studies to date have permitted quantification of only a small fraction of the flow distribution, typically while imposing extremely high fluxes, and therefore have not allowed comprehensive delineation of flow distributions expected under natural recharge. Based on hydraulic scaling considerations, we hypothesize that unsaturated flow path distributions in rock deposits will be similar to those occurring in fractured rock formations under low overall infiltration rates. Talus rock deposits and mine waste rock piles control flow and transport into their respective underlying groundwaters. All of these reasons motivated infiltration experiments in rock packs. Experiments have been conducted on 4 different rock types and system scales ranging from 1 to 46 rock layers. Our experiments showed that infiltration through rocks conforms to no previously reported behavior in soils, and that flow paths do not progressively converge into fewer and fewer flow paths. Instead, a fundamentally different hydraulic structure develops, having an exponential (geometric) flux distribution, with the characteristic scale determined by the characteristic rock size. Although the phenomena are very different, the evolution of flow path distributions and local seepage rate distributions is predictable based on a statistical mechanical model for energy

  13. The Effect Of Pixel Size On The Detection Rate Of Early Pulmonary Sarcoidosis In Digital Chest Radiographic Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMahon, Heber; Vyborny, Carl; Powell, Gregory; Doi, Kunio; Metz, Charles E.

    1984-08-01

    In digital radiography the pixel size used determines the potential spatial resolution of the system. The need for spatial resolution varies depending on the subject matter imaged. In many areas, including the chest, the minimum spatial resolution requirements have not been determined. Sarcoidosis is a disease which frequently causes subtle interstitial infiltrates in the lungs. As the initial step in an investigation designed to determine the minimum pixel size required in digital chest radiographic systems, we have studied 1 mm pixel digitized images on patients with early pulmonary sarcoidosis. The results of this preliminary study suggest that neither mild interstitial pulmonary infiltrates nor other abnormalities such as pneumothoraces may be detected reliably with 1 mm pixel digital images.

  14. A numerical study of infiltration and solidification/remelting of pure metal in a porous preform

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, X.; Khan, J.A.; Hawkins, L.E.

    1995-12-31

    Infiltration and solidification/remelting of pure metal in a preform is modeled numerically. The preform is assumed to be two-dimensional porous media. It is also assumed that under the action of constant applied pressure, the flow of liquid metal through the preform is within the range of the validity of Darcy`s Law. The distinguishing feature of this flow and heat transfer problem is the existence of two moving fronts--the infiltration front and the phase-change front. The governing momentum and energy equations are cast into a Body-Fitted Coordinate (BFC) system to track the transient positions of both fronts during the infiltration process. For the sake of generality the parameters that govern the infiltration process are non-dimensionalized. The dimensionless groups which govern the infiltration process include the applied pressure difference ({Psi}{sub 1}), the melting temperature ({theta}{sub m}), the preform permeability ratio, the porosity ({phi}), and the geometric sizes (inlet gate size {delta}, and the preform aspect ratio L/H). A computational code has been developed to solve the problem and is verified using the available published results. The key parameters describing the physical phenomenon (infiltration front, remelting front, total infiltration time and remelting region size) are presented as a function of the operating variables (i.e., {Psi}{sub 1}, {theta}{sub m}, {phi}, {omega} and {delta}). The results can be used to optimize the infiltration processing of Metal-Matrix Composites and other related manufacturing processes.

  15. Infiltration into Fractured Bedrock

    SciTech Connect

    Salve, Rohit; Ghezzehei, Teamrat A.; Jones, Robert

    2007-09-01

    One potential consequence of global climate change and rapid changes in land use is an increased risk of flooding. Proper understanding of floodwater infiltration thus becomes a crucial component of our preparedness to meet the environmental challenges of projected climate change. In this paper, we present the results of a long-term infiltration experiment performed on fractured ash flow tuff. Water was released from a 3 x 4 m{sup 2} infiltration plot (divided into 12 square subplots) with a head of {approx}0.04 m, over a period of {approx}800 days. This experiment revealed peculiar infiltration patterns not amenable to current infiltration models, which were originally developed for infiltration into soils over a short duration. In particular, we observed that in part of the infiltration plot, the infiltration rate abruptly increased a few weeks into the infiltration tests. We suggest that these anomalies result from increases in fracture permeability during infiltration, which may be caused by swelling of clay fillings and/or erosion of infill debris. Interaction of the infiltration water with subsurface natural cavities (lithophysal cavities) could also contribute to such anomalies. This paper provides a conceptual model that partly describes the observed infiltration patterns in fractured rock and highlights some of the pitfalls associated with direct extension of soil infiltration models to fractured rock over a long period.

  16. Pollutants removal in subsurface infiltration systems by shunt distributing wastewater with/without intermittent aeration under different shunt ratios.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jing; Yuan, Fang; Zhang, Yang; Huang, Linli; Yu, Long; Zheng, Fanping; Cheng, Fan; Zhang, Jiadi

    2016-10-01

    Matrix dissolved oxygen (DO), removal of COD, TP and nitrogen in subsurface infiltration systems (SISs), named SIS A (without intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater), SIS B (with shunt distributing wastewater) and SIS C (with intermittent aeration and shunt distributing wastewater) were investigated. Aerobic conditions were developed in 50cm depth and anoxic or anaerobic conditions were not changed in 80 and 110cm depth by intermittent aeration. Under appropriate shunt ratios, shunt distributing wastewater improved denitrification and had little influence on COD, TP and NH3-N removal. Under the optimal shunt ratio of 1:2 for SIS C, high average removal rates of COD (90.06%), TP (93.17%), NH3-N (88.20%) and TN (85.79%) were obtained, which were higher than those in SIS A (COD: 82.56%, TP: 92.76%, NH3-N: 71.08%, TN: 49.24%) and SIS B (COD: 81.12%, TP: 92.58%, NH3-N: 69.14%, TN: 58.73%) under the optimal shunt ratio of 1:3.

  17. SONAR SYSTEM OF THE BLIND: SIZE DISCRIMINATION.

    PubMed

    RICE, C E; FEINSTEIN, S H

    1965-05-21

    Measurements were made of the ability of four blind subjects to use echoes to discriminate between objects of different sizes placed in front of them. Threshold estimates indicate that objects with area ratios as low as 1.07/1 could be discriminated.

  18. Physics and Size in Biological Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, George

    1989-01-01

    Described is the subject of biological scaling for physics teachers including examples and in-depth reading. Topics are elements of scaling, terminal velocities, Lilliputian and Brobdingnagian, brain evolution, dolphin echolocation, surface tension, gravity change, food and oxygen, and seeing. Ten references on physics and size, and ten questions…

  19. Dependency of Lipid Raft Diffusion on System Size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Ryan

    2009-11-01

    An inherit limitation in molecular dynamics is a finite system size. Although periodic boundary conditions can be used to mimic an infinite space, minimizing the artificial effects created by the physical dimensions of the system still remains an issue. Here I will discuss the undesirable relationship between system properties and system size observed via a dissipative particle dynamics approach. In particular, results illustrate a strong dependence between the diffusion of a lipid raft along a membrane and the length of the axis perpendicular to it, even at relatively large system sizes. Methods for obtaining system properties independently of simulation size are crucial for accurate results.

  20. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  1. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  2. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  3. 40 CFR 35.927-1 - Infiltration/inflow analysis.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Infiltration/inflow analysis. 35.927-1... Infiltration/inflow analysis. (a) The infiltration/inflow analysis shall demonstrate the nonexistence or possible existence of excessive infiltration/inflow in the sewer system. The analysis should identify...

  4. Integrated microfluidic system capable of size-specific droplet generation with size-dependent droplet separation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Hong, Seok Jun; Yoo, Hyung Jung; Ahn, Jae Hyun; Cho, Dong-il Dan

    2013-06-01

    Droplet-based microfluidics is receiving much attention in biomedical research area due to its advantage in uniform size droplet generation. Our previous results have reported that droplet size plays an important role in drug delivery actuated by flagellated bacteria. Recently, many research groups have been reported the size-dependent separation of emulsion droplets by a microfluidic system. In this paper, an integrated microfluidic system is proposed to produce and sort specificsized droplets sequentially. Operation of the system relies on two microfluidic transport processes: initial generation of droplets by hydrodynamic focusing and subsequent separation of droplets by a T-junction channel. The microfluidic system is fabricated by the SU-8 rapid prototyping method and poly-di-methyl-siloxane (PDMS) replica molding. A biodegradable polymer, poly-capro-lactone (PCL), is used for the droplet material. Using the proposed integrated microfluidic system, specific-sized droplets which can be delivered by flagellated bacteria are successfully generated and obtained. PMID:23858958

  5. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    PubMed

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings. PMID:23673831

  6. Assessing potential impacts of a wastewater rapid infiltration basin system on groundwater quality: a delaware case study.

    PubMed

    Andres, A S; Sims, J Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Rapid infiltration basin systems (RIBS) are receiving increased interest for domestic wastewater disposal in rural areas. They rely on natural treatment processes to filter pollutants and use extremely high effluent loading rates, much greater than natural precipitation, applied to a small geographic area instead of disposal to surface water. Concerns exist today that adopting RIBS in areas with shallow groundwater and sandy soils may increase ground and surface water pollution. We conducted a field study of RIBS effects on N and P concentrations in soils and groundwater at Cape Henlopen State Park, Delaware, where a RIBS designed and operated following USEPA guidance has been used for >25 yr. Site and wastewater characteristics (water table of 8 m, Fe- and Al-oxide coatings on soils, organic-rich effluent) were favorable for denitrification and P sorption; however, we found high P saturation, reduced soil P sorption capacity, and significant total P accumulation at depths >1.5 m, factors that could lead to dissolved P leaching. Very low soil inorganic N levels suggest that wastewater N was converted rapidly to NO-N and leached from the RIBS. Extensive groundwater monitoring supported these concerns and showed rapid offsite transport of N and P at concentrations similar to the effluent. Results suggest that high hydraulic loads and preferential flow led to flow velocities that were too large, and contact times between effluent and soils that were too short, for effective N and P attenuation processes. These findings indicate the need for better site characterization and facility designs to reduce and monitor contaminant loss from RIBS in similar settings.

  7. System for inspecting large size structural components

    DOEpatents

    Birks, Albert S.; Skorpik, James R.

    1990-01-01

    The present invention relates to a system for inspecting large scale structural components such as concrete walls or the like. The system includes a mobile gamma radiation source and a mobile gamma radiation detector. The source and detector are constructed and arranged for simultaneous movement along parallel paths in alignment with one another on opposite sides of a structural component being inspected. A control system provides signals which coordinate the movements of the source and detector and receives and records the radiation level data developed by the detector as a function of source and detector positions. The radiation level data is then analyzed to identify areas containing defects corresponding to unexpected variations in the radiation levels detected.

  8. Olefin metathesis in nano-sized systems

    PubMed Central

    Diallo, Abdou K; Gatard, Sylvain; Liang, Liyuan; Ornelas, Cátia; Martinez, Victor; Méry, Denise; Ruiz, Jaime

    2011-01-01

    Summary The interplay between olefin metathesis and dendrimers and other nano systems is addressed in this mini review mostly based on the authors’ own contributions over the last decade. Two subjects are presented and discussed: (i) The catalysis of olefin metathesis by dendritic nano-catalysts via either covalent attachment (ROMP) or, more usefully, dendrimer encapsulation – ring closing metathesis (RCM), cross metathesis (CM), enyne metathesis reactions (EYM) – for reactions in water without a co-solvent and (ii) construction and functionalization of dendrimers by CM reactions. PMID:21286399

  9. A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide-protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process.

    PubMed

    Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2013-01-01

    A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi's model (t(1/2)). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating

  10. Nine-size system for chemical defense gloves. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Robinette, K.M.; Annis, J.F.

    1986-07-01

    The purpose of this effort was to meet the need for improved sizing of chemical defense gloves for Air Force men and women. A nine-size system was developed from available hand data. The development process and size values are presented in this report. Some summary statistics and regression equations are provided to aid investigators who may wish to make modifications. Although the anthropometric sizing system outlined in this report is statistically sound, it is experimental. The authors recommend that anthropometric fit-testing be conducted prior to full-scale glove production.

  11. An Expert System Approach To Palletizing Unequal-Sized Containers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Williams, Susan; Soniat Du Fossat, Edward C.; Bohlander, Ronald A.; Elling, Gary R.

    1989-03-01

    This interim report describes an expert system prototype being developed to palletize boxes of unequal sizes. Finding feasible arrangements for boxes of various sizes is an important problem, particularly for distribution centers. Previous efforts have focused on palletizing equal size boxes, or on the problem of unequal size containers where the inequalities are only in two dimensions. Though useful starting points, both approaches are overly restrictive in their scope. This report describes an expert system prototype being developed at Georgia Tech that integrates domain heuristics with packing algorithms to produce optimal packing configurations. As the nature of the palletizing problem varies for each distribution center, the expert system uses several application-specific assumptions to tailor the system to a specific pallet packing approach. Results demonstrating optimal palletizing for column stacking domains are presented and future plans are outlined.

  12. Using Bitmaps for Medium Sized Information Retrieval Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bookstein, A.; Klein, S. T.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the theoretical framework of a retrieval system that uses data structures called bitmaps to improve search algorithms for medium-sized systems. Information retrieval systems that contain the full text of the documents are discussed, and the use of inverted files such as concordances for small texts is explained. (24 references) (LRW)

  13. Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Cheryl B.; Conger, Bruce C.; Miranda, Bruno M.; Bue, Grant C.; Rouen, Michael N.

    2007-01-01

    An effort was initiated by NASA/JSC in 2001 to develop an Extravehicular Activity System Sizing Analysis Tool (EVAS_SAT) for the sizing of Extravehicular Activity System (EVAS) architecture and studies. Its intent was to support space suit development efforts and to aid in conceptual designs for future human exploration missions. Its basis was the Life Support Options Performance Program (LSOPP), a spacesuit and portable life support system (PLSS) sizing program developed for NASA/JSC circa 1990. EVAS_SAT estimates the mass, power, and volume characteristics for user-defined EVAS architectures, including Suit Systems, Airlock Systems, Tools and Translation Aids, and Vehicle Support equipment. The tool has undergone annual changes and has been updated as new data have become available. Certain sizing algorithms have been developed based on industry standards, while others are based on the LSOPP sizing routines. The sizing algorithms used by EVAS_SAT are preliminary. Because EVAS_SAT was designed for use by members of the EVA community, subsystem familiarity on the part of the intended user group and in the analysis of results is assumed. The current EVAS_SAT is operated within Microsoft Excel 2003 using a Visual Basic interface system.

  14. Fire, Water and the Earth Below: Quantifying the Geochemical Signature of Fire in Infiltration Water and their Impacts on Underlying Karst Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lupingna, A.

    2015-12-01

    Fires are natural hazards that affect communities globally and while many studies about their effects on environments such as forests and woodlands have been extensively researched, the effects of fire on karst is a topic that is not well understood. The sensitivity of caves to environmental changes make karst systems natural record keepers of environmental events and have been used as proxies for paleo environmental studies in recent times. Building on from this, karsts could potentially also be used to extend currently known fire histories beyond recorded events further back in time. Identifying quantifiable signatures in infiltration water characteristics from the burnt environments and how they are altered as they travel from a soil dominated medium (overlying soil) to a carbonate dominated medium (underlying karst system), is the key identifying fire signatures in the caves through which these waters flow. Multiple infiltration experiments conducted using a soil column set up (soil profiles from burnt environment) amended to represent a subsurface cave system (Fig. 1), have been conducted to measure chemical composition, organic matter, carbon dioxide concentrations, pH, electronic conductivity and alkalinity after a controlled fire over the test site at Yarrangobilly Caves in the Snowy Mountains, NSW. Recurring trends in the variables of the infiltration water could be identified and used to identify a fire signature originating from surface to cave. The fire event on which this paper is based is a cool controlled fire over Yarrangobilly Caves, very similar to back burning practises undertaken in regions prone to wildfires globally. In saying this, samples from hotspots that had experienced higher temperatures, had also been collected for this experiment to simulate the effects of hotter wildfires on the underlying karst systems. Figure 1: Soil column with isolated chamber containing limestone used to represent a subsurface karst environment

  15. Habitual Size and Projective Size: The Logic of Spatial Systems in Children's Drawings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lange-Kuttner, C.

    2009-01-01

    The current study analyzed figure size modification in different types of spatial context (C. Lange-Kuttner, 1997, 2004) for sequence and practice effects. Children of 7, 9, and 11 years of age, as well as 17-year-olds, drew figures in a series of ready-made spatial axes systems, which (a) logically increased in dimensional complexity as in child…

  16. A biodegradable polymeric system for peptide–protein delivery assembled with porous microspheres and nanoparticles, using an adsorption/infiltration process

    PubMed Central

    Alcalá-Alcalá, Sergio; Urbán-Morlán, Zaida; Aguilar-Rosas, Irene; Quintanar-Guerrero, David

    2013-01-01

    A biodegradable polymeric system is proposed for formulating peptides and proteins. The systems were assembled through the adsorption of biodegradable polymeric nanoparticles onto porous, biodegradable microspheres by an adsorption/infiltration process with the use of an immersion method. The peptide drug is not involved in the manufacturing of the nanoparticles or in obtaining the microspheres; thus, contact with the organic solvent, interfaces, and shear forces required for the process are prevented during drug loading. Leuprolide acetate was used as the model peptide, and poly(d,l-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) was used as the biodegradable polymer. Leuprolide was adsorbed onto different amounts of PLGA nanoparticles (25 mg/mL, 50 mg/mL, 75 mg/mL, and 100 mg/mL) in a first stage; then, these were infiltrated into porous PLGA microspheres (100 mg) by dipping the structures into a microsphere suspension. In this way, the leuprolide was adsorbed onto both surfaces (ie, nanoparticles and microspheres). Scanning electron microscopy studies revealed the formation of a nanoparticle film on the porous microsphere surface that becomes more continuous as the amount of infiltrated nanoparticles increases. The adsorption efficiency and release rate are dependent on the amount of adsorbed nanoparticles. As expected, a greater adsorption efficiency (~95%) and a slower release rate were seen (~20% of released leuprolide in 12 hours) when a larger amount of nanoparticles was adsorbed (100 mg/mL of nanoparticles). Leuprolide acetate begins to be released immediately when there are no infiltrated nanoparticles, and 90% of the peptide is released in the first 12 hours. In contrast, the systems assembled in this study released less than 44% of the loaded drug during the same period of time. The observed release profiles denoted a Fickian diffusion that fit Higuchi’s model (t1/2). The manufacturing process presented here may be useful as a potential alternative for formulating

  17. Isotopic evidence for the infiltration of mantle and metamorphic CO2-H2O fluids from below in faulted rocks from the San Andreas Fault System

    SciTech Connect

    Pili, E.; Kennedy, B.M.; Conrad, M.E.; Gratier, J.-P.

    2010-12-15

    To characterize the origin of the fluids involved in the San Andreas Fault (SAF) system, we carried out an isotope study of exhumed faulted rocks from deformation zones, vein fillings and their hosts and the fluid inclusions associated with these materials. Samples were collected from segments along the SAF system selected to provide a depth profile from upper to lower crust. In all, 75 samples from various structures and lithologies from 13 localities were analyzed for noble gas, carbon, and oxygen isotope compositions. Fluid inclusions exhibit helium isotope ratios ({sup 3}He/{sup 4}He) of 0.1-2.5 times the ratio in air, indicating that past fluids percolating through the SAF system contained mantle helium contributions of at least 35%, similar to what has been measured in present-day ground waters associated with the fault (Kennedy et al., 1997). Calcite is the predominant vein mineral and is a common accessory mineral in deformation zones. A systematic variation of C- and O-isotope compositions of carbonates from veins, deformation zones and their hosts suggests percolation by external fluids of similar compositions and origin with the amount of fluid infiltration increasing from host rocks to vein to deformation zones. The isotopic trend observed for carbonates in veins and deformation zones follows that shown by carbonates in host limestones, marbles, and other host rocks, increasing with increasing contribution of deep metamorphic crustal volatiles. At each crustal level, the composition of the infiltrating fluids is thus buffered by deeper metamorphic sources. A negative correlation between calcite {delta}{sup 13}C and fluid inclusion {sup 3}He/{sup 4}He is consistent with a mantle origin for a fraction of the infiltrating CO{sub 2}. Noble gas and stable isotope systematics show consistent evidence for the involvement of mantle-derived fluids combined with infiltration of deep metamorphic H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} in faulting, supporting the involvement of

  18. [An autopsy case of B lymphoblastic leukemia/lymphoma with hemophagocytic syndrome infiltrating in the central nervous systems].

    PubMed

    Fujii, Tomomi; Shimada, Keiji; Tanaka, Shizu; Tanaka, Haruyuki; Amano, Itsuto; Kimura, Hiroshi; Konishi, Noboru

    2013-08-01

    The hemophagocytic syndrome(HPS) after the hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(SHCT) may be triggered by the reactivation of virus such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or cytomegalovirus (CMV) under immunosuppressive state. The present case was a 17-year old man who was diagnosed as B lymphoblastic leukemia. Bone marrow aspiration showed 96.4% of lymphoblasts with positive for CD19 and CD20, negative for CD66 and POX, and dot staining for PAS. E2A/PBX1 chimeric mRNA was positive as assessed by RT-PCR method. He received three courses of induction chemotherapy followed by allo-bone marrow transplantation (BMT) from his sister, but had a relapse three months after allo-BMT. He received allo peripheral blood-SCT (PBSCT) from his mother. The hematopoietic cells successfully engrafted, but the mixed chimerism of 2 donors persisted. On day 149, he had a fever, and hemophagocytosis was found by bone marrow aspiration. EBV genomic DNA was detected for 1.62 x 10(3) copies. CMV and fungus were negative in blood. On day 165, the patient had been observed disturbance of consciousness, neck stiffness, and died on day 170 due to multiple organ failure. Autopsy examination showed infiltration of CD20+ leukemic cells into the perivascular space of cerebrum, brainstem and spinal cord, with hemophagocytosis by CD6+ macrophages. In situ hybridization of EB-virus encoded small RNA (EBER) confirmed EBV infection of B-lymphoblastic cells infiltrated in the cerebrum. HPS was considered to be triggered by the reactivation of EBV, due to hematopoietic dysfunction based on long-term immunosuppressive treatment and mixed chimerism derived from a HSCT from 2 donors.

  19. A system for aerodynamically sizing ultrafine environmental radioactive particles

    SciTech Connect

    Olawoyin, L.

    1995-09-01

    The unattached environmental radioactive particles/clusters, produced mainly by {sup 222}Rn in indoor air, are usually few nanometers in size. The inhalation of these radioactive clusters can lead to deposition of radioactivity on the mucosal surface of the tracheobronchial tree. The ultimate size of the cluster together with the flow characteristics will determine the depositional site in the human lung and thus, the extent of damage that can be caused. Thus, there exists the need for the determination of the size of the radioactive clusters. However, the existing particle measuring device have low resolution in the sub-nanometer range. In this research, a system for the alternative detection and measurement of the size of particles/cluster in the less than 2 nm range have been developed. The system is a one stage impactor which has a solid state spectrometer as its impaction plate. It`s major feature is the nozzle-to-plate separation, L. The particle size collected changes with L and thus, particle size spectroscopy is achieved by varying L. The number of collected particles is determined by alpha spectroscopy. The size-discriminating ability of the system was tested with laboratory generated radon particles and it was subsequently used to characterize the physical (size) changes associated with the interaction of radon progeny with water vapor and short chain alcohols in various support gases. The theory of both traditional and high velocity jet impactors together with the design and evaluation of the system developed in this study are discussed in various chapters of this dissertation. The major results obtained in the course of the study are also presented.

  20. Infiltration flux distributions in unsaturated rock deposits andtheir potential implications for fractured rock formations

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Olson, Keith R.; Wan, Jiamin

    2004-11-01

    Although water infiltration through unconsolidated rocks and fractured rock formations control flow and transport to groundwater, spatial distributions of flow paths are poorly understood. Infiltration experiments conducted on packs of rocks showed that a well-constrained distribution of fluxes develops despite differences in rock type (angular diabase and sandstone, and subangular serpentinite), rock size (30 to 200mm), and packing (up to 42 rock layers). Fluxes stabilize into a geometric (exponential) distribution that keeps about half of the system depleted of flow, retains a small fraction of high flow regions, and has a characteristic scale determined by the rock size. Modification of a statistical mechanical model shows that gravity-directed, random flowpaths evolve to the observed flux distribution, and that it represents the most probable distribution. Key similarities between infiltration in rock deposits and fractured rock formations indicate that the geometric flow distribution may also apply in the latter systems.

  1. Pneumatic System for Concentration of Micrometer-Size Lunar Soil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, David; Cooper, Bonnie

    2012-01-01

    A report describes a size-sorting method to separate and concentrate micrometer- size dust from a broad size range of particles without using sieves, fluids, or other processes that may modify the composition or the surface properties of the dust. The system consists of four processing units connected in series by tubing. Samples of dry particulates such as lunar soil are introduced into the first unit, a fluidized bed. The flow of introduced nitrogen fluidizes the particulates and preferentially moves the finer grain sizes on to the next unit, a flat plate impactor, followed by a cyclone separator, followed by a Nuclepore polycarbonate filter to collect the dust. By varying the gas flow rate and the sizes of various orifices in the system, the size of the final and intermediate particles can be varied to provide the desired products. The dust can be collected from the filter. In addition, electron microscope grids can be placed on the Nuclepore filter for direct sampling followed by electron microscope characterization of the dust without further handling.

  2. Cellular Manufacturing System with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khannan, M. S. A.; Maruf, A.; Wangsaputra, R.; Sutrisno, S.; Wibawa, T.

    2016-02-01

    Material Handling take as important role in Cellular Manufacturing System (CMS) design. In several study at CMS design material handling was assumed per pieces or with constant lot size. In real industrial practice, lot size may change during rolling period to cope with demand changes. This study develops CMS Model with Dynamic Lot Size Material Handling. Integer Linear Programming is used to solve the problem. Objective function of this model is minimizing total expected cost consisting machinery depreciation cost, operating costs, inter-cell material handling cost, intra-cell material handling cost, machine relocation costs, setup costs, and production planning cost. This model determines optimum cell formation and optimum lot size. Numerical examples are elaborated in the paper to ilustrate the characterictic of the model.

  3. Air encapsulation during infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Constantz, J.; Herkelrath, W.N.; Murphy, F.

    1988-01-01

    A series of field and laboratory experiments were performed to measure the effects of air encapsulation within the soil's transmission zone upon several infiltration properties. In the field, infiltration rates were measured using a double-cap infiltrometer and soil-water contents were measured using time-domain reflectometry (TDR). In the laboratory, infiltration experiments were peformed using repacked soil columns using TDR and CO 2 flooding. Results suggest that a significant portion of the total encapsulated air resided in interconnected pores within the soil's transmission zone. For the time scale considered, this residual air caused the effective hydraulic conductivity of the transmission zone to remain at a level no greater than 20% of the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil. -from Authors

  4. Infiltrating spinal angiolipoma.

    PubMed

    Yen, Han-Lin; Tsai, Shih-Chung; Liu, Shian-Min

    2008-10-01

    Infiltrating angiolipomas are rarely encountered in the spine. We present a case involving a 71-year-old man with a dorsal epidural angiolipoma at the T5-T7 level. The tumor involved the T5-T6 vertebral bodies and left pedicle. The patient presented with acute paraparesis and MRI showed a homogeneously hyphointense lesion on T1-weighted images. The epidural component of the tumor was removed via laminectomy to achieve adequate cord decompression. The patient was symptom-free at a 2-year follow-up. This report emphasizes the unusual clinical presentation and MRI features of an infiltrating spinal angiolipoma and discusses therapeutic management options.

  5. Automatic milking systems, farm size, and milk production.

    PubMed

    Rotz, C A; Coiner, C U; Soder, K J

    2003-12-01

    Automatic milking systems (AMS) offer relief from the demanding routine of milking. Although many AMS are in use in Europe and a few are used in the United States, the potential benefit for American farms is uncertain. A farm-simulation model was used to determine the long-term, whole-farm effect of implementing AMS on farm sizes of 30 to 270 cows. Highest farm net return to management and unpaid factors was when AMS were used at maximal milking capacity. Adding stalls to increase milking frequency and possibly increase production generally did not improve net return. Compared with new traditional milking systems, the greatest potential economic benefit was a single-stall AMS on a farm size of 60 cows at a moderate milk production level (8600 kg/cow). On other farm sizes using single-stall type robotic units, losses in annual net return of 0 dollars to 300 dollars/cow were projected, with the greatest losses on larger farms and at high milk production (10,900 kg/cow). Systems with one robot serving multiple stalls provided a greater net return than single-stall systems, and this net return was competitive with traditional parlors for 50- to 130-cow farm sizes. The potential benefit of AMS was improved by 100 dollars/cow per year if the AMS increased production an additional 5%. A 20% reduction in initial equipment cost or doubling milking labor cost also improved annual net return of an AMS by up to 100 dollars/cow. Annual net return was reduced by 110 dollars/cow, though, if the economic life of the AMS was reduced by 3 yr for a more rapid depreciation than that normally used with traditional milking systems. Thus, under current assumptions, the economic return for an AMS was similar to that of new parlor systems on smaller farms when the milking capacity of the AMS was well matched to herd size and milk production level.

  6. A highly efficient tumor-infiltrating MDSC differentiation system for discovery of anti-neoplastic targets, which circumvents the need for tumor establishment in mice.

    PubMed

    Liechtenstein, Therese; Perez-Janices, Noemi; Gato, Maria; Caliendo, Fabio; Kochan, Grazyna; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Arce, Frederick; Guerrero-Setas, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaria, Enrique; Breckpot, Karine; Escors, David

    2014-09-15

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) exhibit potent immunosuppressive activities in cancer. MDSCs infiltrate tumors and strongly inhibit cancer-specific cytotoxic T cells. Their mechanism of differentiation and identification of MDSC-specific therapeutic targets are major areas of interest. We have devised a highly efficient and rapid method to produce very large numbers of melanoma-infiltrating MDSCs ex vivo without inducing tumors in mice. These MDSCs were used to study their differentiation, immunosuppressive activities and were compared to non-neoplastic counterparts and conventional dendritic cells using unbiased systems biology approaches. Differentially activated/deactivated pathways caused by cell type differences and by the melanoma tumor environment were identified. MDSCs increased the expression of trafficking receptors to sites of inflammation, endocytosis, changed lipid metabolism, and up-regulated detoxification pathways such as the expression of P450 reductase. These studies uncovered more than 60 potential novel therapeutic targets. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that P450 reductase is the target of pro-drugs such as Paclitaxel, which depletes MDSCs following chemotherapy in animal models of melanoma and in human patients. Conversely, P450 reductase protects MDSCs against the cytotoxic actions of other chemotherapy drugs such as Irinotecan, which is ineffective for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25151659

  7. A highly efficient tumor-infiltrating MDSC differentiation system for discovery of anti-neoplastic targets, which circumvents the need for tumor establishment in mice

    PubMed Central

    Liechtenstein, Therese; Perez-Janices, Noemi; Gato, Maria; Caliendo, Fabio; Kochan, Grazyna; Blanco-Luquin, Idoia; Van der Jeught, Kevin; Arce, Frederick; Guerrero-Setas, David; Fernandez-Irigoyen, Joaquin; Santamaria, Enrique; Breckpot, Karine; Escors, David

    2014-01-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) exhibit potent immunosuppressive activities in cancer. MDSCs infiltrate tumors and strongly inhibit cancer-specific cytotoxic T cells. Their mechanism of differentiation and identification of MDSC-specific therapeutic targets are major areas of interest. We have devised a highly efficient and rapid method to produce very large numbers of melanoma-infiltrating MDSCs ex vivo without inducing tumors in mice. These MDSCs were used to study their differentiation, immunosuppressive activities and were compared to non-neoplastic counterparts and conventional dendritic cells using unbiased systems biology approaches. Differentially activated/deactivated pathways caused by cell type differences and by the melanoma tumor environment were identified. MDSCs increased the expression of trafficking receptors to sites of inflammation, endocytosis, changed lipid metabolism, and up-regulated detoxification pathways such as the expression of P450 reductase. These studies uncovered more than 60 potential novel therapeutic targets. As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that P450 reductase is the target of pro-drugs such as Paclitaxel, which depletes MDSCs following chemotherapy in animal models of melanoma and in human patients. Conversely, P450 reductase protects MDSCs against the cytotoxic actions of other chemotherapy drugs such as Irinotecan, which is ineffective for the treatment of melanoma. PMID:25151659

  8. An expert system based software sizing tool, phase 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedlander, David

    1990-01-01

    A software tool was developed for predicting the size of a future computer program at an early stage in its development. The system is intended to enable a user who is not expert in Software Engineering to estimate software size in lines of source code with an accuracy similar to that of an expert, based on the program's functional specifications. The project was planned as a knowledge based system with a field prototype as the goal of Phase 2 and a commercial system planned for Phase 3. The researchers used techniques from Artificial Intelligence and knowledge from human experts and existing software from NASA's COSMIC database. They devised a classification scheme for the software specifications, and a small set of generic software components that represent complexity and apply to large classes of programs. The specifications are converted to generic components by a set of rules and the generic components are input to a nonlinear sizing function which makes the final prediction. The system developed for this project predicted code sizes from the database with a bias factor of 1.06 and a fluctuation factor of 1.77, an accuracy similar to that of human experts but without their significant optimistic bias.

  9. Porous body infiltrating method

    DOEpatents

    Corman, Gregory Scot

    2002-01-01

    A mixture is formed that comprises at least some to about 10 wt % boron nitride and silicon. A body comprising a component that is wetted by or reacts with silicon is contacted with the mixture and the contacted body is infiltrated with silicon from the mixture.

  10. Habitat patch size and mating system as determinants of social group size in coral-dwelling fishes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, V. J.; Munday, P. L.; Jones, G. P.

    2007-03-01

    It is thought that the size and dispersion of habitat patches can determine the size and composition of animal social groups, however, this has rarely been tested. The relationship between group size, the mating system, and habitat patch size in six species of coral-dwelling gobies was examined. For all species, there was a positive correlation between coral colony size and social group size, however the strength of this relationship varied among species. Paragobiodon xanthosomus exhibited the strongest relationship and a manipulative field experiment confirmed that coral colony size limited group size in this species. For other species including Paragobiodon melanosomus and Eviota bifasciata, either a highly conservative mating system ( P. melanosomus), or increased mobility ( E. bifasciata) appeared to disrupt the relationship between habitat patch size and group size. There was no consistent relationship between the mating system exhibited and group size among the species investigated. These results demonstrate that habitat patch size, mobility, and mating systems can interact in complex ways to structure group size even among closely related species.

  11. Chlorine stable isotopes in sedimentary systems: does size matter?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coleman, Max

    2004-01-01

    Stable isotope abundances vary because of size differences. The chlorine stable isotope system was one of the first described theoretically, but had a slow, disappointment strewn development, relative to other elements. Method improvement gave only small, but significant, differences in compositions of geological materials. Eventually, brines and groundwater chlorides gave larger differences. Physical processes like diffusion and adsorption, probably are the main controls of groundwater compositions. Recent work on anthropogenic groundwater contaminants shows variations resulting from manufacturing processes; implying possibilities of tracing sources.

  12. Characterization of intermediate-sized photovoltaic system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Noel, G.T.; Ayres, J.G.

    1987-01-01

    Detailed descriptions of the designs and current hardware of nine intermediate- to large-sized DOE-funded photovoltaic projects are presented. For each site, a narrative description is accompanied by a photograph of the array field and a line diagram illustrating key design features and hardware. The systems described are Beverly High School, Dallas-Ft. Worth Airport, Georgetown University, Lovington Shopping Center, Natural Bridges National Monument, Newman Power Station, Oklahoma City Omniplex, Phoenix Sky Harbor Airport, and WBNO Radio Station.

  13. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Which size public water systems can... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems...

  14. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems can... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Which size public water systems...

  15. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Variances for Small System General Provisions § 142.303 Which size public water systems can... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Which size public water systems...

  16. Infiltration through porous media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, W.; Redner, S.

    2001-02-01

    We study the kinetics of infiltration in which contaminant particles, which are suspended in a flowing carrier fluid, penetrate a porous medium. The progress of the ``invader'' particles is impeded by their trapping on active ``defender'' sites which are on the surfaces of the medium. As the defenders are used up, the invader penetrates further and ultimately breaks through. We study this process in the regime where the particles are much smaller than the pores so that the permeability change due to trapping is negligible. We develop a family of microscopic models of increasing realism to determine the propagation velocity of the invasion front, as well as the shapes of the invader and defender profiles. The predictions of our model agree qualitatively with experimental results on breakthrough times and the time dependence of the invader concentration at the output. Our results also provide practical guidelines for improving the design of deep bed filters in which infiltration is the primary separation mechanism.

  17. Resin infiltration transfer technique

    DOEpatents

    Miller, David V.; Baranwal, Rita

    2009-12-08

    A process has been developed for fabricating composite structures using either reaction forming or polymer infiltration and pyrolysis techniques to densify the composite matrix. The matrix and reinforcement materials of choice can include, but are not limited to, silicon carbide (SiC) and zirconium carbide (ZrC). The novel process can be used to fabricate complex, net-shape or near-net shape, high-quality ceramic composites with a crack-free matrix.

  18. Tool for Sizing Analysis of the Advanced Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Hue-Hsie Jannivine; Brown, Cheryl B.; Jeng, Frank J.

    2005-01-01

    Advanced Life Support Sizing Analysis Tool (ALSSAT) is a computer model for sizing and analyzing designs of environmental-control and life support systems (ECLSS) for spacecraft and surface habitats involved in the exploration of Mars and Moon. It performs conceptual designs of advanced life support (ALS) subsystems that utilize physicochemical and biological processes to recycle air and water, and process wastes in order to reduce the need of resource resupply. By assuming steady-state operations, ALSSAT is a means of investigating combinations of such subsystems technologies and thereby assisting in determining the most cost-effective technology combination available. In fact, ALSSAT can perform sizing analysis of the ALS subsystems that are operated dynamically or steady in nature. Using the Microsoft Excel spreadsheet software with Visual Basic programming language, ALSSAT has been developed to perform multiple-case trade studies based on the calculated ECLSS mass, volume, power, and Equivalent System Mass, as well as parametric studies by varying the input parameters. ALSSAT s modular format is specifically designed for the ease of future maintenance and upgrades.

  19. Orienting of attention, pupil size, and the norepinephrine system.

    PubMed

    Gabay, Shai; Pertzov, Yoni; Henik, Avishai

    2011-01-01

    This research examined a novel suggestion regarding the involvement of the locus coeruleus-norepinephrine (LC-NE) system in orienting reflexive (exogenous) attention. A common procedure for studying exogenous orienting of attention is Posner's cuing task. Importantly, one can manipulate the required level of target processing by changing task requirements, which, in turn, can elicit a different time course of inhibition of return (IOR). An easy task (responding to target location) produces earlier onset IOR, whereas a demanding task (responding to target identity) produces later onset IOR. Aston-Jones and Cohen (Annual Review of Neuroscience, 28, 403-450, 2005) presented a theory suggesting two different modes of LC activity: tonic and phasic. Accordingly, we suggest that in the more demanding task, the LC-NE system is activated in phasic mode, and in the easier task, it is activated in tonic mode. This, in turn, influences the appearance of IOR. We examined this suggestion by measuring participants' pupil size, which has been demonstrated to correlate with the LC-NE system, while they performed cuing tasks. We found a response-locked phasic dilation of the pupil in the discrimination task, as compared with the localization task, which may reflect different firing modes of the LC-NE system during the two tasks. We also demonstrated a correlation between pupil size at the time of cue presentation and magnitude of IOR.

  20. Sizing an emergency venting system for a cryogenic dewar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, C. K.; Naes, L. G.; Manikowski, A. F., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    If the vacuum vessel that insulates a cryogenic dewar for a spaceborne experiment prior to launch is damaged, air will leak into the vacuum insulation space. As the sudden heat load causes the pressure to rise in the dewar, a safety disk in the emergency vent line will burst at the design pressure differential to allow vaporized cryogenic fluid to escape. The emergency vent line should be sized such that sufficient gaseous cryogen will be vented to keep the pressure inside the dewar below the design limit. On the other hand, the line should not be so large as to impose an unnecessary heat load on the dewar filled with cryogenic fluid. A vent-line computer program was generated to compute the maximum flow rate allowed for a proposed vent-line system. Parametric studies have been carried out for different burst disk pressure differentials, liquid cryogen ullage, and vent-line sizes.

  1. Infiltration rates for a new swine building

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Y.; Barber, E.M.

    1995-08-01

    There is a lack of data on air leakage for livestock buildings and a need to normalize and standardize the air-tightness of these types of buildings for design engineers. In this paper, the infiltration rates of five different rooms in a large, newly built swine building are reported. The measurement was conducted at pressure differences from 0 to 50 Pa. Infiltration rates were measured and normalized for each individual component (e.g., structures and doors). Infiltration rates from this building were compared with existing air leakage data for other types of buildings. Although the newly built livestock building was much tighter than old buildings and even tighter than office buildings, infiltration rates still ranged from 1 to 1.4 air changes per hour (ACH) at a pressure difference of 20 Pa. This infiltration rate represented approximately 50% of the minimum ventilation requirement during a heating season. Air leakage reduces ventilation effectiveness. Special attention should be paid to minimize infiltration sources when designing a ventilation system for a livestock building.

  2. Groundwater Mounding Beneath Stormwater Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nimmer, M.; Thompson, A. M.; Misra, D.

    2007-12-01

    An accurate understanding of groundwater mound formation is important in the proper design of stormwater infiltration basins since these basins are often required to recharge a portion of pre-development infiltration volume. Mound formation due to localized recharge may reduce the infiltration rate of the basin and the ability of the soil to filter pollutants. The goal of this research was to understand groundwater mounding and the potential for contaminant transport resulting from recharge beneath stormwater infiltration basins. A 0.10 ha infiltration basin serving a 9.4 ha residential subdivision in Oconomowoc, Wisconsin was used in this study. Subsurface conditions included sand and gravel material and a groundwater table at 2.3 m below grade. Three storm events, 4.9 cm, 2.8 cm, and 4.3 cm, between August 2006 and April 2007 were modeled using the two-dimensional numerical model HYDRUS. The calibrated model was used to evaluate hypothetical basin operation scenarios for various basin sizes, soil types, ponding depths, and water table depths. The groundwater mound intersected the basin floor in most scenarios with loamy sand and sandy loam soils, an unsaturated thickness of 1.52 m, and a ponding depth of 0.61 m. No groundwater table response was observed with ponding depths less than 0.31 m with an unsaturated zone thickness of 6.09 m. The mound height was most sensitive to hydraulic conductivity and unsaturated zone thickness. A 7.6 cm sediment layer delayed the time to reach maximum mound height, but had a minimal effect on the magnitude of the mound. Mound heights increased as infiltration basin size increased.

  3. System Size Resonance Associated with Canard Phenomenon in a Biological Cell System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Juan; Li, Hong-ying; Hou, Zhong-huai; Xin, Hou-wen

    2008-12-01

    The influence of internal noise on the calcium oscillations is studied. It is found that stochastic calcium oscillations occur when the internal noise is considered, while the corresponding deterministic dynamics only yields a steady state. Also, the performance of such oscillations shows two maxima with the variation of the system size, indicating the occurrence of system size resonance. This behavior is found to be intimately connected with the canard phenomenon. Interestingly, it is also found that one of the optimal system sizes matches well with the real cell size, and such a match is robust to the variation of the control parameters.

  4. System Size, Energy, Pseudorapidity, and Centrality Dependence of Elliptic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Alver, B.; Ballintijn, M.; Busza, W.; Decowski, M. P.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Henderson, C.; Kane, J. L.; Kulinich, P.; Li, W.; Loizides, C.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Vale, C.; Nieuwenhuizen, G. J. van; Vaurynovich, S. S.; Verdier, R.; Veres, G. I.; Wenger, E.

    2007-06-15

    This Letter presents measurements of the elliptic flow of charged particles as a function of pseudorapidity and centrality from Cu-Cu collisions at 62.4 and 200 GeV using the PHOBOS detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider. The elliptic flow in Cu-Cu collisions is found to be significant even for the most central events. For comparison with the Au-Au results, it is found that the detailed way in which the collision geometry (eccentricity) is estimated is of critical importance when scaling out system-size effects. A new form of eccentricity, called the participant eccentricity, is introduced which yields a scaled elliptic flow in the Cu-Cu system that has the same relative magnitude and qualitative features as that in the Au-Au system.

  5. Effect of Size Polydispersity on Melting of Charged Colloidal Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yong

    2003-09-01

    We introduce simple prescriptions of the Yukawa potential to describe the effect of size polydispersity and macroion shielding effect in charged colloidal systems. The solid-liquid phase boundaries were presented with the Lindemann criterion based on molecular dynamics simulations. Compared with the Robbins-Kremer-Grest simulation results, a deviation of melting line is observed at small lambda, which means large macroion screening length. This deviation of phase boundary is qualitatively consistent with the simulation result of the nonlinear Poisson-Boltzmann equation with full many-body interactions. It is found that this deviation of the solid-liquid phase behaviour is sensitive to the screening parameter.

  6. Facial infiltrating lipomatosis.

    PubMed

    Padwa, B L; Mulliken, J B

    2001-11-01

    Facial infiltrating lipomatosis is a rare congenital disorder in which mature lipocytes invade adjacent tissue. The phenotypic features include soft-tissue and skeletal hypertrophy, premature dental eruption, and regional macrodontia. There is a high risk for regrowth after resection that is, perforce, subtotal. The etiology, natural history, optimal management, and relationship to other disorders of fatty overgrowth are unclear. In this study, the clinical features, radiographic findings, histopathology, and postoperative results were analyzed in 13 patients with facial infiltrating lipomatosis. The condition was diagnosed in infancy (eight male subjects, five female subjects) and characterized by enlargement of the cheek (n = 12) or chin (n = 1). Other findings included cutaneous capillary blush (n = 9), ipsilateral macroglossia (n = 8), and mucosal neuromas (n = 6). Most patients had early eruption of ipsilateral deciduous and permanent teeth (n = 12). Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging showed an infiltrated soft-tissue mass of fatty density (n = 13) and skeletal overgrowth (n = 9). Multiple resection was performed on six patients (mean number of operations per patient, 2.5; range, one to six operations); regrowth and/or worsening of the capillary stain occurred in all six patients. Because surgical removal of the mass is usually unsuccessful, specific management of this condition will require insight into its etiopathogenesis. Given the presence of mucosal neuromas and lipomatosis, this study included testing for the known mutations in three entities that are associated with these soft-tissue findings (Cowden syndrome, Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcava syndrome, and multiple endocrine neoplasia type 2B). Results of DNA analyses for these germline mutations were negative. It is more likely that this disorder is caused by a somatic mutation involving a local increase in growth factor(s).

  7. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1991-01-01

    Progress was made on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Processes reported include powder towpreg process, weaving towpreg made from dry powder prepreg, composite from powder coated towpreg, and toughening of polyimide resin (PMR) composites by semi-interpenetrating networks. Several important areas of polymer infiltration into fiber bundles will be researched. Preparation to towpreg for textile preform weaving and braiding and for automated tow placement is a major goal, as are the continued development of prepregging technology and the various aspects of composite part fabrication.

  8. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1995-01-01

    Polymer infiltration investigations were directed toward development of methods by which to produce advanced composite material for automated part fabrication utilizing textile and robotic technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. Significant progress was made during the project on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. The findings and results of the project are summarized in the attached paper entitled 'Powder-Coated Towpreg: Avenues to Near Net Shape Fabrication of High Performance Composite.' Also attached to this report is the second of two patent applications submitted as a result of these studies.

  9. Eosinophilic Liver Infiltration

    PubMed Central

    Figueroa Rivera, Ivonne; Toro, Doris H.; Gutierrez, Jose; Acosta, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    Eosinophilic liver infiltration is a commonly encountered focal eosinophil-related inflammation with or without necrosis, which can be seen on computed tomography (CT) in the presence of peripheral eosinophilia. Although this entity has a relatively benign course, it is related to numerable conditions for which diagnosis may be challenging and requires substantial diagnostic work-up for proper management and care of the underlying disease. We report a case of a 60-year-old man who presented with a 1-week history of right upper quadrant abdominal pain with multiple ill-defined liver hypodensities associated with significant eosinophilia. PMID:26504883

  10. Determination of water content by TDR during the infiltration outflow column experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobotkova, M.; Snehota, M.; Klipa, V.

    2012-04-01

    Pore system of some soils may not become fully saturated during ponded infiltration due to air entrapment. Varying entrapped air content then determines quasi-saturated water content of soil and can strongly affect soil quasi-saturated hydraulic conductivity. This study shows changes of quasi-saturated volumetric water content in time measured by time domain reflectometry (TDR) during the infiltration outflow experiment conducted on medium sized soil column in the laboratory. Experiments were conducted on a packed sample of fine quartz sand and on undisturbed soil. The undisturbed soil sample (internal diameter 189 mm and 250 mm height) of sandy loam soil was collected at the experimental site Uhlirska (Jizera Mountains, Czech Republic). Recurrent ponded infiltration experiment, conducted on each sample, consisted of three infiltration runs. The same level of ponding was maintained during each infiltration run at the top of the sample. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample. First infiltration run was done into naturally dry soil while subsequent runs were conducted into wet soil. The degassed water was used for the third infiltration run. The apparent dielectric constants were monitored at depths 75, 125 and 175 mm bellow the sample surface using the 7.5 cm long TDR probes connected to Campbell Scientific TDR100 reflectometer via multiplexor. Volumetric water contents in each depth were calculated from apparent dielectric constants using Topp's equation. Additionally, the pulse of potassium bromide was applied repeatedly during the quasi-steady state of each infiltration run, while the bromide breakthrough was monitored both in the effluent (by ion selective electrode) and in the sample by TDR (as changes of electric conductivity). Experimental results showed that in case of homogenously packed sand the quasi-steady state flow rates and water contents were nearly the same during all three infiltration runs. The undisturbed

  11. Salary Management System for Small and Medium-sized Enterprises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Zhang; Guangli, Xu; Yuhuan, Zhang; Yilong, Lei

    Small and Medium-sized Enterprises (SMEs) in the process of wage entry, calculation, the total number are needed to be done manually in the past, the data volume is quite large, processing speed is low, and it is easy to make error, which is resulting in low efficiency. The main purpose of writing this paper is to present the basis of salary management system, establish a scientific database, the computer payroll system, using the computer instead of a lot of past manual work in order to reduce duplication of staff labor, it will improve working efficiency.This system combines the actual needs of SMEs, through in-depth study and practice of the C/S mode, PowerBuilder10.0 development tools, databases and SQL language, Completed a payroll system needs analysis, database design, application design and development work. Wages, departments, units and personnel database file are included in this system, and have data management, department management, personnel management and other functions, through the control and management of the database query, add, delete, modify, and other functions can be realized. This system is reasonable design, a more complete function, stable operation has been tested to meet the basic needs of the work.

  12. Analysis of local chronic inflammatory cell infiltrate combined with systemic inflammation improves prognostication in stage II colon cancer independent of standard clinicopathologic criteria.

    PubMed

    Turner, Natalie; Wong, Hui-Li; Templeton, Arnoud; Tripathy, Sagarika; Whiti Rogers, Te; Croxford, Matthew; Jones, Ian; Sinnathamby, Mathuranthakan; Desai, Jayesh; Tie, Jeanne; Bae, Susie; Christie, Michael; Gibbs, Peter; Tran, Ben

    2016-02-01

    In Stage II colon cancer, multiple independent studies have shown that a dense intratumoural immune infiltrate (local inflammation) is associated with improved outcomes, while systemic inflammation, measured by various markers, has been associated with poorer outcomes. However, previous studies have not considered the interaction between local and systemic inflammation, nor have they assessed the type of inflammatory response compared with standard clinicopathologic criteria. In order to evaluate the potential clinical utility of inflammatory markers in Stage II colon cancer, we examined local and systemic inflammation in a consecutive series of patients with resected Stage II colon cancer between 2000 and 2010 who were identified from a prospective clinical database. Increased intratumoural chronic inflammatory cell (CIC) density, as assessed by pathologist review of hematoxylin and eosin stained slides, was used to represent local inflammation. Neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) >5, as calculated from pre-operative full blood counts, was used to represent systemic inflammation. In 396 eligible patients identified, there was a non-significant inverse relationship between local and systemic inflammation. Increased CIC density was significantly associated with improved overall (HR 0.45, p = 0.001) and recurrence-free survival (HR 0.37, p = 0.003). High NLR was significantly associated with poorer overall survival (HR 2.56, p < 0.001). The combination of these markers further stratified prognosis independent of standard high-risk criteria, with a dominant systemic inflammatory response (low CIC/high NLR) associated with the worst outcome (5-year overall survival 55.8%). With further validation this simple, inexpensive combined inflammatory biomarker might assist in patient selection for adjuvant chemotherapy in Stage II colon cancer.

  13. System size expansion using Feynman rules and diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Philipp; Fleck, Christian; Grima, Ramon; Popović, Nikola

    2014-11-01

    Few analytical methods exist for quantitative studies of large fluctuations in stochastic systems. In this article, we develop a simple diagrammatic approach to the chemical master equation that allows us to calculate multi-time correlation functions which are accurate to any desired order in van Kampen's system size expansion. Specifically, we present a set of Feynman rules from which this diagrammatic perturbation expansion can be constructed algorithmically. We then apply the methodology to derive in closed form the leading order corrections to the linear noise approximation of the intrinsic noise power spectrum for general biochemical reaction networks. Finally, we illustrate our results by describing noise-induced oscillations in the Brusselator reaction scheme which are not captured by the common linear noise approximation.

  14. Reduced-size kernel models for nonlinear hybrid system identification.

    PubMed

    Le, Van Luong; Bloch, Grard; Lauer, Fabien

    2011-12-01

    This brief paper focuses on the identification of nonlinear hybrid dynamical systems, i.e., systems switching between multiple nonlinear dynamical behaviors. Thus the aim is to learn an ensemble of submodels from a single set of input-output data in a regression setting with no prior knowledge on the grouping of the data points into similar behaviors. To be able to approximate arbitrary nonlinearities, kernel submodels are considered. However, in order to maintain efficiency when applying the method to large data sets, a preprocessing step is required in order to fix the submodel sizes and limit the number of optimization variables. This brief paper proposes four approaches, respectively inspired by the fixed-size least-squares support vector machines, the feature vector selection method, the kernel principal component regression and a modification of the latter, in order to deal with this issue and build sparse kernel submodels. These are compared in numerical experiments, which show that the proposed approach achieves the simultaneous classification of data points and approximation of the nonlinear behaviors in an efficient and accurate manner.

  15. Poloxamer 407/188 binary thermosensitive hydrogels as delivery systems for infiltrative local anesthesia: Physico-chemical characterization and pharmacological evaluation.

    PubMed

    Akkari, Alessandra C S; Papini, Juliana Z Boava; Garcia, Gabriella K; Franco, Margareth K K Dias; Cavalcanti, Leide P; Gasperini, Antonio; Alkschbirs, Melissa Inger; Yokaichyia, Fabiano; de Paula, Eneida; Tófoli, Giovana R; de Araujo, Daniele R

    2016-11-01

    In this study, we reported the development and the physico-chemical characterization of poloxamer 407 (PL407) and poloxamer 188 (PL188) binary systems as hydrogels for delivering ropivacaine (RVC), as drug model, and investigate their use in infiltrative local anesthesia for applications on the treatment of post-operative pain. We studied drug-micelle interaction and micellization process by light scattering and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), the sol-gel transition and hydrogel supramolecular structure by small-angle-X-ray scattering (SAXS) and morphological evaluation by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). In addition, we have presented the investigation of drug release mechanisms, in vitro/in vivo toxic and analgesic effects. Micellar dimensions evaluation showed the formation of PL407-PL188 mixed micelles and the drug incorporation, as well as the DSC studies showed increased enthalpy values for micelles formation after addition of PL 188 and RVC, indicating changes on self-assembly and the mixed micelles formation evoked by drug incorporation. SAXS studies revealed that the phase organization in hexagonal structure was not affected by RVC insertion into the hydrogels, maintaining their supramolecular structure. SEM analysis showed similar patterns after RVC addition. The RVC release followed the Higuchi model, modulated by the PL final concentration and the insertion of PL 188 into the system. Furthermore, the association PL407-PL188 induced lower in vitro cytotoxic effects, increased the duration of analgesia, in a single-dose model study, without evoking in vivo inflammation signs after local injection. PMID:27524024

  16. Chronic synovitis with marked infiltration of granulocytes in a patient with an unusual development of systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Meijers, K A; Eulderink, F; van de Putte, L B; Wiersema-van Gogh, H; de Vries, E; Cats, A

    1979-01-01

    The case described concerns a patient initially presenting the clinical symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis, including the presence of nodules, and slowly developing into systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). Besides the signs of chronic inflammation in the synovial tissue, many granulocytes and PAS-positive macrophages were present. At electronmicroscopy the basal membranes of the vessels were multilaminated and the endothelial cells enlarged while many macrophages contained large clumps of electrondense material which could easily be interpreted as rough endoplasmatic reticulum (RER) of plasma cells. Immunoflourescence studies showed deposition of immunoglobulins and complement in the vessel walls of the synovium, thus suggesting an immune-complex pathogenesis. PMID:506490

  17. Optimization strategy for element sizing in hybrid power systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Real, Alejandro J.; Arce, Alicia; Bordons, Carlos

    This paper presents a procedure to evaluate the optimal element sizing of hybrid power systems. In order to generalize the problem, this work exploits the "energy hub" formulation previously presented in the literature, defining an energy hub as an interface among energy producers, consumers and the transportation infrastructure. The resulting optimization minimizes an objective function which is based on costs and efficiencies of the system elements, while taking into account the hub model, energy and power constraints and estimated operational conditions, such as energy prices, input power flow availability and output energy demand. The resulting optimal architecture also constitutes a framework for further real-time control designs. Moreover, an example of a hybrid storage system is considered. In particular, the architecture of a hybrid plant incorporating a wind generator, batteries and intermediate hydrogen storage is optimized, based on real wind data and averaged residential demands, also taking into account possible estimation errors. The hydrogen system integrates an electrolyzer, a fuel cell stack and hydrogen tanks. The resulting optimal cost of such hybrid power plant is compared with the equivalent hydrogen-only and battery-only systems, showing improvements in investment costs of almost 30% in the worst case.

  18. Lymphoid infiltration as a prognostic variable for early-onset breast carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Ménard, S; Tomasic, G; Casalini, P; Balsari, A; Pilotti, S; Cascinelli, N; Salvadori, B; Colnaghi, M I; Rilke, F

    1997-05-01

    Infiltration by lymphoid cells is a common feature of many human tumors, including breast carcinomas, and the degree of infiltration has been suggested to be a measure of the host immune response. Our analyses in a series of 1919 cases of primary ductal and lobular infiltrating breast carcinomas from women with a long-term follow-up revealed: (a) a 16-17% frequency of infiltrated tumors independent of the patient's age at diagnosis; and (b) a strong positive correlation between survival rates and the presence of lymphocytes at the tumor site in patients less than 40 years of age (P = 0.0002) but no association with prognosis in patients 40 years of age or older. Multivariate analysis indicated that lymphoid infiltration is independent of other conventional prognostic factors such as nodal status and tumor size in predicting survival. Thus, a possible immune response against the tumor seems to be relevant only in women with early-onset tumors. Because the immune system is functionally maximum in younger years, declining with age, this finding might reflect a difference in the efficiency of the immune system. Alternatively, the biology of these tumors might differ, leading to a difference in immuno-genicity.

  19. Electrical resistivity imaging study of near-surface infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, Angelos

    High resolution electrical resistivity images (ERI method) were obtained during vadose zone infiltration experiments on agricultural soils in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program, Cooperative Extension of Suffolk County, Extension Education Center, Riverhead, New York [ as well as Cornell University's Long Island Horticultural Research & Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York]. One natural soil was also studied. Infiltration was monitored by means of image analysis of two-dimensional array resistivity generated by a Syscal Kid Switch resistivity system (Griffiths et al., 1990). The data was inverted with the computer program RES2DINV (Loke, 2004). The agricultural soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silt loam (BgA). The natural site was located in the Catskill Mountains of New York State. The soils there are classified as Schoharie silty clay loam. The electrical images of the three sites were compared against established soil properties, including particle size distribution, available water capacity, and soluble salts (from the literature), as well as against site-specific soil samples and penetrometer data, which were collected along with the geophysical measurements. This research evaluates the potential of acquiring high resolution, non-destructive measurements of infiltration in the uppermost 1.5 meter of the vadose zone. The results demonstrate that resistivity differences can detect infiltration in soils typical of the north-eastern United States. Temporal and spatial variations of soil water content in the upper 1.5 meters (relevant to agriculture) of the subsurface can be monitored successfully and non-destructively with ERI. The sensitivity of the method is higher in subsurface environments that demonstrate high overall apparent resistivity values (e.g. high sand content). Under conditions of increased soil heterogeneity, instead of the formation of a continuous

  20. Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4 + T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hammer, Leslie A; Waldner, Hanspeter; Zagon, Ian S

    2015-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltrating myelin-reactive T lymphocytes and demyelinating lesions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model widely utilized to study MS. EAE is mediated by CD4+ T cells and can be induced in EAE-susceptible mice through immunization with a myelin antigen, such as proteolipid protein 139–151 (PLP139-151) in SJL mice. In this PLP-induced EAE model, autoreactive CD4+ T cells migrate from peripheral tissues into the CNS where they are reactivated resulting in CNS damage. Th1 and Th17 cells produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-17, respectively, that have been shown to have pathogenic roles in EAE and MS. Anti-inflammatory Th2, IL-4 secreting cells, have been indicated to inhibit EAE exacerbation. However, given the inflammatory environment of EAE, Th2 effector cells are outnumbered by Th1/Th17 cells. Regulatory CD4+ T cells suppress immune reactions and have been demonstrated to be dysfunctional in MS patients. Opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met5]-enkephalin, is a negative growth factor that interacts with the OGF receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis can be activated through exogenous administration of OGF or a low dosage of naltrexone (LDN), an opioid antagonist. We have previously demonstrated that modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis results in alleviation from relapse-remitting EAE, and that CNS-infiltrating CD3+ T cells are diminished with exogenous OGF or intermittent blockade with LDN administration. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether OGF or LDN alter the Th effector responses of CD4+ T lymphocytes within the CNS in established EAE. We report in these studies that the numbers of CD4+ T lymphocytes in the CNS of EAE mice are decreased following treatment with OGF for five days but not LDN. However, modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis did not result in changes to CD4+ Th effector cell responses in the CNS of

  1. Opioid growth factor and low-dose naltrexone impair central nervous system infiltration by CD4 + T lymphocytes in established experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model of multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hammer, Leslie A; Waldner, Hanspeter; Zagon, Ian S; McLaughlin, Patricia J

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system (CNS), characterized by infiltrating myelin-reactive T lymphocytes and demyelinating lesions. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) is the animal model widely utilized to study MS. EAE is mediated by CD4(+) T cells and can be induced in EAE-susceptible mice through immunization with a myelin antigen, such as proteolipid protein 139-151 (PLP139-151) in SJL mice. In this PLP-induced EAE model, autoreactive CD4(+) T cells migrate from peripheral tissues into the CNS where they are reactivated resulting in CNS damage. Th1 and Th17 cells produce the pro-inflammatory cytokines IFNγ and IL-17, respectively, that have been shown to have pathogenic roles in EAE and MS. Anti-inflammatory Th2, IL-4 secreting cells, have been indicated to inhibit EAE exacerbation. However, given the inflammatory environment of EAE, Th2 effector cells are outnumbered by Th1/Th17 cells. Regulatory CD4(+) T cells suppress immune reactions and have been demonstrated to be dysfunctional in MS patients. Opioid growth factor (OGF), chemically termed [Met(5)]-enkephalin, is a negative growth factor that interacts with the OGF receptor. The OGF-OGFr axis can be activated through exogenous administration of OGF or a low dosage of naltrexone (LDN), an opioid antagonist. We have previously demonstrated that modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis results in alleviation from relapse-remitting EAE, and that CNS-infiltrating CD3(+) T cells are diminished with exogenous OGF or intermittent blockade with LDN administration. In this paper, we aimed to determine whether OGF or LDN alter the Th effector responses of CD4(+) T lymphocytes within the CNS in established EAE. We report in these studies that the numbers of CD4(+) T lymphocytes in the CNS of EAE mice are decreased following treatment with OGF for five days but not LDN. However, modulation of the OGF-OGFr axis did not result in changes to CD4(+) Th effector cell responses

  2. Effect of hydraulic loading rate on pollutant removal efficiency in subsurface infiltration system under intermittent operation and micro-power aeration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Zhan, Xuan; Wu, Shijun; Kang, Mingliang; Guo, Jianan; Chen, Fanrong

    2016-04-01

    The low hydraulic loading rate (HLR) greatly restricts the wide application of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) in densely populated areas. To increase the HLR, an innovative SWIS was developed using cyclic operation mode. In each cycle, a wastewater feeding period is followed by a drying period, in which the aeration is conducted by a medium-pressure fan. Results indicated that the removal rate of TOC and NH4(+)-N were more than 85% at HLR of 0.5m(3)/m(2)d, whereas the TN removal rate was lower than 20%, indicating that the aeration was efficient and denitrification process was largely limited in the SWIS. When HLR decreased from 0.5 to 0.2m(3)/m(2)d, the pollutant removal efficiency enhanced slightly except for TN. Overall, the intermittent operation and micro-power aeration, combined with shunting the pollutant loading were really helpful for SWIS to achieve higher HLR, which offers a reference for the design of innovative SWIS.

  3. Effects of chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratios on pollutants removal in the subsurface wastewater infiltration systems with/without intermittent aeration.

    PubMed

    Song, Siyu; Pan, Jing; Wu, Shiwei; Guo, Yijing; Yu, Jingxiao; Shan, Qingchi

    2016-01-01

    The matrix oxidation reduction potential level, organic pollutants and nitrogen removal performances of eight subsurface wastewater infiltration systems (SWISs) (four with intermittent aeration, four without intermittent aeration) fed with influent chemical oxygen demand (COD)/N ratio of 3, 6, 12 and 18 were investigated. Nitrification of non-aerated SWISs was poor due to oxygen deficiency while higher COD/N ratios further led to lower COD and nitrogen removal rate. Intermittent aeration achieved almost complete nitrification, which successfully created aerobic conditions in the depth of 50 cm and did not change anoxic or anaerobic conditions in the depth of 80 and 110 cm. The sufficient carbon source in high COD/N ratio influent greatly promoted denitrification in SWISs with intermittent aeration. High average removal rates of COD (95.68%), ammonia nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) (99.32%) and total nitrogen (TN) (89.65%) were obtained with influent COD/N ratio of 12 in aerated SWISs. The results suggest that intermittent aeration was a reliable option to achieve high nitrogen removal in SWISs, especially with high COD/N ratio wastewater.

  4. Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in mice lacking glial fibrillary acidic protein is characterized by a more severe clinical course and an infiltrative central nervous system lesion.

    PubMed Central

    Liedtke, W.; Edelmann, W.; Chiu, F. C.; Kucherlapati, R.; Raine, C. S.

    1998-01-01

    Insights into the role of the astrocyte intermediate filament protein, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), have only recently emerged with reports on subtle abnormalities in GFAP-deficient mice, including the documentation of defective long-term maintenance of central nervous system myelination. Here, we extend these observations by examining the astroglial response in GFAP-/- mice with autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), a model for multiple sclerosis. Clinically, the monophasic disease was more severe in GFAP-/- mice than in wild-type littermates despite increased remyelination in the former. More in keeping with the clinical course was the observation of an infiltrative EAE lesion in GFAP-/- mice. GFAP-/- astrocytes had a reduced cytoarchitectural stability as evidenced by less abundant and irregularly spaced hemidesmosomes. The blunt GFAP-/- astrocyte processes possessed intermediate filaments consisting mainly of vimentin, though to a lesser degree than in the wild-type. In contrast, in wild-type littermates, GFAP was most abundant and nestin occurred at lower levels. Taken together, the present study introduces the novel concepts that GFAP plays an important role in the control of clinical disease associated with formation of a clearly defined edge to the EAE lesion and that GFAP is operative in the regulation of the intermediate filament components in reactive fibrillary astrogliosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:9422542

  5. Effect of hydraulic loading rate on pollutant removal efficiency in subsurface infiltration system under intermittent operation and micro-power aeration.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yongqiang; Zhan, Xuan; Wu, Shijun; Kang, Mingliang; Guo, Jianan; Chen, Fanrong

    2016-04-01

    The low hydraulic loading rate (HLR) greatly restricts the wide application of subsurface wastewater infiltration system (SWIS) in densely populated areas. To increase the HLR, an innovative SWIS was developed using cyclic operation mode. In each cycle, a wastewater feeding period is followed by a drying period, in which the aeration is conducted by a medium-pressure fan. Results indicated that the removal rate of TOC and NH4(+)-N were more than 85% at HLR of 0.5m(3)/m(2)d, whereas the TN removal rate was lower than 20%, indicating that the aeration was efficient and denitrification process was largely limited in the SWIS. When HLR decreased from 0.5 to 0.2m(3)/m(2)d, the pollutant removal efficiency enhanced slightly except for TN. Overall, the intermittent operation and micro-power aeration, combined with shunting the pollutant loading were really helpful for SWIS to achieve higher HLR, which offers a reference for the design of innovative SWIS. PMID:26826957

  6. Research study of droplet sizing technology leading to the development of an advanced droplet sizing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, C. F.; Smart, A. E.; Espinosa, V. E.

    1985-01-01

    An instrument to measure the size and velocity of droplets was developed. The instrument uses one of two techniques, as appropriate. In the first technique two small laser beams of one color identify the center of a larger laser beam of a different color. This defines a region of almost uniform intensity where the light scattered by the individual droplets can be related to their size. The first technique uses the visibility of a Doppler burst and validates it against the peak intensity of the signal's pedestal. Results are presented for monodisperse, bimodal, trimodal, and polydisperse sprays produced by the Berglund-Liu droplet generator and a pressure nozzle. Size distributions of a given spray obtained using three different size ranges show excellent self-consistency in the overlapping region. Measurements of sprays of known characteristics exhibit errors in the order of 10%. The principles of operation and design criteria of the instrument are discussed in great detail.

  7. Polymer infiltration studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marchello, Joseph M.

    1992-01-01

    Progress was made in several areas on the preparation of carbon fiber composites using advanced polymer resins. Polymer infiltration studies dealt with ways of preparing composite materials from advanced polymer resins and carbon fibers. This effort is comprised of an integrated approach to the process of composite part fabrication. The goal is to produce advanced composite materials for automated part fabrication using textile and robotics technology in the manufacture of subsonic and supersonic aircraft. The object is achieved through investigations at the NASA Langley Research Center and by stimulating technology transfer between contract researchers and the aircraft industry. Covered here are literature reviews, a status report on individual projects, current and planned research, publications, and scheduled technical presentations.

  8. Size-exclusion chromatography system for macromolecular interaction analysis

    DOEpatents

    Stevens, Fred J.

    1988-01-01

    A low pressure, microcomputer controlled system employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) allows for precise analysis of the interaction of two reversibly associating macromolecules such as proteins. Since a macromolecular complex migrates faster than its components during size-exclusion chromatography, the difference between the elution profile of a mixture of two macromolecules and the summation of the elution profiles of the two components provides a quantifiable indication of the degree of molecular interaction. This delta profile is used to qualitatively reveal the presence or absence of significant interaction or to rank the relative degree of interaction in comparing samples and, in combination with a computer simulation, is further used to quantify the magnitude of the interaction in an arrangement wherein a microcomputer is coupled to analytical instrumentation in a novel manner.

  9. Optimal system sizing in grid-connected photovoltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simoens, H. M.; Baert, D. H.; de Mey, G.

    A costs/benefits analysis for optimizing the combination of photovoltaic (PV) panels, batteries and an inverter for grid interconnected systems at a 500 W/day Belgian residence is presented. It is assumed that some power purchases from the grid will always be necessary, and that excess PV power can be fed into the grid. A minimal value for the cost divided by the performance is defined for economic optimization. Shortages and excesses are calculated for PV panels of 0.5-10 kWp output, with consideration given to the advantages of a battery back-up. The minimal economic value is found to increase with the magnitude of PV output, and an inverter should never be rated at more than half the array maximum output. A maximum panel size for the Belgian residence is projected to be 6 kWp.

  10. Estimating the Limits of Infiltration in the Urban Appalachian Plateau

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lavin, S. M.; Bain, D.; Hopkins, K. G.; Pfeil-McCullough, E. K.; Copeland, E.

    2014-12-01

    Green infrastructure in urbanized areas commonly uses infiltration systems, such as rain gardens, swales and trenches, to convey surface runoff from impervious surfaces into surrounding soils. However, precipitation inputs can exceed soil infiltration rates, creating a limit to infiltration-based storm water management, particularly in urban areas covered by impervious surfaces. Given the limited availability and varied quality of soil infiltration rate data, we synthesized information from national databases, available field test data, and applicable literature to characterize soil infiltration rate distributions, focusing on Allegheny County, Pennsylvania as a case study. A range of impervious cover conditions was defined by sampling available GIS data (e.g., LiDAR and street edge lines) with analysis windows placed randomly across urbanization gradients. Changes in effective precipitation caused by impervious cover were calculated across these gradients and compared to infiltration rate distributions to identify thresholds in impervious coverage where these limits are exceeded. Many studies have demonstrated the effects of urbanization on infiltration, but the identification of these thresholds will clarify interactions between impervious cover and soil infiltration. These methods can help identify sections of urban areas that require augmentation of infiltration-based systems with additional infrastructural strategies, especially as green infrastructure moves beyond low impact development towards more frequent application during infilling of existing urban systems.

  11. IBAR: Interacting boson model calculations for large system sizes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casperson, R. J.

    2012-04-01

    Scaling the system size of the interacting boson model-1 (IBM-1) into the realm of hundreds of bosons has many interesting applications in the field of nuclear structure, most notably quantum phase transitions in nuclei. We introduce IBAR, a new software package for calculating the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the IBM-1 Hamiltonian, for large numbers of bosons. Energies and wavefunctions of the nuclear states, as well as transition strengths between them, are calculated using these values. Numerical errors in the recursive calculation of reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator are reduced by using an arbitrary precision mathematical library. This software has been tested for up to 1000 bosons using comparisons to analytic expressions. Comparisons have also been made to the code PHINT for smaller system sizes. Catalogue identifier: AELI_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AELI_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: GNU General Public License version 3 No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 28 734 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 4 104 467 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: C++ Computer: Any computer system with a C++ compiler Operating system: Tested under Linux RAM: 150 MB for 1000 boson calculations with angular momenta of up to L=4 Classification: 17.18, 17.20 External routines: ARPACK (http://www.caam.rice.edu/software/ARPACK/) Nature of problem: Construction and diagonalization of large Hamiltonian matrices, using reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator. Solution method: Reduced matrix elements of the d-boson creation operator have been stored in data files at machine precision, after being recursively calculated with higher than machine precision. The Hamiltonian matrix is calculated and diagonalized, and the requested transition strengths are calculated

  12. Optical detection of intravenous infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winchester, Leonard W.; Chou, Nee-Yin

    2006-02-01

    Infiltration of medications during infusion therapy results in complications ranging from erythema and pain to tissue necrosis requiring amputation. Infiltration occurs from improper insertion of the cannula, separation of the cannula from the vein, penetration of the vein by the cannula during movement, and response of the vein to the medication. At present, visual inspection by the clinical staff is the primary means for detecting intravenous (IV) infiltration. An optical sensor was developed to monitor the needle insertion site for signs of IV infiltration. Initial studies on simulated and induced infiltrations on a swine model validated the feasibility of the methodology. The presence of IV infiltration was confirmed by visual inspection of the infusion site and/or absence of blood return in the IV line. Potential sources of error due to illumination changes, motion artifacts, and edema were also investigated. A comparison of the performance of the optical device and blinded expert observers showed that the optical sensor has higher sensitivity and specificity, and shorter detection time than the expert observers. An improved model of the infiltration monitoring device was developed and evaluated in a clinical study on induced infiltrations of healthy adult volunteers. The performance of the device was compared with the observation of a blinded expert observer. The results show that the rates of detection of infiltrations are 98% and 82% for the optical sensor and the observer, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the optical sensor are 0.97 and 0.98, respectively.

  13. Parametric Study of Reactive Melt Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nelson, Emily S.; Colella, Phillip

    2000-01-01

    Reactive melt infiltration is viewed as a promising means of achieving near-net shape manufacturing with quick processing time and at low cost. Since the reactants and products are, in general, of varying density, overall conservation of mass dictates that there is a force related to chemical conversion which can directly influence infiltration behavior. In effect, the driving pressure forces may compete with the forces from chemical conversion, affecting the advancement of the front. We have developed a two-dimensional numerical code to examine these effects, using reaction-formed silicon carbide as a model system for this process. We have examined a range of initial porosities, pore radii, and reaction rates in order to investigate their effects on infiltration dynamics.

  14. Infiltration of CCR2+Ly6Chigh Proinflammatory Monocytes and Neutrophils into the Central Nervous System Is Modulated by Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors in a Model of Multiple Sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Wei; St-Pierre, Stéphanie; Roy, Patrick; Morley, Barbara J.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloid cells, including proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, have important roles in the pathology of multiple sclerosis and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). These cells infiltrate the CNS in the early stages of disease development and contribute to the inflammatory response that is associated with symptom severity. It is thus crucial to identify and understand new mechanisms that can regulate the CNS infiltration of proinflammatory myeloid cells. Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) have been increasingly studied for their immune-regulatory properties. In this study, we assessed the ability of nicotine, an nAChR ligand, to modulate proinflammatory myeloid cell numbers within the bone marrow, spleen, blood, and CNS of EAE mice. We found that nicotine significantly inhibits the infiltration of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils into the CNS at time points where these cells are known to play critical roles in disease pathology. In contrast, nicotine does not affect the expansion of other monocytes. We also show that nicotine exerts these effects by acting on α7 and α9 nAChR subtypes. Finally, mRNA transcript levels for CCL2 and CXCL2, chemokines involved in the chemotaxis of proinflammatory monocytes and neutrophils, respectively, are reduced in the brain of nicotine-treated EAE mice before the massive infiltration of these cells. Taken together, our data provide evidence that nAChRs can regulate proinflammatory cell infiltration into the CNS, which could be of significant value for the treatment of neuroinflammatory disorders. PMID:26810225

  15. Evaluation of an Infiltration Model with Microchannels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcia-Serrana, M.; Gulliver, J. S.; Nieber, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    This research goal is to develop and demonstrate the means by which roadside drainage ditches and filter strips can be assigned the appropriate volume reduction credits by infiltration. These vegetated surfaces convey stormwater, infiltrate runoff, and filter and/or settle solids, and are often placed along roads and other impermeable surfaces. Infiltration rates are typically calculated by assuming that water flows as sheet flow over the slope. However, for most intensities water flow occurs in narrow and shallow micro-channels and concentrates in depressions. This channelization reduces the fraction of the soil surface covered with the water coming from the road. The non-uniform distribution of water along a hillslope directly affects infiltration. First, laboratory and field experiments have been conducted to characterize the spatial pattern of flow for stormwater runoff entering onto the surface of a sloped surface in a drainage ditch. In the laboratory experiments different micro-topographies were tested over bare sandy loam soil: a smooth surface, and three and five parallel rills. All the surfaces experienced erosion; the initially smooth surface developed a system of channels over time that increased runoff generation. On average, the initially smooth surfaces infiltrated 10% more volume than the initially rilled surfaces. The field experiments were performed in the side slope of established roadside drainage ditches. Three rates of runoff from a road surface into the swale slope were tested, representing runoff from 1, 2, and 10-year storm events. The average percentage of input runoff water infiltrated in the 32 experiments was 67%, with a 21% standard deviation. Multiple measurements of saturated hydraulic conductivity were conducted to account for its spatial variability. Second, a rate-based coupled infiltration and overland model has been designed that calculates stormwater infiltration efficiency of swales. The Green-Ampt-Mein-Larson assumptions were

  16. Rain Gardens: Stormwater Infiltrating Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The hydrological dynamics and changes in stormwater nutrient concentrations within rain gardens were studied by introducing captured stormwater runoff to rain gardens at EPA’s Urban Water Research Facility in Edison, New Jersey. The runoff used in these experiments was collected...

  17. Solving large tomographic linear systems: size reduction and error estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, Sergey; Mikesell, Dylan; Slezak, Inna; Nolet, Guust

    2014-10-01

    We present a new approach to reduce a sparse, linear system of equations associated with tomographic inverse problems. We begin by making a modification to the commonly used compressed sparse-row format, whereby our format is tailored to the sparse structure of finite-frequency (volume) sensitivity kernels in seismic tomography. Next, we cluster the sparse matrix rows to divide a large matrix into smaller subsets representing ray paths that are geographically close. Singular value decomposition of each subset allows us to project the data onto a subspace associated with the largest eigenvalues of the subset. After projection we reject those data that have a signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) below a chosen threshold. Clustering in this way assures that the sparse nature of the system is minimally affected by the projection. Moreover, our approach allows for a precise estimation of the noise affecting the data while also giving us the ability to identify outliers. We illustrate the method by reducing large matrices computed for global tomographic systems with cross-correlation body wave delays, as well as with surface wave phase velocity anomalies. For a massive matrix computed for 3.7 million Rayleigh wave phase velocity measurements, imposing a threshold of 1 for the SNR, we condensed the matrix size from 1103 to 63 Gbyte. For a global data set of multiple-frequency P wave delays from 60 well-distributed deep earthquakes we obtain a reduction to 5.9 per cent. This type of reduction allows one to avoid loss of information due to underparametrizing models. Alternatively, if data have to be rejected to fit the system into computer memory, it assures that the most important data are preserved.

  18. Initial comparisons of modular-sized, integrated utility systems and conventional systems for several building types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, H. E.; Monford, L. G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    The results of a study of the application of a modular integrated utility system to six typical building types are compared with the application of a conventional utility system to the same facilities. The effects of varying the size and climatic location of the buildings and the size of the powerplants are presented. Construction details of the six building types (garden apartments, a high rise office building, high rise apartments, a shopping center, a high school, and a hospital) and typical site and floor plans are provided. The environmental effects, the unit size determination, and the market potential are discussed. The cost effectiveness of the various design options is not considered.

  19. Infiltration kinetics of aluminum in silicon carbide compacts. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, G.R.; Olson, D.L.

    1987-07-01

    Although metal-matrix composites have been fabricated by various techniques, the most successful are solid state processes such as powder metallurgy and diffusion bonding. Liquid-metal processes such as compucasting, pultrusion, and infiltration, while less successful, are potentially more economical. The advantages of producing silicon carbide-aluminum matrix composites by liquid-metal infiltration techniques can not be fully realized without an improved understanding of the infiltration behavior and the fiber/matrix bonding mechanisms. This paper reports on infiltration models which consider the physical properties of the liquid and preform (either porous compact or capillary/tube bundle). These properties include viscosity, density, surface tension, and wettability (pore shape and size in the case of the porous compact). The models have been assessed in terms of their ability to predict infiltration behavior from known physical properties of the materials.

  20. Fast RPA and GW calculations: cubic system size scaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kresse, Georg

    The random phase approximation (RPA) to the correlation energy and the related GW approximation are among the most promising methods to obtain accurate correlation energy differences and QP energies from diagrammatic perturbation theory at reasonable computational cost. The calculations are, however, usually one to two orders of magnitude more demanding than conventional density functional theory calculations. Here, we show that a cubic system size scaling can be readily obtained reducing the computation time by one to two orders of magnitude for large systems. Furthermore, the scaling with respect to the number of k points used to sample the Brillouin zone can be reduced to linear order. In combination, this allows accurate and very well-converged single-point RPA and GW calculations, with a time complexity that is roughly on par or better than for self-consistent Hartree-Fock and hybrid-functional calculations. Furthermore, the talk discusses the relation between the RPA correlation energy and the GW approximation: the self-energy is the derivative of the RPA correlation energy with respect to the Green's function. The calculated self-energy can be used to compute QP-energies in the GW approximation, any first derivative of the total energy, as well as corrections to the correlation energy from the changes of the charge density when switching from DFT to a many-body body description (GW singles energy contribution).

  1. The soil apparent infiltrability observed with ponded infiltration experiment in a permanent grid of infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubova, Jana; Jelinkova, Vladimira; Nemcova, Renata; Tesar, Miroslav; Vogel, Tomas; Cislerova, Milena

    2010-05-01

    Since 2003, a study of spatial and temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties has been in progress at the experimental site Liz (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia). For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been observed. Moreover, the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow, as demonstrated by the results of a dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005. The present study is focused primarily on the temporal variability of the soil hydraulic conductivity. Additionally, the influence of the initial soil moisture conditions on the soil infiltrability is examined. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. As expected, the observed quasi-steady-state infiltration rates varied much among the infiltration points (the coefficient of variation of values measured in one set of experiments was typically between 0,5 and 1). Regarding the temporal development, independent variations at separate measuring points were overridden by a huge overall increase of the observed infiltration rates (the average detected steady-state infiltration rate changed from 600 cm/day in 2003 to 2300 cm/day in 2009). With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the observed infiltration rates for the repeated infiltration was detected.

  2. Turbidite systems in deep-water basin margins classified by grain size and feeder system

    SciTech Connect

    Reading, H.G. ); Richards, M. )

    1994-05-01

    Depositional system in deep-water basin margins can be classified on the basis of grain size and feeder system into 12 classes: mud-rich, mud/sand-rich, sand-rich, and gravel-rich [open quotes]point-source submarine fans,[close quotes] mud-rich, mud/sand-rich, sand-rich, and gravel-rich [open quotes]multiple-source submarine ramps;[close quotes] and mud-rich, mud/sand-rich, sand-rich, and gravel-rich [open quotes]linear-source slope aprons.[close quotes] The size and stability of channels and the organization of the depositional sequences decreases toward a linear source as does the length:width ratio of the system. As grain size increases, so does slope gradient, impersistence of channel systems, and tendency for channels to migrate. As grain size diminishes, there is an increase in the size of the source area, the size of the depositional system, the downcurrent length, the persistence and size of flows, fan channels, channel-levee systems, and in the tendency to meander and for major slumps and sheet sands to reach the lower fan and basin plan. The exact positioning of any one depositional system within the scheme cannot always be precise and the position may be altered by changes in tectonic, climate, supply, and sea level. The models derived from each system are sufficiently different to significantly affect the nature of petroleum prospectivity and reservoir pattern. Understanding and recognizing this variability is crucial to all elements of the exploration-production chain. In exploration, initial evaluations of prospectivity and commerciality rely on the accurate stratigraphic prediction of reservoir facies, architecture, and trapping styles. For field appraisal and reservoir development, a similar appreciation of variability aids reservoir description by capturing the distribution and architecture of reservoir and nonreservoir facies and their impact on reservoir delineation, reservoir behavior, and production performance. 161 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs.

  3. On the melt infiltration of copper coated silicon carbide with an aluminium alloy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Asthana, R.; Rohatgi, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    Pressure-assisted infiltration of porous compacts of Cu coated and uncoated single crystals of platelet shaped alpha (hexagonal) SiC was used to study infiltration dynamics and particulate wettability with a 2014 Al alloy. The infiltration lengths were measured for a range of experimental variables which included infiltration pressure, infiltration time, and SiC size. A threshold pressure (P(th)) for flow initiation through compacts was identified from an analysis of infiltration data; P(th) decreased while penetration lengths increased with increasing SiC size (more fundamentally, due to changes in interparticle pore size) and with increasing infiltration times. Cu coated SiC led to lower P(th) and 60-80 percent larger penetration lengths compared to uncoated SiC under identical processing conditions.

  4. Perfluorinated compounds in infiltrated river rhine water and infiltrated rainwater in coastal dunes.

    PubMed

    Eschauzier, Christian; Haftka, Joris; Stuyfzand, Pieter J; de Voogt, Pim

    2010-10-01

    Different studies have shown that surface waters contain perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in the low ng/L range. Surface waters are used to produce drinking water and PFCs have been shown to travel through the purification system and form a potential threat to human health. The specific physicochemical properties of PFCs cause them to be persistent and some of them to be bioaccumulative and toxic in the environment. This study investigates the evolvement of PFC concentrations in Rhine water and rainwater during dune water infiltration processes over a transect in the dune area of the western part of The Netherlands. The difference between infiltrated river water and rainwater in terms of PFC composition was investigated. Furthermore, isomer profiles were investigated. The compound perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS) was found at the highest concentrations of all PFCs investigated, up to 37 ng/L in infiltrated river water (71 ± 13% of ΣPFCs). This is in contrast with the predominant occurrence of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) reported in literature. The concentrations of PFBS found in infiltrated river Rhine water were significantly higher than those in infiltrated rainwater. For perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHxS) the opposite was found: infiltrated rainwater contained more than infiltrated river water. The concentrations of PFOA, perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), PFBS, PFOS, and PFHxS in infiltrated river water showed an increasing trend with decreasing age of the water. The relative contribution of the branched PFOA and PFOS isomers to total concentrations of PFOA and PFOS showed a decreasing trend with decreasing age of the water.

  5. Infiltrating angiolipoma with phlebolith formation.

    PubMed

    De Orchis, D; Ozonoff, M B

    1986-01-01

    Angiolipomas are uncommon benign soft tissue tumors with both fatty and vascular components; they may be encapsulated or locally invasive. Three cases are reported in which phleboliths were present within infiltrating angiolipomas. The demonstration of phleboliths in a lipoma suggests the diagnosis of infiltrating angiolipoma rather than the usual encapsulated lipoma. PMID:3764475

  6. The effects of antecedent dry days on the nitrogen removal in layered soil infiltration systems for storm run-off control.

    PubMed

    Cho, Kang-Woo; Yoon, Min-Hyuk; Song, Kyung-Guen; Ahn, Kyu-Hong

    2011-01-01

    The effects of antecedent dry days (ADD) on nitrogen removal efficiency were investigated in soil infiltration systems, with three distinguishable layers: mulch layer (ML), coarse soil layer (CSL) and fine soil layer (FSL). Two sets of lab-scale columns with loamy CSL (C1) and sandy CSL (C2) were dosed with synthetic run-off, carrying chemical oxygen demand of 100 mg L(-1) and total nitrogen of 13 mg L(-1). The intermittent dosing cycle was stepwise adjusted for 5, 10 and 20 days. The influent ammonium and organic nitrogen were adsorbed to the entire depth in C1, while dominantly to the FSL in C2. In both columns, the effluent ammonium concentration increased while the organic nitrogen concentration decreased, as ADD increased from 5 to 20 days. The effluent of C1 always showed nitrate concentration exceeding influent, caused by nitrification, by increasing amounts as ADD increased. However, the wash-out of nitrate in C1 was not distinct in terms of mass since the effluent flow rate was only 25% of the influent. In contrast, efficient reduction (>95%) of nitrate loading was observed in C2 under ADD of 5 and 10 days, because of insignificant nitrification in the CSL and denitrification in the FSL. However, for the ADD of 20 days, a significant nitrate wash-out appeared in C2 as well, possibly because of the re-aeration by the decreasing water content in the FSL. Consequently, the total nitrogen load escaping with the effluent was always smaller in C2, supporting the effectiveness of sandy CSL over loamy FSL for nitrogen removal under various ADDs. PMID:21879550

  7. T lymphocyte repertoire in Theiler's virus encephalomyelitis: the nonspecific infiltration of the central nervous system of infected SJL/J mice is associated with a selective local T cell expansion.

    PubMed

    Musette, P; Bureau, J F; Gachelin, G; Kourilsky, P; Brahic, M

    1995-06-01

    Theiler's virus causes, in the susceptible SJL/J mouse, a chronic demyelinating disease that resembles multiple sclerosis. Demyelination is at least in part immune mediated and coincides with the infiltration of the central nervous system by T lymphocytes. We analyzed the repertoire of the T cell receptor (TcR) beta-chain for each V beta-J beta combination, in spinal cord and spleen T cells of infected animals. All V beta families were detected in spinal cord as well as in spleen, as if the central nervous system were undiscriminantly invaded by T cells in the infected animals. Some T cells, defined by specific V beta-J beta combinations, were expanded in the spinal cord but not in the spleen, most probably because of an antigen-driven response. The TcR beta-chain repertoire of infiltrating T cells was the same at the onset of demyelination as when the disease was full-blown. These results provide the first description of the repertoire of the T cells which infiltrate the central nervous system during the course of this disease.

  8. Role of Runoff-Infiltration Partitioning and Resolved Overland Flow on Land-Atmosphere Feedbacks: A Case-Study with the WRF-Hydro Coupled Modeling System for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, J.; Wagner, S.; Rummler, T.; Fersch, B.; Bliefernicht, J.; Andresen, S.; Kunstmann, H.

    2015-12-01

    The analysis of land-atmosphere feedbacks requires detailed representation of land processes in atmospheric models. Our focus here is on runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow. In the standard version of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model, coupled with the Noah Land Surface Model, runoff-infiltration partitioning is described as a purely vertical process. In the WRF-Hydro coupled modeling system, runoff is enhanced with lateral water flows. The study region is the Sissili catchment (12800 km2) in West Africa, and the period of investigation is March 2003 - February 2004. Our WRF setup includes an outer and inner domain at 10 and 2 km resolution, respectively. In our WRF-Hydro setup the inner domain is coupled with a sub-grid at 500 m resolution to compute overland and river flow. Model results are compared with TRMM precipitation, MTE evapotranspiration, CCI soil moisture, CRU temperature, and streamflow observation. In the outer domain, a sensitivity analysis to runoff-infiltration partitioning gives a range of simulated annual precipitation of one sixth of the annual amount. In the inner domain, where precipitation patterns are mainly prescribed by lateral boundary conditions, sensitivity is small, but additionally resolved overland flow here clearly increases infiltration and evapotranspiration at the beginning of the wet season when soils are still dry. Our WRF-Hydro setup shows the potential of this fully coupled modeling system for joint atmospheric and terrestrial water balance studies, and reproduces observed daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.43.

  9. An Experiment on Node Size in a Hypermedia System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Su Hee; Eastman, Caroline M.

    1999-01-01

    Describes an experiment in which presentation size and text length is varied in a HyperCard application. Students performed a fact-retrieval task from a reference handbook. No interaction is found between these two independent variables. Performance is significantly better for the longer texts, but no significant difference is found for the two…

  10. Infiltration with Agrobacterium tumefaciens induces host defense and development-dependent responses in the infiltrated zone.

    PubMed

    Pruss, Gail J; Nester, Eugene W; Vance, Vicki

    2008-12-01

    Despite the widespread use of Agrobacterium tumefaciens to transfer genes into plant systems, host responses to this plant pathogen are not well understood. The present study shows that disarmed strains of Agrobacterium induce distinct host responses when infiltrated into leaves of Nicotiana tabacum. The responses are limited to the infiltrated zone and consist of i) induction of pathogenesis-related (PR) gene PR-1 expression and resistance to subsequent infection with tobacco mosaic virus, ii) chlorosis and loss of chloroplast rRNAs, and iii) inhibition of leaf expansion. Induction of the latter two sets of responses depends on the age of the leaf and is most apparent in young leaves. Strains with or without binary vectors induce all the responses, showing that DNA transfer is neither required nor inhibitory. A. tumefaciens cured of the tumor-inducing (Ti) plasmid is slightly defective for induction of the three responses, showing that Ti plasmid-encoded factors produced by the disarmed strains contribute only slightly. However, T-DNA-encoded factors alter at least one of the host responses, because infiltration with the oncogenic strain C58 induced more pronounced chlorosis than the disarmed control. Auxin is one of the T-DNA products responsible for disease induction by oncogenic A. tumefaciens. We found that C58-infiltrated zones-but not those infiltrated with the disarmed control-have increased levels of miR393, a microRNA that represses auxin signaling and contributes to antibacterial resistance. PMID:18986249

  11. Evaluation of Infiltration Basin Performance in Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bean, E.

    2012-12-01

    Infiltration basins are commonly utilized to reduce or eliminate urban runoff in Florida. For permitting purposes, basins are required to recover their design volume, runoff from a one inch rainfall event, within 72 hours to satisfy the design criteria and are not required to account for groundwater mounding if volume recovery can be accomplished by filling of soil porosity by vertical infiltration below the basin surface. Forty infiltration basins were included in a field study to determine whether basin hydraulic performance was significantly different from their designed performance. Basins ranged in age from less than one year to over twenty years and land uses were equally divided between Florida Department of Transportation (FDOT) and residential developments. Six test sites within each basin were typically selected to measure infiltration rates using a double ring infiltrometer (DRI), a common method for infiltration basin sizing. Measured rates were statistically compared to designed infiltration rates, taking into account factors of safety. In addition, a surface soil boring was collected from each of the test sites for a series of analyses, including soil texture, bulk density, and organic matter content. Eleven of the 40 evaluated basins were monitored between March 2008 and January 2012 to evaluate whether basins recovered their volumes from one inch events within 72 hours and to evaluate the effectiveness of using DRI rates to evaluate basin performance. Based on DRI rates, 16 (40%) basins had rates less than their designed rates, 10 (25%) had rates equal to their designed rates, and 14 (35%) basins had rates greater than their designed rates. Additionally, basins with coarser soils were also more likely to have DRI rates greater than designs and FDOT basins were more likely than residential basins to have infiltration rates at or above their designed rates. Five of the eleven monitored basins were expected to function as designed by recovering their

  12. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.

    1993-12-31

    The purpose of this program is to develop a new process for the fabrication of ceramic matrix composites by chemical vapor infiltration. This period has been devoted in part to the exploration of material systems suitable for MACVI processing. A number of potential processing schemes are possible using combinations of absorbing and transparent material as composite components. This includes the use of an absorbing preform (nicalon fiber) combined with a transparent matrix (silicon nitride). Composites 5 cm in diameter by 1 cm. thick have been fabricated to densities of 65% theoretical. Processing times for these materials are under 20 hours. Higher densities will require additional microwave power now possible with the new reactor. The most effective MACVI scheme will involve the use of a transparent fiber with an absorbing matrix. The hot spot will be initiated by appropriate treatment of the central region of the preform. To this end alumna fibers with pretreatments to control thermal gradients has been explored. Nextel 610 fibers have been effectively pretreated carbon coating resulting in preferential heating in the interior of the preform. Possible matrix materials include siliconized silicon carbide, doped silicon carbide, alumna and zirconia. A patent for MACVI has been issued 10/19/93.

  13. Lot sizing and unequal-sized shipment policy for an integrated production-inventory system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giri, B. C.; Sharma, S.

    2014-05-01

    This article develops a single-manufacturer single-retailer production-inventory model in which the manufacturer delivers the retailer's ordered quantity in unequal shipments. The manufacturer's production process is imperfect and it may produce some defective items during a production run. The retailer performs a screening process immediately after receiving the order from the manufacturer. The expected average total cost of the integrated production-inventory system is derived using renewal theory and a solution procedure is suggested to determine the optimal production and shipment policy. An extensive numerical study based on different sets of parameter values is conducted and the optimal results so obtained are analysed to examine the relative performance of the models under equal and unequal shipment policies.

  14. INITIAL SIZE DISTRIBUTION OF THE GALACTIC GLOBULAR CLUSTER SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Shin, Jihye; Kim, Sungsoo S.; Yoon, Suk-Jin; Kim, Juhan

    2013-01-10

    Despite the importance of their size evolution in understanding the dynamical evolution of globular clusters (GCs) of the Milky Way, studies that focus specifically on this issue are rare. Based on the advanced, realistic Fokker-Planck (FP) approach, we theoretically predict the initial size distribution (SD) of the Galactic GCs along with their initial mass function and radial distribution. Over one thousand FP calculations in a wide parameter space have pinpointed the best-fit initial conditions for the SD, mass function, and radial distribution. Our best-fit model shows that the initial SD of the Galactic GCs is of larger dispersion than today's SD, and that the typical projected half-light radius of the initial GCs is {approx}4.6 pc, which is 1.8 times larger than that of the present-day GCs ({approx}2.5 pc). Their large size signifies greater susceptibility to the Galactic tides: the total mass of destroyed GCs reaches 3-5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 8} M {sub Sun }, several times larger than previous estimates. Our result challenges a recent view that the Milky Way GCs were born compact on the sub-pc scale, and rather implies that (1) the initial GCs were generally larger than the typical size of the present-day GCs, (2) the initially large GCs mostly shrank and/or disrupted as a result of the galactic tides, and (3) the initially small GCs expanded by two-body relaxation, and later shrank by the galactic tides.

  15. Groundwater contamination from stormwater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Pitt, R.; Clark, S.; Parmer, K.

    1995-10-01

    The research summarized here was conducted during the first year of a 3-yr cooperative agreement (CR819573) to identify and control stormwater toxicants, especially those adversely affecting groundwater. The purpose of this research effort was to review the groundwater contamination literature as it relates to stormwater. Prior to urbanization groundwater is recharged by rainfall-runoff and snowmelt infiltrating through pervious surfaces including grasslands and woods. This infiltrating water is relatively uncontaminated. Urbanization, however, reduces the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by infiltration occurs. This results in much less groundwater recharge and greatly increased surface runoff. In addition the waters available for recharge carry increased quantities of pollutants. With urbanization, waters having elevated contaminant concentrations also recharge groundwater including effluent from domestic septic tanks, wastewater from percolation basins and industrial waste injection wells, infiltrating stormwater, and infiltrating water from agricultural irrigation. The areas of main concern that are covered by this paper are: the source of the pollutants, stormwater constituents having a high potential to contaminate groundwater, and the treatment necessary for stormwater.

  16. Modeling the establishment of preferential flow during infiltration in a heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Slimene, Erij; Lassabatere, Laurent; Winiarski, Thierry; Gourdon, Remy

    2015-04-01

    Large cities are mostly situated in areas close to water resources in order to meet the water needs of their populations. Alluvial soils harbor large aquifers that are used to supply water, the Rhone-Alpes region being a good illustration. However, the increase of soil sealing has led to the development of best management practices such as infiltration basins which are aimed at infiltrating stormwater in order to reduce the amount of water collected and treated in usual systems. Yet, these infiltration basins are mainly settled over highly permeable geologic formations so as to ensure water infiltration and a proper functioning of these infiltration basins. Most of these formations are strongly heterogeneous, since they are made of different materials with contrasting sedimentological properties (e.g. particle size distribution) and transfer properties. This paper addresses flow modeling during the infiltration phase in the vadose zone underneath infiltration basins settled over a strongly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit. In particular, we want to pinpoint numerically the worst conditions with regards to preferential flow, in terms of initial hydric conditions (initial water contents) and imposed flow rates. For this purpose, a numerical study is proposed on the basis of previous studies offering a sedimentological description of the subsoil with the detail of its architecture and a precise description of the different lithofacies and their hydraulic properties. Considering this, we worked on a section (13.5m long and 2.5m high) for which a complete sedimentological and hydraulic description had already been performed. Water infiltration was modeled for different initial and boundary conditions (mostly the values of the flux imposed at surface). At first, different numerical tests and adjustments have been made including mesh optimization with regards to both accuracy and computation time. Following these tests, the "tight" mesh has been validated since it

  17. Removal of phosphorus by the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites for municipal wastewater treatment in constructed rapid infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Jiang, Yinghe; Li, Meng; Leng, Yujie

    2016-06-01

    Constructed rapid infiltration systems (CRIS) are a reasonable option for treating wastewater, owing to their simplicity, low cost and low energy consumption. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), novel materials with high surface area and anion exchange capacity, faced the problem of the application in CRIS due to the powdered form. To overcome this shortcoming, Zn-LDHs (FeZn-LDHs, CoZn-LDHs, AlZn-LDHs) were prepared by co-precipitation method and in-situ coated on the surface of the natural bio-ceramic to synthesize the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs composites. Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) indicated that the Zn-LDHs were successful loaded on the natural bio-ceramic. Column tests experiments indicated that the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs efficiently enhanced the removal performance of phosphorus. The efficiently removal rates of bio-ceramic/FeZn-LDHs were 71.58% for total phosphorous (TP), 74.91% for total dissolved phosphorous (TDP), 82.31% for soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) and 67.58% for particulate phosphorus (PP). Compared with the natural bio-ceramic, the average removal rates were enhanced by 32.20% (TP), 41.33% (TDP), 49.06% (SRP) and 10.50% (PP), respectively. Adsorption data of phosphate were better described by the Freundlich model for the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs and natural bio-ceramic, except for the bio-ceramic/CoZn-LDHs. The maximum adsorption capacity of bio-ceramic/AlZn-LDHs (769.23 mg/kg) was 1.77 times of the natural bio-ceramic (434.78 mg/kg). The effective desorption of phosphate could achieve by using a mixed solution of 5 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH, it outperformed the natural bio-ceramic of 18.95% for FeZn-LDHs, 7.59% for CoZn-LDHs and 12.66% for AlZn-LDHs. The kinetic data of the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs were better described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Compared the removal amount of phosphate by the natural bio-ceramic, the physical effects were improved little, but the chemical

  18. Removal of phosphorus by the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-layered double hydroxides (LDHs) composites for municipal wastewater treatment in constructed rapid infiltration system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangling; Guo, Lu; Huang, Hualing; Jiang, Yinghe; Li, Meng; Leng, Yujie

    2016-06-01

    Constructed rapid infiltration systems (CRIS) are a reasonable option for treating wastewater, owing to their simplicity, low cost and low energy consumption. Layered double hydroxides (LDHs), novel materials with high surface area and anion exchange capacity, faced the problem of the application in CRIS due to the powdered form. To overcome this shortcoming, Zn-LDHs (FeZn-LDHs, CoZn-LDHs, AlZn-LDHs) were prepared by co-precipitation method and in-situ coated on the surface of the natural bio-ceramic to synthesize the core-shell bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs composites. Characterization by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and X-ray Fluorescence Spectrometer (XRFS) indicated that the Zn-LDHs were successful loaded on the natural bio-ceramic. Column tests experiments indicated that the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs efficiently enhanced the removal performance of phosphorus. The efficiently removal rates of bio-ceramic/FeZn-LDHs were 71.58% for total phosphorous (TP), 74.91% for total dissolved phosphorous (TDP), 82.31% for soluble reactive phosphorous (SRP) and 67.58% for particulate phosphorus (PP). Compared with the natural bio-ceramic, the average removal rates were enhanced by 32.20% (TP), 41.33% (TDP), 49.06% (SRP) and 10.50% (PP), respectively. Adsorption data of phosphate were better described by the Freundlich model for the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs and natural bio-ceramic, except for the bio-ceramic/CoZn-LDHs. The maximum adsorption capacity of bio-ceramic/AlZn-LDHs (769.23 mg/kg) was 1.77 times of the natural bio-ceramic (434.78 mg/kg). The effective desorption of phosphate could achieve by using a mixed solution of 5 M NaCl + 0.1 M NaOH, it outperformed the natural bio-ceramic of 18.95% for FeZn-LDHs, 7.59% for CoZn-LDHs and 12.66% for AlZn-LDHs. The kinetic data of the bio-ceramic/Zn-LDHs were better described by the pseudo-second-order equation. Compared the removal amount of phosphate by the natural bio-ceramic, the physical effects were improved little, but the chemical

  19. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  20. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Programs 219.303 Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size...

  1. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  2. 48 CFR 219.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 219.303 Section 219.303 Federal... Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards....

  3. Discovery of solar system-size halos around young stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckwith, S.; Skrutskie, M. F.; Zuckerman, B.; Dyck, H. M.

    1984-01-01

    Near-infrared speckle interferometric observations of five pre-main-sequence stars reveal a core-halo structure around two of these stars: HL Tau and R Mon. The halo light distribution is shown to arise from scattered light from small circumstellar particles. Halo sizes of 320 x 200 AU (alpha x delta FWHM) and 1300 x 1300 AU are deduced for HL Tau and R Mon, respectively, and the halo light is substantially bluer than the stellar light. The minimum mass of small particles in the scattering regions is comparable to the earth's mass in HL Tau and ten times greater in R Mon. Mass loss from the stars is almost certainly insufficient to produce the halo matter. The halos probably consist of relatively slowly moving matter bound gravitationally to the stars. From the size and mass of the circumstellar matter, it appears likely that these halos are in the early stage in the formation of planet-forming disks around the young stars.

  4. Humic substance formation during wastewater infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Siegrist, R.L. ); Hildmann-Smed, R.; Filip, Z.K. , Langen . Inst. fuer Wasser-, Boden- und Lufthygiene); Jenssen, P.D. . Centre for Soil and Environmental Research)

    1991-01-01

    Soil infiltration of wastewater effluents is a widely practiced method of treatment and disposal/reuse throughout the world. Renovation of the wastewater results from a wide variety of complex physicochemical and biological processes. One set of processes is speculated to involve the accumulation of organic matter by filtration and sorption followed by formation of humic substances. This humic substance formation can effect the performance of soil treatment systems by contributing to soil pore clogging and reduction in hydraulic capacity, and by yielding reactive substances and an enhancement of purification processes. While there has been a wealth of research into the nature and genesis of humic substances in terrestrial environments, there has been limited research of humic substance formation during soil infiltration of wastewater. The purpose of the research reported herein was to determine if humic substances can form under conditions typical of those present during wastewater infiltration into natural soil systems. This work was conducted during 1989 to 1990 as a collaborative effort between the Centre for Soil and Environmental Research, located in Aas, Norway and the Institute for Water, Soil and Air Hygiene located in Langen, West Germany. 11 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  5. The alternative complement component factor B regulates UV-induced oedema, systemic suppression of contact and delayed hypersensitivity, and mast cell infiltration into the skin.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Scott N; Hammond, Kirsten J L; Chan, Carling Y-Y; Rogers, Linda J; Beaugie, Clare; Rana, Sabita; Marsh-Wakefield, Felix; Thurman, Joshua M; Halliday, Gary M

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths in sunlight are the prime cause of skin cancer in humans with both the UVA and UVB wavebands making a contribution to photocarcinogenesis. UV has many different biological effects on the skin that contribute to carcinogenesis, including suppression of adaptive immunity, sunburn and altering the migration of mast cells into and away from irradiated skin. Many molecular mechanisms have been identified as contributing to skin responses to UV. Recently, using gene set enrichment analysis of microarray data, we identified the alternative complement pathway with a central role for factor B (fB) in UVA-induced immunosuppression. In the current study we used mice genetically deficient in fB (fB-/- mice) to study the functional role of the alternative complement pathway in skin responses to UV. We found that fB is required for not only UVA but also UVB-induced immunosuppression and solar-simulated UV induction of the oedemal component of sunburn. Factor B-/- mice had a larger number of resident skin mast cells than control mice, but unlike the controls did not respond to UV by increasing mast cell infiltration into the skin. This study provides evidence for a function role for fB in skin responses to UV radiation. Factor B regulates UVA and UVB induced immunosuppression, UV induced oedema and mast cell infiltration into the skin. The alternative complement pathway is therefore an important regulator of skin responses to UV.

  6. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2006-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  7. An Approximate Ablative Thermal Protection System Sizing Tool for Entry System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dec, John A.; Braun, Robert D.

    2005-01-01

    A computer tool to perform entry vehicle ablative thermal protection systems sizing has been developed. Two options for calculating the thermal response are incorporated into the tool. One, an industry-standard, high-fidelity ablation and thermal response program was integrated into the tool, making use of simulated trajectory data to calculate its boundary conditions at the ablating surface. Second, an approximate method that uses heat of ablation data to estimate heat shield recession during entry has been coupled to a one-dimensional finite-difference calculation that calculates the in-depth thermal response. The in-depth solution accounts for material decomposition, but does not account for pyrolysis gas energy absorption through the material. Engineering correlations are used to estimate stagnation point convective and radiative heating as a function of time. The sizing tool calculates recovery enthalpy, wall enthalpy, surface pressure, and heat transfer coefficient. Verification of this tool is performed by comparison to past thermal protection system sizings for the Mars Pathfinder and Stardust entry systems and calculations are performed for an Apollo capsule entering the atmosphere at lunar and Mars return speeds.

  8. Economic lot sizing in a production system with random demand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Shine-Der; Yang, Chin-Ming; Lan, Shu-Chuan

    2016-04-01

    An extended economic production quantity model that copes with random demand is developed in this paper. A unique feature of the proposed study is the consideration of transient shortage during the production stage, which has not been explicitly analysed in existing literature. The considered costs include set-up cost for the batch production, inventory carrying cost during the production and depletion stages in one replenishment cycle, and shortage cost when demand cannot be satisfied from the shop floor immediately. Based on renewal reward process, a per-unit-time expected cost model is developed and analysed. Under some mild condition, it can be shown that the approximate cost function is convex. Computational experiments have demonstrated that the average reduction in total cost is significant when the proposed lot sizing policy is compared with those with deterministic demand.

  9. Metallic Rotor Sizing and Performance Model for Flywheel Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Camille J.; Kraft, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is developing flywheel system requirements and designs for terrestrial and spacecraft applications. Several generations of flywheels have been designed and tested at GRC using in-house expertise in motors, magnetic bearings, controls, materials and power electronics. The maturation of a flywheel system from the concept phase to the preliminary design phase is accompanied by maturation of the Integrated Systems Performance model, where estimating relationships are replaced by physics based analytical techniques. The modeling can incorporate results from engineering model testing and emerging detail from the design process.

  10. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  11. Correlation effects during liquid infiltration into hydrophobic nanoporous media

    SciTech Connect

    Borman, V. D. Belogorlov, A. A.; Byrkin, V. A.; Lisichkin, G. V.; Tronin, V. N.; Troyan, V. I.

    2011-03-15

    To explain the thermal effects observed during the infiltration of a nonwetting liquid into a disordered nanoporous medium, we have constructed a model that includes correlation effects in a disordered medium. It is based on analytical methods of the percolation theory. The infiltration of a porous medium is considered as the infiltration of pores in an infinite cluster of interconnected pores. Using the model of randomly situated spheres (RSS), we have been able to take into account the correlation effect of the spatial arrangement and connectivity of pores in the medium. The other correlation effect of the mutual arrangement of filled and empty pores on the shell of an infinite percolation cluster of filled pores determines the infiltration fluctuation probability. This probability has been calculated analytically. Allowance for these correlation effects during infiltration and defiltration makes it possible to suggest a physical mechanism of the contact angle hysteresis and to calculate the dependences of the contact angles on the degree of infiltration, porosity of the medium, and temperature. Based on the suggested model, we have managed to describe the temperature dependences of the infiltration and defiltration pressures and the thermal effects that accompany the absorption of energy by disordered porous medium-nonwetting liquid systems with various porosities in a unified way.

  12. Reducing Size, Weight, and Power (SWaP) of Perception Systems in Small Autonomous Aerial Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Kennie H.; Gross, Jason

    2014-01-01

    The objectives are to examine recent trends in the reduction of size, weight, and power (SWaP) requirements of sensor systems for environmental perception and to explore new technology that may overcome limitations in current systems. Improving perception systems to facilitate situation awareness is critical in the move to introduce increasing autonomy in aerial systems. Whether the autonomy is in the current state-of-the-art of increasing automation or is enabling cognitive decisions that facilitate adaptive behavior, collection of environmental information and fusion of that information into knowledge that can direct actuation is imperative to decisions resulting in appropriate behavior. Artificial sensory systems such as cameras, radar, LIDAR, and acoustic sensors have been in use on aircraft for many years but, due to the large size and weight of the airplane and electrical power made available through powerful engines, the SWaP requirements of these sensors was inconsequential. With the proliferation of Remote Piloted Vehicles (RPV), the trend is in significant reduction in SWaP of the vehicles. This requires at least an equivalent reduction in SWaP for the sensory systems. A survey of some currently available sensor systems and changing technology will reveal the trend toward reduction of SWaP of these systems and will predict future reductions. A new technology will be introduced that provides an example of a desirable new trend. A new device replaces multiple conventional sensory devices facilitating synchronization, localization, altimetry, collision avoidance, terrain mapping, and data communication in a single integrated, small form-factor, extremely lightweight, and low power device that it is practical for integration into small autonomous vehicles and can facilitate cooperative behavior. The technology is based on Ultra WideBand (UWB) radio using short pulses of energy rather than continuous sine waves. The characteristics of UWB yield several

  13. Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists (COMIS) fundamentals

    SciTech Connect

    Feustel, H.E.; Rayner-Hooson, A.

    1990-05-01

    The COMIS workshop (Conjunction of Multizone Infiltration Specialists) was a joint research effort to develop a multizone infiltration mode. This workshop (October 1988--September 1989) was hosted by the Energy Performance of Buildings Group at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Applied Science Division. The task of the workshop was to develop a detailed multizone infiltration program taking crack flow, HVAC-systems, single-sided ventilation and transport mechanism through large openings into account. This work was accomplished not by investigating into numerical description of physical phenomena but by reviewing the literature for the best suitable algorithm. The numerical description of physical phenomena is clearly a task of IEA-Annex XX Air Flow Patterns in Buildings,'' which will be finished in September 1991. Multigas tracer measurements and wind tunnel data will be used to check the model. The agenda integrated all participants' contributions into a single model containing a large library of modules. The user-friendly program is aimed at researchers and building professionals. From its announcement in December 1986, COMIS was well received by the research community. Due to the internationality of the group, several national and international research programmes were co-ordinated with the COMIS workshop. Colleagues for France, Italy, Japan, The Netherlands, People's Republic of China, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, and the United States of America were working together on the development of the model. Even though this kind of co-operation is well known in other fields of research, e.g., high energy physics; for the field of building physics it is a new approach. This document contains an overview about infiltration modelling as well as the physics and the mathematics behind the COMIS model. 91 refs., 38 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. Research of autocollimating angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turgalieva, Tatiana V.; Konyakhin, Igor A.

    2013-04-01

    Characteristics of the system were studied in laboratory conditions. The research confirmed effectiveness of the considered angular deformation measurement system for large-size objects such as the primary mirror of a radio telescope.

  15. Space Heating Load Estimation Procedure for CHP Systems sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vocale, P.; Pagliarini, G.; Rainieri, S.

    2015-11-01

    Due to its environmental and energy benefits, the Combined Heat and Power (CHP) represents certainly an important measure to improve energy efficiency of buildings. Since the energy performance of the CHP systems strongly depends on the fraction of the useful cogenerated heat (i.e. the cogenerated heat that is actually used to meet building thermal demand), in building applications of CHP, it is necessary to know the space heating and cooling loads profile to optimise the system efficiency. When the heating load profile is unknown or difficult to calculate with a sufficient accuracy, as may occur for existing buildings, it can be estimated from the cumulated energy uses by adopting the loads estimation procedure (h-LEP). With the aim to evaluate the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat for different operating conditions in terms of buildings characteristics, weather data and system capacity, the h-LEP is here implemented with a single climate variable: the hourly average dry- bulb temperature. The proposed procedure have been validated resorting to the TRNSYS simulation tool. The results, obtained by considering a building for hospital use, reveal that the useful fraction of the cogenerated heat can be estimated with an average accuracy of ± 3%, within the range of operative conditions considered in the present study.

  16. Influence of particle size on performance of a pilot-scale fixed-bed gasification system.

    PubMed

    Yin, Renzhan; Liu, Ronghou; Wu, Jinkai; Wu, Xiaowu; Sun, Chen; Wu, Ceng

    2012-09-01

    The effect of particle size on the gasification performance of a pilot-scale (25 kg/h) downdraft fixed bed gasification system was investigated using prunings from peach trees at five different size fractions (below 1, 1-2, 2-4, 4-6 and 6-8 cm). The gas and hydrocarbon compositions were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. With increasing particle size, gas yield increased while tar and dust content decreased. The lower heating value of the gas decreased slightly with particle size. At a smaller particle size, more hydrocarbons were detected in the producer gas. Hydrogen and carbon dioxide contents increased with the decrease in particle size, reaching 16.09% and 14.36% at particle size below 1cm, respectively. Prunings with a particle size of 1-2 cm were favorable for gasification in the downdraft gasifier used in this study.

  17. Electrical Imaging of Infiltration in Agricultural Soils on Long Island, New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lampousis, A.; Kenyon, P. M.; Sanwald, K.; Steiner, N.

    2007-12-01

    High resolution electrical resistivity imaging of vadose zone infiltration experiments was conducted on agricultural soils by the City College and Graduate Center of CUNY, in cooperation with Cornell University's Agricultural Stewardship Program and Long Island Horticultural Research and Extension Center (LIHREC) in Riverhead, New York. Measurements were made in active vineyards with a commercial resistivity imaging system, using a half- meter electrode spacing. Soils considered were Riverhead sandy loam (RdA), Haven loam (HaA), and Bridgehampton silty loam (BgA). The Riverhead and Haven soils are the most common types found on eastern Long Island. The Bridgehampton is considered the most fertile. Soil samples and measurements of soil compaction were collected at the same time as the geophysical measurements. In addition, remote sensing data were obtained for the three sites and processed to produce normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data to evaluate potential correlations between vegetation vigor, soil texture and water migration patterns. Applications of this study include continuous water content monitoring in high value cash crops (precision agriculture). Changes in electrical resistivity during infiltration are clearly visible at all three locations. Preliminary analysis of the results shows correlations of baseline resistivity with particle size distributions and correlations between changes in resistivity during infiltration and soil compaction data. Time-lapse electrical images of the three sites will also be compared with published properties for these soils, including particle size distribution, saturated hydraulic conductivity, available water capacity, and surface texture.

  18. Sizing the optimal dimensions of a vaccine delivery system: a particulate matter.

    PubMed

    Slütter, Bram; Jiskoot, Wim

    2016-01-01

    Encapsulation of subunit antigens into particulate vaccine delivery systems is a promising strategy to enhance their immunogenicity. The most basic physical parameter of these particles, their size, has a profound effect on the immunogenicity of the vaccine. Interestingly, the optimal particle size varies depending on the desired type of immunological memory and the route of administration. In this editorial, we draw attention to the effect of particle size on the resulting immune response and accentuate the importance of adequate particle sizing methods, within and beyond the intended size range of the delivery vehicle, to assess vaccine quality.

  19. Multidisciplinary optimization of aeroservoelastic systems using reduced-size models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karpel, Mordechay

    1992-01-01

    Efficient analytical and computational tools for simultaneous optimal design of the structural and control components of aeroservoelastic systems are presented. The optimization objective is to achieve aircraft performance requirements and sufficient flutter and control stability margins with a minimal weight penalty and without violating the design constraints. Analytical sensitivity derivatives facilitate an efficient optimization process which allows a relatively large number of design variables. Standard finite element and unsteady aerodynamic routines are used to construct a modal data base. Minimum State aerodynamic approximations and dynamic residualization methods are used to construct a high accuracy, low order aeroservoelastic model. Sensitivity derivatives of flutter dynamic pressure, control stability margins and control effectiveness with respect to structural and control design variables are presented. The performance requirements are utilized by equality constraints which affect the sensitivity derivatives. A gradient-based optimization algorithm is used to minimize an overall cost function. A realistic numerical example of a composite wing with four controls is used to demonstrate the modeling technique, the optimization process, and their accuracy and efficiency.

  20. Thermoeconomic optimal sizing for ice storage system in partial storage control strategies

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.H.; Joo, Y.J.; Choi, B.Y.; Kwon, S.C.

    1999-07-01

    This paper describes optimal sizing of ice storage and chiller system through parametric simulation for a commercial office building with peak cooling load of 600 tons. As an optimality criterion, the minimization of the annualized capital cost and fuel exergy costs on the basis of thermoeconomic analysis was chosen. This paper considers encapsulated ice storage system in chiller-downstream arrangement with chiller-priority control and storage-priority control strategies. Minimal required chiller sizes of the system for each control strategy are determined with storage fraction from 40% to 60%. The design condition, which has minimum cost, lies on the curve of the set of required chiller size and storage fraction. The optimal sizing is defined in this paper as the choice of size of chiller and storage tank, which leads to minimization of the annualized cost per exergy unit of product for the system.

  1. Cooperative storage of shared files in a parallel computing system with dynamic block size

    DOEpatents

    Bent, John M.; Faibish, Sorin; Grider, Gary

    2015-11-10

    Improved techniques are provided for parallel writing of data to a shared object in a parallel computing system. A method is provided for storing data generated by a plurality of parallel processes to a shared object in a parallel computing system. The method is performed by at least one of the processes and comprises: dynamically determining a block size for storing the data; exchanging a determined amount of the data with at least one additional process to achieve a block of the data having the dynamically determined block size; and writing the block of the data having the dynamically determined block size to a file system. The determined block size comprises, e.g., a total amount of the data to be stored divided by the number of parallel processes. The file system comprises, for example, a log structured virtual parallel file system, such as a Parallel Log-Structured File System (PLFS).

  2. Direct optimization of LWIR systems for maximized detection range and minimized size and weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bates, Rob; Kubala, Kenneth

    2014-05-01

    With reductions in microbolometer size and cost, long-wave infrared (LWIR) systems are increasingly being developed for platforms with challenging size, weight, power, and cost (SWAP-C) constraints, such as helmet-mounted systems and unmanned vehicles. Past optimization of imaging systems toward the simultaneous objectives of improved stand-off detection and low size, weight, and power required an iterative, multi-disciplinary design process. Here we demonstrate the direct optimization of the full LWIR system model including the optics, sensor, signal processing, and display degrees of freedom with system level metrics including SWAP-C and detection range. The end result is a system with superior size and weight for a given detection range.

  3. Automated System for Kinetic Analysis of Particle Size Distributions for Pharmaceutically Relevant Systems

    PubMed Central

    Green, John-Bruce D.; Carter, Phillip W.; Zhang, Yingqing; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the kinetics of particle formation for pharmaceutically relevant solutions is challenging, especially when considering the combination of formulations, containers, and timescales of clinical importance. This paper describes a method for using commercial software Automate with a stream-selector valve capable of sampling container solutions from within an environmental chamber. The tool was built to monitor changes in particle size distributions via instrumental particle counters but can be adapted to other solution-based sensors. The tool and methodology were demonstrated to be highly effective for measuring dynamic changes in emulsion globule distributions as a function of storage and mixing conditions important for parenteral nutrition. Higher levels of agitation induced the fastest growth of large globules (≥5 μm) while the gentler conditions actually showed a decrease in the number of these large globules. The same methodology recorded calcium phosphate precipitation kinetics as a function of [Ca2+] and pH. This automated system is readily adaptable to a wide range of pharmaceutically relevant systems where the particle size is expected to vary with time. This instrumentation can dramatically reduce the time and resources needed to probe complex formulation issues while providing new insights for monitoring the kinetics as a function of key variables. PMID:25140276

  4. Automated system for kinetic analysis of particle size distributions for pharmaceutically relevant systems.

    PubMed

    Green, John-Bruce D; Carter, Phillip W; Zhang, Yingqing; Patel, Dipa; Kotha, Priyanka; Gonyon, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Detailing the kinetics of particle formation for pharmaceutically relevant solutions is challenging, especially when considering the combination of formulations, containers, and timescales of clinical importance. This paper describes a method for using commercial software Automate with a stream-selector valve capable of sampling container solutions from within an environmental chamber. The tool was built to monitor changes in particle size distributions via instrumental particle counters but can be adapted to other solution-based sensors. The tool and methodology were demonstrated to be highly effective for measuring dynamic changes in emulsion globule distributions as a function of storage and mixing conditions important for parenteral nutrition. Higher levels of agitation induced the fastest growth of large globules (≥5 μm) while the gentler conditions actually showed a decrease in the number of these large globules. The same methodology recorded calcium phosphate precipitation kinetics as a function of [Ca(2+)] and pH. This automated system is readily adaptable to a wide range of pharmaceutically relevant systems where the particle size is expected to vary with time. This instrumentation can dramatically reduce the time and resources needed to probe complex formulation issues while providing new insights for monitoring the kinetics as a function of key variables. PMID:25140276

  5. GROUND WATER CONTAMINATION POTENTIAL FROM STORMWATER INFILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Prior to urbanization, ground water recharge resulted from infiltration of precipitation through pervious surfaces, including grasslands and woods. This infiltration water was relatively uncontaminated. With urbanization, the permeable soil surface area through which recharge by...

  6. Improved Cellular Infiltration in Electrospun Fiber via Engineered Porosity

    PubMed Central

    NAM, JIN; HUANG, YAN; AGARWAL, SUDHA; LANNUTTI, JOHN

    2016-01-01

    Small pore sizes inherent to electrospun matrices can hinder efficient cellular ingrowth. To facilitate infiltration while retaining its extracellular matrix-like character, electrospinning was combined with salt leaching to produce a scaffold having deliberate, engineered delaminations. We made elegant use of a specific randomizing component of the electrospinning process, the Taylor Cone and the falling fiber beneath it, to produce a uniform, well-spread distribution of salt particles. After 3 weeks of culture, up to 4 mm of cellular infiltration was observed, along with cellular coverage of up to 70% within the delaminations. To our knowledge, this represents the first observation of extensive cellular infiltration of electrospun matrices. Infiltration appears to be driven primarily by localized proliferation rather than coordinated cellular locomotion. Cells also moved from the salt-generated porosity into the surrounding electrospun fiber matrix. Given that the details of salt deposition (amount, size, and number density) are far from optimized, the result provides a convincing illustration of the ability of mammalian cells to interact with appropriately tailored electrospun matrices. These layered structures can be precisely fabricated by varying the deposition interval and particle size conceivably to produce in vivo-like gradients in porosity such that the resulting scaffolds better resemble the desired final structure. PMID:17536926

  7. Improved infiltration of stem cells on electrospun nanofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Shabani, Iman; Haddadi-Asl, Vahid; Seyedjafari, Ehsan; Babaeijandaghi, Farshad; Soleimani, Masoud

    2009-04-24

    Nanofibrous scaffolds have been recently used in the field of tissue engineering because of their nano-size structure which promotes cell attachment, function, proliferation and infiltration. In this study, nanofibrous polyethersulfone (PES) scaffolds was prepared via electrospinning. The scaffolds were surface modified by plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The surface changes then investigated by contact angle measurements and FTIR-ATR. The results proved grafting of the collagen on nanofibers surface and increased hydrophilicity after plasma treatment and collagen grafting. The cell interaction study was done using stem cells because of their ability to differentiate to different kinds of cell lines. The cells had normal morphology on nanofibers and showed very high infiltration through collagen grafted PES nanofibers. This infiltration capability is very useful and needed to make 3D scaffolds in tissue engineering.

  8. Characterization of infiltration rates from landfills: supporting groundwater modeling efforts.

    PubMed

    Moo-Young, Horace; Johnson, Barnes; Johnson, Ann; Carson, David; Lew, Christine; Liu, Salley; Hancocks, Katherine

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to review the literature to characterize infiltration rates from landfill liners to support groundwater modeling efforts. The focus of this investigation was on collecting studies that describe the performance of liners 'as installed' or 'as operated'. This document reviews the state of the science and practice on the infiltration rate through compacted clay liner (CCL) for 149 sites and geosynthetic clay liner (GCL) for 1 site. In addition, it reviews the leakage rate through geomembrane (GM) liners and composite liners for 259 sites. For compacted clay liners (CCL), there was limited information on infiltration rates (i.e., only 9 sites reported infiltration rates.), thus, it was difficult to develop a national distribution. The field hydraulic conductivities for natural clay liners range from 1 x 10(-9) cm s(-1) to 1 x 10(-4) cm s(-1), with an average of 6.5 x 10(-8) cm s(-1). There was limited information on geosynthetic clay liner. For composite lined and geomembrane systems, the leak detection system flow rates were utilized. The average monthly flow rate for composite liners ranged from 0-32 lphd for geomembrane and GCL systems to 0 to 1410 lphd for geomembrane and CCL systems. The increased infiltration for the geomembrane and CCL system may be attributed to consolidation water from the clay.

  9. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration. (a) Envelope air infiltration. The opaque envelope shall be designed and constructed to limit...

  10. Tumor infiltrating immune cells in gliomas and meningiomas.

    PubMed

    Domingues, Patrícia; González-Tablas, María; Otero, Álvaro; Pascual, Daniel; Miranda, David; Ruiz, Laura; Sousa, Pablo; Ciudad, Juana; Gonçalves, Jesús María; Lopes, María Celeste; Orfao, Alberto; Tabernero, María Dolores

    2016-03-01

    Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are part of a complex microenvironment that promotes and/or regulates tumor development and growth. Depending on the type of cells and their functional interactions, immune cells may play a key role in suppressing the tumor or in providing support for tumor growth, with relevant effects on patient behavior. In recent years, important advances have been achieved in the characterization of immune cell infiltrates in central nervous system (CNS) tumors, but their role in tumorigenesis and patient behavior still remain poorly understood. Overall, these studies have shown significant but variable levels of infiltration of CNS tumors by macrophage/microglial cells (TAM) and to a less extent also lymphocytes (particularly T-cells and NK cells, and less frequently also B-cells). Of note, TAM infiltrate gliomas at moderate numbers where they frequently show an immune suppressive phenotype and functional behavior; in contrast, infiltration by TAM may be very pronounced in meningiomas, particularly in cases that carry isolated monosomy 22, where the immune infiltrates also contain greater numbers of cytotoxic T and NK-cells associated with an enhanced anti-tumoral immune response. In line with this, the presence of regulatory T cells, is usually limited to a small fraction of all meningiomas, while frequently found in gliomas. Despite these differences between gliomas and meningiomas, both tumors show heterogeneous levels of infiltration by immune cells with variable functionality. In this review we summarize current knowledge about tumor-infiltrating immune cells in the two most common types of CNS tumors-gliomas and meningiomas-, as well as the role that such immune cells may play in the tumor microenvironment in controlling and/or promoting tumor development, growth and control.

  11. Simulating bioclogging effects on dynamic riverbed permeability and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newcomer, Michelle E.; Hubbard, Susan S.; Fleckenstein, Jan H.; Maier, Ulrich; Schmidt, Christian; Thullner, Martin; Ulrich, Craig; Flipo, Nicolas; Rubin, Yoram

    2016-04-01

    Bioclogging in rivers can detrimentally impact aquifer recharge. This is particularly so in dry regions, where losing rivers are common, and where disconnection between surface water and groundwater (leading to the development of an unsaturated zone) can occur. Reduction in riverbed permeability due to biomass growth is a time-variable parameter that is often neglected, yet permeability reduction from bioclogging can introduce order of magnitude changes in seepage fluxes from rivers over short (i.e., monthly) timescales. To address the combined effects of bioclogging and disconnection on infiltration, we developed numerical representations of bioclogging processes within a one-dimensional, variably saturated flow model representing losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. We tested these formulations using a synthetic case study informed with biological data obtained from the Russian River, California, USA. Our findings show that modeled biomass growth reduced seepage for losing-connected and losing-disconnected rivers. However, for rivers undergoing disconnection, infiltration declines occurred only after the system was fully disconnected. Before full disconnection, biologically induced permeability declines were not significant enough to offset the infiltration gains introduced by disconnection. The two effects combine to lead to a characteristic infiltration curve where peak infiltration magnitude and timing is controlled by permeability declines relative to hydraulic gradient gains. Biomass growth was found to hasten the onset of full disconnection; a condition we term `effective disconnection'. Our results show that river infiltration can respond dynamically to bioclogging and subsequent permeability declines that are highly dependent on river connection status.

  12. Optimal system size for complex dynamics in random neural networks near criticality

    SciTech Connect

    Wainrib, Gilles; García del Molino, Luis Carlos

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we consider a model of dynamical agents coupled through a random connectivity matrix, as introduced by Sompolinsky et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 61(3), 259–262 (1988)] in the context of random neural networks. When system size is infinite, it is known that increasing the disorder parameter induces a phase transition leading to chaotic dynamics. We observe and investigate here a novel phenomenon in the sub-critical regime for finite size systems: the probability of observing complex dynamics is maximal for an intermediate system size when the disorder is close enough to criticality. We give a more general explanation of this type of system size resonance in the framework of extreme values theory for eigenvalues of random matrices.

  13. Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) Sizing Evaluation for an Advanced Space Suit Portable Life Support System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.; Paul, Thomas H.; Conger, Bruce C.

    2008-01-01

    As part of NASA s initiative to develop an advanced portable life support system (PLSS), a baseline schematic has been chosen that includes gaseous oxygen in a closed circuit ventilation configuration. Supply oxygen enters the suit at the back of the helmet and return gases pass over the astronaut s body to be extracted at the astronaut s wrists and ankles through the liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG). The extracted gases are then treated using a rapid cycling amine (RCA) system for carbon dioxide and water removal and activated carbon for trace gas removal before being mixed with makeup oxygen and reintroduced into the helmet. Thermal control is provided by a suit water membrane evaporator (SWME). As an extension of the original schematic development, NASA evaluated several Helmet Exhalation Capture System (HECS) configurations as alternatives to the baseline. The HECS configurations incorporate the use of full contact masks or non-contact masks to reduce flow requirements within the PLSS ventilation subsystem. The primary scope of this study was to compare the alternatives based on mass and volume considerations; however other design issues were also briefly investigated. This paper summarizes the results of this sizing analysis task.

  14. ON THE RELATIVE SIZES OF PLANETS WITHIN KEPLER MULTIPLE-CANDIDATE SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    Ciardi, David R.; Gautier, T. N. III; Howell, Steve B.; Lissauer, Jack J.; Rowe, Jason F.

    2013-01-20

    We present a study of the relative sizes of planets within the multiple-candidate systems discovered with the Kepler mission. We have compared the size of each planet to the size of every other planet within a given planetary system after correcting the sample for detection and geometric biases. We find that for planet pairs for which one or both objects are approximately Neptune-sized or larger, the larger planet is most often the planet with the longer period. No such size-location correlation is seen for pairs of planets when both planets are smaller than Neptune. Specifically, if at least one planet in a planet pair has a radius of {approx}> 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }, 68% {+-} 6% of the planet pairs have the inner planet smaller than the outer planet, while no preferred sequential ordering of the planets is observed if both planets in a pair are smaller than {approx}< 3 R {sub Circled-Plus }.

  15. Assessment of Available Particle Size Data to Support an Analysis of the Waste Feed Delivery System Transfer System

    SciTech Connect

    JEWETT, J.R.

    2000-08-10

    Available data pertaining to size distribution of the particulates in Hanford underground tank waste have been reviewed. Although considerable differences exist between measurement methods, it may be stated with 95% confidence that the median particle size does not exceed 275 {micro}m in at least 95% of the ten tanks selected as sources of HLW feed for Phase 1 vitrification in the RPP. This particle size is recommended as a design basis for the WFD transfer system.

  16. Reactive melt infiltration of silicon-molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1995-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at.% molybdenum alloys into microporous carbon preforms have been carried out by modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the pore volume fraction of the carbon preform is a very important parameter in determining the final composition of the reaction-formed silicon carbide and the secondary phases. Various undesirable melt infiltration results, e.g. choking-off, specimen cracking, silicon veins, and lake formation, and their correlation with inadequate preform properties are presented. The liquid silicon-carbon reaction exotherm temperatures are influenced by the pore and carbon particle size of the preform and the compositions of infiltrants. Room temperature flexural strength and fracture toughness of materials made by the silicon-3.2 at.% molybdenum alloy infiltration of medium pore size preforms are also discussed.

  17. Microwave assisted chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Devlin, D.J.; Currier, R.P.; Barbero, R.S.; Espinoza, B.F.; Elliott, N.

    1991-12-31

    A microwave assisted process for production of continuous fiber reinforced ceramic matrix composites is described. A simple apparatus combining a chemical vapor infiltration reactor with a conventional 700 W multimode oven is described. Microwave induced inverted thermal gradients are exploited with the ultimate goal of reducing processing times on complex shapes. Thermal gradients in stacks of SiC (Nicalon) cloths have been measured using optical thermometry. Initial results on the ``inside out`` deposition of SiC via decomposition of methyltrichlorosilane in hydrogen are presented. Several key processing issues are identified and discussed. 5 refs.

  18. Quantum jump model for a system with a finite-size environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suomela, S.; Kutvonen, A.; Ala-Nissila, T.

    2016-06-01

    Measuring the thermodynamic properties of open quantum systems poses a major challenge. A calorimetric detection has been proposed as a feasible experimental scheme to measure work and fluctuation relations in open quantum systems. However, the detection requires a finite size for the environment, which influences the system dynamics. This process cannot be modeled with the standard stochastic approaches. We develop a quantum jump model suitable for systems coupled to a finite-size environment. We use the method to study the common fluctuation relations and prove that they are satisfied.

  19. Quantum jump model for a system with a finite-size environment.

    PubMed

    Suomela, S; Kutvonen, A; Ala-Nissila, T

    2016-06-01

    Measuring the thermodynamic properties of open quantum systems poses a major challenge. A calorimetric detection has been proposed as a feasible experimental scheme to measure work and fluctuation relations in open quantum systems. However, the detection requires a finite size for the environment, which influences the system dynamics. This process cannot be modeled with the standard stochastic approaches. We develop a quantum jump model suitable for systems coupled to a finite-size environment. We use the method to study the common fluctuation relations and prove that they are satisfied. PMID:27415207

  20. Research on a simulation-based ship production support system for middle-sized shipbuilding companies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Young Joo; Woo, Jong Hun; Shin, Jong Gye

    2009-12-01

    Today, many middle-sized shipbuilding companies in Korea are experiencing strong competition from shipbuilding companies in other nations. This competition is particularly affecting small- and middle-sized shipyards, rather than the major shipyards that have their own support systems and development capabilities. The acquisition of techniques that would enable maximization of production efficiency and minimization of the gap between planning and execution would increase the competitiveness of small- and middle-sized Korean shipyards. In this paper, research on a simulation-based support system for ship production management, which can be applied to the shipbuilding processes of middle-sized shipbuilding companies, is presented. The simulation research includes layout optimization, load balancing, work stage operation planning, block logistics, and integrated material management. Each item is integrated into a network system with a value chain that includes all shipbuilding processes.

  1. Performance analysis and kernel size study of the Lynx real-time operating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yuan-Kwei; Gibson, James S.; Fernquist, Alan R.

    1993-01-01

    This paper analyzes the Lynx real-time operating system (LynxOS), which has been selected as the operating system for the Space Station Freedom Data Management System (DMS). The features of LynxOS are compared to other Unix-based operating system (OS). The tools for measuring the performance of LynxOS, which include a high-speed digital timer/counter board, a device driver program, and an application program, are analyzed. The timings for interrupt response, process creation and deletion, threads, semaphores, shared memory, and signals are measured. The memory size of the DMS Embedded Data Processor (EDP) is limited. Besides, virtual memory is not suitable for real-time applications because page swap timing may not be deterministic. Therefore, the DMS software, including LynxOS, has to fit in the main memory of an EDP. To reduce the LynxOS kernel size, the following steps are taken: analyzing the factors that influence the kernel size; identifying the modules of LynxOS that may not be needed in an EDP; adjusting the system parameters of LynxOS; reconfiguring the device drivers used in the LynxOS; and analyzing the symbol table. The reductions in kernel disk size, kernel memory size and total kernel size reduction from each step mentioned above are listed and analyzed.

  2. A study of void size growth in nonequilibrium stochastic systems of point defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharchenko, Dmitrii O.; Kharchenko, Vasyl O.; Bashtova, Anna I.

    2016-05-01

    We study properties of voids growth dynamics in a stochastic system of point defects in solids under nonequilibrium conditions (sustained irradiation). It is shown that fluctuations of defect production rate (external noise) increase the critical void radius comparing to a deterministic system. An automodel regime of void size growth in a stochastic system is studied in detail. Considering a homogeneous system, it is found that external noise does not change the universality of the void size distribution function; the mean void size evolves according to classical nucleation theory. The noise increases the mean void size and spreads the void size distribution. Studying dynamics of spatially extended systems it was shown that vacancies remaining in a matrix phase are able to organize into vacancy enriched domains due to an instability caused by an elastic lattice deformation. It is shown that dynamics of voids growth is defined by void sinks strength with void size growth exponent varying from 1/3 up to 1/2.

  3. Spatial distribution of pollution in an urban stormwater infiltration basin.

    PubMed

    Dechesne, Magali; Barraud, Sylvie; Bardin, Jean-Pascal

    2004-08-01

    Infiltration basins are frequently used for stormwater drainage. Because stormwater is polluted in highly toxic compounds, assessment of pollution retention by infiltration basins is necessary. Indeed, if basins are not effective in trapping pollution, deep soil and groundwater may be contaminated. This study's objective is to investigate soil pollution in infiltration basins: spatial distribution of soil pollution, optimisation of the number of soil samples and a contamination indicator are presented. It is part of a global project on long-term impact of stormwater infiltration on groundwater. Soil sampling was done on a basin in suburban Lyon (France). Samples were collected at different depths and analysed for nutrients, heavy metals, hydrocarbons and grain size. Pollutant concentrations decrease rapidly with depth while pH, mineralisation and grain size increase. Sustainable metal concentrations are reached at a 30-cm depth, even after 14 years of operation; hydrocarbon pollution is deeper. Principal component analysis shows how pollutants affect each level. The topsoil is different from other levels. Three specifically located points are enough to estimate the mass of pollution trapped by the basin with a 26% error. The proposed contamination indicator is calculated using either average level concentrations or maximum level concentrations. In both cases, the topsoil layer appears polluted but evaluation of lower levels is dependent on the choice of input concentrations.

  4. Clinical study using novel endoscopic system for measuring size of gastrointestinal lesion

    PubMed Central

    Oka, Kiyoshi; Seki, Takeshi; Akatsu, Tomohiro; Wakabayashi, Takao; Inui, Kazuo; Yoshino, Junji

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To verify the performance of a lesion size measurement system through a clinical study. METHODS: Our proposed system, which consists of a conventional endoscope, an optical device, an optical probe, and a personal computer, generates a grid scale to measure the lesion size from an endoscopic image. The width of the grid scale is constantly adjusted according to the distance between the tip of the endoscope and lesion because the lesion size on an endoscopic image changes according to the distance. The shape of the grid scale was corrected to match the distortion of the endoscopic image. The distance was calculated using the amount of laser light reflected from the lesion through an optical probe inserted into the instrument channel of the endoscope. The endoscopist can thus measure the lesion size without contact by comparing the lesion with the size of the grid scale on the endoscopic image. (1) A basic test was performed to verify the relationship between the measurement error eM and the tilt angle of the endoscope; and (2) The sizes of three colon polyps were measured using our system during endoscopy. These sizes were immediately measured by scale after their removal. RESULTS: There was no error at α = 0°. In addition, the values of eM (mean ± SD) were 0.24 ± 0.11 mm (α = 10°), 0.90 ± 0.58 mm (α = 20°) and 2.31 ± 1.41 mm (α = 30°). According to these results, our system has been confirmed to measure accurately when the tilt angle is less than 20°. The measurement error was approximately 1 mm in the clinical study. Therefore, it was concluded that our proposed measurement system was also effective in clinical examinations. CONCLUSION: By combining simple optical equipment with a conventional endoscope, a quick and accurate system for measuring lesion size was established. PMID:24744595

  5. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  6. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  7. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  8. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  9. 40 CFR 141.81 - Applicability of corrosion control treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... treatment steps to small, medium-size and large water systems. 141.81 Section 141.81 Protection of... to small, medium-size and large water systems. (a) Systems shall complete the applicable corrosion...) or (b)(3) of this section. (2) A small system (serving ≤3300 persons) and a medium-size...

  10. Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

    SciTech Connect

    Andre Unger; Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson

    2001-05-31

    This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.

  11. Measurements of size-segregated emission particles by a sampling system based on the cascade impactor

    SciTech Connect

    Janja Tursic; Irena Grgic; Axel Berner; Jaroslav Skantar; Igor Cuhalev

    2008-02-01

    A special sampling system for measurements of size-segregated particles directly at the source of emission was designed and constructed. The central part of this system is a low-pressure cascade impactor with 10 collection stages for the size ranges between 15 nm and 16 {mu}m. Its capability and suitability was proven by sampling particles at the stack (100{sup o}C) of a coal-fired power station in Slovenia. These measurements showed very reasonable results in comparison with a commercial cascade impactor for PM10 and PM2.5 and with a plane device for total suspended particulate matter (TSP). The best agreement with the measurements made by a commercial impactor was found for concentrations of TSP above 10 mg m{sup -3}, i.e., the average PM2.5/PM10 ratios obtained by a commercial impactor and by our impactor were 0.78 and 0.80, respectively. Analysis of selected elements in size-segregated emission particles additionally confirmed the suitability of our system. The measurements showed that the mass size distributions were generally bimodal, with the most pronounced mass peak in the 1-2 {mu}m size range. The first results of elemental mass size distributions showed some distinctive differences in comparison to the most common ambient anthropogenic sources (i.e., traffic emissions). For example, trace elements, like Pb, Cd, As, and V, typically related to traffic emissions, are usually more abundant in particles less than 1 {mu}m in size, whereas in our specific case they were found at about 2 {mu}m. Thus, these mass size distributions can be used as a signature of this source. Simultaneous measurements of size-segregated particles at the source and in the surrounding environment can therefore significantly increase the sensitivity of the contribution of a specific source to the actual ambient concentrations. 25 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Infiltration front monitoring using 3D Electrical Resistivity Tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oxarango, Laurent; Audebert, Marine; Guyard, Helene; Clement, Remi

    2016-04-01

    The electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) geophysical method is commonly used to identify the spatial distribution of electrical resisitivity in the soil at the field scale. Recent progress in commercial acquisition systems allows repeating fast acquisitions (10 min) in order to monitor a 3D dynamic phenomenon. Since the ERT method is sensitive to moisture content variations, it can thus be used to delineate the infiltration shape during water infiltration. In heterogeneous conditions, the 3D infiltration shape is a crucial information because it could differ significantly from the homogeneous behavior. In a first step, the ERT method is validated at small scale (<1m) studying a suction infiltrometer test. The experiment is carried out in a pit filled with a homogenous silty-sandy soil. It is instrumented by 17 resistivity probes and 3 commercial capacitive moisture content probes to provide local measurements of the moisture content variation. The Multiple Inversion and Clustering Strategy (MICS) (Audebert et al 2014) is used to delineate the infiltration patern. A satisfying agreement between infiltration delineation and sensor measurements is obtained with a few centimeter accuracy on the moisture front location. In a second step, the same methodology is applied at a larger scale (> 10m). Two examples of leachate injection monitoring in municipal solid waste landfills are used to put forward benefits and limitations of the ERT-MICS method. Effective infiltration porosities in a range between 3% and 8% support the assumption of a flow in heterogeneous media. Audebert, M., R. Clément, N. Touze-Foltz, T. Günther, S. Moreau, and C. Duquennoi (2014), Time-lapse ERT interpretation methodology for leachate injection monitoring based on multiple inversions and a clustering strategy (MICS), Journal of Applied Geophysics, 111, 320-333. Keywords: ERT, infiltration front, field survey

  13. City-size distributions and the world urban system in the twentieth century.

    PubMed

    Ettlinger, N; Archer, J C

    1987-09-01

    "In this paper we trace and interpret changes in the geographical pattern and city-size distribution of the world's largest cities in the twentieth century. Since 1900 the geographical distribution of these cities has become increasingly dispersed; their city-size distribution by rank was nearly linear in 1900 and 1940, and convex in 1980. We interpret the convex distribution which emerged following World War 2 as reflecting an economically integrated but politically and demographically partitioned global urban system. Our interpretation of changes in size distribution of cities emphasizes demographic considerations, largely neglected in previous investigations, including migration and relative rates of population change."

  14. Systematic study of finite-size effects in quantum Monte Carlo calculations of real metallic systems

    SciTech Connect

    Azadi, Sam Foulkes, W. M. C.

    2015-09-14

    We present a systematic and comprehensive study of finite-size effects in diffusion quantum Monte Carlo calculations of metals. Several previously introduced schemes for correcting finite-size errors are compared for accuracy and efficiency, and practical improvements are introduced. In particular, we test a simple but efficient method of finite-size correction based on an accurate combination of twist averaging and density functional theory. Our diffusion quantum Monte Carlo results for lithium and aluminum, as examples of metallic systems, demonstrate excellent agreement between all of the approaches considered.

  15. Ecological constraints on sensory systems: compound eye size in Daphnia is reduced by resource limitation.

    PubMed

    Brandon, Christopher S; Dudycha, Jeffry L

    2014-08-01

    Eye size is an indicator of visual capability, and macroevolutionary patterns reveal that taxa inhabiting dim environments have larger eyes than taxa from bright environments. This suggests that the light environment is a key driver of variation in eye size. Yet other factors not directly linked with visual tasks (i.e., non-sensory factors) may influence eye size. We sought to jointly investigate the roles of sensory (light) and non-sensory factors (food) in determining eye size and ask whether non-sensory factors could constrain visual capabilities. We tested environmental influences on eye size in four species of the freshwater crustacean Daphnia, crossing bright and dim light levels with high and low resource levels. We measured absolute eye size and eye size relative to body size in early and late adulthood. In general, Daphnia reared on low resources had smaller eyes, both absolutely and relatively. In contrast to the dominant macroevolutionary pattern, phenotypic plasticity in response to light was rarely significant. These patterns of phenotypic plasticity were true for overall diameter of the eye and the diameter of individual facets. We conclude that non-sensory environmental factors can influence sensory systems, and in particular, that resource availability may be an important constraint on visual capability.

  16. Firm Size, a Self-Organized Critical Phenomenon: Evidence from the Dynamical Systems Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandra, Akhilesh

    This research draws upon a recent innovation in the dynamical systems literature called the theory of self -organized criticality (SOC) (Bak, Tang, and Wiesenfeld 1988) to develop a computational model of a firm's size by relating its internal and the external sub-systems. As a holistic paradigm, the theory of SOC implies that a firm as a composite system of many degrees of freedom naturally evolves to a critical state in which a minor event starts a chain reaction that can affect either a part or the system as a whole. Thus, the global features of a firm cannot be understood by analyzing its individual parts separately. The causal framework builds upon a constant capital resource to support a volume of production at the existing level of efficiency. The critical size is defined as the production level at which the average product of a firm's factors of production attains its maximum value. The non -linearity is inferred by a change in the nature of relations at the border of criticality, between size and the two performance variables, viz., the operating efficiency and the financial efficiency. The effect of breaching the critical size is examined on the stock price reactions. Consistent with the theory of SOC, it is hypothesized that the temporal response of a firm breaching the level of critical size should behave as a flicker noise (1/f) process. The flicker noise is characterized by correlations extended over a wide range of time scales, indicating some sort of cooperative effect among a firm's degrees of freedom. It is further hypothesized that a firm's size evolves to a spatial structure with scale-invariant, self-similar (fractal) properties. The system is said to be self-organized inasmuch as it naturally evolves to the state of criticality without any detailed specifications of the initial conditions. In this respect, the critical state is an attractor of the firm's dynamics. Another set of hypotheses examines the relations between the size and the

  17. Stress-Dependent Matrix Cracking in 2D Woven SiC-Fiber Reinforced Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morscher, Gregory N.

    2003-01-01

    The matrix cracking of a variety of SiC/SiC composites has been characterized for a wide range of constituent variation. These composites were fabricated by the 2-dimensional lay-up of 0/90 five-harness satin fabric consisting of Sylramic fiber tows that were then chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) with BN, CVI with SiC, slurry infiltrated with SiC particles followed by molten infiltration of Si. The composites varied in number of plies, the number of tows per length, thickness, and the size of the tows. This resulted in composites with a fiber volume fraction in the loading direction that ranged from 0.12 to 0.20. Matrix cracking was monitored with modal acoustic emission in order to estimate the stress-dependent distribution of matrix cracks. It was found that the general matrix crack properties of this system could be fairly well characterized by assuming that no matrix cracks originated in the load-bearing fiber, interphase, chemical vapor infiltrated Sic tow-minicomposites, i.e., all matrix cracks originate in the 90 degree tow-minicomposites or the large unreinforced Sic-Si matrix regions. Also, it was determined that the larger tow size composites had a much narrower stress range for matrix cracking compared to the standard tow size composites.

  18. An online detection system for aggregate sizes and shapes based on digital image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jianhong; Chen, Sijia

    2016-07-01

    Traditional aggregate size measuring methods are time-consuming, taxing, and do not deliver online measurements. A new online detection system for determining aggregate size and shape based on a digital camera with a charge-coupled device, and subsequent digital image processing, have been developed to overcome these problems. The system captures images of aggregates while falling and flat lying. Using these data, the particle size and shape distribution can be obtained in real time. Here, we calibrate this method using standard globules. Our experiments show that the maximum particle size distribution error was only 3 wt%, while the maximum particle shape distribution error was only 2 wt% for data derived from falling aggregates, having good dispersion. In contrast, the data for flat-lying aggregates had a maximum particle size distribution error of 12 wt%, and a maximum particle shape distribution error of 10 wt%; their accuracy was clearly lower than for falling aggregates. However, they performed well for single-graded aggregates, and did not require a dispersion device. Our system is low-cost and easy to install. It can successfully achieve online detection of aggregate size and shape with good reliability, and it has great potential for aggregate quality assurance.

  19. [Soil infiltration characteristics under main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province].

    PubMed

    Liu, Dao-Ping; Chen, San-Xiong; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Xie, Li; Jiang, Jiang

    2007-03-01

    The study on the soil infiltration under different main vegetation types in Anji County of Zhejiang Province showed that the characteristics of soil infiltration differed significantly with land use type, and the test eight vegetation types could be classified into four groups, based on soil infiltration capability. The first group, deciduous broadleaved forest, had the strongest soil infiltration capability, and the second group with a stronger soil infiltration capability was composed of grass, pine forest, shrub community and tea bush. Bamboo and evergreen broadleaved forest were classified into the third group with a relatively strong soil infiltration capability, while bare land belonged to the fourth group because of the bad soil structure and poorest soil infiltration capability. The comprehensive parameters of soil infiltration (alpha) and root (beta) were obtained by principal component analysis, and the regression model of alpha and beta could be described as alpha = 0. 1708ebeta -0. 3122. Soil infiltration capability was greatly affected by soil physical and chemical characteristics and root system. Fine roots (< or = 1 mm in diameter) played effective roles on the improvement of soil physical and chemical properties, and the increase of soil infiltration capability was closely related to the amount of the fine roots.

  20. Evaluation of infiltration models in contaminated landscape.

    PubMed

    Sadegh Zadeh, Kouroush; Shirmohammadi, Adel; Montas, Hubert J; Felton, Gary

    2007-06-01

    The infiltration models of Kostiakov, Green-Ampt, and Philip (two and three terms equations) were used, calibrated, and evaluated to simulate in-situ infiltration in nine different soil types. The Osborne-Moré modified version of the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization algorithm was coupled with the experimental data obtained by the double ring infiltrometers and the infiltration equations, to estimate the model parameters. Comparison of the model outputs with the experimental data indicates that the models can successfully describe cumulative infiltration in different soil types. However, since Kostiakov's equation fails to accurately simulate the infiltration rate as time approaches infinity, Philip's two-term equation, in some cases, produces negative values for the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils, and the Green-Ampt model uses piston flow assumptions, we suggest using Philip's three-term equation to simulate infiltration and to estimate the saturated hydraulic conductivity of soils. PMID:17558778

  1. Thermal aging stability of infiltrated solid oxide fuel cell electrode microstructures: A three-dimensional kinetic Monte Carlo simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yanxiang; Ni, Meng; Yan, Mufu; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-12-01

    Nanostructured electrodes are widely used for low temperature solid oxide fuel cells, due to their remarkably high activity. However, the industrial applications of the infiltrated electrodes are hindered by the durability issues, such as the microstructure stability against thermal aging. Few strategies are available to overcome this challenge due to the limited knowledge about the coarsening kinetics of the infiltrated electrodes and how the potentially important factors affect the stability. In this work, the generic thermal aging kinetics of the three-dimensional microstructures of the infiltrate electrodes is investigated by a kinetic Monte Carlo simulation model considering surface diffusion mechanism. Effects of temperature, infiltration loading, wettability, and electrode configuration are studied and the key geometric parameters are calculated such as the infiltrate particle size, the total and percolated quantities of three-phase boundary length and infiltrate surface area, and the tortuosity factor of infiltrate network. Through parametric study, several strategies to improve the thermal aging stability are proposed.

  2. Autonomous bed-sediment imaging-systems for revealing temporal variability of grain size

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Buscombe, Daniel; Rubin, David M.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Storlazzi, Curt D.; Hatcher, Gerald; Chezar, Henry; Wyland, Robert; Sherwood, Christopher R.

    2014-01-01

    We describe a remotely operated video microscope system, designed to provide high-resolution images of seabed sediments. Two versions were developed, which differ in how they raise the camera from the seabed. The first used hydraulics and the second used the energy associated with wave orbital motion. Images were analyzed using automated frequency-domain methods, which following a rigorous partially supervised quality control procedure, yielded estimates to within 20% of the true size as determined by on-screen manual measurements of grains. Long-term grain-size variability at a sandy inner shelf site offshore of Santa Cruz, California, USA, was investigated using the hydraulic system. Eighteen months of high frequency (min to h), high-resolution (μm) images were collected, and grain size distributions compiled. The data constitutes the longest known high-frequency record of seabed-grain size at this sample frequency, at any location. Short-term grain-size variability of sand in an energetic surf zone at Praa Sands, Cornwall, UK was investigated using the ‘wave-powered’ system. The data are the first high-frequency record of grain size at a single location of a highly mobile and evolving bed in a natural surf zone. Using this technology, it is now possible to measure bed-sediment-grain size at a time-scale comparable with flow conditions. Results suggest models of sediment transport at sandy, wave-dominated, nearshore locations should allow for substantial changes in grain-size distribution over time-scales as short as a few hours.

  3. Density-functional errors in ionization potential with increasing system size

    SciTech Connect

    Whittleton, Sarah R.; Sosa Vazquez, Xochitl A.; Isborn, Christine M.; Johnson, Erin R.

    2015-05-14

    This work investigates the effects of molecular size on the accuracy of density-functional ionization potentials for a set of 28 hydrocarbons, including series of alkanes, alkenes, and oligoacenes. As the system size increases, delocalization error introduces a systematic underestimation of the ionization potential, which is rationalized by considering the fractional-charge behavior of the electronic energies. The computation of the ionization potential with many density-functional approximations is not size-extensive due to excessive delocalization of the incipient positive charge. While inclusion of exact exchange reduces the observed errors, system-specific tuning of long-range corrected functionals does not generally improve accuracy. These results emphasize that good performance of a functional for small molecules is not necessarily transferable to larger systems.

  4. A simple optical system for real-time size measurements of TRISO fuel pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Karnowski, Thomas Paul; Kercher, Andrew K; Hunn, John D; Maxey, L Curt

    2006-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has begun the development of a program for the manufacturing and characterizing fuel pellets for use in advanced nuclear reactors. To achieve high reliability it is necessary to characterize the pellets during production runs. In this paper we present a simple TRISO Particle Counting And Sizing Tool (TP-CAST) that performs dual measurements of counting and size estimation for particles at rates up to 200 per second. The TP-CAST is based on a laser with line-generation optics and a PC-based data acquisition and analysis system. The instrument can measure 1000 micron pellets with a standard deviation of approximately 11 microns and with counting errors less than 0.075%. Our paper discusses the signal modeling, algorithms for size estimation, system design, and experimental results of the prototype TP-CAST system assembled at ORNL.

  5. Infiltration in soils with a saturated surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogarth, W. L.; Lockington, D. A.; Barry, D. A.; Parlange, M. B.; Haverkamp, R.; Parlange, J.-Y.

    2013-05-01

    An earlier infiltration equation relied on curve fitting of infiltration data for the determination of one of the parameters, which limits its usefulness in practice. This handicap is removed here, and the parameter is now evaluated by linking it directly to soil-water properties. The new predictions of infiltration using this evaluation are quite accurate. Positions and shapes of soil-water profiles are also examined in detail and found to be predicted analytically with great precision.

  6. Lipomatous infiltration of the canine salivary gland.

    PubMed

    Brown, P J; Lucke, V M; Sozmen, M; Whitbread, T J; Wyatt, J M

    1997-06-01

    Benign connective tumours of the canine salivary glands are rare. This report describes lipomatous infiltration of parotid or submandibular salivary glands in seven dogs in which the glands were enlarged as a result of infiltration by fat cells; they appeared to have been successfully treated by local excision. The precise cause of the lipomatous infiltration in the dogs is unclear but different causes of similar lesions in humans are discussed.

  7. Zipf's Law Leads to Heaps' Law: Analyzing Their Relation in Finite-Size Systems

    PubMed Central

    Lü, Linyuan; Zhang, Zi-Ke; Zhou, Tao

    2010-01-01

    Background Zipf's law and Heaps' law are observed in disparate complex systems. Of particular interests, these two laws often appear together. Many theoretical models and analyses are performed to understand their co-occurrence in real systems, but it still lacks a clear picture about their relation. Methodology/Principal Findings We show that the Heaps' law can be considered as a derivative phenomenon if the system obeys the Zipf's law. Furthermore, we refine the known approximate solution of the Heaps' exponent provided the Zipf's exponent. We show that the approximate solution is indeed an asymptotic solution for infinite systems, while in the finite-size system the Heaps' exponent is sensitive to the system size. Extensive empirical analysis on tens of disparate systems demonstrates that our refined results can better capture the relation between the Zipf's and Heaps' exponents. Conclusions/Significance The present analysis provides a clear picture about the relation between the Zipf's law and Heaps' law without the help of any specific stochastic model, namely the Heaps' law is indeed a derivative phenomenon from the Zipf's law. The presented numerical method gives considerably better estimation of the Heaps' exponent given the Zipf's exponent and the system size. Our analysis provides some insights and implications of real complex systems. For example, one can naturally obtained a better explanation of the accelerated growth of scale-free networks. PMID:21152034

  8. Experimental evaluation of four infiltration models for calcareous soil irrigated with treated untreated grey water and fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gharaibeh, M. A.; Eltaif, N. I.; Alrababah, M. A.; Alhamad, M. N.

    2009-04-01

    Infiltration is vital for both irrigated and rainfed agriculture. The knowledge of infiltration characteristics of a soil is the basic information required for designing an efficient irrigation system. The objective of the present study was to model soil infiltration using four models: Green and Ampt, Horton, Kostaikov and modified Kostiakov. Infiltration tests were conducted on field plot irrigated with treated, untreated greywater and fresh water. The field water infiltration data used in these models were based on double ring infiltrometer tests conducted for 4 h. The algebraic parameters of the infiltration models and nonlinear least squares regression were fitted using measured infiltration time [I (t)] data. Among process-based infiltration models, the Horton model performed best and matched the measured I (t) data with lower sum of squares (SS).

  9. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  10. Trap-size scaling in confined-particle systems at quantum transitions

    SciTech Connect

    Campostrini, Massimo; Vicari, Ettore

    2010-02-15

    We develop a trap-size scaling theory for trapped particle systems at quantum transitions. As a theoretical laboratory, we consider a quantum XY chain in an external transverse field acting as a trap for the spinless fermions of its quadratic Hamiltonian representation. We discuss trap-size scaling at the Mott insulator to superfluid transition in the Bose-Hubbard model. We present exact and accurate numerical results for the XY chain and for the low-density Mott transition in the hard-core limit of the one-dimensional Bose-Hubbard model. Our results are relevant for systems of cold atomic gases in optical lattices.

  11. Polyaminoacid nanocapsules for drug delivery to the lymphatic system: Effect of the particle size.

    PubMed

    Abellan-Pose, Raquel; Teijeiro-Valiño, Carmen; Santander-Ortega, Manuel J; Borrajo, Erea; Vidal, Anxo; Garcia-Fuentes, Marcos; Csaba, Noémi; Alonso, María José

    2016-07-25

    Previous work by our group showed the possibility to reduce the toxicity of docetaxel upon its encapsulation in polyaminoacid nanocapsules with a size of 200nm. The objective of this study was to elucidate whether a reduction in the nanocapsules size might facilitate their access to the lymphatic system. To do so, we analyzed the effect of several formulation parameters on the characteristics of polyglutamic acid, PEGylated polyglutamic acid and polyasparagine nanocapsules. From these experiments, we could identify the best conditions to produce nanocapsules with a small size (close to 100nm) and adequate capacity to encapsulate and sustain the release of the antitumor drug docetaxel. Moreover, the results of the stability study made evident the critical role of the polyaminoacid shell on the colloidal stability of the nanocapsules in biologically relevant media. Finally, we studied the influence of the particle size (100nm vs. 200nm) on the biodistribution of PGA-PEG nanocapsules following subcutaneous injection. The results showed that the 100 nm-size nanocapsules accumulate faster in the lymph nodes, than those with a size of 200nm. In summary, these data suggest the potential of 100nm-size polyaminoacid nanocapsules as lymphatic drug delivery carriers. PMID:27210735

  12. Pore geometry, avalanching, and subsurface flow: A sand infiltration model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonardson, R.; Hunt, J. R.; Dietrich, W. E.

    2009-12-01

    The deposition of sand into gravel riverbeds has been well-documented, along with its negative impacts on developing salmon eggs and riverbank extraction for water supplies. Dam releases may be used on regulated rivers to flush the bed of fine sediment, but it is not generally known how deep the sand deposit extends or how much sand is there. One-dimensional (plane-bed) experiments consistently show that the depth of infiltration is a function of the sand and gravel grain size distributions and that the saturation sand fraction is near 8-10%. However, precise empirical relationships developed in individual studies do poorly at predicting the results of other experiments. Furthermore, no infiltration model includes the effect of flow conditions in the water column, although flow conditions clearly impact the deposit characteristics. We propose a mechanistic model for the infiltration of fine sediment and compare its predictions to the results of two recent infiltration experiments. This model is based on geometric arguments about pore and particle shape and five mechanisms: particle settling, particle capture, subsurface avalanching, average subsurface flow, and subsurface pressure fluctuations. The model successfully predicts for both experiments the fraction of sand deposited and the shape of that deposit as a function of depth.

  13. Transverse beam size measurement system using visible synchrotron radiation at HLS II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kai; Sun, Bao-Gen; Yang, Yong-Liang; Lu, Ping; Tang, Lei-Lei; Wu, Fang-Fang; Cheng, Chao-Cai; Zheng, Jia-Jun; Li, Hao

    2016-09-01

    An interferometer system and an imaging system using visible synchrotron radiation (SR) have been installed in the Hefei Light Source (HLS) II storage ring. Simulations of these two systems are given using Synchrotron Radiation Workshop (SRW) code. With these two systems, the beam energy spread and the beam emittance can be measured. A detailed description of these two systems and the measurement method is given in this paper. The measurement results of beam size, emittance and energy spread are given at the end. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (11105141, 11175173) and Upgrade Project of Hefei Light Source

  14. A system-of-systems perspective for simultaneous UAV sizing and allocation using design of experiments and simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bociaga, Michael L.

    Traditional approaches to aircraft sizing focus on maximizing the performance of the individual airframe as a standalone system. Customers, such as the Department of Defense, have recently looked more towards all-encompassing solutions to large problems by using a System-of-Systems approach instead of maximizing capability from a single aircraft or similar monolithic system. Shrinking budgets call for making the most efficient use of existing assets and addressing capability gaps in broad frameworks. The result is that optimizing the aircraft alone may not provide the customer with needed capabilities. Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) performing Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) missions provide an example of systems designed to operate with other independent systems as part of a system-of-systems. In this research, a fleet of UAVs will provide wildfire detection in high terrain. The research investigates how to allocate existing systems along with a number of yet-to-be-defined UAVs. In this manner, the new UAVs may not be optimal for individual aircraft-based performance metrics, but they will enhance the capabilities of the fleet. Such a large, complex problem requires decomposition into a resource allocation problem using a Design of Experiments (DoE) to select configurations of UAV fleets to test by simulation using STK's Aircraft Mission Modeler software package at the System-of-Systems level, and an aircraft sizing sub-problem using an SQP algorithm and the Breguet endurance equation to size the new UAV. The STK output is modeled using main effects and a response surface that shows the tradeoff between cost and coverage, enabling the customer to select the optimal allocation of existing and new UAVs and determine the key characteristics of the new UAVs that fit into this fleet. The new UAV sized for this specific mission, but from a System-of-Systems perspective, complements the UAV fleet, enhancing the capabilities of the System-of-Systems

  15. Research of Rainwater Infiltration in Eastern Slovakia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudáková, Gabriela; Zeleňáková, Martina; Tometz, Ladislav

    2015-11-01

    Today precipitation water in the majority of built up and other sealed surface areas no longer reach the water circulation system via natural routes. This can lead to long-term changes to the soil and water resources, reduce the natural local regeneration of the groundwater and have effects on the chemical and biological conditions above and below the ground surface. Reasonable rainwater management leads to maintain or recover a sound and sustainable water cycle. The purpose of this paper is to present objectives and monitoring of a drainage project in Eastern Slovakia, in Kosice city. The paper focuses on percolation facilities in the research area of campus of Technical University and measurements connected with rainwater infiltration.

  16. Infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water in Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brothers, William C.; Thiros, Susan A.

    1991-01-01

    The ground-water hydrology of Panguitch Valley and adjacent areas, south-central Utah, was studied during 1988-90. One objective of the study was to measure ground-water recharge from infiltration of unconsumed irrigation water. Water-level and soil-moisture data were used to estimate travel times for water moving down through the soil profile, and to compare quantities of water reaching the water table after application of flood and sprinkler irrigation. During this study, estimates of travel times from land surface to the water table ranged from 11 days in June 1989 to 2 days in September 1989. Estimates of irrigation water recharging the ground-water system ranged from 25 to 75 percent of the water applied to the flood-irrigated field. Virtually no recharge was apparent for the sprinkler-irrigated field.

  17. Systemic granuloma observed in Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to market size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Systemic granuloma was observed in sampled adult Atlantic salmon Salmo salar raised to harvest size in a freshwater recirculation aquaculture system. The prevalence of this condition was estimated at 10-20% of the population, with affected individuals grossly demonstrating pathology in varying degre...

  18. Size-specific dose estimates (SSDE) for a prototype orthopedic cone-beam CT system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Samuel; Packard, Nathan; Yorkston, John

    2014-03-01

    Patient specific dose evaluation and reporting is becoming increasingly important for x-ray imaging systems. Even imaging systems with lower patient dose such as CBCT scanners for extremities can benefit from accurate and size-specific dose assessment and reporting. This paper presents CTDI dose measurements performed on a prototype CBCT extremity imaging system across a range of body part sizes (5, 10, 16, and 20 cm effective diameter) and kVp (70, 80, and 90 kVp - with 0.1 mm Cu added filtration). The ratio of the CTDI measurements for the 5, 10, and 20 cm phantoms to the CTDI measurements for the 16 cm phantom were calculated and results were compared to size-specific dose estimates conversion factors (AAPM Report 204), which were evaluated on a conventional CT scanner. Due to the short scan nature of the system (220 degree acquisition angle), the dependence of CTDI values on the initial angular orientation of the phantom with respect to the imager was also evaluated. The study demonstrated that for a 220 degree acquisition sequence, the initial angular position of the conventional CTDI phantom with respect to the scanner does not significantly affect CTDI measurements (varying by less than 2% overall across the range of possible initial angular positions). The size-specific conversion factor was found to be comparable to the Report 204 factors for the large phantom size (20 cm) but lower, by up to 12%, for the 5 cm phantom (i.e., 1.35 for CBCT vs 1.54 for CT). The factors dependence on kVp was minimal, but dependence on kVp was most significant for smaller diameters. These results indicate that specific conversion factors need to be used for CBCT systems with short scans in order to provide more accurate dose reporting across the range of body sizes found in extremity scanners.

  19. Stand-alone flat-plate photovoltaic power systems: System sizing and life-cycle costing methodology for Federal agencies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borden, C. S.; Volkmer, K.; Cochrane, E. H.; Lawson, A. C.

    1984-01-01

    A simple methodology to estimate photovoltaic system size and life-cycle costs in stand-alone applications is presented. It is designed to assist engineers at Government agencies in determining the feasibility of using small stand-alone photovoltaic systems to supply ac or dc power to the load. Photovoltaic system design considerations are presented as well as the equations for sizing the flat-plate array and the battery storage to meet the required load. Cost effectiveness of a candidate photovoltaic system is based on comparison with the life-cycle cost of alternative systems. Examples of alternative systems addressed are batteries, diesel generators, the utility grid, and other renewable energy systems.

  20. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World

    PubMed Central

    Haas, W. Randall; Klink, Cynthia J.; Maggard, Greg J.; Aldenderfer, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare—behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  1. Settlement-Size Scaling among Prehistoric Hunter-Gatherer Settlement Systems in the New World.

    PubMed

    Haas, W Randall; Klink, Cynthia J; Maggard, Greg J; Aldenderfer, Mark S

    2015-01-01

    Settlement size predicts extreme variation in the rates and magnitudes of many social and ecological processes in human societies. Yet, the factors that drive human settlement-size variation remain poorly understood. Size variation among economically integrated settlements tends to be heavy tailed such that the smallest settlements are extremely common and the largest settlements extremely large and rare. The upper tail of this size distribution is often formalized mathematically as a power-law function. Explanations for this scaling structure in human settlement systems tend to emphasize complex socioeconomic processes including agriculture, manufacturing, and warfare-behaviors that tend to differentially nucleate and disperse populations hierarchically among settlements. But, the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size variation requires such complex behaviors remains unclear. By examining the settlement patterns of eight prehistoric New World hunter-gatherer settlement systems spanning three distinct environmental contexts, this analysis explores the degree to which heavy-tailed settlement-size scaling depends on the aforementioned socioeconomic complexities. Surprisingly, the analysis finds that power-law models offer plausible and parsimonious statistical descriptions of prehistoric hunter-gatherer settlement-size variation. This finding reveals that incipient forms of hierarchical settlement structure may have preceded socioeconomic complexity in human societies and points to a need for additional research to explicate how mobile foragers came to exhibit settlement patterns that are more commonly associated with hierarchical organization. We propose that hunter-gatherer mobility with preferential attachment to previously occupied locations may account for the observed structure in site-size variation. PMID:26536241

  2. The diffuse infiltrative lymphocytosis syndrome (DILS). A comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Ghrenassia, Etienne; Martis, Nihal; Boyer, Julien; Burel-Vandenbos, Fanny; Mekinian, Arsène; Coppo, Paul

    2015-05-01

    The Diffuse Infiltrative Lymphocytosis Syndrome (DILS) is a rare multisystemic syndrome described in HIV-infected patients. It is characterised by CD8(+) T-cell lymphocytosis associated with a CD8(+) T-cell infiltration of multiple organs. DILS is usually seen in uncontrolled or untreated HIV infection but can also manifest itself independently of CD4(+) T-cell counts. The syndrome may present as a Sjögren-like disease that generally associates sicca signs with bilateral parotiditis, lymphadenopathy, and extraglandular organ involvement. The latter may affect the lungs, nervous system, liver, kidneys, and digestive tract. Anomalies of the respiratory system are often identified as lymphocytic interstitial pneumonia. Facial nerve palsy, aseptic meningitis or polyneuropathy are among the more frequent neurological features. Hepatic lymphocytic infiltration, lymphocytic interstitial nephropathy and digestive tract lymphocytic infiltration account for more rarely noted complications. Sicca syndrome, organomegaly and/or organ dysfunction associated with polyclonal CD8(+) T-cell organ-infiltration are greatly suggestive of DILS in people living with HIV. Labial salivary gland biopsy is therefore helpful when the focus score is equal or greater than 1 (or Chisholm Score ≥ 3). Primary Sjögren syndrome, chronic HCV or HTLV1 infection, graft versus host disease, IgG4-related disease, and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome are among the differential diagnoses that need to be considered. Treatment consists in highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), which is usually effective in resolving clinical signs and symptoms. Steroids, however, may also be occasionally required when organ infiltration does not respond to HAART. This review should provide an insight into this rare entity complicating the course of HIV infection. PMID:25660200

  3. Climate change impacts in multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Guy; Brown, Lee E; Edwards, Francois K; Hudson, Lawrence N; Milner, Alexander M; Reuman, Daniel C; Ledger, Mark E

    2012-11-01

    Experimental data from intergenerational field manipulations of entire food webs are scarce, yet such approaches are essential for gauging impacts of environmental change in natural systems. We imposed 2 years of intermittent drought on stream channels in a replicated field trial, to measure food web responses to simulated climate change. Drought triggered widespread losses of species and links, with larger taxa and those that were rare for their size, many of which were predatory, being especially vulnerable. Many network properties, including size-scaling relationships within food chains, changed in response to drought. Other properties, such as connectance, were unaffected. These findings highlight the need for detailed experimental data from different organizational levels, from pairwise links to the entire food web. The loss of not only large species, but also those that were rare for their size, provides a newly refined way to gauge likely impacts that may be applied more generally to other systems and/or impacts.

  4. Climate change impacts in multispecies systems: drought alters food web size structure in a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Guy; Brown, Lee E; Edwards, Francois K; Hudson, Lawrence N; Milner, Alexander M; Reuman, Daniel C; Ledger, Mark E

    2012-11-01

    Experimental data from intergenerational field manipulations of entire food webs are scarce, yet such approaches are essential for gauging impacts of environmental change in natural systems. We imposed 2 years of intermittent drought on stream channels in a replicated field trial, to measure food web responses to simulated climate change. Drought triggered widespread losses of species and links, with larger taxa and those that were rare for their size, many of which were predatory, being especially vulnerable. Many network properties, including size-scaling relationships within food chains, changed in response to drought. Other properties, such as connectance, were unaffected. These findings highlight the need for detailed experimental data from different organizational levels, from pairwise links to the entire food web. The loss of not only large species, but also those that were rare for their size, provides a newly refined way to gauge likely impacts that may be applied more generally to other systems and/or impacts. PMID:23007087

  5. The effect of food portion sizes on the obesity prevention using system dynamics modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abidin, Norhaslinda Zainal; Zulkepli, Jafri Hj; Zaibidi, Nerda Zura

    2014-09-01

    The rise in income and population growth have increased the demand for food and induced changes in food habits, food purchasing and consumption patterns in Malaysia. With this transition, one of the plausible causes of weight gain and obesity is the frequent consumption of outside food which is synonymous with bigger portion size. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to develop a system dynamics model to analyse the effect of reducing food portion size on weight and obesity prevention. This study combines the different strands of knowledge comprise of nutrition, physical activity and body metabolism. These elements are synthesized into a system dynamics model called SIMULObese. Findings from this study suggested that changes in eating behavior should not emphasize only on limiting the food portion size consumption. The efforts should also consider other eating events such as controlling the meal frequency and limiting intake of high-calorie food in developing guidelines to prevent obesity.

  6. Sizing criteria for a low footprint passive mine water treatment system.

    PubMed

    Sapsford, D J; Williams, K P

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this paper is to present data from a novel vertical flow mine water treatment system, demonstrate how these data can be used to generate sizing formulae for this technology, and present a comparison between the size of system based on these formulae and those of conventionally designed passive systems. The paper focuses on passive treatment of circum-neutral ferruginous mine waters bearing up to 50 mgl(-1) of iron in either ferrous or ferric form. The Vertical Flow Reactor (VFR) operates by passing mine water down through an accreting bed of ochre, the ochre bed being responsible for the intensification of iron removal by self-filtration and/or autocatalytic iron oxidation and precipitation. Key to the design and operation of the VFR system is the decrease in permeability in this ochre bed over time. The paper demonstrates that the VFR system can remove iron at many times the 10 g/m2/day removal rate - an often employed figure for the sizing of aerobic settling ponds and wetlands. The paper demonstrates that VFRs are viable and novel passive treatment system for mine waters with a smaller footprint than conventional systems.

  7. A new database sub-system for grain-size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckow, Axel

    2013-04-01

    Detailed grain-size analyses of large depth profiles for palaeoclimate studies create large amounts of data. For instance (Novothny et al., 2011) presented a depth profile of grain-size analyses with 2 cm resolution and a total depth of more than 15 m, where each sample was measured with 5 repetitions on a Beckman Coulter LS13320 with 116 channels. This adds up to a total of more than four million numbers. Such amounts of data are not easily post-processed by spreadsheets or standard software; also MS Access databases would face serious performance problems. The poster describes a database sub-system dedicated to grain-size analyses. It expands the LabData database and laboratory management system published by Suckow and Dumke (2001). This compatibility with a very flexible database system provides ease to import the grain-size data, as well as the overall infrastructure of also storing geographic context and the ability to organize content like comprising several samples into one set or project. It also allows easy export and direct plot generation of final data in MS Excel. The sub-system allows automated import of raw data from the Beckman Coulter LS13320 Laser Diffraction Particle Size Analyzer. During post processing MS Excel is used as a data display, but no number crunching is implemented in Excel. Raw grain size spectra can be exported and controlled as Number- Surface- and Volume-fractions, while single spectra can be locked for further post-processing. From the spectra the usual statistical values (i.e. mean, median) can be computed as well as fractions larger than a grain size, smaller than a grain size, fractions between any two grain sizes or any ratio of such values. These deduced values can be easily exported into Excel for one or more depth profiles. However, such a reprocessing for large amounts of data also allows new display possibilities: normally depth profiles of grain-size data are displayed only with summarized parameters like the clay

  8. Carbon Storage in Soil Size Fractions Under Two Cacao Agroforestry Systems in Bahia, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F.; Ramachandran Nair, P. K.; Nair, Vimala D.; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C.; Baligar, Virupax C.; Machado, Regina C. R.

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao ( Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 μm, 250-53 μm, and <53 μm)—corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions—and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  9. Carbon storage in soil size fractions under two cacao agroforestry systems in Bahia, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Gama-Rodrigues, Emanuela F; Ramachandran Nair, P K; Nair, Vimala D; Gama-Rodrigues, Antonio C; Baligar, Virupax C; Machado, Regina C R

    2010-02-01

    Shaded perennial agroforestry systems contain relatively high quantities of soil carbon (C) resulting from continuous deposition of plant residues; however, the extent to which the C is sequestered in soil will depend on the extent of physical protection of soil organic C (SOC). The main objective of this study was to characterize SOC storage in relation to soil fraction-size classes in cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) agroforestry systems (AFSs). Two shaded cacao systems and an adjacent natural forest in reddish-yellow Oxisols in Bahia, Brazil were selected. Soil samples were collected from four depth classes to 1 m depth and separated by wet-sieving into three fraction-size classes (>250 microm, 250-53 microm, and <53 microm)-corresponding to macroaggregate, microaggregate, and silt-and-clay size fractions-and analyzed for C content. The total SOC stock did not vary among systems (mean: 302 Mg/ha). On average, 72% of SOC was in macroaggregate-size, 20% in microaggregate-size, and 8% in silt-and-clay size fractions in soil. Sonication of aggregates showed that occlusion of C in soil aggregates could be a major mechanism of C protection in these soils. Considering the low level of soil disturbances in cacao AFSs, the C contained in the macroaggregate fraction might become stabilized in the soil. The study shows the role of cacao AFSs in mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emission through accumulation and retention of high amounts of organic C in the soils and suggests the potential benefit of this environmental service to the nearly 6 million cacao farmers worldwide.

  10. Habitat complexity does not promote coexistence in a size-structured intraguild predation system.

    PubMed

    Reichstein, Birte; Schröder, Arne; Persson, Lennart; De Roos, André M

    2013-01-01

    Size-dependent interactions and habitat complexity have been identified as important factors affecting the persistence of intraguild predation (IGP) systems. Habitat complexity has been suggested to promote intraguild (IG) prey and intraguild predator coexistence through weakening trophic interactions particularly the predation link. Here, we experimentally investigate the effects of habitat complexity on coexistence and invasion success of differently sized IG-predators in a size-structured IGP system consisting of the IG-predator Poecilia reticulata and a resident Heterandria formosa IG-prey population. The experiments included medium-long and long-term invasion experiments, predator-prey experiments and competition experiments to elucidate the mechanisms underlying the effect of prey refuges. Habitat complexity did not promote the coexistence of IG-predator and IG-prey, although the predation link was substantially weakened. However, the presence of habitat structure affected the invasion success of large IG-predators negatively and the invasion success of small IG-predators positively. The effect of refuges on size-dependent invasion success could be related to a major decrease in the IG-predator's capture rate and a shift in the size distribution of IG-predator juveniles. In summary, habitat complexity had two main effects: (i) the predation link was diminished, resulting in a more competition driven system and (ii) the overall competitive abilities of the two species were equalized, but coexistence was not promoted. Our results suggest that in a size-structured IGP system, individual level mechanisms may gain in importance over species level mechanisms in the presence of habitat complexity. PMID:23004014

  11. Teaching Medium-Sized ERP Systems - A Problem-Based Learning Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winkelmann, Axel; Matzner, Martin

    In order to increase the diversity in IS education, we discuss an approach for teaching medium-sized ERP systems in master courses. Many of today's IS curricula are biased toward large ERP packages. Nevertheless, these ERP systems are only a part of the ERP market. Hence, this chapter describes a course outline for a course on medium-sized ERP systems. Students had to study, analyze, and compare five different ERP systems during a semester. The chapter introduces a procedure model and scenario for setting up similar courses at other universities. Furthermore, it describes some of the students' outcomes and evaluates the contribution of the course with regard to a practical but also academic IS education.

  12. Solar Energy: System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit: Student Material. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "System Sizing, Design, and Retrofit," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, exercises, worksheets, bibliographies, and illustrations for 13 course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the following…

  13. 77 FR 49991 - Small Business Size Standards; Adoption of 2012 North American Industry Classification System for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-20

    ... footnote 1). solar, wind, 1). geothermal, and biomass electric power generation. 238190 Other Foundation, R..., replacing the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) System, effective October 1, 2000 (65 FR 30836 (May 5... modification, NAICS 2002 (66 FR 3825 (January 16, 2001)), into its table of size standards, effective October...

  14. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    SciTech Connect

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  15. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and must be received by OHA within 15 calendar days from the date of the... of NAICS code designations are found at 13 CFR 121.1101 to 121.1103 and 13 CFR part 134. ... Industry Classification System codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal...

  16. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  17. 48 CFR 19.303 - Determining North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... officer's response to the appeal, if any, must include argument and evidence (see 13 CFR Part 134), and... Industry Classification System (NAICS) codes and size standards. 19.303 Section 19.303 Federal Acquisition... of Small Business Status for Small Business Programs 19.303 Determining North American...

  18. Monoclonal antibody BrE-3 participation in a multivariate prognostic model for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast.

    PubMed

    Chan, C M; Baratta, F S; Ozzello, L; Ceriani, R L

    1994-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody (MoAb) BrE-3, an anti-human milk fat globule (HMFG) MoAb, is used here as a novel prognostic indicator for survival and relapse time in patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. A scoring system (4-Score method) was developed to this effect that measured, in a statistically reliable fashion, the level of expression of the epitope for MoAb BrE-3 in the cytoplasm and membranes of breast carcinoma cells in paraffin-embedded sections. In univariate analysis, data obtained by the 4-Score Method as well as data from traditional prognostic indicators (tumor size, axillary node status, and grade of differentiation) were found to be associated with patient survival and relapse. In multivariate analysis, using a Cox proportional hazards regression model, levels of expression of BrE-3 epitope plus tumor size and axillary node status were weighted and combined in an Individual Linear Composite Prognostic Score (ILCPS) that had a high level of association with survival and relapse time in this sample model of patients with infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. This level of association was found to be higher than the level of association for any other combination of traditional or 4-Score method variables. The level of expression of BrE-3 significantly adds to the prognostic capacity of traditional prognostic markers for infiltrating ductal carcinoma of the breast. PMID:7981443

  19. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... shall be constructed or treated to limit air infiltration. Penetrations of the pressure envelope made by... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air...

  20. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... shall be constructed or treated to limit air infiltration. Penetrations of the pressure envelope made by... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Air infiltration. 3280.505 Section... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air...

  1. Infiltration Model for Center Pivot Sprinkler Irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marked reduction in infiltration rate caused by formation of a soil surface seal due to water droplet impact on bare soil is a well known phenomenon but is rarely considered in infiltration models, especially under center pivot irrigation. The objective of this study was to develop a soil infil...

  2. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... infiltration to the living area of the home. Any design, material, method or combination thereof which... limits of reasonable economics. (1) Envelope penetrations. Plumbing, mechanical and...

  3. 24 CFR 3280.505 - Air infiltration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT MANUFACTURED HOME CONSTRUCTION AND SAFETY STANDARDS Thermal Protection § 3280.505 Air infiltration... infiltration to the living area of the home. Any design, material, method or combination thereof which... limits of reasonable economics. (1) Envelope penetrations. Plumbing, mechanical and...

  4. Investigation of Size and Morphology of Chitosan Nanoparticles Used in Drug Delivery System Employing Chemometric Technique

    PubMed Central

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammadreza; Elmizadeh, Hamideh; Ghasemi, Keyvan

    2015-01-01

    The polymeric nanoparticles are prepared from biocompatible polymers in size between 10-1000 nm. Chitosan is a biocompatible polymer that - can be utilized as drug delivery systems. In this study, chitosan nanoparticles were synthesized using an optimized spontaneous emulsification method. Determining particle size and morphology are two critical parameters in nanotechnology. The aim of this study is to introduce methodology based on relation between particle size and diffuse reflectance infrared fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy technique. Partial least squares (PLS) technique was used to estimate the average particle size based on DRIFT spectra. Forty two different chitosan nanoparticle samples with different particle sizes were analyzed using DRIFT spectrometry and the obtained data were processed by PLS. Results obtained from the real samples were compared to those obtained using field emission scanning electron microscope(FE-SEM) as a reference method. It was observed that PLS could correctly predict the average particle size of synthesized sample. Nanoparticles and their morphological state were determined by FE-SEM. Based on morphological characteristics analyzing with proposed method the samples were separated into two groups of "appropriate" and "inappropriate". Chemometrics methods such as principal component analysis, cluster analysis (CA) and linear discriminate analysis (LDA) were used to classify chitosan nanoparticles in terms of morphology. The percent of correctly classified samples using LDA were 100 %and 90% for training and test sets, respectively. PMID:26330855

  5. Computing physical properties with quantum Monte Carlo methods with statistical fluctuations independent of system size.

    PubMed

    Assaraf, Roland

    2014-12-01

    We show that the recently proposed correlated sampling without reweighting procedure extends the locality (asymptotic independence of the system size) of a physical property to the statistical fluctuations of its estimator. This makes the approach potentially vastly more efficient for computing space-localized properties in large systems compared with standard correlated methods. A proof is given for a large collection of noninteracting fragments. Calculations on hydrogen chains suggest that this behavior holds not only for systems displaying short-range correlations, but also for systems with long-range correlations.

  6. SIMULATION OF NET INFILTRATION FOR MODERN AND POTENTIAL FUTURE CLIMATES

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Heveal

    2000-06-16

    This Analysis/Model Report (AMR) describes enhancements made to the infiltration model documented in Flint et al. (1996) and documents an analysis using the enhanced model to generate spatial and temporal distributions over a model domain encompassing the Yucca Mountain site, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone, the average depth below the ground surface (at a given location) from which water is removed by evapotranspiration. The estimates of net infiltration are used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale 3-dimensional Unsaturated-Zone Ground Water Flow and Transport (UZ flow and transport) Model (CRWMS M&O 2000a). The UZ flow and transport model is one of several process models abstracted by the Total System Performance Assessment model to evaluate expected performance of the potential repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, in terms of radionuclide transport (CRWMS M&O 1998). The net-infiltration model is important for assessing potential repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow and transport model that is used to generate flow fields for evaluating potential radionuclide transport through the unsaturated zone. Estimates of net infiltration are provided as raster-based, 2-dimensional grids of spatially distributed, time-averaged rates for three different climate stages estimated as likely conditions for the next 10,000 years beyond the present. Each climate stage is represented using a lower bound, a mean, and an upper bound climate and corresponding net-infiltration scenario for representing uncertainty in the characterization of daily climate conditions for each climate stage, as well as potential climate variability within each climate stage. The set of nine raster grid maps provide spatially

  7. Can Effective Synthetic Vision System Displays be Implemented on Limited Size Display Spaces?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Comstock, J. Raymond, Jr.; Glaab, Lou J.; Prinzel, Lance J.; Elliott, Dawn M.

    2004-01-01

    The Synthetic Vision Systems (SVS) element of the NASA Aviation Safety Program is striving to eliminate poor visibility as a causal factor in aircraft accidents, and to enhance operational capabilities of all types or aircraft. To accomplish these safety and situation awareness improvements, the SVS concepts are designed to provide a clear view of the world ahead through the display of computer generated imagery derived from an onboard database of terrain, obstacle and airport information. An important issue for the SVS concept is whether useful and effective Synthetic Vision System (SVS) displays can be implemented on limited size display spaces as would be required to implement this technology on older aircraft with physically smaller instrument spaces. In this study, prototype SVS displays were put on the following display sizes: (a) size "A' (e.g. 757 EADI), (b) form factor "D" (e.g. 777 PFD), and (c) new size "X" (Rectangular flat-panel, approximately 20 x 25 cm). Testing was conducted in a high-resolution graphics simulation facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Specific issues under test included the display size as noted above, the field-of-view (FOV) to be shown on the display and directly related to FOV is the degree of minification of the displayed image or picture. Using simulated approaches with display size and FOV conditions held constant no significant differences by these factors were found. Preferred FOV based on performance was determined by using approaches during which pilots could select FOV. Mean preference ratings for FOV were in the following order: (1) 30 deg., (2) Unity, (3) 60 deg., and (4) 90 deg., and held true for all display sizes tested. Limitations of the present study and future research directions are discussed.

  8. Expert System For Flexible Palletizing Of Mixed Size And Weight Parcels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, A. Kader; Shell, Richard L.; Hall, E. L.

    1988-02-01

    Stacking boxes of mixed size and weight is a tedious task requiring intelligence. It requires the ability to recognize that boxes are available to be stacked, the recognition of different box types, the selection of a grasping point for picking up the box and most importantly, a determination of where to stack the box on a partially loaded pallet. The purpose of this paper is to describe an expert system for determining how to stack a set of mixed size and weight boxes and provide control information to a robot to perform actual palletizing. A prototype system has been developed using an expert programming language and an industrial robot work cell. The system has been tested with actual food parcels weighing up to 50 pounds and performs very well. The formation of flat regions is one of the many rules implemented in the expert system. The system also works at speeds comparable to human speeds. The study demonstrates, in large measure, the feasibility of the use of expert system AI techniques and industrial robots for palletizing mixed size weight parcels in a general workhousing application.

  9. Comparison of soil infiltration rates in burned and unburned mountainous watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martin, D.A.; Moody, J.A.

    2001-01-01

    Steady-state infiltration measurements were made at mountainous sites in New Mexico and Colorado, USA, with volcanic and granitic soils after wildfires and at comparable unburned sites. We measured infiltration in the New Mexico volcanic soils under two vegetation types, ponderosa pine and mixed conifer, and in the Colorado granitic soils under ponderosa pine vegetation. These measurements were made within high-severity burn areas using a portable infiltrometer with a 0.017 m2 infiltration area and artificial rainfall rates ranging from 97 to 440 mm h-1. Steady-state infiltration rates were less at all burned sites relative to unburned sites. The volcanic soil with ponderosa pine vegetation showed the greatest difference in infiltration rates with a ratio of steady-state infiltration rate in burned sites to unburned soils equal to 0.15. Volcanic soils with mixed conifer vegetation had a ratio (burned to unburned soils) of at most 0.38, and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation had a ratio of 0.38. Steady-state infiltration rates on unburned volcanic and granitic soils with ponderosa pine vegetation are not statistically different. We present data on the particle-size distribution at all the study sites and examples of wetting patterns produced during the infiltration experiments. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  10. 40 CFR 142.303 - Which size public water systems can receive a small system variance?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... receive a small system variance? (a) A State exercising primary enforcement responsibility for public..., a State exercising primary enforcement responsibility for public water systems may grant a...

  11. Nanoparticle distribution during systemic inflammation is size-dependent and organ-specific

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.-H.; Lundy, D. J.; Toh, E. K.-W.; Chen, C.-H.; Shih, C.; Chen, P.; Chang, H.-C.; Lai, J. J.; Stayton, P. S.; Hoffman, A. S.; Hsieh, P. C.-H.

    2015-09-01

    This study comprehensively investigates the changing biodistribution of fluorescent-labelled polystyrene latex bead nanoparticles in a mouse model of inflammation. Since inflammation alters systemic circulatory properties, increases vessel permeability and modulates the immune system, we theorised that systemic inflammation would alter nanoparticle distribution within the body. This has implications for prospective nanocarrier-based therapies targeting inflammatory diseases. Low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, was used to induce an inflammatory response, and 20 nm, 100 nm or 500 nm polystyrene nanoparticles were administered after 16 hours. HPLC analysis was used to accurately quantify nanoparticle retention by each vital organ, and tissue sections revealed the precise locations of nanoparticle deposition within key tissues. During inflammation, nanoparticles of all sizes redistributed, particularly to the marginal zones of the spleen. We found that LPS-induced inflammation induces splenic macrophage polarisation and alters leukocyte uptake of nanoparticles, with size-dependent effects. In addition, spleen vasculature becomes significantly more permeable following LPS treatment. We conclude that systemic inflammation affects nanoparticle distribution by multiple mechanisms, in a size dependent manner.This study comprehensively investigates the changing biodistribution of fluorescent-labelled polystyrene latex bead nanoparticles in a mouse model of inflammation. Since inflammation alters systemic circulatory properties, increases vessel permeability and modulates the immune system, we theorised that systemic inflammation would alter nanoparticle distribution within the body. This has implications for prospective nanocarrier-based therapies targeting inflammatory diseases. Low dose lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a bacterial endotoxin, was used to induce an inflammatory response, and 20 nm, 100 nm or 500 nm polystyrene nanoparticles were administered

  12. The Interannual Stability of Cumulative Frequency Distributions for Convective System Size and Intensity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohr, Karen I.; Molinari, John; Thorncroft, Chris D,

    2010-01-01

    The characteristics of convective system populations in West Africa and the western Pacific tropical cyclone basin were analyzed to investigate whether interannual variability in convective activity in tropical continental and oceanic environments is driven by variations in the number of events during the wet season or by favoring large and/or intense convective systems. Convective systems were defined from TRMM data as a cluster of pixels with an 85 GHz polarization-corrected brightness temperature below 255 K and with an area at least 64 km 2. The study database consisted of convective systems in West Africa from May Sep for 1998-2007 and in the western Pacific from May Nov 1998-2007. Annual cumulative frequency distributions for system minimum brightness temperature and system area were constructed for both regions. For both regions, there were no statistically significant differences among the annual curves for system minimum brightness temperature. There were two groups of system area curves, split by the TRMM altitude boost in 2001. Within each set, there was no statistically significant interannual variability. Sub-setting the database revealed some sensitivity in distribution shape to the size of the sampling area, length of sample period, and climate zone. From a regional perspective, the stability of the cumulative frequency distributions implied that the probability that a convective system would attain a particular size or intensity does not change interannually. Variability in the number of convective events appeared to be more important in determining whether a year is wetter or drier than normal.

  13. Accurate analysis of blood vessel sizes and stenotic lesions using stereoscopic DSA system.

    PubMed

    Fencil, L E; Doi, K; Hoffman, K R

    1988-01-01

    We have developed a technique to determine accurately the magnification factor and three-dimensional orientation of a vessel segment from a stereoscopic pair of digital subtraction angiograms (DSA). Our DSA system includes a stereoscopic x-ray tube with a 25-mm focal spot shift. The magnification and orientation of a selected vessel segment are determined from the distance and direction of the focal spot shift and the stereoscopic discrepancy in image positions for that segment. Our results indicate that the accuracies of determining the magnification and orientation are less than 1% and approximately 5 degrees, respectively. After the magnification and orientation are determined accurately, an iterative deconvolution technique for the measurement of vessel image size is applied to the selected vessel segment. This iterative deconvolution technique provides the best estimate of vessel image size by taking into account the unsharpness of the digital system. With this technique, the vessel image size can be determined to an accuracy of approximately 1.0 mm, which corresponds to one third the pixel size of our DSA system. Information derived from stereoscopic analysis and iterative deconvolution thus allows accurate calculation of actual vascular dimensions from DSA images.

  14. A Population of planetary systems characterized by short-period, Earth-sized planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steffen, Jason H.; Coughlin, Jeffrey L.

    2016-10-01

    We analyze data from the Quarter 1–17 Data Release 24 (Q1–Q17 DR24) planet candidate catalog from NASA’s Kepler mission, specifically comparing systems with single transiting planets to systems with multiple transiting planets, and identify a population of exoplanets with a necessarily distinct system architecture. Such an architecture likely indicates a different branch in their evolutionary past relative to the typical Kepler system. The key feature of these planetary systems is an isolated, Earth-sized planet with a roughly 1-d orbital period. We estimate that at least 24 of the 144 systems we examined (≳17%) are members of this population. Accounting for detection efficiency, such planetary systems occur with a frequency similar to the hot Jupiters.

  15. Infiltration processing of metal matrix composites using coated ceramic particulates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon-Patino, Carlos Alberto

    2001-07-01

    A new process was developed to fabricate particulate metal matrix composites (MMCs). The process involves three steps: (1) modifying the particulate surface by metal coating, (2) forming a particulate porous compact; and (3) introducing metal into the channel network by vacuum infiltration. MMCs with different reinforcements, volume fractions, and sizes can be produced by this technique. Powders of alumina and silicon carbide were successfully coated with nickel and copper in preparation for infiltration with molten aluminum. Electroless Ni and Cu deposition was used since it enhances the wettability of the reinforcements for composite fabrication. While Cu deposits were polycrystalline, traces of phosphorous co-deposited from the electroless bath gave an amorphous Ni-P coating. The effect of metal coating on wetting behavior was evaluated at 800°C on plain and metal-coated ceramic plates using a sessile drop technique. The metallic films eliminated the non-wetting behavior of the uncoated ceramics, leading to equilibrium contact angles in the order of 12° and below 58° for Ni and Cu coated ceramics, respectively. The spreading data indicated that local diffusion at the triple junction was the governing mechanism of the wetting process. Precipitation of intermetallic phases in the drop/ceramic interface delayed the formation of Al4C3. Infiltration with molten Al showed that the coated-particulates are suitable as reinforcing materials for fabricating MMCs, giving porosity-free components with a homogeneously distributed reinforcing phase. The coating promoted easy metal flow through the preform, compared to the non-infiltration behavior of the uncoated counterparts. Liquid state diffusion kinetics due to temperature dependent viscosity forces controlled the infiltration process. Microstructural analysis indicated the formation of intermetallic phases such as CuAl 2, in the case of Cu coating, and Ni2Al3 and NiAl 3 when Ni-coated powders were infiltrated. The

  16. The measurement system of nanoparticle size distribution from dynamic light scattering data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhenmei; Wang, Yajing; Shen, Jin; Liu, Wei; Sun, Xianming

    2014-05-01

    The measurement and analysis system of nanoparticle size distribution was developed by using virtual instrument technology, where the photon counting technology was applied in the system to replace the correlator; a high speed photon counter was designed with seamlessly counting technology to reduce the system cost and increase the accuracy. The data of nanoparticle dynamic light scattering (DLS) were analyzed in the mixed program of MATLAB and LabVIEW, where the autocorrelation functions of light scattering signals of 100 nm unimodal as well as 90 nm and 300 nm bimodal particles were inversed by truncated singular value decomposition arithmetic. Experiment results show that the peak position, peak width and symmetry of particle size distributions (PSDs) are very close to the real particles.

  17. Finite-size effects on return interval distributions for weakest-link-scaling systems.

    PubMed

    Hristopulos, Dionissios T; Petrakis, Manolis P; Kaniadakis, Giorgio

    2014-05-01

    The Weibull distribution is a commonly used model for the strength of brittle materials and earthquake return intervals. Deviations from Weibull scaling, however, have been observed in earthquake return intervals and the fracture strength of quasibrittle materials. We investigate weakest-link scaling in finite-size systems and deviations of empirical return interval distributions from the Weibull distribution function. Our analysis employs the ansatz that the survival probability function of a system with complex interactions among its units can be expressed as the product of the survival probability functions for an ensemble of representative volume elements (RVEs). We show that if the system comprises a finite number of RVEs, it obeys the κ-Weibull distribution. The upper tail of the κ-Weibull distribution declines as a power law in contrast with Weibull scaling. The hazard rate function of the κ-Weibull distribution decreases linearly after a waiting time τ(c) ∝ n(1/m), where m is the Weibull modulus and n is the system size in terms of representative volume elements. We conduct statistical analysis of experimental data and simulations which show that the κ Weibull provides competitive fits to the return interval distributions of seismic data and of avalanches in a fiber bundle model. In conclusion, using theoretical and statistical analysis of real and simulated data, we demonstrate that the κ-Weibull distribution is a useful model for extreme-event return intervals in finite-size systems. PMID:25353774

  18. Perspective of Launch Vehicle Size and Weight Based on Propulsion System Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czysz, P. A.

    2002-01-01

    The interaction of the propulsion system concept, and its intrinsic oxidizer to fuel ratio, with the geometric concept of the flight vehicle are such that their final configurations are interdependent. From an all rocket, to a PDE to a combined cycle propulsion system the there is a family of propulsion system/vehicle geometry that yield the smallest lightest system. The interactions define a valid design space for each propulsion system/vehicle concepts that clearly points the parameter value for minimum size and weight. The process also identifies a development path that builds on the previous propulsion system hardware developments so that the next, new system utilizes the previous propulsion system in its entirety. This greatly reduces development risk and cost as the degraded performance system is the previously proven system. Using historical aircraft maintenance analyses, it can be shown that systems designed to operate as maintained systems, not reusable disposable systems, the operating costs can be reduced and the flight frequency increased. The analysis systematically and incrementally spans all rockets to airbreathing combined cycle systems that achieve Mach 18.

  19. Influence of propulsion system size, shape, and location on supersonic aircraft design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bonner, E.; Roe, M. H.; Tyson, R. M.; Mairs, R. Y.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of various propulsion system parameters on the characteristics of a supersonic transport were investigated. The effects of arbitrarily scaling engine size on wave drag, friction drag, drag-due-to-lift, wing sizing, airplane balance, and airplane weight were studied. These evaluations were made for two families of nacelle shapes, resulting from typical turbojet and turbofan installations. Also examined were effects of nacelle location, and the wing camber plane deformations required to cancel the nacelle interference pressure field at cruise Mach number (2.7 M) were determined. The most drag-sensitive parameter is found to be nacelle shape. Similarly, wing deformation requirements are found to be primarily affected by nacelle shape. Effects of engine size variations are noted primarily in airplane gross weight.

  20. Impact evaluation on groundwater of the infiltration of an urban wastewater geopurification system placed over a detrital aquifer in a semiarid region (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moreno, L.; Durán, J. J.; Casermeiro, M. A.; Quintana, J. R.; Fernández, Ma A.

    2008-04-01

    Over a period of 4 years and 4 months, the geopurification installations at Dehesas de Guadix (Granada, Spain) were monitored to determine the impact on soil and groundwater of the controlled discharge of urban wastewater, and also to identify the best indicators of the entry of the recharged water into the aquifer. The installations are located in an area where the climate is Mediterranean sub-arid, with an average precipitation of less than 287 mm/year, and a rate of evapotranspiration that is almost three times greater. The system was controlled by determining the balance of majority nutrients and boron in the soil and in the groundwater, both at the points affected directly by the wastewater discharge and at others. The quantity of mass discharged was relatively large (COD 14,656 g/m2, NO3 85 g/m2, NO2 4 g/m2, NH4 2,425 g/m2, PO4 1,143 g/m2, K 1,531 g/m2, B 63 g/m2). It was observed that the elimination of nutrients within the soil (COD 97.5%, PO4 94.4%, K 59.17%, N total 18.8%, B 12.69%) was very efficient except for the nitrogen, which nevertheless did not reach the groundwater, as it was eliminated at deep levels of the unsaturated zone. Only 12.69% of the boron was removed, and appreciable, increasing amounts of this element did reach the groundwater. Unexpectedly, none of the majority nutrients behaved as a reliable indicator of the impact on groundwater; despite this, the boron and the bicarbonate did clearly reflect the arrival of the recharged water, and are proposed as the best indicators.

  1. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations.

  2. Impact of runoff infiltration on contaminant accumulation and transport in the soil/filter media of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems: A literature review.

    PubMed

    Tedoldi, Damien; Chebbo, Ghassan; Pierlot, Daniel; Kovacs, Yves; Gromaire, Marie-Christine

    2016-11-01

    The increasing use of Sustainable Urban Drainage Systems (SUDS) for stormwater management raises some concerns about the fate of ubiquitous runoff micropollutants in soils and their potential threat to groundwater. This question may be addressed either experimentally, by sampling and analyzing SUDS soil after a given operating time, or with a modeling approach to simulate the fate and transport of contaminants. After briefly reminding the processes responsible for the retention, degradation, or leaching of several urban-sourced contaminants in soils, this paper presents the state of the art about both experimental and modeling assessments. In spite of noteworthy differences in the sampling protocols, the soil parameters chosen as explanatory variables, and the methods used to evaluate the site-specific initial concentrations, most investigations undoubtedly evidenced a significant accumulation of metals and/or hydrocarbons in SUDS soils, which in the majority of the cases appears to be restricted to the upper 10 to 30cm. These results may suggest that SUDS exhibit an interesting potential for pollution control, but antinomic observations have also been made in several specific cases, and the inter-site concentration variability is still difficult to appraise. There seems to be no consensus regarding the level of complexity to be used in models. However, the available data deriving from experimental studies is generally limited to the contamination profiles and a few parameters of the soil, as a result of which "complex" models (including colloid-facilitated transport for example) appear to be difficult to validate before using them for predictive evaluations. PMID:27432725

  3. Landslide triggering by rain infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, Richard M.

    2000-01-01

    Landsliding in response to rainfall involves physical processes that operate on disparate timescales. Relationships between these timescales guide development of a mathematical model that uses reduced forms of Richards equation to evaluate effects of rainfall infiltration on landslide occurrence, timing, depth, and acceleration in diverse situations. The longest pertinent timescale is A/D0, where D0 is the maximum hydraulic diffusivity of the soil and A is the catchment area that potentially affects groundwater pressures at a prospective landslide slip surface location with areal coordinates x, y and depth H. Times greater than A/D0 are necessary for establishment of steady background water pressures that develop at (x, y, H) in response to rainfall averaged over periods that commonly range from days to many decades. These steady groundwater pressures influence the propensity for landsliding at (x, y, H), but they do not trigger slope failure. Failure results from rainfall over a typically shorter timescale H2/D0 associated with transient pore pressure transmission during and following storms. Commonly, this timescale ranges from minutes to months. The shortest timescale affecting landslide responses to rainfall is √(H/g), where g is the magnitude of gravitational acceleration. Postfailure landslide motion occurs on this timescale, which indicates that the thinnest landslides accelerate most quickly if all other factors are constant. Effects of hydrologic processes on landslide processes across these diverse timescales are encapsulated by a response function, R(t*) = √(t*/π) exp (-1/t*) - erfc (1/√t*), which depends only on normalized time, t*. Use of R(t*) in conjunction with topographic data, rainfall intensity and duration information, an infinite-slope failure criterion, and Newton's second law predicts the timing, depth, and acceleration of rainfall-triggered landslides. Data from contrasting landslides that exhibit rapid, shallow motion and slow, deep

  4. Requirements and Sizing Investigation for the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jennings, Mallory A.; Paul, Heather L.; Waguespack, Glenn M.

    2010-01-01

    This presentation summarized the results of a trade study that evaluated whether trace contaminant control within the Constellation Spacesuit PLSS could be achieved without a Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS) by relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Mallory Jennings and Dr. Glenn Waguespack studied trace contaminant generation rates to verify that values reflected the latest designs for Constellation spacesuit system pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. They also calculated TCCS sizing and conducted a literature survey to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

  5. Modelling heterogeneous flow in the vadoze zone underneath a stormwater infiltration basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winiarski, T.; Lassabatere, L.; Angulo-Jaramillo, R.; Goutaland, D.

    2011-12-01

    Infiltration basins are part of the best management practices. They are aimed at infiltrating stormwater to prevent additional collection and treatment through rainwater systems. In the suburbs of Lyon (France), many of these infiltration basins were built over fluvio-glacial deposit. These basins have been the subject of research programs on vadose zone flow and fate of pollutants. This study focuses on the impact of the heterogeneity of the fluvio-glacial deposit on both flow pattern and solute transfer. A proper geological and sedimentological description is first proposed to characterize the efficient water transfer properties of the fluvio-glacial deposit at the work scale (1 ha). The local geological and sedimentological architecture of the deposit and its lithofacies were investigated locally through trenches using both particle size analysis and sedimentological approach. This information was extended to the whole work by combining several geophysical techniques, i.e. GPR, electric resistivity and seismic refraction tomography. Then water infiltration experiments were performed on each lithofacies to derive the hydrodynamic properties through BEST algorithm (Beerkan estimation of Soil Transfer properties), leading to the corresponding hydrofacies. In addition, soil-column experiments were performed to estimate hydrodispersive parameters (tracer injection) and the geochemical properties of lithofacies (injection of model pollutants). All these data were implemented into Hydrus to model flow and solute transfer through a 2D soil profile with a precise description of the hydrofacies at the basin scale (flow domain 14x2 m2). The results are highly relevant because they emphasize different types of preferential flow due to either the presence of capillary barriers, drainage layers or pipe flow, which may be responsible for the enhancement of pollutant transfer. In particular, they show that sand lenses may play an important role whereas unconnected gravels may

  6. ‘Sticky business’: The influence of streambed periphyton on particle deposition and infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, Nira L.

    2011-03-01

    Strong feedbacks exist between physical and ecological components of aquatic systems. Aquatic plants can alter flow and sedimentation patterns, in turn influencing habitat condition and organism responses. In this study, I investigate the interactions between streambed periphyton, particle deposition and infiltration, and flow hydraulics to determine the influence of these organisms on the local environment. In a series of flume experiments, I measured the effects of two contrasting forms of periphyton at several densities and growth stages on near-bed hydraulics, particle loss from the water column, surface deposition, and subsurface infiltration. Data show that periphyton assemblages altered the rate and quantity of particle deposition via several mechanisms, including shear stress modification, surface adhesion, and bed clogging. Although trends varied for different size classes within a suspension of fine sediment, diatoms and algae had distinctly different effects on hydraulics, deposition, and infiltration. In general, diatoms increased the rate of decline in suspended particle concentrations relative to non-periphyton surfaces by reducing shear stresses and enhancing surface deposition via adhesion. Increases in diatom biomass, however, reduced the quantity and depth of particle infiltration, presumably by clogging interstitial pore spaces, in turn lowering rates of concentration decline. In contrast, all algal growth stages had slower or similar rates of concentration decline compared to non-periphyton conditions, due to partial clogging by high biomass and a lack of adhesion at the bed surface. Clogging effects were counteracted at later growth stages, however, as late-stage algal structures increased shear stresses and downward advection, in turn increasing amounts of infiltration. Compiled data from several field studies and experiments demonstrate a positive relation between periphyton biomass and inorganic mass, but also show a wide range in the

  7. Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Tomašových, Adam; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Betzner, Tristan J; Kuehnle, Nicole Bitler; Edie, Stewart; Kim, Sora; Supriya, K; White, Alexander E; Rahbek, Carsten; Huang, Shan; Price, Trevor D; Jablonski, David

    2016-05-11

    Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size-on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level of genera. Here, both groups show a nested pattern in which narrow-ranging genera are confined to the tropics and broad-ranging genera extend across much of the gradient. We find that (i) genus range size and its variation with latitude is closely associated with per-genus species richness and (ii) broad-ranging genera contain more species both within and outside of the tropics when compared with tropical- or temperate-only genera. Within-genus species diversification thus promotes genus expansion to novel latitudes. Despite underlying differences in the species range-size gradients, species-rich genera are more likely to produce a descendant that extends its range relative to the ancestor's range. These results unify species richness gradients with those of genera, implying that birds and bivalves share similar latitudinal dynamics in net species diversification. PMID:27147094

  8. Unifying latitudinal gradients in range size and richness across marine and terrestrial systems.

    PubMed

    Tomašových, Adam; Kennedy, Jonathan D; Betzner, Tristan J; Kuehnle, Nicole Bitler; Edie, Stewart; Kim, Sora; Supriya, K; White, Alexander E; Rahbek, Carsten; Huang, Shan; Price, Trevor D; Jablonski, David

    2016-05-11

    Many marine and terrestrial clades show similar latitudinal gradients in species richness, but opposite gradients in range size-on land, ranges are the smallest in the tropics, whereas in the sea, ranges are the largest in the tropics. Therefore, richness gradients in marine and terrestrial systems do not arise from a shared latitudinal arrangement of species range sizes. Comparing terrestrial birds and marine bivalves, we find that gradients in range size are concordant at the level of genera. Here, both groups show a nested pattern in which narrow-ranging genera are confined to the tropics and broad-ranging genera extend across much of the gradient. We find that (i) genus range size and its variation with latitude is closely associated with per-genus species richness and (ii) broad-ranging genera contain more species both within and outside of the tropics when compared with tropical- or temperate-only genera. Within-genus species diversification thus promotes genus expansion to novel latitudes. Despite underlying differences in the species range-size gradients, species-rich genera are more likely to produce a descendant that extends its range relative to the ancestor's range. These results unify species richness gradients with those of genera, implying that birds and bivalves share similar latitudinal dynamics in net species diversification.

  9. Net-Infiltration Map of the Navajo Sandstone Outcrop Area in Western Washington County, Utah

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Heilweil, Victor M.; McKinney, Tim S.

    2007-01-01

    As populations grow in the arid southwestern United States and desert bedrock aquifers are increasingly targeted for future development, understanding and quantifying the spatial variability of net infiltration and recharge becomes critically important for inventorying ground-water resources and mapping contamination vulnerability. A Geographic Information System (GIS)-based model utilizing readily available soils, topographic, precipitation, and outcrop data has been developed for predicting net infiltration to exposed and soil-covered areas of the Navajo Sandstone outcrop of southwestern Utah. The Navajo Sandstone is an important regional bedrock aquifer. The GIS model determines the net-infiltration percentage of precipitation by using an empirical equation. This relation is derived from least squares linear regression between three surficial parameters (soil coarseness, topographic slope, and downgradient distance from outcrop) and the percentage of estimated net infiltration based on environmental tracer data from excavations and boreholes at Sand Hollow Reservoir in the southeastern part of the study area. Processed GIS raster layers are applied as parameters in the empirical equation for determining net infiltration for soil-covered areas as a percentage of precipitation. This net-infiltration percentage is multiplied by average annual Parameter-elevation Regressions on Independent Slopes Model (PRISM) precipitation data to obtain an infiltration rate for each model cell. Additionally, net infiltration on exposed outcrop areas is set to 10 percent of precipitation on the basis of borehole net-infiltration estimates. Soils and outcrop net-infiltration rates are merged to form a final map. Areas of low, medium, and high potential for ground-water recharge have been identified, and estimates of net infiltration range from 0.1 to 66 millimeters per year (mm/yr). Estimated net-infiltration rates of less than 10 mm/yr are considered low, rates of 10 to 50 mm

  10. The impact of BPO on cost reduction in mid-sized health care systems.

    PubMed

    Perry, Andy; Kocakülâh, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    At the convergence of two politico-economic "hot topics" of the day--outsourcing and the cost of health care-lie opportunities for mid-sized health systems to innovate, collaborate, and reduce overhead. Competition in the retail health care market can serve as both an impetus and an inhibitor to such measures, though. Here we are going to address the motivations, influences, opportunities, and limitations facing mid-sized, US non-profit health systems in business process outsourcing (BPO). Advocates cite numerous benefits to BPO, particularly in cost reduction and strategy optimization. BPO can elicit cost savings due to specialization among provider firms, returns to scale and technology, standardization and automation, and gains in resource arbitrage (off-shoring capabilities). BPO can also free an organization of non-critical tasks and focus resources on core competencies (treating patients). The surge in BPO utilization has rarely extended to the back-office functions of many mid-sized health systems. Health care providers, still a largely fragmented bunch with many rural, independent non-profit systems, have not experienced the consolidation and organizational scale growth to make BPO as attractive as other industries. Smaller firms, spurning merger and acquisition pressure from large, tertiary health systems, often wish to retain their autonomy and identity; hence, they face a competitive cost disadvantage compared to their larger competitors. This article examines the functional areas for these health systems in which BPO is not currently utilized and dissects the various methods available in which to practice BPO. We assess the ongoing adoption of BPO in these areas as well as the barriers to adoption, and identify the key processes that best represent opportunity for success. An emphasis is placed on a collaborative model with other health systems compared to a single system, unilateral BPO arrangement. PMID:22329330

  11. The impact of BPO on cost reduction in mid-sized health care systems.

    PubMed

    Perry, Andy; Kocakülâh, Mehmet C

    2010-01-01

    At the convergence of two politico-economic "hot topics" of the day--outsourcing and the cost of health care-lie opportunities for mid-sized health systems to innovate, collaborate, and reduce overhead. Competition in the retail health care market can serve as both an impetus and an inhibitor to such measures, though. Here we are going to address the motivations, influences, opportunities, and limitations facing mid-sized, US non-profit health systems in business process outsourcing (BPO). Advocates cite numerous benefits to BPO, particularly in cost reduction and strategy optimization. BPO can elicit cost savings due to specialization among provider firms, returns to scale and technology, standardization and automation, and gains in resource arbitrage (off-shoring capabilities). BPO can also free an organization of non-critical tasks and focus resources on core competencies (treating patients). The surge in BPO utilization has rarely extended to the back-office functions of many mid-sized health systems. Health care providers, still a largely fragmented bunch with many rural, independent non-profit systems, have not experienced the consolidation and organizational scale growth to make BPO as attractive as other industries. Smaller firms, spurning merger and acquisition pressure from large, tertiary health systems, often wish to retain their autonomy and identity; hence, they face a competitive cost disadvantage compared to their larger competitors. This article examines the functional areas for these health systems in which BPO is not currently utilized and dissects the various methods available in which to practice BPO. We assess the ongoing adoption of BPO in these areas as well as the barriers to adoption, and identify the key processes that best represent opportunity for success. An emphasis is placed on a collaborative model with other health systems compared to a single system, unilateral BPO arrangement.

  12. Dynamic load management and optimum sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/wind system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaplani, E.; Ntafogiannis, P.; Pappas, K.; Diamantopoulos, N.

    2015-12-01

    Simulation algorithms for the sizing of stand-alone hybrid PV/Wind systems are a powerful tool in evaluating the optimum configuration that would cover the energy demand with a predefined reliability level at the lowest cost. Several parameters such as the interval of the simulation (day, day-night, hourly) and the consumption profile may significantly affect the optimum configuration. This paper examines the effect of these parameters within an optimum sizing simulation algorithm developed. The effect of these parameters was particularly evident at low battery capacities, which involve optimum configurations resulting in minimum cost. Furthermore, shift-able loads in the hourly-based weekly profile assumed in this study were identified, and a dynamic load management functionality was developed. In this approach, loads that could be shifted through time were dynamically allocated during periods of excess energy production by the hybrid PV/Wind system. The results showed an increase in system reliability from 95% to 97% when load shifting was introduced. Finally, sizing the system for only the static (non-shift-able loads) proved to withstand the addition of the extra shift-able loads while retaining the 95% reliability level when the load management functionality was introduced. Thus, a smaller installation with lower cost is achieved.

  13. KOI-3158: The oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campante, T. L.; Barclay, T.; Swift, J. J.; Huber, D.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Cochran, W.; Burke, C. J.; Isaacson, H.; Quintana, E. V.; Davies, G. R.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Ragozzine, D.; Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Basu, S.; Chaplin, W. J.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Handberg, R.; Stello, D.; Brewer, J. M.; Hekker, S.; Karoff, C.; Kolbl, R.; Law, N. M.; Lundkvist, M.; Miglio, A.; Rowe, J. F.; Santos, N. C.; Van Laerhoven, C.; Arentoft, T.; Elsworth, Y. P.; Fischer, D. A.; Kawaler, S. D.; Kjeldsen, H.; Lund, M. N.; Marcy, G. W.; Sousa, S. G.; Sozzetti, A.; White, T. R.

    2015-09-01

    The first discoveries of exoplanets around Sun-like stars have fueled efforts to find ever smaller worlds evocative of Earth and other terrestrial planets in the Solar System. While gas-giant planets appear to form preferentially around metal-rich stars, small planets (with radii less than four Earth radii) can form under a wide range of metallicities. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the Universe's history when metals were far less abundant. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of KOI-3158, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk, which hosts five planets with sizes between Mercury and Venus. We used asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that KOI-3158 formed when the Universe was less than 20 % of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the Universe's 13.8-billion-year history, providing scope for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy.

  14. Involvement of V-ATPase in the regulation of cell size in the fly's visual system.

    PubMed

    Pyza, E; Borycz, J; Giebultowicz, J M; Meinertzhagen, I A

    2004-11-01

    In the fly's visual system, two classes of lamina interneuron, L1 and L2, cyclically change both their size and shape in a rhythm that is circadian. Several neurotransmitters and the lamina's glial cells are known to be involved in regulating these rhythms. Moreover, vacuolar-type H+-ATPase (V-ATPase) in the optic lobe is thought also to participate in such regulation. We have detected V-ATPase-like immunoreactivity in the heads of both Drosophilla melanogaster and Musca domestica using antibodies raised against either the B- or H-subunits of V-ATPase from D. melanogaster or against the B-subunit from two other insect species Culex quinquefasciatus and Manduca sexta. In the visual systems of both fly species V-ATPase was localized immunocytochemically to the compound eye photoreceptors. In D. melanogaster immunoreactivity oscillated during the day and night and under constant darkness the signal was stronger during the subjective night than the subjective day. In turn, blocking V-ATPase by injecting a V-ATPase blocker, bafilomycin, in M. domestica increased the axon sizes of L1 and L2, but only when bafilomycin was applied during the night. As a result bafilomycin abolished the day/night difference in axon size in L1 and L2, their sizes being similar during the day and night. PMID:15607501

  15. Intraspecific variation in space use, group size, and mating systems of caviomorph rodents

    PubMed Central

    Maher, Christine R.; Burger, Joseph Robert

    2012-01-01

    Intraspecific variation in social systems is widely recognized across many taxa, and specific models, including polygamy potential, resource defense, and resource dispersion, have been developed to explain the relationship between ecological variation and social organization. Although mammals from temperate North America and Eurasia have provided many insights into this relationship, rodents from the Neotropics and temperate South America have largely been ignored. In this review we focus on reports documenting intraspecific variation in spacing systems, group size, and mating systems of caviomorphs. This large group of New World hystricognath rodents occupies a diverse array of habitats; thus, members of the same species potentially exhibit different social systems in response to different ecological conditions. Spatial patterns vary in response to a diverse array of factors, including predation, food availability, population density, and soil characteristics. Changes in group size typically correlate with changes in resource availability, particularly food. Mating systems generally reflect the ability of males to control access to females, which may depend on population density or food distribution. In general, social organization in caviomorphs fits predictions of resource-based models; however, most studies have been purely observational, involving small numbers of animals over short time periods and reporting qualitative rather than quantitative levels of ecological correlates. In future studies the use of molecular techniques and controlled, experimental manipulations can increase our understanding of intraspecific variation in caviomorph social systems. This understudied group of rodents offers excellent opportunities to provide insights into the influence of ecological conditions on behavior such as social systems. PMID:22328790

  16. Geophysical methods for monitoring infiltration in soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coquet, Yves; Pessel, Marc; Saintenoy, Albane

    2015-04-01

    Geophysics provides useful tools for monitoring water infiltration in soil essentially because they are non-invasive and have a good time-resolution. We present some results obtained on different soils using two geophysical techniques: electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) and ground-penetrating radar (GPR). Infiltration in a loamy soil was monitored using a 2D Wenner array set up under a tension disc infiltrometer. A good imaging of the infiltration bulb below the infiltrometer could be achieved provided a sufficient resistivity contrast between the wet and the dry soil zones. ERT data could be used to invert soil hydraulic properties. However, we found that the information provided by the ERT could be of limited importance in regard to the information provided by the infiltration rate dynamics if the ERT spatial resolution is not small enough to capture the details of the infiltration front at the limit between the wet and dry soil zones. GPR was found to be a good tool to monitor the progression of the infiltration front in a sandy soil. By combining a water transport simulation model (HYDRUS-1D), a method for transforming water content into dielectric permittivity values (CRIM), and an electromagnetic wave propagation model (GprMax), the Mualem-van Genuchten hydraulic parameters could be retrieved from radargrams obtained under constant or falling head infiltration experiments. Both ERT and GPR methods have pros and cons. Time and spatial resolutions are of prime importance to achieve a sufficient sensitivity to all soil hydraulic parameters. Two exploration fields are suggested: the combination of different geophysical methods to explore infiltration in heterogeneous soils, and the development of integrated infiltrometers that allow geophysical measurements while monitoring water infiltration rate in soil.

  17. Reactive-infiltration instability in radial geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grodzki, Piotr; Szymczak, Piotr

    2015-04-01

    A planar dissolution front propagating through a homogeneous porous matrix is unstable with respect to small variations in local permeability; regions of high permeability dissolve faster because of enhanced transport of reactants, which leads to increased rippling of the front. This phenomenon, usually referred to known as reactive-infiltration instability is an important mechanism for pattern development in geology, with a range of morphologies and scales, from cave systems running for hundreds of miles to laboratory acidization on the scale of centimeters. In general, this instability is characterized by two length scales: the diffusive length (D/v) and the reactant penetration length (v/r), where v is the Darcy velocity, D - the diffusion constant and r - the dissolution rate. If the latter scale is much smaller than the former one can adopt the so-called thin front limit, where the interface is treated as a discontinuity in porosity, with a completely dissolved phase on one side and an undissolved phase on the other. Linear stability analysis for this case has been carried out by Chadam et al. [1], and the corresponding dispersion relation shows that long wavelengths are unstable, whereas short wavelengths are stabilized by diffusion. In their derivation, Chadam et al. have considered a linear geometry with a uniform pressure gradient applied along one of the directions. However, in many cases (e.g. in the acidization techniques used in oil industry) the reactive fluids are injected through a well and thus the relevant geometry is radial rather than linear. Motivated by this, we have carried out the linear stability analysis of the reactive-infiltration problem in radial geometry, with the fluid injection at the centre of the system. We stay within the thin-front limit and derive the corresponding dispersion relation, which shows the stable regions for both the long-wavelength and short-wavelength modes, and the unstable region in between. Next, we study how

  18. AN ANCIENT EXTRASOLAR SYSTEM WITH FIVE SUB-EARTH-SIZE PLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Campante, T. L.; Davies, G. R.; Chaplin, W. J.; Handberg, R.; Barclay, T.; Huber, D.; Burke, C. J.; Quintana, E. V.; Swift, J. J.; Adibekyan, V. Zh.; Cochran, W.; Isaacson, H.; Silva Aguirre, V.; Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Metcalfe, T. S.; Bedding, T. R.; Ragozzine, D.; Riddle, R.; Baranec, C.; Basu, S.; and others

    2015-02-01

    The chemical composition of stars hosting small exoplanets (with radii less than four Earth radii) appears to be more diverse than that of gas-giant hosts, which tend to be metal-rich. This implies that small, including Earth-size, planets may have readily formed at earlier epochs in the universe's history when metals were more scarce. We report Kepler spacecraft observations of Kepler-444, a metal-poor Sun-like star from the old population of the Galactic thick disk and the host to a compact system of five transiting planets with sizes between those of Mercury and Venus. We validate this system as a true five-planet system orbiting the target star and provide a detailed characterization of its planetary and orbital parameters based on an analysis of the transit photometry. Kepler-444 is the densest star with detected solar-like oscillations. We use asteroseismology to directly measure a precise age of 11.2 ± 1.0 Gyr for the host star, indicating that Kepler-444 formed when the universe was less than 20% of its current age and making it the oldest known system of terrestrial-size planets. We thus show that Earth-size planets have formed throughout most of the universe's 13.8 billion year history, leaving open the possibility for the existence of ancient life in the Galaxy. The age of Kepler-444 not only suggests that thick-disk stars were among the hosts to the first Galactic planets, but may also help to pinpoint the beginning of the era of planet formation.

  19. Size effects in electronic and breakdown processes during barrier electric discharge in disperse systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aliev, M. M.; Zelenkova, E. A.

    2009-05-01

    The differences in the breakdown characteristics of barrier electric discharge (BED) in air and disperse systems (air + ZrO2) at 77 and 300 K are determined by polarization, plasma-forming medium charge deposition on the ZrO2 surface, and surface effects on the duration and mechanism of electron avalanches changing with the sizes of air voids between oxide surfaces ( E/ P ˜ const, T ˜ const).

  20. The Lixiscope: a Pocket-size X-ray Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, L. I.; Seltzer, S. M.

    1978-01-01

    A Low Intensity X ray Imaging device with the acronym LIXISCOPE is described. The Lixiscope has a small format and is powered only by a 2.7V battery. The high inherent gain of the Lixiscope permits the use of radioactive sources in lieu of X-ray machines in some fluoroscopic applications. In this mode of operation the complete X ray imaging system is truly portable and pocket-sized.

  1. An optical system for communication and sensing in millimetre-sized swarming microrobots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corradi, P.; Scholz, O.; Knoll, T.; Menciassi, A.; Dario, P.

    2009-01-01

    Microrobotic technology underlines the concept of top-down fabrication of autonomous or semi-autonomous robotic systems, with the final aim to produce autonomous micromachines. For millimetre-sized robots, all the sub-component modules must be conceived and designed as minimal components able to accomplish a specific basic task, and each of them consequently represents a fundamental part in the whole microrobotic system. Communication and sensing modules, in particular, are indispensable to the microrobot in order to physically interact with its neighbours and the surrounding environment, a fundamental feature for multi-agent or swarm robotic systems. At present, there exist no communication and sensing modules suitable to be integrated in millimetre-sized microrobots that fulfil the requirements of the application discussed in this paper. The objective of the paper is to present the development of an integrated and scalable miniaturized optical system for communication and sensing in swarming microrobots that are among the smallest ever reported. The system consists of optoelectronic devices in a die form, which are assembled on a substrate and encompassed in a mirroring polymeric structure. The final experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the optical module, and potential methods for further improving the system performance are finally proposed.

  2. "Sticky Business": the Influence of Surface Biofilm on Particle Deposition and Infiltration in Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salant, N. L.; Hassan, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    filamentous assemblages are collected from nearby channels and used to replace the surface layer of flume substrate. Low-profile forms are cultivated on a cobble-gravel substrate in an artificial stream system and tested at each of three growth stages. Immediately following a dose of fine particles (< 125 µm ground silica), short-term rates of particle deposition are determined by continuous measurements of near-bed particle concentrations. Hourly vertical concentration, grain size profiles, and 3-D velocity profiles are measured for the duration of the experiment (8h). Infiltration rate is determined from bed samplers sealed from the flow at 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours. At the end of each experiment, three surface samples are collected and analyzed for ash-weight, ash-free dry weight, and chlorophyll a. Four stratified bed samples and samplers are removed, dried, sieved and weighed to determine the amount and depth of fine particle infiltration into the bed with time and surface condition. Preliminary results indicate that particle deposition is significantly enhanced by biofilm presence relative to surfaces without biofilm; this effect is greater for mucilaginous forms. However, near-bed shear stresses and velocity profiles are not significantly altered by either mucilaginous or filamentous forms; bed topography has a dominant effect. Results also indicate that particle deposition is more strongly influenced by surface condition (e.g. particle size, biofilm presence) than by flow level or duration. Particle infiltration below the surface, however, is more a function of pore space and flow level than biofilm coverage on the streambed surface.

  3. Critical Behaviors and Finite-Size Scaling of Principal Fluctuation Modes in Complex Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiao-Teng; Chen, Xiao-Song

    2016-09-01

    Complex systems consisting of N agents can be investigated from the aspect of principal fluctuation modes of agents. From the correlations between agents, an N × N correlation matrix C can be obtained. The principal fluctuation modes are defined by the eigenvectors of C. Near the critical point of a complex system, we anticipate that the principal fluctuation modes have the critical behaviors similar to that of the susceptibity. With the Ising model on a two-dimensional square lattice as an example, the critical behaviors of principal fluctuation modes have been studied. The eigenvalues of the first 9 principal fluctuation modes have been invesitigated. Our Monte Carlo data demonstrate that these eigenvalues of the system with size L and the reduced temperature t follow a finite-size scaling form λn (L, t) = Lγ/ν fn(tL1/ν), where γ is critical exponent of susceptibility and ν is the critical exponent of the correlation length. Using eigenvalues λ1, λ2 and λ6, we get the finite-size scaling form of the second moment correlation length ξ (L, t) &equals L\\tilde ξ (tL1/ν ). It is shown that the second moment correlation length in the two-dimensional square lattice is anisotropic. Supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11121403 and 11504384

  4. Scalable Heuristics for Planning, Placement and Sizing of Flexible AC Transmission System Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Frolov, Vladmir; Backhaus, Scott N.; Chertkov, Michael

    2015-07-02

    Aiming to relieve transmission grid congestion and improve or extend feasibility domain of the operations, we build optimization heuristics, generalizing standard AC Optimal Power Flow (OPF), for placement and sizing of Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System (FACTS) devices of the Series Compensation (SC) and Static VAR Compensation (SVC) type. One use of these devices is in resolving the case when the AC OPF solution does not exist because of congestion. Another application is developing a long-term investment strategy for placement and sizing of the SC and SVC devices to reduce operational cost and improve power system operation. SC and SVC devices are represented by modification of the transmission line inductances and reactive power nodal corrections respectively. We find one placement and sizing of FACTs devices for multiple scenarios and optimal settings for each scenario simultaneously. Our solution of the nonlinear and nonconvex generalized AC-OPF consists of building a convergent sequence of convex optimizations containing only linear constraints and shows good computational scaling to larger systems. The approach is illustrated on single- and multi-scenario examples of the Matpower case-30 model.

  5. The effect of nanoparticle size, shape, and surface chemistry on biological systems.

    PubMed

    Albanese, Alexandre; Tang, Peter S; Chan, Warren C W

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between nanoparticles and biological systems is of significant interest. Studies aimed at correlating the properties of nanomaterials such as size, shape, chemical functionality, surface charge, and composition with biomolecular signaling, biological kinetics, transportation, and toxicity in both cell culture and animal experiments are under way. These fundamental studies will provide a foundation for engineering the next generation of nanoscale devices. Here, we provide rationales for these studies, review the current progress in studies of the interactions of nanomaterials with biological systems, and provide a perspective on the long-term implications of these findings.

  6. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    SciTech Connect

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G.S.; Salve, R.

    2002-04-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Tonopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility, using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  7. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs.

    PubMed

    Faybishenko, B; Bodvarsson, G S; Salve, R

    2003-01-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  8. On the physics of unstable infiltration, seepage, and gravity drainage in partially saturated tuffs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faybishenko, B.; Bodvarsson, G. S.; Salve, R.

    2003-05-01

    To improve understanding of the physics of dynamic instabilities in unsaturated flow processes within the Paintbrush nonwelded unit (PTn) and the middle nonlithophysal portion of the Topopah Spring welded tuff unit (TSw) of Yucca Mountain, we analyzed data from a series of infiltration tests carried out at two sites (Alcove 4 and Alcove 6) in the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF), using analytical and empirical functions. The analysis of infiltration rates measured at both sites showed three temporal scales of infiltration rate: (1) a macro-scale trend of overall decreasing flow, (2) a meso-scale trend of fast and slow motion exhibiting three-stage variations of the flow rate (decreasing, increasing, and [again] decreasing flow rate, as observed in soils in the presence of entrapped air), and (3) micro-scale (high frequency) fluctuations. Infiltration tests in the nonwelded unit at Alcove 4 indicate that this unit may effectively dampen episodic fast infiltration events; however, well-known Kostyakov, Horton, and Philip equations do not satisfactorily describe the observed trends of the infiltration rate. Instead, a Weibull distribution model can most accurately describe experimentally determined time trends of the infiltration rate. Infiltration tests in highly permeable, fractured, welded tuff at Alcove 6 indicate that the infiltration rate exhibits pulsation, which may have been caused by multiple threshold effects and water-air redistribution between fractures and matrix. The empirical relationships between the extrinsic seepage from fractures, matrix imbibition, and gravity drainage versus the infiltration rate, as well as scaling and self-similarity for the leading edge of the water front are the hallmark of the nonlinear dynamic processes in water flow under episodic infiltration through fractured tuff. Based on the analysis of experimental data, we propose a conceptual model of a dynamic fracture flow and fracture-matrix interaction in fractured tuff

  9. Infiltration formulas by curve number procedure.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, C.-L.

    1982-01-01

    The Soil Conservation Service (SCS) curve number procedure for estimating runoff volume is examined in terms of the validity and applicability of the derived infiltration equations. -from ASCE Publications Abstracts

  10. Chemical vapor infiltration using microwave energy

    DOEpatents

    Devlin, David J.; Currier, Robert P.; Laia, Jr., Joseph R.; Barbero, Robert S.

    1993-01-01

    A method for producing reinforced ceramic composite articles by means of chemical vapor infiltration and deposition in which an inverted temperature gradient is utilized. Microwave energy is the source of heat for the process.

  11. Infiltration and Injection Sites and Example Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Rockhold

    2007-04-19

    The objectives of this paper are: (1) design a characterization and monitoring strategy for vadose zone infiltration and aquifer injection sites; and (2) track spatial and temporal evolution of water and reactive chemicals through vadose zone and aquifer.

  12. Mathematical Analysis and Optimization of Infiltration Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chang, H.-C.; Gottlieb, D.; Marion, M.; Sheldon, B. W.

    1997-01-01

    A variety of infiltration techniques can be used to fabricate solid materials, particularly composites. In general these processes can be described with at least one time dependent partial differential equation describing the evolution of the solid phase, coupled to one or more partial differential equations describing mass transport through a porous structure. This paper presents a detailed mathematical analysis of a relatively simple set of equations which is used to describe chemical vapor infiltration. The results demonstrate that the process is controlled by only two parameters, alpha and beta. The optimization problem associated with minimizing the infiltration time is also considered. Allowing alpha and beta to vary with time leads to significant reductions in the infiltration time, compared with the conventional case where alpha and beta are treated as constants.

  13. Dosimetric implications of the infiltrated injection

    SciTech Connect

    Castronovo, F.P.; McKusick, K.A.; Strauss, H.W.

    1984-01-01

    Following inadvertent infiltration of a radiopharmaceutical, there is variable and uncertain uptake in target tissue. Concomitantly, there is also a concern for the radiation dose to the infiltrated site. This investigation determined the clearance and radiation burdens from various radiopharmaceutical infiltrates in a rat model. Nine separate sites were studied for: Tc-99m microspheres; Tc-99m MDP; Ga-67 citrate; and Tl-201 chloride. Following sc injection on the shaven posteriors of anesthetized adult male Sprague-Dawley rats, gamma camera and computer data were collected up to 24 hours. The resulting data were expressed semilogarithmically as the mean (N = 9) of the ''% retained at site'' as a f(time) after injection. Nonparticulate agents showed a tri-exponential release pattern from each site, whereas the microspheres remained for an extended period of time. Using these pharma-cokinetic curves, the % remaining at each site for various times, and rems/mCi per lcc infiltrate was determined.

  14. [Effects of biochar addition into soils in semiarid land on water infiltration under the condition of the same bulk density].

    PubMed

    Qi, Rui-Peng; Zhang, Lei; Yan, Yong-Hao; Wen, Man; Zheng, Ji-Yong

    2014-08-01

    Making clear the effects of biochar addition on soil water infiltration process can provide the scientific basis for the evaluation of the influence of biochar application on soil hydrology in semi-arid region. In this paper, through the soil column simulation method in laboratory, the effects of biochar of three sizes (1-2 mm, 0.25-1 mm and ≤ 0.25 mm) at 4 doses (10, 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1)) on the cumulative infiltration, the permeability and the stable infiltration rate of two different soils (anthrosol and aeolian sandy soil) were studied. The results showed that the infiltration capacity of the anthrosol was obviously increased compared to the control, however, the one in the aeolian sandy soil was decreased due to the biochar addition. At 100 minutes after infiltration starting, the averaged cumulative infiltration was increased by 25.1% in the anthrosol with comparison to the control. Contrarily, the averaged cumulative infiltration was decreased by 11.1% in the aeolian sandy soil at 15 minutes after infiltration starting. When the dose was the same, biochar with different particle sizes improved the infiltration for the anthrosol, but for the different dose treatments, the particle size of biochar which showed the greatest improvement was different. As for the aeolian sandy soil, the infiltration increased at the dose of 10 g x kg(-1) after the addition of biochar with different particle sizes, while decreased at the higher dose of 50, 100 and 150 g x kg(-1). The cumulative infiltration of the aeolian sandy soil was decreased with the increase in addition amount of biochar with the same particle size, while it was not so for the anthrosol. The determination coefficient fitted by the Philip infiltration model ranged from 0.965 to 0.999, suggesting this model was suitable for the simulation of soil water infiltration process after biochar application. Statistical analysis of main effects showed that the biochar particle size, the biochar addition amount

  15. Preventing Molecular and Particulate Infiltration in a Confined Volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scialdone, John J.

    1999-01-01

    Contaminants from an instrument's self-generated sources or from sources external to the instrument may degrade its critical surfaces and/or create an environment which limits the instrument's intended performance. Analyses have been carried out on a method to investigate the required purging flow of clean, dry gas to prevent the ingestion of external contaminants into the instrument container volume. The pressure to be maintained and the required flow are examined in terms of their effectiveness in preventing gaseous and particulate contaminant ingestion and abatement of self-generated contaminants in the volume. The required venting area or the existing volume venting area is correlated to the volume to be purged, the allowable pressure differential across the volume, the external contaminant partial pressure, and the sizes of the ambient particulates. The diffusion of external water vapor into the volume while it was being purged was experimentally obtained in terms of an infiltration time constant. That data and the acceptable fraction of the outside pressure into the volume indicate the required flow of purge gas expressed in terms of volume change per unit time. The exclusion of particulates is based on the incoming velocity of the particles and the exit flow speed and density of the purge gas. The purging flow pressures needed to maintain the required flows through the vent passages are indicated. The purge gas must prevent or limit the entrance of the external contaminants to the critical locations of the instrument. It should also prevent self- contamination from surfaces, reduce material outgassing, and sweep out the outgassed products. Systems and facilities that can benefit from purging may be optical equipment, clinical facilities, manufacturing facilities, clean rooms, and other systems requiring clean environments.

  16. Reconstructing the size distribution of the small body population in the Solar System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, Michiel; Morbidelli, Alessandro

    2016-10-01

    The size distributions of the populations of small bodies in the solar system (the asteroid belt, the hot Kuiper belt and the cold Kuiper belt) show a striking similarity: they all show an elbow at a diameter of about D=100km. At D<100km, all size distributions have the same slope, dictated by collisional equilibrium. At D>100km, the slopes are different, the cold Kuiper belt having the steepest slope, while the hot Kuiper belt and the asteroid belt have progressively more shallow slopes. Moreover, the asteroid belt and hot Kuiper belt show a turnover to a shallow size distribution at sizes larger than D=300-500km. Johansen et al. (2015) explained the elbow and the transition to a steeper slope assuming that the original planetesimals had D<100km and that they grew further by the process of pebble accretion, the sweep up of small particles aided by gas drag. However, the origin of the differences between the slopes of the three populations remained unclear.Here we investigate the problem using a particle-in-a-box code, that treats collisional coagulation, fragmentation, dynamical stirring and damping, to which we have added growth by pebble accretion for objects with possibly eccentric and inclined orbits.We show that the size distribution above D=100km is set by a combination of planetesimal collisions and the sweeping up of pebbles. Thus, the final slopes are diagnostic of the collisionial rate and the initial total mass of the planetesimal population. The size distribution for the largest asteroids and hot Kuiper belt objects are consistent with growth dominated by the accretion of pebbles. The observed size distributions also places constraints on the dominant particle size, the level of midplane turbulence and nebular conditions at different orbital radii in the Solar nebula. Our findings hint that the asteroid belt largely formed close to the dissipation of the gas disc and that its final total mass was comparable to that of the Earth.

  17. Size Influences the Effect of Hydrophobic Nanoparticles on Lung Surfactant Model Systems

    PubMed Central

    Dwivedi, Mridula V.; Harishchandra, Rakesh Kumar; Koshkina, Olga; Maskos, Michael; Galla, Hans-Joachim

    2014-01-01

    The alveolar lung surfactant (LS) is a complex lipid protein mixture that forms an interfacial monolayer reducing the surface tension to near zero values and thus preventing the lungs from collapse. Due to the expanding field of nanotechnology and the corresponding unavoidable exposure of human beings from the air, it is crucial to study the potential effects of nanoparticles (NPs) on the structural organization of the lung surfactant system. In the present study, we investigated both, the domain structure in pure DPPC monolayers as well as in lung surfactant model systems. In the pure lipid system we found that two different sized hydrophobic polymeric nanoparticles with diameter of ∼12 nm and ∼136 nm have contrasting effect on the functional and structural behavior. The small nanoparticles inserted into fluid domains at the LE-LC phase transition are not visibly disturbing the phase transition but disrupting the domain morphology of the LE phase. The large nanoparticles led to an expanded isotherm and to a significant decrease in the line tension and thus to a drastic disruption of the domain structures at a much lower number of nanoparticles with respect to the lipid. The surface activity of the model LS films again showed drastic variations due to presence of different sized NPs illustrated by the film balance isotherms and the atomic force microscopy. AFM revealed laterally profuse multilayer protrusion formation on compression but only in the presence of 136 nm sized nanoparticles. Moreover we investigated the vesicle insertion process into a preformed monolayer. A severe inhibition was observed only in the presence of ∼136 nm NPs compared to minor effects in the presence of ∼12 nm NPs. Our study clearly shows that the size of the nanoparticles made of the same material determines the interaction with biological membranes. PMID:24411261

  18. A field method for measurement of infiltration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, A.I.

    1963-01-01

    The determination of infiltration--the downward entry of water into a soil (or sediment)--is receiving increasing attention in hydrologic studies because of the need for more quantitative data on all phases of the hydrologic cycle. A measure of infiltration, the infiltration rate, is usually determined in the field by flooding basins or furrows, sprinkling, or measuring water entry from cylinders (infiltrometer rings). Rates determined by ponding in large areas are considered most reliable, but the high cost usually dictates that infiltrometer rings, preferably 2 feet in diameter or larger, be used. The hydrology of subsurface materials is critical in the study of infiltration. The zone controlling the rate of infiltration is usually the least permeable zone. Many other factors affect infiltration rate--the sediment (soil) structure, the condition of the sediment surface, the distribution of soil moisture or soil- moisture tension, the chemical and physical nature of the sediments, the head of applied water, the depth to ground water, the chemical quality and the turbidity of the applied water, the temperature of the water and the sediments, the percentage of entrapped air in the sediments, the atmospheric pressure, the length of time of application of water, the biological activity in the sediments, and the type of equipment or method used. It is concluded that specific values of the infiltration rate for a particular type of sediment are probably nonexistent and that measured rates are primarily for comparative use. A standard field-test method for determining infiltration rates by means of single- or double-ring infiltrometers is described and the construction, installation, and operation of the infiltrometers are discussed in detail.

  19. Retrofit photovoltaic systems for intermediate sized applications - A design and market study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noel, G. T.; Hagely, J. R.

    An assessment of the technical and economic feasibility of retrofitting a significant portion of the existing intermediate sector building/application inventory with photovoltaic systems is presented. The assessment includes the development of detailed engineering and architectural designs as well as cost estimates for 12 representative installations. Promising applications include retail stores, warehouses, office buildings, religious buildings, shopping centers, education buildings, hospitals, and industrial sites. A market study indicates that there is a national invetory of 1.5 to 2.0 million feasible intermediate sector applications, with the majority being in the 20 to 400 kW size range. The present cost of the major systems components and the cost of necessary building modifications are the primary current barriers to the realization of a large retrofit photovoltaic system market. The development of standardized modular system designs and installation techniques are feasible ways to minimize costs.

  20. Requirements and Sizing Investigation for Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System Trace Contaminant Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Paul, Heather L.; Jennings, Mallory A.; Waguespack, Glenn

    2010-01-01

    The Trace Contaminant Control System (TCCS), located within the ventilation loop of the Constellation Space Suit Portable Life Support System (PLSS), is responsible for removing hazardous trace contaminants from the space suit ventilation flow. This paper summarizes the results of a trade study that evaluated if trace contaminant control could be accomplished without a TCCS, relying on suit leakage, ullage loss from the carbon dioxide and humidity control system, and other factors. Trace contaminant generation rates were revisited to verify that values reflect the latest designs for Constellation Space Suit System (CSSS) pressure garment materials and PLSS hardware. Additionally, TCCS sizing calculations were performed and a literature survey was conducted to review the latest developments in trace contaminant technologies.

  1. Compressed air energy storage system reservoir size for a wind energy baseload power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.

    1996-12-31

    Wind generated electricity can be transformed from an intermittent to a baseload resource using an oversized wind farm in conjunction with a compressed air energy storage (CAES) system. The size of the storage reservoir for the CAES system (solution mined salt cavern or porous media) as a function of the wind speed autocorrelation time (C) has been examined using a Monte Carlo simulation for a wind class 4 (wind power density 450 W m{sup -2} at 50 m hub height) wind regime with a Weibull k factor of 2.5. For values of C typically found for winds over the US Great Plains, the storage reservoir must have a 60 to 80 hour capacity. Since underground reservoirs account for only a small fraction of total system cost, this larger storage reservoir has a negligible effect on the cost of energy from the wind energy baseload system. 7 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Exact NMR simulation of protein-size spin systems using tensor train formalism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savostyanov, D. V.; Dolgov, S. V.; Werner, J. M.; Kuprov, Ilya

    2014-08-01

    We introduce a new method, based on alternating optimization, for compact representation of spin Hamiltonians and solution of linear systems of algebraic equations in the tensor train format. We demonstrate the method's utility by simulating, without approximations, a N15 NMR spectrum of ubiquitin—a protein containing several hundred interacting nuclear spins. Existing simulation algorithms for the spin system and the NMR experiment in question either require significant approximations or scale exponentially with the spin system size. We compare the proposed method to the Spinach package that uses heuristic restricted state space techniques to achieve polynomial complexity scaling. When the spin system topology is close to a linear chain (e.g., for the backbone of a protein), the tensor train representation is more compact and can be computed faster than the sparse representation using restricted state spaces.

  3. The Visual System's Intrinsic Bias and Knowledge of Size Mediate Perceived Size and Location in the Dark

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhou, Liu; He, Zijiang J.; Ooi, Teng Leng

    2013-01-01

    Dimly lit targets in the dark are perceived as located about an implicit slanted surface that delineates the visual system's intrinsic bias (Ooi, Wu, & He, 2001). If the intrinsic bias reflects the internal model of visual space--as proposed here--its influence should extend beyond target localization. Our first 2 experiments demonstrated that…

  4. Photonic crystal waveguide created by selective infiltration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas Bedoya, A.; Domachuk, P.; Grillet, C.; Monat, C.; Mägi, E. C.; Li, E.; Eggleton, B. J.

    2012-06-01

    The marriage of photonics and microfluidics ("optofluidics") uses the inherent mobility of fluids to reversibly tune photonic structures beyond traditional fabrication methods by infiltrating voids in said structures. Photonic crystals (PhCs) strongly control light on the wavelength scale and are well suited to optofluidic tuning because their periodic airhole microstructure is a natural candidate for housing liquids. The infiltration of a single row of holes in the PhC matrix modifies the effective refractive index allowing optical modes to be guided by the PhC bandgap. In this work we present the first experimental demonstration of a reconfigurable single mode W1 photonic crystal defect waveguide created by selective liquid infiltration. We modified a hexagonal silicon planar photonic crystal membrane by selectively filling a single row of air holes with ~300nm resolution, using high refractive index ionic liquid. The modification creates optical confinement in the infiltrated region and allows propagation of a single optical waveguide mode. We describe the challenges arising from the infiltration process and the liquid/solid surface interaction in the photonic crystal. We include a detailed comparison between analytic and numerical modeling and experimental results, and introduce a new approach to create an offset photonic crystal cavity by varying the nature of the selective infiltration process.

  5. Modelling infiltration processes in frozen soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ireson, A. M.; Barbour, L. S.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the hydrological processes in soils subject to significant freeze-thaw is fraught by "experimental vagaries and theoretical imponderables" (Miller 1980, Applications of soil physics). The infiltration of snowmelt water and the subsequent transmission of unfrozen water during thawing, is governed by hydraulic conductivity values which are changing with both ice and unfrozen water content. Water held within pores is subject to capillary forces, which results in a freezing point depression (i.e. water remains in the liquid state slightly below 0°C). As the temperature drops below zero, water freezes first in the larger pores, and then in progressively smaller pores. Since the larger pores also are the first to empty by drainage, these pores may be air filled during freezing, while smaller water filled pores freeze. This explains why an unsaturated, frozen soil may still have a considerable infiltration capacity. Infiltration into frozen soil is a critical phenomena related to the risk of flooding in the Canadian prairies, controlling the partitioning of snowmelt into either infiltration or runoff. We propose a new model, based on conceptualizing the pore space as a bundle of capillary tubes (with significant differences to the capillary bundle model of Wannatabe and Flury, 2008, WRR, doi:10.1029/2008WR007102) which allows any air-filled macropores to contribute to the potential infiltration capacity of the soil. The patterns of infiltration and water movement during freeze-thaw from the model are compared to field observations from the Canadian prairies and Boreal Plains.

  6. Role of runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks: A case-study with the WRF-Hydro coupled modeling system for West Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnault, Joel; Wagner, Seven; Rummler, Thomas; Fersch, Benjamin; Bliefernicht, Jan; Andresen, Sabine; Kunstmann, Harald

    2016-04-01

    The analysis of land-atmosphere feedbacks requires detailed representation of land processes in atmospheric models. Our focus here is on runoff-infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow. In the standard version of WRF, runoff-infiltration partitioning is described as a purely vertical process. In WRF-Hydro, runoff is enhanced with lateral water flows. The study region is the Sissili catchment (12800 km2) in West Africa and the study period March 2003 - February 2004. Our WRF setup includes an outer and inner domain at 10 and 2 km resolution covering the West African and Sissili region, respectively. In our WRF-Hydro setup the inner domain is coupled with a sub-grid at 500 m resolution to compute overland and river flow. Model results are compared with TRMM precipitation, MTE evapotranspiration, CCI soil moisture, CRU temperature, and streamflow observation. The role of runoff infiltration partitioning and resolved overland flow on land-atmosphere feedbacks is addressed with a sensitivity analysis of WRF results to the runoff-infiltration partitioning parameter and a comparison between WRF and WRF-Hydro results, respectively. In the outer domain, precipitation is sensitive to runoff-infiltration partitioning at the scale of the Sissili area (~100x100 km2), but not of area A (500x2500 km2). In the inner domain, where precipitation patterns are mainly prescribed by lateral boundary conditions, sensitivity is small, but additionally resolved overland flow here clearly increases infiltration and evapotranspiration at the beginning of the wet season when soils are still dry. Our WRF-Hydro setup shows potential for joint atmospheric and terrestrial water balance studies, and reproduces observed daily discharge with a Nash-Sutcliffe model efficiency coefficient of 0.43.

  7. New observations directly measuring the full continuous sizes of high redshift damped Lya systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooke, Jeff; O'Meara, John

    2016-01-01

    The formation and evolution of galaxies requires large reservoirs of cold, neutral gas. The damped Lyman-α systems (DLAs), seen in absorption towards distant quasars and gamma ray bursts, are predicted to be the dominant reservoirs for this gas. Detailed properties of DLAs have been studied extensively for decades with great success. However, their size, fundamental in understanding their nature, has remained elusive, as quasar and gamma ray burst sightlines only probe comparatively tiny areas of the foreground DLAs. Here, we introduce a new approach to measure the full extent of DLAs in the sightlines to extended background sources. We present the discovery of z ~ 2 DLAs with column densities as high as log N(HI) = 21.1 ±0.4 cm-2 covering 90-100% of the luminous extent of background galaxies. Estimates of the sizes of the background galaxies range from a minimum of a few kpc2, to ˜100 kpc2, and demonstrate that high-column density neutral gas can span continuous areas 108-1010 times larger than previously explored in quasar or gamma ray burst sightlines. The DLAs are from our pilot survey that searches Lyman break and Lyman continuum galaxies at high redshift. The low luminosities, large sizes, and mass contents (~106-109 M⊙) implied by the early data suggest that DLAs contain the necessary fuel for galaxies, with many systems consistent with relatively massive, low-luminosity primeval galaxies.

  8. Improvements in Thermal Protection Sizing Capabilities for TCAT: Conceptual Design for Advanced Space Transportation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olds, John R.; Izon, Stephen James

    2002-01-01

    The Thermal Calculation Analysis Tool (TCAT), originally developed for the Space Systems Design Lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology, is a conceptual design tool capable of integrating aeroheating analysis into conceptual reusable launch vehicle design. It provides Thermal Protection System (TPS) unit thicknesses and acreage percentages based on the geometry of the vehicle and a reference trajectory to be used in calculation of the total cost and weight of the vehicle design. TCAT has proven to be reasonably accurate at calculating the TPS unit weights for in-flight trajectories; however, it does not have the capability of sizing TPS materials above cryogenic fuel tanks for ground hold operations. During ground hold operations, the vehicle is held for a brief period (generally about two hours) during which heat transfer from the TPS materials to the cryogenic fuel occurs. If too much heat is extracted from the TPS material, the surface temperature may fall below the freezing point of water, thereby freezing any condensation that may be present at the surface of the TPS. Condensation or ice on the surface of the vehicle is potentially hazardous to the mission and can also damage the TPS. It is questionable whether or not the TPS thicknesses provided by the aeroheating analysis would be sufficiently thick to insulate the surface of the TPS from the heat transfer to the fuel. Therefore, a design tool has been developed that is capable of sizing TPS materials at these cryogenic fuel tank locations to augment TCAT's TPS sizing capabilities.

  9. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  10. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Mohamed A; Eltamaly, Ali M; Alolah, Abdulrahman I

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers.

  11. PSO-Based Smart Grid Application for Sizing and Optimization of Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    PubMed Central

    Mohamed, Mohamed A.; Eltamaly, Ali M.; Alolah, Abdulrahman I.

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces an optimal sizing algorithm for a hybrid renewable energy system using smart grid load management application based on the available generation. This algorithm aims to maximize the system energy production and meet the load demand with minimum cost and highest reliability. This system is formed by photovoltaic array, wind turbines, storage batteries, and diesel generator as a backup source of energy. Demand profile shaping as one of the smart grid applications is introduced in this paper using load shifting-based load priority. Particle swarm optimization is used in this algorithm to determine the optimum size of the system components. The results obtained from this algorithm are compared with those from the iterative optimization technique to assess the adequacy of the proposed algorithm. The study in this paper is performed in some of the remote areas in Saudi Arabia and can be expanded to any similar regions around the world. Numerous valuable results are extracted from this study that could help researchers and decision makers. PMID:27513000

  12. Finite size effects in epidemic spreading: the problem of overpopulated systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganczarek, Wojciech

    2013-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the impact of network size on the dynamics of epidemic spreading. In particular, we investigate the pace of infection in overpopulated systems. In order to do that, we design a model for epidemic spreading on a finite complex network with a restriction to at most one contamination per time step, which can serve as a model for sexually transmitted diseases spreading in some student communes. Because of the highly discrete character of the process, the analysis cannot use the continuous approximation widely exploited for most models. Using a discrete approach, we investigate the epidemic threshold and the quasi-stationary distribution. The main results are two theorems about the mixing time for the process: it scales like the logarithm of the network size and it is proportional to the inverse of the distance from the epidemic threshold.

  13. Relevance of system size to the steady-state properties of tapped granular systems.

    PubMed

    Gago, Paula A; Maza, Diego; Pugnaloni, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    We investigate the steady-state packing fraction ϕ and force moment tensor Σ of quasi-two-dimensional granular columns subjected to tapping. Systems of different height h and width L are considered. We find that ϕ and Σ, which describe the macroscopic state of the system, are insensitive to L for L>50d (with d the grain diameter). However, results for granular columns of different heights cannot be conciliated. This suggests that comparison between results of different laboratories on this type of experiments can be done only for systems of same height. We show that a parameter ɛ=1+(Aω)2/(2gh), with A and ω the amplitude and frequency of the tap and g the acceleration of gravity, can be defined to characterize the tap intensity. This parameter is based on the effective flight of the granular bed, which takes into account the h dependency. When ϕ is plotted as a function of ɛ, the data collapses for systems of different h. However, this parameter alone is unable to determine the steady state to be reached since different Σ can be observed for a given ɛ if different column heights are considered.

  14. Ubiquity of density slope oscillations in the central regions of galaxy and cluster-sized systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, Anthony M.; Williams, Liliya L. R.; Hjorth, Jens

    2016-05-01

    One usually thinks of a radial density profile as having a monotonically changing logarithmic slope, such as in NFW or Einasto profiles. However, in two different classes of commonly used systems, this is often not the case. These classes exhibit non-monotonic changes in their density profile slopes which we call oscillations for short. We analyze these two unrelated classes separately. Class 1 consists of systems that have density oscillations and that are defined through their distribution function f(E), or differential energy distribution N(E), such as isothermal spheres, King profiles, or DARKexp, a theoretically derived model for relaxed collisionless systems. Systems defined through f(E) or N(E) generally have density slope oscillations. Class 1 system oscillations can be found at small, intermediate, or large radii but we focus on a limited set of Class 1 systems that have oscillations in the central regions, usually at log(r/r-2) lesssim -2, where r-2 is the largest radius where dlog(ρ)/dlog(r) = -2. We show that the shape of their N(E) can roughly predict the amplitude of oscillations. Class 2 systems which are a product of dynamical evolution, consist of observed and simulated galaxies and clusters, and pure dark matter halos. Oscillations in the density profile slope seem pervasive in the central regions of Class 2 systems. We argue that in these systems, slope oscillations are an indication that a system is not fully relaxed. We show that these oscillations can be reproduced by small modifications to N(E) of DARKexp. These affect a small fraction of systems' mass and are confined to log(r/r-2) lesssim 0. The size of these modifications serves as a potential diagnostic for quantifying how far a system is from being relaxed.

  15. THE SIZE, DENSITY, AND FORMATION OF THE ORCUS-VANTH SYSTEM IN THE KUIPER BELT

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M. E.; Ragozzine, D.; Fraser, W. C.; Stansberry, J.

    2010-06-15

    The Kuiper Belt object (KBO) Orcus and its satellite Vanth form an unusual system in the Kuiper Belt. While most large KBOs have small satellites in circular orbits and smaller KBOs and their satellites tend to be much closer in size, Orcus sits in between these two regimes. Orcus is among the largest objects known in the Kuiper Belt, but the relative size of Vanth is much larger than that of the tiny satellites of the other large objects. Here, we characterize the physical and orbital characteristics of the Orcus-Vanth system in an attempt to distinguish discuss possible formation scenarios. From Hubble Space Telescope observations, we find that Orcus and Vanth have different visible colors and that Vanth does not share the water ice absorption feature seen in the infrared spectrum of Orcus. We also find that Vanth has a nearly face-on circular orbit with a period of 9.5393 {+-} 0.0001 days and semimajor axis of 8980 {+-} 20 km, implying a system mass of (6.32 {+-} 0.01) x 10{sup 20} kg or 3.8% the mass of dwarf planet Eris. From Spitzer Space Telescope observations, we find that the thermal emission is consistent with a single body with diameter 940 {+-} 70 km and a geometric albedo of 0.28 {+-} 0.04. Assuming equal densities and albedos, this measurement implies sizes of Orcus and Vanth of 900 and 280 km, respectively, and a mass ratio of 33. Assuming a factor of 2 lower albedo for the non-icy Vanth, however, implies sizes of 860 km and 380 km and a mass ratio of 12. The measured density depends on the assumed albedo ratio of the two objects but is approximately 1.5 {+-} 0.3 g cm{sup -3}, midway between typical densities measured for larger and smaller objects. The orbit and mass ratio is consistent with formation from a giant impact and subsequent outward tidal evolution, and even consistent with the system having now achieved a double synchronous state. Because of the large angle between the plane of the heliocentric orbit of Orcus and the plane of the orbit

  16. In situ Raman spectroscopic study of Al-infiltrated spider dragline silk under tensile deformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Knez, Mato

    2014-10-01

    Natural materials consisting of protein structures impregnated with a tiny amount of metals often exhibit impressive mechanical behavior, which represents a new design paradigm for the development of biomimetic materials. Here, we produced Al-infiltrated silks by applying a modified Al2O3 atomic layer deposition process to the dragline silk of the Nephila pilipes spider, which showed unusual mechanical properties. The deformation behavior of the molecular structure of the Al-infiltrated silk was investigated by performing in situ Raman spectroscopy, where Raman shifts were measured concurrently with macroscopic mechanical deformations. For identifying the role of the infiltrated Al atoms, the study was performed in parallel with untreated silk, and the results were compared. Our experimental results revealed that superior mechanical properties of the Al-infiltrated silk are likely to be caused by the alterations of the sizes of the β-sheet crystals and their distribution.

  17. Studies on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-molybdenum alloys in porous carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1992-01-01

    Investigations on the reactive melt infiltration of silicon and silicon-1.7 and 3.2 at percent molybdenum alloys into porous carbon preforms have been carried out by process modeling, differential thermal analysis (DTA) and melt infiltration experiments. These results indicate that the initial pore volume fraction of the porous carbon preform is a critical parameter in determining the final composition of the raction-formed silicon carbide and other residual phases. The pore size of the carbon preform is very detrimental to the exotherm temperatures due to liquid silicon-carbon reactions encountered during the reactive melt infiltration process. A possible mechanism for the liquid silicon-porous (glassy) carbon reaction has been proposed. The composition and microstructure of the reaction-formed silicon carbide has been discussed in terms of carbon preform microstructures, infiltration materials, and temperatures.

  18. In situ Raman spectroscopic study of Al-infiltrated spider dragline silk under tensile deformation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Moutanabbir, Oussama; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Knez, Mato

    2014-10-01

    Natural materials consisting of protein structures impregnated with a tiny amount of metals often exhibit impressive mechanical behavior, which represents a new design paradigm for the development of biomimetic materials. Here, we produced Al-infiltrated silks by applying a modified Al2O3 atomic layer deposition process to the dragline silk of the Nephila pilipes spider, which showed unusual mechanical properties. The deformation behavior of the molecular structure of the Al-infiltrated silk was investigated by performing in situ Raman spectroscopy, where Raman shifts were measured concurrently with macroscopic mechanical deformations. For identifying the role of the infiltrated Al atoms, the study was performed in parallel with untreated silk, and the results were compared. Our experimental results revealed that superior mechanical properties of the Al-infiltrated silk are likely to be caused by the alterations of the sizes of the β-sheet crystals and their distribution. PMID:25203848

  19. Unusual sclerosing orbital pseudotumor infiltrating orbits and maxillofacial regions.

    PubMed

    Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses.

  20. Unusual Sclerosing Orbital Pseudotumor Infiltrating Orbits and Maxillofacial Regions

    PubMed Central

    Toprak, Huseyin; Aralaşmak, Ayşe; Yılmaz, Temel Fatih; Ozdemir, Huseyin

    2014-01-01

    Idiopathic orbital pseudotumor (IOP) is a benign inflammatory condition of the orbit without identifiable local or systemic causes. Bilateral massive orbital involvement and extraorbital extension of the IOP is very rare. We present an unusual case of IOP with bilateral massive orbital infiltration extending into maxillofacial regions and discuss its distinctive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) features that help to exclude other entities during differential diagnoses. PMID:24991481

  1. Infiltration Effects on Residential Pollutant Concentrations for Continuous and Intermittent Mechanical Ventilation Approaches

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max; Logue, Jennifer; Singer, Brett

    2010-06-01

    The prevailing residential ventilation standard in North America, American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 62.2, specifies volumetric airflow requirements as a function of the overall size of the home and the number of bedrooms, assumes a fixed, minimal amount of infiltration, and requires mechanical ventilation to achieve the remainder. The standard allows for infiltration credits and intermittent ventilation patterns that can be shown to provide comparable performance. Whole-house ventilation methods have a substantial effect on time-varying indoor pollutant concentrations. If alternatives specified by Standard 62.2, such as intermittent ventilation, are used, short-term pollutant concentrations could exceed acute health standards even if chronic health standards are met.The authors present a methodology for comparing ASHRAE- and non-ASHRAE-specified ventilation scenarios on relative indoor pollutant concentrations. We use numerical modeling to compare the maximum time-averaged concentrations for acute exposure relevant (1-hour, 8-hour, 24-hour ) and chronic exposure relevant (1-year) time periods for four different ventilation scenarios in six climates with a range of normalized leakage values. The results suggest that long-term concentrations are the most important metric for assessing the effectiveness of whole-house ventilation systems in meeting exposure standards and that, if chronic health exposure standards are met, acute standards will also be met.

  2. Infiltration of Fe3O4-nanoparticles into porous silicon with respect to magnetic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granitzer, P.; Rumpf, K.; Reissner, M.; Hilscher, G.; Morales, M. P.; Poelt, P.; Uusimäki, T.; Sezen, M.; Albu, M.

    2011-10-01

    Mesoporous silicon (PS) is used as matrix for infiltration of Fe3O4 nanoparticles (5 and 8 nm). The structure and magnetic behaviour of such composites are investigated and a correlation between the morphology of the nanocomposite (structure of the matrices, size and distribution of Fe3O4 particles) and the magnetic properties of the system is figured out. This system shows a superparamagnetic (SPM) behaviour at room temperature and becomes ferromagnetic (FM) at lower temperatures. The transition temperature between SPM and a blocked state depends on the particle size, their coating and on their magnetic interactions. Dipolar coupling between the particles can be influenced by varying the PS morphology as well as by the filling factor. The blocking temperature (TB) of the composite is tuneable and changes due to the variation of dipolar coupling of the Fe3O4-particles (distance between particles). Results gained from electron microscopy and tomography, respectively such as size and spatial distribution of the particles together with the magnetic data lead to a more detailed knowledge of the Fe3O4/silicon nanocomposite system.

  3. Size distribution of heavy metal aerosols in cooling and spray dryer system

    SciTech Connect

    Wey, M.Y.; Yang, J.T.; Peng, C.Y.; Chiang, B.C.

    1999-11-01

    The cooling process prior to treating flue gas and the spray dryer process that removes acid components in flue gas are believed to influence the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metal in fly ash. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of operating parameters on the mass and elemental size distributions of heavy metals in fly ash produced from a fluidized bed incineration and a water cooling or spray dryer flue gas treatment system. The operating parameters investigated included (1) the controlling temperature in the gas cooling system; (2) the controlling temperature in the spray dryer system; (3) the addition of organic chlorides; and (4) the addition of inorganic chloride. The experimental results indicated that the water cooling process and spray dryer process increase the amount of coarse fly ash and increase the total concentration of metal in fly ash. The amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash increase with decreasing temperature during the water cooling process. However, the amounts of fine fly ash and the total concentration of metal in fine fly ash decrease with decreasing temperature during the spray dryer process.

  4. An analysis of the optimal size of image sensors in free space optic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lixing; Huang, Yongmei; An, Tao

    2014-09-01

    There are several advantages offered by free space optic systems compared with conventional radio frequency systems. As a consequence of shorter wavelengths, the high directivity of the transmitted beam makes acquisition and pointing difficult, thus an imaging system is set up for acquisition and pointing. Optical wave front distortions induced by atmospheric turbulence result in a spreading of the beam leads to image jitter take place in the focal plane, where the image sensor is. The behavior of the image jitter can be described in a statistical manner. Consequently, the size, which is a very important parameter to an image sensor, can be determined by the statistical quantity of image jitter, which customarily is the root mean square (RMS) image displacement. The quantity of the RMS image displacement is as a function of several measurable parameters. In this paper, variations of the estimated RMS image displacement were calculate and discussed in detail. The calculation showed good agreement with the experimental results conducted with a propagation path length of 96 km. The optimal sizes of image sensors that are used for some specific circumstances were analyzed and proposed based on the RMS image displacement.

  5. Communication: system-size scaling of Boltzmann and alternate Gibbs entropies.

    PubMed

    Vilar, Jose M G; Rubi, J Miguel

    2014-05-28

    It has recurrently been proposed that the Boltzmann textbook definition of entropy S(E) = k ln Ω(E) in terms of the number of microstates Ω(E) with energy E should be replaced by the expression S(G)(E) = k ln Σ(E' < E)Ω(E') examined by Gibbs. Here, we show that SG either is equivalent to S in the macroscopic limit or becomes independent of the energy exponentially fast as the system size increases. The resulting exponential scaling makes the realistic use of SG unfeasible and leads in general to temperatures that are inconsistent with the notions of hot and cold.

  6. The minimal habitat size for spreading in a weak competition system with two free boundaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Chang-Hong

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, we focus on the dynamics for a Lotka-Volterra type weak competition system with two free boundaries, where free boundaries which may intersect each other as time evolves are used to describe the spreading of two competing species, respectively. In the weak competition case, the dynamics of this model can be classified into four cases, which forms a spreading-vanishing quartering. The notion of the minimal habitat size for spreading is introduced to determine if species can always spread. Some sufficient conditions for spreading and vanishing are established. Also, when spreading occurs, some rough estimates for spreading speed and the long-time behavior of solutions are established.

  7. Communication: System-size scaling of Boltzmann and alternate Gibbs entropies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilar, Jose M. G.; Rubi, J. Miguel

    2014-05-01

    It has recurrently been proposed that the Boltzmann textbook definition of entropy S(E) = k ln Ω(E) in terms of the number of microstates Ω(E) with energy E should be replaced by the expression S_G (E) = kln sumnolimits_{E^' < E} {Ω (E^')} examined by Gibbs. Here, we show that SG either is equivalent to S in the macroscopic limit or becomes independent of the energy exponentially fast as the system size increases. The resulting exponential scaling makes the realistic use of SG unfeasible and leads in general to temperatures that are inconsistent with the notions of hot and cold.

  8. Prediction of grain size of nanocrystalline nickel coatings using adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayati, M.; Rashidi, A. M.; Rezaei, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents application of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for prediction of the grain size of nanocrystalline nickel coatings as a function of current density, saccharin concentration and bath temperature. For developing ANFIS model, the current density, saccharin concentration and bath temperature are taken as input, and the resulting grain size of the nanocrystalline coating as the output of the model. In order to provide a consistent set of experimental data, the nanocrystalline nickel coatings have been deposited from Watts-type bath using direct current electroplating within a large range of process parameters i.e., current density, saccharin concentration and bath temperature. Variation of the grain size because of the electroplating parameters has been modeled using ANFIS, and the experimental results and theoretical approaches have been compared to each other as well. Also, we have compared the proposed ANFIS model with artificial neural network (ANN) approach. The results have shown that the ANFIS model is more accurate and reliable compared to the ANN approach.

  9. Synthetic vision systems: the effects of guidance symbology, display size, and field of view.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Amy L; Wickens, Christopher D; Hardy, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Two experiments conducted in a high-fidelity flight simulator examined the effects of guidance symbology, display size, and geometric field of view (GFOV) within a synthetic vision system (SVS). In Experiment 1, 18 pilots flew highlighted and low-lighted tunnel-in-the-sky displays, as well as a less cluttered follow-me aircraft (FMA), through a series of curved approaches over rugged terrain. The results revealed that both tunnels supported better flight path tracking and lower workload levels than did the FMA because of the availability of more preview information. Increasing tunnel intensity had no benefit on tracking and, in fact, degraded traffic awareness because of clutter and attentional tunneling. In Experiment 2, 24 pilots flew a lowlighted tunnel configured according to different display sizes (small or large) and GFOVs (30 degrees or 60 degrees). Measures of flight path tracking and terrain awareness generally favored the 60 degrees GFOV; however, there were no effects of display size. Actual or potential applications of this research include understanding the impact of SVS properties on flight path tracking, traffic and terrain awareness, workload, and the allocation of attention. PMID:16553060

  10. Synthetic Coal Slag Infiltration into Varying Refractory Materials

    SciTech Connect

    Kaneko, Tetsuya K; Thomas, Hugh; Bennett, James P; Sridhar, Seetharaman

    2012-10-01

    The infiltrations of synthetic coal slag into 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2}, and 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} refractories with a temperature gradient induced along the penetration direction were compared to one another. The infiltrating slag was synthesized with a composition that is representative of an average of the ash contents from U S coal feedstock. Experiments were conducted with a hot-face temperature of 1450°C in a CO/CO{sub 2} atmosphere. Minimal penetration was observed in the 90%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3}–10%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} material because interactions between the refractory and the slag produced a protective layer of FeCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}, which impeded slag flow into the bulk of the refractory. After 5 h, the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} sample exhibited an average penetration of 12.7 mm whereas the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} sample showed 3.8 mm. Slag infiltrated into the 99%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} refractory systems by dissolving the respective refractories' matrix materials, which consist of fine Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particles and an amorphous alumino-silicate phase. Due to enrichment in SiO{sub 2}, a network-former, infiltration into the 85%Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}–15%SiO{sub 2} system yielded a higher viscosity slag and hence, a shallower penetration depth. The results suggest that slag infiltration can be limited by interactions with the refractory through the formation of either a solid layer that physically impedes fluid flow or a more viscous slag that retards infiltration.

  11. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented. PMID:21809475

  12. The Cultural Evolution of Human Communication Systems in Different Sized Populations: Usability Trumps Learnability

    PubMed Central

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T. Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability. PMID:23967243

  13. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability. PMID:23967243

  14. The cultural evolution of human communication systems in different sized populations: usability trumps learnability.

    PubMed

    Fay, Nicolas; Ellison, T Mark

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the intergenerational transfer of human communication systems. It tests if human communication systems evolve to be easy to learn or easy to use (or both), and how population size affects learnability and usability. Using an experimental-semiotic task, we find that human communication systems evolve to be easier to use (production efficiency and reproduction fidelity), but harder to learn (identification accuracy) for a second generation of naïve participants. Thus, usability trumps learnability. In addition, the communication systems that evolve in larger populations exhibit distinct advantages over those that evolve in smaller populations: the learnability loss (from the Initial signs) is more muted and the usability benefits are more pronounced. The usability benefits for human communication systems that evolve in a small and large population is explained through guided variation reducing sign complexity. The enhanced performance of the communication systems that evolve in larger populations is explained by the operation of a content bias acting on the larger pool of competing signs. The content bias selects for information-efficient iconic signs that aid learnability and enhance usability.

  15. Hybrid neural intelligent system to predict business failure in small-to-medium-size enterprises.

    PubMed

    Borrajo, M Lourdes; Baruque, Bruno; Corchado, Emilio; Bajo, Javier; Corchado, Juan M

    2011-08-01

    During the last years there has been a growing need of developing innovative tools that can help small to medium sized enterprises to predict business failure as well as financial crisis. In this study we present a novel hybrid intelligent system aimed at monitoring the modus operandi of the companies and predicting possible failures. This system is implemented by means of a neural-based multi-agent system that models the different actors of the companies as agents. The core of the multi-agent system is a type of agent that incorporates a case-based reasoning system and automates the business control process and failure prediction. The stages of the case-based reasoning system are implemented by means of web services: the retrieval stage uses an innovative weighted voting summarization of self-organizing maps ensembles-based method and the reuse stage is implemented by means of a radial basis function neural network. An initial prototype was developed and the results obtained related to small and medium enterprises in a real scenario are presented.

  16. Electron Percolation In Copper Infiltrated Carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krcho, Stanislav

    2015-11-01

    The work describes the dependence of the electrical conductivity of carbon materials infiltrated with copper in a vacuum-pressure autoclave on copper concentration and on the effective pore radius of the carbon skeleton. In comparison with non-infiltrated material the electrical conductivity of copper infiltrated composite increased almost 500 times. If the composite contained less than 7.2 vol% of Cu, a linear dependence of the electrical conductivity upon cupper content was observed. If infiltrated carbon contained more than 7.2 vol% of Cu, the dependence was nonlinear - the curve could be described by a power formula (x - xc)t. This is a typical formula describing the electron percolation process in regions containing higher Cu fraction than the critical one. The maximum measured electrical conductivity was 396 × 104 Ω-1 m-1 for copper concentration 27.6 vol%. Experiments and analysis of the electrical conductivity showed that electron percolation occurred in carbon materials infiltrated by copper when the copper volume exceeded the critical concentration. The analysis also showed a sharp increase of electrical conductivity in composites with copper concentration higher than the threshold, where the effective radius of carbon skeleton pores decreased to 350 nanometres.

  17. The inflammatory infiltrate of melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Flores, Angel; Saeb-Lima, Marcela

    2014-01-01

    Melanocytic nevi are frequently accompanied by inflammatory cells of different types, in varied amounts and distributed in different patterns. In the current report, we review the knowledge on inflammation seen in different types of melanocytic nevi. As an additional contribution, we studied the lymphocytic inflammatory component of Duperrat nevus, as well as the cytotoxic component of Sutton nevus, two contributions that we have not found in the literature. We conclude that: (a) Duperrat nevus has a mixed inflammatory reaction that includes histiocytes, foreign-body multinucleated giant cells, polymorphonuclears, lymphocytes (predominantly CD4+) and plasma cells (commonly abundant); (b) common melanocytic nevi with reactive inflammatory infiltrate usually show a CD4+ predominant population; (c) Meyerson nevus commonly shows an inflammatory infiltrate mainly made up of CD4+ T-cells; (d) Sutton nevus with halo phenomenon is accompanied by a dense inflammatory infiltrate with lymphocytes in a CD4:CD8 ratio varying from 1:1 to 1:3 and in which most of the CD8+ T-cells do not express cytotoxic markers; (e) Wiesner nevus commonly shows a spare lymphocytic infiltrate but the nature of the infiltrate has not yet been investigated.

  18. Infiltration in ASHRAE's Residential Ventilation Standards

    SciTech Connect

    Sherman, Max

    2008-10-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants that an occupant could be exposed to. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. ASHRAE Standards including standards 62, 119, and 136 have all considered the contribution of infiltration in various ways, using methods and data from 20 years ago. The vast majority of homes in the United States and indeed the world are ventilated through natural means such as infiltration caused by air leakage. Newer homes in the western world are tight and require mechanical ventilation. As we seek to provide acceptable indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate norunder-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to correctly evaluate the contribution infiltration makes to both energy consumption and equivalent ventilation. ASHRAE Standard 62.2 specifies how much mechanical ventilation is considered necessary to provide acceptable indoor air quality, but that standard is weak on how infiltration can contribute towards meeting the total requirement. In the past ASHRAE Standard 136 was used to do this, but new theoretical approaches and expanded weather data have made that standard out of date. This article will describe how to properly treat infiltration as an equivalent ventilation approach and then use new data and these new approaches to demonstrate how these calculations might be done both in general and to update Standard 136.

  19. The heterogeneity of meningioma revealed by multiparameter analysis: infiltrative and non-infiltrative clinical phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Gay, Emmanuel; Lages, Elodie; Ramus, Claire; Guttin, Audrey; El Atifi, Michèle; Dupré, Isabelle; Bouamrani, Ali; Salon, Caroline; Ratel, David; Wion, Didier; Berger, François; Issartel, Jean-Paul

    2011-05-01

    Tumor invasion or infiltration of adjacent tissues is the source of clinical challenges in diagnosis as well as prevention and treatment. Among brain tumors, infiltration of the adjacent tissues with diverse pleiotropic mechanisms is frequently encountered in benign meningiomas. We assessed whether a multiparametric analysis of meningiomas based on data from both clinical observations and molecular analyses could provide a consistent and accurate appraisal of invasive and infiltrative phenotypes and help determine the diagnosis of these tumors. Tissue analyses of 37 meningiomas combined enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and surface-enhanced laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (SELDI-TOF) assays of two different protein biomarkers (thrombospondin 1 and a phosphorylated form of vimentin) as well as gene expression analyses with oligonucleotide micro-arrays. Up to four different clinical and molecular parameters were then examined for tumor classification. From this study, we were able to cluster 36 out of the 37 tumors into two different subsets corresponding to infiltrative/invasive and non-infiltrative tumors. In addition, meningiomas that invade brain and those that infiltrate the neighboring skull bone exhibited no distinguishable molecular features. Our multi-parameter analysis that combines clinical data, transcriptomic and molecular assays clearly reveals the heterogeneity of meningiomas and distinguishes the intrinsically infiltrative/invasive tumors from the non-infiltrative meningiomas. PMID:21318223

  20. Method of Minimizing Size of Heat Rejection Systems for Thermoelectric Coolers to Cool Detectors in Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choi, Michael K.

    2014-01-01

    A thermal design concept of attaching the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) hot side directly to the radiator and maximizing the number of TECs to cool multiple detectors in space is presented. It minimizes the temperature drop between the TECs and radiator. An ethane constant conductance heat pipe transfers heat from the detectors to a TEC cold plate which the cold side of the TECs is attached to. This thermal design concept minimizes the size of TEC heat rejection systems. Hence it reduces the problem of accommodating the radiator within a required envelope. It also reduces the mass of the TEC heat rejection system. Thermal testing of a demonstration unit in vacuum verified the thermal performance of the thermal design concept.

  1. System-size independence of directed flow measured at the BNL relativistic heavy-ion collider.

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of Illinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2008-01-01

    We measure directed flow (v{sub 1}) for charged particles in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}), transverse momentum (p{sub t}), and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all available model implementations, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to v{sub 1} in different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in v{sub 1}(p{sub t}).

  2. System-size independence of directed flow measured at the BNL relativistic heavy-ion collider.

    PubMed

    Abelev, B I; Aggarwal, M M; Ahammed, Z; Anderson, B D; Arkhipkin, D; Averichev, G S; Bai, Y; Balewski, J; Barannikova, O; Barnby, L S; Baudot, J; Baumgart, S; Beavis, D R; Bellwied, R; Benedosso, F; Betts, R R; Bhardwaj, S; Bhasin, A; Bhati, A K; Bichsel, H; Bielcik, J; Bielcikova, J; Biritz, B; Bland, L C; Bombara, M; Bonner, B E; Botje, M; Bouchet, J; Braidot, E; Brandin, A V; Bueltmann, S; Burton, T P; Bystersky, M; Cai, X Z; Caines, H; Calderón de la Barca Sánchez, M; Callner, J; Catu, O; Cebra, D; Cendejas, R; Cervantes, M C; Chajecki, Z; Chaloupka, P; Chattopadhyay, S; Chen, H F; Chen, J H; Chen, J Y; Cheng, J; Cherney, M; Chikanian, A; Choi, K E; Christie, W; Chung, S U; Clarke, R F; Codrington, M J M; Coffin, J P; Cormier, T M; Cosentino, M R; Cramer, J G; Crawford, H J; Das, D; Dash, S; Daugherity, M; de Moura, M M; Dedovich, T G; Dephillips, M; Derevschikov, A A; Derradi de Souza, R; Didenko, L; Dietel, T; Djawotho, P; Dogra, S M; Dong, X; Drachenberg, J L; Draper, J E; Du, F; Dunlop, J C; Dutta Mazumdar, M R; Edwards, W R; Efimov, L G; Elhalhuli, E; Elnimr, M; Emelianov, V; Engelage, J; Eppley, G; Erazmus, B; Estienne, M; Eun, L; Fachini, P; Fatemi, R; Fedorisin, J; Feng, A; Filip, P; Finch, E; Fine, V; Fisyak, Y; Gagliardi, C A; Gaillard, L; Gangadharan, D R; Ganti, M S; Garcia-Solis, E; Ghazikhanian, V; Ghosh, P; Gorbunov, Y N; Gordon, A; Grebenyuk, O; Grosnick, D; Grube, B; Guertin, S M; Guimaraes, K S F F; Gupta, A; Gupta, N; Guryn, W; Haag, B; Hallman, T J; Hamed, A; Harris, J W; He, W; Heinz, M; Heppelmann, S; Hippolyte, B; Hirsch, A; Hoffman, A M; Hoffmann, G W; Hofman, D J; Hollis, R S; Huang, H Z; Hughes, E W; Humanic, T J; Igo, G; Iordanova, A; Jacobs, P; Jacobs, W W; Jakl, P; Jin, F; Jones, P G; Judd, E G; Kabana, S; Kajimoto, K; Kang, K; Kapitan, J; Kaplan, M; Keane, D; Kechechyan, A; Kettler, D; Khodyrev, V Yu; Kiryluk, J; Kisiel, A; Klein, S R; Knospe, A G; Kocoloski, A; Koetke, D D; Kollegger, T; Kopytine, M; Kotchenda, L; Kouchpil, V; Kravtsov, P; Kravtsov, V I; Krueger, K; Kuhn, C; Kumar, A; Kumar, L; Kurnadi, P; Lamont, M A C; Landgraf, J M; Lange, S; Lapointe, S; Laue, F; Lauret, J; Lebedev, A; Lednicky, R; Lee, C-H; Levine, M J; Li, C; Li, Y; Lin, G; Lin, X; Lindenbaum, S J; Lisa, M A; Liu, F; Liu, J; Liu, L; Ljubicic, T; Llope, W J; Longacre, R S; Love, W A; Lu, Y; Ludlam, T; Lynn, D; Ma, G L; Ma, J G; Ma, Y G; Mahapatra, D P; Majka, R; Mangotra, L K; Manweiler, R; Margetis, S; Markert, C; Matis, H S; Matulenko, Yu A; McShane, T S; Meschanin, A; Millane, J; Miller, M L; Minaev, N G; Mioduszewski, S; Mischke, A; Mitchell, J; Mohanty, B; Morozov, D A; Munhoz, M G; Nandi, B K; Nattrass, C; Nayak, T K; Nelson, J M; Nepali, C; Netrakanti, P K; Ng, M J; Nogach, L V; Nurushev, S B; Odyniec, G; Ogawa, A; Okada, H; Okorokov, V; Olson, D; Pachr, M; Pal, S K; Panebratsev, Y; Pawlak, T; Peitzmann, T; Perevoztchikov, V; Perkins, C; Peryt, W; Phatak, S C; Planinic, M; Pluta, J; Poljak, N; Porile, N; Poskanzer, A M; Potekhin, M; Potukuchi, B V K S; Prindle, D; Pruneau, C; Pruthi, N K; Putschke, J; Qattan, I A; Raniwala, R; Raniwala, S; Ray, R L; Ridiger, A; Ritter, H G; Roberts, J B; Rogachevskiy, O V; Romero, J L; Rose, A; Roy, C; Ruan, L; Russcher, M J; Rykov, V; Sahoo, R; Sakrejda, I; Sakuma, T; Salur, S; Sandweiss, J; Sarsour, M; Schambach, J; Scharenberg, R P; Schmitz, N; Seger, J; Selyuzhenkov, I; Seyboth, P; Shabetai, A; Shahaliev, E; Shao, M; Sharma, M; Shi, S S; Shi, X-H; Sichtermann, E P; Simon, F; Singaraju, R N; Skoby, M J; Smirnov, N; Snellings, R; Sorensen, P; Sowinski, J; Spinka, H M; Srivastava, B; Stadnik, A; Stanislaus, T D S; Staszak, D; Stock, R; Strikhanov, M; Stringfellow, B; Suaide, A A P; Suarez, M C; Subba, N L; Sumbera, M; Sun, X M; Sun, Y; Sun, Z; Surrow, B; Symons, T J M; Szanto de Toledo, A; Takahashi, J; Tang, A H; Tang, Z; Tarnowsky, T; Thein, D; Thomas, J H; Tian, J; Timmins, A R; Timoshenko, S; Tokarev, M; Trainor, T A; Tram, V N; Trattner, A L; Trentalange, S; Tribble, R E; Tsai, O D; Ulery, J; Ullrich, T; Underwood, D G; Van Buren, G; van der Kolk, N; van Leeuwen, M; Vander Molen, A M; Varma, R; Vasconcelos, G M S; Vasilevski, I M; Vasiliev, A N; Videbaek, F; Vigdor, S E; Viyogi, Y P; Vokal, S; Voloshin, S A; Wada, M; Waggoner, W T; Wang, F; Wang, G; Wang, J S; Wang, Q; Wang, X; Wang, X L; Wang, Y; Webb, J C; Westfall, G D; Whitten, C; Wieman, H; Wissink, S W; Witt, R; Wu, J; Wu, Y; Xu, N; Xu, Q H; Xu, Y; Xu, Z; Yang, Y Y; Yepes, P; Yoo, I-K; Yue, Q; Zawisza, M; Zbroszczyk, H; Zhan, W; Zhang, H; Zhang, S; Zhang, W M; Zhang, Y; Zhang, Z P; Zhao, Y; Zhong, C; Zhou, J; Zoulkarneev, R; Zoulkarneeva, Y; Zuo, J X

    2008-12-19

    We measure directed flow (v_{1}) for charged particles in Au+Au and Cu+Cu collisions at sqrt[s_{NN}]=200 and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity (eta), transverse momentum (p_{t}), and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all available model implementations, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to v_{1} in different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in v_{1}(p_{t}). PMID:19113699

  3. System-size independence of directed flow at the RelativisticHeavy-Ion Collider

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2008-09-20

    We measure directed flow (v{sub 1}) for charged particles in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 GeV and 62.4 GeV, as a function of pseudorapidity ({eta}), transverse momentum (p{sub t}) and collision centrality, based on data from the STAR experiment. We find that the directed flow depends on the incident energy but, contrary to all available model implementations, not on the size of the colliding system at a given centrality. We extend the validity of the limiting fragmentation concept to v{sub 1} in different collision systems, and investigate possible explanations for the observed sign change in v{sub 1}(p{sub t}).

  4. Minimum size for a nanoscale temperature discriminator based on a thermochemical system.

    PubMed

    Gorecki, J; Nowakowski, B; Gorecka, J N; Lemarchand, A

    2016-02-14

    What are the limits of size reduction for information processing devices based on chemical reactions? In this paper, we partially answer this question. We show that a thermochemical system can be used to design a discriminator of the parameters associated with oscillations of the ambient temperature. Depending on the amplitude and frequency of the oscillations, the system exhibits sharp transitions between different types of its time evolutions. This phenomenon can be used to discriminate between different parameter values describing the oscillating environment. We investigate the reliability of the thermochemical discriminator as a function of the number of molecules involved in the reactions. A stochastic model of chemical reactions and heat exchange with the neighborhood, in which the number of molecules explicitly appears, is introduced. For the selected values of the parameters, thermochemical discriminators operating with less than 10(5) molecules appear to be unreliable. PMID:26807977

  5. System size, energy and centrality dependence of strange hadron elliptic flow at STAR

    SciTech Connect

    Masui, Hiroshi

    2008-12-21

    The elliptic flow (v{sub 2}) pattern in terms of hadron mass and transverse momentum p{sub T} is qualitatively described for p{sub T} < 2 GeV/c by ideal hydrodynamics in Au + Au collisions at RHIC. In addition, for p{sub T} = 2-6 GeV/c the measured v{sub 2} follow a universal scaling by the number of quarks explained by quark coalescence/recombination models. These observations suggest that a partonic collectivity develops in the matter in early stage of heavy ion collisions. Centrality as well as system size and energy dependence of the v{sub 2} is important to shed light on the underlying collision dynamics in heavy ion collisions. We present the measurements of centrality dependence of v{sub 2} at {radical}s{sub NN} = 200 and 62.4 GeV in Au + Au and Cu + Cu collisions for K{sub S}{sup 0}, {phi}, {Lambda}, {Xi} and {Omega} at STAR experiment. We focus on the recent Cu + Cu results and discuss the centrality dependence of v{sub 2} as well as the number of quark scaling as a function of transverse kinetic energy at different system size and energies. We also discuss the eccentricity scaled v{sub 2} for identified hadrons and implications that ideal hydrodynamical limit has not been reached at RHIC.

  6. Spatial and temporal variations of ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent infiltration rings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Votrubová, Jana; Dohnal, Michal; Dušek, Jaromír; Vogel, Tomáš; Tesař, Miroslav; Císlerová, Milena

    2016-04-01

    The soil at Liz experimental site (Volynka headwater catchment, Sumava Mountains, southern Bohemia) has been subject to a long term research on the soil infiltration properties since 2003. For this purpose, 18 permanent infiltration rings were installed at a gently sloped grass-covered experimental plot (300 sq.m). Using this set-up, the single-ring ponded infiltration experiments have been conducted annually. Since 2005, a procedure of repeating the same ponded infiltration experiments in two successive days has been implemented. For the soil type of the study area (sandy loam developed upon gneiss bedrock), a large spatial variability of soil hydraulic properties had been reported before. The focus of the present study has been primarily the temporal variability of the soil infiltration properties. Results of a supplementary dye-tracer experiment conducted in 2005 demonstrate that in the soil studied the infiltration process is strongly dominated by preferential flow. As expected, infiltration rates varied considerably among the infiltration ring. With regard to the impact of the initial soil moisture conditions, general decrease of the infiltration rates observed on two subsequent days was detected. Surprisingly, the spatial variations between separate measuring points were vastly overridden by a huge overall increase of the infiltration rates observed throughout the years. The observed variability of the experimental data was further examined in numerical simulations of hypothetical scenarios reflecting possible variations of soil profile and experimental set-up. Axisymmetric 3D simulations were performed using S2D code. The dual-continuum model was able to describe part of the variability of infiltration curves associated with soil structure heterogeneity. None of the tested factors could explain the wide range of infiltration rate variations observed. Nevertheless, better agreement between simulated and observed infiltration characteristics could be achieved

  7. Pit latrine effluent infiltration into groundwater: the Epworth case study.

    PubMed

    Chidavaenzi, M; Bradley, M; Jere, M; Nhandara, C

    2000-01-01

    Water can be a vehicle for the transmission of communicable diseases. Technologies have been developed to protect groundwater from external surface contamination. However, there is growing concern about the likelihood of pit latrine effluent infiltrating into groundwater reservoirs for well water supply systems. Investigations on seasonal variations and extent of pit latrine effluent infiltration into soil and groundwater have been carried out in Zimbabwe. Preliminary results show that groundwater flows in the direction of surface runoff, and that there is no lateral soil pollution above the groundwater surface. Pit latrine contents leach downwards and down slopes for distances that vary per season and soil type. The results also demonstrate the contribution of refuse pits and water collection methods to groundwater pollution.

  8. Reactive Melt Infiltration of Silicon-Niobium Alloys in Microporous Carbons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, M.; Behrendt, D. R.

    1994-01-01

    Studies of the reactive melt infiltration of silicon-niobium alloys in microporous carbon preforms prepared by the pyrolysis of a polymer precursor have been carried out using modeling, Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA), and melt infiltration. Mercury porosimetry results indicate a very narrow pore size distribution with virtually all the porosity within the carbon preforms open to infiltrants. The morphology and amount of the residual phases (niobium disilicide and silicon) in the infiltrated material can be tailored according to requirements by careful control of the properties (pore size and pore volume) of the porous carbon preforms and alloy composition. The average room temperature four-point flexural strength of a reaction-formed silicon carbide material (made by the infiltration of medium pore size carbon preform with Si - 5 at. % Nb alloy) is 290 +/- 40 MPa (42 +/- 6 ksi) and the fracture toughness is 3.7 +/- 0.3 MPa square root of m. The flexural strength decreases at high temperatures due to relaxation of residual thermal stresses and the presence of free silicon in the material.

  9. Carbon storage of different soil-size fractions in Florida silvopastoral systems.

    PubMed

    Haile, Solomon G; Nair, P K Ramachandran; Nair, Vimala D

    2008-01-01

    Compared with open (treeless) pasture systems, silvopastoral agroforestry systems that integrate trees into pasture production systems are likely to enhance soil carbon (C) sequestration in deeper soil layers. To test this hypothesis, total soil C contents at six soil depths (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, 50-75, and 75-125 cm) were determined in silvopastoral systems with slash pine (Pinus elliottii) + bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum) and an adjacent open pasture (OP) with bahiagrass at four sites, representing Spodosols and Ultisols, in Florida. Soil samples from each layer were fractionated into three classes (250-2000, 53-250, and <53 microm), and the C contents in each were determined. Averaged across four sites and all depths, the total soil organic carbon (SOC) content was higher by 33% in silvopastures near trees (SP-T) and by 28% in the alleys between tree rows (SP-A) than in adjacent open pastures. It was higher by 39% in SP-A and 20% in SP-T than in open pastures in the largest fraction size (250-2000 microm) and by 12.3 and 18.8%, respectively, in the intermediate size fraction (53-250 microm). The highest SOC increase (up to 45 kg m(-2)) in whole soil of silvopasture compared with OP was at the 75- to 125-cm depth at the Spodosol sites. The results support the hypothesis that, compared with open pastures, silvopastures contain more C in deeper soil layers under similar ecological settings, possibly as a consequence of a major input to soil organic matter from decomposition of dead tree-roots. PMID:18689740

  10. Systematic classification of unseeded batch crystallization systems for achievable shape and size analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acevedo, David; Nagy, Zoltan K.

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of the current work is to develop a systematic classification scheme for crystallization systems considering simultaneous size and shape variations, and to study the effect of temperature profiles on the achievable final shape of crystals for various crystallization systems. A classification method is proposed based on the simultaneous consideration of the effect of temperature profiles on nucleation and growth rates of two different characteristic crystal dimensions. Hence the approach provides direct indication of the extent in which crystal shape may be controlled for a particular system class by manipulating the supersaturation. A multidimensional population balance model (PBM) was implemented for unseeded crystallization processes of four different compounds. The effect between the nucleation and growth mechanisms on the final aspect ratio (AR) was investigated and it was shown that for nucleation dominated systems the AR is independent of the supersaturation profile. The simulation results confirmed experimentally also show that most crystallization systems tend to achieve an equilibrium shape hence the variation in the aspect ratio that can be achieved by manipulating the supersaturation is limited, in particular when nucleation is also taken into account as a competing phenomenon.

  11. Opal photonic crystals infiltrated with chalcogenide glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Astratov, V. N.; Adawi, A. M.; Skolnick, M. S.; Tikhomirov, V. K.; Lyubin, V.; Lidzey, D. G.; Ariu, M.; Reynolds, A. L.

    2001-06-25

    Composite opal structures for nonlinear applications are obtained by infiltration with chalcogenide glasses As{sub 2}S{sub 3} and AsSe by precipitation from solution. Analysis of spatially resolved optical spectra reveals that the glass aggregates into submillimeter areas inside the opal. These areas exhibit large shifts in the optical stop bands by up to 80 nm, and by comparison with modelling are shown to have uniform glass filling factors of opal pores up to 40%. Characterization of the domain structure of the opals prior to infiltration by large area angle-resolved spectroscopy is an important step in the analysis of the properties of the infiltrated regions. {copyright} 2001 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Intramasseterin-infiltrating angiolipoma: a challenging diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Cassoni, Andrea; Romano, Andrea; Terenzi, Valentina; Bartoli, Davina; Buonaccorsi, Sara; Valentini, Valentino

    2012-07-01

    Angiolipomas are benign mesenchymal tumors infrequently affecting the head and neck region, manifesting themselves as small (<4 cm), slow-growing mass that are painful or tender to palpation. Ultrasonography, fine needle aspiration biopsy, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging can be used to make a diagnosis. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice in both infiltrating and noninfiltrating forms, even if liposuction can be considered in multiple forms. We describe a case of infiltrating intramasseterin angiolipoma, in which diagnosis was suspected after magnetic resonance imaging with gadolinium; then a transoral surgical excision was performed. To the best of our knowledge, only 1 other case of intramasseterin-infiltrating angiolipoma has been previously described.

  13. Variability of mass-size relationships in tropical Mesoscale Convective Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontaine, Emmanuel; Leroy, Delphine; Delanoë, Julien; Dupuy, Régis; Lilie, Lyle; Strapp, Walter; Protat, Alain; Schwarzenböeck, Alfons

    2015-04-01

    The mass of individual ice hydrometeors in Mesoscale Convective Systems (MCS) has been investigated in the past using different methods in order to retrieve power law type mass-size relationships m(D) with m = α D^β. This study focuses on the variability of mass-size relationships in different types of MCS. Three types of tropical MCS were sampled during different airborne campaigns: (i) continental MCS during the West African monsoon (Megha-Tropique 2010), (ii) oceanic MCS over the Indian Ocean (Megha-Tropique 2011), and (iii) coastal MCS during the North-Australian monsoon (HAIC-HIWC). Mass-size relationships of ice hydrometeors are derived from a combined analysis of particle images from 2D-array probes and associated reflectivity factors measured with a Doppler cloud radar (94GHz) on the same research aircraft. A theoretical study of numerous hydrometeor shapes simulated in 3D and arbitrarily projected on a 2D plan allowed to constrain the exponent β of the m(D) relationship as a function of the derived surface-diameter relationship S(D), which is likewise written as a power law. Since S(D) always can be determined for real data from 2D optical array probes or other particle imagers, the evolution of the m(D) exponent β can be calculated along the flight trajectory. Then the pre-factor α of m(D) is constrained from theoretical simulations of the radar reflectivity factor matching the measured reflectivity factor along the aircraft trajectory. Finally, the Condensed Water Content (CWC) is deduced from measured particle size distributions (PSD) and retrieved m(D) relationships along the flight trajectory. Solely for the HAIC-HIWC campaign (North Australian Monsoon) a bulk reference measurement (IKP instrument) of high CWC could be performed in order to compare with the above described CWC deduced from ice hydrometeor images and reflectivity factors. Both CWC are coherent. Mean profiles of m(D) coefficients, PSD, and CWC are calculated as a function of the

  14. Fabrication of fiber-reinforced composites by chemical vapor infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Besmann, T.M.; McLaughlin, J.C.; Probst, K.J.; Anderson, T.J.; Starr, T.L.

    1997-12-01

    Silicon carbide-based heat exchanger tubes are of interest to energy production and conversion systems due to their excellent high temperature properties. Fiber-reinforced SiC is of particular importance for these applications since it is substantially tougher than monolithic SiC, and therefore more damage and thermal shock tolerant. This paper reviews a program to develop a scaled-up system for the chemical vapor infiltration of tubular shapes of fiber-reinforced SiC. The efforts include producing a unique furnace design, extensive process and system modeling, and experimental efforts to demonstrate tube fabrication.

  15. Articaine and lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia.

    PubMed Central

    Vähätalo, K.; Antila, H.; Lehtinen, R.

    1993-01-01

    This study was undertaken to compare the anesthetic properties of articaine hydrochloride with 1:200,000 epinephrine (Ultracain DS) and lidocaine with 1:80,000 epinephrine (Xylocain-Adrenalin) for maxillary infiltration anesthesia. Twenty healthy dental student volunteers were included in this double-blind study. Each subject received 0.6 mL of each test solution at different times. Infiltration anesthesia was performed on the upper lateral incisor. The onset and duration of anesthesia were monitored using an electric pulp tester. No statistically significant differences were seen in the onset and duration of anesthesia between the articaine and lidocaine solutions. PMID:7943919

  16. Primary cardiac lymphoma mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ga Yeon; Kim, Won Seog; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Choi, Jin-Oh; Jeon, Eun-Seok

    2013-05-01

    Primary cardiac lymphoma is a rare malignancy which has been described as thickened myocardium due to the infiltration of atypical lymphocytes and accompanying intracardiac masses. Here, we report a case of a primary cardiac lymphoma without demonstrable intracardiac masses, mimicking infiltrative cardiomyopathy. A 40-year-old male presented with exertional dyspnoea and was diagnosed as having restrictive cardiomyopathy with severely decreased LV systolic function. Endomyocardial biopsy was performed and the diagnosis of primary cardiac lymphoma was confirmed. After appropriate chemotherapy, he recovered his systolic function fully. PMID:23248217

  17. Numerical simulation of particle dynamics in an orifice-electrode system. Application to counting and sizing by impedance measurement.

    PubMed

    Isèbe, Damien; Nérin, Philippe

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes how to numerically tackle the problem of counting and sizing particles by impedance measurement in an orifice-electrode system. The model allows to simulate the particle dynamics submitted to strong hydrodynamic stresses through a microorifice and to compute the voltage pulses generated by the modification of the inner dielectric medium. This approach gives important information about particles size distribution and allows to quantify the role of trajectory and orientation of particles on the size measurement.

  18. Simulations of sizing and comfort improvements for residential forced-air heating and cooling systems

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, I.S.; Degenetais, G.; Siegel, J.A.

    2002-05-01

    the use of this tool to perform detailed residential HVAC system simulations. The simulations have been verified by comparison to measured results in several houses over a wide range of weather conditions and HVAC system performance. After the verification was completed, more than 350 cooling and 450 heating simulations were performed. These simulations covered a range of HVAC system performance parameters and California climate conditions (that range from hot dry deserts to cold mountain regions). The results of the simulations were used to show the large increases in HVAC system performance that can be attained by improving the HVAC duct distribution systems and by better sizing of residential HVAC equipment. The simulations demonstrated that improved systems can deliver improved heating or cooling to the conditioned space, maintain equal or better comfort while reducing peak demand and the installed equipment capacity (and therefore capital costs).

  19. Pressureless infiltration of aluminum metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Kajikawa, Y.; Nukami, T.; Flemings, M.C.

    1995-08-01

    Pressureless infiltration of ceramic preforms by molten aluminum is described. The preforms are SiC with varying amounts of particulate Al, Ti, and Ni. Infiltrants employed are pure Al and Al-12.5 wt pct Si. It is shown that a pressure differential within the preform is required for infiltration, and measurements are made of pressure changes in the preforms during infiltration. Results indicate that atmospheric pressure is essential for infiltration but that capillarity may play a role as well.

  20. Modeling and sizing optimization of hybrid photovoltaic/wind power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazdanpanah, Mohammad-Ali

    2014-03-01

    The rapid industrialization and growth of world's human population have resulted in the unprecedented increase in the demand for energy and in particular electricity. Depletion of fossil fuels and impacts of global warming caused widespread attention using renewable energy sources, especially wind and solar energies. Energy security under varying weather conditions and the corresponding system cost are the two major issues in designing hybrid power generation systems. In this paper, the match evaluation method (MEM) is developed based on renewable energy supply/demand match evaluation criteria to size the proposed system in lowest cost. This work is undertaken with triple objective function: inequality coefficient, correlation coefficient, and annualized cost of system. It provides optimum capacity of as many numbers of supplies as required to match with a load demand in lowest investment, so it can handle large-scale design problems. Meteorological data were collected from the city of Zabol, located in south-east of Iran, as a case study. Six types of wind turbine and also six types of PV modules, with different output powers and costs, are considered for this optimization procedure. A battery storage system is used to even out irregularities in meteorological data. A multi-objective particle swarm optimization algorithm has been used for the prediction of an optimized set of design based on the MEM technique. The results of this study are valuable for evaluating the performance of future stand-alone hybrid power system. It is worth mentioning that the proposed methodology can be effectively employed for any composition of hybrid energy systems in any locations taking into account the meteorological data and the consumer's demand.

  1. Sub-Volcanic Plumbing Systems Imaged Through Crystal Size Distributions (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melnik, O. E.; Blundy, J. D.; Rust, A.; Muir, D. D.

    2010-12-01

    The configuration of sub-volcanic magma storage regions exercises a fundamental control on eruptive style and hazard. Such regions can be imaged remotely, using seismic, geodetic or magnetotelluric methods, although these are far from routine and rarely unambiguous. The textures of erupted volcanic rocks, as quantified through crystal size distributions, provide space- and time-integrated information on the sub-volcanic plumbing systems, although these data are notoriously hard to deconvolve in terms of key parameters, such as conduit geometry, or magma ascent rates and storage times. Here we develop a numerical approach to textural interpretation, based on crystallisation kinetics and hydrodynamic flow, to image sub-volcanic plumbing systems with unprecedented detail. Using an example from Mount St. Helens volcano, USA, we show the potential of this simple and low-cost method, which can be readily generalised to any effusive magmatic system and provides a valuable complement to remote imaging techniques. As magma ascends, the competition between growth of preexisting crystals and nucleation of new crystals determines the crystal size distribution (CSD). If nucleation dominates, the CSD will be shifted to smaller crystal sizes. In steady state, CSD evolution is described by a linear hyperbolic equation with coefficients that depend on discharge rate, cross-section area of the conduit, crystal growth and nucleation rates. If crystal growth kinetics are known, from laboratory experiments, as a function of temperature, pressure and crystal content, it is possible to reconstruct the distribution of all parameters along the conduit including its cross-section area based simply on the measured of the CSD of eruptive products. From a CSD from a 1983 dome sample from Mt. St Helens volcano the model allows us to reconstruct dimensions of the conduit as a function of depth. The results reveal a clear transition to a magma chamber at depth of 12 km below the summit. Both the

  2. [Sand box study on fingering front morphology for NAPLs infiltrated in homogeneous porous media].

    PubMed

    Yang, Bin; Li, Hui-Ying; Wu, Bin; Du, Xiao-Ming; Li, Fa-Sheng

    2013-04-01

    Abstract: 1,2-dichloroethane and tetrachlorethylene were studied in four different unsaturated porous media to determine the impact of the properties of media and fluids on the infiltration aided by digital image analysis technique. The results indicated that the whole process of NAPLs migration can be recorded dynamically using the digital image analysis technique. The unstable flow "fingering" occurred in the process of infiltration. Fingering mechanisms such as splitting, coalescing, and shielding were observed in the process of fingering. Front morphology of the infiltration was influenced by the properties of porous media and fluids. The vertical migration rates and the growth rates of area development were positively correlated to the size of medium particle and the density of the NAPLs (except for toluene) in the process of infiltrating. The number of fingers and the wavelength of fingering were also closely correlated with the properties of media and fluid. DNAPLs infiltrated faster compared with LNAPLs, which resulted in larger pollution area within the same infiltration time. It can be concluded that the environmental risk of DNAPLs is significantly greater than the LNAPLs.

  3. Optimal Sizing of Energy Storage and Photovoltaic Power Systems for Demand Charge Mitigation (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, J.; Simpson, M.

    2013-10-01

    Commercial facility utility bills are often a strong function of demand charges -- a fee proportional to peak power demand rather than total energy consumed. In some instances, demand charges can constitute more than 50% of a commercial customer's monthly electricity cost. While installation of behind-the-meter solar power generation decreases energy costs, its variability makes it likely to leave the peak load -- and thereby demand charges -- unaffected. This then makes demand charges an even larger fraction of remaining electricity costs. Adding controllable behind-the-meter energy storage can more predictably affect building peak demand, thus reducing electricity costs. Due to the high cost of energy storage technology, the size and operation of an energy storage system providing demand charge management (DCM) service must be optimized to yield a positive return on investment (ROI). The peak demand reduction achievable with an energy storage system depends heavily on a facility's load profile, so the optimal configuration will be specific to both the customer and the amount of installed solar power capacity. We explore the sensitivity of DCM value to the power and energy levels of installed solar power and energy storage systems. An optimal peak load reduction control algorithm for energy storage systems will be introduced and applied to historic solar power data and meter load data from multiple facilities for a broad range of energy storage system configurations. For each scenario, the peak load reduction and electricity cost savings will be computed. From this, we will identify a favorable energy storage system configuration that maximizes ROI.

  4. Enhanced Z-LDA for Small Sample Size Training in Brain-Computer Interface Systems

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Dongrui; Zhang, Rui; Liu, Tiejun; Li, Fali; Ma, Teng; Lv, Xulin; Li, Peiyang; Yao, Dezhong; Xu, Peng

    2015-01-01

    Background. Usually the training set of online brain-computer interface (BCI) experiment is small. For the small training set, it lacks enough information to deeply train the classifier, resulting in the poor classification performance during online testing. Methods. In this paper, on the basis of Z-LDA, we further calculate the classification probability of Z-LDA and then use it to select the reliable samples from the testing set to enlarge the training set, aiming to mine the additional information from testing set to adjust the biased classification boundary obtained from the small training set. The proposed approach is an extension of previous Z-LDA and is named enhanced Z-LDA (EZ-LDA). Results. We evaluated the classification performance of LDA, Z-LDA, and EZ-LDA on simulation and real BCI datasets with different sizes of training samples, and classification results showed EZ-LDA achieved the best classification performance. Conclusions. EZ-LDA is promising to deal with the small sample size training problem usually existing in online BCI system. PMID:26550023

  5. Model slope infiltration experiments for shallow landslides early warning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damiano, E.; Greco, R.; Guida, A.; Olivares, L.; Picarelli, L.

    2009-04-01

    Occurrence of fast landslides has become more and more dangerous during the last decades, due to the increased density of settlements, industrial plants and infrastructures. Such problem is particularly worrying in Campania (Southern Italy), where the fast population growth led a diffuse building activity without planning: indeed, recent flowslides caused hundreds of victims and heavy damages to buildings, roads and other infrastructures. Large mountainous areas in Campania are mantled by loose pyroclastic granular soils up to a depth of a few meters from top soil surface. These soils have usually a grain size that falls in the domain of silty sands, including pumice interbeds (gravelly sands), with saturated hydraulic conductivities up to the order of 10-1 cm/min. Such deposits often cover steep slopes, which stability is guaranteed by the apparent cohesion due to suction under unsaturated conditions, that are the most common conditions for these slopes [Olivares and Picarelli, 2001]. Whereas rainfall infiltration causes soil to approach saturation, suction vanishes and slope failure may occur. Besides soil physical properties, landslide triggering is influenced by several factors, such as rainfall intensity, soil initial moisture and suction, slope inclination, boundary conditions. Whereas slope failure occurs with soil close to being saturated, landslide may develop in form of fast and destructive flowslide. Calibration of reliable mathematical models of such a complex phenomenon requires availability of experimental observations of the major variables of interest, such as soil moisture and suction, soil deformation and displacements, pore water pressure, during the entire process of infiltration until slope failure. Due to the sudden trigger and extremely rapid propagation of such type of landslides, such data sets are rarely available for natural slopes where flowslides occurred. As a consequence landslide risk assessment and early warning in Campania rely on

  6. Modeling Engineered Approaches to Enhance Denitrification under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, P. T.; Akhavan, M.; Finsterle, S.; Andres, S.

    2012-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin Systems (RIBS) use the controlled application of treated wastewater to soil to remove wastewater constituents before recharging groundwater. Because wastewater from new wastewater treatment plants is often enriched in NO3, denitrification (DNF) is the most important process for nitrogen removal. Two key requirements for DNF in the subsurface are the absence of molecular oxygen and an adequate supply of carbon to serve as a substrate for heterotrophic bacteria. These requirements can be met by adjusting the wastewater application to maximize anaerobic conditions beneath the infiltration basin, and by incorporating a carbon source layer, where carbon is supplied to infiltrating wastewater by dissolution from a solid matrix, e.g., woodchips. To examine the interplay between alternative wastewater application approaches and the length and thickness of the carbon source layer on DNF, a series of simulations were conducted in two soil types using TOUGHREACT. Because RIBS are often overdesigned, basins may be only partially flooded such that overland flow within the basin controls the infiltration area. For this reason, TOUGHREACT was modified to include both overland and subsurface flow. Simulations with the coupled overland flow-vadose zone model predict uneven water distribution over the basins, a condition that significantly affects DNF. Smaller ratios of wetting to drying time, i.e., shorter but more intense flooding periods, result in greater water saturations, shorter residence times and lower oxygen concentrations in the vadose zone, ultimately resulting in greater DNF. While the addition of a carbon source layer at the bottom of the RIBS is essential for supplying needed carbon, flow bypassing around this carbon layer, which is typically of lower permeability than the surrounding soil, can be problematic. These simulations demonstrate the interplay between the selection of wastewater application approach and carbon source layer design on

  7. Surface area generation and droplet size control in solvent extraction systems utilizing high intensity electric fields

    DOEpatents

    Scott, Timothy C.; Wham, Robert M.

    1988-01-01

    A method and system for solvent extraction where droplets are shattered by a high intensity electric field. These shattered droplets form a plurality of smaller droplets which have a greater combined surface area than the original droplet. Dispersion, coalescence and phase separation are accomplished in one vessel through the use of the single pulsing high intensity electric field. Electric field conditions are chosen so that simultaneous dispersion and coalescence are taking place in the emulsion formed in the electric field. The electric field creates a large amount of interfacial surface area for solvent extraction when the droplet is disintegrated and is capable of controlling droplet size and thus droplet stability. These operations take place in the presence of a counter current flow of the continuous phase.

  8. Instrument Development of Real Time Holographic Water Drop Size Measurement System

    SciTech Connect

    Springston, Stephen

    2007-02-09

    BNL participated with multiple correspondences with Physical Optics Corporation (POC) on the design considerations of an airbome instrument. A pod for extemal deployment ofthe POC unit on the DOE Research Aircraft Facility (RAF), an instrumented, Grumman G-1 aircraft was loaned to POC. BNL proposed evaluation flight tests between the POC unit and the BNL Cloud Aerosol Probe Spectrometer (CAPS) as a reference method. BNL's involvement is described in the semi-annual report ofPOC to DOE. Because of unanticipated technical and engineering difficulties, POC was unable to fit their instrument into an aircraft pod. As a result they are now focusing on a ground-based version first. A prototype laboratory version of the Real-Time Holographic Water Drop Size Measurement (WDSM) System has been constructed.

  9. Beam Energy and System Size Dependence of Dynamical Net Charge Fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    STAR Coll

    2008-07-21

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au + Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu + Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4, 200 GeV, and p + p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub {+-},dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are non-zero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling, but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  10. Earth-size Planets in the PSR B1257+12 Planetary System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konacki, M.; Wolszczan, A.

    2003-05-01

    The field of extrasolar planets has emerged in 1992 with the detection of three terrestrial-mass planets orbiting the millisecond pulsar PSR B1257+12 by Wolszczan & Frail . The pulsar has been observed with the 305 m Arecibo radiotelescope since its discovery in 1990. The pulse arrival time measurements of the pulsar B1257+12 collected over the years 1990-2003 with the Mark-III and the Penn State Pulsar Machine-1 backends supplemented with the new semi-analytical theory of the dynamics of the PSR B1257+12 planetary system allow us now to determine the masses of the planets B and C. The derived masses are respectively 4.3+/-0.2 and 3.9+/-0.2 Earth masses, making it the first determination of the extrasolar planet masses in the Earth-size regime.

  11. Histologic Assessment of Intratumoral Lymphoplasmacytic Infiltration Is Useful in Predicting Prognosis of Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hayashi, Akimasa; Shibahara, Junji; Misumi, Kento; Arita, Junichi; Sakamoto, Yoshihiro; Hasegawa, Kiyoshi; Kokudo, Norihiro; Fukayama, Masashi

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the clinicopathologic significance of intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration in a large cohort of patients with solitary hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Based on examination of hematoxylin and eosin-stained sections, significant infiltration was defined as dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, either multifocal or diffuse, in 2 or more fields under low-power magnification. Of 544 cases, 216 (39.7%) were positive for significant infiltration (HCC-LI group), while 328 (60.3%) were negative (HCC-NLI group). There were no significant between-group differences in patient age, sex, or background etiology. The lower incidence of Child-Pugh stage B (P = 0.001) and lower level of indocyanine green retention rate at 15 minutes (P < 0.001) in the HCC-LI group indicated better liver function in this group. Histologically, tumors were significantly smaller in size in the HCC-LI group than in the HCC-NLI group (P < 0.001). In addition, prominent neutrophilic infiltration, interstitial fibrosis and tumor steatosis were significantly more frequent (P < 0.001) in the HCC-LI group, while tumor necrosis was significantly less frequent (P = 0.008). Kaplan-Meier analyses revealed that overall and recurrence-free survival were significantly better in the HCC-LI group (P < 0.001). Multivariate Cox regression analysis showed that intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration was independently prognostic of both overall and recurrence-free survival (P < 0.001), with absence of infiltration showing high Cox-hazard ratios for poor prognosis. In conclusion, intratumoral lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, as determined by assessment of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, was significantly associated with the clinical and pathologic features of HCC and has profound prognostic importance. PMID:27195977

  12. An Infiltration Exercise for Introductory Soil Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbarick, K. A.; Ippolito, J. A.; Butters, G.; Sorge, G. M.

    2005-01-01

    One of the largest challenges in teaching introductory soil science is explaining the dynamics of soil infiltration. To aid students in understanding the concept and to further engage them in active learning in the soils laboratory course, we developed an exercise using Decagon Mini-Disk Infiltrometers with a tension head (h[subscript o]) of 2 cm.…

  13. Beam Size Measurement by Optical Diffraction Radiation and Laser System for Compton Polarimeter

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chuyu

    2012-12-31

    difficulty of diagnostics. For most cases, intercepting measurements are no longer acceptable, and nonintercepting method like synchrotron radiation monitor can not be applied to linear accelerators. The development of accelerator technology asks for simutanous diagnostics innovations, to expand the performance of diagnostic tools to meet the requirements of the next generation accelerators. Diffraction radiation and inverse Compton scattering are two of the most promising techniques, their nonintercepting nature avoids perturbance to the beam and damage to the instrumentation. This thesis is divided into two parts, beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation and Laser system for Compton polarimeter. Diffraction radiation, produced by the interaction between the electric field of charged particles and the target, is related to transition radiation. Even though the theory of diffraction radiation has been discussed since 1960s, there are only a few experimental studies in recent years. The successful beam size measurement by optical diffraction radiation at CEBAF machine is a milestone: First of all, we have successfully demonstrated diffraction radiation as an effective nonintercepting diagnostics; Secondly, the simple linear relationship between the diffraction radiation image size and the actual beam size improves the reliability of ODR measurements; And, we measured the polarized components of diffraction radiation for the first time and I analyzed the contribution from edge radiation to diffraction radiation.

  14. Size-distribution analysis of proteins by analytical ultracentrifugation: strategies and application to model systems.

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Peter; Perugini, Matthew A; Gonzales, Noreen R; Howlett, Geoffrey J; Schubert, Dieter

    2002-01-01

    Strategies for the deconvolution of diffusion in the determination of size-distributions from sedimentation velocity experiments were examined and developed. On the basis of four different model systems, we studied the differential apparent sedimentation coefficient distributions by the time-derivative method, g(s*), and by least-squares direct boundary modeling, ls-g*(s), the integral sedimentation coefficient distribution by the van Holde-Weischet method, G(s), and the previously introduced differential distribution of Lamm equation solutions, c(s). It is shown that the least-squares approach ls-g*(s) can be extrapolated to infinite time by considering area divisions analogous to boundary divisions in the van Holde-Weischet method, thus allowing the transformation of interference optical data into an integral sedimentation coefficient distribution G(s). However, despite the model-free approach of G(s), for the systems considered, the direct boundary modeling with a distribution of Lamm equation solutions c(s) exhibited the highest resolution and sensitivity. The c(s) approach requires an estimate for the size-dependent diffusion coefficients D(s), which is usually incorporated in the form of a weight-average frictional ratio of all species, or in the form of prior knowledge of the molar mass of the main species. We studied the influence of the weight-average frictional ratio on the quality of the fit, and found that it is well-determined by the data. As a direct boundary model, the calculated c(s) distribution can be combined with a nonlinear regression to optimize distribution parameters, such as the exact meniscus position, and the weight-average frictional ratio. Although c(s) is computationally the most complex, it has the potential for the highest resolution and sensitivity of the methods described. PMID:11806949

  15. Learning and liking an artificial musical system: Effects of set size and repeated exposure

    PubMed Central

    Loui, Psyche; Wessel, David

    2009-01-01

    We report an investigation of humans' musical learning ability using a novel musical system. We designed an artificial musical system based on the Bohlen-Pierce scale, a scale very different from Western music. Melodies were composed from chord progressions in the new scale by applying the rules of a finite-state grammar. After exposing participants to sets of melodies, we conducted listening tests to assess learning, including recognition tests, generalization tests, and subjective preference ratings. In Experiment 1, participants were presented with 15 melodies 27 times each. Forced choice results showed that participants were able to recognize previously encountered melodies and generalize their knowledge to new melodies, suggesting internalization of the musical grammar. Preference ratings showed no differentiation among familiar, new, and ungrammatical melodies. In Experiment 2, participants were given 10 melodies 40 times each. Results showed superior recognition but unsuccessful generalization. Additionally, preference ratings were significantly higher for familiar melodies. Results from the two experiments suggest that humans can internalize the grammatical structure of a new musical system following exposure to a sufficiently large set size of melodies, but musical preference results from repeated exposure to a small number of items. This dissociation between grammar learning and preference will be further discussed. PMID:20151034

  16. Stand-alone hybrid wind-photovoltaic power generation systems optimal sizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crǎciunescu, Aurelian; Popescu, Claudia; Popescu, Mihai; Florea, Leonard Marin

    2013-10-01

    Wind and photovoltaic energy resources have attracted energy sectors to generate power on a large scale. A drawback, common to these options, is their unpredictable nature and dependence on day time and meteorological conditions. Fortunately, the problems caused by the variable nature of these resources can be partially overcome by integrating the two resources in proper combination, using the strengths of one source to overcome the weakness of the other. The hybrid systems that combine wind and solar generating units with battery backup can attenuate their individual fluctuations and can match with the power requirements of the beneficiaries. In order to efficiently and economically utilize the hybrid energy system, one optimum match design sizing method is necessary. In this way, literature offers a variety of methods for multi-objective optimal designing of hybrid wind/photovoltaic (WG/PV) generating systems, one of the last being genetic algorithms (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). In this paper, mathematical models of hybrid WG/PV components and a short description of the last proposed multi-objective optimization algorithms are given.

  17. TELICS—A Telescope Instrument Control System for Small/Medium Sized Astronomical Observatories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, Mudit K.; Ramaprakash, A. N.; Burse, Mahesh P.; Chordia, Pravin A.; Chillal, Kalpesh S.; Mestry, Vilas B.; Das, Hillol K.; Kohok, Abhay A.

    2009-10-01

    For any modern astronomical observatory, it is essential to have an efficient interface between the telescope and its back-end instruments. However, for small and medium-sized observatories, this requirement is often limited by tight financial constraints. Therefore a simple yet versatile and low-cost control system is required for such observatories to minimize cost and effort. Here we report the development of a modern, multipurpose instrument control system TELICS (Telescope Instrument Control System) to integrate the controls of various instruments and devices mounted on the telescope. TELICS consists of an embedded hardware unit known as a common control unit (CCU) in combination with Linux-based data acquisition and user interface. The hardware of the CCU is built around the ATmega 128 microcontroller (Atmel Corp.) and is designed with a backplane, master-slave architecture. A Qt-based graphical user interface (GUI) has been developed and the back-end application software is based on C/C++. TELICS provides feedback mechanisms that give the operator good visibility and a quick-look display of the status and modes of instruments as well as data. TELICS has been used for regular science observations since 2008 March on the 2 m, f/10 IUCAA Telescope located at Girawali in Pune, India.

  18. Nano-ceria pre-infiltration improves La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x infiltrated Solid Oxide Fuel Cell cathode performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burye, Theodore E.; Nicholas, Jason D.

    2015-12-01

    Here, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, and thermo-gravimetric analysis experiments show that the pre-infiltration of Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.95 (GDC) nano-particles reduces the average size of La0.6Sr0.4Co0.8Fe0.2O3-x (LSCF) produced from the subsequent infiltration of precursor nitrate solutions containing the surfactant Triton X-100 or the chelating agent citric acid. In contrast, GDC pre-infiltration has no effect on the average size of LSCF particles produced from precursor solutions containing only lanthanum, strontium, cobalt, and iron nitrate. Consistent with the observed particle size trends, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements show that GDC pre-infiltration improves the performance of Triton X-100 Derived (TXD) LSCF-GDC cathodes and Citric Acid Derived (CAD) LSCF-GDC cathodes, but has no effect on the performance of Pure Nitrate Derived (PND) LSCF-GDC cathodes. In particular, TXD LSCF-GDC cathodes with more than ∼5 vol% of GDC pre-infiltration display average LSCF particle sizes of 21 nm and open-circuit polarization resistance values of 0.10 Ωcm2 at 540 °C, compared to 48 nm and 640 °C without GDC pre-infiltration. Results suggest that this 100 °C reduction in cathode operating temperature is caused solely by LSCF particle size reductions. 7.4 vol% GDC pre-infiltrated TXD LSCF-GDC cathodes also display lower 540 °C degradation rates than conventionally infiltrated PND LSCF-GDC cathodes.

  19. Transient Point Infiltration In The Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buecker-Gittel, M.; Mohrlok, U.

    The risk assessment of leaking sewer pipes gets more and more important due to urban groundwater management and environmental as well as health safety. This requires the quantification and balancing of transport and transformation processes based on the water flow in the unsaturated zone. The water flow from a single sewer leakage could be described as a point infiltration with time varying hydraulic conditions externally and internally. External variations are caused by the discharge in the sewer pipe as well as the state of the leakage itself. Internal variations are the results of microbiological clogging effects associated with the transformation processes. Technical as well as small scale laboratory experiments were conducted in order to investigate the water transport from an transient point infiltration. From the technical scale experiment there was evidence that the water flow takes place under transient conditions when sewage infiltrates into an unsaturated soil. Whereas the small scale experiments investigated the hydraulics of the water transport and the associated so- lute and particle transport in unsaturated soils in detail. The small scale experiment was a two-dimensional representation of such a point infiltration source where the distributed water transport could be measured by several tensiometers in the soil as well as by a selective measurement of the discharge at the bottom of the experimental setup. Several series of experiments were conducted varying the boundary and initial con- ditions in order to derive the important parameters controlling the infiltration of pure water from the point source. The results showed that there is a significant difference between the infiltration rate in the point source and the discharge rate at the bottom, that could be explained by storage processes due to an outflow resistance at the bottom. This effect is overlayn by a decreasing water content decreases over time correlated with a decreasing infiltration

  20. Effects of explosively venting aerosol-sized particles through earth-containment systems on the cloud-stabilization height

    SciTech Connect

    Dyckes, G.W.

    1980-07-01

    A method of approximating the cloud stabilization height for aerosol-sized particles vented explosively through earth containment systems is presented. The calculated values for stabilization heights are in fair agreement with those obtained experimentally.

  1. Effect of Particle Size Distribution on the Rheology of Dispersed Systems.

    PubMed

    Luckham; Ukeje

    1999-12-15

    The rheological properties of aqueous polystyrene latex dispersions from three synthetic batches, with nearly the same z-average particle sizes, 400 nm, but varying degrees of polydispersity, 0.085, 0.301, and 0.485, respectively, were systematically investigated using steady-state shear and oscillatory shear measurements. The particles were sized with photon correlation spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy and were stabilized sterically with PEO-PPO-PEO triblock copolymer (Synperonic F127). Results from steady-state shear measurements show that the viscosities of the systems exhibit shear-thinning behavior at high solid fractions. However, the degree of shear thinning depends on the breadth of particle size distribution, with the narrowest distribution suspension exhibiting the highest degree of shear thinning. The Herschel-Bulkley relationship best describes the flow curves. The relative viscosities as a function of volume fraction data were compared, and it was found that the broadest distribution suspension had the lowest viscosity for a given volume fraction. In addition, the data were fitted to the Krieger-Dougherty equation for hard spheres. A reasonable agreement of theory with experiment is observed, particularly and surprisingly for the very broad distribution. However, when the contribution to the volume due to the adsorbed polymer layer is considered, the agreement between experiment and theory becomes closer for all the suspensions, although the agreement for the broad distribution suspension is now worse. Fitting the Dougherty-Krieger theory to the experimental data based on our experimental maximum packing fractions gives very good agreement for all the systems studied. From oscillatory shear measurements, the moduli were obtained as a function of frequency at various latex volume fractions. The results show general change of the dispersions from viscous (G" > G') at low volume fractions (0.25-0.30) to moderately elastic (G' > G") at

  2. Disinfection of secondary effluents by infiltration percolation.

    PubMed

    Makni, H

    2001-01-01

    Among the most attractive applications of reclaimed wastewater are: irrigation of public parks, sports fields, golf courses and market gardening. These uses require advanced wastewater treatment including disinfection. According to WHO guidelines (1989) and current rules and regulations in Tunisia, faecal coliform levels have to be reduced to < 10(3) or 10(2) CFU/100 mL. In Tunisia, most wastewater plants are only secondary treatment and, in order to meet health related regulations, the effluents need to be disinfected. However, it is usual for secondary effluents to need filtration prior to disinfection. Effectiveness of conventional disinfection processes, such as chlorination and UV radiation, are dependent upon the oxidation level and the levels of suspended solids of the treated water. Ozonation is relatively expensive and energy consuming. The consideration of the advantages and disadvantages of conventional techniques, their reliability, investment needs and operational costs will lead to the use of less sophisticated alternative techniques for certain facilities. Among alternative techniques, soil aquifer treatment and infiltration percolation through sand beds have been studied in Arizona, Israel, France, Spain and Morocco. Infiltration percolation plants have been intermittently fed with secondary or high quality primary effluents which percolated through 1.5-2 m unsaturated coarse sand and were recovered by under-drains. In such infiltration percolation facilities, microorganisms were eliminated through numerous physical, physicochemical and biological inter-related processes (mechanical filtration, adsorption and microbial degradation respectively). Efficiency of faecal coliform removal was dependent upon the water detention times in the filtering medium and on the oxidation of the filtered water. Effluents of Sfax town aerated ponds were infiltrated through 1.5 m deep sand columns in order to determine the performance of infiltration percolation in the

  3. Investigation of thermochemical biorefinery sizing and environmental sustainability impacts for conventional supply system and distributed preprocessing supply system designs

    SciTech Connect

    Muth, jr., David J.; Langholtz, Matthew H.; Tan, Eric; Jacobson, Jacob; Schwab, Amy; Wu, May; Argo, Andrew; Brandt, Craig C.; Cafferty, Kara; Chiu, Yi-Wen; Dutta, Abhijit; Eaton, Laurence M.; Searcy, Erin

    2014-03-31

    The 2011 US Billion-Ton Update estimates that by 2030 there will be enough agricultural and forest resources to sustainably provide at least one billion dry tons of biomass annually, enough to displace approximately 30% of the country's current petroleum consumption. A portion of these resources are inaccessible at current cost targets with conventional feedstock supply systems because of their remoteness or low yields. Reliable analyses and projections of US biofuels production depend on assumptions about the supply system and biorefinery capacity, which, in turn, depend upon economic value, feedstock logistics, and sustainability. A cross-functional team has examined combinations of advances in feedstock supply systems and biorefinery capacities with rigorous design information, improved crop yield and agronomic practices, and improved estimates of sustainable biomass availability. A previous report on biochemical refinery capacity noted that under advanced feedstock logistic supply systems that include depots and pre-processing operations there are cost advantages that support larger biorefineries up to 10 000 DMT/day facilities compared to the smaller 2000 DMT/day facilities. This report focuses on analyzing conventional versus advanced depot biomass supply systems for a thermochemical conversion and refinery sizing based on woody biomass. The results of this analysis demonstrate that the economies of scale enabled by advanced logistics offsets much of the added logistics costs from additional depot processing and transportation, resulting in a small overall increase to the minimum ethanol selling price compared to the conventional logistic supply system. While the overall costs do increase slightly for the advanced logistic supply systems, the ability to mitigate moisture and ash in the system will improve the storage and conversion processes. In addition, being able to draw on feedstocks from further distances will decrease the risk of biomass supply to the

  4. Design of a Particle Shadowgraph Velocimetry and Size (PSVS) System to Determine Particle Size and Density Distributions (PSDD) in Hanford Nuclear Tank Wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Fountain, Matthew S.; Blanchard, Jeremy; Erikson, Rebecca L.; Kurath, Dean E.; Howe, Daniel T.; Adkins, Harold E.; Jenks, Jeromy WJ

    2012-01-10

    An accurate particle size and density distribution (PSDD) for nuclear tank wastes is an essential piece of information that helps determine the engineering requirements for a host of waste management unit operations including tank mixing, pipeline transport, and filtration. The existing approach has involved a laborious approach in which individual particles are identified using SEM/XRD methods and the density of these materials obtained from the technical literature. Further, some methods simply approximate individual particle densities by assuming chemical composition rather than actual measurements of particle density. A particle shadowgraph velocimetry and size (PSVS) system has been designed to obtain representative PSDDs for a broad range of Hanford tank waste materials existing as both individual particles and agglomerates. The PSVS utilizes optical hardware, a temperature controlled settling column, and particle introduction chamber to accurately and reproducibly obtain images of settling particles. Image analysis software then provides a highly accurate determination of both particle terminal velocity and equivalent spherical particle diameter. The particle/agglomerate density is then calculated from Newton’s terminal settling theory. The PSVS was designed to accurately image particle/agglomerate sizes between 10-1000µm and particle/agglomerate densities ranging from 1.4-11.5g/cm3 where the maximum terminal velocity does not exceed 20cm/s. Preliminary testing was completed and results were in good agreement with terminal settling theory. Recent results of this method development are presented, as well as experimental design, and future proposed work.

  5. Semi-automated nanoprecipitation-system--an option for operator independent, scalable and size adjustable nanoparticle synthesis.

    PubMed

    Rietscher, René; Thum, Carolin; Lehr, Claus-Michael; Schneider, Marc

    2015-06-01

    The preparation of nano-sized carrier systems increasingly moved into focus of pharmaceutical research and industry in the past decades. Besides the drug load and properties of the selected polymer/lipid, the size of such particles is one of the most important parameters regarding their use as efficient drug delivery systems. However, the preparation of nanoparticles with different sizes in a controlled manner is challenging, especially in terms of reproducibility and scale-up possibility. To overcome these hurdles we developed a system relying on nanoprecipitation, which meets all these requirements of an operator independent, scalable and size-adjustable nanoparticle synthesis-the Semi-Automated Nanoprecipitation-System. This system enables the adaption of the particle size to specific needs based on the process parameters-injection rate, flow rate and polymer concentration-identified within this study. The basic set-up is composed of a syringe pump and a gear pump for a precise control of the flow and injection speed of the system. Furthermore, a home-made tube-straightener guarantees a curvature-free injection point. Thus it could be shown that the production of poly(lactide-co-glycolide) nanoparticles from 150 to 600 nm with a narrow size distribution in a controlled semi-automatic manner is possible.

  6. Combined geophysical methods for mapping infiltration pathways at the Aurora Water Aquifer recharge and recovery site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jasper, Cameron A.

    Although aquifer recharge and recovery systems are a sustainable, decentralized, low cost, and low energy approach for the reclamation, treatment, and storage of post- treatment wastewater, they can suffer from poor infiltration rates and the development of a near-surface clogging layer within infiltration ponds. One such aquifer recharge and recovery system, the Aurora Water site in Colorado, U.S.A, functions at about 25% of its predicted capacity to recharge floodplain deposits by flooding infiltration ponds with post-treatment wastewater extracted from river bank aquifers along the South Platte River. The underwater self-potential method was developed to survey self-potential signals at the ground surface in a flooded infiltration pond for mapping infiltration pathways. A method for using heat as a groundwater tracer within the infiltration pond used an array of in situ high-resolution temperature sensing probes. Both relatively positive and negative underwater self-potential anomalies are consistent with observed recovery well pumping rates and specific discharge estimates from temperature data. Results from electrical resistivity tomography and electromagnetics surveys provide consistent electrical conductivity distributions associated with sediment textures. A lab method was developed for resistivity tests of near-surface sediment samples. Forward numerical modeling synthesizes the geophysical information to best match observed self- potential anomalies and provide permeability distributions, which is important for effective aquifer recharge and recovery system design, and optimization strategy development.

  7. Modeling Nitrogen Losses under Rapid Infiltration Basins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhavan, M.; Imhoff, P. T.; Andres, A. S.; Finsterle, S.

    2011-12-01

    Rapid Infiltration Basin System (RIBS) is one of the major land treatment techniques used for wastewater treatment and reuse of recovered treated wastewater. In this system, wastewater that is treated using primary, secondary, or advanced treatment techniques is applied at high rates to shallow basins constructed in permeable deposits of soil or sand, with further treatment occurring in soil and the vadose zone before the water recharges groundwater. Because the influent wastewater is usually enriched in nitrogen (N) compounds, there is particular concern that RIBS may contaminant groundwater or nearby surface waters if not designed and operated properly. In most of the new sequenced batch reactor (SBR) wastewater treatment plants, N is found in the form of nitrate in the discharged wastewater, so denitrification (DNF) is the main reaction in N removal. The absence of molecular oxygen is one of the required conditions for DNF. During RIBS operation, application of wastewater is cyclic and typically consists of a flooding period followed by days or weeks of drying. Key operational parameters include the ratio of wetting to drying time and the hydraulic loading rate, which affect water saturation and air content in the vadose zone and as a result have an impact on DNF. Wastewater is typically distributed at a limited number of discharge points in RIBS and basins are not usually completely flooded which result in non-homogeneous distribution of wastewater and unusual surface water flow patterns. For this reason, we couple overland flow within RIBS with subsurface flow to investigate the influence of non-uniform application of wastewater on DNF. No modeling effort has been done for understanding this aspect of RIBS performance previously. TOUGH2/ iTOUGH2, a general-purpose numerical simulation program for multi-phase fluid flow in porous media, is used for modeling fluid movement. Water saturation is used as a surrogate parameter to evaluate oxygen limitations in the

  8. New Pulp Biobleaching System Involving Manganese Peroxidase Immobilized in a Silica Support with Controlled Pore Sizes

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Toshiya; Kajino, Tsutomu; Li, Bo; Sugiyama, Hidehiko; Takahashi, Haruo

    2001-01-01

    Attempts have been made to use manganese peroxidase (MnP) for chlorine-free pulp biobleaching, but they have not been commercially viable because of the enzyme's low stability. We developed a new pulp biobleaching method involving mesoporous material-immobilized manganese peroxidase from Phanerochaete chrysosporium. MnP immobilized in FSM-16, a folded-sheet mesoporous material whose pore size is nearly the same as the diameter of the enzyme, had the highest thermal stability and tolerance to H2O2. MnP immobilized in FSM-16 retained more than 80% of its initial activity even after 10 days of continuous reaction. We constructed a thermally discontinuous two-stage reactor system, in which the enzyme (39°C) and pulp-bleaching (70°C) reactions were performed separately. When the treatment of pulp with MnP by means of the two-stage reactor system and alkaline extraction was repeated seven times, the brightness of the pulp increased to about 88% within 7 h after completion of the last treatment. PMID:11319102

  9. Inference for Stochastic Chemical Kinetics Using Moment Equations and System Size Expansion.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Fabian; Thomas, Philipp; Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Theis, Fabian J; Grima, Ramon; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative mechanistic models are valuable tools for disentangling biochemical pathways and for achieving a comprehensive understanding of biological systems. However, to be quantitative the parameters of these models have to be estimated from experimental data. In the presence of significant stochastic fluctuations this is a challenging task as stochastic simulations are usually too time-consuming and a macroscopic description using reaction rate equations (RREs) is no longer accurate. In this manuscript, we therefore consider moment-closure approximation (MA) and the system size expansion (SSE), which approximate the statistical moments of stochastic processes and tend to be more precise than macroscopic descriptions. We introduce gradient-based parameter optimization methods and uncertainty analysis methods for MA and SSE. Efficiency and reliability of the methods are assessed using simulation examples as well as by an application to data for Epo-induced JAK/STAT signaling. The application revealed that even if merely population-average data are available, MA and SSE improve parameter identifiability in comparison to RRE. Furthermore, the simulation examples revealed that the resulting estimates are more reliable for an intermediate volume regime. In this regime the estimation error is reduced and we propose methods to determine the regime boundaries. These results illustrate that inference using MA and SSE is feasible and possesses a high sensitivity. PMID:27447730

  10. Joint layout, pipe size and hydraulic reliability optimization of water distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanyimboh, Tiku; Setiadi, Yohan

    2008-08-01

    A multicriteria maximum-entropy approach to the joint layout, pipe size and reliability optimization of water distribution systems is presented. The capital cost of the system is taken as the principal criterion, and so the trade-offs between cost, entropy, reliability and redundancy are examined sequentially in a large population of optimal solutions. The novelty of the method stems from the use of the maximum-entropy value as a preliminary filter, which screens out a large proportion of the candidate layouts at an early stage of the process before the designs and their reliability values are actually obtained. This technique, which is based on the notion that the entropy is potentially a robust hydraulic reliability measure, contributes greatly to the efficiency of the proposed method. The use of head-dependent modelling for simulating pipe failure conditions in the reliability calculations also complements the method in locating the Pareto-optimal front. The computational efficiency, robustness, accuracy and other advantages of the proposed method are demonstrated by application to a sample network.

  11. Linear response, fluctuation-dissipation, and finite-system-size effects in superdiffusion.

    PubMed

    Godec, Aljaž; Metzler, Ralf

    2013-07-01

    Lévy walks (LWs) are a popular stochastic tool to model anomalous diffusion and have recently been used to describe a variety of phenomena. We study the linear response behavior of this generic model of superdiffusive LWs in finite systems to an external force field under both stationary and nonstationary conditions. These finite-size LWs are based on power-law waiting time distributions with a finite-time regularization at τ(c), such that the physical requirements are met to apply linear response theory and derive the power spectrum with the correct short frequency limit, without the introduction of artificial cutoffs. We obtain the generalized Einstein relation for both ensemble and time averages over the entire process time and determine the turnover to normal Brownian motion when the full system is explored. In particular, we obtain an exact expression for the long time diffusion constant as a function of the scaling exponent of the waiting time density and the characteristic time scale τ(c).

  12. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pereyra, J Felipe; Castillo-Castaneda, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user. PMID:27524880

  13. Inference for Stochastic Chemical Kinetics Using Moment Equations and System Size Expansion.

    PubMed

    Fröhlich, Fabian; Thomas, Philipp; Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Theis, Fabian J; Grima, Ramon; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Quantitative mechanistic models are valuable tools for disentangling biochemical pathways and for achieving a comprehensive understanding of biological systems. However, to be quantitative the parameters of these models have to be estimated from experimental data. In the presence of significant stochastic fluctuations this is a challenging task as stochastic simulations are usually too time-consuming and a macroscopic description using reaction rate equations (RREs) is no longer accurate. In this manuscript, we therefore consider moment-closure approximation (MA) and the system size expansion (SSE), which approximate the statistical moments of stochastic processes and tend to be more precise than macroscopic descriptions. We introduce gradient-based parameter optimization methods and uncertainty analysis methods for MA and SSE. Efficiency and reliability of the methods are assessed using simulation examples as well as by an application to data for Epo-induced JAK/STAT signaling. The application revealed that even if merely population-average data are available, MA and SSE improve parameter identifiability in comparison to RRE. Furthermore, the simulation examples revealed that the resulting estimates are more reliable for an intermediate volume regime. In this regime the estimation error is reduced and we propose methods to determine the regime boundaries. These results illustrate that inference using MA and SSE is feasible and possesses a high sensitivity.

  14. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size

    PubMed Central

    Castillo-Castaneda, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user. PMID:27524880

  15. Inference for Stochastic Chemical Kinetics Using Moment Equations and System Size Expansion

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Philipp; Kazeroonian, Atefeh; Theis, Fabian J.; Grima, Ramon; Hasenauer, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Quantitative mechanistic models are valuable tools for disentangling biochemical pathways and for achieving a comprehensive understanding of biological systems. However, to be quantitative the parameters of these models have to be estimated from experimental data. In the presence of significant stochastic fluctuations this is a challenging task as stochastic simulations are usually too time-consuming and a macroscopic description using reaction rate equations (RREs) is no longer accurate. In this manuscript, we therefore consider moment-closure approximation (MA) and the system size expansion (SSE), which approximate the statistical moments of stochastic processes and tend to be more precise than macroscopic descriptions. We introduce gradient-based parameter optimization methods and uncertainty analysis methods for MA and SSE. Efficiency and reliability of the methods are assessed using simulation examples as well as by an application to data for Epo-induced JAK/STAT signaling. The application revealed that even if merely population-average data are available, MA and SSE improve parameter identifiability in comparison to RRE. Furthermore, the simulation examples revealed that the resulting estimates are more reliable for an intermediate volume regime. In this regime the estimation error is reduced and we propose methods to determine the regime boundaries. These results illustrate that inference using MA and SSE is feasible and possesses a high sensitivity. PMID:27447730

  16. Design of a Reconfigurable Robotic System for Flexoextension Fitted to Hand Fingers Size.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Pereyra, J Felipe; Castillo-Castaneda, Eduardo

    2016-01-01

    Due to the growing demand for assistance in rehabilitation therapies for hand movements, a robotic system is proposed to mobilize the hand fingers in flexion and extension exercises. The robotic system is composed by four, type slider-crank, mechanisms that have the ability to fit the user fingers length from the index to the little finger, through the adjustment of only one link for each mechanism. The trajectory developed by each mechanism corresponds to the natural flexoextension path of each finger. The amplitude of the rotations for metacarpophalangeal joint (MCP) and proximal interphalangeal joint (PIP) varies from 0 to 90° and the distal interphalangeal joint (DIP) varies from 0 to 60°; the joint rotations are coordinated naturally. The four R-RRT mechanisms orientation allows a 15° abduction movement for index, ring, and little fingers. The kinematic analysis of this mechanism was developed in order to assure that the displacement speed and smooth acceleration into the desired range of motion and the simulation results are presented. The reconfiguration of mechanisms covers about 95% of hand sizes of a group of Mexican adult population. Maximum trajectory tracking error is less than 3% in full range of movement and it can be compensated by the additional rotation of finger joints without injury to the user.

  17. Impact of Childbearing Decisions on Family Size of Korean Women with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) predominantly affects women in their reproductive years and has a significant impact on childbearing. We investigated the influence of personal decision on family size among Korean women with SLE and factors that affect the decisions. A case-control study comparing childbearing history and decisions of 112 SLE patients and 135 controls was performed. Women with SLE participating in the Network for Lupus Clinical Research in South Korea and matching controls between ages of 18-45, who are/were married or living with a partner were included. Data regarding socio-demographics, reproductive history, and childbearing decisions were collected through a survey using a standardized questionnaire and medical record review. More women with SLE reported at least one pregnancy (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.009) or at least one live birth (85.7% vs. 71.9%, P = 0.003) compared with controls. Mean number of pregnancies was significantly higher (2.4 ± 1.6 vs. 1.4 ± 1.3, P < 0.001), and mean number of live births was significantly lower in women with SLE (1.2 ± 0.8 vs. 1.6 ± 0.8, P < 0.001). Significantly more women with SLE made the decision not to have children compared with controls (54.5% vs. 40.7%, P = 0.031), and health-related concerns were the major cause of the decision. Other socio-demographic factors did not influence the decision to limit childbearing in SLE women. The disease-related concerns had significant impact on family size and childbearing decisions among Korean women with SLE. PMID:27134494

  18. Superior model for fault tolerance computation in designing nano-sized circuit systems

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, N. S. S. Muthuvalu, M. S.; Asirvadam, V. S.

    2014-10-24

    As CMOS technology scales nano-metrically, reliability turns out to be a decisive subject in the design methodology of nano-sized circuit systems. As a result, several computational approaches have been developed to compute and evaluate reliability of desired nano-electronic circuits. The process of computing reliability becomes very troublesome and time consuming as the computational complexity build ups with the desired circuit size. Therefore, being able to measure reliability instantly and superiorly is fast becoming necessary in designing modern logic integrated circuits. For this purpose, the paper firstly looks into the development of an automated reliability evaluation tool based on the generalization of Probabilistic Gate Model (PGM) and Boolean Difference-based Error Calculator (BDEC) models. The Matlab-based tool allows users to significantly speed-up the task of reliability analysis for very large number of nano-electronic circuits. Secondly, by using the developed automated tool, the paper explores into a comparative study involving reliability computation and evaluation by PGM and, BDEC models for different implementations of same functionality circuits. Based on the reliability analysis, BDEC gives exact and transparent reliability measures, but as the complexity of the same functionality circuits with respect to gate error increases, reliability measure by BDEC tends to be lower than the reliability measure by PGM. The lesser reliability measure by BDEC is well explained in this paper using distribution of different signal input patterns overtime for same functionality circuits. Simulation results conclude that the reliability measure by BDEC depends not only on faulty gates but it also depends on circuit topology, probability of input signals being one or zero and also probability of error on signal lines.

  19. Development of a System to Measure Austenite Grain Size of Plate Steel Using Laser-Based Ultrasonics

    SciTech Connect

    Lim, C. S.; Hong, S. T.; Yi, J. K.; Choi, S. G.; Oh, K. J.; Nagata, Y.; Yamada, H.; Hamada, N.

    2007-03-21

    A measurement system for austenite grain size of plate steel using laser-based ultrasonics has been developed. At first, the relationship between the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients using longitudinal waves and austenite grain size of samples was investigated in the laboratory experiments. According to the experimental results, the ultrasonic attenuation coefficients showed a good correlation with actual austenite grain sizes. For the next step, the system was installed in a hot rolling pilot plant of plate steel, and it was verified that the austenite grain size could be measured even in the environment of a hot rolling pilot plant. In the experiments, it was also confirmed that the fiber delivery system could deliver Nd:YAG laser beam of 810 mJ/pulse and ultrasonic signals could be obtained successfully.

  20. New Double-Infiltration Methodology to Prepare PCL-PS Core-Shell Nanocylinders Inside Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Belén; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Palacios, Jordana K; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    Melt nanomolding of core-shell nanocylinders of different sizes, employing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, is reported here for the first time. The core-shell nanostructures are achieved by a new melt double-infiltration technique. During the first infiltration step, polystyrene (PS) nanotubes are produced by an adequate choice of AAO nanopore diameter size. In the second step, PCL is infiltrated inside the PS nanotubes, as its melting point (and infiltration temperature) is lower than the glass transition temperature of PS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the complete double-infiltration of the polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments show that the infiltrated PCL undergoes a confined fractionated crystallization with two crystallization steps located at temperatures that depend on which surface is in contact with the PCL nanocylinders (i.e., alumina or PS). The melt double-infiltration methodology represents a novel approach to study the effect of the surrounding surface on polymer crystallization under confinement.

  1. New Double-Infiltration Methodology to Prepare PCL-PS Core-Shell Nanocylinders Inside Anodic Aluminum Oxide Templates.

    PubMed

    Sanz, Belén; Blaszczyk-Lezak, Iwona; Mijangos, Carmen; Palacios, Jordana K; Müller, Alejandro J

    2016-08-01

    Melt nanomolding of core-shell nanocylinders of different sizes, employing anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) templates, is reported here for the first time. The core-shell nanostructures are achieved by a new melt double-infiltration technique. During the first infiltration step, polystyrene (PS) nanotubes are produced by an adequate choice of AAO nanopore diameter size. In the second step, PCL is infiltrated inside the PS nanotubes, as its melting point (and infiltration temperature) is lower than the glass transition temperature of PS. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) measurements verified the complete double-infiltration of the polymers. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments show that the infiltrated PCL undergoes a confined fractionated crystallization with two crystallization steps located at temperatures that depend on which surface is in contact with the PCL nanocylinders (i.e., alumina or PS). The melt double-infiltration methodology represents a novel approach to study the effect of the surrounding surface on polymer crystallization under confinement. PMID:27420298

  2. MODULAR AND FULL SIZE SIMPLIFIED BOILING WATER REACTOR DESIGN WITH FULLY PASSIVE SAFETY SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    M. Ishii; S. T. Revankar; T. Downar; Y. Xu, H. J. Yoon; D. Tinkler; U. S. Rohatgi

    2003-06-16

    OAK B204 The overall goal of this three-year research project was to develop a new scientific design of a compact modular 200 MWe and a full size 1200 MWe simplified boiling water reactors (SBWR). Specific objectives of this research were: (1) to perform scientific designs of the core neutronics and core thermal-hydraulics for a small capacity and full size simplified boiling water reactor, (2) to develop a passive safety system design, (3) improve and validate safety analysis code, (4) demonstrate experimentally and analytically all design functions of the safety systems for the design basis accidents (DBA) and (5) to develop the final scientific design of both SBWR systems, 200 MWe (SBWR-200) and 1200 MWe (SBWR-1200). The SBWR combines the advantages of design simplicity and completely passive safety systems. These advantages fit well within the objectives of NERI and the Department of Energy's focus on the development of Generation III and IV nuclear power. The 3-year research program was structured around seven tasks. Task 1 was to perform the preliminary thermal-hydraulic design. Task 2 was to perform the core neutronic design analysis. Task 3 was to perform a detailed scaling study and obtain corresponding PUMA conditions from an integral test. Task 4 was to perform integral tests and code evaluation for the DBA. Task 5 was to perform a safety analysis for the DBA. Task 6 was to perform a BWR stability analysis. Task 7 was to perform a final scientific design of the compact modular SBWR-200 and the full size SBWR-1200. A no cost extension for the third year was requested and the request was granted and all the project tasks were completed by April 2003. The design activities in tasks 1, 2, and 3 were completed as planned. The existing thermal-hydraulic information, core physics, and fuel lattice information was collected on the existing design of the simplified boiling water reactor. The thermal-hydraulic design were developed. Based on a detailed integral

  3. Estimating Infiltration Parameters from Basic Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van de Genachte, G.; Mallants, D.; Ramos, J.; Deckers, J. A.; Feyen, J.

    1996-05-01

    Infiltration data were collected on two rectangular grids with 25 sampling points each. Both experimental grids were located in tropical rain forest (Guyana), the first in an Arenosol area and the second in a Ferralsol field. Four different infiltration models were evaluated based on their performance in describing the infiltration data. The model parameters were estimated using non-linear optimization techniques. The infiltration behaviour in the Ferralsol was equally well described by the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt, Kostiakov and Horton. For the Arenosol, the equations of Philip, Green-Ampt and Horton were significantly better than the Kostiakov model. Basic soil properties such as textural composition (percentage sand, silt and clay), organic carbon content, dry bulk density, porosity, initial soil water content and root content were also determined for each sampling point of the two grids. The fitted infiltration parameters were then estimated based on other soil properties using multiple regression. Prior to the regression analysis, all predictor variables were transformed to normality. The regression analysis was performed using two information levels. The first information level contained only three texture fractions for the Ferralsol (sand, silt and clay) and four fractions for the Arenosol (coarse, medium and fine sand, and silt and clay). At the first information level the regression models explained up to 60% of the variability of some of the infiltration parameters for the Ferralsol field plot. At the second information level the complete textural analysis was used (nine fractions for the Ferralsol and six for the Arenosol). At the second information level a principal components analysis (PCA) was performed prior to the regression analysis to overcome the problem of multicollinearity among the predictor variables. Regression analysis was then carried out using the orthogonally transformed soil properties as the independent variables. Results for

  4. Optimization and Evaluation of a Novel Size Based Circulating Tumor Cell Isolation System

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Lei; Mao, Xueying; Imrali, Ahmet; Syed, Ferrial; Mutsvangwa, Katherine; Berney, Daniel; Cathcart, Paul; Hines, John; Shamash, Jonathan; Lu, Yong-Jie

    2015-01-01

    Isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from peripheral blood has the potential to provide a far easier “liquid biopsy” than tumor tissue biopsies, to monitor tumor cell populations during disease progression and in response to therapies. Many CTC isolation technologies have been developed. We optimized the Parsortix system, an epitope independent, size and compressibility-based platform for CTCs isolation, making it possible to harvest CTCs at the speed and sample volume comparable to standard CellSearch system. We captured more than half of cancer cells from different cancer cell lines spiked in blood samples from healthy donors using this system. Cell loss during immunostaining of cells transferred and fixed on the slides is a major problem for analyzing rare cell samples. We developed a novel cell transfer and fixation method to retain >90% of cells on the slide after the immunofluorescence process without affecting signal strength and specificity. Using this optimized method, we evaluated the Parsortix system for CTC harvest in prostate cancer patients in comparison to immunobead based CTC isolation systems IsoFlux and CellSearch. We harvested a similar number (p = 0.33) of cytokeratin (CK) positive CTCs using Parsortix and IsoFlux from 7.5 mL blood samples of 10 prostate cancer patients (an average of 33.8 and 37.6 respectively). The purity of the CTCs harvested by Parsortix at 3.1% was significantly higher than IsoFlux at 1.0% (p = 0.02). Parsortix harvested significantly more CK positive CTCs than CellSearch (p = 0.04) in seven prostate cancer patient samples, where both systems were utilized (an average of 32.1 and 10.1 respectively). We also captured CTC clusters using Parsortix. Using four-color immunofluorescence we found that 85.8% of PC3 cells expressed EpCAM, 91.7% expressed CK and 2.5% cells lacked both epithelial markers. Interestingly, 95.6% of PC3 cells expressed Vimentin, including those cells that lacked both epithelial marker

  5. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R.; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-01

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter’s two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms.

  6. Size effects of solvent molecules on the phase behavior and effective interaction of colloidal systems with the bridging attraction.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jie; Wang, Xuewu; Kline, Steven R; Liu, Yun

    2016-11-16

    There has been much recent research interest towards understanding the phase behavior of colloidal systems interacting with a bridging attraction, where the small solvent particles and large solute colloidal particles can be reversibly associated with each other. These systems show interesting phase behavior compared to the more widely studied depletion attraction systems. Here, we use Baxter's two-component sticky hard sphere model with a Percus-Yevick closure to solve the Ornstein-Zernike equation and study the size effect on colloidal systems with bridging attractions. The spinodal decomposition regions, percolation transition boundaries and binodal regions are systematically investigated as a function of the relative size of the small solvent and large solute particles as well as the attraction strength between the small and large particles. In the phase space determined by the concentrations of small and large particles, the spinodal and binodal regions form isolated islands. The locations and shapes of the spinodal and binodal regions sensitively depend on the relative size of the small and large particles and the attraction strength between them. The percolation region shrinks by decreasing the size ratio, while the binodal region slightly expands with the decrease of the size ratio. Our results are very important in understanding the phase behavior for a bridging attraction colloidal system, a model system that provides insight into oppositely charged colloidal systems, protein phase behavior, and colloidal gelation mechanisms. PMID:27617866

  7. Facile fabrication of uniform size-controlled microparticles and potentiality for tandem drug delivery system of micro/nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Iwanaga, Shintaroh; Saito, Noriaki; Sanae, Hidetoshi; Nakamura, Makoto

    2013-09-01

    This article describes a rapid and facile method for manufacturing various size-controlled gel particles with utilizing inkjet printing technology. Generally, the size of droplets could be controlled by changing nozzle heads of inkjet printer, from which ink solution is ejected. However, this method uses drying process before gelling microparticles, and with that, the size of microparticles was easily controlled by only altering the concentration of ejected solution. When sodium alginate solution with various concentrations was ejected from inkjet printer, we found that the concentration of alginate solution vs. the volume of dried alginate particle showed an almost linear relationship in the concentration range from 0.1 to 3.0%. After dried alginate particles were soaked into calcium chloride solution, the size of microgel beads were obtained almost without increasing their size. The microparticles including various sizes of nanoparticles were easily manufactured by ejecting nanoparticle-dispersed alginate solution. The release of 25-nm sized nanoparticles from alginate microgel beads was finished in a relatively-rapid manner, whereas 100-nm sized nanoparticles were partially released from those ones. Moreover, most of 250-nm sized nanoparticles were not released from alginate microgel beads even after 24-h soaking. This particle fabricating method would enable the tandem drug delivery system with a combination of the release from nano and microparticles, and be expected for the biological and tissue engineering application.

  8. Simulation of Net Infiltration for Present-Day and Potential Future Climates

    SciTech Connect

    D. Levitt

    2004-11-09

    The purpose of this model report is to document the infiltration model used to estimate upper-bound, mean, and lower-bound spatially-distributed average annual net infiltration rates for present-day and potential future climates at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. Net infiltration is the component of infiltrated precipitation, snowmelt, or surface water run-on that has percolated below the zone of evapotranspiration as defined by the depth of the effective root zone. The estimates of net infiltration are primarily used for defining the upper boundary condition for the site-scale three-dimensional unsaturated zone (UZ) model. The UZ flow model is one of several process models abstracted by the total system performance assessment (TSPA) model used to evaluate performance of the repository at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The net-infiltration model is important for assessing repository-system performance because output from this model provides the upper boundary condition for the UZ flow model used to generate flow fields; water percolating downward from the UZ will be the principal means by which radionuclides are potentially released to the saturated zone (SZ). The SZ is the principal pathway to the biosphere where the reasonably maximally exposed individual (RMEI) is exposed to radionuclides.

  9. Modelling spatial distribution of soil steady state infiltration rate in an urban park (Vingis Parkas, Vilnius, Lithuania)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Paulo; Cerda, Artemi; Depellegrin, Daniel; Misiune, Ieva; Bogunovic, Igor; Menchov, Oleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Within the hydrological process, infiltration is a key component as control the partitioning of the rainfall into runoff or soil water (Cerdà, 1997). And the infiltration process is determining the fate of the soil development and the human impact in the soil system (Brevik et al., 2015). On forest soils, the infiltration use to be high due to the macropore flow, which drainages the surface runoff usually generated by the hydrophobic response of soil reach in organic matter (Hewelke et al., 2015) or as a consequence of forest fires (Jordán et al., 2010; Pereira et al., 2014) due to the development of water repellent substances (Mao et al., 2015), which are mainly associated to the ash (Pereira et al., 2014; Pereira et al., 2015). To understand the role the infiltration plays in the soil development and the runoff generation is important, and also is necessary to understand how some factors such as vegetation, crust, stones, litter, mulches… play in the hydrological, erosional and pedological system (Cerdà, 2001; Keesstra, 2007; Liu et al., 2014; Bisantino et al., 2015; Cassinari et al., 2015, Cerdà et al., 2015; Mohawesh et al., 2015; Terribile et al., 2015). The well-know importance of the infiltration process did not resulted in the research on the infiltration on urban areas, although there is where the infiltration is more altered. Water infiltration is extremely important in urbanized areas, since the majority of the surfaces are sealed by concrete, asphalt and other materials. Soil sealing increases exponentially the impacts of flash floods and reduces soil infiltration capacity. This decreases importantly one of the most important services provided by soil: water storage and infiltration. In this context, the existence of green areas and urban parks are of major importance to mitigate the impact of human settlements in soil water infiltration. The aim of this work is to assess the spatial distribution of steady-state soil water infiltration in the

  10. Passive Microwave Observation of Soil Water Infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, Thomas J.; Schmugge, Thomas J.; Rawls, Walter J.; ONeill, Peggy E.; Parlange, Marc B.

    1997-01-01

    Infiltration is a time varying process of water entry into soil. Experiments were conducted here using truck based microwave radiometers to observe small plots during and following sprinkler irrigation. Experiments were conducted on a sandy loam soil in 1994 and a silt loam in 1995. Sandy loam soils typically have higher infiltration capabilities than clays. For the sandy loam the observed brightness temperature (TB) quickly reached a nominally constant value during irrigation. When the irrigation was stopped the TB began to increase as drainage took place. The irrigation rates in 1995 with the silt loam soil exceeded the saturated conductivity of the soil. During irrigation the TB values exhibited a pattern that suggests the occurrence of coherent reflection, a rarely observed phenomena under natural conditions. These results suggested the existence of a sharp dielectric boundary (wet over dry soil) that was increasing in depth with time.

  11. Shock wave compacted, melt infiltrated ceramics

    SciTech Connect

    Stuivinga, M.; Carton, E. P.

    1998-07-10

    Using shock wave compaction followed by melt infiltration with aluminum, B{sub 4}C-Al and TiB{sub 2}-Al composites have been fabricated. The composites are fully dense and crack-free. They have a high (80-85 vol.%) ceramic content, which gives them good mechanical properties. Due to the infiltration with aluminum, they also have rather good conductive properties. This makes it possible to machine them using spark erosion, in order to obtain complex articles such as nozzles and dies. They are lightweight, an advantage for application in armor and fast turning spindles. In the present article, scanning electron micrographs of the fracture surfaces will be shown and some material properties will be presented.

  12. Image Analysis of Pellet Size for a Control System in Industrial Feed Production

    PubMed Central

    Ljungqvist, Martin Georg; Nielsen, Michael Engelbrecht; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    When producing aquaculture fish feed pellets, the size of the output product is of immense importance. As the production method cannot produce pellets of constant and uniform size using constant machine settings, there is a demand for size control. Fish fed with feed pellets of improper size are prone to not grow as expected, which is undesirable to the aquaculture industry. In this paper an image analysis method is proposed for automatic size-monitoring of pellets. This is called granulometry and the method used here is based on the mathematical morphological opening operation. In the proposed method, no image object segmentation is needed. The results show that it is possible to extract a general size distribution from an image of piled disordered pellets representing both length and diameter of the pellets in combination as an area. PMID:22031836

  13. TECHNICAL BASIS DOCUMENT NO. 1: CLIMATE AND INFILTRATION

    SciTech Connect

    NA

    2004-05-01

    For the past 20 years, extensive field, laboratory, and modeling investigations have been performed at Yucca Mountain, which have led to the development of a number of conceptual models of infiltration and climate for the Yucca Mountain region around the repository site (Flint, A.L. et al. 2001; Wang and Bodvarsson 2003). Evaluating the amount of infiltrating water entering the subsurface is important, because this water may affect the percolation flux, which, in turn, controls seepage into the waste emplacement drifts and radionuclide transport from the repository to the water table. Forecasting of climatic data indicates that during the next 10,000 years at Yucca Mountain, the present-day climate should persist for 400 to 600 years, followed by a warmer and much wetter monsoon climate for 900 to 1,400 years, and by a cooler and wetter glacial-transition climate for the remaining 8,000 to 8,700 years. The analysis of climatic forecasting indicates that long-term climate conditions are generally predictable from a past climate sequence, while short-term climate conditions and weather predictions may be more variable and uncertain. The use of past climate sequences to bound future climate sequences involves several types of uncertainties, such as (1) uncertainty in the timing of future climate, (2) uncertainty in the methodology of climatic forecasting, and (3) uncertainty in the earth's future physical processes. Some of the uncertainties of the climatic forecasting are epistemic (reducible) and aleatoric (irreducible). Because of the size of the model domain, INFIL treats many flow processes in a simplified manner. For example, uptake of water by roots occurs according to the ''distributed model'', in which available water in each soil layer is withdrawn in proportion to the root density in that layer, multiplied by the total evapotranspirative demand. Runoff is calculated simply as the excess of precipitation over a sum of infiltration and water storage in the

  14. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  15. Congenital infiltrative lipomas in a calf.

    PubMed

    Sickinger, Marlene; Wasieri, Jasmin; Koehler, Kernt; Doll, Klaus; Reinacher, Manfred

    2009-09-01

    The current report describes a case of congenital subcutaneous and intramuscular tumors of the neck and tail base in a 4-week-old female Angus-Charolais crossbred calf. Results of clinical and ultrasound examination are summarized. Biopsy and necropsy findings indicated an infiltrative lipoma. Congenital lipomas are uncommon tumors in bovids. Clinical and morphologic differentials, as well as classification and the possible pathogenesis of congenital neoplasms, are discussed. PMID:19737773

  16. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Oppelt, Peter; Enzelsberger, Simon H; Shamiyeh, Andreas; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  17. Induced infiltration in aquifers with ambient flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, John L.

    1993-10-01

    Well water quality depends on the relative amounts of water drawn from the pumped aquifer and nearby surface water bodies, such as streams, lakes, and wetlands. Although a surface water body may normally gain water from the aquifer, pumping can reverse gradients, causing it to lose water near the well. Surface water then enters the well by induced infiltration. Two-dimensional vertically integrated models of induced infiltration are developed for various combinations of aquifer geometry and sources of recharge. The models, which have applications in wellhead protection, aquifer pollution characterization, and aquifer remediation, are presented graphically. They show that the propensity for and rate of induced infiltration are enhanced by higher pumping rates, proximity of the well to the stream, and the presence of nearby barrier boundaries. The propensity and rate are reduced by the presence of other surface water bodies. Ambient groundwater discharge rate to the surface water body also plays a role, but not its source, whether it is from local vertical recharge, lateral inflow, or both. The results are also largely indifferent to whether the aquifer transmissivity is assumed to be a constant, or a function of water table elevation. Finally, if the well is close enough to the surface water body, say, less than 5% of the aquifer width, then the aquifer acts as if it were semi-infinite.

  18. Delivery after Operation for Deeply Infiltrating Endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Allerstorfer, Christina; Enzelsberger, Simon H.; Shebl, Omar Josef; Mayer, Richard Bernhard

    2016-01-01

    Background. It has been suggested that, during pregnancy, endometriosis can cause a variety of disease-related complications. Objectives. The purpose of the study was to find out if women with histologically confirmed endometriosis do have a higher risk of adverse pregnancy outcome and if they suffer from a higher rate of complications during labor. Study Design. 51 women who underwent surgery because of deeply infiltrating endometriosis in the General Hospital Linz and the Women's General Hospital Linz and who gave birth in the Women's General Hospital Linz after the surgery were included in our survey. Results. 31 women (60.8%) had a spontaneous delivery and in 20 women (39.2%) a caesarean section was performed. There were no cases of third- and fourth-degree perineal lacerations. Collectively there were 4 cases (7.8%) of preterm delivery and one case (2.0%) of premature rupture of membranes. In two women (6.5%) a retained placenta was diagnosed. Conclusions. Our study is the first description on delivery modes after surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis. We did not find an elevated risk for perineal or vaginal laceration in women with a history of surgery for deeply infiltrating endometriosis, even when a resection of the rectum or of the posterior vaginal wall had been performed. PMID:27517050

  19. Rainwater Channelization and Infiltration in Granular Media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cejas, Cesare; Wei, Yuli; Barrois, Remi; Durian, Douglas; Dreyfus, Remi; Compass Team

    2013-03-01

    We investigate the formation of fingered flow in dry granular media under simulated rainfall using a quasi-2D experimental set-up composed of a random close packing of mono-disperse glass beads. We determine effects of grain diameter and surface wetting properties on the formation and infiltration of water channels. For hydrophilic granular media, rainwater initially infiltrates a shallow top layer of soil creating a uniform horizontal wetting front before instabilities occur and grow to form water channels. For hydrophobic media, rainwater ponds on the soil surface rather than infiltrates and water channels may still occur at a later time when the hydraulic pressure of the ponding water exceeds the capillary repellency of the soil. We probe the kinetics of the fingering instabilities that serve as precursors for the growth and drainage of water channels. We also examine the effects of several different methods on improving rainwater channelization such as varying the level of pre-saturation, modifying the soil surface flatness, and adding superabsorbent hydrogel particles.

  20. Beam-energy and system-size dependence of dynamical net charge fluctuations.

    SciTech Connect

    Abelev, B. I.; Aggarwal, M. M.; Ahammed, Z.; Anderson, B. D.; Arkhipkin, D.; Krueger, K.; Spinka, H. M.; Underwood, D. G.; High Energy Physics; Univ. of IIlinois; Panjab Univ.; Variable Energy Cyclotron Centre; Kent State Univ.; Particle Physic Lab.; STAR Collaboration

    2009-01-01

    We present measurements of net charge fluctuations in Au+Au collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 19.6, 62.4, 130, and 200 GeV, Cu+Cu collisions at {radical}s{sub NN} = 62.4 and 200 GeV, and p+p collisions at {radical}s = 200 GeV using the dynamical net charge fluctuations measure {nu}{sub +-,dyn}. We observe that the dynamical fluctuations are nonzero at all energies and exhibit a modest dependence on beam energy. A weak system size dependence is also observed. We examine the collision centrality dependence of the net charge fluctuations and find that dynamical net charge fluctuations violate 1/N{sub ch} scaling but display approximate 1/N{sub part} scaling. We also study the azimuthal and rapidity dependence of the net charge correlation strength and observe strong dependence on the azimuthal angular range and pseudorapidity widths integrated to measure the correlation.

  1. Continuous improvement of the quality reporting system of a medium-size company

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawkins, Anthony; Onuh, Spencer

    2001-10-01

    Many companies are faced with quality improvement issues on a daily basis but their response to this problem varies. This paper discusses the improvement in the defect reporting system at a medium sized manufacturing company following the appointment of an experienced, motivated, design engineer to be dedicated to that task. It sets out the situation that the engineer inherited and details the changes that were incorporated; it assesses which were successful and which failed. Following a survey of current literature, it was seen that there is little written specifically on the subject of audited defect reporting. It is felt that this study goes some way to filling that void. A successful survey of engineering companies in Southern Hampshire reinforces the principle findings, that the emphasising of the Check part of Demming's Plan-Do-Check-Act cycle is a novel approach to the Quality Improvement Process, and that it has reduced the cost of rework by an audited 80% in a period of two years.

  2. Analysis of starch in food systems by high-performance size exclusion chromatography.

    PubMed

    Ovando-Martínez, Maribel; Whitney, Kristin; Simsek, Senay

    2013-02-01

    Starch has unique physicochemical characteristics among food carbohydrates. Starch contributes to the physicochemical attributes of food products made from roots, legumes, cereals, and fruits. It occurs naturally as distinct particles, called granules. Most starch granules are a mixture of 2 sugar polymers: a highly branched polysaccharide named amylopectin and a basically linear polysaccharide named amylose. The starch contained in food products undergoes changes during processing, which causes changes in the starch molecular weight and amylose to amylopectin ratio. The objective of this study was to develop a new, simple, 1-step, and accurate method for simultaneous determination of amylose and amylopectin ratio as well as weight-averaged molecular weights of starch in food products. Starch from bread flour, canned peas, corn flake cereal, snack crackers, canned kidney beans, pasta, potato chips, and white bread was extracted by dissolving in KOH, urea, and precipitation with ethanol. Starch samples were solubilized and analyzed on a high-performance size exclusion chromatography (HPSEC) system. To verify the identity of the peaks, fractions were collected and soluble starch and beta-glucan assays were performed additional to gas chromatography analysis. We found that all the fractions contain only glucose and soluble starch assay is correlated to the HPSEC fractionation. This new method can be used to determine amylose amylopectin ratio and weight-averaged molecular weight of starch from various food products using as low as 25 mg dry samples. PMID:23330715

  3. Differences in Lsh gene control over systemic Leishmania major and Leishmania donovani or Leishmania mexicana mexicana infections are caused by differential targeting to infiltrating and resident liver macrophage populations.

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E V; Singleton, A M; Blackwell, J M

    1988-01-01

    Earlier studies had shown that the viscerotropic NIH 173 strain of cutaneous Leishmania major fails to come under Lsh gene control. Visceral Leishmania donovani LV9 and another viscerotropic cutaneous strain, Leishmania mexicana mexicana LV4, are controlled by Lsh. The results of double-infection experiments presented here show that expression of Lsh resistance against L. mexicana mexicana was enhanced in the presence of L. donovani, whereas L. major still failed to come under Lsh gene control, even in the presence of L. donovani. Prior irradiation (850 rads) of mice showed that in the absence of infiltrating monocytes, Lsh did exert some influence over L. major. The presence of a higher infiltrate of fresh monocytes after L. major infection was confirmed in liver macrophage populations isolated from mice after infection in vivo and in liver cryosections immunostained with monoclonal antibody M1/70 directed against the type 3 complement receptor CR3. The results support the hypothesis that Lsh is expressed maximally in the resident tissue macrophages and poorly in the immature macrophages preferentially infected by L. major amastigotes. Images PMID:3356462

  4. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  5. Acousto-optic Imaging System for In-situ Measurement of the High Temperature Distribution in Micron-size Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machikhin, Alexander S.; Zinin, Pavel V.; Shurygin, Alexander V.

    We developed a unique acousto-optic imaging system for in-situ measurement of high temperature distribution on micron-size specimens. The system was designed to measure temperature distribution inside minerals and functional material phases subjected to high pressure and high temperatures in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) heated by a high powered laser.

  6. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  7. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  8. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  9. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE FISCAL SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  10. 31 CFR 205.17 - Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... automated payment systems restrictions based on the size and timing of the drawdown request subject to this... (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT SERVICE RULES AND PROCEDURES FOR... Treasury-State Agreement § 205.17 Are funds transfers delayed by automated payment systems...

  11. 46 CFR 108.437 - Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Pipe sizes and discharge rates for enclosed ventilation systems for rotating electrical equipment. 108.437 Section 108.437 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) A-MOBILE OFFSHORE DRILLING UNITS DESIGN AND EQUIPMENT Fire Extinguishing Systems Fixed Carbon Dioxide...

  12. Micron size laser-wire system at the ATF extraction line, recent results and ATF-II upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryshev, A.; Blair, G. A.; Boogert, S. T.; Boorman, G.; Bosco, A.; Corner, L.; Deacon, L.; Delerue, N.; Foster, B.; Gannaway, F.; Hayano, H.; Howell, D.; Karataev, P.; Nevay, L.; Newman, M.; Senanayake, R.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Walczak, R.

    2010-11-01

    The KEK Accelerator test facility (ATF) extraction line laser-wire system has been upgraded last year allowing the measurement of micron scale transverse size electron beams. The last measurements using the upgraded system from recent operation at the ATF are presented, demonstrating raw measurements of order 3 μm RMS. The main component contributions to this measurement are also discussed.

  13. Linking magma composition with volcano size and eruptive style in basaltic monogenetic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, I. E.; McGee, L. E.; Cronin, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Magma composition, volcano size and eruptive style (together with vent locations) are the definitive parameters of basaltic monogenetic systems. These variables are not independent, but the relationships between them are complex. Monogenetic volcano fields that episodically erupt small-volume, discrete magma batches such as the Auckland Volcanic Field (AVF, northern New Zealand), typically represent primary mantle melts variably modified by near source processes. In such cases, where the volume of magma is small, eruption styles are strongly controlled by the interaction of magma with the surficial environment and this is determined by both magma volume and its rise rate. The magmatic compositional extremes of primitive magmas in the AVF define a spectrum ranging from strongly silica-undersaturated nephelinite to sub-alkalic basalt. Nephelinites are low SiO2 (~40 wt.%), highly incompatible-element enriched compositions, representing very low degrees of partial melting (<2%) in the asthenospheric mantle. Higher SiO2 (~48 wt.%) sub-alkalic compositions have lower incompatible element contents representing higher degrees of melting (~<5%) at slightly shallower depths. Geochemical modeling indicates that all of these magmas are sourced within the same general mantle region at depths of 80-70 km. The two compositional extremes also define extremes in volume of magma and ultimately magma flux at the surface. The surficial environment of the AVF is characterized by highly water saturated sediments of variable competency and many pressurized aquifer systems. Where there is a combination of small volumes and low flux rates, environmental factors dominate and phreatomagmatic explosive eruptions ensue, forming tuff cones, rings and maars. Larger volumes and flux rates result in dry eruptions forming cinder cones and lava fields. Thus at a fundamental level defining magma source characteristics and temporal or spatial variation in these (such as cyclic or evolutionary trends

  14. Mission Sizing and Trade Studies for Low Ballistic Coefficient Entry Systems to Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, Soumyo; Smith, Brandon; Prabhu, Dinesh; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj

    2012-01-01

    The U.S and the U.S.S.R. have sent seventeen successful atmospheric entry missions to Venus. Past missions to Venus have utilized rigid aeroshell systems for entry. This rigid aeroshell paradigm sets performance limitations since the size of the entry vehicle is constrained by the fairing diameter of the launch vehicle. This has limited ballistic coefficients (beta) to well above 100 kg/m2 for the entry vehicles. In order to maximize the science payload and minimize the Thermal Protection System (TPS) mass, these missions have entered at very steep entry flight path angles (gamma). Due to Venus thick atmosphere and the steep-gamma, high- conditions, these entry vehicles have been exposed to very high heat flux, very high pressures and extreme decelerations (upwards of 100 g's). Deployable aeroshells avoid the launch vehicle fairing diameter constraint by expanding to a larger diameter after the launch. Due to the potentially larger wetted area, deployable aeroshells achieve lower ballistic coefficients (well below 100 kg/m2), and if they are flown at shallower flight path angles, the entry vehicle can access trajectories with far lower decelerations (50-60 g's), peak heat fluxes (400 W/cm2) and peak pressures. The structural and TPS mass of the shallow-gamma, low-beta deployables are lower than their steep-gamma, high-beta rigid aeroshell counterparts at larger diameters, contributing to lower areal densities and potentially higher payload mass fractions. For example, at large diameters, deployables may attain aeroshell areal densities of 10 kg/m2 as opposed to 50 kg/m2 for rigid aeroshells. However, the low-beta, shallow-gamma paradigm also raises issues, such as the possibility of skip-out during entry. The shallow-gamma could also increase the landing footprint of the vehicle. Furthermore, the deployable entry systems may be flexible, so there could be fluid-structure interaction, especially in the high altitude, low-density regimes. The need for precision in

  15. Performance analysis of a model-sized superconducting DC transmission system based VSC-HVDC transmission technologies using RTDS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dinh, Minh-Chau; Ju, Chang-Hyeon; Kim, Sung-Kyu; Kim, Jin-Geun; Park, Minwon; Yu, In-Keun

    2012-08-01

    The combination of a high temperature superconducting DC power cable and a voltage source converter based HVDC (VSC-HVDC) creates a new option for transmitting power with multiple collection and distribution points for long distance and bulk power transmissions. It offers some greater advantages compared with HVAC or conventional HVDC transmission systems, and it is well suited for the grid integration of renewable energy sources in existing distribution or transmission systems. For this reason, a superconducting DC transmission system based HVDC transmission technologies is planned to be set up in the Jeju power system, Korea. Before applying this system to a real power system on Jeju Island, system analysis should be performed through a real time test. In this paper, a model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system, which consists of a small model-sized VSC-HVDC connected to a 2 m YBCO HTS DC model cable, is implemented. The authors have performed the real-time simulation method that incorporates the model-sized superconducting VSC-HVDC system into the simulated Jeju power system using Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS). The performance analysis of the superconducting VSC-HVDC systems has been verified by the proposed test platform and the results were discussed in detail.

  16. Variations in programmed phase defect size and its impact on defect detection signal intensity using at-wavelength inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amano, Tsuyoshi; Takagi, Noriaki; Abe, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    A programmed phase defect Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) mask was fabricated and measurement repeatability of the defect size using a scanning probe microscope (SPM) was evaluated. The SPM measurement results indicated that the defect size variation as registered by the measurement repeatability were much smaller than the defect-to-defect variations. It means the defect-to-defect variation in size actually does exist. Some defects were found where their sizes before a multilayer coating (on quartz) were all the same but after the coat their sizes varied quite significantly when observed on the multilayer. This result indicated that it is difficult to estimate the phase defect size on quartz, whereas they can be accurately measured on multilayer. Influences of the defect size variation on defect detection signal intensity (DSI) using an actinic blank inspection (ABI) system were examined; their influences on the wafer printability were also examined. The DSI was strongly correlated with defect depth on the multilayer, and it was also indicated that the ABI can detect small variations in defect sizes. It was also confirmed that the impact of the phase defects on wafer printed CDs were proportional to the DSIs, and that the ABI has a potential to detect phase defect that could cause 5 % of the CD error when printing 16 nm dense lines.

  17. Two nearby Sub-Earth-sized Exoplanet Candidates in the GJ 436 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Harrington, Joseph; Lust, Nate B.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Montagnier, Guillaume; Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, Channon; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio; Campo, Christopher J.

    2012-08-01

    We report the detection of UCF-1.01, a strong exoplanet candidate with a radius 0.66 ± 0.04 times that of Earth (R ⊕). This sub-Earth-sized planet transits the nearby M-dwarf star GJ 436 with a period of 1.365862 ± 8 × 10-6 days. We also report evidence of a 0.65 ± 0.06 R ⊕ exoplanet candidate (labeled UCF-1.02) orbiting the same star with an undetermined period. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure the dimming of light as the planets pass in front of their parent star to assess their sizes and orbital parameters. If confirmed today, UCF-1.01 and UCF-1.02 would be designated GJ 436c and GJ 436d, respectively, and would be part of the first multiple-transiting-planet system outside of the Kepler field. Assuming Earth-like densities of 5.515 g cm-3, we predict both candidates to have similar masses (~0.28 Earth-masses, M ⊕, 2.6 Mars-masses) and surface gravities of ~0.65 g (where g is the gravity on Earth). UCF-1.01's equilibrium temperature (T eq, where emitted and absorbed radiation balance for an equivalent blackbody) is 860 K, making the planet unlikely to harbor life as on Earth. Its weak gravitational field and close proximity to its host star imply that UCF-1.01 is unlikely to have retained its original atmosphere; however, a transient atmosphere is possible if recent impacts or tidal heating were to supply volatiles to the surface. We also present additional observations of GJ 436b during secondary eclipse. The 3.6 μm light curve shows indications of stellar activity, making a reliable secondary eclipse measurement impossible. A second non-detection at 4.5 μm supports our previous work in which we find a methane-deficient and carbon monoxide-rich dayside atmosphere.

  18. TWO NEARBY SUB-EARTH-SIZED EXOPLANET CANDIDATES IN THE GJ 436 SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Stevenson, Kevin B.; Harrington, Joseph; Lust, Nate B.; Blecic, Jasmina; Hardy, Ryan A.; Cubillos, Patricio; Campo, Christopher J.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Montagnier, Guillaume; Moses, Julianne I.; Visscher, Channon

    2012-08-10

    We report the detection of UCF-1.01, a strong exoplanet candidate with a radius 0.66 {+-} 0.04 times that of Earth (R{sub Circled-Plus }). This sub-Earth-sized planet transits the nearby M-dwarf star GJ 436 with a period of 1.365862 {+-} 8 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} days. We also report evidence of a 0.65 {+-} 0.06 R{sub Circled-Plus} exoplanet candidate (labeled UCF-1.02) orbiting the same star with an undetermined period. Using the Spitzer Space Telescope, we measure the dimming of light as the planets pass in front of their parent star to assess their sizes and orbital parameters. If confirmed today, UCF-1.01 and UCF-1.02 would be designated GJ 436c and GJ 436d, respectively, and would be part of the first multiple-transiting-planet system outside of the Kepler field. Assuming Earth-like densities of 5.515 g cm{sup -3}, we predict both candidates to have similar masses ({approx}0.28 Earth-masses, M{sub Circled-Plus }, 2.6 Mars-masses) and surface gravities of {approx}0.65 g (where g is the gravity on Earth). UCF-1.01's equilibrium temperature (T{sub eq}, where emitted and absorbed radiation balance for an equivalent blackbody) is 860 K, making the planet unlikely to harbor life as on Earth. Its weak gravitational field and close proximity to its host star imply that UCF-1.01 is unlikely to have retained its original atmosphere; however, a transient atmosphere is possible if recent impacts or tidal heating were to supply volatiles to the surface. We also present additional observations of GJ 436b during secondary eclipse. The 3.6 {mu}m light curve shows indications of stellar activity, making a reliable secondary eclipse measurement impossible. A second non-detection at 4.5 {mu}m supports our previous work in which we find a methane-deficient and carbon monoxide-rich dayside atmosphere.

  19. Calibration-free device sizing using an inverse geometry x-ray system

    SciTech Connect

    Tomkowiak, Michael T.; Speidel, Michael A.; Raval, Amish N.; Van Lysel, Michael S.

    2011-01-15

    Purpose: Quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) can be used to support device size selection for cardiovascular interventions. The accuracy of QCA measurements using conventional x-ray fluoroscopy depends on proper calibration using a reference object and avoiding vessel foreshortening. The authors have developed a novel interventional device sizing method using the inverse geometry scanning-beam digital x-ray (SBDX) fluoroscopy system. The proposed method can measure the diameter and length of vessel segments without imaging a reference object and when vessels appear foreshortened. Methods: SBDX creates multiple tomosynthetic x-ray images corresponding to planes through the patient volume. The structures that lie in the plane are in focus and the features above and below the plane are blurred. Three-dimensional localization of the vessel edges was performed by examining the degree of blurring at each image plane. A 3D vessel centerline was created and used to determine vessel magnification and angulation relative to the image planes. Diameter measurements were performed using a model-based method and length measurements were calculated from the 3D centerline. Phantom validation was performed by measuring the diameter and length of vessel segments with nominal diameters ranging from 0.5 to 2.8 mm and nominal lengths of 42 mm. The phantoms were imaged at a range of positions between the source and the detector ({+-}16 cm relative to isocenter) and with a range of foreshortening angles (0 deg. - 75 deg.). Results: Changes in vessel phantom position created magnifications ranging from 87% to 118% relative to isocenter magnification. Average diameter errors were less than 0.15 mm. Average length measurements were within 1% (0.3 mm) of the true length. No trends were observed between measurement accuracy and magnification. Changes in vessel phantom orientation resulted in decreased apparent length down to 28% of the original nonforeshortened length. Average diameter

  20. The impact of size on the fate and toxicity of nanoparticulate silver in aquatic systems.

    PubMed

    Angel, Brad M; Batley, Graeme E; Jarolimek, Chad V; Rogers, Nicola J

    2013-09-01

    The increased use of silver nanomaterials presents a risk to aquatic systems due to the high toxicity of silver. The stability, dissolution rates and toxicity of citrate- and polyvinylpyrrolidone-coated silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated in synthetic freshwater and natural seawater media, with the effects of natural organic matter investigated in freshwater. When sterically stabilised by the large PVP molecules, AgNPs were more stable than when charge-stabilised using citrate, and were even relatively stable in seawater. In freshwater and seawater, citrate-coated AgNPs (Ag-Cit) had a faster rate of dissolution than PVP-coated AgNPs (Ag-PVP), while micron-sized silver exhibited the slowest dissolution rate. However, similar dissolved silver was measured for both AgNPs after 72h in freshwater (500-600μgL(-1)) and seawater (1300-1500μgL(-1)), with higher concentrations in seawater attributed to chloride complexation. When determined on a mass basis, the 72-h IC50 (inhibitory concentration giving 50% reduction in algal growth rate) for Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the 48-h LC50 for Ceriodaphnia dubia exposure to Ag(+) (1.1, 400 and 0.11μgL(-1), respectively), Ag-Cit (3.0, 2380 and 0.15μgL(-1), respectively) and Ag-PVP (19.5, 3690 and 2.0μgL(-1), respectively) varied widely, with toxicity in the order Ag(+)>Ag-Cit>Ag-PVP. Micron-sized silver treatments elicited much lower toxicity than ionic Ag(+) or AgNP to P. subcapitata. However, when related to the dissolved silver released from the nanoparticles the toxicities were similar to ionic silver treatments. The presence of natural organic matter stabilised the particles and reduced toxicity in freshwater. These results indicate that dissolved silver was responsible for the toxicity and highlight the need to account for matrix components such as chloride and organic matter in natural waters that influence AgNP fate and mitigate toxicity.